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1

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W. M.

1995-01-01

2

Experiences with the Massachusetts Alternative Energy Property Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Massachusetts Alternative Energy Property Program (AEPP) is a $5 million matching grant program. Public agencies in the Commonwealth are being funded to build or redevelop hydropower, wind, wood, biomass, photovoltaic, passive solar and solar thermal projects. To date 32 projects have received funding under the solar thermal section of the AEPP. The projects range from a small domestic hot

Guertin

1983-01-01

3

Physical properties of alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here are recommended values and correlations of selected physical properties of several alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorocarbons. The quality of the data used in this compilation varies widely, ranging from well-documented, high accuracy measurements from published sources to completely undocumented values listed on anonymous data sheets. That some of the properties for some fluids are available only from the latter type of source is clearly not the desired state of affairs. While some would reject all such data, the compilation given here is presented in the spirit of laying out the present state of knowledge and making available a set of data in a timely manner, even though its quality is sometimes uncertain. The correlations presented here are certain to change quickly as additional information becomes available.

Mclinden, Mark O.

1990-01-01

4

Alternative splicing results in RET isoforms with distinct trafficking properties  

PubMed Central

RET encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase that is essential for spermatogenesis, development of the sensory, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems and the kidneys, as well as for maintenance of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. RET is alternatively spliced to encode multiple isoforms that differ in their C-terminal amino acids. The RET9 and RET51 isoforms display unique levels of autophosphorylation and have differential interactions with adaptor proteins. They induce distinct gene expression patterns, promote different levels of cell differentiation and transformation, and play unique roles in development. Here we present a comprehensive study of the subcellular localization and trafficking of RET isoforms. We show that immature RET9 accumulates intracellularly in the Golgi, whereas RET51 is efficiently matured and present in relatively higher amounts on the plasma membrane. RET51 is internalized faster after ligand binding and undergoes recycling back to the plasma membrane. This differential trafficking of RET isoforms produces a more rapid and longer duration of signaling through the extracellular-signal regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway downstream of RET51 relative to RET9. Together these differences in trafficking properties contribute to some of the functional differences previously observed between RET9 and RET51 and establish the important role of intracellular trafficking in modulating and maintaining RET signaling.

Richardson, Douglas S.; Rodrigues, David M.; Hyndman, Brandy D.; Crupi, Mathieu J. F.; Nicolescu, Adrian C.; Mulligan, Lois M.

2012-01-01

5

Electrostatic properties of JP-5 jet fuel from alternate sources. Memorandum report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrostatic properties of JP-5 fuel from alternate sources were determined. Two properties - electrical conductivity and electrostatic charging tendency - were measured on seven samples. Five coal-derived fuels and one sample derived from tar sands exhibited properties similar to jet fuels derived from petroleum and hence should not develop unusual ignition hazards in field handling. A JP-5 produced from

1976-01-01

6

PHYSICAL PROPERTY DATA ON FLUORINATED PROPANES AND BUTANES AS CFC AND HCFC ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses results of the measurement and estimation of the physical properties of fluorinated propane derivatives as second generation alternatives for currently used CFC and HCFC chemicals. ne fluorinated ether was also studied. NOTE: lthough synthesis of the derivativ...

7

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to pre...

W. M. Haynes

1995-01-01

8

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, 1 April 1994--30 June 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. Reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the perfor...

W. M. Haynes

1994-01-01

9

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to pre...

W. M. Haynes

1996-01-01

10

Capital Financing: Alternative Approaches to Budgeting for Federal Real Property.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Federal real property projects are fully funded when Congress provides budget authority and appropriations for the estimated full cost of the projects up front atthe time they are undertaken. However, as agencies work to balance limited resources with mis...

2014-01-01

11

Electrical properties of blood and its constitutents: Alternating current spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical properties of blood and its constituents are reviewed over the frequency range from less than 100 Hz to nearly 100 GHz. The conductivity and dielectric constant display strongly dispersive behavior with three distinct relaxation regions. Mechanism responsible for this behavior are stated and possible applications indicated.

H. P. Schwan

1983-01-01

12

Dual properties of spacetime under an alternative Lorentz transformation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coordinate time, t(A), with absolute synchronization is defined as an alternative fourth spatial coordinate for model universes with flat space-time, and the theoretical implications of t(A) are explored in detail. Particular attention is given to a t(A)-based reformulation of the Lorentz transformation, the generalized Galilean transformation, which is found to offer significant advantages in understanding special-relativistic phenomena such as length contraction, time dilation, and the interaction of objects with the physical vacuum. With respect to astrophysical observations of superluminal motion, it is shown that the problem of causality violation can be avoided; the theory also predicts that weak anisotropic effects may be detectable in the earth reference frame.

Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.

1988-01-01

13

Tumorigenic properties of alternative osteopontin isoforms in mesothelioma  

SciTech Connect

Osteopontin (SPP1) is an inflammatory cytokine that we previously characterized as a diagnostic marker in patients with asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma (MM). While SPP1 shows both pro- and anti-tumorigenic biological effects, little is known about the molecular basis of these activities. In this study, we demonstrate that while healthy pleura possesses all three differentially spliced SPP1 isoforms (A-C), in clinical MM specimens isoform A is markedly up-regulated and predominant. To provide a clue to possible functions of the SPP1 isoforms we next performed their functional evaluation via transient expression in MM cell lines. As a result, we report that isoforms A-C demonstrate different activities in cell proliferation, wound closure, and invasion assays. These findings suggest different functions for SPP1 isoforms and underline pro-tumorigenic properties of isoforms A and B.

Ivanov, Sergey V., E-mail: Sergey.Ivanov@med.nyu.edu [Thoracic Surgery Laboratory, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, NYU Langone Medical Center, 462 First Ave., Bellevue Hospital, Room 15N20, NY 10016 (United States); Ivanova, Alla V.; Goparaju, Chandra M.V.; Chen, Yuanbin; Beck, Amanda; Pass, Harvey I. [Thoracic Surgery Laboratory, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, NYU Langone Medical Center, 462 First Ave., Bellevue Hospital, Room 15N20, NY 10016 (United States)] [Thoracic Surgery Laboratory, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, NYU Langone Medical Center, 462 First Ave., Bellevue Hospital, Room 15N20, NY 10016 (United States)

2009-05-08

14

Dynamics of soil physical properties under alternative systems to slash-and-burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A change from slash-and-burn to continuously cropped agricultural systems is occurring in heavily populated areas in the humid tropics. Well managed alternative systems to slash-and-burn can reduce soil structure deterioration, maintain soil fertility, and promote long-term productivity. The objectives of this paper are to describe the dynamics of soil physical properties under slash-and-burn and some alternative systems. Different land-clearing methods

Julio C. Alegre; D. K. Cassel

1996-01-01

15

Flammability and ignition properties of JP-5 jet fuel from alternate sources. Memorandum report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flammability and ignition properties of JP-5 from alternate sources were studied. The samples which were investigated included one derived from tar sands, one from shale oil, and five from coal. The tar-sand, shale-oil, and one of the coal samples had flash points which were below that of the 140 F specification requirement. The remaining fuels from coal had flash

W. A. Affens; G. W. McLaren; R. N. Hazlett

1975-01-01

16

Evaluation Policy Alternatives for the Reengineering of the Department of Defense Personal Property Shipment and Storage Program - A Stakeholder Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) is currently reengineering the DOD Personal Property Shipment and Storage Program. DOD is conducting three pilot projects in support of this effort. Each pilot project represents a policy alternative for impr...

M. D. Lepson

1999-01-01

17

Consideration of Alternate Working Fluid Properties in Gas Lubricated Foil Journal Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program at the NASA Glenn Research center is committed to, revolutionary improvements in performance, efficiency and reliability of turbomachinery propulsion systems. One of the key breakthroughs by which this goal is being achieved is the maturation of air lubricated foil bearing technology. Through experimental testing, foil bearings have demonstrated a variety of exceptional qualities that show them to have an important role in the future of rotordynamic lubrication. Most of the work done with foil bearings thus far has considered ambient air at atmospheric pressure as the working fluid or lubricating fluid in the bearing. However, special applications of oil-free technology require the use of air at non- standard ambient conditions or completely different working fluids altogether. The NASA Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter program presents power generation needs far beyond that of any previous space exploration effort. The proposed spacecraft will require significant power generation to provide the propulsion necessary to reach the moons of Jupiter and navigate between them. Once there, extensive scientific research will be conducted that will also present significant power requirements. Such extreme needs require exploring a new method for power generation in space. A proposed solution involves a Brayton cycle nuclear fission reactor. The nature of this application requires reliable performance of all reactor components for many years of operation under demanding conditions. This includes the bearings which will be operating with an alternative working fluid that is a combination of Helium and Xenon gases commonly known as HeXe. This fluid has transport and thermal properties that vary significantly from that of air and the effect of these property differences on bearing performance must be considered. One of the most promising applications of oil-free technology is in aircraft turbine engines. Eliminating the oil supply systems from aircraft engines will lead to significant weight and maintenance reduction. In such applications, the lubricating fluid will be high altitude air. This air will be at much lower pressure than that at sea level. Again this property change will result in a change in bearing performance, and analysis is required to quantify this effect. The study of these alternate working fluid properties will be conducted in two ways: analytically and experimentally. Analytical research will include the use of a mathematical code that can predict film thickness profiles for various ambient conditions. Estimations of load capacity can be made based upon the film thickness trends. These values will then be compared to those obtained from classical rigid bearing analysis. Experimental Research will include testing a foil bearing at a variety of ambient air pressures. The analytical and experimental data will be compared to draw conclusions on bearing performance under alternate working fluid properties.

Smith, Matthew J.

2004-01-01

18

Measurement Properties of Questionnaires Assessing Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Pediatrics: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used by children, but estimates of that use vary widely partly due to the range of questionnaires used to assess CAM use. However, no studies have attempted to appraise measurement properties of these questionnaires. The aim of this systematic review was to critically appraise and summarize measurement properties of questionnaires of CAM use in pediatrics. Study design A search strategy was implemented in major electronic databases in March 2011 and conference websites, scientific journals and experts were consulted. Studies were included if they mentioned a questionnaire assessing the prevalence of CAM use in pediatrics. Members of the team independently rated the methodological quality of the studies (using the COSMIN checklist) and measurement properties of the questionnaires (using the Terwee and Cohen criteria). Results A total of 96 CAM questionnaires were found in 104 publications. The COSMIN checklist showed that no studies reported adequate methodological quality. The Terwee criteria showed that all included CAM questionnaires had indeterminate measurement properties. According to the Cohen score, none were considered to be a well-established assessment, two approached the level of a well-established assessment, seven were promising assessments and the remainder (n?=?87) did not reach the score’s minimum standards. Conclusion None of the identified CAM questionnaires have been thoroughly validated. This systematic review highlights the need for proper validation of CAM questionnaires in pediatrics, which may in turn lead to improved research and knowledge translation about CAM in clinical practice.

Toupin April, Karine; Moher, David; Stinson, Jennifer; Byrne, Ani; White, Meghan; Boon, Heather; Duffy, Ciaran M.; Rader, Tamara; Vohra, Sunita; Tugwell, Peter

2012-01-01

19

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Final report, 1 April 1994--31 October 1996  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of the project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for one pure refrigerant and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R-502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigerant applications.

Haynes, W.M.

1996-11-01

20

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for, two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W.M. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Thermophysics Div.

1995-04-01

21

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, 1 April 1994--30 June 1994  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. Reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W.M.

1994-07-01

22

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, 1 April 1996--30 June 1996  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W.M. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

1996-07-01

23

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, 1 July 1994--30 September 1994  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W.M.

1994-10-01

24

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, 1 July 1995--30 September 1995  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W.M. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States). Thermophysics Div.

1995-10-01

25

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W.M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Thermophysics Division

1995-01-01

26

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, 1 January 1996--31 March 1996  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W.M. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

1996-04-01

27

COSMO-RS: an alternative to simulation for calculating thermodynamic properties of liquid mixtures.  

PubMed

The conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) method has been established as a novel way to predict thermophysical data for liquid systems and has become a frequently used alternative to force field-based molecular simulation methods on one side and group contribution methods on the other. Through its unique combination of a quantum chemical treatment of solutes and solvents with an efficient statistical thermodynamics procedure for the molecular surface interactions, it enables the efficient calculation of many properties that other methods can barely predict. This review presents a short delineation of the theory, the application potential and limitations of COSMO-RS, and its most important application areas. PMID:22432575

Klamt, Andreas; Eckert, Frank; Arlt, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

28

Replacing HEMA with Alternative Dimethacrylates in Dental Adhesive Systems: Evaluation of Polymerization Kinetics and Physicochemical Properties.  

PubMed

Purpose: To evaluate the mechanical and physical properties of experimental HEMA-containing and HEMA-free resin adhesives. Materials and Methods: Experimental HEMA-free adhesives containing alternative dimethacrylates (bis-EMA 10 [B10], bis-EMA 30 [B30], PEG 400 [P400], PEG 1000 [P1000], PEG 400 UDMA [UP400]) were formulated and compared with a HEMA-containing adhesive (control). The adhesives were characterized by rheological analysis, polymerization kinetics (PK), water sorption (WS), and solubility (SL) tests. Flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (E) tests were performed under dry or wet conditions (distilled water or 70% ethanol solution). One-way and two-way ANOVA as well as Tukey's test were used to evaluate differences between groups (p < 0.05). Results: The control group showed the lowest viscosity and was the only one with a degree of conversion lower than 50%. The control and the P1000 adhesive showed the statistically significantly highest WS (p < 0.05). The control and the UP400 adhesive showed the highest FS and E, and the dry-stored specimens showed more improved mechanical strength than did the wet-stored specimens (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The physicomechanical properties of some of the HEMA-free adhesives were substantially improved when compared with those of the control, indicating that they could be potential monomers for the development of HEMA-free adhesive systems. PMID:24683593

Münchow, Eliseu Aldrighi; Zanchi, Cesar Henrique; Ogliari, Fabrício Aulo; Silva, Manuela Gonçalves; Oliveira, Isadora Rubin; Piva, Evandro

2014-06-01

29

Hygroscopic Properties of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Aerosol Produced From Traditional and Alternative Fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols constitute an important component of anthropogenic climate forcing, of which aerosol-cloud interactions remain poorly understood. It is currently thought that the ability of these aerosols to alter upper tropospheric cirrus cloud properties may produce radiative forcings many times larger than the impact of linear contrails alone and which may partially offset the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from aviation (Burkhardt and Karcher, Nature, 2011). Consequently, it is important to characterize the ability of these engine-emitted aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) to form clouds. While a number of studies in the literature have examined aerosol-cloud interactions for laboratory-generated soot or from aircraft engines burning traditional fuels, limited attention has been given to how switching to alternative jet fuels impacts the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to form clouds. The key to understanding these changes is the aerosol hygroscopicity. To address this need, the second NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-II) was conducted in 2011 to examine the aerosol emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different engine power and fuel type conditions. Five fuel types were considered including traditional JP-8 fuel, synthetic Fischer-Tropsh (FT) fuel , sulfur-doped FT fuel (FTS) , hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel, and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 with HRJ. Emissions were sampled from the DC-8 on the airport jetway at a distance of 145 meters downwind of the engine by a comprehensive suite of aerosol instrumentation that provided information on the aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and CCN activity. Concurrent measurements of carbon dioxide were used to account for plume dilution so that characteristic emissions indices could be determined. It is found that both engine power and fuel type significantly influence the hygroscopic properties of the emitted aerosol, with emissions from FT fuel being much less hygroscopic than those from the JP-8 or blended fuels. Doping the FT fuel with sulfur greatly increased the hygroscopicity of the emitted aerosol beyond that for the other fuels considered. In addition, it was observed that aerosol emitted during low engine power were smaller but more hygroscopic than those emitted during typical takeoff or cruise conditions. The implications of these property changes for contrail formation will be discussed.

Moore, R.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Chen, G.; Anderson, B. E.

2012-12-01

30

Kinetic properties of alternatively spliced isoforms of laccase-2 from Tribolium castaneum and Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Laccase-2 is a highly conserved multicopper oxidase that functions in insect cuticle pigmentation and tanning. In many species, alternative splicing gives rise to two laccase-2 isoforms. A comparison of laccase-2 sequences from three orders of insects revealed eleven positions at which there are conserved differences between the A and B isoforms. Homology modeling suggested that these eleven residues are not part of the substrate binding pocket. To determine whether the isoforms have different kinetic properties, we compared the activity of laccase-2 isoforms from Tribolium castaneum and Anopheles gambiae. We partially purified the four laccases as recombinant enzymes and analyzed their ability to oxidize a range of laccase substrates. The predicted endogenous substrates tested were dopamine, N-acetyldopamine (NADA), N-?-alanyldopamine (NBAD) and dopa, which were detected in T. castaneum previously and in A. gambiae as part of this study. Two additional diphenols (catechol and hydroquinone) and one non-phenolic substrate (2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) were also tested. We observed no major differences in substrate specificity between the A and B isoforms. Dopamine, NADA and NBAD were oxidized with catalytic efficiencies ranging from 51 – 550 min?1 mM?1. These results support the hypothesis that dopamine, NADA and NBAD are endogenous substrates for both isoforms of laccase-2. Catalytic efficiencies associated with dopa oxidation were low, ranging from 8 – 30 min?1 mM?1; in comparison, insect tyrosinase oxidized dopa with a catalytic efficiency of 201 min?1 mM?1. We found that dopa had the highest redox potential of the four endogenous substrates, and this property of dopa may explain its poor oxidation by laccase-2. We conclude that laccase-2 splice isoforms are likely to oxidize the same substrates in vivo, and additional experiments will be required to discover any isoform-specific functions.

Gorman, Maureen J.; Sullivan, Lucinda I.; Nguyen, Thi D. T.; Dai, Huaien; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Dittmer, Neal T.; Syed, Lateef U.; Li, Jun; Hua, Duy H.; Kanost, Michael R.

2011-01-01

31

Alternatively spliced, truncated GCSF receptor promotes leukemogenic properties and sensitivity to JAK inhibition.  

PubMed

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) drives the production of myeloid progenitor and precursor cells toward neutrophils via the GCSF receptor (GCSFR, gene name CSF3R). Children with severe congenital neutropenia chronically receive pharmacologic doses of GCSF, and ?30% will develop myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with GCSFR truncation mutations. In addition to mutations, multiple isoforms of CSF3R have also been reported. We found elevated expression of the alternatively spliced isoform, class IV CSF3R in adult myelodysplastic syndrome/AML patients. Aside from its association with monosomy 7 and higher rates of relapse in pediatric AML patients, little is known about the biology of the class IV isoform. We found developmental regulation of CSF3R isoforms with the class IV expression more representative of a progenitor cell stage. Striking differences were found in phosphoprotein signaling involving Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and cell cycle gene expression. Enhanced proliferation by class IV GCSFR was associated with diminished STAT3 and STAT5 activation, yet showed sensitivity to JAK2 inhibitors. Alterations in the C-terminal domain of the GCSFR result in leukemic properties of enhanced growth, impaired differentiation and resistance to apoptosis, suggesting that they can behave as oncogenic drivers, sensitive to JAK2 inhibition. PMID:24170028

Mehta, H M; Futami, M; Glaubach, T; Lee, D W; Andolina, J R; Yang, Q; Whichard, Z; Quinn, M; Lu, H F; Kao, W M; Przychodzen, B; Sarkar, C A; Minella, A; Maciejewski, J P; Corey, S J

2014-05-01

32

Physical Properties of Rare Earth-Cobalt Magnets (Alternator Service Aging Study).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal objective of this program was to investigate the long-term performance stability of an aircraft alternator, under conditions simulating its operation in flight. This alternator uses sintered Sm-Co permanent magnets in its rotor. As these are...

H. F. Mildrum K. J. Strnat

1975-01-01

33

Crystal Structure and Magnetic Properties of the Verdazyl Biradical m-Ph-V2 Forming a Ferromagnetic Alternating Double Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have succeeded in synthesizing organic biradical crystals of m-Ph-V2 [= 1,3-bis-(1,5-diphenylverdazyl-3-yl)benzene]. The intra and intermolecular interactions, which are deduced from the molecular packing in the crystal, are considered to form an alternating double chain. We evaluated the intramolecular ferromagnetic (FM) interaction from an analysis of the magnetic susceptibility of isolated m-Ph-V2 molecules. We analyzed the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization curves of the crystals by the quantum Monte Carlo method and successfully explained these properties using an S = 1/2 FM alternating double chain model, which consists of antiferromagnetically coupled FM alternating chains. In addition, the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat showed anomalous behavior at TN = 1.9 K, which indicates the magnetic phase transition to an antiferromagnetically ordered state.

Iwase, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ono, Toshio; Shimokawa, Tokuro; Nakano, Hiroki; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Hosokoshi, Yuko

2013-07-01

34

Structure-Property Relationships in Perfectly Alternating Segmented Polysulphone/Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Copolymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Well-defined perfectly alternating multiphase segmented polysulphone/poly(dimethylsiloxane) copolymers have been synthesized by the silylamine-hydroxyl coupling reaction and studied by thermal, mechanical and optical scattering methods. The results showed...

D. Tyagi J. L. Hedrick D. C. Webster J. E. McGrath G. L. Wilkes

1988-01-01

35

Illinois School Finance in an Era of Property Tax Relief: Some Alternatives to a Proposition Thirteen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to outline some policy options that might be considered by decision-makers in Illinois as they struggle with school finance in adequately funding the public schools, but also bringing about property tax relief. First the report looks at ways of attaining property tax relief through the distributive side by discussing…

Hubbard, Ben C.; Hickrod, G. Alan

36

Alternative approach to the description of magnetic properties of granular superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model, complementary to the critical state models, is proposed for the description of the magnetic properties of the granular superconductors after both zero-field-cooled and field-cooled procedures. An application of the model to the magnetic properties of the field-cooled granular superconductors is given. Experimental data are shown to be consistent with the model.

Y. Kornyushin; U. Yaron

1993-01-01

37

Properties of an alternating copolymer and its applications in LEDs and photovoltaic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a dual-functional polymeric semiconductor for efficient red-light emission and high-performance photovoltaic cells, an alternating copolymer containing triphenylamine (TPA; as donors) and cyano-substituted phenylene (as acceptors), TPA-CNPPV, was synthesized by Wittig reaction. The polymer was characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed that the polymer presented reversible oxidation and

Hongmin Huang; Qingguo He; Hongzhen Lin; Fenglian Bai; Yong Cao

2005-01-01

38

Synthesis, characterization, and optical properties of a novel alternating 3-dodecyloxythiophene-co-pyridine copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel soluble alternating conjugated copolymer, comprised of 3-dodecyloxythiophene and pyridine moieties, was synthesized\\u000a via the Heck Couple approach. Regioregular poly(3-dodecyloxythiophenel) synthesized by McCullough was also studied for comparison.\\u000a The obtained polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, HR-MS, gel permeation chromatography, UV–Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence\\u000a and Cyclic voltammetry. The photoluminescence of the copolymer exhibited extraordinary bright blue. The electrochemical study\\u000a shows

He Yanfang; Qi Zhengjian; Yu Jing; Wang Xuemei; Wei Bin; Sun Yueming

2009-01-01

39

Fundamental properties of light-emitting liquid crystal cells operated under alternating voltage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the fundamental operation characteristics of light-emitting liquid crystals with an emissive layer of fluorescent dye-doped nematic liquid crystal under the condition of applied AC voltage. The electric field dependent current and luminance properties for different frequencies are satisfactorily explained by an equivalent circuit analysis. We confirm that the luminance steeply plunges as the frequency increases. Such a great suppression is explained by accounting for the cut-off properties of the equivalent circuit and for the effect of ions drift mobility.

Honma, Michinori; Horiuchi, Takao; Nose, Toshiaki

2013-08-01

40

Flexural properties of a light-cure and a self-cure denture base materials compared to conventional alternatives  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE A new light curing urethane dimethacrylate and a cold curing resin with simpler and faster laboratory procedures may have even improved flexural properties. This study investigated the 3-point flexural strengths and flexural moduli of two alternate base materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cold curing resin (Weropress) and a light curing urethane dimethacrylate base material (Eclipse). Along with Eclipse and Weropress, a high impact resin (Lucitone199) and three conventional base materials (QC 20, Meliodent and Paladent 20) were tested. A 3-point bending test was used to determine the flexural strengths and flexural moduli. The mean displacement, maximum load, flexural modulus and flexural strength values and standard deviations for each group were analyzed by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (with mean difference significant at the 0.05 level). Post hoc analyses (Scheffe test) were carried out to determine the differences between the groups at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS Flexural strength, displacement and force maximum load values of Eclipse were significantly different from other base materials. Displacement values of QC 20 were significantly different from Lucitone 199 and Weropress. CONCLUSION The flexural properties and simpler processing technique of Eclipse system presents an advantageous alternative to conventional base resins and Weropress offers another simple laboratory technique.

Cilingir, Altug; Gencel, Burc; Sulun, Tonguc

2011-01-01

41

Human hepatocytes as an effective alternative experimental system for the evaluation of human drug properties: general concepts and assay procedures.  

PubMed

Human-based in vitro hepatic experimental systems are now used routinely in drug development. The rationale for the use of human-based in vitro systems is based on the known species-species differences in drug properties. Human-specific drug properties, by definition, cannot be defined using nonhuman experimental animals, and therefore can only be assessed in the preclinical phase of drug development using in vitro human-based approaches. A widely applied human-based in vitro experimental system for preclinical evaluation of drug properties is human hepatocytes. Our laboratory was one of the first to successfully isolate highly viable and functional hepatocytes from human livers, and we recently developed cryopreservation procedures to retain high viability and high attachment efficiency of the isolated hepatocytes. Successful cryopreservation of human hepatocytes greatly enhances the utility of this valuable in vitro experimental system, allowing storage, transport, convenient scheduling of experimentation and repeat experimentation using hepatocytes isolated from the same donors. Effective assays have been developed with cryopreserved human hepatocytes using multiwell plates for the evaluation of critical drug properties, including metabolic stability, drug-drug interaction potential, and drug toxicity. Human hepatocytes represent an alternative experimental system that plays a significant role in the 3Rs - the reduction, refinement, and replacement of the use of animals in preclinical drug development research. PMID:18360726

Li, Albert P

2008-01-01

42

Photoelectrochemical properties of alternating multilayer films composed of titania nanosheets and Zn porphyrin.  

PubMed

Alternating multilayer films composed of titania nanosheets and Zn porphyrins were prepared by use of a previously reported Langmuir-Blodgett film-transfer method in order to fabricate photoelectrochemical devices. Closely packed titania nanosheet monolayers on indium tin oxide (ITO), mica, and quartz surfaces strongly adsorbed cationic [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrinatozinc]4+ (ZnTMPyP4+) by electrostatic interactions. The alternating deposition process afforded nanometer-scale multilayer films with the following structure: solid surface/(titania nanosheet/ZnTMPyP4+)n (n is the number of layers). The multilayer films were characterized by various physical measurements, including AFM, XRD, and UV-visible spectra. The visible-light irradiation of this multilayer film on an ITO electrode in the presence of triethanolamine as an electron donor yielded an anodic photocurrent. The action spectrum was consistent with the absorption spectrum of ZnTMPyP4+, which indicates that the photoexcitation of ZnTMPyP4+ is responsible for the photocurrent generation. However, the photocurrent density decreased with an increasing number of layers, which indicates that the harvesting of photoexcited electrons vertically through the titania nanosheets in the ITO/(titania nanosheet/ZnTMPyP4+)n structure was not efficient. To overcome this problem, the use of a lateral interlayer connection to all of the titania nanosheets with Ag paste was examined. As a result, a dramatic improvement in the photocurrent density was obtained. Thus, for efficient photocurrent generation with the titania nanosheet-ZnTMPyP4+ composite material, the lateral connection to all of the titania nanosheet layers is effective. PMID:17472401

Akatsuka, Kosho; Ebina, Yasuo; Muramatsu, Masaru; Sato, Toshiyuki; Hester, Heidi; Kumaresan, Duraisamy; Schmehl, Russell H; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Haga, Masa-aki

2007-06-01

43

Annotation enrichment analysis: an alternative method for evaluating the functional properties of gene sets.  

PubMed

Gene annotation databases (compendiums maintained by the scientific community that describe the biological functions performed by individual genes) are commonly used to evaluate the functional properties of experimentally derived gene sets. Overlap statistics, such as Fishers Exact test (FET), are often employed to assess these associations, but don't account for non-uniformity in the number of genes annotated to individual functions or the number of functions associated with individual genes. We find FET is strongly biased toward over-estimating overlap significance if a gene set has an unusually high number of annotations. To correct for these biases, we develop Annotation Enrichment Analysis (AEA), which properly accounts for the non-uniformity of annotations. We show that AEA is able to identify biologically meaningful functional enrichments that are obscured by numerous false-positive enrichment scores in FET, and we therefore suggest it be used to more accurately assess the biological properties of gene sets. PMID:24569707

Glass, Kimberly; Girvan, Michelle

2014-01-01

44

Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

45

Electrochromic properties of novel strictly alternating poly(amine–amide–imide)s with electroactive triphenylamine moieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of novel triphenylamine-containing aromatic poly(amine–amide–imide)s (PAAIs) were prepared by the phosphorylation polyamidation reactions from the diamine, N,N?-bis(4-aminophenyl)-N,N?-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, and various imide ring-preformed dicarboxylic acids. All the PAAIs were amorphous, had good solubility in many polar aprotic solvents, and exhibited excellent thin film forming capability with good mechanical properties. They displayed relatively high glass-transition temperatures (220–306°C) and good thermal stability,

Guey-Sheng Liou; Sheng-Huei Hsiao; Yi-Kai Fang

2006-01-01

46

Molecular dynamics simulation of structure, thermodynamic, and dynamic properties of poly(dimethylsilamethylene), poly(dimethylsilatrimethylene) and their alternating copolymer.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics is used for the simulation of silicon-containing polymers with promising membrane material properties. An atomistic force field is developed for the description of bond bending, torsional angle variation, and nonbonded intra- and intermolecular interactions. Detailed ab initio quantum mechanics calculations on corresponding monomers that appeared recently in the literature are used for the parametrization of the bonded and nonbonded local intramolecular force field. For the intermolecular and nonbonded nonlocal intramolecular interactions, parameters are obtained from accurate force fields proposed in the literature for similar compounds. The force field is used subsequently for the calculation of thermodynamic, structure, and dynamic properties of two homopolymers, namely, poly(dimethylsilamethylene) and poly(dimethylsilatrimethylene), and their alternating copolymer. A wide range of temperatures and pressures is examined. Polymer systems of different molecular weights are simulated. Experimental data available for these polymers are very limited. In all cases, simulation results are in good agreement with these data. Furthermore, simulation results agree very well with empirical macroscopic correlations used widely for rubbery polymers for the properties under consideration. PMID:16898762

Makrodimitri, Zoi A; Raptis, Vasilios E; Economou, Ioannis G

2006-08-17

47

Thermoelectric properties of SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 for thermoelectric devices and alternative energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric properties of two antiperovskites SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 are calculated using first principles calculations. High values of Seebeck coefficients are observed for these materials. Electrical and thermal conductivities are also calculated. Increase in thermal conductivity and decrease in electrical conductivity are found with increasing temperature. The maximum values of thermal conductivity are 92×1014  W/m K s and 88×1014  W/m K s for SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 respectively at a temperature of 900 K. The peak values of 5×1020/? m s and 5.2×1020/? m s are achieved for n-type SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 respectively at a temperature of 300 K. Figure of merit is achieved for these materials at room temperature which shows that these materials can be useful for thermoelectric devices and alternative energy sources.

Bilal, M.; Khan, Banaras; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.; Maqbool, M.; Jalai Asadabadi, S.; Ahmad, I.

2014-05-01

48

The effect of the multi-period on the properties of deep-ultraviolet transparent conductive Ga2O3/ITO alternating multilayer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ga2O3/ITO alternating multilayer films were deposited on quartz glass substrates by magnetron sputtering. The effect of the multi-period on the structural, optical and electrical properties of Ga2O3/ITO alternating multilayer films was investigated by an X-ray diffractometer, a double beam spectrophotometer and the Hall system, respectively. A low sheet resistance of 225.5 ?/? and a high transmittance of more than 62.9% at a 300 nm wavelength were obtained for the two-period alternating multilayer film with a thickness of 72 nm.

Chengyang, Xu; Jinliang, Yan; Chao, Li; Huihui, Zhuang

2013-10-01

49

Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM): An Alternative Analytical Method for Investigation in Real-Time of Liquid Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the possibility to develop an alternative Analytical Method for Investigation in Real-Time of Liquid Properties, the layout and the operation with Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Systems. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) can be accepted as a powerful technique to monitor adsorption and desorption processes at interfaces in different chemical and biological areas. In our paper, Quartz Crystal Microbalance is used to monitor in real-time the polymer adsorption followed by azoic dye adsorption and then copolymer adsorption as well as optimization of interaction processes and determination of solution effects on the analytical signal. The solutions of azoic dye (5.10-4 g/L, 5.10-5 g/L and 5.10-6 g/L in DMF) are adsorbed at gold electrodes of QCM and the sensor responses are estimated through decrease and increase of QCM frequency. Also, the response of the sensor at maleic anhydride (MA) copolymer with styrene St (MA-St copolymer concentration of solution: 5.10-4 g/L 5.10-5 g/L and 5.10-6 g/L in DMF) is fast, large, and reversible. The detailed investigation showed the fact that the Quartz Crystal Microbalance is a modern method to study a wider number of physical and chemical properties related to the surface and interfacial processes of synthesized copolymer leading to a higher reliability of the research results.

Cimpoca, Gh. V.; Radulescu, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Dulama, I. D.; Ionita, I.; Cimpoca, M.; Cernica, I.; Gavrila, R.

2010-01-01

50

Normal segmentation and size of the primary sympathetic ganglia depend upon the alternation of rostrocaudal properties of the somites.  

PubMed

Metameric organization of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and ventral roots depends on the alternation of rostrocaudal properties within the somites. In addition, the size of DRG is likely to be regulated by the adjacent mesoderm, because unilateral creation of a paraxial mesoderm with only rostral somitic (RS) halves, leads to the development of non-segmented DRG that are larger and contain more cells than the sum of the contralateral, control DRG. We have now extended our studies of the role of the paraxial mesoderm in the morphogenesis of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) to another metameric PNS component, the sympathetic ganglia (SG). The development of the primary sympathetic chain was studied in chick-quail chimeras with multiple half-somite grafts using quantitative morphometric analysis. In the presence of an exclusively rostral or caudal somitic mesoderm, segmentation of the initially homogeneous primary sympathetic chain into ganglia is prevented. Therefore, the SG, like the DRG and ventral roots, require the normal rostrocaudal alternation of the somitic mesoderm for segmental morphogenesis. On embryonic day 4 (E4), there is a 38% average decrease in the volume of the primary sympathetic chain opposite a RS mesoderm, compared with the primary chain on the unoperated side. This is in contrast to the average increase of 27% in the volume of the DRG opposite the grafted mesoderm in the same embryos. Our results, and classical observations, have led us to propose a model in which the mesoderm controls DRG and SG size by modulating the partition of migrating NC precursors between the anlage of these two ganglion types. According to this model, the reduction in SG volume and concomitant increase in DRG volume observed opposite RS grafts, results from the arrest in the DRG anlage of neural crest cells that normally migrate to the SG. PMID:1769337

Goldstein, R S; Kalcheim, C

1991-05-01

51

Properties and composition of jet fuels derived from alternate energy sources. I. Background and n-alkane content. [Coal, tar sand, and oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

All jet fuel must meet many stringent requirements and several of these are controlled by composition. Freezing point, combustion properties, thermal oxidation stability, viscosity and gum formation are significantly influenced by the types and amounts of hydrocarbons in the fuel and\\/or the components containing nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Several samples of jet fuel obtained from alternate fossil fuel sources--oil shale,

R. N. Hazlett; J. M. Hall; J. Solash

1976-01-01

52

The influence of high thermal gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing and alternate heat treatment on the structure and properties of a single crystal nickel base superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A development program has been conducted to improve the cyclic properties of the PWA 1480 single-crystal superalloy by reducing or entirely eliminating casting porosity at fatigue-initiation sites, through the use of improved casting process parameters and HIPing; potential mechanical property improvements in a high-pressure hydrogen environment were also sought in alternatives to the standard coating and heat-treatment cycle. High thermal gradient casting was found to yield a reduction in overall casting porosity density and pore sizes. The most dramatic mechanical property improvement resulted from HIPing.

Fritzemeier, L. G.

1988-01-01

53

Alternate stresses and temperature variation as factors of influence of ultrasonic vibration on mechanical and functional properties of shape memory alloys.  

PubMed

It is known that the main factors in a variation in the shape memory alloy properties under insonation are heating of the material and alternate stresses action. In the present work the experimental study of the mechanical behaviour and functional properties of shape memory alloy under the action of alternate stresses and varying temperature was carried out. The data obtained had demonstrated that an increase in temperature of the sample resulted in a decrease or increase in deformation stress depending on the structural state of the TiNi sample. It was shown that in the case of the alloy in the martensitic state, a decrease in stress was observed, and on the other hand, in the austenitic state an increase in stress took place. It was found that action of alternate stresses led to appearance of strain jumps on the strain-temperature curves during cooling and heating the sample through the temperature range of martensitic transformation under the constant stress. The value of the strain jumps depended on the amplitude of alternate stresses and the completeness of martensitic transformation. It was shown that the heat action of ultrasonic vibration to the mechanical behaviour of shape memory alloys was due to the non-monotonic dependence of yield stress on the temperature. The force action of ultrasonic vibration to the functional properties was caused by formation of additional oriented martensite. PMID:23870387

Belyaev, Sergey; Volkov, Alexander; Resnina, Natalia

2014-01-01

54

Prediction of physico-chemical properties for PCDDs\\/DFs using the UNIFAC model with an alternative approximation for group assignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original-type UNIFAC model was used to predict the environmentally important physico-chemical properties of PCDDs\\/DFs, such as aqueous solubility, Henry's law constant, and 1-octanol\\/water partition coefficient, through the UNIFAC-derived infinite dilution activity coefficient. In this application, we suggest an alternative approximation that the aromatic ether group AC–O in PCDD\\/DF molecules is replaced with the aliphatic ether group CH–O, because the

Hidetoshi Kuramochi; Masahiro Ohsako; Kouji Maeda; Shinichi Sakai

2002-01-01

55

Extensive alternative splicing and dual promoter usage generates TCF-1 protein isoforms with differential transcription control properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported the isolation of cDNA clones representing four alternative splice forms of TCF-1, a T-cell-specific transcription factor. In the present study, Western blotting (immunoblotting) yielded a multi- tude of TCF-1 proteins ranging from 25 to 55 kDa, a pattern not simply explained from the known splice alternatives. Subsequent cDNA cloning, PCR amplification, and analysis by rapid amplification of

M. van de Wetering; JAN CASTROP; VLADIMIR KORINEK; J. C. Clevers

1996-01-01

56

Information Wants To Be Shared: An Alternative Framework for Approaching Intellectual Property Disputes in an Information Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the debate over intellectual property rights for digital media. Topics include why intellectual property should be protected; the evolution of copyright law; fair use doctrine; case studies; the philosophical theories of property, including labor theory, utilitarian theory, and personality theory; natural law theory; the social role of…

Tavani, Herman T.

2002-01-01

57

Alternative security  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

Weston, B.H. (Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States))

1990-01-01

58

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory operates the Alternative Fuels Data Center, a Web site with vast amounts of information on alternative fuels and the vehicles that use them. A general table of fuel properties gives a quick comparison of gasoline to several alternatives, while sections devoted to eight different fuels go into much greater depth. There are several documents that examine new alternative fuel vehicles, including performance tests, fact sheets, statistics, and case studies. The site also has common questions and answers about converting a gasoline vehicle to one that uses alternative fuels.

59

Color properties of gold–silver alternate nanowires electrochemically grown in the pores of aluminum anodic oxidation film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated electrodeposition of gold and silver on anodized aluminum plate yielded Au–Ag alternate nanowires in the geometrically anisotropic pores of the anodic oxidation films with mean diameter 10 nm and depth 10 ?m, respectively. The absorption maximum wavelengths in the visible region resulting from the transverse surface plasmon resonances of Au and Ag nanorods are invariant with their growth. Consequently,

Akihito Yasui; Mitsunobu Iwasaki; Tetsuro Kawahara; Hiroaki Tada; Seishiro Ito

2006-01-01

60

Thermal Properties of N-Phenylmaleimide-Isobutene Alternating Copolymers Containing Polar Groups to Form Intermolecular and Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated that the alternating copolymers obtained from N-phenylmaleimides having hydroxy and carboxy substituents and isobutene show excellent thermal stabilities; namely, onset temperatures of decomposition higher than 350 °C and glass transition temperatures higher than 220 °C, depending on the structure and position of the polar groups in the N-phenyl group. The obtained copolymers were soluble in organic solvents,

Akitoshi Omayu; Akikazu Matsumoto

2008-01-01

61

Chiral and steric recognition in optically active, isotactic, alternating {alpha}-olefin-carbon monoxide copolymers. Effect on physical properties and chemical reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Chiral and steric recognitions play critical roles in selective binding and resultant high stereo- and enantioselectivity in chemical reactions mediated by bioactive macromolecules such as enzymes and nucleic acids. Herein, we report the presence of both strong chiral and steric recognitions between optically active, highly isotactic, alternating {alpha}-olefin-carbon monoxide copolymers with 1,4-keto groups in the backbone and their effect on both the physical properties and chemical reactivity of the polymers. Thus, an alternating {alpha}-olefin-carbon monoxide copolymer with a given chiral sense for the tertiary carbons in the main chain can distinguish (a) between the two possible chiral senses for the tertiary carbons in the main chain of a second {alpha}-olefin-carbon monoxide copolymer even when the latter has a different pendant alkyl group and (b) between the length of the pendant alkyl group in two different copolymers whose tertiary carbons have the same chiral sense. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Jiang, Z.; Boyer, M.T.; Sen, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1995-07-05

62

Alternative training agents, phase 1. Survey of near-term candidate fire extinguishing agents and predicting properties of halocarbon mixtures, volume 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, 14 compounds are examined as potential near-term candidates for alternative firefighter training agents for streaming applications. This list consists of suitable fluorine-containing compounds (primarily fluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons) known to have had significant toxicity testing completed, with bulk production capabilities existing in the past, present, or anticipated near future. Many of these compounds are being produced or considered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigeration and foam-blowing applications. The ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, stage of toxicity testing, toxicity, availability, and relative cost of each compound are discussed. Physical and thermodynamic properties and estimated and measured flame suppression concentrations are reported. Those compounds that have low toxicity (with significant testing completed) are available in bulk and have desirable properties are discussed in detail. It is recommended that HCFC-123 be tested both in pure form and in blends as potential replacement training agents. Twelve blends are recommended for fire suppression.

Nimitz, Jonathan S.; Tapscott, Robert E.; Skaggs, Stephanie R.; Beeson, Harold D.

1991-02-01

63

Thermodynamic and transport properties of some alternative ozone-safe refrigerants for industrial refrigeration equipment: Study in Belarus and Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

The study of several hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and fluorocarbons (FC) and their binary mixtures that have no ozone-depleting ability is being carried out in the framework of Belarus National program. The fluids include HFCs R134a, R152a, R125, and R32, and FC R218. The following properties are being investigated: (1) phase equilibrium parameters including the boiling and condensing curve and critical point, thermophysical properties at these parameters, and heat of evaporation; (2) isobaric and isochoric heat capacity, ethalpy, and entropy in the gas and liquid state; (3) speed of sound, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and density in the gas and liquid state; (4) dielectric properties and surface tension; (5) behavior of combined construction materials inside the refrigerant medium; and (6) solubility in compressor oils and other technological characteristics. The series of results obtained by authors during the period 1990-1993 is presented.

Grebenkov, A.J.; Klepatsky, P.M.; Beljajeva, O.V. [Inst. of Power Engineering Problems, Minsk (Belgium)] [and others

1996-05-01

64

Grass pea ( Lathyrus sativus L.) starch as an alternative for cereal starches: Rheological properties and retrogradation susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compares selected rheological properties of starch isolated from two cultivars of grass pea with those of wheat and corn starch. The phase transition temperatures on pasting (TO, TP, TE) of both grass pea starches were lower in comparison to normal corn starch, but higher when compared to wheat starch. Pasting temperature of the starch slurries were significantly lower

Jaros?aw Korus; Mariusz Witczak; Les?aw Juszczak; Rafa? Ziobro

2008-01-01

65

Impairment of alternative splice sites defining a novel gammaretroviral exon within gag modifies the oncogenic properties of Akv murine leukemia virus  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of an alternative splice donor site located within the gag region has previously been shown to broaden the pathogenic potential of the T-lymphomagenic gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus, while the equivalent mutations in the erythroleukemia inducing Friend murine leukemia virus seem to have no influence on the disease-inducing potential of this virus. In the present study we investigate the splice pattern as well as the possible effects of mutating the alternative splice sites on the oncogenic properties of the B-lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. Results By exon-trapping procedures we have identified a novel gammaretroviral exon, resulting from usage of alternative splice acceptor (SA') and splice donor (SD') sites located in the capsid region of gag of the B-cell lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. To analyze possible effects in vivo of this novel exon, three different alternative splice site mutant viruses, mutated in either the SA', in the SD', or in both sites, respectively, were constructed and injected into newborn inbred NMRI mice. Most of the infected mice (about 90%) developed hematopoietic neoplasms within 250 days, and histological examination of the tumors showed that the introduced synonymous gag mutations have a significant influence on the phenotype of the induced tumors, changing the distribution of the different types as well as generating tumors of additional specificities such as de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and histiocytic sarcoma. Interestingly, a broader spectrum of diagnoses was made from the two single splice-site mutants than from as well the wild-type as the double splice-site mutant. Both single- and double-spliced transcripts are produced in vivo using the SA' and/or the SD' sites, but the mechanisms underlying the observed effects on oncogenesis remain to be clarified. Likewise, analyses of provirus integration sites in tumor tissues, which identified 111 novel RISs (retroviral integration sites) and 35 novel CISs (common integration sites), did not clearly point to specific target genes or pathways to be associated with specific tumor diagnoses or individual viral mutants. Conclusion We present here the first example of a doubly spliced transcript within the group of gammaretroviruses, and we show that mutation of the alternative splice sites that define this novel RNA product change the oncogenic potential of Akv murine leukemia virus.

S?rensen, Annette Balle; Lund, Anders H; Kunder, Sandra; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schmidt, Jorg; Wang, Bruce; Wabl, Matthias; Pedersen, Finn Skou

2007-01-01

66

Alternative Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Introduction: Transportation Market Evolution; Tactical Mobility Fuel. Single Fuel in the Battlefield: What is the Single Fuel. Certification/Qualification Pipeline; DARPA Alternative Jet Fuels Program. Coordinating the Overall Alternative Fuel Qualificat...

P. Muzzell

2009-01-01

67

Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

Alternative Medicine en Espańol email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... Send Thanks for emailing that article! Tweet Alternative medicine may be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments ...

68

Alternative strategies: a better alternative.  

PubMed

Alternatives can be defined as being any financial asset other than traditional stocks and bonds. They include marketable alternatives, private capital, and equity real estate. There are two primary reasons for investing in alternatives: the potential for greater return and the opportunity to diversify a portfolio. Although alternatives were challenged in the highly volatile environment that existed in 2008 and early 2009, they generally lived up to expectations. PMID:20446422

Doody, Dennis

2010-05-01

69

Rhythms and Alternating Patterns in Plants as Emergent Properties of a Model of Interaction between Development and Functioning  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims To model plasticity of plants in their environment, a new version of the functional–structural model GREENLAB has been developed with full interactions between architecture and functioning. Emergent properties of this model were revealed by simulations, in particular the automatic generation of rhythms in plant development. Such behaviour can be observed in natural phenomena such as the appearance of fruit (cucumber or capsicum plants, for example) or branch formation in trees. Methods In the model, a single variable, the source–sink ratio controls different events in plant architecture. In particular, the number of fruits and branch formation are determined as increasing functions of this ratio. For some sets of well-chosen parameters of the model, the dynamical evolution of the ratio during plant growth generates rhythms. Key Results and Conclusions Cyclic patterns in branch formation or fruit appearance emerge without being forced by the model. The model is based on the theory of discrete dynamical systems. The mathematical formalism helps us to explain rhythm generation and to control the behaviour of the system. Rhythms can appear during both the exponential and stabilized phases of growth, but the causes are different as shown by an analytical study of the system. Simulated plant behaviours are very close to those observed on real plants. With a small number of parameters, the model gives very interesting results from a qualitative point of view. It will soon be subjected to experimental data to estimate the model parameters.

Mathieu, Amelie; Cournede, Paul-Henry; Barthelemy, Daniel; de Reffye, Philippe

2008-01-01

70

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans.

Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

2012-01-01

71

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans: a novel and alternative approach to suppress quorum-sensing mechanism.  

PubMed

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

Hasan, Sadaf; Danishuddin, Mohd; Adil, Mohd; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K; Khan, Asad U

2012-01-01

72

Alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

Not Available

1991-07-01

73

Ligand effects on the structure and magnetic properties of alternating copper(II) chains with 2,2'-bipyrimidine- and polymethyl-substituted pyrazolates as bridging ligands.  

PubMed

A novel series of heteroleptic copper(II) compounds of formulas {[Cu2(?-H2O)(?-pz)2(?-bpm)(ClO4)(H2O)]ClO4·2H2O}n (1), {[Cu2(?-H2O)(?-3-Mepz)2(?-bpm)](ClO4)2·2H2O}n (2), and {[Cu2(?-OH)(?-3,5-Me2pz)(?-bpm)(H-3,5-Me2pz)2](ClO4)2}n (3) [bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, Hpz = pyrazole, H-3-Mepz = 3-methylpyrazole, and H-3,5-Me2pz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole] have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction methods. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 consist of copper(II) chains with regular alternating bpm and bis(pyrazolate)(aqua) bridges, whereas that of 3 is made up of copper(II) chains with regular alternating bpm and (pyrazolate)(hydroxo) bridges. The copper centers are six- (1) or five-coordinate (2) in axially elongated, octahedral (1) or square-pyramidal (2) environments in 1 and 2, whereas they are five-coordinate in distorted trigonal-bipyramidal surroundings in 3. The values of the copper-copper separations across the bpm/pyrazolate bridges are 5.5442(7)/3.3131(6) (1), 5.538(1)/3.235(1) (2), and 5.7673(7)/3.3220(6) Ĺ (3). The magnetic properties of 1-3 have been investigated in the temperature range of 25-300 K. The analysis of their magnetic susceptibility data through the isotropic Hamiltonian for an alternating antiferromagnetic copper(II) chain model [H = -J?i=1-n/2 (S2i·S2i-1 + ?S2i·S2i+1), with ? = J'/J and Si = SCu = 1/2] reveals the presence of a strong to moderate antiferromagnetic coupling through the bis(pyrazolate)(aqua) [-J = 217 (1) and 215 cm(-1) (2)] and (pyrazolate)(hydroxo) bridges [-J = 153 cm(-1) (3)], respectively, whereas a strong to weak antiferromagnetic coupling occurs through the bis-bidentate bpm [-J' = 211 (1), 213 (2), and 44 cm(-1) (3)]. A simple orbital analysis of the magnetic exchange interaction within the bpm- and pyrazolate-bridged dicopper(II) fragments of 1-3 visualizes the ?-type pathways involving the (dx(2)-y(2)) (1 and 2) or d(z(2)) (3) magnetic orbitals on each metal ion, which account for the variation of the magnetic properties in these three novel examples of one-dimensional copper(II) compounds with regular alternating intrachain antiferromagnetic interactions. PMID:24828822

Castro, Isabel; Calatayud, M Luisa; Barros, Wdeson P; Carranza, José; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Marino, Nadia; De Munno, Giovanni

2014-06-01

74

Alternative Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an alternative method of assessment, students create portfolios by submitting monthly entries that demonstrate and expand their understanding of science concepts. Teachers can also use the portfolios to assess the success of their teaching practices an

Valdez, Penelope S.

2001-11-01

75

Alternative Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

2002-01-01

76

Alternative treatment.  

PubMed

Alternatives to endometrial ablation include re-education of the 20% or more women complaining of menorrhagia whose blood loss is normal, less than 35 ml, and the use of an increasing variety of drugs to find an effective regime with minimal side effects. Endometrial resection is an effective treatment, particularly in the short term. Laparoscopic and vaginal hysterectomy have advantages over endometrial resection in the long term, avoiding failure and retreatment for menorrhagia. Hysteroscopic, laparoscopic and open myomectomy are more suitable in treating fibroids of significant size, although these techniques may be used with endometrial resection to avoid hysterectomy. Myoma reduction may become a less morbid alternative to myomectomy. PMID:7554619

Wood, C

1995-06-01

77

Case study II: application of the divalent cation bridging theory to improve biofloc properties and industrial activated sludge system performance-using alternatives to sodium-based chemicals.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the application of the divalent cation bridging theory (DCBT) as a tool in the chemical selection process at an activated sludge plant to improve settling, dewatering, and effluent quality. According to the DCBT, to achieve improvements, the goal of chemical selection should be to reduce the ratio of monovalent-to-divalent (M/D) cations. A study was conducted to determine the effect of using magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] as an alternative to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at a full-scale industrial wastewater treatment plant. Floc properties and treatment plant performance were measured for approximately one year during two periods of NaOH addition and Mg(OH)2 addition. A cost analysis of plant operation during NaOH and Mg(OH)2 use was also performed. During NaOH addition, the M/D ratio was 48, while, during Mg(OH)2 addition, this ratio was reduced to an average of approximately 0.1. During the Mg(OH)2 addition period, the sludge volume index, effluent total suspended solids, and effluent chemical oxygen demand were reduced by approximately 63, 31, and 50%, respectively, compared to the NaOH addition period. The alum and polymer dose used for clarification was reduced by approximately 50 and 60%, respectively, during Mg(OH)2 addition. The dewatering properties of the activated sludge improved dewatering as measured by decreased capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), along with an increase in cake solids from the SRF test. This corresponded to a reduction in the volume of solids thickened by centrifuges at the treatment plant, which reduced the disposal costs of solids. Considering the costs for chemicals and solids disposal, the annual cost of using Mg(OH)2 was approximately 30,000 dollars to 115,000 dollars less than using NaOH, depending on the pricing of NaOH. The results of this study confirm that the DCBT is a useful tool for assessing chemical-addition strategies and their potential effect on activated sludge performance. PMID:15508426

Higgins, Matthew J; Sobeck, David C; Owens, Steven J; Szabo, Lynn M

2004-01-01

78

Alternative drugs of abuse.  

PubMed

The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

2014-02-01

79

Magnetostrictive Alternator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

80

Alternative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

Herman, Dan

1999-01-01

81

Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of regular alternating ?-bpm/di-?-X copper(II) chains (bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine; X = OH, F).  

PubMed

The preparation and X-ray crystal structure of four 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm)-containing copper(II) complexes of formula {[Cu(2)(?-bpm)(H(2)O)(4)(?-OH)(2)][Mn(H(2)O)(6)](SO(4))(2)}(n) (1), {[Cu(2)(?-bpm)(H(2)O)(4)(?-OH)(2)]SiF(6)}(n) (2), {Cu(2)(?-bpm)(H(2)O)(2)(?-F)(2)F(2)}(n) (3), and [Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(2)F(NO(3))][Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(3)F]NO(3)·2H(2)O (4) are reported. The structures of 1-3 consist of chains of copper(II) ions with regular alternation of bis-bidentate bpm and di-?-hydroxo (1 and 2) or di-?-fluoro (3) groups, the electroneutrality being achieved by either hexaaqua manganese(II) cations plus uncoordinated sulfate anions (1), uncoordinated hexafluorosilicate anions (2), or terminally bound fluoride ligands (3). Each copper(II) ion in 1-4 is six-coordinated in elongated octahedral surroundings. 1 and 2 show identical, linear chain motifs with two bpm-nitrogen atoms and two hydroxo groups building the equatorial plane at each copper(II) ion and the axial position being filled by water molecules. In the case of 3, the axial sites at the copper atom are occupied by a bpm-nitrogen atom and a bis-monodentate fluoride anion, producing a "step-like" chain motif. The values of the angle at the hydroxo and fluoro bridges are 94.11(6) (1), 94.75(4) (2), and 101.43(4)° (3). In each case, the copper-copper separation through the bis-bidentate bpm [5.428(1) (1), 5.449(1) (2), and 5.9250(4) Ĺ (3)] is considerably longer than that through the di-?-hydroxo [2.8320(4) (1) and 2.824(1) Ĺ (2)] or di-?-fluoro [3.3027(4) Ĺ (3)] bridges. Compound 4 is a mononuclear species whose structure is made up of neutral [Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(2)F(NO(3))] units, [Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(3)F](+) cations, uncoordinated nitrate anions, and crystallization water molecules, giving rise to a pseudo-helical, one-dimensional (1D) supramolecular motif. The magnetic properties of 1-3 have been investigated in the temperature range 1.9-300 K. Relatively large, alternating antiferro- [J = -149 (1) and -141 cm(-1) (2) across bis-bidentate bpm] and ferromagnetic [?J = +194 (1) and +176 cm(-1) (2) through the dihydroxo bridges] interactions occur in 1 and 2 [the Hamiltonian being defined as H = -J?(i=1)(n/2) (S(2i)·S(2i-1) - ?S(2i)·S(2i+1))]. These values compare well with those previously reported for parent examples. Two weak intrachain antiferromagnetic interactions [J = -0.30 and ?J = -8.1 cm(-1) across bpm and the di-?-fluoro bridges, respectively] whose values were substantiated by density functional theory (DFT)-type calculations occur in 3. PMID:22428904

Marino, Nadia; Armentano, Donatella; De Munno, Giovanni; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

2012-04-01

82

Energy alternative  

SciTech Connect

A review of the world's peat resources and the technologies for peat harvesting, dewatering, and utilization demonstrates that depending on the location of the peat deposits, region of energy need, scale of operation, and cost of other energy sources, peat can be an economical energy alternative for either direct combustion or production of synthetic fuels. The ease with which peat can be harvested and its generally low sulfur and ash contents make it a good fuel for direct combustion, whereas its high hydrogen content gives it a high tendency to form hydrocarbon gases during thermal conversion. Hydrogasification tests with peat yielded 3 1/2 times the amount of hydrocarbon gases produced by the conversion of lignite and subbituminous coal under similar conditions.

Schora, F.C.; Punwani, D.V.

1980-01-01

83

cDNA structure, expression and nucleic acid-binding properties of three RNA-binding proteins in tobacco: occurrence of tissue-specific alternative splicing.  

PubMed Central

Three cDNAs encoding RNA-binding proteins were isolated from a tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) cDNA library. The predicted proteins (RGP-1) are homologous to each other and consist of a consensus-sequence type RNA-binding domain of 80 amino acids in the N-terminal half and a glycine-rich domain of 61-78 amino acids in the C-terminal half. Nucleic acid-binding assay using the in vitro synthesized RGP-1 protein confirmed that it is an RNA-binding protein. Based on its strong affinity for poly(G) and poly(U), the RGP-1 proteins are suggested to bind specifically to G and/or U rich sequences. All three genes are expressed in leaves, roots, flowers and cultured cells, however, the substantial amount of pre-mRNAs are accumulated especially in roots. Sequence analysis and ribonuclease protection assay indicated that significant amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs, which are produced by differential selection of 5' splice sites, are also present in various tissues. Tissue-specific alternative splicing was found in two of the three genes. The alternatively spliced mRNAs are also detected in polysomal fractions and are suggested to produce truncated polypeptides. A possible role of this alternative splicing is discussed. Images

Hirose, T; Sugita, M; Sugiura, M

1993-01-01

84

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of cases related to property issues involving institutions of higher education are examined in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as funding for property and equipment acquisition; opposition to building construction or demolition; zoning issues; building construction and equipment contracts; and lease agreements. Current…

Bickel, Robert D.; Zeller, Trisha A.

85

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter reviews 1982 cases related to school property. Cases involving citizen efforts to overturn school board decisions to close schools dominate the property chapter, and courts continue to uphold school board authority to close schools, transfer students, and sell or lease the buildings. Ten cases involving detachment and attachment of…

Goldblatt, Steven M.; Piele, Philip K.

86

Alternative approaches to plasma confinement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.

Roth, J. R.

1977-01-01

87

Looking for an Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

Kennedy, Jack

1999-01-01

88

Community alternatives to psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, individuals are turning to and being confronted by alternatives to dynamically-oriented therapy. Among these alternative change systems are alternative therapies such as Alcoholics Anonymous, and alternatives to therapy, such as the spiritual approaches based on various meditations. There are important theoretical conflicts between dynamic therapy and these alternatives. However, combinations of dynamic therapy and these alternatives are being forged

Richard Katz; Edward Rolde

1981-01-01

89

The Regressivity of the Property Tax. The Incidence of the Property Tax Under Alternative Assumptions of Incidence in Four States--Connecticut, Minnesota, Missouri and South Dakota. Report No. F76-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet summarizes the recent debate over the regressivity or progressivity of the property tax and presents some evidence on how the property tax burden is distributed among income classes. Section 1 discusses property tax incidence under both the conventional and new economic views. Discussed specifically are the conditions under which…

Odden, Allan; Vincent, Phillip E.

90

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author notes that controversies over construction bids and contracts continue to represent the largest number of property cases reported in this year's chapter. Most of these cases are routine disputes between colleges or universities and contractors over such issues as the return of bid bonds, recovery of additional costs for construction…

Piele, Philip K.

91

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the number of cases dealing with school property issues was significantly lower than in previous years, a significant number of cases involving the detachment and attachment of land to school districts arose. Eight of the eleven cases dealing with land detachment come from Illinois. The cases concerned requests from parents that their…

Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

92

Structural and dynamic properties of the new alternative refrigerant 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (HFO-1234yf) in the liquid state.  

PubMed

The local intermolecular structure and dynamics of a recently proposed alternative refrigerant 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene has been investigated using classical molecular dynamics and ab initio quantum chemical techniques. The potential for hydrogen bonding is investigated, and evidence is found for weak interactions that do not differ substantially between the two types of fluorine atom acceptor. The dynamics of the weak hydrogen bonding are examined via residence and reorientational dynamics. Spectral densities are computed from atomic velocity autocorrelation functions and discussed in concert with the ab initio infrared vibrational spectrum of the (gas-phase) monomer and dimers; particular attention is paid to the presence of low-wavenumber librational motions. The net result of this study is a more detailed picture of the local structural ordering and dynamics within this weakly hydrogen-bonding liquid. PMID:21138307

Skarmoutsos, Ioannis; Hunt, Patricia A

2010-12-30

93

Transportation alternatives 92: Alternative fueled vehicles: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Transportation Alternatives 92 (alternative fueled vehicles) was held October 8--9, 1992 at the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources, Boston, MA. The relevant papers have been entered individually.

Not Available

1992-01-01

94

Alternate Policies for Alternate Energy Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liqu...

F. F. Hall

1985-01-01

95

Alternative splicing variants of dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylated and regulated kinase 1B exhibit distinct patterns of expression and functional properties.  

PubMed Central

The dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylated and regulated kinase (DYRK) family of protein kinases is a group of evolutionarily conserved protein kinases that have been characterized as regulators of growth and development in mammals, Drosophila and lower eukaryotes. In the present study, we have characterized three splicing variants of DYRK1B (DYRK1B-p65, DYRK1B-p69 and DYRK1B-p75) with different expression patterns and enzymic activities. DYRK1B-p65 and DYRK1B-p69 exhibited similar, but not identical, patterns of expression in mouse tissues, with the highest protein levels found in the spleen, lung, brain, bladder, stomach and testis. In contrast, DYRK1B-p75 was detected specifically in skeletal muscles, in the neuronal cell line GT1-7 and also in differentiated, adipocyte-like 3T3-L1 cells, but not in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. A comparison of the mouse and human Dyrk1b genomic and cDNA sequences defined the alternative splicing events that produce the variants of DYRK1B. In DYRK1B-p75, transcription starts with exon 1B instead of exon 1A, generating a new translation start, which extends the open reading frame by 60 codons. This gene structure suggests that alternative promoters direct the expression of DYRK1B-p69 and DYRK1B-p75. Both splicing variants exhibited kinase activity in vitro and contained phosphotyrosine when expressed in COS-7 cells. Owing to differential recognition of the 3'-splice site in exon 9, DYRK1B-p65 differs from DYRK1B-p69 by the absence of 40 amino acids within the catalytic domain. DYRK1B-p65 lacked kinase activity in vitro and did not contain phosphotyrosine. DYRK1B-p69 and DYRK1B-p75 stimulated reporter gene activity driven by the f or kh ead in r habdosarcoma (FKHR)-dependent glucose-6-phosphatase promoter more strongly when compared with DYRK1B-p65, indicating that the DYRK1B splicing variants exhibit functional differences.

Leder, Susanne; Czajkowska, Hanna; Maenz, Barbara; De Graaf, Katrin; Barthel, Andreas; Joost, Hans-Georg; Becker, Walter

2003-01-01

96

Alternatives to Standardized Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents suggestions for alternatives to standardized testing. The means for alternative methods of evaluation are easily accessible if educational resources are organized for that purpose. (Author/IRT)

Perrone, Vito

1975-01-01

97

Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-x%BaTiO3 textured ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of alternating (ac) and direct current (dc) fields on the structural and dielectric properties of [001]PC textured Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-7%BaTiO3 (NBT-7%BT) ceramics has been investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the depolarization at temperature Td in poled samples resulted from a tetragonal --> pseudo-cubic transition on heating. Moderate ac drive and dc bias had opposite influences on Td: ac drive decreased the Td, whereas dc bias increased it. These investigations suggested an effective method to expand the working temperature range of NBT-x%BT textured ceramics to a high temperature.

Ge, Wenwei; Maurya, Deepam; Li, Jiefang; Priya, Shashank; Viehland, D.

2013-06-01

98

Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3} textured ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The influence of alternating (ac) and direct current (dc) fields on the structural and dielectric properties of [001]{sub PC} textured Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-7%BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-7%BT) ceramics has been investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the depolarization at temperature T{sub d} in poled samples resulted from a tetragonal {yields} pseudo-cubic transition on heating. Moderate ac drive and dc bias had opposite influences on T{sub d}: ac drive decreased the T{sub d}, whereas dc bias increased it. These investigations suggested an effective method to expand the working temperature range of NBT-x%BT textured ceramics to a high temperature.

Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Maurya, Deepam; Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

2013-06-03

99

Alternative aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

1978-01-01

100

Optical devices having flakes suspended in a host fluid to provide a flake/fluid system providing flakes with angularly dependent optical properties in response to an alternating current electric field due to the dielectric properties of the system  

DOEpatents

Optical devices utilizing flakes (also called platelets) suspended in a host fluid have optical characteristics, such as reflective properties, which are angular dependent in response to an AC field. The reflectivity may be Bragg-like, and the characteristics are obtained through the use of flakes of liquid crystal material, such as polymer liquid crystal (PLC) materials including polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) and polymer nematic liquid crystal (PNLC) material or birefringent polymers (BP). The host fluid may be propylene carbonate, poly(ethylene glycol) or other fluids or fluid mixtures having fluid conductivity to support conductivity in the flake/host system. AC field dependent rotation of 90.degree. can be obtained at rates and field intensities dependent upon the frequency and magnitude of the AC field. The devices are useful in providing displays, polarizers, filters, spatial light modulators and wherever switchable polarizing, reflecting, and transmission properties are desired.

Kosc, Tanya Z. (Rochester, NY); Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY); Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY)

2006-05-09

101

Centre for Alternative Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CAT is an environmental nonprofit that promotes sustainable living. Its key areas of work are renewable energy, environmental building, energy efficiency, organic growing and alternative sewage systems. The group offers workshops on alternative energy, including wind, solar, and microhydroelectric.

2007-06-28

102

Center for Alternative Fuels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The success of the HEV programs under this grant prompted Macomb to launch this resource, the Center for Alternative Fuels. The center holds forums in which academic and industry experts discuss the technical and societal impact of alternative fuels.

2009-12-21

103

Alternative Instructional Grouping Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternatives to the current system of graded classes and ability grouping are examined that would allow teachers to balance individual student needs with practical considerations in instructional delivery. In addition to reviewing the alternatives, the research that has examined these approaches is reviewed and synthesized. The three alternative

McGurk, Erin K.; Pimentle, Jodi A.

104

Chicano Alternative Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative schooling is challenging some basic notions of curriculum, operation, and structure of traditional schools; it is not challenging the basic concept of schooling. Chicano alternative education, an elusive concept, lacks a precise definition. Chicano alternative schools reflect a vast diversity in structure, focus, and goals. The Chicano…

Galicia, H. Homero; Almaguer, Clementina

105

Aberrant Alternative Splicing Is Another Hallmark of Cancer  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of human genes are alternatively spliced. Not surprisingly, aberrant alternative splicing is increasingly linked to cancer. Splice isoforms often encode proteins that have distinct and even antagonistic properties. The abnormal expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in cancer changes the alternative splicing of critically important pre-mRNAs. Aberrant alternative splicing should be added to the growing list of cancer hallmarks.

Ladomery, Michael

2013-01-01

106

REACT: Alternatives to Critical Materials in Magnets  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s REACT Project, short for “Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies”, are developing cost-effective alternatives to rare earths, the naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. The REACT projects will identify low-cost and abundant replacement materials for rare earths while encouraging existing technologies to use them more efficiently. These alternatives would facilitate the widespread use of EVs and wind power, drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

None

2012-01-01

107

Alternate drop pulse polarography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

Christie, J. H.; Jackson, L. L.; Osteryoung, R. A.

1976-01-01

108

Alternator insulation evaluation tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

1972-01-01

109

Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Tetragonal Sr2M3As2O2 (M3 = Mn3, Mn2Cu and MnZn2) Compounds Containing Alternating CuO2-Type and FeAs-Type Layers  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline samples of Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2, Sr2Mn3As2O2, and Sr2Zn2MnAs2O2 were synthesized. Their temperature- and applied magnetic field-dependent structural, transport, thermal, and magnetic properties were characterized by means of x-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical resistivity , heat capacity, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements. These compounds have a body-centered-tetragonal crystal structure (space group I 4/mmm) that consists of MO2 (M = Zn and/or Mn) oxide layers similar to the CuO2 layers in high superconducting transition temperature Tc cuprate superconductors, and intermetallic MAs (M = Cu and/or Mn) layers similar to the FeAs layers in high-Tc pnictides. These two types of layers alternate along the crystallographic c-axis and are separated by Sr atoms. The site occupancies of Mn, Cu and Zn were studied using Rietveld refinements of x-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. The temperature dependences of suggest metallic character for Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2 and semiconducting character for Sr2Mn3As2O2 and Sr2Zn2MnAs2O2. Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2 is inferred to be a ferrimagnet with a Curie temperature TC = 95(1) K. Remarkably, we find that the magnetic ground state structure changes from a G-type antiferromagnetic structure in Sr2Mn3As2O2 to an A-type ferrimagnetic structure in Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2 in which the Mn ions in each layer are ferromagnetically aligned, but are antiferromagnetically aligned between layers.

Nath, R [Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Goldman, Alan [Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University; Johnston, david C [Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University

2010-01-01

110

Concepts in alternative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

After discussing some important alternative approaches, different interpretations are presented of the concepts of health, disease, diagnosis, therapy and patient. These differences are elucidated in three main frames of medical thinking: the pharmaceutical, the integrational and the holistic model. Attention is given to the problem of scientific proof, especially in relation to the effectiveness of alternative therapies. In a concluding

C. W. Aakster

1986-01-01

111

Marketing Alternatives for Fishermen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major objective of this publication is to identify and describe alternatives which fishermen may apply in attempting to solve their marketing or market-related problems. A marketing alternative is defined as a procedure, mechansism and/or system through...

J. P. Nichols J. C. Cato W. Lesser F. Olsen F. J. Prochaska

1980-01-01

112

Alternating current electrode polarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This article summarizes principles of alternating current electrode polarization. The importance of alternating current electrode polarization in biological impedance studies is discussed. The following topics are treated in detail: Definition of Electrode Polarization Impedance; Linearity and Superpositioning Principle; Frequency Dependence of Electrode Impedance; Preparation of Electrodes (Optimal current density for platinum black application, Stability of electrode impedance, Cell design

H. P. Schwan

1966-01-01

113

Alternative Automobile Engines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

Wilson, David Gordon

1978-01-01

114

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

Information Center

2013-04-08

115

Effort Reporting Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of Management and Budget's new alternatives for reporting an institution's activities under federal grants are outlined and explained, and possible implementation problems with each alternative are suggested. Options discussed include personnel activity reporting, monitored workload, multiple certification, and statistical sampling.…

Selby, Stephen E.

1982-01-01

116

Alternative Schools, Mainstream Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative education has its own history. Having emerged in the sixties as a response to the social crisis, its goal was primarily to fight increasing bureaucracy and the depersonalization of public education by giving students more freedom and minimal adult supervision. In the eighties, the understanding of "alternative education" narrowed to…

McKee, Jan; Conner, Evguenia

2007-01-01

117

Alternative Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimates suggest that there are more than 20,000 alternative schools in operation in the United States. The number of alternative schools as well as the number of students educated in these schools has increased significantly over recent years. Oftentimes these schools serve students who are not successful in the traditional school setting, and…

Muir, Mike

2004-01-01

118

Optimal 1-fair alternators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a general approach to design the optimal 1-fair alternators. An alternator is a network of concurrent processors, which can stabilize to states satisfying two conditions. First, if one processor is executing the critical step, then no neighbor of that processor executes the critical step at the same time. Second, along any concurrent execution, each processor executes the

Shing-tsaan Huang; Bau-wen Chen

2001-01-01

119

Augmenting Lehmann Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Generalized classes of Lehmann alternatives are given and locally most powerful (LMP) tests with respect to these alternatives are derived for the two-sample case. These tests turn out to be linear combinations of Savage's (1956) and the Mann-Whitney-Wilc...

Z. Govindarajulu

1976-01-01

120

Alternatives to blood transfusion.  

PubMed

The use of alternatives to allogeneic blood continues to rest on the principles that blood transfusions have inherent risks, associated costs, and affect the blood inventory available for health-care delivery. Increasing evidence exists of a fall in the use of blood because of associated costs and adverse outcomes, and suggests that the challenge for the use of alternatives to blood components will similarly be driven by costs and patient outcomes. Additionally, the risk-benefit profiles of alternatives to blood transfusion such as autologous blood procurement, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and haemostatic agents are under investigation. Nevertheless, the inherent risks of blood, along with the continued rise in blood costs are likely to favour the continued development and use of alternatives to blood transfusion. We summarise the current roles of alternatives to blood in the management of medical and surgical anaemias. PMID:23706802

Spahn, Donat R; Goodnough, Lawrence T

2013-05-25

121

Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

2011-01-01

122

Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

123

Making a Non-animal Alternative Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the author's decision to help a student find alternatives to performing several terminal experiments on animals in a college physiology class. Replacement exercises used for studying the properties of muscle types are described. Details about the difficulties and successes of the entire experience are reported. (KR)

Zawistowski, Stephen

1990-01-01

124

Alternating to Direct: Rectifying Alternating Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this activity for classes learning about diodes and electrical currents. The laboratory illustrates how diodes can be used to rectify alternating current. It uses a galvanometer to determine the direction of current flow when an AC or DC current is applied to the circuit containing a diode in series with a resistor and a galvanometer.The lesson includes step by step directions for the experiment.The activity should require about 20-30 minutes of class time to complete. Discussion questions and teacher notes are included.

2012-12-03

125

Alternative Energy Sources Guidebook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is offered as an informational guide - a 'primer' - for Marylanders interested in obtaining a basic understanding of Alternative Energy Generation Technologies which are potentially available in the state. An attempt has been made to asses...

W. D. Baxter

1987-01-01

126

Alternative Energy Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lansing Community College Alternative Energy Center was created with several purposes in mind. The first purpose was the development of educational curricula designed to meet the growing needs of advanced energy companies that would allow students to ...

H. Dillman R. Borger

2007-01-01

127

EXPLORING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students do research to determine the types of energy currently used in the U.S., study the economic effects of rising energy costs on average households, and come up with ideas for alternative energy sources.

Lisa Prososki (;)

2007-09-25

128

GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

129

Alternative fuel information sources  

SciTech Connect

This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

Not Available

1994-06-01

130

Niobium Technological Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process-product matrix of Niobium is presented, through which the technological alternatives for Niobium are identified. It is shown that the three axes of Niobium application, steels, superalloys and metallic Niobium have a tendency to be economical ...

A. F. Sartori C. A. Baldan C. R. Dainesi D. G. Pinatti W. P. Longo

1981-01-01

131

SOLVENT WASTE REDUCTION ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication contains edited versions of presentations on this subject made at five Technology Transfer seminars in 1988. Chapters are included on land disposal regulations and requirements; waste solvent disposal alternatives from various industries such as process equipment...

132

Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Standard care is ... such as nurses and physical therapists, practice. Complementary medicine is used together with standard medical care. An ...

133

Seal design alternatives study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

1993-06-01

134

Alternative and Complementary Therapies  

MedlinePLUS

... reports of health problems, the FDA requires a scientific study to show that it is safe. There are ... alternative therapies often cannot afford to pay for scientific studies. The government prefers to pay for studies of ...

135

NORMETEX PUMP ALTERNATIVES STUDY  

SciTech Connect

A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying resistances to ionizing radiation - aromatic polymers such as polyimide Vespel (TM) and the elastomer EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) have been found to be more resistant to degradation in tritium than other polymers. This report presents information to help select replacement pumps for Normetex pumps in tritium systems. Several pumps being considered as Normetex replacement pumps are discussed.

Clark, E.

2013-04-25

136

Alternative Energy Evaluation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from Misty Scevola serves as an assessment of student knowledge of alternative energy technologies. This document would be useful for instructors looking to expand their students' knowledge of alternative energy and sustainability. The document is intended to be used twice: once before learning about the concepts outlined, and once after the class has been completed. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Scevola, Misty

2012-04-18

137

Generation of Alternating Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on work from the Wisconsin Online Resource Center, Teachers' Domain presents this interactive with reading material and animations to help students learn how a basic generator produces alternating current. The lesson includes graphics that show how the different components of a generator (slip rings, brushes, armature loop, and magnetic field) work together to produce single-phase and alternating current. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-05

138

Alternate policies for alternate energy sources  

SciTech Connect

Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

Hall, F.F.

1985-09-01

139

Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

1982-01-01

140

Alternative Green Solvents Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

Maloney, Phillip R.

2012-01-01

141

Glow plug alternator control  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for controlling the resistance of a glow plug over various operating temperature ranges of an internal combustion engine is described. The apparatus is electrically powered by a first alternator and comprises: means for determining the resistance of the glow plug, comparing the glow plug resistance with a preselected glow plug resistance, and delivering a resistance error signal in response to a difference between the compared signals; and second alternator means for delivering a voltage signal to the glow plug and controlling the glow plug's resistance relative to the preselected resistance in response to receive the resistance error signal.

Verheyen, M.R.

1988-02-23

142

Alternative Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to the most common alternative energy sources that they may encounter in electronic work including fuel cells, solar power, and ultracapacitors. The module includes course materials covering each of these alternative energy sources along with three "Knowledge Probes" which provide an opportunity for students to master the objectives of the module. By clicking on "Learning Resources" at the top of the page, users will also find supplemental learning activities and additional resources for practice and research. The module also includes a glossary of terms and a notebook function.

2008-09-09

143

Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This Federal Technology Alert on alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), is intended for fleet managers in government agencies and other government officials who need to use more alternative fuels and AFVs in their fleets of cars and trucks. This publication describes the government's plans and progress in meeting goals for the use of AFVs, which are stated in the Energy Policy Act and various Executive Orders. It describes the types of AFVs available, lists actual and potential federal uses, makes some general recommendations, and presents field experiences to date.

Not Available

2003-09-01

144

MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

145

MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATING IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. his study was ini...

146

Activity Based Physics Alternative Homework Assignment: Electrical Safety 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework assignment is a realistic problem based on household electrical circuits. The user must make estimations of physical parameters from the properties, sizes, and shapes of common objects. Topics covered include Ohm's Law, resistivity, capacitance, alternating current, and circuits.

Redish, Edward F.; Cooney, Patrick

2009-03-19

147

Alternative photophosphorylation, inorganic pyrophosphate synthase and inorganic pyrophosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This minireview in memory of Daniel I. Arnon, pioneer in photosynthesis research, concerns properties of the first and still only known alternative photophosphorylation system, with respect to the primary phosphorylated end product formed. The alternative to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), was produced in light, in chromatophores from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, when no adenosine diphosphate (ADP) had

Margareta Baltscheffsky; Herrick Baltscheffsky

1995-01-01

148

Reliability of Radioisotope Stirling Convertor Linear Alternator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Onboard radioisotope power systems being developed and planned for NASA s deep-space missions would require reliable design lifetimes of up to 14 years. Critical components and materials of Stirling convertors have been undergoing extensive testing and evaluation in support of a reliable performance for the specified life span. Of significant importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor is the design of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. Alternator performance could vary due to small deviations in the permanent magnet properties, operating temperature, and component geometries. Durability prediction and reliability of the alternator may be affected by these deviations from nominal design conditions. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of these uncertainties in predicting the reliability of the linear alternator performance. This paper presents a study in which a reliability-based methodology is used to assess alternator performance. The response surface characterizing the induced open-circuit voltage performance is constructed using 3-D finite element magnetic analysis. Fast probability integration method is used to determine the probability of the desired performance and its sensitivity to the alternator design parameters.

Shah, Ashwin; Korovaichuk, Igor; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

2006-01-01

149

Reliability of Radioisotope Stirling Convertor Linear Alternator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onboard radioisotope power systems being developed and planned for NASA's deep-space missions would require reliable design lifetimes of up to 14 yr. Critical components and materials of Stirling convertors have been undergoing extensive testing and evaluation in support of a reliable performance for the specified life span. Of significant importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor is the design of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. Alternator performance could vary due to small deviations in the permanent magnet properties, operating temperature, and component geometries. Durability prediction and reliability of the alternator may be affected by these deviations from nominal design conditions. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of these uncertainties in predicting the reliability of the linear alternator performance. This paper presents a study in which a reliability-based methodology is used to assess alternator performance. The response surface characterizing the induced open-circuit voltage performance is constructed using 3-D finite element magnetic analysis. Fast probability integration method is used to determine the probability of the desired performance and its sensitivity to the alternator design parameters.

Shah, Ashwin; Korovaichuk, Igor; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

2005-02-01

150

Alternative Weighting Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texaco Inc.'s experiences with mined iron oxide used as an alternative weighting material for barite are presented. This paper discusses laboratory studies made before field application of this product. Also included are test results of a SWACO choke assembly to simulate field conditions. Some abrasion appears to occur in the highvelocity fluid regimes. This is particularly true in smallhole drilling

C. O. Walker

1983-01-01

151

Alternatives in solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

Schueler, D. G.

1978-01-01

152

Environment and Alternative Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stressing the global dimension to the adversary relationship between economic development and environmental conservation, this monograph examines the philosophical, historical, cultural, and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology. In addition, the monograph spells out policy implications of an alternative concept of development and…

Kothari, Rajni

153

Alternative macroautophagy and mitophagy.  

PubMed

Mitophagy is a mitochondrial quality control mechanism where damaged and surplus mitochondria are removed by macroautophagy. Mitophagy is associated with various physiological and pathological events such as mitochondrial clearance during terminal differentiation of reticulocytes. There are two different mammalian macroautophagy pathways: the Atg5-dependent conventional pathway and an Atg5-independent alternative pathway; the latter is involved in the erythrocyte mitophagy. PMID:24569119

Shimizu, Shigeomi; Honda, Shinya; Arakawa, Satoko; Yamaguchi, Hirofumi

2014-05-01

154

Synchronous Alternator Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two-dimensional analysis of the cross section of a salient-pole, synchronous aircraft alternator under no load is reported. The nonlinear effects of magnetic saturation were considered. The solution algorithm is a modified version of an algorithm previo...

M. L. Goss

1976-01-01

155

Compensated pulsed alternator  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX); Driga, Mircea D. (Austin, TX); Woodson, Herbert H. (Austin, TX)

1980-01-01

156

Wireless LAN design alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have discussed several alternatives in wireless LAN design: media choice, operating frequency, operating mode, network topology, and access method. Although each technical choice presents both advantages and disadvantages, they argue that there is a design point that provides the best fit with present and future wireless LAN user needs. Considering all factors-including robustness, regulatory considerations, and interference avoidance-using

Ddd F. Bantz; Frederic J. Bauchot

1994-01-01

157

Alternatives in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper on alternatives in teacher education begins by analyzing the current emphasis on the scientific approach in education. The author finds the promise of the scientific approach to be illusory. He defines it as education that promotes behavior change in some desirable direction. However, this definition, which the author finds equally…

Clements, Millard

158

Alternative energy technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising.

Dresselhaus, M. S.; Thomas, I. L.

2001-11-01

159

Alternative Energy Busing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

LaFee, Scott

2012-01-01

160

Alternative energy technologies.  

PubMed

Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising. PMID:11713539

Dresselhaus, M S; Thomas, I L

2001-11-15

161

Alternative Medicine: A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reflection on the scientific behavior of adherents of conventional medicine toward one form of alternative medicine—homeopa- thy—teaches us that physicians do reject seemingly solid evidence because it is not compatible with theory. Further reflection, how- ever, shows that physicians do the same within conventional medical science: Sometimes they discard a theory because of new facts, but at other times

Jan P. Vandenbroucke; Anton J. M. de Craen

2001-01-01

162

Alternatives to GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy is currently pursuing several approaches to improving the reliability of precision navigation systems, including those that would still permit precision navigation in the event that the Global Positioning System (GPS) is denied or unavailable. This paper examines two alternatives to GPS: bathymetric and celestial navigation. Bathymetric navigation, a non-deniable source of position, determines a position by correlating

F. Pappalardi; S. J. Dunham; M. E. LeBlang; T. E. Jones; J. Bangert; G. Kaplan

2001-01-01

163

An Alternative to Failure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends six strategies to motivate underachieving students to perform better in reading and mathematics, including, for example, being honest with students about their current level of performance and expecting them to be responsible for their own progress. Discusses positive results of these strategies at Colorado's Finest Alternative High…

Tufly, Cher

2001-01-01

164

Energy conversion alternatives study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

Shure, L. T.

1979-01-01

165

Alternative energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising.

M. S. Dresselhaus; I. L. Thomas

2001-01-01

166

Archive Storage Media Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews requirements for a data archive system and describes storage media alternatives that are currently available. Topics discussed include data storage; data distribution; hierarchical storage architecture, including inline storage, online storage, nearline storage, and offline storage; magnetic disks; optical disks; conventional magnetic…

Ranade, Sanjay

1990-01-01

167

Alternative Low Noise Fan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 106 bladed fan with a design takeoff tip speed of 1100 ft/sec was hypothesized as reducing perceived noise because of the shift of the blade passing harmonics to frequencies beyond the perceived noise rating range. A 22 in. model of this Alternative Low...

D. M. Elliott J. H. Dittmar R. D. Moore R. J. Jeracki T. L. Parrott

2000-01-01

168

Multimedia communications: architectural alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia communications systems are a combination of human interfaces and end users interacting with multimedia data bases and highly disparate but interconnected communications networks. This paper discusses several architectural alternatives and system requirements that will assist in the design and development of MMCS in actual environments. The approaches taken in this paper are based upon the development of such systems

Terrence P. McGarty; S. T. Treves

1992-01-01

169

Alternative waste systems: bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annotated bibliography identifies useful, introductory-level publications (books, pamphlets, periodicals, commercial technical publication, and plans). The 32 items deal with composting, sewage disposal, standards, waste water disposal, septic tank practices, appropriate technology, and environmental aspects. Alternate toilet designs are emphasized. (MCW)

R. Billau-Adams; J. OBrien

1978-01-01

170

Alternative Approaches to Negotiating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wait-and-react and laundry-list approaches to combating teachers' collective-bargaining demands are ineffective. An alternative goals-setting approach requires management and the district negotiations team to identify important needs and objectives. West Seneca Central School District ended contentious negotiations by presenting unions with…

Ramming, Thomas M.

1997-01-01

171

ALTERNATIVE SEWER STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of design and operational aspects for two popular alternative sewering techniques, i.e., pressure and small-diameter gravity sewers, was performed. The results provided insights useful to designers of these systems with regard to sulfide concentrations in these sewe...

172

A Better Alternative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mandated as an option for students who have not been successful in traditional programs, continuation education provides as alternative setting that helps students meet graduation requirements and earn their high school diplomas. Continuation high schools are quite successful in helping their students. This is due to their small size (usually 20:1…

Knoeppel, Janet

2007-01-01

173

[Alternatives to animal testing].  

PubMed

The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

Fabre, Isabelle

2009-11-01

174

Alternatives to shunting.  

PubMed

The growing awareness of mechanical and infectious complications related to the implantation of extracranial CSF shunts and the rapid developments in neuroendoscopic surgery have given pediatric neurosurgeons the possibility of choosing between the two types of treatment. The decision will depend on a number of factors, such as whether it is possible to identify the etiology of the hydrocephalus on the preoperative examinations, the surgeon's familiarity with the endoscopic technique, and his or her personal opinions about the efficacy of the alternative techniques to shunt implantation. The history and the state of the art of the alternatives to shunting are briefly reviewed for each of the main pathophysiological groups of pediatric hydrocephalus: aqueductal stenosis, posterior fossa tumors, meningomyelocele, Dandy-Walker malformation, posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and others. PMID:10603013

Cinalli, G

1999-11-01

175

Alternative activation of macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical pathway of interferon-?-dependent activation of macrophages by T helper 1 (TH1)-type responses is a well-established feature of cellular immunity to infection with intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV. The concept of an alternative pathway of macrophage activation by the TH2-type cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 has gained credence in the past decade, to account for a

Siamon Gordon

2003-01-01

176

Alternative interfaces for chat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe some common problems experienced by users of computer-based text chat, and show how many of these problems relate to the loss of timing-specific information. We suggest that thinking of chat as a real-time streaming media data type, with status and channel indicators, might solve some of these problems. We then present a number of alternative chat interfaces along

David Vronay; Marc A. Smith; Steven M. Drucker

1999-01-01

177

Stability of alternate fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of gasoline and jet fuel produced from coal, oil shale, or tar sands were stored in amber glass bottles for 32 weeks at 43.3°C (110°F), and the amounts of gum formed in each were determined. Samples of petroleum-derived gasoline and jet fuel were stored under the same conditions for comparison with the alternate fuels. The petroleum-derived fuels showed good

J. N. Bowden; D. W. Brinkman

1980-01-01

178

Alternatives to ECMO.  

PubMed Central

The past decade has witnessed technological advancements which are unparalleled in neonatology. ECMO has been demonstrated to be a powerful rescue treatment, but has perhaps been overutilised and is not universally available. Alternative treatments have been shown to be both safe and efficacious in the management of infants with respiratory failure. Direct head to head clinical trials will probably be necessary to establish appropriate criteria and indications for use, given the wide diversity of pathophysiology these unique patients present.

Donn, S M

1994-01-01

179

Alternative futures lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternative futures studies are a valuable yet resource-intensive way in which environmental scientists try to conduct informed debates about policies for specific geographic regions. These studies require modeling what the future would look like if different stakeholder groups had their way. The modeling is carried out by applying historical trend data to future projections that are rooted in the preferences of the different groups. Alternative future studies can be controversial due to the limitations of modeling and to the extent to which the models represent fully the different possible scenarios. Yet, they can be especially valuable for decision making about which areas in the region would be most appropriate and most acceptable for the applications of different policies such as development and restoration. Through a series of hands-on classroom activities that are the culmination of a variety of field trips, case studies, and analyses of GIS data about river systems and river restoration options, the students build deep understanding about what alternative futures studies entail and what are the applications of such studies to specific rivers in the Puget Sound area.

Zalles, Dan

180

ALTERNATIVE LIBRARY. Elementary Functions  

SciTech Connect

The ALTERNATIVE LIBRARY is a library of elementary functions prepared for use with the standard FORTRAN compiler under 4.2 BSD UNIX as an alternative to the standard system library. The library offers improved accuracy as well as additional capabilities. It includes routines ASIN, ACOS, COSH, EXP, LOG, LOG10, POW, SIN, COS, SINH, TAN, and TANH. These alternative routines have slightly modified domains and slightly different responses to invalid arguments. Four routines, not part of the standard library, are provided: ADX(X,N), a double-precision function that returns the double-precision argument X scaled by 2 raised to the Nth power; INTXP(X), an integer function that returns as a signed integer the exponent of the double-precision argument X; SETXP(X,N), a double-precision function that returns the double-precision argument X with its exponent replaced by N; and DCOTAN(X), a double-precision function that returns the cotangent of the double-precision argument X, where X is given in radians.

Cody, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1986-02-01

181

State alternative route designations  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

Not Available

1989-07-01

182

Review of alternative fuels data bases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on an analysis of the interaction of fuel physical and chemical properties with combustion characteristics and indicators, a ranking of the importance of various fuel properties with respect to the combustion process was established. This ranking was used to define a suite of specific experiments whose objective is the development of an alternative fuels design data base. Combustion characteristics and indicators examined include droplet and spray formation, droplet vaporization and burning, ignition and flame stabilization, flame temperature, laminar flame speed, combustion completion, soot emissions, NOx and SOx emissions, and the fuels' thermal and oxidative stability and fouling and corrosion characteristics. Key fuel property data is found to include composition, thermochemical data, chemical kinetic rate information, and certain physical properties.

Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

1983-01-01

183

Transportation alternatives 92: Alternative fueled vehicles: Proceedings. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Transportation Alternatives 92 (alternative fueled vehicles) was held October 8--9, 1992 at the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources, Boston, MA. The relevant papers have been entered individually.

Not Available

1992-12-01

184

The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus

W J Pitz; C K Westbrook

2009-01-01

185

A new heptamolybdate-based supramolecular compound with an alternating organic and inorganic layer structure: Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of (Hapy) 4[Co(H 2O) 5Mo 7O 24] · 9H 2O  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new supramolecular compound based on the heptamolybdate anion, formulated as (Hapy)4[Co(H2O)5Mo7O24]·9H2O (1) (apy=2-aminopyridine), has been synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes as alternating layers of inorganic anions and organic cations linked by hydrogen-bonding interactions. A variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurement of 1 demonstrated the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions. Furthermore, the

Taohai Li; Jian Lü; Shuiying Gao; Rong Cao

2007-01-01

186

Alternative Regulatory Approaches: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an overview of the guidebook series on Alternative Regulatory Approaches. It summarizes definitions, costs, benefits, advantages, and disadvantages of five alternative regulatory concepts: Marketable Rights, Performance Standards, Monetary I...

1981-01-01

187

Extending the Alternating Series Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

Katsuura, Hidefumi

2012-01-01

188

Local Network Wideband Interconnection Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Broadband local area networks are being acquired throughout the Air Force. This report addresses alternatives for interconnecting these networks. These alternatives support both data transmission at rates greater than 1.5 Mbps and two standard television ...

K. Erat J. P. Worthley

1984-01-01

189

Autism and Complimentary Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... corner of the player. Autism and Complimentary Alternative Medicine HealthDay January 7, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Autism Complementary and Alternative Medicine Transcript Parents of children with autism often use ...

190

Alternative sources of natural rubber.  

PubMed

Rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is one of the most important polymers naturally produced by plants because it is a strategic raw material used in more than 40,000 products, including more than 400 medical devices. The sole commercial source, at present, is natural rubber harvested from the Brazilian rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. Primarily due to its molecular structure and high molecular weight (> 1 million daltons) this rubber has high performance properties that cannot easily be mimicked by artificially produced polymers, such as those derived from, e.g., bacterial poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). These high performance properties include resilience, elasticity, abrasion resistance, efficient heat dispersion (minimizing heat build-up under friction), and impact resistance. Medical rubber gloves need to fit well, be break-resistant, allow the wearer to retain fine tactile sensation, and provide an effective barrier against pathogens. The sum of all these characteristics cannot yet be achieved using synthetic gloves. The lack of biodiversity in natural rubber production renders continuity of supply insecure, because of the risk of crop failure, diminishing acreage, and other disadvantages outlined below. A search for alternative sources of natural rubber production has already resulted in a large number of interesting plants and prospects for immediate industrial exploitation of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) as a source of high quality latex. Metabolic engineering will permit the production of new crops designed to accumulate new types of valued isoprenoid metabolites, such as rubber and carotenoids, and new combinations extractable from the same crop. Currently, experiments are underway to genetically improve guayule rubber production strains in both quantitative and qualitative respects. Since the choice for gene activities to be introduced or changed is under debate, we have set up a complementary approach to guayule with yeast species, which may more quickly show the applicability and relevance of genes selected. Although economic considerations may prevent commercial exploitation of new rubber-producing microorganisms, transgenic yeasts and bacteria may yield intermediate or alternative (poly-)isoprenes suitable for specific applications. PMID:10803889

Mooibroek, H; Cornish, K

2000-04-01

191

Assessment of the eye irritating properties of chemicals by applying alternatives to the Draize rabbit eye test: the use of QSARs and in vitro tests for the classification of eye irritation.  

PubMed

Huggins has reported on the current situation relating to the development of alternatives to the Draize eye irritation test with rabbits, and an ECVAM Working Group have reviewed the efforts needed in order to replace this animal test within the next 10 years by using the results of non-animal assessment methods. Our report reviews regulatory experience gained over the last 20 years with the EU chemicals notification procedure with respect to the assessment of eye lesions observed in Draize tests. The nature of eye lesions and their importance for classification and labelling of possible hazards to human eyes are evaluated and discussed, with a view to promoting the development of specific in vitro assays which are able to discriminate between eye damage, moderate eye irritation, and minor irritation effects which are completely reversible within a few days. Structural alerts for the prediction of eye irritation/corrosion hazards to be classified and labelled according to international classification criteria, are presented, which should be validated in accordance with internationally agreed (OECD) principles for (Q)SAR system validation. Physicochemical limit values for prediction of the absence of any eye irritation potential relevant for human health can make available a definition of the applicability domains of alternative methods developed for the replacement of the Draize eye irritation test. PMID:16180977

Gerner, Ingrid; Liebsch, Manfred; Spielmann, Horst

2005-06-01

192

Comparative energies of alternative fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide additional design data on candidate alternative fuels, a broad comparison is made of the net calorific values of a wide variety of gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, including a number of alternatives of current interest, against a background of conventional fuels, some of which may have alternative applications. In general, higher gravimetric calorific values are shown

E. M. Goodger

1978-01-01

193

Alternative Schools. Trends and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines so-called "alternative schools," taking care to define precisely what is meant by this designation. There are many types of alternative education available to the public, including those programs intended for special-education students, advanced-placement students, and home-schooled children. The first alternative schools…

Hadderman, Margaret

194

Alternative in vitro assays in nanomaterial toxicology.  

PubMed

Nanomaterials are acclaimed for their novel properties, for which broad new uses are being discovered with increasing frequency. It is obvious that, as the properties change, unwanted properties (toxicity) are to be expected as well. Current toxicology, however, is already overwhelmed with the challenge of addressing new chemicals, not to mention the enormous number of old chemicals never properly assessed. Limitations of traditional approaches range from animal welfare issues, which were a strong driving force for alternative approaches (the 3Rs concept) over the last two decades, to aspects of throughput and accuracy of the predicted toxicities. The latter has prompted discussion about a revolutionary change in chemical safety assessment, now known as Toxicology for the 21st Century (Tox-21c). The multitude of possible formulations of nanomaterials to be assessed for novel toxic properties makes these alternative approaches especially attractive, given the well recognized limitations of traditional animal-based approaches-limitations that might be even more pronounced for nanomaterials, which have notably altered biokinetics. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2011 DOI: 10.1002/wnan.153 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:21766468

Hartung, Thomas; Sabbioni, Enrico

2011-07-15

195

Alternative energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

Todd, R. W.

1982-04-01

196

Electrically conductive alternating copolymers  

DOEpatents

Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

1987-08-31

197

Contact alternatives to nickel.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel is a continued health concern internationally. Nickel has been found to be the most prevalent and relevant allergen in tested populations for the last 3 decades. Furthermore, recent data from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group demonstrate positive patch-test reactions to nickel at approximately 19.5% of their tested population and a significant increase in the positivity rates for the last decade (Dermatitis. 2013;24:10-21. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:911-918). Because of the rise in allergic contact dermatitis rates to nickel, the American Contact Dermatitis Society recognized nickel to be the 2008 Allergen of the Year (J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:1067-1069; Dermatitis. 2008;19:3-8). This article recognizes the importance of nickel avoidance and highlights potential alternatives. PMID:24030370

Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Jacob, Sharon E

2013-01-01

198

Exploring new energy alternatives.  

SciTech Connect

What is most likely to satisfy our energy needs in the future - wind farms and photovoltaic arrays, or something yet to be invented? Options for the world's energy future may include surprises, thanks to innovative research under way around the world. The article focuses on the energy sources alternatives in the U.S. It explores innovations for energy sources such as wind farms, solar thermal concentrators, solar cells, and geothermal energy production. It states that the attainment of energy efficiency through conversation or improved technology allows to extract more applied energy. It points out that techniques are being explored to expand the possible fuel materials to includes other types of uranium and thorium. Furthermore, it discusses the capability of nanotechnology in offering a tool which could help create designs that convert energy more efficiently.

LePoire, D.J. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-09-01

199

Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-3 Natrona County, Wyoming. Addendum to 22 August 1996 study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-3  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Natrona County, Wyoming. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and surface rights in 9,321-acre NPR-3. This property comprises the Teapot Dome oil field and related production, processing and other facilities. Discovered in 1914, this field has 632 wells producing 1,807 barrels of oil per day. Production revenues are about $9.5 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 1.3 million barrels of oil. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present.

NONE

1997-05-01

200

Transport properties of CF3I thermal plasmas mixed with CO2, air or N2 as an alternative to SF6 plasmas in high-voltage circuit breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the calculation of equilibrium compositions, thermodynamic properties (mass density, enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure) and transport coefficients (viscosity, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity) of air\\/CO2\\/N2–CF3I mixtures. These data are computed in the temperature range 300 K–50 kK and pressure between 1 and 32 bar. Results obtained for pure gases (CF3I, CO2, air and

Y Cressault; V Connord; H Hingana; Ph Teulet; A Gleizes

2011-01-01

201

Remediation alternatives for low-level herbicide contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

In early 1995, an evaluation of alternatives for remediation of a shallow groundwater plume containing low-levels of an organic herbicide was conducted at BASF Corporation, a petrochemical facility located in Ascension Parish, Louisiana. The contaminated site is located on an undeveloped portion of property within 1/4 mile of the east bank of the Mississippi River near the community of Geismar. Environmental assessment data indicated that about two acres of the thirty acre site had been contaminated from past waste management practices with the herbicide bentazon. Shallow soils and groundwater between 5 to 15 feet in depth were affected. Maximum concentrations of bentazon in groundwater were less than seven parts per million. To identify potentially feasible remediation alternatives, the environmental assessment data, available research, and cost effectiveness were reviewed. After consideration of a preliminary list of alternatives, only two potentially feasible alternatives could be identified. Groundwater pumping, the most commonly used remediation alternative, followed by carbon adsorption treatment was identified as was a new innovative alternative known as vegetative transpiration. This alternative relies on the natural transpiration processes of vegetation to bioremediate organic contaminants. Advantages identified during screening suggest that the transpiration method could be the best remediation alternative to address both economic and environmental factors. An experiment to test critical factors of the vegetatived transpiration alternative with bentazon was recommended before a final decision on feasibility can be made.

Conger, R.M. [BASF Corp., Geismar, LA (United States)

1995-10-01

202

Neuronal Signaling through Alternative Splicing: Some Exons CaRRE...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternative splicing represents a mechanism by which a single gene can be used to create proteins with different functions. Neurons use alternative splicing to produce channels with different sequences and biophysical or regulatory properties. O'Donovan and Darnell discuss a mechanism by which neurons can alter channel splicing in response to neuronal activity through a signal generated by calcium and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase activity.

Kevin J. O'Donovan (The Rockefeller University;Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV); Robert B. Darnell (The Rockefeller University;Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV)

2001-08-07

203

Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

1979-01-01

204

Alternate weighting material  

SciTech Connect

Texaco's experiences using mined iron oxide as an alternate weighting material for barite are presented in this paper. The initial portion of the paper discusses laboratory studies made prior to the field application of this product. Also included are the results of tests using a Swaco choke assembly to simulate field conditions. Mined iron oxide was used as the weighting agent during the drilling of five wells located in Louisiana, southeast Texas, and west Texas. In each case, a water-based fluid was used. The potentially abrasive character of this iron-containing product was of primary interest in each of these applications. As a result, the data collected and presented in this paper include bit and crossover sub measurements, wear of pump liners and valves, and bit life. No attempt was made to determine whether improved penetration rates or reduced mud costs would occur from the use of this product. It was concluded that the mined iron oxide material was more abrasive than barite, but only under certain conditions.

Walker, C.O.

1982-09-01

205

Unregulated alternative medicine.  

PubMed

Unconventional (i.e. alternative, traditional, or complementary) treatments are used by many individuals for a variety of symptoms and disorders. Reports on fraudulent products used for unconventional treatments are not uncommon. These include herbal remedies offered as "natural" while containing non-labeled synthetic pharmacological ingredients or even toxic agents, patients not being informed of active ingredients, products containing no active substances, or unqualified individuals or "clinics" delivering dangerous advice or treatment. Reports on tainted topical products remain rare due to the high analytical demands necessary to detect minimal traces of unknown ingredients, the fact that patients often use medications from different sources, and patient over-reliance on the effectiveness of folk remedies or advertised claims. The patients' assumption of receiving a safe and effective therapy by "natural" products has shown to be unreliable. The authors urge that quality standards for "natural" and pharmaceutical products should be the same and that only qualified professionals should deliver treatment and medical advice. PMID:12852383

Bircher, Andreas J; Surber, Christian

2003-01-01

206

Alternative Compression Garments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

2011-01-01

207

Diesel Engine Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

Ryan, T

2003-08-24

208

Alternative display and interaction devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While virtual environment systems are typically thought to consist of a head mounted display and a flex-sensing glove, alternative peripheral devices are beginning to be developed in response to application requirements. Three such alternatives are discussed: fingertip sensing gloves, fixed stereoscopic viewers, and counterbalanced head mounted displays. A subset of commercial examples that highlight each alternative is presented as well as a brief discussion of interesting engineering and implementation issues.

Bolas, M. T.; McDowall, I. E.; Mead, R. X.; Lorimer, E. R.; Hackbush, J. E.; Greuel, C.

1995-01-01

209

Introduction to Alternative and Renewable Energy: Alternative Energy- New Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended for use in a college-level introductory course in alternative and renewable energy. The document covers new directions for alternative energy such as thermoacoustics, thermoelectrics, magnetocalorics, sun heat thermochemical storage, liquid metal batteris and fusion. Each technology is described in depth and useful graphics are included to illustrate the material. This module may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2013-07-23

210

Alternative weighting material  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Inc.'s experiences with mined iron oxide used as an alternative weighting material for barite are presented. This paper discusses laboratory studies made before field application of this product. Also included are test results of a SWACO choke assembly to simulate field conditions. Some abrasion appears to occur in the highvelocity fluid regimes. This is particularly true in smallhole drilling and where small liners are used in pumps. It is possible that changes in hydraulic programs will alleviate this situation. The effect of high-density muds containing iron compounds on bit wear is, at best, questionable. While there are indications of severe bit wear, there are also times when long bit runs are made with no problems. Centrifugal-pump wear is a problem. The iron materials seem to intrude between the bearings and shaft. No excessive wear of impellers has been seen. These problems can be controlled by keeping discharge pressures as low as possible. There have been no problems with chokes and valves during circulation. It appears that electric motors and magnetic probes should be protected. There have been indications of some problem. A dust catcher on bins could alleviate this problem. Pipe makeup must be watched very closely, and pipe threads must be thoroughly cleaned to ensure makeup to prevent washouts from occurring. There seems to be a problem with mined iron oxide wetting once added to the mud. It appears that up to 48 hours may be required depending on the amount added. The materials do stain. Iron-base materials may be used successfully as a substitute for barite. Just how successful they can be will be determined only with time and numerous applications.

Walker, C.O.

1983-12-01

211

Alternative aircraft fuels technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

Grobman, J.

1976-01-01

212

Does distance matter? Variations in alternative 3? splicing regulation  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing constitutes a major mechanism creating protein diversity in humans. This diversity can result from the alternative skipping of entire exons or by alternative selection of the 5? or 3? splice sites that define the exon boundaries. In this study, we analyze the sequence and evolutionary characteristics of alternative 3? splice sites conserved between human and mouse genomes for distances ranging from 3 to 100 nucleotides. We show that alternative splicing events can be distinguished from constitutive splicing by a combination of properties which vary depending on the distance between the splice sites. Among the unique features of alternative 3? splice sites, we observed an unexpectedly high occurrence of events in which a polypyrimidine tract was found to overlap the upstream splice site. By applying a machine-learning approach, we show that we can successfully discriminate true alternative 3? splice sites from constitutive 3? splice sites. Finally, we propose that the unique features of the intron flanking alternative splice sites are indicative of a regulatory mechanism that is involved in splice site selection. We postulate that the process of splice site selection is influenced by the distance between the competitive splice sites.

Akerman, Martin; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

2007-01-01

213

The Alternative Press in Microform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an analysis of what has been done regarding the preservation of alternative publications in microfilm. The alternative press was defined, for the purposes of this study, as "nonstandard, nonestablishment publications." Two projects undertaken to microfilm such publications, one by the Microphoto Division of Bell and Howell and the…

Tsang, Daniel C.

214

Alternative Schools: A Conceptual Map.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a conceptual framework for viewing alternative schools. Identifies four educational ideologies and explores how they may influence school goals, program, formal structure, environment, and informal processes and norms. Develops propositions related to (1) the relationship between alternative schools and the external environment and (2)…

Deal, Terrence E.; Nolan, Robert R.

1978-01-01

215

Educational Alternatives for Marginalised Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of pressure to increase retention rates a wide variety of alternative educational programs has developed in Australia over the past few decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a map of the alternative education landscape for marginalised youth in New South Wales, in order to reduce confusion and enable communication between…

te Riele, Kitty

2007-01-01

216

Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

2009-01-01

217

Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

Rubin, David

1998-01-01

218

Wetting behavior of alternative solder alloys  

SciTech Connect

Recent economic and environmental issues have stimulated interest in solder alloys other than the traditional Sn-Pb eutectic or near eutectic composition. Preliminary evaluations suggest that several of these alloys approach the baseline properties (wetting, mechanical, thermal, and electrical) of the Sn-Pb solders. Final alloy acceptance will require major revisions to existing industrial and military soldering specifications. Bulk alloy and solder joint properties are consequently being investigated to validate their producibility and reliability. The work reported in this paper examines the wetting behavior of several of the more promising commercial alloys on copper substrates. Solder wettability was determined by the meniscometer and wetting balance techniques. The wetting results suggest that several of the alternative solders would satisfy pretinning and surface mount soldering applications. Their use on plated through hole technology might be more difficult since the alloys generally did not spread or flow as well as the 60Sn-40Pb solder.

Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

1993-07-01

219

Novel platelet products, substitutes and alternatives.  

PubMed

Despite the many advances in the safety, processing, and storage of conventional 22 degrees C liquid-stored allogeneic platelet concentrates, there still are significant drawbacks to the use of such products. Efforts to overcome these shortcomings have resulted in an array of novel platelet products, substitutes, and alternatives; which are currently at various stages of development. This review summarizes the recent developments in the frozen and cold storage of platelets; their pathogen inactivation; as well as the status of lyophilized platelets, infusible platelet membranes (IPMs), red cells bearing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) ligands, fibrinogen-coated albumin microcapsules, and liposome-based agents; as potential alternatives to the use of conventional platelet transfusions. Pre-clinical studies have been encouraging for several of these novel products; however, to date, very few have entered human trials. Nonetheless, with the ongoing development of diverse products, those properties that may be necessary for their hemostatic effectiveness will become apparent. However, safety and efficacy must be demonstrated in pre-clinical and phase I to III clinical trials before these novel agents, substitutes and alternatives can be used clinically for patients with thrombocytopenia. PMID:11499975

Blajchman, M A

2001-06-01

220

Considerations for Equating Alternate Assessments: Two Case Studies of Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of alternate assessments for students with disabilities plays a pivotal role in state and national accountability systems. An important assumption in the use of alternate assessments in these accountability systems is that scores are comparable on different test forms across diverse groups of students over time. The use of test…

Wyse, Adam E.; Dean, Vincent J.; Viger, Steven G.; Vansickle, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

221

The properties of a subtype of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor resulting from alternative splicing of the mRNA in the ligand-binding domain.  

PubMed Central

Subtypes of the type-1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptor differ at the mRNA level in two small variably spliced segments. One segment (SI) encodes for a sequence within the InsP3-binding domain, thus its presence or absence could affect the functions of the receptor. We have used anti-peptide antibodies to confirm the existence of different subtypes of the InsP3 receptor (InsP3R) protein. The antibody against residues 322-332, within the SI region, recognized a 260 kDa polypeptide in membranes prepared from rat cerebellum or cerebral cortex. The cerebellum contained a few percent of the InsP3R protein having the SI region, whereas the cerebral cortex contained a high proportion of receptors with the SI region. These two tissues were representative of both isoforms, SI- or SI+, and displayed the same [3H]InsP3-binding characteristics. Thus, the SI region was not involved in the basic properties of the receptor. Deletion of the peptide 316-352 containing the SI segment greatly reduced InsP3 binding [Miyawaki, Furuichi, Ryou, Yoshikawa, Nakagawa, Saitoh and Mikoshiba (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 4911-4915]. The antibodies against the SI region or against residues 337-349 did not modify the binding of [3H]InsP3 in the cortical membranes rich in the SI+ isoform or in cerebellar membranes. These results suggested that the SI region was not part of the binding site. The subcellular distribution of these two isoforms was then investigated in rat liver. The two isoforms were identified in different membrane fractions and they followed the same subcellular distribution. We suggest that the domain with the SI region may be involved in a function other than InsP3-induced Ca2+ release.

Lievremont, J P; Lancien, H; Hilly, M; Mauger, J P

1996-01-01

222

Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

223

Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties. A second objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication methods for these materials whereby they can be processed in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions. This paper summarizes a comprehensive study that assessed the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on the stability of air-sinterable chromites and the sintering behavior of doped lanthanum manganites.

Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.

1994-08-01

224

ALTERNATE VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND WALL OF INDIGENOUS VOLCANIC RYOLITE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ALTERNATE VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND WALL OF INDIGENOUS VOLCANIC RYOLITE EASTSIDE OF PIEDMONT AVENUE ADJACENT TO OAK GROVE AND CALIFORNIA MEMORIAL STADIUM. LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, June 29, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

225

Rechargeable lithium battery anodes: alternatives to metallic lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is concerned with alternatives to metallic lithium for use in rechargeable lithium batteries. Emphasis is placed on the use of various materials and combinations of materials in different types of electrodes rather than on the properties of the materials themselves. The review includes carbon based electrodes, alloys, conducting polymers and transition metal compounds. Special consideration is given to

D. Fauteux; R. Koksbang

1993-01-01

226

Semianalytical analysis of hyporheic flow induced by alternate bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effects of alternate bar morphology on the hyporheic flow in gravel bed rivers. Our goal is to investigate the relations between residence time distribution of a conservative tracer and the parameters controlling bed form morphology. We assume homogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic hydraulic properties of the streambed sediment and constant flow regime in equilibrium with the bed form,

A. Marzadri; D. Tonina; A. Bellin; G. Vignoli; M. Tubino

2010-01-01

227

Flux-Switched Inductor Alternator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an inductor alternator which is provided with a solid cylindrical iron rotor having at least one radially toothed portion. The stator is formed of a plurality of simply fabricated laminated bars arranged concentrically of...

D. B. Steen

1974-01-01

228

Alternative Water Processor Test Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis...

A. Jackson C. E. Meyer D. Barta G. Lunn J. L. Mitchell K. D. Pickering L. M. Vega M. Birmele M. Flynn M. R. Callahan N. M. Adam R. Wheeler S. Pensinger

2013-01-01

229

Army Alternative Ground Fuels Qualification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Introduction: Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Mission and Portfolio - Responsibilities as DOD Executive Agent for Ground Fuels & Lubricants. Why Alternative Fuels: - Payback - What Army Leaders Are Saying About Energ...

P. Muzzel

2012-01-01

230

Turbine Fuel Alternatives (Near Term).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the results of a study which investigated several alternatives for turbine fuels, which are being considered for use in the near term, with the intent of identifying the necessary certification criteria. The fuels investigated includ...

A. M. Ferrara

1989-01-01

231

Alternative Energy Technologies in Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibilities for developing alternative energy technologies in Brazil are many and varied. Some of them are peculiar to the country; others are applicable elsewhere. This report outlines many possibilities, such as solar energy, water power, and bio-...

J. M. F. Miccolis

1977-01-01

232

Alternative Transportation Marketing: Professional Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project has developed outlines for approximately seventy-two (72) hours of university level training in marketing of alternative transportation. The training spans many skill levels and is designed to be produced in multiple combinations of modules f...

J. J. Cronin, W. A. Mustard, K. M. Ray

1996-01-01

233

Module Six: Alternate Energy Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This module is designed to give the student an overview of current research and development in the following areas of alternate energy: solar, wind, oceanic, biomass conversion, geothermal, nuclear and others. A discussion of the current cost feasibility ...

1980-01-01

234

Some Alternatives to Bayes' Rule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document focuses on two proposed alternatives to Bayes' rule for revising probability assessments in the face of new information: Richard Jeffrey's rule of conditioning and Arthur Dempster's rule of combination. Section 2 describes Jeffrey's rule. Se...

P. Diaconis S. Zabell

1983-01-01

235

The Generation of Alternate Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Terry L.M. Bartelt of Wisconsin Online Resource Center is a learning object lesson of the generation of alternate current. This is a nice brief introduction for those interested in basic electronic theories.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2010-09-24

236

Alternative splicing and muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is a major contributor to proteomic diversity and to the control of gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells. For this reasons, alternative splicing is tightly regulated in different tissues and developmental stages and its disruption can lead to a wide range of human disorders. The aim of this review is to focus on the relevance of alternative splicing for muscle function and muscle disease. We begin by giving a brief overview of alternative splicing, muscle-specific gene expression and muscular dystrophy. Next, to illustrate these concepts we focus on two muscular dystrophy, myotonic muscular dystrophy and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, both associated to disruption of splicing regulation in muscle.

Pistoni, Mariaelena; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide

2013-01-01

237

Demagnetization Tests Performed on a Linear Alternator for a Stirling Power Convertor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Demagnetization temperature of a linear alternator (LA) can be accurately predicted through an analytical Maxwell model. The M-H characteristics of the alternator magnets must be known. Vendor data are given for cube-shaped magnets, and the shape of a LA magnet may affect its magnetic properties. At GRC, M-H data are directly measured for each LA magnet. This method was validated using TDC alternator tests on the Alternator Test Rig. The analytical Maxwell modeling was utilized on a different style linear alternator to predict demagnetization temperatures for the Advanced Stirling Convertor.

Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

2011-01-01

238

Citrus Canker: Alternatives for Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do you do when county officials show up to cut down the orange trees in your backyard? What causes citrus canker and how is it spread? This plant pathogen was the first microbe to have its genome sequenced outside of the US. There is much to investigate before deciding on the best alternative for control. * examine international alternatives for the control of citrus canker

Linda Weinland (Edison College;Biology); Peter Woodruff (Champlain College;Biology); Margaret Waterman (Southeast Missouri State University;Biology); Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

239

23 CFR 710.505 - Real property donations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real property donations. 710.505 Section 710...ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. (a) Donations of...

2013-04-01

240

Nephrotoxicity of alternative medicine practice.  

PubMed

The use of alternative medicine is highly prevalent around the world; in many areas, this is so because of lack of access to, or trust in, Western medicine, and also because they are considered "natural" and therefore safe. The kidney is an organ vulnerable to toxic insults by virtue of its anatomy and function. Reports of nephrotoxicity associated with alternative medicine use encompass all forms of renal dysfunction, ranging from electrolyte abnormalities and proteinuria to acute and CKD, renal failure, and death. In countries where intensive care and dialysis support are not available, mortality is high. Mechanisms of alternative medicine-associated kidney injury include direct nephrotoxicity, which may be augmented by underlying predisposing conditions such as dehydration; contamination, or adulteration of remedies; inappropriate use or preparation of a remedy; or interactions with other medications. The use of alternative medicines is underreported to clinicians. Because many patients strongly believe in the powers of alternative medicines, it is important that alternative medicines not be demonized as a whole, but that their use and consequences be closely observed and reported to build a more comprehensive understanding of their impact in our clinical practice and to foster research on the potential harm or, in some cases, possible benefits. PMID:22578672

Luyckx, Valerie A

2012-05-01

241

State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State  

DOE Data Explorer

This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

242

Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 6, No. 4  

SciTech Connect

Quarterly magazine with articles on Alternate Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) in India, alternative fuels for emergency preparedness, and testing of propane vehicles by UPS. Also an interview of author Jeremy Rifkin on how alternative fuels provide pathways to hydrogen.

Not Available

2003-03-01

243

Synthetic Morphology Using Alternative Inputs  

PubMed Central

Designing the shape and size of a cell is an interesting challenge for synthetic biology. Prolonged exposure to the mating pheromone ?-factor induces an unusual morphology in yeast cells: multiple mating projections. The goal of this work was to reproduce the multiple projections phenotype in the absence of ?-factor using a gain-of-function approach termed “Alternative Inputs (AIs)”. An alternative input is defined as any genetic manipulation that can activate the signaling pathway instead of the natural input. Interestingly, none of the alternative inputs were sufficient to produce multiple projections although some produced a single projection. Then, we extended our search by creating all combinations of alternative inputs and deletions that were summarized in an AIs-Deletions matrix. We found a genetic manipulation (AI-Ste5p ste2?) that enhanced the formation of multiple projections. Following up this lead, we demonstrated that AI-Ste4p and AI-Ste5p were sufficient to produce multiple projections when combined. Further, we showed that overexpression of a membrane-targeted form of Ste5p alone could also induce multiple projections. Thus, we successfully re-engineered the multiple projections mating morphology using alternative inputs without ?-factor.

Tanaka, Hiromasa; Yi, Tau-Mu

2009-01-01

244

The Alternative Fuels Data Center  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) became Public Law 100-494. The AMFA encourages the production and use of motor vehicles designed to operate on alternative fuels. The alternative fuels specified in the law are methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. The Department of Energy (DOE), along with several other federal, state, and local agencies, has undertaken numerous activities aimed at fulfilling the AMFA directives. Among these activities is the establishment of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC), operated and managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in Golden Colorado. The AMFA targets activities for three vehicle types using alternative fuels: (1) light-duty vehicles such as automobiles, mini-vans, and light-duty; (2) heavy-duty vehicles such as tractor trailers and garbage trucks; and (3) urban transit buses. The primary purpose of the AFDC is to gather and analyze information on the fuel consumption, emissions, operation, and durability of these vehicles types. The AFDC staff work with an Oracle Relational Database Management System and statistical software to provide information to users.

Not Available

1991-08-01

245

Ultra High-Speed Data Signals With Alternating and Pairwise Alternating Optical Phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate two 160-Gb/s modulation formats that posses the same intensity pulse profile but differ regarding their phase coding. We analyze the nonlinear transmission properties of both coherent modulation formats by experimental and analytical investigations. The results show that the pairwise alternating phase coded carrier suppressed return-to-zero (PAP-CSRZ) signal outperforms the conventional CSRZ format. Our modulation technique is even applicable at higher speed as demonstrated with the generation of the first CSRZ signal at a record rate of 320 Gb/s.

Su, Yikai; Möller, Lothar; Xie, Chongjin; Ryf, Roland; Liu, Xiang; Wei, Xing; Cabot, Steven

2005-01-01

246

Novel Alternative Scaffolds and Their Potential Use for Tumor Targeted Radionuclide Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The class of macromolecules referred to as “Alternative Scaffolds” is reviewed in this chapter. A general introduction to\\u000a alternative scaffolds is presented, and groups of alternative scaffolds are described according to structural folds. The properties\\u000a of these biomolecules as molecular recognition tools are presented, scaffolds of special interest for targeted radionuclide\\u000a therapy are highlighted and tumor targeting data is discussed.

Fredrik Y. Frejd

247

Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

1980-11-01

248

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With much of the United States becoming interested in the world of organic farming, sustainable agriculture, and related pursuits, it is nice to know that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has a very nice online presence dedicated to alternative farming systems here at the Alternate Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC). The site has been recently redesigned, and visitors can jump right in by looking over the "I Want To" area, where they can locate funding resources, explore the world of aquaculture, and even explore alternative farming methods. After taking a look there, visitors can also browse the site's contents by subject area, including organic production, ecological pest management, and farm energy options.

249

Advances in alternative cementitious binders  

SciTech Connect

There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

Juenger, M.C.G., E-mail: mjuenger@mail.utexas.edu [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C 1748, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Winnefeld, F. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Provis, J.L. [University of Melbourne, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ideker, J.H. [Oregon State University, School of Civil and Construction Engineering, 220 Owen Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

2011-12-15

250

FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative  

SciTech Connect

Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

NONE

1996-09-01

251

Alternating, pattern-avoiding permutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of counting alternating permutations avoiding\\u000acollections of permutation patterns including 132. We construct a bijection\\u000abetween the set S_n(132) of 132-avoiding permutations and the set A_{2n +\\u000a1}(132) of alternating, 132-avoiding permutations. For every set p_1, ..., p_k\\u000aof patterns and certain related patterns q_1, ..., q_k, our bijection restricts\\u000ato a bijection between S_n(132, p_1,

Joel Brewster Lewis

2008-01-01

252

Alternative general-aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

Tomazic, W. A.

1976-01-01

253

Alternative fuels for general aviation  

SciTech Connect

The price and availability of fuel continues to be a major barrier to the free expansion of general aviation. Although this increase in fuel prices had a more severe impact on airlines, it has also slowed the demand for general aviation aircraft. With the sales of general aviation aircraft in a depressed state, the development of alternative fuels such as liquid methane, ethanol, methanol, and automobile gasoline can help spur the industry back to health. Recent flight tests of these alternative fuels are examined.

Not Available

1983-01-01

254

Project Summary: Alternative Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems on Severely Limited Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several research and evaluation studies were performed on alternative onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems at sites with severe limitations for conventional systems. The soil properties, soil moisture regime, and shallow groundwater table at t...

M. M. Cashell D. D. Effert J. M. Morand

1987-01-01

255

Creep and shrinkage behavior of improved alternate substrates for magnetic tapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term creep deformation and shrinkage characteristics of improved alternate substrates for magnetic tapes are presented. The substrates include two polyesters (PET and PEN) and aromatic polyamide (ARAMID). PET film is currently the standard substrate used for magnetic tapes and thinner tensilized-type PET, PEN and ARAMID have recently been used as alternate substrates with improved material properties. The thickness of

Takuji Higashioji; Bharat Bhushan

2001-01-01

256

Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soil water flux will result in larger increases in soil- adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distribution of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading.

Huntington, T. G.

1996-01-01

257

Alternative protocols on dynamic speckle laser analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biospeckle or dynamic laser speckle is a phenomenon developed when a dynamic process occurs in a material under laser illumination. This phenomenon contains considerable information related to both biological and non-biological activity of the material under study. As a non-invasive, non-destructive and low cost technique, biospeckle laser (BSL) has been an outstanding tool for monitoring biological properties. Thus, its application in optical instrumentation has grown over the years, especially in the areas of biology, medicine and agriculture. High sensitivity of biospeckle laser (BSL) technique and variability of biological material combined with the large number of variables involved in speckle pattern formation have brought great challenges to the search for safer, more robust analysis techniques. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and refine methodologies for the BSL analysis and tested alternative protocols for the prime analysis. Particularly, we present a protocol to obtain requirements before the main analysis, in an attempt to eliminate image quality based on subjectivism or research experience. This protocol was based on the creation of requirements to achieve the best speckle patterns such as evaluating the saturation, the homogeneity and the contrast of the grains. The alternative protocol offered a testing approach before the main experiment to increase the certainty to get image and data in an accepted quality, avoiding the loose of time and samples in analysis of a row of a questionable data. The tests were performed in well-known BSL data and presented as a feasible step before the main experiments.

Cardoso, Rafael R.; Braga, Roberto A.; Rabal, Hector J.

258

Alternative Landfill Cover. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of an engineered cover is to isolate the underlying waste. A key element to isolating the wastes from the environment, engineered covers should minimize or prevent water from infiltrating into the landfill and coming into contact with the waste, thereby minimizing leachate generation. The U.S. EPA construction guidelines for soil hydraulic barriers specify that the soil moisture content and compactive effort may be increased to ensure that the barrier achieves a specified permeability of 1 x 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. However, constructing a soil barrier with high moisture content makes the soil more difficult to work and increases the required compactive effort to achieve the specified density, ultimately increasing the construction cost of the barrier. Alternative landfill cover designs rely on soil physical properties, hydraulic characteristics, and vegetation requirements to lower the flux rate of water through the cover. They can achieve greater reliability than the prescriptive RCRA Subtitle C design, especially under arid or semi-arid environmental conditions. With an alternative cover design, compacted soil barriers can be constructed with a soil moisture content that makes placement and compaction of the soil easier and less expensive. Under these conditions, the soil barrier has more capacity to absorb and control moisture within it, thereby enhancing the reliability of the barrier. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance, data.

NONE

2000-12-01

259

Analysis of the alternating current properties of ionic conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of analysis of inclined semicircular complex impedance (Z) diagrams for ionic conductors has been developed on the basis of the concept of “non-Debye” behaviour of solid dielectrics. This approach replaces the rather arbitrary distribution of relaxation times by the physically much simpler concept of a frequency-independent ratio of energy lost per cycle to energy stored. This criterion of

A. K. Jonscher

1978-01-01

260

Medicare Home Health Reimbursement Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual analysis of access, quality, and cost containment incentives created bv several current and potential Medicare reimbursement methodologies. The alternatives examined are methods used by health-maintenance organizations (HMOs) and three options receiving national policy consideration: prospective per-visit and per-episode payment, and \\

Robert E. Schlenker; Peter W. Shaughnessy

1993-01-01

261

Perspectives on Alternative Assessment Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines classroom assessment reform from four perspectives: technological, cultural, political, and postmodern. Each perspective highlights different issues and problems in the phenomenon of classroom assessment. The technological perspective focuses on issues of organization, structure, strategy, and skill in developing new assessment techniques. The cultural perspective examines how alternative assessments are interpreted and integrated into the social and cultural

Andy Hargreaves; Lorna Earl; Michele Schmidt

2002-01-01

262

Alternatives for jet engine control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical progress of researches Alternatives for Jet Engine Control is reported. A numerical study employing feedback tensors for optimal control of nonlinear systems was completed. It is believed that these studies are the first of their kind. State regulation, with a decrease in control power is demonstrated. A detailed treatment follows.

Sain, M. K.

1984-01-01

263

CAGE--COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

CAGE provides information on low-emitting alternative coating technologies to coatings users and technical assistance program representatives. The Coatings GuideTM, a pollution prevention tool for paints and coatings users, contains several tools to help users identify low-volati...

264

An Alternative to Thought Suppression?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

Boice, Robert

2012-01-01

265

Alternative Education: The Cutting Edge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miami Valley Career Technology Youth Connections, an alternative high school located in Dayton, Ohio, has an enrollment of 160 students and was created as a joint venture among local politicians to address the high dropout rates in Montgomery County, Ohio. To achieve this, the Montgomery County commissioners created a task force to develop…

Byrne, Jay

2004-01-01

266

Alternatives to Suspension. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suspension from school is directly related to student learning. When students are suspended from school they are deprived of instructional time. Often the students that are suspended most frequently are those behind academically. Principals have worked with their staff to identify several alternatives to school suspension. First and foremost, is…

Walker, Karen

2009-01-01

267

Looking for alternative energy sources.  

PubMed

With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn. PMID:22468274

Gross, Michael

2012-02-21

268

Alternate Theory Formation by Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video tapes of student teachers micro-teaching in a high school biology class were analyzed. Attention was focussed on students' interpretations of data and the teacher's responses to these interpretations. Examples are given of student explanations which teachers find unsatisfactory but which are valid alternatives based on the data available to…

Hanson, R. Keith

269

Alternatives to Afrocentrism. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection place the current Afrocentric movement in its historical context and offer alternative suggestions about how to teach African American students about their history. The first section deals with the roots of Afrocentrism, analyzes the content of Afrocentric books and curricula, and discusses the impact of Afrocentrism…

Miller, John J., Ed.

270

Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

271

Alternatives to Grading Student Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The result of an investigation into the grading writing by the National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Alternatives to Grading Student Writing, this collection of essays offers the writing teacher several innovative and interesting options. Following an introduction by the editor (chair of the Committee), in which he delineates the…

Tchudi, Stephen, Ed.

272

Alternative energy technologies in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is imperative that Brazil consider alternative energy production and conservation techniques in order to cope with the energy crisis. Brazil imports about 650,000 bbl.\\/day of petroleum, which accounts for more than 78 percent of total consumption. Oil amounts to 50 percent of the total energy utilized in Brazil. After a brief review of the energy resources in Brazil (water

Miccolis

1977-01-01

273

Career Alternatives: Stretching Your Horizons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three alternative career options for teacher librarians are discussed in separate articles written by individuals who have changed careers: a school principal, a computer resources teacher, and a consultant. It is noted that each of these careers requires skills that many school librarians already possess. (LAE)

Haycock, Ken; And Others

1992-01-01

274

Alternatives for jet engine control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control is reported. Extensive numerical testing is included. It is indicated that optimal inputs contribute significantly to the process of calculating tensor approximations for nonlinear systems, and that the resulting approximations may be order-reduced in a systematic way.

Sain, M. K.

1984-01-01

275

Alternatives for jet engine control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control, is reported. The principal new activities involved the initial testing of an input design method for choosing the inputs to a non-linear system to aid the approximation of its tensor parameters, and the beginning of order reduction studies designed to remove unnecessary monomials from tensor models.

Sain, M. K.

1983-01-01

276

An Alternative School Conceptual Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This model is designed to serve as a conceptual framework for alternative programs with primary emphasis on provisioning (the way in which time, space, material, equipment, and activities are used in the learning environment). The model's concern is to assess concrete examples or tendencies of teachers, students, and the education program. The…

Morris, Lee A.

277

Concordance Analysis: Some Alternative Approaches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of techniques and trends in the evaluation of alternative choice possibilities (e.g. urban and regional plans) has undergone rapid changes in the last few years. In earlier days, cost and feasibility of implementation were the only basic c...

J. H. Voogd

1976-01-01

278

Teachers' Perceptions of Alternate Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' perceptions of alternate assessments. A total of 983 teachers from five states participated in this study. The results suggest that teachers tended to agree that their students should be included in school accountability, but they did not agree with most items assessing the educational benefits of…

Flowers, Claudia; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn; Browder, Diane; Spooner, Fred

2005-01-01

279

Alternate Energy Sources for Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report of the Committee on Alternate Energy Sources for Hawaii, which was established by the Governor's State Advisory Task Force on Energy Policy to help respond to problems created by the Arab oil embargo. Fourteen studies were undertaken -- t...

1975-01-01

280

The Arapahoe Detention Alternatives Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efforts of the Colorado Division of Youth Services to develop a program that would reduce the inappropriate use of secure detention of juveniles by providing intake/screening units and various nonsecure alternative detention services are described. Program goals are discussed and criteria on which detention decisions were based for the…

Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

281

Communication Theory and Alternative Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article draws firstly on theories that question the exclusionary nature of mass communication in terms of the emancipatory potential of 'new media'; of the democratization of communication; or even in terms of advancing alternative forms of communication. By probing specifically into various small-scale, decentralised media projects, issues concerning the social as well as the cultural context of their implementation;

Pantelis Vatikiotis

2005-01-01

282

Alternative Assessment for Transitional Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher-developed alternative assessment of reading comprehension was specifically designed for transitional English language learners. Use of the measure with 89 fifth-graders in their first year of English language instruction showed that the students could successfully engage with English texts and provided teachers with useful information to…

Beaumont, Carol; de Valenzuela, Julia Scherba; Trumbull, Elise

2002-01-01

283

Violacein: properties and biological activities.  

PubMed

The violet pigment violacein is an indole derivative, isolated mainly from bacteria of the genus Chromobacterium, which exhibits important antitumoral, antimicrobial and antiparasitary properties. Furthermore, the formulation of violacein in different polymeric carriers developed so far offers alternative approaches to overcoming physiological barriers and undesirable physicochemical properties in vivo, thus improving its efficacy. PMID:17927569

Durán, Nelson; Justo, Giselle Z; Ferreira, Carmen V; Melo, Patrícia S; Cordi, Livia; Martins, Dorival

2007-11-01

284

Demonstration of packaging materials alternatives to expanded polystyrene. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report presents information on the environmental, economical, and performance characteristics of alternative packaging materials. Three alternative cushioning materials were identified for evaluation within this research; starch-based foam planks, layered corrugated pads, and recycled polyethylene foam. Through some have been used as cushioning materials for some time, these materials are termed alternative because each offers unique features beyond their cushioning capabilities. These unique features include their manufacture from recycled materials, biodegradability, water solubility, recyclability, and reusability. The properties and cushioning characteristics of expanded polystyrene (EPS) represent the baseline for this research; evaluation results for each material are compared against those of EPS. Technical, environmental, and economic evaluations were completed to assess various characteristics and parameters concerning the cushioning materials.

Menke, D.M.

1998-04-01

285

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-01-01

286

Alternative Medicine and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative medicine has an extensive worldwide history and is commonly used by older patients. A number of different alternative medicines are used by patients having Alzheimer's disease. It is both desirable and expected for clinicians to be acquainted with these medications. Review Summary This paper discusses the available clinical trial evidence regarding eight agents commonly used by people having Alzheimer's disease. We provide an overview of the history and basic scientific evidence available for each agent, followed by a critical analysis of the evidence available from clinical trials, including the number of participants, trial duration and specific outcomes evaluated. Conclusion While many of these compounds have been associated with interesting basic science, none has shown clear clinical benefit to date. Data available for some, such as ginkgo biloba, curcumin and huperzine A, suggest that further evaluation is warranted. Familiarity with this literature will allow clinicians to provide meaningful recommendations to patients who wish to use these agents.

Kelley, Brendan J.; Knopman, David S.

2009-01-01

287

Alternative Splicing in Plant Immunity  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) occurs widely in plants and can provide the main source of transcriptome and proteome diversity in an organism. AS functions in a range of physiological processes, including plant disease resistance, but its biological roles and functional mechanisms remain poorly understood. Many plant disease resistance (R) genes undergo AS, and several R genes require alternatively spliced transcripts to produce R proteins that can specifically recognize pathogen invasion. In the finely-tuned process of R protein activation, the truncated isoforms generated by AS may participate in plant disease resistance either by suppressing the negative regulation of initiation of immunity, or by directly engaging in effector-triggered signaling. Although emerging research has shown the functional significance of AS in plant biotic stress responses, many aspects of this topic remain to be understood. Several interesting issues surrounding the AS of R genes, especially regarding its functional roles and regulation, will require innovative techniques and additional research to unravel.

Yang, Shengming; Tang, Fang; Zhu, Hongyan

2014-01-01

288

Alternative housing for Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

At the authors' facility, housing arrangements for Xenopus laevis were cumbersome and labor-intensive, requiring technicians to wash frog tanks by hand several times a week. The authors describe an alternative housing solution they implemented by modifying a rack system that was originally used to maintain zebrafish. The rack's self-contained water circulation and filtration system saved technicians time and labor, and a commercial chiller attached to the mechanism efficiently controlled frogs' environmental temperature. PMID:18356915

White-James, Jaime; McAndrew, Dustin; Badman, James; McGarry, Michael

2008-04-01

289

Waste pyrolysis - Alternative fuel source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four means for producing alternative fuel sources via waste pyrolysis are considered. In the first, low-Btu gas is produced by waste pyrolysis in a refractory-lined rotary kiln. The second is based on solid waste passing through a gasifier, and then through stages of drying, pyrolysis, and combustion. This also yields a low-Btu gas. The third method produces a medium-Btu gas

L. M. Pruce

1978-01-01

290

Alternating-Time Temporal Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal logic comes in two varieties: linear-time temporal logic assumes implicit universal quantification over all paths\\u000a that are generated by system moves; branching-time temporal logic allows explicit existential and universal quantification\\u000a over all paths. We introduce a third, more general variety of temporal logic: alternating-time temporal logic offers selective quantification over those paths that are possible outcomes of games, such

Rajeev Alur; Thomas A. Henzinger; Orna Kupferman

1997-01-01

291

Alternating-time temporal logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal logic comes in two varieties: linear-time temporal logic assumes implicit universal quantification over all paths that are generated by the execution of a system; branching-time temporal logic allows explicit existential and universal quantification over all paths. We introduce a third, more general variety of temporal logic: alternating-time temporal logic offers selective quantification over those paths that are possible outcomes

Rajeev Alur; Thomas A. Henzinger; Orna Kupferman

2002-01-01

292

Irreversible investment in alternative projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We study the problem of a risk-neutral decision-maker who has to choose among two alternative investment projects of different scales under output price uncertainty. We provide parameter restrictions under which the optimal investment strategy is not a trigger strategy and the optimal investment region is dichotomous. Whenever the decision-maker has the opportunity to switch from the smaller scale to

Jean-Paul Décamps; Thomas Mariotti; Stéphane Villeneuve

2006-01-01

293

Social Laws in Alternating Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since it was first proposed by Moses, Shoham, and Tennenholtz, the social laws paradigm has proved to be one of the most compelling approaches to the offline coordination of multiagent systems. In this\\u000a paper, we make three key contributions to the theory and practice of social laws in multiagent systems. First, we show that\\u000a the Alternating-time Temporal Logic of Alur,

Michael Wooldridge

2004-01-01

294

Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Survey  

Cancer.gov

The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has skyrocketed among the US population. Based on the results of previous research, an estimated 629 million visits were made to CAM providers in 1997, costing $27 billion in out-of-pocket costs, and exceeding expenses for conventional medical care (Eisenberg et al., 1998). It is estimated that between 40% and 45% of the adult population use CAM to prevent or treat health problems.

295

Alternate-fuel reactor studies  

SciTech Connect

A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a /sup 3/He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding.

Evans, K. Jr.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.R.

1983-02-01

296

Alternative models in developmental toxicology.  

PubMed

In light of various pressures, toxicologists have been searching for alternative methods for safety testing of chemicals. According to a recent policy in the European Union (Regulation, Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, REACH), it has been estimated that over the next twelve to fifteen years, approximately 30,000 chemicals may need to be tested for safety, and under current guidelines such testing would require the use of approximately 7.2 million laboratory animals [ Hofer et al. 2004 ]. It has also been estimated that over 80% of all animals used for safety testing under REACH legislation would be used for examining reproductive and developmental toxicity [Hofer et al., 2004]. In addition to REACH initiatives, it has been estimated that out of 5,000 to 10,000 new drug entities that a pharmaceutical company may start with, only one is finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration at a cost of over one billion dollars [ Garg et al. 2011 ]. A large portion of this cost is due to animal testing. Therefore, both the pharmaceutical and chemical industries are interested in using alternative models and in vitro tests for safety testing. This review will examine the current state of three alternative models - whole embryo culture (WEC), the mouse embryonic stem cell test (mEST), and zebrafish. Each of these alternatives will be reviewed, and advantages and disadvantages of each model will be discussed. These models were chosen because they are the models most commonly used and would appear to have the greatest potential for future applications in developmental toxicity screening and testing. PMID:22239077

Lee, Hyung-yul; Inselman, Amy L; Kanungo, Jyotshnabala; Hansen, Deborah K

2012-02-01

297

Post-transcriptional nucleotide modification and alternative folding of RNA  

PubMed Central

Alternative foldings are an inherent property of RNA and a ubiquitous problem in scientific investigations. To a living organism, alternative foldings can be a blessing or a problem, and so nature has found both, ways to harness this property and ways to avoid the drawbacks. A simple and effective method employed by nature to avoid unwanted folding is the modulation of conformation space through post-transcriptional base modification. Modified nucleotides occur in almost all classes of natural RNAs in great chemical diversity. There are about 100 different base modifications known, which may perform a plethora of functions. The presumably most ancient and simple nucleotide modifications, such as methylations and uridine isomerization, are able to perform structural tasks on the most basic level, namely by blocking or reinforcing single base-pairs or even single hydrogen bonds in RNA. In this paper, functional, genomic and structural evidence on cases of folding space alteration by post-transcriptional modifications in native RNA are reviewed.

Helm, Mark

2006-01-01

298

High efficiency electrical alternator system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an alternator employed in an engine having a drive shaft. It comprises: a flywheel connected to the drive shaft forming a rotor of the alternator, and the rotor having an interior cupshaped portion receiving a plurality of ceramic magnets; a stator constructed of silicon steel laminations positioned within the cup-shaped portion of the rotor and having at least one alternator coil on a stator pole positioned relative to the magnets on the rotor such that the magnets are directly adjacent and move past a pole face of the pole as the rotor rotates; the rotor cup-shaped portion being circumferentially defined by an outer circular wall surrounding the stator and having the ceramic magnets mounted directly on an inside surface thereof facing the at least one stator pole face; a ring-shaped starter motor ring gear surrounding the rotor and mounted on an outside surface of the outer circular wall; the outer circular wall having a thickness at a location where the magnets are mounted of equal to or less than 0.3 inches. The thickness of the outer circular wall expressed as a percentage of radius of the rotor from a central axis thereof to the outer surface of the outer circular wall being equal to or less than 7%. The rotor being of one-piece construction and comprising a ductile iron casting.

Safranek, E.J.

1989-10-17

299

Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. The areas covered were: (1) development of a theoretical expression for the rotating ring disk electrode technique; (2) determination of the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; (3) determination of oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoreomethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) which was considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and (4) the measurement of transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures.

Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

1984-01-01

300

Thermoelectric converters for alternating current standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric converters of alternating current remain priority instruments when creating standard equipment. This work presents the results of design and manufacture of alternating current converter for a military standard of alternating current in Ukraine. Results of simulation of temperature distribution in converter elements, ways of optimization to improve the accuracy of alternating current signal reproduction are presented. Results of metrological trials are given. The quality of thermoelectric material specially created for alternating current metrology is verified. The converter was used in alternating current standard for the frequency range from 10 Hz to 30 MHz. The efficiency of using thermoelectric signal converters in measuring instruments is confirmed.

Anatychuk, L. I.; Taschuk, D. D.

2012-06-01

301

Alternative Methods for Handling Attrition  

PubMed Central

Using data from the evaluation of the Fast Track intervention, this article illustrates three methods for handling attrition. Multiple imputation and ignorable maximum likelihood estimation produce estimates that are similar to those based on listwise-deleted data. A panel selection model that allows for selective dropout reveals that highly aggressive boys accumulate in the treatment group over time and produces a larger estimate of treatment effect. In contrast, this model produces a smaller treatment effect for girls. The article's conclusion discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the alternative approaches and outlines ways in which researchers might improve their handling of attrition.

Foster, E. Michael; Fang, Grace Y.

2009-01-01

302

Machine translation project alternatives analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

1993-01-01

303

Factory Farms and Organic Alternatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Modern farming has helped feed the world, but along the way, the land has suffered, according to this video adapted from the series Race to Save the Planet. When farmers grow too much too fast, topsoil is depleted. Farmers can work around this problem with fertilizers, irrigation, and pesticides, but these create new problems. Pesticides can harm wildlife, linger on fruits and vegetables, or wash into water supplies. Farmers are now finding new approaches to raising food, like diversifying crops, applying organic fertilizers, and finding alternatives to pesticides. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

2010-08-31

304

Alternative implementation of Pade approximants  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we devise an alternative approach to the use of Pade approximants in the resummation of the perturbative (either divergent or convergent) series. Our procedure relies on the introduction of a nonphysical parameter and on the constraint that the physical observable be linear in this parameter. The relation between the unphysical parameter and the physical perturbative parameter is expressed in terms of a Pade approximant, whose form can be fully determined. We have applied this strategy to a number of examples and we have compared the results to those obtained following the standard Pade approach, observing that in many cases our approach is superior.

Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)

2007-10-01

305

Complementary and Alternative Methods for Cancer Management  

MedlinePLUS

... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Complementary and ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...

306

Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 2  

SciTech Connect

This special issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the Fifth National Clean Cities Conference held in Louisville, Kentucky. The momentum for the program is stronger than ever and the coalitions are working to propel the alternative fuel industry forward.

NONE

1999-09-23

307

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

308

Are There Feasible Alternatives to Laboratory Animals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses several alternatives to the use of laboratory animals in investigating biomedical problems. Alternatives include tissue culture, use of plant and bacterial material, redesigning experiments, and construction of mathematical and computer models. (CS)

Rowan, A. N.

1976-01-01

309

Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet is provided ... understand the current evidence regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The ...

310

Alternate Energy for National Security.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

Rath, Bhakta

2010-02-01

311

Mitigation alternatives for L Lake  

SciTech Connect

The current condition of L Lake/Steel Creek was summarized in a report to SCDHEC in June 1988 which reported that the L Lake and Steel Creek ecosystems were adequately developing towards balanced biological communities. If mitigation for L Lake inputs, specifically temperature and nutrients, are required, several viable alternatives are available. A report prepared by Spencer in 1986 discusses the various options available for cooling L-Reactor discharges. In effect, a small cooling tower is the only realistic solution to reducing effluent temperatures. Nutrient mitigation can take several approaches including upstream sewage treatment, hypolimnetic withdrawal, dilution of input water by Par Pond water, precipitation of nutrients, and sediment oxidation. None of these systems would influence the thermal regime, but would significantly reduce nutrient input into the system. One beneficial use of L-Lake thermal effluents is algaculture, the production of useful algae. A document prepared in 1988 concludes that algaculture is a technically and economically feasible mitigation alternative for L Lake and could allow L Lake to be handled under Section 318 of the Clean Water Act.

Moore, D.B.

1988-11-03

312

Alternate nozzle ablative materials program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

Kimmel, N. A.

1984-01-01

313

Analysis of supermarket dehumidification alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Alternative methods to provide space conditioning in supermarkets were studied. Four basic air-conditioning systems were selected for evaluation in a store in Miami, Florida: (1) conventional vapor compression systems, (2) vapor compression air-conditioning systems designed for supermarket loads, (3) hybrid desiccant air-conditioning systems, and (4) cool storage systems. Computer models were created and annual simulations of performance were made. The impacts on energy use and cost of circulation flow rate, store humidity set point, heat pipe heat exchangers, and climate on energy use and cost were determined. Dual path electric systems and desiccant systems were found to consume the least electrical energy. Savings of the desiccant system are partially offset by natural gas needed to reactivate the desiccant. Single path systems with reduced circulation air flow consumed significantly less electricity than the conventional system. Lower humidity shifts the air-conditioning load from the refrigerated cases to the HVAC system and reduces the electrical use for all but the conventional system. Heat pipe heat exchangers provide little benefit. Flat and time-of-use electric rate schedules were used to estimate operating savings and to determine the cost effectiveness of the alternative approaches.

Mitchell, J.W. Urban, R.E.; Beckman, W.A.; Dorgan, C.E.; Lindell, C.J. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Solar Energy Lab.)

1992-11-01

314

Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to influence uniform rates. The welfare results of these exercises indicate that popular conceptions about increasing block rates may be incorrect insofar as the scarcity-endogenous uniform rate favors low-income households. That is, under scarcity conditions a switch from increasing block rates to full price uniform rates redistributes welfare so as to place more of the welfare burden of conservation on high-income households. Similarly, any household characteristic that tends to accompany low water use (e.g. low property value) generates a the same rate structure preference. These results are an intriguing addition to existing knowledge pertaining to the properties of increasing block rates and uniform rates with respect to criteria such as efficiency, simplicity, effectiveness, and (now) equity.

Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

2011-12-01

315

Alternative Education in Japan: A Brief Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Japan, not attending public school is stigmatized, and alternative education is in its infancy. Reviews free spaces, which are not schools, but places for traumatized students to recover; home schooling networks; government-approved independent alternative schools; alternative after-school programs; and innovative programs within the system.…

Needle, Nat

2000-01-01

316

Comparison of spent nuclear fuel management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the process an results of a trade study of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)management alternatives. The purpose of the trade study was to provide: (1) a summary of various SNF management alternatives, (2) an objective comparison of the various alternatives to facilitate the decision making process, and (3) documentation of trade study rational and the basis for decisions.

Beebe, C.L.; Caldwell, M.A,

1996-09-01

317

Communication and alternative school student socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because alternative schools affect more potential dropouts than any other program, it is imperative to understand how students are making sense of their alternative school experience. The sense these students make of their role as an alternative school student is important considering it can affect their decision to stay in school. Sense?making, or socialization, is a communication process of acquiring

Tasha J. Souza

1999-01-01

318

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane conversions. This guide may be particularly helpful for organizations that are already using alternative fuels in their vehicles and have an alternative fuel supply or electric charging in place (e.g., golf cart charging stations at most golf courses). On the flip side, experiencing the benefits of using alternative fuels in mowing equipment may encourage organizations to try them in on-road vehicles as well. Whatever the case, alternative fuel commercial lawnmowers are a powerful and cost-effective way to reduce U.S. petroleum dependence and help protect the environment.

Not Available

2011-10-01

319

Methanol - Alternative Fuel Road Traffic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This brochure names the fuel properties that are required for road traffic, discusses the replacement of petrol by methanol, discusses the possibilities of manufacturing methanol, draws up a timetable and an organigram for a (M-15) large scale test and co...

H. Muendler

1980-01-01

320

Aqueous alternatives for metal and composite cleaning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For many years the metalworking industry has cleaned metal and composite substrates with chlorinated solvents. Recently, however, health and disposal related environmental concerns have increased regarding chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, or Freon'. World leaders have instituted a production ban of certain ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) by 1996. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has instituted worker vapor exposure limitations for virtually all of the solvents used in solvent-based cleaners. In addition, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has defined nearly all solvent-based cleaners as 'hazardous'. Cradle to grave waste responsibility is another reason manufacturers are trying to replace chlorinated solvents in their cleaning processes. Because of these factors, there now is a world wide effort to reduce and/or eliminate the use of chlorinated solvents for industrial cleaning. Waterbased cleaners are among the alternatives being offered to the industry. New technology alkaline cleaners are now available that can be used instead of chlorinated solvents in many cleaning processes. These waterbased cleaners reduce the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) by as much as 99 percent. (The definition and method of calculation of VOC's now varies from region to region.) Hazardous waste generation can also be significantly reduced or eliminated with new aqueous technology. This in turn can ease worker exposure restrictions and positively impact the environment. This paper compares the chemical and physical properties of this aqueous cleaners versus chlorinated solvents.

Quitmeyer, Joann

1994-01-01

321

An alternative approach to infrared optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MONTAGE program sponsored by the Microsystems Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) resulted in the demonstration of a novel approach to designing compact imaging systems. This approach was enabled by an unusual four-fold annular lens originally designed and demonstrated for operation exclusively in the visible spectral band. To accomplish DARPA's goal of an ultra-thin imaging system, the folded optic was fabricated by diamond-turning concentric aspheric annular zones on both sides of a CaF2 core. The optical properties of the core material ultimately limit the operating bandwidth of such a design. We present the latest results of an effort to re-engineer and demonstrate the MONTAGE folded optics for imaging across a broad spectral band. The broadband capability is achieved by taking advantage of a new design that substitutes a hollow core configuration for the solid core. Along with enabling additional applications for the folded optics, the hollow-core design offers the potential of reducing weight and cost in comparison to an alternative solid-core design. We present new results characterizing the performance of a lens based on the new design and applied to long-wave infrared imaging.

Morrison, Rick; Stack, Ronald; Euliss, Gary; Athale, Ravindra; Reese, Colin; Vizgaitis, Jay; Stevens, James; Tremblay, Eric; Ford, Joseph

2010-04-01

322

Nonlinear alternating current responses of graded materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a composite of nonlinear particles suspended in a host medium is subjected to a sinusoidal electric field, the electrical response in the composite will generally consist of alternating current (ac) fields at frequencies of higher-order harmonics. The situation becomes more interesting when the suspended particles are graded, with a spatial variation in the dielectric properties. The local electric field inside the graded particles can be calculated by the differential effective dipole approximation, which agrees very well with a first-principles approach. In this work, a nonlinear differential effective dipole approximation and a perturbation expansion method have been employed to investigate the effect of gradation on the nonlinear ac responses of these composites. The results showed that the fundamental and third-harmonic ac responses are sensitive to the dielectric-constant and/or nonlinear-susceptibility gradation profiles within the particles. Thus, by measuring the ac responses of the graded composites, it is possible to perform a real-time monitoring of the fabrication process of the gradation profiles within the graded particles.

Huang, J. P.; Gao, L.; Yu, K. W.; Gu, G. Q.

2004-03-01

323

Indigofera suffruticosa: An Alternative Anticancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabeceae) occurs in the Northeast countryside and has intensive popular use in the treatment of infectious, inflammatory and other processes. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion and maceration as well as to evaluate the toxicological properties. Aqueous extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity against HEp-2 (human epidermoid cancer cell) cell lines by MTT method. From the aqueous extract by infusion, the toxicological assay showed low order of toxicity. The antitumor effect of aqueous extracts by infusion (64.53%) and maceration (62.62%) against sarcoma 180 in mice at a dose of 50 mg kg?1 (intraperitoneally), based on low order of toxicity was comparable to the control group, which showed 100% development. Considering the low order of toxicity and that it is highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumors, the aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa may be used as an alternative anticancer agent.

Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; de Souza, Ivone Antonia; do Nascimento, Silene Carneiro

2007-01-01

324

Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

1985-01-01

325

Alternative pathways for pyrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis of biomass involves heterogeneous substrates and complex reactions. The substrate may contain various amounts of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, extractives and inorganics with different thermal properties. The reactions involve alternative pathways and consecutive series, which are affected by pyrolytic conditions including the time and temperature profile, ambient atmosphere and catalysis by inorganic materials. Consequently, composition, yield and rate of formation of the products are highly dependent on the employed substrate and pyrolytic condition. Pyrolysis at temperatures below 300/sup 0/C involves depolymerization, dehydration, rearrangement and formation of carboxyl and carbonyl groups, evolution of CO and CO/sub 2/, development of free radicals and condensation to char. At temperatures above 300/sup 0/C, these reactions are accompanied by the conversion of the glycosyl units to levoglucosan by transglycosylation. This reaction is preceded by the activation of the molecule, presumably through glass transition, which gives the required conformational flexibility. At still higher temperatures (above 500/sup 0/C), the glycosyl structure of the levoglucosan or cellulose rapidly breaks down to provide a variety of low molecular weight fission products, including hydrocarbons and hydrogen as well as CO, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O obtained at lower temperatures. The pyrolysis products could further react to alter the composition of the pyrolysate.

Shafizadph, F.

1983-01-01

326

Landfill alternative offers powerful case.  

PubMed

With many of Europe's landfill sites now close to capacity, and the EU Landfill Directive requiring that, by 2020, the amount of waste sent to landfill should be just 35% of the volume similarly disposed of in 1995, pressure is mounting to find environmentally acceptable waste disposal alternatives. At a recent IHEEM waste seminar, Gary Connelly, a technical consultant at environmental technology consultancy the Cameron Corporation, described a technology which he explained can effectively convert 85% of the European Waste Catalogue of materials into an inert residue, is "cleaner and cheaper" than incineration, and can generate both electricity an waste heat. As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports, a key target market is healthcare facilities. PMID:21585140

Baillie, Jonathan

2011-04-01

327

Alternative fuels for woodburning stoves  

SciTech Connect

The main conclusion to be drawn from this brief survey of alternative fuels for woodburning stoves is that many potential fuels do exist; however, their use is not widespread. There is a tremendous potential source of fuel which is essentially untapped. The heat content of these fuels is comparable to that of wood and could therefore replace wood if availability and economics are favorable. More work is required to expand on the large body of available data. True comparisons of fuels can only be made by means of indepth economic feasibility studies which are organized regionally. For example, corn cobs may provide a reasonable fuel in the Midwest where transportation costs are minimal, but to transport corn cobs to New England would add a sizeable transportation cost in the overall energy cost.

Baroff, J.; Fink, R.

1982-09-30

328

Alternative approach to multisensor navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative to the Kalman filtering technique, based on logical rather than numerical techniques, is presented. It can be implemented on one or more microprocessors (with a fixed communications protocol between the individual microprocessors); requires only limited preprocessing of the input data; can have its constituent subsystem changed without major revision to the combiner as new or better navigation techniques, such as the global positioning system (GPS) or Loran-C, become available; and tolerates a wide variety of sensor, hardware, and software errors. The basic structure of the method and results of simulations of its performance in the presence of errors common to low-cost sensors (such as VOR or basic Omega) are presented, along with a discussion of possible extensions.

Cannon, M. J.; Hollaar, L. A.

1980-01-01

329

Alternative pathways to antimatter containment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antimatter containment is a gateway technology for future advancements in many areas. Immediate applications in propulsion, medicine, and instrumentation have already been envisioned and many others are yet to be considered. Key to this technological advance is identifying one or more pathways to achieve safe reliable containment of antimatter in sufficient quantities to be useful on an engineering and industrial scale. The goal of this paper is to review current approaches and discuss possible alternative pathways to antimatter containment. Specifically, this paper will address the possibility of designing a solid-state containment system that will safely hold antimatter in quantities dense enough to be of any engineering utility. A discussion of the current research, the needed engineering requirements, and a survey of current research is presented.

Rejcek, J. M.; Browder, M. K.; Fry, J. L.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A. H.

2003-10-01

330

Alternative approaches to antifungal therapies  

PubMed Central

The expansive use of immunosuppressive medications in fields such as transplantational medicine and oncology, the higher frequency of invasive procedures in an aging population and the HIV/AIDS pandemic have increased the frequency of systemic fungal infections. At the same time, increased resistance of pathogenic fungi to classical antifungal agents has led to sustained research efforts targeting alternative antifungal strategies. In this review, we focus on two promising approaches: cationic peptides and the targeting of fungal virulence factors. Cationic peptides are small, predominantly positively charged protein fragments which exert direct and indirect antifungal activities, one mechanism of action being the permeabilization of the fungal membrane. They include lysozyme, defensins, and cathelicidins, as well as novel synthetic peptides. Amongst fungal virulence factors, the targeting of candidal secreted aspartic proteinases seems to be a particularly promising approach.

Mehra, T; Koberle, M; Braunsdorf, C; Mailander-Sanchez, D; Borelli, C; Schaller, M

2012-01-01

331

Technology alternatives for the SPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emerging technologies may offer advantages over those selected for the reference design adopted for the SPS. While it is not possible to list all the technological innovations that may affect the SPS, it is feasible to develop a systematic methodology for assessing technical alternatives. This may be of value in evaluating proposed technologies and identifying high priority areas for research. Such a methodology includes involves (1) variation of guidelines; (2) analysis of system functions; (3) analysis of system sensitivity; (4) analysis of technology status and risk; and (5) external costs, problem areas, and criticisms of the SPS concept. The methodology is a first step towards the creation of a formal decision analytic framework which can support design choices and program decisions as development proceeds.

Glaser, P.; Chapman, P. K.

1980-01-01

332

Alternative splicing in regulation of cholesterol homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review With the advent of whole-transcriptome sequencing, or RNA-seq, we now know that alternative splicing is a generalized phenomenon, with nearly all multi-exonic genes subject to alternative splicing. In this review we highlight recent studies examining alternative splicing as a modulator of cellular cholesterol homeostasis, and as an underlying mechanism of dyslipidemia. Recent findings A number of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism are known to undergo functionally relevant alternative splicing. Recently, we have identified coordinated changes in alternative splicing in multiple genes in response to alteration in cellular sterol content. We and others have implicated several splicing factors as regulators of lipid metabolism. Furthermore, a number of cis-acting human gene variants that modulate alternative splicing have been implicated in a variety of human metabolic diseases. Summary Alternative splicing is of importance in various types of genetically influenced dyslipidemias, and in the regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism.

Medina, Marisa W.; Krauss, Ronald M.

2013-01-01

333

Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato  

SciTech Connect

Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-05-01

334

Quantifying asymmetry: Ratios and alternatives.  

PubMed

Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:498-511, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24842694

Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

2014-08-01

335

Alternative calcination development status report  

SciTech Connect

The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

Boardman, R.D.

1997-12-01

336

Adolescent Problems and Coping Strategies: Alternative School versus Non-alternative School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the problems and coping strategies of 231 adolescents (mean age, 15 years) from rural mid-south alternative and non-alternative schools. Results indicated that, overall, alternative school students tend to respond to given problems by using more negative coping strategies than do non-alternative school students. (SLD)

Vaughn, Deborah D.; Slicker, Ellen K.; Van Hein, Judith

2000-01-01

337

23 CFR 710.509 - Functional replacement of real property in public ownership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Functional replacement of real property in public ownership. 710...ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives...509 Functional replacement of real property in public ownership....

2013-04-01

338

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

Not Available

1994-06-01

339

Comparison of sensory differences of stored Russet Burbank potatoes treated with CIPC and alternative sprout inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory properties of Russet Burbank potatoes treated with three naturally occurring volatile compounds, as alternatives\\u000a to CIPC for sprout inhibition, were evaluated. Potatoes from the 1995 and 1996 crop years were treated with salicylaldehyde,\\u000a 1,8-cineole, 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene, or CIPC prior to dormancy break during storage and stored for up to 16 wk. Sensory differences\\u000a between potatoes treated with alternative sprout

Terri D. Boylston; Joseph R. Powers; Karen M. Weiler; Jian Yang

2001-01-01

340

Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Chromite interconnections  

SciTech Connect

This research and development is directed to modification of state-of-art and to development of analogous and alterative materials as solid oxide fuel cells electrodes and interconnections and consists of three tasks: electrical and thermal properties of state-of-the-art and alternative interconnection materials as functions of composition, structure, synthesis and processing methods; materials synthesis and processing methods to produce state-of-the-art and alternative interconnection chromite and manganite materials that can be sintered in air below 1550{degrees}C without the use of additives; and Electrochemical behavior of materials interfaces to understand the kinetics and electro-chemical and chemical processes. This report discusses R D directed toward understanding the factors that affect air sinterability, sintering mechanisms and the thermal expansion of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} and Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3}. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.

1991-06-01

341

Public-transportation alternative fuels: A perspective for small transportation operations. final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study is to provide small, public transportation operators in the State of California with information necessary to evaluate alternative fuels and technologies for complying with future State and Federal emission regulations. The alternative fuels examined include 'clean diesel' fuel, methanol, natural gas (both compressed and liquefied), ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). These fuels are examined across a variety of criteria including fuel availability and costs, vehicle reliability, durability, safety, fuel economy and emission characteristics. The equipment and facilities needed for refueling alternative technology buses are also examined along with modifications needed to maintenance garages to ensure safe operations with these new fuels. All capital and operating costs associated with implementing each of the alternative fuels are detailed for different size transit properties. Advanced electric propulsion technologies including batteries, hydrogen fuel cells, and electric trolley buses are also briefly examined but in less detail than the other alternative fuels.

Not Available

1992-06-30

342

Public transportation alternative fuels: A perspective for small transportation operations. Executive Summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study is to provide small, public transportation operators in the State of California with information necessary to evaluate alternative fuels and technologies for complying with future State and Federal emission regulations. The alternative fuels examined include 'clean diesel' fuel, methanol, natural gas (both compressed and liquefied), ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). These fuels are examined across a variety of criteria including fuel availability and costs, vehicle reliability, durability, safety, fuel economy and emission characteristics. The equipment and facilities needed for refueling alternative technology buses are also examined along with modifications needed to maintenance garages to ensure safe operations with these new fuels. All capital and operating costs associated with implementing each of the alternative fuels are detailed for different size transit properties. Advanced electric propulsion technologies including batteries, hydrogen fuel cells, and electric trolley buses are also briefly examined but in less detail than the other alternative fuels.

Not Available

1992-06-30

343

Reproductive effects of alternative disinfectants  

SciTech Connect

Organohalides formed through the reaction of chlorine and organic compounds in natural and waste waters pose potential health hazards. For this reason, alternative water disinfectants that do not form organohalides are being investigated with great interest. In this laboratory, the authors have examined the reproductive effects of chloramine and chlorine administered by gavage in Long-Evans rats. Animals were treated for a total of 66 to 76 days. Males were treated for 56 days and females for 14 days prior to breeding and throughout the 10-day breeding period. Females were treated throughout gestation and lactation. Following breeding, the males were necropsied and evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology. Adult females and some pups were necropsied at weaning on postnatal day 21. Other pups were treated postweaning until 28 or 40 days of age. These pups were evaluated for the day of vaginal patency and thyroid hormone levels. No differences were observed between control rats and those rats exposed to up to 5 mg/kg/day chlorine or 10 mg/kg/day chloramine when fertility, viability, litter size, day of eye opening, or day of vaginal patency were evaluated. No alterations in sperm count, sperm direct progressive movement percent motility, or sperm morphology were observed among adult male rats. In addition, male and female reproductive organ weights were comparable to their respective control groups, and no significant histopathologic changes were observed among chlorine- or chloramine-treated male and female rats.

Carlton, B.D.; Barlett, P.; Basaran, A.; Colling, K.; Osis, I.; Smith, M.K.

1986-11-01

344

Alternative Water Processor Test Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

2012-01-01

345

Alternative Water Processor Test Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

2013-01-01

346

Economics of alternative energy sources.  

PubMed

An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. PMID:16073407

Ryle, M

1977-05-12

347

[Pollution and alternative energy sources].  

PubMed

In order to reach higher standards of living, man has always been interested in searching new energy sources. Natural energy from sun, wind and water has been overcame by more sophisticated resources such as coal, vapour, hydroelectricity, natural gas, petroleum, and, at least, nuclear energy. However all these resources present unwanted effects, namely various hazards to man and environment. On this matter society is quering the risk-benefit balance of some energy choices and optimum performance with new safety means to limit dangerousness are being pursued and developed. It is necessary to evaluate carefully every aspect of safety without under-estimating or over-evaluating problems. For each energy source a "real price" has to be paired, even more in the future, since more energy will be required to guarantee the necessary technological progress linked to a better quality of life. In the present review all risks related to different energy sources are described and discussed aiming at defining: 1) specific risks for different sources 2) benefit from their utilization 3) means of defence guaranteeing security for man and environment. Italy is strictly dependent for energy production, which comes for 80% from abroad. An appropriate balance is required considering economical and social factors and real availability of energy. This balance needs therefore to be clearly evaluated hoping in a better future for an alternative energy, less dangerous and more clear, such as that from nuclear fusion. PMID:2483087

Melino, C

1989-01-01

348

Alternative Energy for Higher Education  

SciTech Connect

This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time â??dashboardâ?ť and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

Michael Cherney, PhD

2012-02-22

349

Boom Rendezvous Alternative Docking Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space rendezvous and docking has always been attempted with primarily one philosophic methodology. The slow matching of one vehicle's orbit by a second vehicle and then a final closing sequence that ends in matching the orbits with perfect precision and with near zero relative velocities. The task is time consuming, propellant intensive, risk inherent (plume impingement, collisions, fuel depletion, etc.) and requires substantial hardware mass. The historical background and rationale as to why this approach is used is discussed in terms of the path-not-taken and in light of an alternate methodology. Rendezvous and docking by boom extension is suggested to have inherent advantages that today s technology can readily exploit. Extension from the primary spacecraft, beyond its inherent large inertia, allows low inertia connections to be made rapidly and safely. Plume contamination issues are eliminated as well as the extra propellant mass and risk required for the final thruster (docking) operations. Space vehicle connection hardware can be significantly lightened. Also, docking sensors and controls require less fidelity; allowing them to be more robust and less sensitive. It is the potential safety advantage and mission risk reduction that makes this approach attractive, besides the prospect of nominal time and mass savings.

Bonometti, Joseph A.

2006-01-01

350

Alternate capacitor dielectric film materials  

SciTech Connect

New high-temperature, high-energy density, and high-radiation tolerant capacitor applications require the evaluation of alternate dielectric materials. Evaluation work was performed at GE Neutron Devices (GEND) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque. US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for capacitor function and environments are unique, and the representations included in this report do not constitute an endorsement of any material or manufacturer. This report presents data on polymeric dielectric films evaluated to support the design of new high-energy density capacitors. Materials which were evaluated include polycarbonate (two sources), polyphenylene sulfide, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyetherimide (three sources), polyimide (four sources), polyethersulfone, and polyetherether ketone. A polyester was evaluated as the control material since many prior designs utilized this dielectric. The film evaluations were based on dielectric constant and dissipation factor variation as a function of temperature ({minus}55{degree}C to 300{degree}C) as well as dielectric breakdown strength. Additionally, film/foil capacitors in a dry wrap-and-fill configuration were fabricated and tested to determine insulation resistance, breakdown voltage, and radiation hardness. Results are given for all evaluations. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Foster, J.C.

1990-08-01

351

Alternative therapies for stroke treatment in Asia.  

PubMed

Patients seek alternative therapies for stroke in Asia due to dissatisfaction with poststroke recovery. Most alternative therapies are of unproven benefit in rehabilitation. Well-conducted trials are needed to better define the role of alternative therapies in the process of poststroke recovery; the CHInese Medicine Neuroaid Efficacy on Stroke recovery is ongoing. However, further studies, better health education and rehabilitation services and centers are also required. PMID:22111799

Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Liu, Ming; Misbach, Jusuf; Venketasubramanian, N

2011-12-01

352

Buprenorphine: An Alternative Treatment for Opioid Dependence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication discusses the metabolism and kinetics, clinical efficacy and safety, behavioral pharmacology, and effects in animals and humans of buprenorphine, an alternative treatment for opioid dependence.

J. D. Blaine

1992-01-01

353

Quantum properties of exponential states  

SciTech Connect

The use of Renyi entropy as an uncertainty measure alternative to variance leads to the study of states with quantum fluctuations below the levels established by Gaussian states, which are the position-momentum minimum uncertainty states according to variance. We examine the quantum properties of states with exponential wave functions, which combine reduced fluctuations with practical feasibility.

Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2007-05-15

354

Planetary Protection Alternate Protocol Certification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The talk presents a standardized approach for new method certification or alterative testing protocol (ATP) certification against the existing U.S. Planetary Protection Standards. In consideration of new method certification there are two phases of activities that are relevant to the certification process. The first is sample acquisition which typically incorporates swab or wipes sampling on relevant hardware, associated facilities and ground support equipment. The sampling methods introduce considerations of field sampling efficiency as it relates to spore distribution on the spacecraft, spacecraft material influences on the ability of the swab or wipe to remove spores from the hardware, the types of swabs and wipes used (polyester, cotton, macrofoam), and human sampling influences. The second portion of a new protocol certification looks specifically at the lab work-up or analysis of the samples provided to the laboratory. Variables in this process include selection of appropriate biomarkers, extraction efficiencies (removal of spores or constituents of interest from the sampling device), and a method's ability to accurately determine the number of spores present in the sample with a statistically valid level of confidence as described by parameters such as precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity and sensitivity. Considerations for alternative testing protocols such as those which utilize bioburden reduction techniques include selection of appropriate biomarkers for testing, test materials and a defined statistical approach that provides sufficient scientific data to support the modification of an existing NASA specification or the generation of a new NASA specification. Synergies between the U.S. and European Space Agency approaches will also be discussed.

Baker, Amy; Barengoltz, Jack; Tisdale, David

355

Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

Brown, Michael A.

2010-01-01

356

Thickness effect for Mössbauer samples excited by an alternating field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thickness effect in Mössbauer spectroscopy under the excitation of an absorber by an alternating external field has been considered. The parameters characterizing the saturation of the absorption spectrum of such samples have been obtained within the model of the formation of the forward scattering spectrum. The conservation law for total absorption has been found under the phase synchronism condition for external-field-induced acoustic oscillations. The discussed properties have been illustrated for the absorber with a single line in an acoustic field.

Sadykov, E. K.; Yurichuk, A. A.

2014-04-01

357

Repulsive Casimir Forces and Alternatives to Einsteinian Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A basic property of the Casimir force is that, in most cases, it is attractive. The quest for workable configurations which exhibit repulsion is, at the same time, important and difficult, both in the nanophysics laboratory (e.g. to avoid stickness) and at cosmological scales (to account for the accelerated expansion of our universe). We shall here report on some configurations which exhibit the two signs of the Casimir force in function of the distance, and also on some alternatives to Einsteinian gravitation with the eventual aim to try to get around the cosmological constant problem.

Elizalde, E.

358

Repulsive Casimir Forces and Alternatives to Einsteinian Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A basic property of the Casimir force is that, in most cases, it is attractive. The quest for workable configurations which exhibit repulsion is, at the same time, important and difficult, both in the nanophysics laboratory (e.g. to avoid stickness) and at cosmological scales (to account for the accelerated expansion of our universe). We shall here report on some configurations which exhibit the two signs of the Casimir force in function of the distance, and also on some alternatives to Einsteinian gravitation with the eventual aim to try to get around the cosmological constant problem.

Elizalde, E.

2010-04-01

359

Evaluation of hemostatic effects of Ankaferd as an alternative medicine.  

PubMed

Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), a unique traditional herbal mixture, has been used topically to stop bleeding for centuries in Anatolia. ABS is a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. Through its effects on the endothelium, blood cells, angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, vascular dynamics, and cell mediators, ABS is now becoming an official alternative hemostatic medicine for intractable bleedings that are resistant to conventional anti-hemorrhagic measurements in Turkey. Furthermore, ABS seems to have a considerable therapeutic benefit, because of its anti-infective, anti-neoplastic, and wound healing properties, to restore and maintain tissue homeostasis in a variety of diseases. PMID:21194248

Beyazit, Yavuz; Kurt, Mevlut; Kekilli, Murat; Goker, Hakan; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin

2010-12-01

360

Alternative Gate Dielectrics on Semiconductors for MOSFET Device Applications  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the synthesis and properties of deposited oxides on Si and Ge for use as alternative gate dielectrics in MOSFET applications. The capacitance and leakage current behavior of polycrystalline Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films synthesized by pulsed-laser deposition is reported. In addition, we also discuss the growth of epitaxial oxide structures. In particular, we have investigated the use of silicide termination for oxide growth on (001) Si using laser-molecular beam epitaxy. In addition, we discuss a novel approach involving the use of hydrogen to eliminate native oxide during initial dielectric oxide nucleation on (001) Ge.

Norton, D.P.; Budai, J.D.; Chisholm, M.F.; Pennycook, S.J.; McKee, R.; Walker, F.; Lee, Y.; Park, C.

1999-12-06

361

Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

362

Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

363

Alternative Certification Pathways: Filling a Gap?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine the proliferation of alternative certification pathways through an analysis of the role and history of teacher certification and supply followed by a synthesis of national, regional, and state research studies on alternative routes to certification programs and a review of studies conducted on well-known…

Ludlow, Carlyn

2013-01-01

364

Alternative Models on the Drawing Ball.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with an experiment in teaching elements of spherical geometry, contrasted with concepts of plane geometry, for students aged 10-15. Four sections list advantages of applying alternative models in education, describe the experiment, outline the theoretical background of alternative models, and offer conclusions about areas of application.…

Lenart, Istvan

1993-01-01

365

Noise generation mechanisms in claw pole alternators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise of claw pole alternators, generated electromagnetically and structurally radiated, has been the subject of an extensive research program. The goal has been to identify and reduce noise radiation mechanisms in claw pole (Lundell) alternators used in automotive applications. Two approaches have been followed. In the first, electromagnetic sources of noise have been investigated by lumped parameter and magnetically equivalent

W. Eversman; S. Burns; S. Pekarek; Hua Bai; J. Tichenor

2005-01-01

366

Renewable energy alternatives for developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines renewable energy alternatives in developed countries: environmental mechanisms; future energy alternatives; green electricity marketing and its potential; pricing; and limitations on the eve of open access. It discusses objectives in electricity restructuring; the role of resources planning in forming long range energy environmental policies; feasibility of electricity trading mechanisms; green marketing in the United States and Australia;

Thomas James Hammons; Jeannette C. Boyer; Stephen R. Conners; Michael Davies; Mark Ellis; Marion Fraser; Edward A. Holt; Jochen Markard

2000-01-01

367

Alternator-powered, electrically heated catalyst  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a system for increasing system reliability for an electrically heated automotive exhaust system catalyst (EHC) by powering the system from the automobiles alternator rather than its battery. The topics of the article include a description of the EHC, matching EHC power requirements to alternator power capabilities, test results, and EHC performance.

Laing, P.M. (Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States))

1994-04-01

368

Tonal Alternations and Prosodic Structure in Somali  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the prosody of focalisation in Somali, a cushitic tonal accent language. The Somali nouns undergo many tonal accent alternations according to the discursive contexts. A primary aim of the study is to explain these alternations by assuming that they are triggered by intonative tones. However, very little attention has been devoted to the intonation of Somali. As

David Le Gac

2002-01-01

369

Alternative Energy and Remote Power Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Alaska, ABS Alaskan provides batteries, alternative energy and remote and power products. The site contains a Library link, where users can explore a basic power system diagram, visit the document download center, and find information explaining alternative energy and power systems.

2008-09-30

370

Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Alternative Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for alternative energy courses is part of a series of curriculum guides for use in the industrial arts curriculum in Connecticut. The guide contains two parts. Part 1 provides the following overview: (1) objectives of alternative energy education, including suggestions for course levels, class sizes, teaching methods, and…

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

371

Alternative Setting-Wide Positive Behavior Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has an established evidence base in general education settings, and emerging evidence suggests that SWPBS may be effective in alternative settings (e.g., alternative, residential, or hospital schools; psychiatric hospitals). Given the intense educational and behavioral needs of students typically…

Simonsen, Brandi; Jeffrey-Pearsall, Jennifer; Sugai, George; McCurdy, Barry

2011-01-01

372

Young doctors' views on alternative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was undertaken to explore attitudes to alternative medicine among 100 general practitioner trainees. A positive attitude emerged from the 86 respondents, with 18 doctors using at least one alternative method themselves and 70 wanting to train in one or more. A total of 31 trainees had referred patients for such treatments; 12 of these doctors made referrals to

D T Reilly

1983-01-01

373

Digital Technology: The Potential for Alternative Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates digital communication media in terms of two basic antagonisms of communications: vertical v horizontal and dominated v alternative communication. Analyzes four categories of digital communications in light of these antagonisms and suggests a strategy for alternatives dealing with issues of access, localism, and political and legal…

Hogrebe, Edmund F. M.

1981-01-01

374

Partnership in Urban Education: An Alternative School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on the process of implementing an alternative school within a public urban system. To identify and illustrate the problems inherent in organizing and operating an alternative school the West Philadelphia Community Free School was taken as a case study. Observations and analysis are here offered on two different levels: (1)…

Eriksen, Aase; Gantz, Joseph

375

How To Establish an Alternative School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the assertion that punitive programs for at-risk students are ineffective, this book describes in detail how to start an effective alternative program to redirect the lives of at-risk youth. Following the preface, chapter 1 presents a historical background and an overview of alternative education. The second chapter describes strategies…

Kellmayer, John

376

The Economics of Alternative School Feeding Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, based on data for the 1970-71 school year, develops a uniform method for comparing costs of alternative school feeding systems. The study attempted to determine relative costs of providing meals under alternative production and distribution systems, establish standards relating to food costs and labor efficiency that could be used in…

Payne, Norman E.; And Others

377

Responding to Alternative Conceptions in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how students' alternative conceptions about curriculum topics interfere with classroom learning. Describes the Royal Society of Chemistry's Teacher Fellowship Project entitled "Challenging Misconceptions in the Classroom," which develops classroom materials to diagnose and challenge specific alternative conceptions. Uses key ideas of how…

Taber, Keith S.

2003-01-01

378

Plant-based alternatives to meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the plant-based alternatives to meat. Looks at the production and uses of a range of meat alternatives from different sources including: soya beans; wheat protein; pea and wheat protein; and myco-protein. Compares the nutrient profiles with those of meat. Concludes that the way forward is to create new products based on plant proteins and to veganise existing vegetarian meat

Jill Davies; Helen Lightowler

1998-01-01

379

ALTERNATIVE SEWER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The problem of sewering small communities is generally one of prohibitive economics. In response to this problem alternative sewering methods which are lower in cost than conventional gravity sewers have been developed over the past two decades. The major alternative sewering met...

380

SKOLE: The Journal of Alternative Education, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four issues of "SKOLE" published in 1996 include articles about alternatives to public education, the value of free schools and home-schooling, and children's learning experiences. Feature articles include profiles of alternative schools and educational programs; descriptions of learning experiences and teaching practices; a study of full…

Leue, Mary, Ed.

1996-01-01

381

Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic

D. M. Eissenberg; H. D. Haynes; D. A. Casada

1993-01-01

382

Lessons from an Alternative-Certification Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Kentucky's Alternative Training Program for the Preparation of Candidates for Initial Certification, presenting the story of one individual who made a career change to teaching after 15 years as a broadcast journalist. The paper discusses state guidelines, the mentor teacher, the school district alternative training program, the…

Barkley, Brenda Stallion

1999-01-01

383

Realistic ocean energy alternatives to fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Commission on Ocean Policy endorsed the Administrations complete dependence on fossil fuels as the primary energy source for the nation. Two very significant alternatives were rejected or neglected. The first alternative was sea based semi submerged nuclear power plant ships deployed in a line paralleling the coastline of the United States. The US has developed and deployed hundreds

John Pińa Craven

2005-01-01

384

Alternative Generation in Marital Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of two types of instruction to investigate how proficiency in generating alternatives in marital problem solving can be improved, using a sample of 44 Canadian couples. Results showed increased generation of alternatives. Communication skills training did not enhance creativity in problem solving. (Author/JAC)

Warmbrod, Mary Taylor

1982-01-01

385

Educational Telecommunications Alternatives for Alaska. Product 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores a wide variety of technical alternatives, from equipment needs and on-the-ground system design, to equipment operation and suggested applications for department activities, both now and in the future. Some suggested alternatives include (1) communication satellites, (2) one way audio transmission, (3) one and two way hard copy…

Wilke, Jennifer L.; And Others

386

Alternate Assessment: Have We Learned Anything New?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the first review of alternate assessment literature by Browder, Spooner, Algozzine, et al. (2003), educational research related to alternate assessment has rapidly expanded as state and federal policies have required the inclusion of students with disabilities, including students with the most significant cognitive disabilities, in state and…

Towles-Reeves, Elizabeth; Kleinert, Harold; Muhomba, Monicah

2009-01-01

387

An alternative conceptual framework from chemistry education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The science education literature includes many claims that learners commonly hold alternative conceptual frameworks about aspects of the science curriculum, especially in physics. There has also been criticism of the general notion of ‘alternative frameworks’, although some of this would appear to be due to different authors using the same terms in distinct ways. In this paper it is suggested

Keith S. Taber

1998-01-01

388

Alternative Energy Options for Antarctic Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique problems of designing an alternative energy system for the Australian and French Antarctic research stations and the possible options that can be pursued to obtain a clean, efficient, safe and reliable energy system. The adoption of the alternative systems will rely on the further technological and commercial development of equipment

John Steel; Antoine Guichard

389

Alternative Maternity Services in Washington State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of maternity services has changed in the past 20 years, with a movement away from traditional (physician delivery in a hospital) towards other alternative services. This study examined alternative maternity services in Washington State, which ranks eighth in the country in the use of such services. Data were collected from birth and…

Starzyk, Patricia M.

390

Alternatives for Financing Higher Education Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How state governments should finance public college and university facilities is discussed. A framework for analyzing the capital financing alternatives available to state governments is described. Several alternatives in Arizona--including state appropriations, leasing, and revenue bonding--are considered as an illustration. (Author/MLW)

Leslie, Larry L.; Felix, Frank J.

1980-01-01

391

INTERNATIONAL FINANCING ALTERNATIVES FOR ROMANIAN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present all world countries are seeking to attract the cheapest way of public resources needed to cover budget deficits. This paper aims to review the five alternatives for external funding of countries faced with insufficient public funds to the state budget. It focuses on the possibilities of financing with borrowed resources. The financing alternatives are presented from the perspective

Bunescu Liliana

2011-01-01

392

Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided.

Murphy, James Anthony; Palmer, Brent J; Perry, Keith Joseph

2003-12-01

393

76 FR 21673 - Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431...Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...S. Department of Energy (DOE) seeks information...methods (AEDM) and alternate rating...

2011-04-18

394

Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

395

The Alternative Low Noise Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 106 bladed fan with a design takeoff tip speed of 1100 ft/sec was hypothesized as reducing perceived noise because of the shift of the blade passing harmonics to frequencies beyond the perceived noise rating range. A 22 in. model of this Alternative Low Noise Fan, ALNF, was tested in the NASA Glenn 9x 15 Wind Tunnel. 'Me fan was tested with a 7 vane long chord stator assembly and a 70 vane conventional stator assembly in both hard and acoustically treated configurations. In addition a partially treated 7 vane configuration was tested wherein the acoustic material between the 7 long chord stators was made inactive. The noise data from the 106 bladed fan with 7 long chord stators in a hard configuration was shown to be around 4 EPNdB quieter than a low tip speed Allison fan at takeoff and around 5 EPNdB quieter at approach. Although the tone noise behaved as hypothesized, the majority of this noise reduction was from reduced broadband noise related to the large number of rotor blades. This 106 bladed ALNF is a research fan designed to push the technology limits and as such is probably not a practical device with present materials technology. However, a low tip speed fan with around 50 blades would be a practical device and calculations indicate that it could be 2 to 3 EPNdB quieter at takeoff and 3 to 4 EPNdB quieter at approach than the Allison fan. 7 vane data compared with 70 vane data indicated that the tone noise was controlled by rotor wake-stator interaction but that the broadband noise is probably controlled by the interaction of the rotor with incoming flows. A possible multiple pure tone noise reduction technique for a fan/acoustic treatment system was identified. The data from the fully treated configuration showed significant noise reductions over a large frequency range thereby providing a real tribute to this bulk absorber treatment design. The tone noise data with the partially treated 7 vane configuration indicated that acoustic material in the source noise generation region may be more effective than similar material outside of the generation region.

Dittmar, James H.; Elliott, David M.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Moore, Royce D.; Parrott, Tony L.

2000-01-01

396

Automotive intake manifold with integral alternator  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an intake manifold and alternator system for a multicylinder internal combustion engine. It comprises a manifold having a plurality of passages for conveying at least one primary coolant passage permitting the flow of engine coolant through the manifold, the manifold further comprising a generally cylindrical cavity adapted for housing an alternator therein, with the central axis of the cavity being parallel to the crankshaft of the engine; an alternator driven by an endless belt powered by the crankshaft of the engine, with the alternator having a generally cylindrical outer body housed within the cavity; and an alternator cooling circuit comprising a secondary coolant passage within the manifold for conducting coolant from the primary passage to a generally annular passage formed by the outer body and the cavity, and a discharge passage for conducting coolant from the cavity.

Gajewski, A.J.; Meckstroth, R.J.

1991-08-20

397

Federal Policy Options for Property Tax Relief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four policy alternatives could be used by the Federal Government for State and local property tax relief. Such relief has been sought to reduce the regressivity of the property tax, shield low - income households from large tax liabilities, enable the eld...

1977-01-01

398

Alternative variables in drug discovery: promises and challenges.  

PubMed

A number of alternative variables have appeared in the medicinal chemistry literature trying to provide a more rigorous formulation of the guidelines proposed by Lipinski to exclude chemical entities with poor pharmacokinetic properties early in the discovery process. Typically, these variables combine the affinity towards the target with physicochemical properties of the ligand and are named efficiencies or ligand efficiencies. Several formulations have been defined and used by different laboratories with different degrees of success. A unified formulation, ligand efficiency indices, was proposed that included efficiency in two complementary variables (i.e., size and polarity) to map and monitor the drug-discovery process (AtlasCBS). The use of this formulation in combination with an extended multiparameter optimization is presented, with examples, as a promising methodology to optimize the drug-discovery process in the future. Future perspectives and challenges for this approach are also discussed. PMID:24649959

Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Champness, Edmund J; Segall, Matthew D

2014-04-01

399

Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis used to evaluate the energy and emission impact of two pathways of alternative energy development. The results show that China can only meets its 2015 and 2020 targets for non-fossil penetration if it successfully achieves all of its capacity targets for 2020 with continued expansion through 2030. To achieve this level of alternative generation, significant amounts of raw materials including 235 Mt of concrete, 54 Mt of steel, 5 Mt of copper along with 3 billion tons of water and 64 thousand square kilometers of land are needed. China’s alternative energy supply will likely have relatively high average energy output to fossil fuel input ratio of 42 declining to 26 over time, but this ratio is largely skewed by nuclear and hydropower capacity. With successful alternative energy development, 32% of China’s electricity and 21% of its total primary energy will be supplied by alternative energy by 2030. Compared to the counterfactual baseline in which alternative energy development stumbles and China does not meet its capacity targets until 2030, alternative energy development can displace 175 Mtce of coal inputs per year and 2080 Mtce cumulatively from power generation by 2030. In carbon terms, this translates into 5520 Mt of displaced CO{sub 2} emissions over the twenty year period, with more than half coming from expanded nuclear and wind power generation. These results illustrate the critical role that alternative energy development can play alongside energy efficiency in reducing China’s energy-related carbon emissions.

Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

2011-06-15

400

Identification of alternating renewal electric load models from energy measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In statistical load modeling methodologies, aggregate electric load behavior is derived by propagating the ensemble statistics of an individual load process which is representative of the loads in the aggregate. Such a modeling philosophy tends to yield models whereby if physical meaning is present at the elemental level, it is preserved at the aggregate level. This property is essential for applications involving direct control of power system loads (for peak load shaving purposes, for example). The potential applicability of statistical load models is a strong function of one's ability to limit the volume of unusual data required to build those. An identification algorithm for a previously proposed stochastic hybrid-state Markov model of individual heating-cooling loads is presented. It relies only on data routinely gathered in power systems (device energy consumption over constant time intervals). It exploits an alternating renewal viewpoint of the load dynamics. After deriving some general results on the occupation statistics of time homogeneous alternating renewal processes, the analysis is focused on the specific model. In the process, however, some intriguing features likely to be shared by a wide class of alternating renewal processes are revealed.

El-Ferik, Sami; Malhame, Roland P.

1994-06-01

401

Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.  

PubMed

The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis. PMID:20033403

Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2010-02-01

402

Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

Not Available

1980-06-01

403

Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water bottle, insulating tape, a screwdriver, a connecting block, a solar motor, a plastic fan and thin wires. The only difference was that the wind groups were issued hairdryers and the hydroelectric groups worked at a sink. The wave turbine was constructed in a similar way using the bases from two 5 litre water bottles. Various investigations were conducted into the factors affecting the voltage produced. For instance, the effect of the distance from the light source, the area of the solar cell, the type of blades, the depth of water and the wind speed were studied. The lessons reinforced their understanding of ideas covered in Science and Geography, such as voltage, power, fair tests, compass directions and map contours. Students also had the opportunity to practise connecting electrical components in series and they consolidated their understanding of energy changes, observing that generators convert kinetic energy to electrical energy. The activities allowed students to learn the basics of how renewable energy technologies work. The tasks provided a hands-on experience of renewable energy being used to power small-scale electrical devices such as an LED. The students also gained an appreciation of the complex issues involved in planning and implementing renewable energy generation in the real world.

Boyle, Julie

2010-05-01

404

Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn about the properties that will help you identify minerals. If you closed your eyes and tasted different foods, you could probably determine what the foods are by noting properties such as saltiness or sweetness. You can also determine the identity of a mineral by noting different properties. Some properties that help us determine the identy of a mineral are: COLOR, ...

Wood, Mr.

2010-11-14

405

Complementary and alternative medicine for multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

We analyzed characteristics, motivation, and effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in a large sample of people with multiple sclerosis. A 53-item survey was mailed to the members of the German Multiple Sclerosis Society, chapter of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Surveys of 1573 patients (48.5 +/- 11.7 years, 74% women, duration of illness 18.1 +/- 10.5 years) were analyzed. In comparison with conventional medicine, more patients displayed a positive attitude toward complementary and alternative medicine (44% vs 38%, P < 0.05), with 70% reporting lifetime use of at least one method. Among a wide variety of complementary and alternative medicine, diet modification (41%), Omega-3 fatty acids (37%), removal of amalgam fillings (28%), vitamins E (28%), B (36%), and C (28%), homeopathy (26%), and selenium (24%) were cited most frequently. Most respondents (69%) were satisfied with the effects of complementary and alternative medicine. Use of complementary and alternative medicine was associated with religiosity, functional independence, female sex, white-collar job, and higher education (P < 0.05). Compared with conventional therapies, complementary and alternative medicine rarely showed unwanted side effects (9% vs 59%, P < 0.00001). A total of 52% stated that the initial consultation with their physician lasted less than 15 min. To conclude, main reasons for the use of complementary and alternative medicine include the high rate of side effects and low levels of satisfaction with conventional treatments and brief patients/physicians contacts. PMID:18632773

Schwarz, S; Knorr, C; Geiger, H; Flachenecker, P

2008-09-01

406

The Hermite Transform: An Alternative Image Representation Model for Iris Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we propose an alternative image representation model to efficiently characterize iris textures based on the Hermite\\u000a transform. The Hermite transform can simulate some properties of the mammalian visual system and it is founded on a well established\\u000a mathematical framework. These properties are used to extract the most important information of the iris textures. The results\\u000a show that

Alfonso Estudillo-romero; Boris Escalante-ramírez

2008-01-01

407

Alternate heteroepitaxial growth of highly oriented organic multilayer films.  

PubMed

The heterostructure, a basic active unit applied in the device level, plays an important role in traditional inorganic optoelectronics. In the organic field, although the requirement for the heterostructure is crucial, achievement and understanding on the growth and functionality of organic heterostructure are still finite, especially for ordered crystalline organic multilayers with smooth interfaces. Here a series of highly ordered crystalline heterostructures with molecule-level smoothness were obtained from single layer to alternate multilayer with a phthalocyanine molecule and a perylene derivative. Well-defined epitaxy relationship and crystal alignment were evidenced from the atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) results. The evolution of the films reveals that, for organic-organic alternate multilayer growth, along with the intrinsic properties of organic molecules such as the packing and preferred growth direction, the soft matter properties of organic films contribute to well-defined heteroepitaxy despite that the lattice mismatch between the two materials' bulk phases is large. Thin film phases of the first few layers benefit the grain coalescence and thus the formation of smooth films. Potential application is implied from the heterojunctions' good transport ability. PMID:24673463

Wang, Zi; Chang, Hao; Wang, Tong; Wang, Haibo; Yan, Donghang

2014-04-17

408

Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 3  

SciTech Connect

The alternative fuel industry is heating up. It is a very exciting time to be in the energy business, especially when it comes to transportation. Celebrating of the milestone 75th Clean Cities coalition and kick off of the new Federal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) USER Program is occurring in cities across the country. Clean Energy for the 21st Century and the events that are happening during Energy Awareness Month are covered in this issue. Spotlighted are niche markets; several airports across the country are successfully incorporating alternative fuels into their daily routines.

Clean Cities Program at DOE

1999-10-29

409

Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator  

SciTech Connect

A crankshaft position sensing apparatus is described for use with an engine having a combined starter/alternator assembly. The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring with a sensor and bandpass filter, having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor, and a gain limiter. The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor of the combined starter/alternator assembly. The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller and an inner loop controller. The starter/alternator assembly in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

Brandenburg, L.R.; Miller, J.M.

2000-06-13

410

Alternating-Gradient Photodetector For Far Infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed detector of photons of wavelengths in range of 30 to 200 micrometer made of alternating layers of lightly and heavily negatively doped germanium. Formed in sequence by conventional chemical-vapor deposition. Alternating-gradient structure enhances collection of photogenerated charge carriers while suppressing dark current, thus achieving high detectivity. Alternating layers of n+ and n- germanium provides high detectivity in far-infrared spectral region. Also possible to make similar structures with positive doping and with other semiconductors as silicon or gallium arsenide to obtain various spectral response.

Overhauser, Albert W.; Maserjian, Joseph

1989-01-01

411

Alternative Medicine: All in Your Mind?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest addition to the University of Wisconsin-Madison graduate school's Why Files (first mentioned in the August 9. 1996 Scout Report) is about alternative medicine and the actual biological effects that alternative medicine has on the human body. For many years, alternative medicine was considered "quackery", but this Web site presents some of the science behind the placebo effect and hypnosis. There is also a page on some of the effects of and concerns about St. John's Wort. A bibliography and links to related Why Files provide additional resources for those users who are not satisfied by this brief glance at the topic.

2001-01-01

412

Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator  

DOEpatents

A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

Brandenburg, Larry Raymond (Plymouth, MI); Miller, John Michael (Saline, MI)

2000-06-13

413

Alternative Dispute Resolution: A Resource Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the US Department of Personnel Management, Alternative Dispute Resolution: A Resource Guide is a seven-chapter comprehensive manual that considers the ways in which various government agencies resolve disputes. Chapter one, organized alphabetically by agency name, examines the dispute tactics used by these agencies. The second chapter looks at the alternative dispute resolution practices within these agencies. Other sections include "Shared Neutrals Program" and "Administrative Appeals Agencies." The site also features Alternative Dispute Resolutions training and assistance sources and Websites, as well as an annotated bibliography.

414

Alternative bearing surface options for revision total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Despite the overall success of total hip arthroplasty (THA), there has been an increase in the rate of revision hip surgeries performed each year in the United States. These revision surgeries result in several billion dollars in health care costs. Bearing surface wear can result in the need for revision surgery through a variety of mechanisms. Many implant failures necessitating the need for revision surgeries occur secondary to dislocations, which are often related to prothesis wear and eventual loosening of the components. Wear also can lead to osteolysis and may play a role in aseptic loosening. Specific concerns regarding the wear rates of metal-on-polyethylene (the most common bearing surface) have encouraged the manufacture of newer polyethylene implants with improved wear properties, as well as alternative bearing surfaces. The goal is to improve the durability of revision implants and/or reduce the incidence of revision THAs. Revision arthroplasty involves using alternative surfaces, such as replacing the metal femoral head with a ceramic component or changing the entire prosthesis to a metal-on-metal or ceramic-on-ceramic articulation. It is important to review the characteristics of these alternative bearing surface options and their contributions to improved THA tribology and prolonged prosthesis longevity. The choice of a bearing surface for a revision THA should consider factors such as the patient's age and activity level, the cost of the implant, and both the surgeons' and patients' preferences. Although laboratory studies and small clinical trials have generated optimistic results for these alternative implants in vitro and in vivo, much still needs to be learned about the long-term performance of these materials in patients after total hip revision surgery. PMID:21553778

Patel, Deepan; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F

2011-01-01

415

Determination of optical constants of molecular films assembled via alternate polyion adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical properties of ordered multilayer assemblies produced by alternately dipping a substrate into polycation and polyanion solutions are investigated by using a planar optical waveguide as substrate and measuring the mode indices of the guided waves. The layers show a distinct positive birefringence, from which it is inferred that the polymer chains prefer to be oriented perpendicular to the

J. J. Ramsden; Yu. M. Lvov; G. Decher

1995-01-01

416

Bagasse from the mezcal industry as an alternative renewable energy produced in arid lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mezcal industry, the xerophyte Agave salmiana is used to produce mezcal, and neither the plant nor its residues have been studied before as an alternative source of fuel. Bagasse and wasted fibers samples from alcoholic beverage production were collected in order to find out their properties as fuel. Another sample consists in pyrolyzed bagasse at 450°C to produce

L. Chávez-Guerrero; M. Hinojosa

2010-01-01

417

Pulse Oximetry in the Physics Lab: A Colorful Alternative to Traditional Optics Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We designed a physics laboratory exercise around pulse oximetry, a noninvasive medical technique used to assess a patient's blood oxygen saturation. An alternative to a traditional optics and light lab, this exercise teaches the principles of light absorption, spectroscopy, and the properties of light, while simultaneously studying a common…

Kutschera, Ellynne; Dunlap, Justin C.; Byrd, Misti; Norlin, Casey; Widenhorn, Ralf

2013-01-01

418

Review of methanol and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as alternative for transportation fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern over the environment and a potential oil shortage has resulted in an intensified research for alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Two fuels given strong consideration are methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper is a comprehensive comparative study of methanol and CNG as transportation fuels. The physical properties of methanol and CNG are discussed. The various concerns,

P. Gandhidasan; A. Ertas; E. E. Anderson

1991-01-01

419

Alternating block polyurethanes based on PCL and PEG as potential nerve regeneration materials.  

PubMed

Polyurethanes with regular and controlled block arrangement, i.e., alternating block polyurethanes (abbreviated as PUCL-alt-PEG) based on poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL-diol) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was prepared via selectively coupling reaction between PCL-diol and diisocyanate end-capped PEG. Chemical structure, molecular weight, distribution, and thermal properties were systematically characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, GPC, DSC, and TGA. Hydrophilicity was studied by static contact angle of H2O and CH2I2. Film surface was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy, and mechanical properties were assessed by universal test machine. Results show that alternating block polyurethanes give higher crystal degree, higher mechanical properties, and more hydrophilic and rougher (deep ravine) surface than their random counterpart, due to regular and controlled structure. Platelet adhesion illustrated that PUCL-alt-PEG has better hemocompatibility and the hemacompatibility was affected significantly by PEG content. Excellent hemocompatibility was obtained with high PEG content. CCK-8 assay and SEM observation revealed much better cell compatibility of fibroblast L929 and rat glial cells on the alternating block polyurethanes than that on random counterpart. Alternating block polyurethane PUC20-a-E4 with optimized composition, mechanical, surface properties, hemacompatibility, and highest cell growth and proliferation was achieved for potential use in nerve regeneration. PMID:23554296

Li, Guangyao; Li, Dandan; Niu, Yuqing; He, Tao; Chen, Kevin C; Xu, Kaitian

2014-03-01

420

Dark-antidark solitons in waveguide arrays with alternating positive-negative couplings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain dark and antidark soliton solutions in binary waveguide arrays with focusing and/or defocusing Kerr nonlinearity and with alternating positive and negative linear couplings between adjacent waveguides. For both stationary and moving solitons, we analyze the properties of these solutions in the presence of uniform and nonuniform nonlinearity along the array.

Auditore, Aldo; Conforti, Matteo; De Angelis, Costantino; Aceves, Alejandro B.

2013-06-01

421

THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE AVIATION FUELS IN AN AERO-ENGINE COMBUSTION CHAMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

When considering alternative fuels for aviation, factors such as the overall efficiency of the combustion process and the levels of emissions emitted to the atmosphere, need to be critically evaluated. The physical and chemical properties of a fuel influence the combustion efficiency and emissions and therefore need to be considered. The energy content of a biofuel, which is influenced negatively

I. Uryga; M. Pourkashanian; D. Borman; E. Catalanotti; C. W. Wilson

2009-01-01

422

The replacement of CFCS in refrigeration equipment by environmentally benign alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) is of prime importance since these refrigerants make up the vast majority of the working fluids used by the refrigeration industry and suitable alternatives must be found. A number of suitable pure fluids were considered to establish their properties and, in the case of flammable fluids, a risk analysis was carried out

N. J. Hewitt; J. T. McMullan

1997-01-01

423

An Alternative Approach to Career Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an alternative career education program for high school seniors where independent study contracts send students into the community to explore careers and seek information as volunteer workers. (DW)

Plunkett, William T.

1975-01-01

424

Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Guidance Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this guidance of this guidance manual is to describe alternative disinfectants and disinfection techniques that may be used to comply with both the Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBPR) and Interim Enhanced Surface...

1999-01-01

425

OZONE PRECURSOR EMISSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVELY FUELED VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Smog chamber tests were conducted using automobile exhaust gas generated during emission tests with a group of alternatively fueled vehicles. he tests were designed to evaluate the photochemical characteristics of organic emissions from vehicles operating on compressed natural ga...

426

An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)

Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

1997-01-01

427

Functional consequences of developmentally regulated alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide analyses of metazoan transcriptomes have revealed an unexpected level of mRNA diversity that is generated by alternative splicing. Recently, regulatory networks have been identified through which splicing promotes dynamic remodeling of the transcriptome to promote physiological changes, which involve robust and coordinated alternative splicing transitions. The regulation of splicing in yeast, worms, flies and vertebrates affects a variety of biological processes. The functional classes of genes that are regulated by alternative splicing include both those with widespread homeostatic activities and genes with cell-type-specific functions. Alternative splicing can drive determinative physiological change or can have a permissive role by providing mRNA variability that is utilized by other regulatory mechanisms.

Kalsotra, Auinash; Cooper, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

428

Alternative Energy Sources for MoDOT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Missouri faces significant challenges related to environmental quality, changes in energy markets, and evolving public interests. Practices for alternative energy have drawn significant research attention in recent years. Missouri has a strong foundation ...

A. Rolufs M. Thomas R. Qin S. Long S. E. Grasman Y. Lin

2011-01-01

429

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

430

Rethinking 'Alternative Analysis' to Address Transnational Threats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding complex transnational issues, such as terrorism and weapons proliferation, requires an alternative analysis approach that is more an ongoing organizational process aimed at promoting 'mindfulness'--continuous wariness of analytic failure--th...

G. Treverton W. Fishbein

2004-01-01

431

Alternative expression analysis by RNA sequencing.  

PubMed

In alternative expression analysis by sequencing (ALEXA-seq), we developed a method to analyze massively parallel RNA sequence data to catalog transcripts and assess differential and alternative expression of known and predicted mRNA isoforms in cells and tissues. As proof of principle, we used the approach to compare fluorouracil-resistant and -nonresistant human colorectal cancer cell lines. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the approach by comparison to exon tiling and splicing microarrays and validated the results with reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR and Sanger sequencing. We observed global disruption of splicing in fluorouracil-resistant cells characterized by expression of new mRNA isoforms resulting from exon skipping, alternative splice site usage and intron retention. Alternative expression annotation databases, source code, a data viewer and other resources to facilitate analysis are available at http://www.alexaplatform.org/alexa_seq/. PMID:20835245

Griffith, Malachi; Griffith, Obi L; Mwenifumbo, Jill; Goya, Rodrigo; Morrissy, A Sorana; Morin, Ryan D; Corbett, Richard; Tang, Michelle J; Hou, Ying-Chen; Pugh, Trevor J; Robertson, Gordon; Chittaranjan, Suganthi; Ally, Adrian; Asano, Jennifer K; Chan, Susanna Y; Li, Haiyan I; McDonald, Helen; Teague, Kevin; Zhao, Yongjun; Zeng, Thomas; Delaney, Allen; Hirst, Martin; Morin, Gregg B; Jones, Steven J M; Tai, Isabella T; Marra, Marco A

2010-10-01

432

Cost Analysis of Blood Banking Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study reviews the present state of blood donations and blood banks in the nation today. It offers several alternatives for upgrading the present situation and makes several salient recommendations, including: 1. The DHEW should assure responsibility f...

T. Miller M. King J. Flannagan E. Nilsson B. Lemieux

1972-01-01

433

INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

434

Alternative Energy Systems in Rural Mauritania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains background data and recommendations on the potential of simple demonstration projects in the use of alternate energy sources in Mauritania, West Africa. The study is limited to those energy applications which would use the materials a...

D. C. Dunham

1977-01-01

435

Alternative-Fuels Utilization Report. No. 10.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview is given of the Methane Transportation RD and D Act of 1980 and the Alternative Fuels Utilization Programs (AFUP) gaseous fuels program plan is described, including an account of current work completed under AFUP sponsorship and future project...

1983-01-01

436

30 CFR 75.1506 - Refuge alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alternative or safe exit. However, the operator may request and the District Manager may approve a different location in the ERP. The operator's request shall be based on an assessment of the risk to persons in outby areas, considering the...

2013-07-01

437

Technological Feasibility of Alternative Energy Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US energy shortage is discussed. The technology of coal gasification or liquefication, shale oil from oil shale, and geothermal energy recovery is presented in sufficient detail to show feasibility of these as energy source alternatives to petroleum c...

M. L. Zweigle

1974-01-01

438

Alternative Energy Sources for Wastewater Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies...

1988-01-01

439

Alternate Fuels for use in Commercial Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engine and commercial aircraft research and development communities have been investigating the practicality of using alternative fuels in near, mid, and far-term aircraft. Presently, it appears that an approach of using a \\

David L. Daggett; Robert C. Hendricks; Edwin Corporan

440

DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVES TO PLASTIC MULCH  

EPA Science Inventory

We propose a project to raise awareness of pollution associated with the production, use and disposal of plastic films/ sheeting used as mulch, and to work with farmers and industry partners to develop a biodegradable, sustainable alternative to plastic mulch. ...

441

Creating an Alternative Parameter Optimization Method (APO).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current project goals are (1) to couple a numerical optimization scheme to an existing airfoil design code to enable multiple-objective optimization, targeted optimization, and alternative airfoil definition; and (2) to demonstrate validation/application ...

W. C. Forrest

1994-01-01

442

21 CFR 640.120 - Alternative procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...subchapter F of chapter I of title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations regarding blood, blood components...alternative procedures and exceptions periodically in the Federal Register . [55 FR 10423, Mar. 21, 1990, as...

2011-04-01

443

Alternatives to Paper-and-Pencil Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that some student products, performances, and skills are not suited to evaluation using paper-and-pencil tests. Describes three alternative methods for evaluating student achievement using rating scales, checklists, and anecdotal records. (PGD)

Cornett, Joe D.

1982-01-01

444

Lake Phosphorus Loading Graphs: An Alternative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As an alternative to loading graphs, a graph of mean influent phosphorus concentration versus phosphorus retention capacity is proposed to express the relationship between phosphorus supply and hydraulic flow to, and resultant trophic state of, lakes. Lin...

D. P. Larsen H. T. Mercier

1975-01-01

445

World futures: A critical analysis of alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews and analyzes the future studies on multiple issues (food, population, economics, resources, values and political structures). It shows how differences arise from alternative world views, competing methodologies and theories, and contradictory evidence.

Hughes, B.B.

1985-01-01

446

Fiber Optic Gyroscope with Alternating Output Signal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates generally to Sagnac fiber-optic rotation-sensing interferometers and more particularly to a Sagnac fiber-optic rotation-sensing interferometer which produces an alternating output signal. The Sagnac rotation sensing interfero...

S. C. Rashleigh

1982-01-01

447

Alternative New Energy Options for Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief survey is presented on the technology state of development and economics of the new alternative energy sources which might in the future become viable energy options for Brazil. (Atomindex citation 10:463789)

J. A. Lane

1978-01-01

448

Directory of Resources for Educational Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists 34 resources related to alternative education, including parent organizations, graduate programs, Web sites, clearinghouses, journals, advocacy groups, publishers, newsletters, and national organizations. Listings include contact information and a brief description. (LP)

Paths of Learning: Options for Families & Communities, 1999

1999-01-01

449

Alternating Current Electrocoagulation for Superfund Site Remediation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) was evaluated for a 2-year period. ACE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous media for the ...

N. P. Barkley C. W. Farrell T. W. Gardner-Clayson

1993-01-01

450

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-01-01

451

Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 5  

SciTech Connect

In this issue of the Alternative Fuel News, the authors remember what happened just 25 years ago (the energy crisis of 1973) and reiterate that foreign oil dependence is still a national issue. Highlighted are some the successes in the Clean Cities Program and the alternative fuels industry. Also featured is the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition (NGVC) and the United States Postal Service (USPS) delivers with AFVs.

NREL

1999-01-06

452

Patients With Diabetes Using Alternative Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians need for valid information on herbal medicinal products is considerable. In the United States, the popularity of\\u000a complementary and alternative medicine is growing at a remarkable, and possibly concerning, rate (1). In particular, herbal medicine has grown faster than any other complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatment method\\u000a in the United States (1,2). The top-selling herbal medicinal products in

Dugald Seely; Edward Mills; Beth Rachlis

453

Alternatives to animal experimentation: the regulatory background.  

PubMed

The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political world to feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry. PMID:15982684

Garthoff, Bernward

2005-09-01

454

Alternative expression analysis by RNA sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In alternative expression analysis by sequencing (ALEXA-seq), we developed a method to analyze massively parallel RNA sequence data to catalog transcripts and assess differential and alternative expression of known and predicted mRNA isoforms in cells and tissues. As proof of principle, we used the approach to compare fluorouracil-resistant and -nonresistant human colorectal cancer cell lines. We assessed the sensitivity and

Malachi Griffith; Obi L Griffith; Jill Mwenifumbo; Rodrigo Goya; A Sorana Morrissy; Ryan D Morin; Richard Corbett; Michelle J Tang; Ying-Chen Hou; Trevor J Pugh; Gordon Robertson; Suganthi Chittaranjan; Adrian Ally; Jennifer K Asano; Susanna Y Chan; Haiyan I Li; Helen McDonald; Kevin Teague; Yongjun Zhao; Thomas Zeng; Allen Delaney; Martin Hirst; Gregg B Morin; Steven J M Jones; Isabella T Tai; Marco A Marra

2010-01-01

455

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter J. Tijrn

2000-06-30

456

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

none

1998-07-01

457

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter Tijrn

2003-02-03

458

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter Tijrn

2003-01-02

459

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2001-12-31

460

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2001-09-30

461

Regulation of alternative splicing within the supraspliceosome.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is a fundamental feature in regulating the eukaryotic transcriptome, as ~95% of multi-exon human Pol II transcripts are subject to this process. Regulated splicing operates through the combinatorial interplay of positive and negative regulatory signals present in the pre-mRNA, which are recognized by trans-acting factors. All these RNA and protein components are assembled in a gigantic, 21 MDa, ribonucleoprotein splicing machine - the supraspliceosome. Because most alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms vary between different cell and tissue types, the ability to perform alternative splicing is expected to be an integral part of the supraspliceosome, which constitutes the splicing machine in vivo. Here we show that both the constitutively and alternatively spliced mRNAs of the endogenous human pol II transcripts: hnRNP A/B, survival of motor neuron (SMN) and ADAR2 are predominantly found in supraspliceosomes. This finding is consistent with our observations that the splicing regulators hnRNP G as well as all phosphorylated SR proteins are predominantly associated with supraspliceosomes. We further show that changes in alternative splicing of hnRNP A/B, affected by up regulation of SRSF5 (SRp40) or by treatment with C6-ceramide, occur within supraspliceosomes. These observations support the proposed role of the supraspliceosome in splicing regulation and alternative splicing. PMID:22100336

Sebbag-Sznajder, Naama; Raitskin, Oleg; Angenitzki, Minna; Sato, Taka-Aki; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth

2012-01-01

462

Space Power Demonstration Engine linear alternator dynamometer test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify the alternator bench test and finite element code results, it was decided to test the Space Power Demonstration Engine (SPDE) alternator on a linear dynamometer. The dynamometer tests confirmed that the primary source of losses in the SPDE alternator assembly was the adjacent magnetic structure and not the alternator proper. Alternator efficiency above 90% was demonstrated by substitution

M. Dhar; J. Rauch; S. Huang; R. Bolton

1989-01-01

463

27 CFR 19.26 - Alternate methods or procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 19.26 Section 19.26 ...Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental Operations § 19.26 Alternate methods or procedures. (a) General. The...

2013-04-01

464

27 CFR 19.693 - Operating requirements for alternating proprietorships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...proprietorships. (a) Alternation journal. Once the applications submitted...proprietor must make entries in an alternation journal when the alcohol fuel plant, or parts...following information in the alternation journal: (1) Name or trade name of the...

2013-04-01

465

48 CFR 1414.201-70 - Alternate bids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...201-70 Alternate bids. (a) Solicitations...services (other than construction) shall specify whether alternate bids are permitted...be used in non-construction contracts where additive...deductive alternate bids will be...

2010-10-01

466

ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS: A FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY DECISION-MAKING  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions about land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in Oregon's Willamette River Basin. Three alternative future landscapes for the year 2050 were depicted and compare...

467

40 CFR 61.351 - Alternative standards for tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alternative standards for tanks. 61.351 Section...Alternative standards for tanks. (a) As an alternative to the standards for tanks specified in § 61...following: (1) A fixed roof and internal floating roof meeting the...

2013-07-01

468

21 CFR 1271.155 - Exemptions and alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Request for exemption or alternative . Submit your...description of a proposed alternative method of meeting the requirement...granting an exemption or alternative . The Director may...You may apply for an extension of an exemption...

2010-04-01

469

21 CFR 1271.155 - Exemptions and alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Request for exemption or alternative . Submit your...description of a proposed alternative method of meeting the requirement...granting an exemption or alternative . The Director may...You may apply for an extension of an exemption...

2009-04-01

470

IMPROVING ALTERNATIVES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental impact assessment (EIA), in the US, requires an objective and rigorous analysis of alternatives. Yet the choice of alternatives for that analysis can be subjective and arbitrary. Alternatives often reflect narrow project objectives, agency agendas, and predilecti...

471

48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section 211.272 Federal...Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include...

2013-10-01

472

48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. 211... 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use...211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in...

2010-10-01

473

48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. 211... 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use...211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in...

2009-10-01

474

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2011-07-01

475

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2012-07-01

476

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2010-07-01

477

49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1 Section 1146.1 Transportation...EMERGENCIES § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2013-10-01

478

49 CFR 1147.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1147.1 Section 1147.1 Transportation...INADEQUACIES § 1147.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2013-10-01

479

Meeting Report: Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing  

PubMed Central

Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternatives to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. To address this need, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Toxicology Program are collaborating in a program called TestSmart DNT, the goals of which are to: (a) develop alternative methodologies for identifying and prioritizing chemicals and exposures that may cause developmental neurotoxicity in humans; (b) develop the policies for incorporating DNT alternatives into regulatory decision making; and (c) identify opportunities for reducing, refining, or replacing the use of animals in DNT. The first TestSmart DNT workshop was an open registration meeting held 13–15 March 2006 in Reston, Virginia. The primary objective was to bring together stakeholders (test developers, test users, regulators, and advocates for children’s health, animal welfare, and environmental health) and individuals representing diverse disciplines (developmental neurobiology, toxicology, policy, and regulatory science) from around the world to share information and concerns relating to the science and policy of DNT. Individual presentations are available at the CAAT TestSmart website. This report provides a synthesis of workgroup discussions and recommendations for future directions and priorities, which include initiating a systematic evaluation of alternative models and technologies, developing a framework for the creation of an open database to catalog DNT data, and devising a strategy for harmonizing the validation process across international jurisdictional borders.

Lein, Pamela; Locke, Paul; Goldberg, Alan

2007-01-01

480

Alternative delivery systems in rural areas.  

PubMed Central

Alternative delivery systems, such as HMOs, PPOs, and primary care case-management programs, have a long history in rural America despite significant impediments to their development. However, little is known about the effect of these systems on rural communities and their medical care delivery systems. Existing studies, which focus on rural HMOs, are qualitative in nature and generally are directed at identifying factors that facilitate or retard HMO development. Despite their limitations, the studies do raise a variety of issues deserving of quantitative analysis. Research is now needed that (1) investigates the effect of rural alternative delivery systems on the cost and quality of care received by rural residents, (2) assesses the effectiveness of different mechanisms used by these systems to contain costs, (3) estimates the effect of alternative delivery systems on rural providers, (4) determines the extent to which the presence or absence of alternative delivery systems influences physician decisions to locate in rural areas, (5) identifies factors that are important in consumer decisions to enroll or not enroll in a rural alternative delivery system, and (6) analyzes the diffusion patterns of these systems in rural areas.

Christianson, J B

1989-01-01

481

Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.

Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

1994-10-01

482

Alternative C-Terminal Helix Orientation Alters Chemokine Function  

PubMed Central

Chemokines, a subfamily of cytokines, are small, secreted proteins that mediate a variety of biological processes. Various chemokines adopt remarkable conserved tertiary structure comprising an anti-parallel ?-sheet core domain followed by a C-terminal helix that packs onto the ?-sheet. The conserved structural feature has been considered critical for chemokine function, including binding to cell surface receptor. The recently isolated variant, CXCL4L1, is a homologue of CXCL4 chemokine (or platelet factor 4) with potent anti-angiogenic activity and differed only in three amino acid residues of P58L, K66E, and L67H. In this study we show by x-ray structural determination that CXCL4L1 adopts a previously unrecognized structure at its C terminus. The orientation of the C-terminal helix protrudes into the aqueous space to expose the entire helix. The alternative helix orientation modifies the overall chemokine shape and surface properties. The L67H mutation is mainly responsible for the swing-out effect of the helix, whereas mutations of P58L and K66E only act secondarily. This is the first observation that reports an open conformation of the C-terminal helix in a chemokine. This change leads to a decrease of its glycosaminoglycan binding properties and to an enhancement of its anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects. This unique structure is recent in evolution and has allowed CXCL4L1 to gain novel functional properties.

Kuo, Je-Hung; Chen, Ya-Ping; Liu, Jai-Shin; Dubrac, Alexandre; Quemener, Cathy; Prats, Herve; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Wu, Wen-guey; Sue, Shih-Che

2013-01-01

483

Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. Results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Postconsolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

1995-12-31

484

Engineering fibrin polymers through engagement of alternative polymerization mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Fibrin is an attractive material for regenerative medicine applications. It not only forms a polymer but also contains cryptic matrikines that are released upon its activation/degradation and enhance the regenerative process. Despite this advantageous biology associated with fibrin, commercially available systems (e.g. TISSEEL) display limited regenerative capacity. This limitation is in part due to formulations that are optimized for tissue sealant applications and result in dense fibrous networks that limit cell infiltration. Recent evidence suggests that polymerization knob ‘B’ engagement of polymerization hole ‘b’ activates an alternative polymerization mechanism in fibrin, which may result in altered single fiber mechanical properties. We hypothesized that augmenting fibrin polymerization through the addition of PEGylated knob peptides with specificity to hole ‘b’ (AHRPYAAC-PEG) would result in distinct fibrin polymer architectures with grossly different physical properties. Polymerization dynamics, polymer architecture, diffusivity, viscoelasticity, and degradation dynamics were analyzed. Results indicate that specific engagement of hole ‘b’ with PEGylated knob ‘B’ conjugates during polymerization significantly enhances the porosity of and subsequent diffusivity through fibrin polymers. Paradoxically, these polymers also display increased viscoelastic properties and decreased susceptibility to degradation. As a result, fibrin polymer strength was significantly augmented without any adverse effects on angiogenesis within the modified polymers.

Stabenfeldt, Sarah E.; Gourley, Merek; Krishnan, Laxminarayanan; Hoying, James B.; Barker, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

485

Distinct Types of Disorder in the Human Proteome: Functional Implications for Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Intrinsically disordered regions have been associated with various cellular processes and are implicated in several human diseases, but their exact roles remain unclear. We previously defined two classes of conserved disordered regions in budding yeast, referred to as “flexible” and “constrained” conserved disorder. In flexible disorder, the property of disorder has been positionally conserved during evolution, whereas in constrained disorder, both the amino acid sequence and the property of disorder have been conserved. Here, we show that flexible and constrained disorder are widespread in the human proteome, and are particularly common in proteins with regulatory functions. Both classes of disordered sequences are highly enriched in regions of proteins that undergo tissue-specific (TS) alternative splicing (AS), but not in regions of proteins that undergo general (i.e., not tissue-regulated) AS. Flexible disorder is more highly enriched in TS alternative exons, whereas constrained disorder is more highly enriched in exons that flank TS alternative exons. These latter regions are also significantly more enriched in potential phosphosites and other short linear motifs associated with cell signaling. We further show that cancer driver mutations are significantly enriched in regions of proteins associated with TS and general AS. Collectively, our results point to distinct roles for TS alternative exons and flanking exons in the dynamic regulation of protein interaction networks in response to signaling activity, and they further suggest that alternatively spliced regions of proteins are often functionally altered by mutations responsible for cancer.

Michaut, Magali; Sun, Mark; Irimia, Manuel; Bellay, Jeremy; Myers, Chad L.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Kim, Philip M.

2013-01-01

486

49 CFR 229.209 - Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. 229.209 Section 229.209 ...STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.209 Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. (a) General . The...

2013-10-01

487

A technique to form a porous silicon layer with no backside contact by alternating current electrochemical process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the formation of porous silicon under alternating current conditions. Instead of applying the usual direct current electrochemical process, an alternating current was applied with a given frequency and peak voltage. The porous silicon layer properties are equivalent to the properties that would be achieved by the standard direct current formation technique (i.e., same porosity level). The main advantages of this process are: (a) The alternating current formed porous silicon exhibits higher mechanical stability during the drying step than layers formed using the standard direct current technique. (b) The alternating current process can be performed without a deposited backside contact. These simplify the process and permit its integration with high temperature processing steps and clean furnaces of a modern very large sale-integrated technology.

El-Bahar, A.; Nemirovsky, Y.

2000-07-01

488

Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field  

DOEpatents

One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

1993-01-01

489

Alternating current long range alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

1993-02-16

490

World Bank: Asia Alternative Energy Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of private and public concerns continue to search for alternative energy sources, and some of them have contributed mightily to the wide array of emerging technologies in this important area. The Asia Alternative Energy Program (ASTAE) was created in 1992 by the World Bank in order to maintain support for a broad range of alternative energy projects and related activities throughout Asia. ASTAE partners and staff members work with a portfolio valued at over $1.3 billion in order to identify such projects, and those interested in such projects would do well to take a closer look through this site. Some of the resources on the site include a number of reports, informational tables about their lending operations, and a selection of additional Web-based resources. The site concludes with a short video that describes recent achievements in increasing access to modern energy services in several client countries served by such endeavors.

2006-01-10

491

World Bank: Asia Alternative Energy Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of private and public concerns continue to search for alternative energy sources, and some of them have contributed mightily to the wide array of emerging technologies in this important area. The Asia Alternative Energy Program (ASTAE) was created in 1992 by the World Bank in order to maintain support for a broad range of alternative energy projects and related activities throughout Asia. ASTAE partners and staff members work with a portfolio valued at over $1.3 billion in order to identify such projects, and those interested in such projects would do well to take a closer look through this site. Some of the resources on the site include a number of reports, informational tables about their lending operations, and a selection of additional Web-based resources. The site concludes with a short video that describes recent achievements in increasing access to modern energy services in several client countries served by such endeavors.

2005-01-01

492

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Johns Hopkins School for Public Health established the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) in 1981. Although the concept of devising alternatives to animal testing is controversial, the CAAT website dispels the myths about the efficacy of using animals in testing everything from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics to medical procedures. Visitors interested in listening to or watching presentations about alternatives to animal testing should check out the "Media Center" for the link to the "CAAT Youtube Channel". Visitors interested in taking a free online course offered by CAAT entitled "Humane Science Course", should check out the "Resources" tab. The course consists of 12 audio lectures, slides, resource lists, and study questions presented by Johns Hopkins School for Public Health faculty. The course addresses experimental design, pain management, post-surgical care, environmental enrichment, and the impact of animals' stress levels on the quality of data.

493

Evidence for Valence Alternation in Amorphous Selenium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular-dynamics simulation has been carried out for amorphous selenium. The simulation used 64 atoms as well as 216 atoms in a constant volume simple cubic cell. The pair correlation function g(r) and structure factors S(Q) were computed and compared with experimental and previous theoretical data. The coordination number is exactly 2 in both 64 atoms and 216 atoms model. In 64 atoms model, only 1 intimate valence alternation pair (IVAP) type defect was produced. The majority defect types are IVAP and valence alternation pair (VAP) in 216 atoms model. The electronic density function of state and the localization of the electronic state also manisfest some characternistic of VAP defect type. The results give a theoretical evidence for valence alternation in a-Se.

Xiaodong, Zhang; Drabold, D. A.

1998-05-01

494

Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

Williams, L. J.

1976-01-01

495

The electric vehicle alternative. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis discusses three basic concepts of economic analysis: the time value of money, life cycle cost, and reliability theory. Using these concepts, a method of economic analysis is developed to be used in evaluating the possible replacement of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs). This methodology is then demonstrated by comparing two possible alternatives for replacement of the existing