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Sample records for alternative dunford-pettis property

  1. The Dunford-Pettis and the Kadec-Klee properties on tensor products of JB*-triples

    E-print Network

    Peralta, Antonio M.

    The Dunford-Pettis and the Kadec-Klee properties on tensor products of JB*-triples Julio Becerra of 1. When this result is particularized to the class of Banach spaces called JB*-triples (see definition below) we conclude that the projective tensor product of two JB*-triples E and F has the DPP

  2. ERRATA CORRECTION TO DENTABILITY, TREES, AND DUNFORD-PETTIS OPERATORS ON L1

    E-print Network

    Girardi, Maria

    and the Bocce oscillation of f on A respectively are mAf R A f d A and Bocce-osc f A R A jf ,mAfjd A observing-osc f A j mEf ,mAf j : Furthermore, for each subset E of A with 2E = A, j mEf ,mAf j Bocce-osc f

  3. Biodiesel properties and alternative feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defined as the long-chain fatty acid monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats, or other lipids, biodiesel is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel h...

  4. Properties, Processes & Change Alternative Representations: Spectral, Physical , Thematic

    E-print Network

    Small, Christopher

    Properties, Processes & Change Alternative Representations: Spectral, Physical , Thematic - Is the result valid across spatial scales? Can it be aggregated? Change Detection - Can change be interpreted Band2 Thematic Image Classification - Statistical · Image pixel samples of known composition define

  5. 40 CFR 35.6315 - Alternative methods for obtaining property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alternative methods for obtaining property. (a) Purchase equipment with recipient funds. The recipient may purchase equipment with the recipient's own funds and may charge EPA a fee for using equipment on a CERCLA... Government. (c) Lease, use contractor services, or purchase with CERCLA funds. To acquire equipment...

  6. Physical properties of alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclinden, Mark O.

    1990-01-01

    Presented here are recommended values and correlations of selected physical properties of several alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorocarbons. The quality of the data used in this compilation varies widely, ranging from well-documented, high accuracy measurements from published sources to completely undocumented values listed on anonymous data sheets. That some of the properties for some fluids are available only from the latter type of source is clearly not the desired state of affairs. While some would reject all such data, the compilation given here is presented in the spirit of laying out the present state of knowledge and making available a set of data in a timely manner, even though its quality is sometimes uncertain. The correlations presented here are certain to change quickly as additional information becomes available.

  7. Dual properties of spacetime under an alternative Lorentz transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.

    1988-12-01

    In flat spacetime, the fourth space coordinate in special relativity (SR) is equivalent to the coordinate time tE. We will show, however, that this definition of physical time is not unique. Another natural choice of coordinate time, tA, with absolute synchronization is allowed. Spacetime would exhibit dual properties, namely relativistic and absolute. In an arbitrary inertial frame, the relationship of the above two kinds of coordinate time corresponds to a resynchronization, and the Lorentz transformations can be written in an alternative form, which is called the generalized Galilean transformation (GGT). Although the absolute property is still hidden in nearly all types of experiments, the advantages of the above approach are as follows: (1) It will give us a deeper understanding of SR, including the basis of length contraction, time dilation and the interaction between moving objects and the physical vacuum. (2) It will provide a wider research domain than SR; for example, superluminal motion is predicted and has obtained growing experimental support.

  8. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  9. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT ALTERNATIVES: PICILLO PROPERTY, COVENTRY, RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the second phase of a two-phase investigation undertaken by the MITRE Corp. to determine the nature and severity of ground and surface water contamination at the Picillo property in Coventry, Rhode Island and to make recommendations for permanent abatement o...

  10. Classifying Properties: An Alternative to the Safety-Liveness Classification

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    classified as safety or liveness properties. While this taxonomy has an at- tractive simplicity and is useful and ŁThis research was partially supported by the Air Force Research Lab- oratory/IFTD and the Defense of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Air Force Research Laboratory/IFTD, the U.S. Government

  11. Classifying Properties: An Alternative to the Safety-Liveness Classification

    E-print Network

    Naumovich, Gleb

    classified as safety or liveness properties. While this taxonomy has an at- tractive simplicity and is useful can be automatically determined. ˇ This research was partially supported by the Air Force Research Lab or endorsements, either expressed or implied of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Air Force

  12. Classifying Properties: An Alternative to the SafetyLiveness Classification

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    classified as safety or liveness properties. While this taxonomy has an at­ tractive simplicity and is useful; This research was partially supported by the Air Force Research Lab­ oratory/IFTD and the Defense Advanced of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Air Force Research Laboratory/IFTD, the U.S. Government

  13. Classifying Properties: An Alternative to the SafetyLiveness Classification

    E-print Network

    Naumovich, Gleb

    classified as safety or liveness properties. While this taxonomy has an at­ tractive simplicity and is useful can be automatically determined. #3; This research was partially supported by the Air Force Research or endorsements, either expressed or implied of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Air Force

  14. Effect of alternative aging and accident simulations on polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Gaussens, G.; LeMeur, M.

    1984-01-01

    The response of eighteen US and French polymer materials to variations in aging and accident simulation techniques has been determined by this experimental program. This information will provide a partial data base by which to judge appropriate simulation practices. The overall research goal was to determine whether some aging and accident simulation techniques are better suited for qualification activities than other alternative simulation techniques.

  15. Alternate Methods to Experimentally Investigate Shock Initiation Properties of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svingala, Forrest; Lee, Richard; Sutherland, Gerrit; Samuels, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Reactive flow models are desired for many new explosives early in the formulation development stage. Traditionally, these models are parameterized by carefully-controlled 1-D shock experiments, including gas-gun testing with embedded gauges and wedge testing with explosive plane wave lenses (PWL). These experiments are easy to interpret, due to their 1-D nature, but are generally expensive to perform, and cannot be performed at all explosive test facilities. We investigate alternative methods to probe shock-initiation behavior of new explosives using widely-available pentolite gap test donors and simple time-of-arrival type diagnostics. These methods can be performed at a low cost at virtually any explosives testing facility, which allows experimental data to parameterize reactive flow models to be collected much earlier in the development of an explosive formulation. However, the fundamentally 2-D nature of these tests may increase the modeling burden in parameterizing these models, and reduce general applicability. Several variations of the so-called modified gap test were investigated and evaluated for suitability as an alternative to established 1-D gas gun and PWL techniques. At least partial agreement with 1-D test methods was observed for the explosives tested, and future work is planned to scope the applicability and limitations of these experimental techniques.

  16. Tumorigenic properties of alternative osteopontin isoforms in mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Sergey V.; Ivanova, Alla V.; Goparaju, Chandra M.V.; Chen, Yuanbin; Beck, Amanda; Pass, Harvey I.

    2009-05-08

    Osteopontin (SPP1) is an inflammatory cytokine that we previously characterized as a diagnostic marker in patients with asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma (MM). While SPP1 shows both pro- and anti-tumorigenic biological effects, little is known about the molecular basis of these activities. In this study, we demonstrate that while healthy pleura possesses all three differentially spliced SPP1 isoforms (A-C), in clinical MM specimens isoform A is markedly up-regulated and predominant. To provide a clue to possible functions of the SPP1 isoforms we next performed their functional evaluation via transient expression in MM cell lines. As a result, we report that isoforms A-C demonstrate different activities in cell proliferation, wound closure, and invasion assays. These findings suggest different functions for SPP1 isoforms and underline pro-tumorigenic properties of isoforms A and B.

  17. Dual properties of spacetime under an alternative Lorentz transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    A coordinate time, t(A), with absolute synchronization is defined as an alternative fourth spatial coordinate for model universes with flat space-time, and the theoretical implications of t(A) are explored in detail. Particular attention is given to a t(A)-based reformulation of the Lorentz transformation, the generalized Galilean transformation, which is found to offer significant advantages in understanding special-relativistic phenomena such as length contraction, time dilation, and the interaction of objects with the physical vacuum. With respect to astrophysical observations of superluminal motion, it is shown that the problem of causality violation can be avoided; the theory also predicts that weak anisotropic effects may be detectable in the earth reference frame.

  18. Effect of alternative aging and accident simulations on polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Gaussens, G.; LeMeur, M.

    1985-05-01

    The influence of accident irradiation, steam, and chemical spray exposures on the behavior of twenty-three age-preconditioned polymer sample sets (twenty-one different materials) has been investigated. The test program varied the following conditions: (1) Accident simulations of irradiation and thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) conditions were performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (2) Accident thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) exposures were performed both with and without air present during the exposures. (3) Sequential accident irradiations were performed both at 28/sup 0/C and 70/sup 0/C. (4) Age preconditioning was performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (5) Sequential aging irradiations were performed both at 27/sup 0/C and 70/sup 0/C. (6) Sequential aging exposures were performed using two sequences: (1) thermal followed by irradiation and (2) irradiation followed by thermal. We report both general trends applicable to a majority of the tested materials as well as specific results for each polymer. Our data base consists of ultimate tensile properties at the completion of the accident exposure for three XLPO and XLPE, five EPR and EPDM, two CSPE (HYPALON), one CPE, one VAMAC, one polydiallylphtalate, and one PPS material. We also report bend test results at completion of the accident exposures for two TEFZEL materials and permanent set after compression results for three EPR, one VAMAC, one BUNA N, one SILICONE, and one VITON material.

  19. PHYSICAL PROPERTY DATA ON FLUORINATED PROPANES AND BUTANES AS CFC AND HCFC ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of the measurement and estimation of the physical properties of fluorinated propane derivatives as second generation alternatives for currently used CFC and HCFC chemicals. ne fluorinated ether was also studied. NOTE: lthough synthesis of the derivativ...

  20. Examination of physical properties of fuels and mixtures with alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lown, Anne Lauren

    ABSTRACT. EXAMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FUELS AND MIXTURES WITH ALTERNATIVE FUELS. By. Anne Lauren Lown. The diversity of alternative fuels is increasing due to new second generation biofuels. By modeling alternative fuels and fuel mixtures, types of fuels can be selected based on their properties, without producing and testing large batches. A number of potential alternative fuels have been tested and modeled to determine their impact when blended with traditional diesel and jet fuels. The properties evaluated include cloud point and pour point temperature, cetane number, distillation curve, and speed of sound. This work represents a novel approach to evaluating the properties of alternative fuels and their mixtures with petroleum fuels. Low temperature properties were evaluated for twelve potential biofuel compounds in mixtures with three diesel fuels and one jet fuel. Functional groups tested included diesters, esters, ketones, and ethers, and alkanes were used for comparison. Alkanes, ethers, esters, and ketones with a low melting point temperature were found to decrease the fuel cloud point temperature. Diesters added to fuels display an upper critical solution temperature, and multiple methods were used to confirm the presence of liquid-liquid immiscibility. These behaviors are independent of chain length and branching, as long as the melting point temperature of the additive is not significantly higher than the cloud point temperature of the fuel. Physical properties were estimated for several potential fuel additive molecules using group contribution methods. Quantum chemical calculations were used for ideal gas heat capacities. Fuel surrogates for three petroleum based fuels and six alternative fuels were developed. The cloud point temperature, distillation curve, cetane number, and average molecular weight for different fuel surrogates were simultaneously represented. The proposed surrogates use the experimental mass fractions of paraffins, and the experimental concentrations of mono- and di-aromatics, isoparaffins, and naphthenics. The surrogates represent both low and high temperature properties better than most surrogates in the literature. Three different methods were developed to predict the cetane number of alternative fuels and their mixtures with JP-8, a military jet fuel. The same six alternative fuels were distilled, as well as blended with JP-8, and the cetane numbers measured. The Ghosh and Jaffe model represented the neat fuels with pseudocomponents to predict the cetane numbers of blends. This model worked well for the neat fuels, but the mixture behavior was predicted with incorrect curvature. The second and third methods used near infrared (NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to correlate the cetane number. The correlation provides prediction of the cetane numbers of the blends based on spectral measurements. Both the FTIR and NIR correlations are able to predict mixture cetane numbers within experimental error, but the NIR model was found to be the most reliable of all three methods. Finally, the SAFT-BACK and ESD equations of state were used to model the density and speed of sound for hydrocarbons at elevated pressures. The SAFT-BACK equation was found to be more accurate, and the model was extended to predicting the speed of sound. Mixtures of hydrocarbons were also predicted, but the SAFT-BACK is limited in capability for representing compressed alkanes heavier than octane.

  1. Osthole: A Review on Its Bioactivities, Pharmacological Properties, and Potential as Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong-Rong; Leung, Wing Nang; Cheung, Ho Yee; Chan, Chun Wai

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest understanding of biological and pharmacological properties of osthole (7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one), a natural product found in several medicinal plants such as Cnidium monnieri and Angelica pubescens. In vitro and in vivo experimental results have revealed that osthole demonstrates multiple pharmacological actions including neuroprotective, osteogenic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular protective, and antimicrobial activities. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies showed osthole uptake and utilization are fast and efficient in body. Moreover, the mechanisms of multiple pharmacological activities of osthole are very likely related to the modulatory effect on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cGMP) level, though some mechanisms remain unclear. This review aims to summarize the pharmacological properties of osthole and give an overview of the underlying mechanisms, which showcase its potential as a multitarget alternative medicine. PMID:26246843

  2. Numerical evaluation of the light transport properties of alternative He-3 neutron detectors using ceramic scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohzu, A.; Takase, M.; Haruyama, M.; Kurata, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Kureta, M.; Nakamura, T.; Toh, K.; Sakasai, K.; Suzuki, H.; Soyama, K.; Seya, M.

    2015-10-01

    The light transport properties of scintillator light inside alternative He-3 neutron detectors using scintillator sheets have been investigated by a ray-tracing simulation code. The detector consists of a light-reflecting tube, a thin rectangular ceramic scintillator sheet laminated on a glass plate, and two photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) mounted at both ends of the detector tube. The flashes of light induced on the surface of the scintillator sheet via nuclear interaction between the scintillator and neutrons are detected by the two PMTs. The light output at both ends of various detectors in which the scintillator sheets are installed with several different arrangements were examined and evaluated in comparison with experimental results. The results derived from the simulation reveal that the light transport property is strongly dependent on the arrangement of the scintillator sheet inside the tube and the shape of the tube.

  3. Consideration of Alternate Working Fluid Properties in Gas Lubricated Foil Journal Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program at the NASA Glenn Research center is committed to, revolutionary improvements in performance, efficiency and reliability of turbomachinery propulsion systems. One of the key breakthroughs by which this goal is being achieved is the maturation of air lubricated foil bearing technology. Through experimental testing, foil bearings have demonstrated a variety of exceptional qualities that show them to have an important role in the future of rotordynamic lubrication. Most of the work done with foil bearings thus far has considered ambient air at atmospheric pressure as the working fluid or lubricating fluid in the bearing. However, special applications of oil-free technology require the use of air at non- standard ambient conditions or completely different working fluids altogether. The NASA Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter program presents power generation needs far beyond that of any previous space exploration effort. The proposed spacecraft will require significant power generation to provide the propulsion necessary to reach the moons of Jupiter and navigate between them. Once there, extensive scientific research will be conducted that will also present significant power requirements. Such extreme needs require exploring a new method for power generation in space. A proposed solution involves a Brayton cycle nuclear fission reactor. The nature of this application requires reliable performance of all reactor components for many years of operation under demanding conditions. This includes the bearings which will be operating with an alternative working fluid that is a combination of Helium and Xenon gases commonly known as HeXe. This fluid has transport and thermal properties that vary significantly from that of air and the effect of these property differences on bearing performance must be considered. One of the most promising applications of oil-free technology is in aircraft turbine engines. Eliminating the oil supply systems from aircraft engines will lead to significant weight and maintenance reduction. In such applications, the lubricating fluid will be high altitude air. This air will be at much lower pressure than that at sea level. Again this property change will result in a change in bearing performance, and analysis is required to quantify this effect. The study of these alternate working fluid properties will be conducted in two ways: analytically and experimentally. Analytical research will include the use of a mathematical code that can predict film thickness profiles for various ambient conditions. Estimations of load capacity can be made based upon the film thickness trends. These values will then be compared to those obtained from classical rigid bearing analysis. Experimental Research will include testing a foil bearing at a variety of ambient air pressures. The analytical and experimental data will be compared to draw conclusions on bearing performance under alternate working fluid properties.

  4. Copper dynamics under alternating redox conditions is influenced by soil properties and contamination source.

    PubMed

    Balint, Ramona; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of soil redox conditions on contaminant dynamics is of significant importance for evaluating their lability, mobility and potential transfer to other environmental compartments. Under changing redox conditions, soil properties and constituents such as Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and organic matter (OM) may influence the behavior of associated metallic elements (MEs). In this work, the redox-driven release and redistribution of Cu between different soil pools was studied in three soils having different contamination sources. This was achieved by subjecting soil columns to a series of alternating reducing and oxidizing cycles under non-limiting C conditions, and assessing their influence on soil pore water, leachate and solid phase composition. Results showed that, in all soils, alternating redox conditions led to an increase in the distribution of Cu in the more labile fractions, consequently enhancing its susceptibility to loss. This was generally linked to the redox-driven cycling of Fe, Mn and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In fact, results suggested that the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and subsequent reprecipitation as poorly-ordered phases under oxic conditions contributed to the release and mobilization of Cu and/or Cu-containing organometallic complexes. However, the behavior of Cu, as well as the mechanisms controlling Cu release and loss with redox cycling, was influenced by both soil properties (e.g. pH, contents of easily reducible Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides) and source of Cu contamination. PMID:25561428

  5. An Alternative Algorithm for Ice Cloud Property Retrieval Using NPOESS/VIIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Q.; Welch, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    The current algorithm for ice cloud property retrieval developed for VIIRS is based on six measured size distributions obtained from aircraft measurements at different regions and seasons (Ou et al. 2003), which is similar to the approach used by MODIS and CERES. These measured size distributions are characterized by one parameter: effective size (diameter or radius). However, it is demonstrated (Han et al. 2005) that the adoption of such measured size distributions leads to inconsistent results in retrieved cloud properties because neglecting the effect of effective variances causes non-monotonic relations between crystal size and single scattering properties. An error of 10 mm in retrieved effective diameter could be resulted in typical cirrus clouds by the ad hoc choice of various measured size distributions. Similar to the cases of spheres (Hansen and Travis 1974) and spheroids (Mishchenko et al. 1996), it is found that single scattering properties of most observed size distributions of hexagonal columns can be adequately characterized by effective radius and effective variance. Therefore, in remote sensing of ice cloud properties, theoretical size distributions with explicitly assumed effective variances should be used, similar to the practice adopted for water clouds. Another issue in ice cloud property retrieval is the various non-spherical shapes of ice crystals. One type of such shapes is pristine columns, plates, and their aggregates and another type is rough surfaced crystal characterized by fractals. There are evidences suggesting regional differences of crystal shapes from aircraft measurements although the dominant crystal shape varies among clouds even within a same region. However, it is not possible in current satellite retrievals to distinguish which type of crystal shape is dominant for a specific scene and therefore it is difficult to know which phase function and single scattering albedo should be used in the retrievals. As a result, different shapes are assumed in satellite retrieval algorithms. For example, the current VIIRS algorithm assumes pristine hexagonal columns, which is different from the algorithm of MODIS that includes specific percentage of different shapes. We have developed an alternative algorithm for ice cloud property retrieval using VIIRS data that is based on theoretical size distributions with explicitly assumed effective variances, in which pristine hexagon and rough surfaced crystals are assumed independently. The practice of assuming a fixed value of ve could be further improved when ve can be retrieved using multi-angle polarized reflectances from upcoming missions like NASA/Glory and NPOESS/APS.

  6. Distinguishing the Effects of Bond-Length Alternation versus Bond-Order Alternation on the Nonlinear Optical Properties of ?-Conjugated Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Gieseking, Rebecca L; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2015-06-18

    Understanding the relationships between the molecular nonlinear optical (NLO) properties and the bond-length alternation (BLA) or ?-bond-order alternation (BOA) along the molecular backbone of linear ?-conjugated systems has proven widely useful in the development of NLO organic chromophores and materials. Here, we examine model polymethines to elucidate the reliability of these relationships. While BLA is solely a measure of molecular geometric structure, BOA includes information pertaining to the electronic structure. As a result, BLA is found to be a good predictor of NLO properties only when optimized geometries are considered, whereas BOA is more broadly applicable. Proper understanding of the distinction between BLA and BOA is critical when designing computational studies of NLO properties, especially for molecules in complex environments or in nonequilibrium geometries. PMID:26266585

  7. Dielectric properties of human diabetic blood: Thermodynamic characterization and new prospective for alternative diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsaci, F.; Ficarra, S.; Russo, A.; Galtieri, A.; Tellone, E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we will show the possibility of studying physical properties and irreversible phenomena that occur in blood by applying the dielectric Kluitenberg's nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory. Namely, we shall use some recent extensions of this theory that allow to infer its main characteristic parameters from experimental measures. Applying these results to the study of normal and diabetic blood we show, by comparing them, that it is possible to determine the difference, in some details, of the amount of particular phenomena occurring inside them and give a biological meaning to these phenomena. Moreover, observing a correspondence between a particular value of the frequency for which state coefficients are equal and glucose levels we introduce an alternative diagnostic method to measure the values of the glucose in the blood by determining only this frequency value. The thermodynamic description will be completed by determining the trend of the entropy production.

  8. Alternative mechanisms alter the emergent properties of self-organization in mussel beds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Weerman, Ellen J.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Olff, Han; van de Koppel, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that spatial self-organization can have important, unexpected implications by affecting the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resilience and productivity. Whether and how these emergent effects depend on specific formulations of the underlying mechanisms are questions that are often ignored. Here, we compare two alternative models of regular spatial pattern formation in mussel beds that have different mechanistic descriptions of the facilitative interactions between mussels. The first mechanism involves a reduced mussel loss rate at high density owing to mutual protection between the mussels, which is the basis of prior studies on the pattern formation in mussels. The second mechanism assumes, based on novel experimental evidence, that mussels feed more efficiently on top of mussel-generated hummocks. Model simulations point out that the second mechanism produces very similar types of spatial patterns in mussel beds. Yet the mechanisms predict a strikingly contrasting effect of these spatial patterns on ecosystem functioning, in terms of productivity and resilience. In the first model, where high mussel densities reduce mussel loss rates, patterns are predicted to strongly increase productivity and decrease the recovery time of the bed following a disturbance. When pattern formation is generated by increased feeding efficiency on hummocks, only minor emergent effects of pattern formation on ecosystem functioning are predicted. Our results provide a warning against predictions of the implications and emergent properties of spatial self-organization, when the mechanisms that underlie self-organization are incompletely understood and not based on the experimental study. PMID:22418256

  9. Hemp Thermal Insulation Concrete with Alternative Binders, Analysis of their Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinka, M.; Sahmenko, G.; Korjakins, A.; Radina, L.; Bajare, D.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main challenges that construction industry faces today is how to address the demands for more sustainable, environmentally friendly and carbon neutral construction materials and building upkeep processes. One of the answers to these demands is lime-hemp concrete (LHC) building materials - carbon negative materials that have sufficient thermal insulation capabilities to be used as thermal insulation materials for new as well as for existing buildings. But one problem needs to be overcome before these materials can be used on a large scale - current manufacturing technology allows these materials to be used only as self-bearing thermal insulation material with large labour intensity in the manufacturing process. In order to lower the labour intensity and allow the material to be used in wider applications, a LHC block and board production is necessary, which in turn calls for the binders different from the classically used ones, as they show insufficient mechanical strength for this new use. The particular study focuses on alternative binders produced using gypsum-cement compositions ensuring they are usable in outdoor applications together with hemp shives. Physical, mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hemp concrete with various binders are addressed in the current study.

  10. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUORINATED PROPANE AND BUTANE DERIVATIVES AS ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical property measurements are presented for 24 fluorinated propane and butane derivatives and one fluorinated ether. These measurements include melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure below the boiling point, heat of vaporization at the boiling point, critical propertie...

  11. Determining hydraulic properties of a loam soil by alternative infiltrometer techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagna, Vincenzo; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Di Prima, Simone; Iovino, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Testing alternative infiltrometer techniques to determine soil hydraulic properties is necessary for specific soil types. For a loam soil, the water retention and hydraulic conductivity values predicted by the BEST (Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer parameters) procedure of soil hydraulic characterization were compared with data collected by more standard laboratory and field techniques. In addition, six infiltrometer techniques were compared in terms of estimated saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Ks. The BEST-intercept algorithm with a saturated soil water content set at 76% of the porosity yielded water retention values statistically similar to those obtained in the laboratory and Ks values practically coinciding with those determined in the field with the pressure infiltrometer (PI) since the means differed by a negligible 1.9%. The unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity measured with the tension infiltrometer (TI) was reproduced satisfactorily by BEST only close to saturation, i.e. for an established pressure head of -10 mm. BEST, the PI, one-potential experiments with both the TI and the mini disk infiltrometer (MDI), the simplified falling head (SFH) technique and the bottomless bucket (BB) method yielded statistically similar estimates of Ks for the sampled area, differing at the most by a factor of three. The suggestion was that smaller values were obtained with longer and more soil-disturbing infiltration runs. In conclusion, an applicative scenario of BEST yielding good predictions of water retention and saturated or near-saturated hydrodynamic parameters was suggested for the sampled loam soil. Any of the tested infiltration techniques appears usable to obtain the order of magnitude of Ks at the field site but the TI, MDI and SFH data seem more representative of a dry, non-disturbed soil whereas the BEST, BB and PI data appear more appropriate to characterize a wet soil at some stage during a rainfall event. Additional investigations carried out on both similar and different soils would allow development of more general procedures to apply BEST and other infiltrometer techniques for soil hydraulic characterization.

  12. Asymptotic Power Properties of the Cramer-von Mises Test Under Contiguous Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Georg

    1976-01-01

    The asymptotic power of the Cramer-von Mises test when parameters are estimated from the data is studied under certain local (contiguous) alternatives. Notion of (asymptotic) direction and distance from the null hypothesis of alternatives is introduced, and it is shown that there exist directions with maximum, minimum, and arbitrary intermediate…

  13. Chiroptical properties of an alternatingly functionalized cellotriose bearing two porphyrin groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternatingly functionalized cellulose molecules have potential applications in optoelectronics and molecular receptors. For example, cellulose-based solar cells have been proposed. As a prototype for such molecules, the trisaccharide fragment of cellulose was modified by attachment of porphyrin gro...

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of an alternating manganese chain

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos Silva, Manuela . E-mail: manuela@pollux.fis.uc.pt; Matos Beja, Ana; Antonio Paixao, Jose; Martin-Gil, Jesus

    2006-07-15

    A new 1D complex has been prepared and characterized. X-ray single crystal structure confirms that the Mn(II) ions assemble in alternating chains with Mn-Mn distances of 3.8432(13) and 4.4428(14) A. A 3D network of hydrogen bonds links the chains together. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility reveals that this compound undergoes a magnetic transition and exhibits an antiferromagnetic interaction in the low-temperature phase with two alternating exchange interactions of -2.32(1) and -5.55(1) cm{sup -1}. - Graphical abstract: Portion of the dimeric manganese chain showing the two alternating exchange interactions paths.

  15. Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

  16. Organic farming and cover crops as an alternative to mineral fertilizers to improve soil physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Cima, Diego; Luik, Anne; Reintam, Endla

    2015-10-01

    For testing how cover crops and different fertilization managements affect the soil physical properties in a plough based tillage system, a five-year crop rotation experiment (field pea, white potato, common barley undersown with red clover, red clover, and winter wheat) was set. The rotation was managed under four different farming systems: two conventional: with and without mineral fertilizers and two organic, both with winter cover crops (later ploughed and used as green manure) and one where cattle manure was added yearly. The measurements conducted were penetration resistance, soil water content, porosity, water permeability, and organic carbon. Yearly variations were linked to the number of tillage operations, and a cumulative effect of soil organic carbon in the soil as a result of the different fertilization amendments, organic or mineral. All the systems showed similar tendencies along the three years of study and differences were only found between the control and the other systems. Mineral fertilizers enhanced the overall physical soil conditions due to the higher yield in the system. In the organic systems, cover crops and cattle manure did not have a significant effect on soil physical properties in comparison with the conventional ones, which were kept bare during the winter period. The extra organic matter boosted the positive effect of crop rotation, but the higher number of tillage operations in both organic systems counteracted this effect to a greater or lesser extent.

  17. Alternative chelating agents: evaluation of the ready biodegradability and complexation properties.

    PubMed

    Martins, Joăo G; Neto, Isabel F F; Pinto, Isabel S S; Soares, Eduardo V; Barros, Maria Teresa; Soares, Helena M V M

    2014-01-01

    The ready biodegradability of four chelating agents, N,N'-(S,S)-bis[1-carboxy-2-(imidazol-4-yl)ethyl]ethylenediamine (BCIEE), N'-ethylenedi-L-cysteine (EC), N,N'-bis (4-imidazolymethyl)ethylenediamine (EMI) and 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (PDA), was tested according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals. PDA proved to be a readily biodegradable substance. However, none of the other three compounds were degraded during the 28 days of the test. Chemical simulations were performed for the four compounds in order to understand their ability to complex with some metal ions (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and discuss possible applications of these chelating agents. Two different conditions were simulated: (i) in the presence of the chelating agent and one metal ion, and (ii) in the simultaneous presence of the chelating agent and all metal ions with an excess of Ca. For those compounds that were revealed not to be readily biodegradable (BCIEE, EC and EMI), applications were evaluated where this property was not fundamental or even not required. Chemical simulations pointed out that possible applications for these chelating agents are: food fortification, food process, fertilizers, biocides, soil remediation and treatment of metal poisoning. Additionally, chemical simulations also predicted that PDA is an efficient chelating agent for Ca incrustations removal, detergents and for pulp metal ions removal process. PMID:24279626

  18. Hole-transport properties of a low-band gap alternating polyfluorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debebe, Siraye E.; Mammo, Wendimagegn; Yohannes, Teketel; Tinti, Francesca; Martelli, Alessandro; Camaioni, Nadia

    2010-07-01

    The bulk transport properties of positive carriers in thin films of a low band-gap conjugated polymer, called APFO-Green5, have been investigated in the ac regime. The frequency-dependent impedance of an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/APFO-Green5/Al structure (where ITO is indium tin oxide and PEDOT:PSS is poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/polystyrene sulphonic acid) was measured as a function of the dc applied bias. The capacitance response at low frequency gave indication of a combination of trapping and double-injection effects, while in the intermediate-high frequency range was determined by the transit time of injected holes. Hole mobility in APFO-Green5 thin films exhibited a Frenkel-like dependence on the applied electric field, with a field-dependent coefficient of around 8×10-3 (V cm-1)-1/2. A hole mobility close to 2×10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1 was achieved at the field of 3.5×105 V cm-1, in excellent agreement with that already reported by using a different bulk investigation technique.

  19. Bio-based alternative to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with controlled materials properties.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Anthony; Spinella, Stephen; Gross, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    A series of biobased epoxy monomers were prepared from diphenolic acid (DPA) by transforming the free acid into n-alkyl esters and the phenolic hydroxyl groups into diglycidyl ethers. NMR experiments confirmed that the diglycidyl ethers of diphenolates (DGEDP) with methyl and ethyl esters have 6 and 3 mol % of glycidyl ester. Increasing the chain length of DGEDP n-alkyl esters from methyl to n-pentyl resulted in large decreases in epoxy resin viscosity (700-to-11 Pa·s). Storage modulus of DPA epoxy resins, cured with isophorone diamine, also varied with n-alkyl ester chain length (e.g., 3300 and 2100 MPa for the methyl and n-pentyl esters). The alpha transition temperature of the cured materials showed a linear decrease from 158 to 86 °C as the ester length increases. The Young's modulus and tensile strengths were about 1150 and 40 MPa, respectively, for all the cured resins tested (including DGEBA) and varied little as a function of ester length. Degree of cure for the different epoxy resins, determined by FTIR and DSC, closely approached the theoretical maximum. The result of this work demonstrates that diglycidyl ethers of n-alkyl diphenolates represent a new family of biobased liquid epoxy resins that, when cured, have similar properties to those from DGEBA. PMID:25633466

  20. Effects of ?-carrageenan on rheological properties of dually modified sago starch: Towards finding gelatin alternative for hard capsules.

    PubMed

    Fakharian, Mohammad-Hassan; Tamimi, Nasser; Abbaspour, Hossein; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Karim, A A

    2015-11-01

    Composite sago starch-based system was developed and characterized with the aim to find an alternative to gelatin in the processing of pharmaceutical capsules. Dually modified (Hydrolyzed-Hydroxypropylated) sago starches were combined with ?-carrageenan (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%). The rheological properties of the proposed composite system were measured and compared with gelatin as reference material. Results show that combination of HHSS12 (Hydrolysed-hydroxypropylated sago starch at 12h) with 0.5% ?-carrageenan was comparable to gelatin rheological behavior in pharmaceutical capsule processing. The solution viscosity at 50 °C and sol-gel transition of the proposed composite system were comparable to those of gelatin. The viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") for the proposed system were lower than those of gelatin. These results illustrate that by manipulation of the constituents of sago starch-based composite system, a suitable alternative to gelatin can be produced with comparable properties and this could find potential application in pharmaceutical capsule industry. PMID:26256336

  1. Effects of alternative steeping methods on composition, antioxidant property and colour of green, black and oolong tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Lantano, Claudia; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Cavazza, Antonella; Barbanti, Davide; Corradini, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Cold water steeping is reported to maximise tea health benefits, but requires long infusion time. In this work, the employment of a brief hot infusion step followed by ice addition was evaluated. The comparison of this innovative method with hot and cold steeping was investigated on green, black and oolong teas. Catechins, xanthines and gallic acid content, antioxidant power, total phenolics and colour analysis were evaluated. Hot infusion shown rapid extractive power, but relevant compound degradation. On the contrary, cold infusion extracted higher level of healthy molecules with slow kinetic. The innovative method achieved in short time similar properties of cold infusion in terms of antioxidant power. As for bioactive compounds, such as gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate, highest values, about double than in hot infusion, were recorded for green and black teas. This steeping method may represent an alternative approach for industrial beverage preparation. PMID:26604404

  2. Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM): An Alternative Analytical Method for Investigation in Real-Time of Liquid Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoca, Gh. V.; Radulescu, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Dulama, I. D.; Ionita, I.; Cimpoca, M.; Cernica, I.; Gavrila, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the possibility to develop an alternative Analytical Method for Investigation in Real-Time of Liquid Properties, the layout and the operation with Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Systems. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) can be accepted as a powerful technique to monitor adsorption and desorption processes at interfaces in different chemical and biological areas. In our paper, Quartz Crystal Microbalance is used to monitor in real-time the polymer adsorption followed by azoic dye adsorption and then copolymer adsorption as well as optimization of interaction processes and determination of solution effects on the analytical signal. The solutions of azoic dye (5?10-4 g/L, 5?10-5 g/L and 5?10-6 g/L in DMF) are adsorbed at gold electrodes of QCM and the sensor responses are estimated through decrease and increase of QCM frequency. Also, the response of the sensor at maleic anhydride (MA) copolymer with styrene St (MA-St copolymer concentration of solution: 5?10-4 g/L; 5?10-5 g/L and 5?10-6 g/L in DMF) is fast, large, and reversible. The detailed investigation showed the fact that the Quartz Crystal Microbalance is a modern method to study a wider number of physical and chemical properties related to the surface and interfacial processes of synthesized copolymer leading to a higher reliability of the research results.

  3. The Impact of Escape Alternative Position Change in Multiple-Choice Test on the Psychometric Properties of a Test and Its Items Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamadneh, Iyad Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact changing of escape alternative position in multiple-choice test on the psychometric properties of a test and it's items parameters (difficulty, discrimination & guessing), and estimation of examinee ability. To achieve the study objectives, a 4-alternative multiple choice type achievement test…

  4. Structural Properties of Alternate Monatomic Layered [Fe/Co]n Epitaxial Films on MgO Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, In Chang; Saki, Yoshinobu; Kawasaki, Shohei; Doi, Masaaki; Sahashi, Masashi

    2008-06-01

    Body-centered-cubic (bcc) Fe50Co50 material is reported to show a high bulk spin scattering coefficient on current perpendicular to plane-giant magneto-resistance (CPP-GMR) system. But the origin of that phenomenon does not make sure yet. We prepared artificially alternate monatomic layered (AML) [Fe/Co] 41 MLs epitaxial films (Ts: 75, 250 °C) by monatomic deposition method and investigated the topology of AML [Fe/Co]n epitaxial films on MgO substrate with different orientation (001), (011) by the scanning tunnel microscopy (STM) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), which we could confirm Frank-van der Merwe (FM) growth mode for AML [Fe/Co]n on MgO(001) and Volmer-Weber (VW) growth mode for that on Mg(011). The roughness of surface, Ra (0.20 nm) of AML [Fe/Co] 41 MLs epitaxial film grown at 75 °C on MgO(001) is smaller than that (0.46 nm) of AML [Fe/Co] grown at 250 °C on MgO(001), which has the large terraces of over 50 nm (Ra: 0.17 nm), even though there are some valleys between large terraces. Moreover we confirmed the structural properties of trilayered epitaxial films with AML [Fe/Co]n (Ra: 0.18 nm) and Fe50Co50 alloy epitaxial film on Au electrode by RHEED before confirming the characteristics of CPP-GMR devices.

  5. Inverse Gas Chromatography with Film Cell Unit: An Attractive Alternative Method to Characterize Surface Properties of Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Klein, Géraldine L; Pierre, Guillaume; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle; Graber, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is widely used for the characterization of surfaces. The present work describes a novel IGC tool, the recently developed film cell module, which measures monolithic thin solid film surface properties, whereas only samples in powder or fiber state or polymer-coated supports can be studied by classic IGC. The surface energy of four different solid supports was measured using both classic IGC with columns packed with samples in the powder state, and IGC with the new film cell module or the sessile drop technique, using samples in the film state. The total surface energy and its dispersive and specific components were measured for glass, polyethylene, polyamide and polytetrafluoroethylene. Similar results were obtained for the four materials using the three different techniques. The main conclusion is that the new film cell module for IGC is an attractive alternative to the sessile drop technique as it gives very accurate and reproducible results for surface energy components, with significant savings in time and the possible control of sample humidity and temperature. This film cell module for IGC extends the application field of IGC to any thin solid film and can be used to study the effect of any surface treatment on surface energy. PMID:25670822

  6. Information Wants To Be Shared: An Alternative Framework for Approaching Intellectual Property Disputes in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavani, Herman T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the debate over intellectual property rights for digital media. Topics include why intellectual property should be protected; the evolution of copyright law; fair use doctrine; case studies; the philosophical theories of property, including labor theory, utilitarian theory, and personality theory; natural law theory; the social role of…

  7. The influence of high thermal gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing and alternate heat treatment on the structure and properties of a single crystal nickel base superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    A development program has been conducted to improve the cyclic properties of the PWA 1480 single-crystal superalloy by reducing or entirely eliminating casting porosity at fatigue-initiation sites, through the use of improved casting process parameters and HIPing; potential mechanical property improvements in a high-pressure hydrogen environment were also sought in alternatives to the standard coating and heat-treatment cycle. High thermal gradient casting was found to yield a reduction in overall casting porosity density and pore sizes. The most dramatic mechanical property improvement resulted from HIPing.

  8. Non-closure Properties of 1-Inkdot Nondeterministic Turing Machines and Alternating Turing Machines with Only Universal States Using Small Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Tsunehiro; Xu, Jianliang; Sakamoto, Makoto

    This paper investigates the closure properties of 1-inkdot nondeterministic Turing machines and 1-inkdot alternating Turing machines with only universal states which have sublogarithmic space. We show for example that the classes of sets accepted by these Turing machines are not closed under length-preserving homomorphism, concatenation with regular set, Kleene closure, and complementation.

  9. Environmental investigation for property transfer, Fort Holabird Crime Records Center. Environmental investigation and alternatives assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, F.J.; Todd, Q.R.

    1992-03-01

    An Environmental Investigation and Alternatives Assessment was conducted for the Crime Records Center at Fort Holabird in Baltimore, Maryland. Groundwater sampling, underground storage tank tightness testing, radon sampling, asbestos sampling, soil observations, and a review of previously collected data were used to develop remedial alternatives and recommendations. Removal and record keeping were recommended for asbestos. The recommendation for groundwater was no action.

  10. Diffuse-Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of Soils under Alternative Crop Rotations in a Semiarid Climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Alternative Crop Rotations (ACR) experiment was designed to compare the traditional wheat-fallow rotation with more intensive no-till rotations in the Central Great Plains. In order to ascertain the effect of the different agronomic managements on soil quality, we carried out mid-infrared (MidIR)...

  11. Theory of magnetic fluid heating with an alternating magnetic field with temperature dependent materials properties for self-regulated heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondeck, C. L.; Habib, A. H.; Ohodnicki, P.; Miller, K.; Sawyer, C. A.; Chaudhary, P.; McHenry, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) offer promise for local hyperthermia, thermoablative cancer therapy and microwave curing of polymers. Rosensweig's theory predicts that particle size dependence on RF magnetic heating of ferrofluids is chiefly determined by magnetic moment, magnetic anisotropy, and the viscosity of the fluid. Since relaxation times are thermally activated and material parameters can have strong T dependences, heating rates peak at a certain temperature. We extend the model to include the T dependence of the magnetization and anisotropy using mean field theory and literature reported T dependences of selected fluids considered for biomedical applications. We model materials with Curie temperatures near room temperature for which the magnetic properties are strongly T dependent to address the problem of self-regulated heating of ferrofluids.

  12. Alternative training agents, phase 1. Survey of near-term candidate fire extinguishing agents and predicting properties of halocarbon mixtures, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimitz, Jonathan S.; Tapscott, Robert E.; Skaggs, Stephanie R.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1991-02-01

    In this report, 14 compounds are examined as potential near-term candidates for alternative firefighter training agents for streaming applications. This list consists of suitable fluorine-containing compounds (primarily fluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons) known to have had significant toxicity testing completed, with bulk production capabilities existing in the past, present, or anticipated near future. Many of these compounds are being produced or considered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigeration and foam-blowing applications. The ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, stage of toxicity testing, toxicity, availability, and relative cost of each compound are discussed. Physical and thermodynamic properties and estimated and measured flame suppression concentrations are reported. Those compounds that have low toxicity (with significant testing completed) are available in bulk and have desirable properties are discussed in detail. It is recommended that HCFC-123 be tested both in pure form and in blends as potential replacement training agents. Twelve blends are recommended for fire suppression.

  13. Alternative training agents, Phase 1. Survey of near-term-candidate fire-extinguishing agents and predicting properties of halocarbon mixtures. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nimitz, J.S.; Tapscott, R.E.; Skaggs, S.R.; Beeson, H.D.

    1991-02-01

    In this report, 14 compounds are examined as potential near-term candidates for alternative firefighter training agents for streaming applications. This list consists of suitable fluorine-containing compounds(primarily fluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons) known to have had significant toxicity testing completed, with bulk production capabilities existing in the past, present, or anticipated near future. Many of these compounds are being produced or considered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigeration and foam-blowing applications. The ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, stage of toxicity testing, toxicity, availability, and relative cost of each compound are discussed. Physical and thermodynamic properties and estimated and measured flame suppression concentrations are reported. Those compounds that have low toxicity (with significant testing completed) are available in bulk and have desirable properties are discussed in detail. It is recommended that HCFC-123 be tested both in pure form and in blends as potential replacement training agents. Twelve blends are recommended for fire suppression.

  14. Toxicant content, physical properties and biological activity of waterpipe tobacco smoke and its tobacco-free alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Schubert, Jens; Klaiany, Joanne; El Sabban, Marwan; Luch, Andreas; Saliba, Najat A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking using sweetened, flavoured tobacco products has become a widespread global phenomenon. In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, narghile, hookah, shisha along with names of chemical compounds and classes of compounds, in addition to terms commonly used in cellular biology and aerosol sizing. Study selection The search was limited to articles published in English which reported novel data on waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) toxicant content, biological activity or particle size and which met various criteria for analytical rigour including: method specificity and selectivity, precision, accuracy and recovery, linearity, range, and stability. Data extraction Multiple researchers reviewed the reports and collectively agreed on which data were pertinent for inclusion. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoke contains significant concentrations of toxicants thought to cause dependence, heart disease, lung disease and cancer in cigarette smokers, and includes 27 known or suspected carcinogens. Waterpipe smoke is a respirable aerosol that induces cellular responses associated with pulmonary and arterial diseases. Except nicotine, smoke generated using tobacco-free preparations marketed for ‘health conscious’ users contains the same or greater doses of toxicants, with the same cellular effects as conventional products. Toxicant yield data from the analytical laboratory are consistent with studies of exposure biomarkers in waterpipe users. Conclusions A sufficient evidence base exists to support public health interventions that highlight the fact that WTS presents a serious inhalation hazard. PMID:25666550

  15. Dithienopyrrole as a rigid alternative to the bithiophene ? relay in chromophores with second-order nonlinear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Marco, A Belén; Martínez de Baroja, Natalia; Franco, Santiago; Garín, Javier; Orduna, Jesús; Villacampa, Belén; Revuelto, Alejandro; Andreu, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    4H-Pyranylidene-containing push-pull chromophores built around a bithiophene (BT) ? relay or a rigidified thiophene-based unit, namely cyclopenta[1,2-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (CPDT) or dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP), have been synthesized and characterized. The effect of these different relays on the polarization and the second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties has been studied. For the sake of comparison, the corresponding reported dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]thiophene (DTT) derivatives have also been included in the discussion. Replacement of the BT core by a rigidified unit (CPDT, DTP) leads to more polarized systems. Calculated NBO charges and electrochemical measurements show that dithienopyrrole has a remarkable donor character that allows an important charge transfer between the donor and the acceptor. The influence of the rigidification of the BT relay on the NLO responses depends on the acceptor strength. For the weakest acceptor used (thiobarbituric acid), passing from the BT relay to the rigidified units always involves an increase in the ??0 figure of merit. Nevertheless, for the strongest acceptor (2-dicyanomethylene-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (TCF)), a slight increase in ??0 with respect to the BT chromophore is only observed for the DTP derivative. Thus, rigidification of the BT core is not enough to improve the second-order nonlinearity and the incorporation of a DTP moiety has proven to be the most efficient approach for this purpose. PMID:25293809

  16. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  17. Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

  18. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  19. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  20. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    This chapter deals with 1981 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving the detachment and attachment of land continue to dominate the property chapter with 11 cases reported, the same number summarized in last year's chapter. One case involving school board referenda raised the interesting question of whether or not a state could…

  1. Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Alternative Medicine en Espańol email Send this article to a ... Send Thanks for emailing that article! Tweet Alternative medicine may be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments ...

  2. Alternative Remedies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by their healthcare professional. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is called complementary medicine . ... well over half of the people who use alternative therapies do not tell their primary-care physician. They ...

  3. Clearance of Human IgG1-Sensitised Red Blood Cells In Vivo in Humans Relates to the In Vitro Properties of Antibodies from Alternative Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Armour, Kathryn L.; Smith, Cheryl S.; Ip, Natasha C. Y.; Ellison, Cara J.; Kirton, Christopher M.; Wilkes, Anthony M.; Williamson, Lorna M.; Clark, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC) were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human Fc?R, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the Fc?RI and Fc?RII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in Fc?RIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for Fc?RIIIa 158F, 20-fold for Fc?RIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for Fc?RIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with Fc?RIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where Fc?RI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only Fc?RIII binding and Fc?RIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of Fc?RIII in RBC clearance. PMID:25302805

  4. Alternative splicing in the fiddler crab cognate ecdysteroid receptor: variation in receptor isoform expression and DNA binding properties in response to hormone.

    PubMed

    Durica, David S; Das, Sunetra; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce; Phillips, Barret; Kappalli, Sudha; Anilkumar, Gopinathan

    2014-09-15

    RXR cDNA cloning from three Uca species led to the identification of 4 conserved isoforms, indicative of alternative splicing in the hinge and ligand binding domains (LBD). Sequencing of overlapping clones from a Ucapugilator genomic library identified EcR isoforms matching previously identified cDNA variants; in addition, a cryptic exon in the LBD was detected and evidence for expression of this new isoform was obtained from next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq analysis also identified a new amino terminal EcR variant. EcR and RXR transcript abundance increases throughout ovarian maturation in U. pugilator, while cognate receptor transcript abundance remains constant in a related Indo-Pacific species with a different reproductive strategy. To examine if crab RXR LBD isoforms have different physical properties in vitro, electromobility shift assays were performed with different EcR isoforms. The cognate crab and fruit fly receptors differ in their responses to hormone. Ecdysteroids did not increase DNA binding for the crab heterodimers, while ecdysteroids stimulate binding for Drosophilamelanogaster EcR/USP heterodimers. In swapping experiments, UpEcR/USP heterodimers did not show ligand-responsive differences in DNA binding; both crab RXR LBD isoforms, however, conferred ligand-responsive increases in DNA binding with DmEcRs. These data indicate that both UpRXR LBD isoforms can heterodimerize with the heterologous DmEcR receptors and promote ligand and DNA binding. Unresponsiveness of the cognate receptors to ecdysteroid, however, suggest additional factors may be required to mediate endogenous, perhaps isoform-specific, differences in EcR conformation, consistent with previously reported effects of UpRXR isoforms on UpEcR ligand-binding affinities. PMID:25025945

  5. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  6. Alternative agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper discusses alternative agriculture which has suddenly become topical. Farmers practicing alternative agriculture are still a small minority in the overall farm community. But their farming methods, which among other things are aimed at improving profits, limiting dependence on agricultural chemicals, and increasing use of environmentally friendly procedures, are attracting more attention and a growing number of adherents. Hard data on the productivity of alternative farming compared with conventional techniques are still sketchy at best, although many practitioners seem to be operating quite successfully. And in their success lies the potential for significant impact on markets for fertilizers and pesticides.

  7. Alternative Value Capture Systems for Improved Wheat Variety Intellectual Property for Increased Access by Tanzanian Smallholder Emerging Farmers: A Case Study 

    E-print Network

    King, Joseph N

    2014-08-26

    market access, and for social, environmental, and economic development of smallholder emerging farmer. The researcher explores the relationships between value chains, intellectual property rights, institutional innovation, and technology transfer...

  8. Alternative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

  9. RAMANUJAN'S ALTERNATIVE

    E-print Network

    Garvan, Frank

    RAMANUJAN'S THEORIES OF ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS TO ALTERNATIVE BASES Bruce C. Berndt, S. Bhargava, and Frank G. Garvan Contents 1. Introduction 2. Ramanujan's Cubic Transformation, the Borweins' Cubic Theta--39], Ramanujan offers several beautiful series representations for 1=ß: He first states three formulas, one

  10. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

  11. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  12. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  13. Low-frequency alternative-current magnetic susceptibility, photoelectric properties, and adhesive properties of Ni80Fe20 (XĹ)/ZnO(500Ĺ) and ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ) on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Tsung

    2015-08-01

    The following conditions are deposited: (a) glass/Ni80Fe20(XĹ)/ZnO(500Ĺ) and (b) glass/ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ), where each of X and Y is 1000Ĺ, 1500Ĺ, 2000Ĺ or 2500Ĺ. The substrate temperature was maintained at room temperature (RT), and post-annealing was performed with heating at (TA) = 150 °C for 1 h or (TA) = 250 °C for 1 h. The sputtering sequence and the thickness of the NiFe film were varied to study the effects of these factors on the low-frequency alternative-current magnetic susceptibility (?ac), maximum ?ac with corresponding optimal resonance frequency (fres), transmission, electrical resistivity (?), and surface energy of the multilayered glass/Ni80Fe20(XĹ)/ZnO(500Ĺ) and glass/ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ). Experimental results demonstrate that ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ) is superior to Ni80Fe20/ZnO(500Ĺ) because diffraction from the ZnO (0 0 2) crystals at the bottom of ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ) improves the magneto crystalline anisotropy of Ni80Fe20, improving its magnetic and photoelectrical properties. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) reveal that the ZnO (0 0 2), ZnO (2 2 0), and NiFe (1 1 1) peaks of ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ) are more intense than those of Ni80Fe20/ZnO(500Ĺ) under three substrate conditions, indicating the ZnO (0 0 2) peak reflects magneto crystalline anisotropy in the crystalline NiFe layer of ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ), yielding the highest ?ac of approximately 3.16 with an fres of 250 Hz upon post-annealing TA = 250 °C for 1 h. The (1 1 1) diffracted intensity and grain size of the thicker and post-annealed Ni80Fe20 thin films exceeded those of the thinner and as-deposited Ni80Fe20 thin films. A spectral analyzer was used to measure transmittance through NiFe of various thicknesses. The transmittance declined slightly as the thickness and grain size increased, because increasing thickness reduced penetration. Post-annealing promoted grain growth, increased the average size of the grains and reduced transmittance. Both as-deposited glass/Ni80Fe20(XĹ)/ZnO(500Ĺ) and as-deposited glass/ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ) had the highest penetration, when X, Y = 1000Ĺ, and the highest transmittances of 87% and 93%, respectively. The highest transmittance of glass/ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ) exceeded that of glass/Ni80Fe20(XĹ)/ZnO(500Ĺ) owing to ZnO (0 0 2) crystallization. Furthermore, ? decreased as the Ni80Fe20 thickness increased, because grain boundaries and the surface of thin films scattered the electrons, so thinner films had greater resistance. Electrical measurements revealed that the maximum resistivities of glass/Ni80Fe20(1000Ĺ)/ZnO(500Ĺ) and glass/ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(1000Ĺ) were 292 ?? cm and 288 ?? cm, and the resistivity declined as the thickness of the film increased. The surface energy of the as-deposited and thinner NiFe layers exceeded that of post-annealed and thicker NiFe layers, revealing that the adhesion of the as-deposited and thinner NiFe films was stronger than that of the post-annealed and thicker films, on account of the degrees of crystallinity. Glass/Ni80Fe20(1000Ĺ)/ZnO(500Ĺ) and glass/ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(1000Ĺ) had the highest surface energies of 64 mJ/mm2 and 59 mJ/mm2; the surface energy worsened as the temperature increased, suggesting that the adhesion of the as-deposited and thinner NiFe films in glass/Ni80Fe20(XĹ)/ZnO(500Ĺ) was stronger than in glass/ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ). The results indicate that the magnetic and photoelectric properties of glass/ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ) were better than those of glass/Ni80Fe20(XĹ)/ZnO(500Ĺ) because the strong ZnO (0 0 2) crystallization in ZnO(500Ĺ)/Ni80Fe20(YĹ) increased the magneto crystalline anisotropy NiFe (1 1 1) and importantly affected the magnetic and photoelectrical properties.

  14. Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase 1 (Psd1) Promotes Mitochondrial Fusion by Regulating the Biophysical Properties of the Mitochondrial Membrane and Alternative Topogenesis of Mitochondrial Genome Maintenance Protein 1 (Mgm1)*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Eliana Y. L.; McQuibban, G. Angus

    2012-01-01

    Non–bilayer-forming lipids such as cardiolipin, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) are proposed to generate negative membrane curvature, promoting membrane fusion. However, the mechanism by which lipids regulate mitochondrial fusion remains poorly understood. Here, we show that mitochondrial-localized Psd1, the key yeast enzyme that synthesizes PE, is required for proper mitochondrial morphology and fusion. Yeast cells lacking Psd1 exhibit fragmented and aggregated mitochondria with impaired mitochondrial fusion during mating. More importantly, we demonstrate that a reduction in PE reduces the rate of lipid mixing during fusion of liposomes with lipid compositions reflecting the mitochondrial membrane. This suggests that the mitochondrial fusion defect in the ?psd1 strain could be due to the altered biophysical properties of the mitochondrial membrane, resulting in reduced fusion kinetics. The ?psd1 strain also has impaired mitochondrial activity such as oxidative phosphorylation and reduced mitochondrial ATP levels which are due to a reduction in mitochondrial PE. The loss of Psd1 also impairs the biogenesis of s-Mgm1, a protein essential for mitochondrial fusion, further exacerbating the mitochondrial fusion defect of the ?psd1 strain. Increasing s-Mgm1 levels in ?psd1 cells markedly reduced mitochondrial aggregation. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial PE regulates mitochondrial fusion by regulating the biophysical properties of the mitochondrial membrane and by enhancing the biogenesis of s-Mgm1. While several proteins are required to orchestrate the intricate process of membrane fusion, we propose that specific phospholipids of the mitochondrial membrane promote fusion by enhancing lipid mixing kinetics and by regulating the action of profusion proteins. PMID:23045528

  15. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

  16. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  17. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  18. Optical devices having flakes suspended in a host fluid to provide a flake/fluid system providing flakes with angularly dependent optical properties in response to an alternating current electric field due to the dielectric properties of the system

    DOEpatents

    Kosc, Tanya Z. (Rochester, NY); Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY); Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY)

    2006-05-09

    Optical devices utilizing flakes (also called platelets) suspended in a host fluid have optical characteristics, such as reflective properties, which are angular dependent in response to an AC field. The reflectivity may be Bragg-like, and the characteristics are obtained through the use of flakes of liquid crystal material, such as polymer liquid crystal (PLC) materials including polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) and polymer nematic liquid crystal (PNLC) material or birefringent polymers (BP). The host fluid may be propylene carbonate, poly(ethylene glycol) or other fluids or fluid mixtures having fluid conductivity to support conductivity in the flake/host system. AC field dependent rotation of 90.degree. can be obtained at rates and field intensities dependent upon the frequency and magnitude of the AC field. The devices are useful in providing displays, polarizers, filters, spatial light modulators and wherever switchable polarizing, reflecting, and transmission properties are desired.

  19. Fuel properties of biodiesel from alternative feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defined as monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids prepared from plant oils, animal fats, or other lipids, advantages of biodiesel over conventional petroleum diesel fuel include derivation from renewable and domestic feedstocks, superior lubricity and biodegradability, higher cetane number and f...

  20. Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3} textured ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Maurya, Deepam; Priya, Shashank

    2013-06-03

    The influence of alternating (ac) and direct current (dc) fields on the structural and dielectric properties of [001]{sub PC} textured Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-7%BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-7%BT) ceramics has been investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the depolarization at temperature T{sub d} in poled samples resulted from a tetragonal {yields} pseudo-cubic transition on heating. Moderate ac drive and dc bias had opposite influences on T{sub d}: ac drive decreased the T{sub d}, whereas dc bias increased it. These investigations suggested an effective method to expand the working temperature range of NBT-x%BT textured ceramics to a high temperature.

  1. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.

  2. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  3. Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test An alternating series is defined to be a series of the form: S = # # n=0 (-1) n a n , (1) where all the a n > 0. The alternating series test but property 1 and/or property 2 do not hold, then the alternating series test is inconclusive. Note

  4. Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test An alternating series is defined to be a series of the form: S = n=0 (-1)n an , (1) where all the an > 0. The alternating series test is a set and/or property 2 do not hold, then the alternating series test is inconclusive. Note that property 1

  5. Tools for Alternative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Presents alternative assessment tools, including concept maps, initial and summary assessments, Vee diagrams, and three types of alternative learning activities that assess different levels of understanding. (MKR)

  6. A new quenching alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R.J.; Faulkner, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The quenching of ferrous alloys implies the controlled extraction of heat from a part at a rate sufficient to harden the part and still control the desired dimensional limitations. Quenchants in common use today are: molten metals, molten salts, petroleum oils, polymer solutions, water, and salt/water solutions. Each type of quenchant has its benefits and limitations. With current waste legislation and the trends toward environmentally friendlier industrial working fluids, many of these quenching products are coming under close scrutiny by the users and legislators. The most widely used quenchant is petroleum oil due to its favorable heat extraction characteristics. The dependence upon imports, price vulnerability, and contamination potential have caused suppliers and users to look into alternative products. Research into renewable resource, non-petroleum, vegetable oils has been going on globally for several years. The drawbacks encountered with many vegetable oils were widely known and only years of research enabled them to be overcome. The presently formulated product not only performs as well as petroleum oil but shows some characteristics better than those of the petroleum products, especially in the biodegradability and ecological aspects of the products. Stability and reproducible quenching properties have been proven with over two and one half years of field testing.

  7. NEW CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVES TO CHLOROFLOUROCARBONS AND HALONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a determination of the basic properties of laboratory quantities of potential alternative compounds which may be used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons listed in the "Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer." he property te...

  8. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Alternative & Integrative Medicine SHARE Home > Treatment and Care > Treatments Listen Alternative medicine is a term used to define therapies other ...

  9. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    MedlinePLUS

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of ... Acupuncture involves stimulating certain acupoints on the body ...

  10. Alternative Certification Isn't Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Jacobs, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    While nearly all states now have something on their books labeled "alternate route to certification," these programs defy standard definition due to their enormous variability. States differ in the types of candidates allowed to apply (e.g., career changers or recent college graduates) and in the academic backgrounds these individuals must…

  11. Chicano Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicia, H. Homero; Almaguer, Clementina

    Alternative schooling is challenging some basic notions of curriculum, operation, and structure of traditional schools; it is not challenging the basic concept of schooling. Chicano alternative education, an elusive concept, lacks a precise definition. Chicano alternative schools reflect a vast diversity in structure, focus, and goals. The Chicano…

  12. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  13. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying resistances to ionizing radiation - aromatic polymers such as polyimide Vespel (TM) and the elastomer EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) have been found to be more resistant to degradation in tritium than other polymers. This report presents information to help select replacement pumps for Normetex pumps in tritium systems. Several pumps being considered as Normetex replacement pumps are discussed.

  14. Alternate drop pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

  15. Alternator insulation evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  17. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  18. Alternative Wastewater Technologies

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Alternative Wastewater Technologies In Real Life Examples From The Canandaigua Lake Watershed #12 Wastewater Treatment Conventional and Alternative Systems #12;Septic Systems = Wastewater Treatment * Soils are used to treat wastewater (not disposal) * System size & design based on soils & system use. *Proper

  19. Complementary and Alternative Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Reading Arnold, L.E. (2002). Treatment Alternatives for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In P.J. Jensen, & J. Cooper (Eds.), Attention- ... 33. Arnold, L.E. (2002). Treatment Alternatives for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In P.J. Jensen, & J. Cooper (Eds.), Attention- ...

  20. Alternative Schools, Mainstream Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jan; Conner, Evguenia

    2007-01-01

    Alternative education has its own history. Having emerged in the sixties as a response to the social crisis, its goal was primarily to fight increasing bureaucracy and the depersonalization of public education by giving students more freedom and minimal adult supervision. In the eighties, the understanding of "alternative education" narrowed to…

  1. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  2. MSAT an alternative choice?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagan, K. E.; Elmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    A number of potential applications are described of MSAT that use the unique properties of this transportation mechanism. Emphasis is placed on the market introduction strategy for the North American system.

  3. Adaptive alternating minimization algorithms

    E-print Network

    Shah, Devavrat

    The classical alternating minimization (or projection) algorithm has been successful in the context of solving optimization problems over two variables. The iterative nature and simplicity of the algorithm has led to its ...

  4. Alternative energy design toolkit

    E-print Network

    Sukkasi, Sittha

    2004-01-01

    This thesis concerns the concepts, structure, and applications of the Alternative Energy Design Toolkit. The toolkit is aimed to provide a widely accessible, easy to use, flexible, yet powerful modeling environment for ...

  5. Marketing alternative fueled automobiles

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Alex (Yi Alexis)

    2011-01-01

    Marketing alternative fueled vehicles is a difficult challenge for automakers. The foundation of the market, the terms of competition, and the customer segments involved are still being defined. But automakers can draw ...

  6. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  7. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  8. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  9. Enhanced next generation alternator

    E-print Network

    Lorilla, Leandro M. (Leandro Manalac), 1977-

    2005-01-01

    The power requirements of automotive alternators are increasing significantly due to the introduction of new vehicle electrical loads. Moreover, the possible transition to a 42 V electrical system is introducing new concerns ...

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Getting Medical Care > Complementary and ... replacement. Continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  11. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  12. Alternative and Complementary Therapies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... always designed to treat a particular illness: Some alternative therapies treat the whole person, not an illness. They might restore harmony, balance, or normal energy flow. Acupuncturists, for example, use the pulse to ...

  13. Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-3 Natrona County, Wyoming. Addendum to 22 August 1996 study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-3

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Natrona County, Wyoming. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and surface rights in 9,321-acre NPR-3. This property comprises the Teapot Dome oil field and related production, processing and other facilities. Discovered in 1914, this field has 632 wells producing 1,807 barrels of oil per day. Production revenues are about $9.5 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 1.3 million barrels of oil. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present.

  14. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2010-06-30

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels. Thailand is of particular interest since it introduced E20 to its commercial market in 2007 and the US is now considering introducing E20 into the US market.

  15. Alternating proximal regularized dictionary learning.

    PubMed

    Salzo, Saverio; Masecchia, Salvatore; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa

    2014-12-01

    We present an algorithm for dictionary learning that is based on the alternating proximal algorithm studied by Attouch, Bolte, Redont, and Soubeyran (2010), coupled with a reliable and efficient dual algorithm for computation of the related proximity operators. This algorithm is suitable for a general dictionary learning model composed of a Bregman-type data fit term that accounts for the goodness of the representation and several convex penalization terms on the coefficients and atoms, explaining the prior knowledge at hand. As Attouch et al. recently proved, an alternating proximal scheme ensures better convergence properties than the simpler alternating minimization. We take care of the issue of inexactness in the computation of the involved proximity operators, giving a sound stopping criterion for the dual inner algorithm, which keeps under control the related errors, unavoidable for such a complex penalty terms, providing ultimately an overall effective procedure. Thanks to the generality of the proposed framework, we give an application in the context of genome-wide data understanding, revising the model proposed by Nowak, Hastie, Pollack, and Tibshirani (2011). The aim is to extract latent features (atoms) and perform segmentation on array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data. We improve several important aspects that increase the quality and interpretability of the results. We show the effectiveness of the proposed model with two experiments on synthetic data, which highlight the enhancements over the original model. PMID:25248086

  16. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  17. Connections between Alternative Transcription and Alternative Splicing in Mammals

    E-print Network

    Spiridonov, Alexey Nikolaevich

    The majority of mammalian genes produce multiple transcripts resulting from alternative splicing (AS) and/or alternative transcription initiation (ATI) and alternative transcription termination (ATT). Comparative analysis ...

  18. Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

  19. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  20. Solvent alternatives guide

    SciTech Connect

    Elion, J.M.; Monroe, K.R.; Hill, E.A.

    1996-06-01

    It is no longer legal to manufacture or import chlorofluorocarbon 113 or methyl chloroform solvents, and companies that currently clean their parts with either material are now required to implement environmentally safe substitutes. To help find alternative methods, Research Triangle Institute`s Surface Cleaning Technology Program has designed a Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE), an online tool that enables access to practical information and recommendations for acceptable solvents. Developed in partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency, SAGE is available free of charge on the Internet`s World Wide Web.

  1. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  2. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Stork, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. Thailand has continued to work to promote increased consumption of gasohol especially for highethanol content fuels like E85. The government has confirmed its effort to draw up incentives for auto makers to invest in manufacturing E85-compatible vehicles in the country. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels.

  3. Alternative splicing and disease.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Jamal; Bakkour, Nadia; Stamm, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Almost all protein-coding genes are spliced and their majority is alternatively spliced. Alternative splicing is a key element in eukaryotic gene expression that increases the coding capacity of the human genome and an increasing number of examples illustrates that the selection of wrong splice sites causes human disease. A fine-tuned balance of factors regulates splice site selection. Here, we discuss well-studied examples that show how a disturbance of this balance can cause human disease. The rapidly emerging knowledge of splicing regulation now allows the development of treatment options. PMID:18992329

  4. REACT: Alternatives to Critical Materials in Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s REACT Project, short for “Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies”, are developing cost-effective alternatives to rare earths, the naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. The REACT projects will identify low-cost and abundant replacement materials for rare earths while encouraging existing technologies to use them more efficiently. These alternatives would facilitate the widespread use of EVs and wind power, drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

  5. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  6. Thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R.F.

    1992-10-01

    Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment, and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. Objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the third quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

  7. Alternatives to Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; McPartland, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Modifications and alternatives to tracking can address teachers' desires to match instruction to student abilities without the gross educational inequalities accompanying lower-tracked classes and without ignoring exceptional children's needs. Untracked classes can be improved by providing extra help, equipping teachers with useful teaching…

  8. Alternative pest control research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the benefits of conserving natural enemies, and based on environmental and regulatory concerns, a reduced reliance on chemical pesticides in pecan management is desirable. In this paper we describe three studies directed toward alternative control: 1) Pre-emergence nematode applications for ...

  9. ALTERNATIVES FOR WASHINGTON'S

    E-print Network

    Frierson, Dargan

    Duncan Jerry Franklin Daniel L. Goldy John Gorman Jay Gruenfeld Barbara Hunter Jean MacGregor Banasree James Walton Vim Wright - ACKNOWLEDGMENTS - COMMISSION ON OLD GROWI'H ALTERNATIVES FOR WASHINGTON, Suquamish Slate Representative 30th District, Federal Way Audubon Society/Washington Environmental Council

  10. Compensated pulsed alternator

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX); Driga, Mircea D. (Austin, TX); Woodson, Herbert H. (Austin, TX)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

  11. Alternative Energy Busing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  12. Alternative Assessment. Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Update, 1989

    1989-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on alternative assessment methods in adult basic education. It is occasioned, as explained in the opening editorial, by the announcement of the requirement for use of the 1987 edition of the Tests of Adult Basic Education for pre- and posttesting of basic education students in New York City, beginning…

  13. Alternatives; A Filmography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covert, Nadine, Comp.; And Others

    Over 120 films are listed which deal with alternatives in education, lifestyles, work, religion, crafts, and politics. Among topics covered are open classrooms, communes, changing family structures, day care, and racial problems. Each film is summarized; length, copyrights, date, producer, and distributor are listed. A brief bibliography, subject…

  14. ALTERNATIVE DEER MANAGEMENT PLAN

    E-print Network

    Theimer, Tad

    -only muzzleloader and late white-tailed deer hunts are included since they come under the direction of alternative, 45A, 45B, and 45C. 3. Offer 5-10% of the white-tailed deer hunting opportunity in the late season 40-50% for late white-tailed deer hunts 6. Manage for an average hunter density not to exceed 0

  15. Finding alternatives to antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. The availability of new antibiotics has severely declined, and so alternatives to antibiotics need to be considered in both animal agriculture and human medicine. Products for disease prevention are different than products for d...

  16. Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Jan A.

    Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

  17. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  18. Alternatives to Grade Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    1998-01-01

    The negative effects of grade retention should not become an argument for social promotion. Four complementary alternative strategies include enhancing professional development for teachers, employing redesigned school structures (like multiage grouping) that support more intensive learning, providing targeted supports and services when needed,…

  19. Alternative Break Service Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Even as educators understand how their millennial students learn in such different ways than previous generations (watching how-to videos downloaded from YouTube or engaging in experiential learning adventures), colleges still rely heavily on in-the-classroom learning. The author can't offer an alternative to this classroom format, but she…

  20. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  1. Alternative Fuels in Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

    2006-01-01

    The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative

  2. Alternatives in solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  3. Validating an Alternate Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn; Arnold, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the validity of one state's alternate assessment portfolio system using the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education's Standards for Psychological and Educational Testing. The results indicate serious shortcomings in the evidence for content,…

  4. Hardness Alternation in ?,?-Alkanedicarboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manish Kumar; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-10-01

    The variation of hardness as a function of the number of carbon atoms in ?,?-alkanedicarboxylic acids, C(N)H(2N-2)O4 (4?N?9), was examined by recourse to nanoindentation on the major faces of single crystals. Hardness exhibits odd-even alternation, with the odd acids being softer and the even ones harder; the differences decrease with increasing chain length. These variations are similar to those seen for other mechanical, physical, and thermal properties of these diacids. The softness of odd acids is rationalized due to strained molecular conformations in them, which facilitate easier plastic deformation. Relationships between structural features, such as interplanar spacing, interlayer separation distance, molecular chain length, and signatures of the nanoindentation responses, namely, discrete displacement bursts, were also examined. Shear sliding of molecular layers past each other during indentation is key to the mechanism for plastic deformation in these organic crystals. PMID:25919633

  5. Students' Alternate Conceptions on Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Hanqing; Henriques, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Knowing what students bring to the classroom can and should influence how we teach them. This study is a review of the literature associated with secondary and postsecondary students' ideas about acids and bases. It was found that there are six types of alternate ideas about acids and bases that students hold. These are: macroscopic properties of…

  6. Lubricants for CFC alternates

    SciTech Connect

    Spauschus, H.O.

    1995-12-01

    With the recent development and introduction of environmentally preferred refrigerants as substitutes for HCFC`s, a number of new classes of companion compressor lubricants also have been offered. In contrast to the former compressor lubricants which were derived from petroleum based stocks, the new lubricants are synthetic products, initially designed to provide miscibilities and solubilities similar to the CFC/mineral oil predecessors. Rather than review the classes of lubricants being evaluated and used for different types of refrigeration machinery, this paper will address longer term benefits and challenges related to the introduction of synthetic compressor lubricants such as polyesters, polyolesters, polyalkalene glycols and polycarbonates. Within these families of synthetic fluids, large selections of chemical structures are available, each with unique physical and chemical properties. Of course all of the lubricants must meet general requirements of compressor oils with respect to flammability, pour point, volatility, toxicity, etc., but beyond these minimum requirements, there are technical options for tailoring lubricant structures to optimize certain lubricant (and thus lubricant/refrigerant) properties such as vapor pressure, solubility, viscosity, viscosity index, miscibility, moisture absorption, additive response and biodegradability. Basic studies to predict lubricant/refrigerant mixture properties based on chemical structure of the components are recommended. A number of practical challenges in the selection and application of new lubricants and new working fluids will be discussed including standards for bench screening tests and compressor tests, guidelines for lubricant handling during recovery and servicing of equipment and the potential for reprocessing compressor lubricants.

  7. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Nathanael; Aliev, Ali; Baughman, Ray

    2015-03-01

    There is a large promise for thermophones in high power sonar arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding aerogel-like carbon nanotube sheets demonstrate the best performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large size freestanding carbon nanotube sheets and other even more exotic materials published recently, hampers the field. We present here new alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly and cost effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanoscale materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed.

  8. Alternatives to source reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Carstens, R.

    1990-11-01

    Source reduction means reducing waste before it`s created. This can be accomplished by reducing the amount of material designed into a product, and by using recyclable alternative materials wherever possible. An area overlooked as a target for waste reduction is the ordinary corrugated box. According to the Fibre Box Association, 20 million tons of corrugated were produced in 1989, about half of which was recycled.

  9. Electricity - The Alternative 

    E-print Network

    Watson, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    - THE ALTERNATIVE J. A. Watson, P.E. Ohio Edison Company Akron, Ohio ABSTRACT Energy has played a significant role in the history of this nation. Until the 1970s, little thought was given to energy by consumers. Changes occurring during the last decade... of oil and other forms of energy as well. In the last eight years, inflation as averaged 8.9% per year. Electricity purcha ed by commercial/industrial customers of 0 io Edison Company has increased an average of 14 4% per year since 1973...

  10. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached.

  11. Alternatives to Seesaw

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2004-10-10

    The seesaw mechanism is attractive not only because it"explains'' small neutrino mass, but also because of its packaging with the SUSY-GUT, leptogenesis, Dark Matter, and electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this package has the flavor, CP, and gravitino problems. I discuss two alternatives to the seesaw mechanism. In one of them, the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking solves these problems, while predicts naturally light Dirac neutrinos. In the other, the light Majorana neutrinos arise from supersymmetry breaking with right-handed neutrinos below TeV, and the Dark Matter and collider phenomenology are significantly different.

  12. Review of alternative fuels data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the interaction of fuel physical and chemical properties with combustion characteristics and indicators, a ranking of the importance of various fuel properties with respect to the combustion process was established. This ranking was used to define a suite of specific experiments whose objective is the development of an alternative fuels design data base. Combustion characteristics and indicators examined include droplet and spray formation, droplet vaporization and burning, ignition and flame stabilization, flame temperature, laminar flame speed, combustion completion, soot emissions, NOx and SOx emissions, and the fuels' thermal and oxidative stability and fouling and corrosion characteristics. Key fuel property data is found to include composition, thermochemical data, chemical kinetic rate information, and certain physical properties.

  13. An alternative synthetic route of [3(5)](1,2,3,4,5)cyclophane, and structural properties of multibridged [3(n)]cyclophanes and their charge-transfer complexes in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Mikio; Koga, Toru; Sakamoto, Youichi; Komatsu, Shingo; Zhou, Ming; Sako, Katsuya; Tatemitsu, Hitoshi; Onaka, Satoru; Aso, Yoshio; Inoue, Shinobu; Shinmyozu, Teruo

    2002-08-28

    To develop an improved synthetic route to [3(6)](1,2,3,4,5,6)cyclophane (CP) 2, a more practical synthetic route to [3(5)](1,2,3,4,5)CP 3 than the original one was developed, which started from [3(2)](1,3)CP 7 via [3(4)](1,2,4,5)CP 5. The fundamental structural parameters of [3(n)]CPs (n = 3-6) in the solid state were elucidated, and the observed structures were in good agreement with the most stable conformers in solution and those predicted by the theoretical calculations. In the case of [3(6)]CP 2, the most stable C(6)(h) structure was observed in the crystal structure of the 2-TCNQ-F(4) (1:1) complex, whereas the highly strained structure with a D(6)(h) symmetry was observed in the crystal structure of 2 and the 2:TCNQ:benzene (1:1:1) complex because of a severe disorder problem. [3(n)]CPs (n > 3) showed reversible redox processes, and 2 (+0.39 V vs F(c)/F(c)(+), Cl(2)CHCHCl(2)) showed the lowest first half-wave oxidation potential [E(1/2) (I)] in [3(n)]CPs. The E(1/2) (I) data support the strong donating ability of 2 and its lower homologues. This is attributed to their molecular structures where effective hyperconjugation between the benzyl hydrogens and benzene ring is possible. By taking advantage of the strong electron-donating ability of [3(n)]CPs, their CT complexes with TCNE, TCNQ, and TCNQ-F(4) were prepared, and their crystal structural properties were examined. The single-crystal conductivity data of the CT complexes indicated that the TCNQ-F(4) complexes showed higher conductivities than the corresponding TCNQ complexes mainly due to a larger charge separation. Among the [3(n)]CP-TCNQ complexes, the [3(3)](1,3,5)CP 6-TCNQ-F(4) (1:1) complex showed the highest conductivity (10(-)(4) S cm(-)(1)), and this was ascribed to the formation of an infinite column of partially overlapped acceptors with a short acceptor-acceptor distance, while the formation of such a column was not observed in the 2-TCNQ-F(4) complex. Although the conductivities of the cyclophane-CT complexes are much lower than those of the TTF related complexes, this study successfully provides the basic knowledge for understanding the CT interactions in the solid state. PMID:12188678

  14. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Ali E; Mayo, Nathanael K; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Robles, Raquel O; Fang, Shaoli; Baughman, Ray H; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yongsheng; Lee, Jae Ah; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-05-26

    Thermophones are highly promising for applications such as high-power SONAR arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets provide the most attractive performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large-size freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets and other even more exotic materials recently investigated hampers the field. We describe alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high-energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanostructured materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. We demonstrate that the heat capacity of aerogel-like nanostructures can be extracted by a thorough analysis of the sound pressure spectra. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high-power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed. PMID:25748853

  15. Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

    Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

  16. Alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

  17. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  18. Alternative Fuels Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Nakley, Leah M.; Yen, Chia H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn has invested over $1.5 million in engineering, and infrastructure upgrades to renovate an existing test facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), which is now being used as an Alternative Fuels Laboratory. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and thermal stability testing. This effort is supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing project. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale F-T catalyst screening experiments. These experiments require the use of a synthesis gas feedstock, which will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics, product yields and hydrocarbon distributions. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor for catalyst activation studies. Product gas composition and performance data can be continuously obtained with an automated gas sampling system, which directly connects the reactors to a micro-gas chromatograph (micro GC). Liquid and molten product samples are collected intermittently and are analyzed by injecting as a diluted sample into designated gas chromatograph units. The test facility also has the capability of performing thermal stability experiments of alternative aviation fuels with the use of a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) (Ref. 1) in accordance to ASTM D 3241 "Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels" (JFTOT method) (Ref. 2). An Ellipsometer will be used to study fuel fouling thicknesses on heated tubes from the HLPS experiments. A detailed overview of the test facility systems and capabilities are described in this paper.

  19. Higher Education Review (Alternative Providers)

    E-print Network

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    ), is the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education's (QAA's) principal review method for alternative providersHigher Education Review (Alternative Providers) Formerly known as Higher Education Review (Plus Education Review (Alternative Providers): Summary .......................................... 1 Part 1

  20. Alternatives to medicine. Hannah Semeraro

    E-print Network

    Molinari, Marc

    Alternatives to medicine. Hannah Semeraro Audiology Recruitment Coordinator Audiological Researcher ­ Occupational Therapy ­ 15:15 ­ 15:45 Jim Bird ­ Nursing 2 #12;Alternatives to medicine. Healthcare Science

  1. Alternative Reflections on Gravitation

    E-print Network

    Johann Albers

    1997-05-31

    It is assumed that the primary interaction between two masses m1 and m2 is not attractive as postulated by Newton's law of gravitation, but repulsive. Both m1 and m2 emit and absorb gravitational radiation. Corresponding to the laws of optics the absorption is connected with an impulse transfer that produces the repulsive force. If, however, m1 and m2 are embedded in the gravitational radiation produced by all the masses of the universe the absorption by m1 and m2 leads to a reduction of the intensity of the gravitational radiation between them, thus creating an attractive force exactly as described by Newton's law. The so called universal gravitational constant is no constant. It locally depends on the arrangement of the masses in the universe. It can accept high values which are usually explained by the existence of dark matter. Due to the primary forces of repulsive nature between all masses the expansion of the universe is an intrinsic property. The balance between primary, repulsive and secondary, attractive gravitational forces can stabilize highly concentrated mass accumulations as they are observed in globular clusters and the bulges of galaxies.

  2. Alternative Careers for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stith, James H.

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that roughly 50% of the students who earn a bachelor's in physics go directly to graduate school and that the other half goes directly into the work force. Of those who go to graduate school, roughly half enter physics or astronomy departments and the rest enter other science, engineering or other fields. Of those who persist to the PhD in physics, less that half are employed in academic or other traditional physics positions. Hence, the majority of those who earn a bachelors degree in physics are employed in non-physics related fields. How should the undergraduate physics curriculum reflect this reality? Should the undergraduate experience do a better job of highlighting what we like to call alternative pathways but which is in fact, the dominant pathway? While the undergraduate physics education provides a solid background for a wide range of careers, too often students do not know it. More importantly, too often physics faculty is unable to provide career advice on other than academic careers. This paper will provide the author's view of possible approaches to this dilemma.

  3. Alternatives to Incomplete Colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Villa, Nicolas A; Pannala, Rahul; Pasha, Shabana F; Leighton, Jonathan A

    2015-11-01

    A thorough and complete colonoscopy is critically important in preventing colorectal cancer. Factors associated with difficult and incomplete colonoscopy include a poor bowel preparation, severe diverticulosis, redundant colon, looping, adhesions, young and female patients, patient discomfort, and the expertise of the endoscopist. For difficult colonoscopy, focusing on bowel preparation techniques, appropriate sedation and adjunct techniques such as water immersion, abdominal pressure techniques, and patient positioning can overcome many of these challenges. Occasionally, these fail and other alternatives to incomplete colonoscopy have to be considered. If patients have low risk of polyps, then noninvasive imaging options such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) colonography can be considered. Novel applications such as Colon Capsule™ and Check-Cap are also emerging. In patients in whom a clinically significant lesion is noted on a noninvasive imaging test or if they are at a higher risk of having polyps, balloon-assisted colonoscopy can be performed with either a single- or double-balloon enteroscope or colonoscope. The application of these techniques enables complete colonoscopic examination in the vast majority of patients. PMID:26374654

  4. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  5. Alternative Mathematics without Actual Infinity

    E-print Network

    Toru Tsujishita

    2012-06-13

    An alternative mathematics based on qualitative plurality of finiteness is developed to make non-standard mathematics independent of infinite set theory. The vague concept "accessibility" is used coherently within finite set theory whose separation axiom is restricted to definite objective conditions. The weak equivalence relations are defined as binary relations with sorites phenomena. Continua are collection with weak equivalence relations called indistinguishability. The points of continua are the proper classes of mutually indistinguishable elements and have identities with sorites paradox. Four continua formed by huge binary words are examined as a new type of continua. Ascoli-Arzela type theorem is given as an example indicating the feasibility of treating function spaces. The real numbers are defined to be the points on the linear continuum and have indefiniteness. Exponentiation is introduced by the Eulerian style and basic properties are established. Basic calculus is developed and the differentiability is captured by the behavior on a point. Main tools of Lebesgue measure theory is obtained in a similar way as Loeb measure. Differences from the current mathematics are examined, such as the indefiniteness of natural numbers, qualitative plurality of finiteness, mathematical usage of vague concepts, the continuum as a primary inexhaustible entity and the hitherto disregarded aspect of "internal measurement" in mathematics.

  6. Alternative Energy COLLEGE of ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Alternative Energy technology COLLEGE of ENGINEERING AlternativeEnergyTechnologyProgram Collegeof program and alternative energy technology master's degree program t One of 23 U.S. PACE institutions to a alternative energy technology degree. The EDGE program trains engineering students in the entrepreneurial

  7. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATING IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. his study was ini...

  8. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  9. Alternating current electrokinetic properties of gold-coated microspheres.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Pablo; Ren, Yukun; Arcenegui, Juan J; Morgan, Hywel; Ramos, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    We present dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrorotation (ROT) measurements of gold-coated polystyrene microspheres as a function of frequency and for several electrolyte conductivities. Particle rotation was counterfield with a maximum rotation rate observed at a single characteristic frequency. Negative DEP was observed for frequencies lower than this characteristic frequency and positive DEP for signal frequencies higher than this. These experimental observations are in agreement with predictions for the force and torque on the induced dipole of a perfectly polarizable metal sphere. We present a theoretical model for this case, and good agreement is found for both ROT and DEP measurements if we take into account the viscous friction for a spherical particle near a wall. From the characteristic frequency for rotation, we obtain the capacitance of the electrical double layer at the electrolyte-particle interface. Remarkably, no effect of induced charge electroosmosis around the particles can be inferred from DEP measurements. PMID:22931290

  10. Surfactant-free alternative fuel: Phase behavior and diffusion properties.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ibrahim; Jyothi, Chemboli K; Qamhieh, Khawla; Olsson, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Phase behavior of the three components, 1-propanol, water and oil is studied at 10, 25, and 40°C. Biodiesel, limonene and diesel are used as oil phases. NMR self-diffusion measurements are performed to investigate the microstructure of the one-phase regions. Tie lines in the two-phase regions are determined both by proton NMR analysis and compared with theoretical calculations. NMR self-diffusion results for the different components in these systems do not show any sign of confinement or obstructions, demonstrating these mixtures to be structureless solutions. A good agreement between the experimental and calculated phase behavior is obtained. The determined tie lines in the two-phase regions show higher affinity of 1-propanol to water than to oil. PMID:26520824

  11. 26 CFR 20.2032-1 - Alternate valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternate valuation. 20.2032-1 Section 20.2032... valuation. (a) In general. In general, section 2032 provides for the valuation of a decedent's gross estate... alternate valuation method under section 2032, the property included in the decedent's gross estate on...

  12. 26 CFR 20.2032-1 - Alternate valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate valuation. 20.2032-1 Section 20.2032... valuation. (a) In general. In general, section 2032 provides for the valuation of a decedent's gross estate... alternate valuation method under section 2032, the property included in the decedent's gross estate on...

  13. 26 CFR 20.2032-1 - Alternate valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate valuation. 20.2032-1 Section 20.2032... valuation. (a) In general. In general, section 2032 provides for the valuation of a decedent's gross estate... alternate valuation method under section 2032, the property included in the decedent's gross estate on...

  14. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  15. Alternatives for Jet Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, R. J.; Sain, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Approaches are developed as alternatives to current design methods which rely heavily on linear quadratic and Riccati equation methods. The main alternatives are discussed in two broad categories, local multivariable frequency domain methods and global nonlinear optimal methods.

  16. Qubit dynamics under alternating controls

    E-print Network

    Aiello, Clarice Demarchi

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss two problems of quantum dynamics in the presence of alternating controls. Alternating controls arise in many protocols designed to extend the duration over which a qubit is a useful computational ...

  17. Alternative activation of dendritic cells 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Lucy Helen

    2013-06-29

    The alternative activation of macrophage populations by Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is well characterised. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) express high levels of the arginine converting enzyme arginase-1, and express ...

  18. Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators

    E-print Network

    Tang, Sai Chun

    Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

  19. Segmental alternations and metrical theory

    E-print Network

    Vaysman, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on phonological alternations that are influenced or constrained by word-internal prosody, i.e. prominence and foot structure, and what these alternations can tell us about metrical theory. Detailed ...

  20. Wetting behavior of alternative solder alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

    1993-07-01

    Recent economic and environmental issues have stimulated interest in solder alloys other than the traditional Sn-Pb eutectic or near eutectic composition. Preliminary evaluations suggest that several of these alloys approach the baseline properties (wetting, mechanical, thermal, and electrical) of the Sn-Pb solders. Final alloy acceptance will require major revisions to existing industrial and military soldering specifications. Bulk alloy and solder joint properties are consequently being investigated to validate their producibility and reliability. The work reported in this paper examines the wetting behavior of several of the more promising commercial alloys on copper substrates. Solder wettability was determined by the meniscometer and wetting balance techniques. The wetting results suggest that several of the alternative solders would satisfy pretinning and surface mount soldering applications. Their use on plated through hole technology might be more difficult since the alloys generally did not spread or flow as well as the 60Sn-40Pb solder.

  1. Is propolis safe as an alternative medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Antunes, Maria Dulce

    2011-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honeybees as defense against intruders. It has relevant therapeutic properties that have been used since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis is of increasing importance as a therapeutic, alone or included in many medicines and homeopathic products or in cosmetics. Propolis is produced worldwide and honeybees use the flora surrounding their beehives for its production. Therefore its chemical composition may change according to the flora. The phenolic and volatile fractions of propolis have been revised in the present study, as well as some of the biological properties attributed to this natural product. An alert is given about the need to standardize this product, with quality control. This has already been initiated by some authors, mainly in the propolis from the poplar-type. Only this product can constitute a good complementary and alternative medicine under internationally acceptable quality control. PMID:22219581

  2. Alternative display and interaction devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolas, M. T.; McDowall, I. E.; Mead, R. X.; Lorimer, E. R.; Hackbush, J. E.; Greuel, C.

    1995-01-01

    While virtual environment systems are typically thought to consist of a head mounted display and a flex-sensing glove, alternative peripheral devices are beginning to be developed in response to application requirements. Three such alternatives are discussed: fingertip sensing gloves, fixed stereoscopic viewers, and counterbalanced head mounted displays. A subset of commercial examples that highlight each alternative is presented as well as a brief discussion of interesting engineering and implementation issues.

  3. Plasma-facing material alternatives to tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J. N.; El-Guebaly, L.; Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, T.

    2015-04-01

    Tungsten is the leading high-Z candidate surface material for magnetic fusion reactor plasma-facing components, however, there are specific performance concerns for tungsten, and a general major concern about relying on one material. To broaden the options for fusion development we identified and examined five potential alternative high-Z plasma-facing materials: zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, hafnium and tantalum. We assess these materials from three standpoints: neutron-induced activation, sputter erosion/redeposition and plasma transient response. This initial analysis is encouraging showing (1) environmentally attractive activation properties with minimum waste disposal, for a tokamak reactor divertor, using advanced recycling techniques, (2) acceptable sputtering erosion/redeposition performance, similar to a tungsten divertor, and (3) concerns about the transient response of the alternative materials, but not fundamentally different than concerns for tungsten. We identify work needed to advance the qualification of these materials.

  4. Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

  5. Decomposition of Artinian Alternative Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidiger, A.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper a number of theorems are obtained on decompositions of Artinian alternative rings, generalizing analogous theorems of Szász, Šne?dmjuller, Kertész et al. for associative Artinian rings. For example, it is shown that every alternative Artinian ring decomposes into a direct sum of torsion parts and a torsion free ideal. With several additional restrictions, we obtain a decomposition of any alternative Artinian ring into a direct sum of an ideal and a left ideal, allowing a rather detailed description. A description of hereditarily Artinian alternative rings is given.Bibliography: 16 titles.

  6. Bond alternation in phosphonitrilic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Kim F.; Risser, S. M.

    1990-11-01

    The molecular structures of linear phosphonitrilic compounds demonstrate a dependence on the number of repeat units and on ligand electronegativity. Recent structural measurements of short length phosphonitrilic molecules have indicated the presence of bond alternation, in contrast to previous X-ray studies of the polymer itself. Ab initio electronic structure calculations have been performed on a series of short phosphonitrilic compounds H3P(NPH2)nNH, n=1-4, which show that bond alternation does exist for the small chain compounds. The behavior of the alternation as the number of repeat units is increased suggests that alternation continues into the infinite limit.

  7. 48 CFR 45.502 - Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor...Property Administration 45.502 Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor locations. (a) To ensure subcontractor compliance with...

  8. 48 CFR 45.502 - Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor...Property Administration 45.502 Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor locations. (a) To ensure subcontractor compliance with...

  9. 48 CFR 45.502 - Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor...Property Administration 45.502 Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor locations. (a) To ensure subcontractor compliance with...

  10. 48 CFR 45.502 - Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor...Property Administration 45.502 Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor locations. (a) To ensure subcontractor compliance with...

  11. 48 CFR 45.502 - Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor...Property Administration 45.502 Subcontractor and alternate prime contractor locations. (a) To ensure subcontractor compliance with...

  12. Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

    2012-01-01

    This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

  13. Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    1998-01-01

    Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

  14. Free Web resources on alternatives.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Thomas M

    2004-03-01

    Access to many online databases for alternatives searches requires a paid subscription and these fees may be expensive for small or not-for-profit institutions. The author provides a list of free sites that can be used to fulfill the legal requirement for an alternatives search. PMID:15235629

  15. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  16. Alternative Programs for Disruptive Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Angele, Ed.; And Others

    The book addresses issues in meeting the educational needs of disruptive students. In the introduction, R. Sarri examines the rise of alternative schools and discusses common elements in their design and operation. D. Sabatino follows with "Issues and Concerns: Problems with Alternative Schools," in which he examines the particular difficulties…

  17. Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated Edison.www.gastechnology.org 2 #12;Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated-Battelle for the Department of Energy Subcontract Number: 4000052360 GTI Project Number: 20441 New York State Energy Research

  18. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  19. Encapsulation as a passive soil remediation alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Mario, B.R. De

    1996-12-31

    By implementing institutional and engineering controls, a passive, cost-effective, remedial alternative has allowed redevelopment of an abandoned, industrial, site located in Newark, New Jersey. Soil and groundwater contaminants at the site include volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and metals. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) recognized the impracticality of requiring an aggressive, localized, remedial action to clean up contaminated soil and groundwater in a region that has historically used fill to create land along the state`s waterways. By placing an institutional control, known as a Declaration of Environmental Restriction (DER), on the property, the NJDEP allowed contaminated fill to remain on site and approved encapsulation as the remedial action for the soil. The approved engineering control, encapsulation, consisted of the design and placement of an asphalt pavement cap that covered the affected areas of concern. The asphalt pavement cap prevents direct human contact to contaminated soil and leaching of contaminants in the soil into the groundwater by surface water infiltration. This paper focuses on the subsurface soil investigation and establishment of the DER. The benefits of this remedial alternative are: (1) the urban redevelopment of contaminated land while simultaneously ensuring protection to human health and the environment; (2) costs savings of not having to clean up a regional problem as if it were local; and (3) the facilitation of a property transfer transaction without the risk of future liability for an historical problem.

  20. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  1. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  2. SAGE--SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE does not recommend any ozone depleting chemicals. SAGE was developed by the Surface Cleaning Program at Research Triang...

  3. Biased learning of phonological alternations

    E-print Network

    Do, Young Ah

    2013-01-01

    What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...

  4. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Complementary and ... works. Back Continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  5. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

  6. State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State

    DOE Data Explorer

    This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

  7. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobeti?ová, Hana; Galbi?ková, Blanka; Šev?íková, Janka; Soldán, Maroš

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

  8. Alternative fuels for maritime use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to review the potential fuels which may be available to the marine industry from the present to the year 2000 and to define the economic, technical, and environmental/social impacts of these alternative fuels on marine power plants. Thus, this study is aimed at the fuels/prime mover combination. This study should help to guide the industry in choosing the proper power plant for the future - recognizing that a new power plant installed in 1980 will still be in service in the 21st century. The importance of the marine transportation industry and the need to consider alternate fuels are examined. An overview of potential alternate fuels for marine applications is presented, and power plant/fuel interaction is discussed. An in-depth discussion is presented on the impact of the most likely alternate fuels from the viewpoint of maintenance, retrofit capability, safety, and air-quality impacts. Two nonfossil-fuel alternatives sailing ships and nuclear-powered vessels, are discussed. It is concluded that: there is a high probability of using synfuels from tar sands shale, or coal liquids in both existing and future ships; coal and coal/oil slurries have a high probability of use in future ships and medium probability in existing ships; nuclear and sail-power future ships have a medium probability of commercial development; and is a low probability of commercial maritime use of alcohol fuels, methane, or coal/methanol combinations. (LCL)

  9. APAP and Alternative Titration Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Omer; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Positive airway pressure therapy (PAP) is commonly prescribed treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Traditionally, the determination of the optimal pressure for treatment of sleep-disordered breathing was made by manual titration of the device by a sleep technician in attendance during polysomnography. However, the advent of alternative methods for determination of optimal PAP – such as auto-titrating PAP (APAP) – has seen tremendous growth over the past decade. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the currently available alternative methods for titration of PAP in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) with special emphasis on obstructive sleep apnea. Recent Findings Recent prospective-randomized studies of alternative methods of titration suggest that pressure determinations made by such devices are comparable to traditional manual titrations made in the sleep laboratory. Obstacles to the adoption of such alternative modes of titration into day-to-day practice may be attributable to issues surrounding appropriate patient selection, differences between devices, re-imbursement policies of third party payors, consensus amongst sleep experts, and individual physicians’ practice patterns and volumes. While newer generations and types of auto-titrating PAP devices are entering the sleep field constantly, providers’ knowledge and time availability remain limiting factors. Summary There is tremendous growth in the technology and scientific evidence in support of alternative modes of PAP titration for sleep-disordered breathing, but barriers to implementation remain. PMID:20806054

  10. The Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    In 1988, the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) became Public Law 100-494. The AMFA encourages the production and use of motor vehicles designed to operate on alternative fuels. The alternative fuels specified in the law are methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. The Department of Energy (DOE), along with several other federal, state, and local agencies, has undertaken numerous activities aimed at fulfilling the AMFA directives. Among these activities is the establishment of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC), operated and managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in Golden Colorado. The AMFA targets activities for three vehicle types using alternative fuels: (1) light-duty vehicles such as automobiles, mini-vans, and light-duty; (2) heavy-duty vehicles such as tractor trailers and garbage trucks; and (3) urban transit buses. The primary purpose of the AFDC is to gather and analyze information on the fuel consumption, emissions, operation, and durability of these vehicles types. The AFDC staff work with an Oracle Relational Database Management System and statistical software to provide information to users.

  11. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  12. Squaring the Circle: A New Alternative to Alternative-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Many quality assurance systems rely on high-stakes assessment for course certification. Such methods are not as objective as they might appear; they can have detrimental effects on student motivation and may lack relevance to the needs of degree courses increasingly oriented to vocational utility. "Alternative assessment" methods can…

  13. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  14. Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

  15. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    SciTech Connect

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-12-15

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  16. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents in-depth articles on the main issues affecting the use and usefulness of nuclear energy for peaceful domestic purposes. Topics considered include energy futures (a world study), energy demand-energy supplies, an energy-deficient society, energy shortages, the economics of light water reactors (LWRs), fast breeder reactor economics, international cooperation in the nuclear field, nuclear recycling (costs, savings, safeguards), alternative fuels, alternative fuel cycles, alternative reactors, the nuclear weapons proliferation issue, paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards, the homemade bomb issue, LWR risk assessment, accident analysis and risk assessment, the waste disposal risk, radon problems, health effects of low-level radiation, routine releases of radioactivity, plutonium toxicity, and the Price-Anderson Act.

  17. Transitivity Alternations in Sorani Kurdish

    E-print Network

    Gharib, Hiba Esmail

    2011-05-31

    to their meaning based on the way in which the elements of the semantic representation are arranged. Guerssel’s study examines those aspects of meaning which contribute to verb participation in several syntactic alternations. Guerssel et al. refer to four lexical...’t even break with a hammer (2) *Janet broke at the bread (3) a. The meat cut easily b. Margret cut at the bread c. *the bread cut The middle alternation can be found with both verbs cut and break. There are some...

  18. Multipebble Simulations for Alternating Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Lorenzo; Mayr, Richard

    We study generalized simulation relations for alternating Büchi automata (ABA), as well as alternating finite automata. Having multiple pebbles allows the Duplicator to "hedge her bets" and delay decisions in the simulation game, thus yielding a coarser simulation relation. We define (k 1,k 2)-simulations, with k 1/k 2 pebbles on the left/right, respectively. This generalizes previous work on ordinary simulation (i.e., (1,1)-simulation) for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA)[4] in and ABA in [5], and (1,k)-simulation for NBA in [3].

  19. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  20. Two alternative versions of strangeness.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The concept of strangeness emerged from the low energy phenomenology before the entry of quarks in particle physics. The connection between strangeness and isospin is rather accidental and loose and we recognize later that the definition of strangeness is model-dependent. Indeed, in Gell-Mann's triplet quark model we realize that there is a simple alternative representation of strangeness. When the concept of generations is incorporated into the quark model we find that only the second alternative version of strangeness remains meaningful, whereas the original one does no longer keep its significance. PMID:18997448

  1. Two alternative versions of strangeness

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Kazuhikoa

    2008-01-01

    The concept of strangeness emerged from the low energy phenomenology before the entry of quarks in particle physics. The connection between strangeness and isospin is rather accidental and loose and we recognize later that the definition of strangeness is model-dependent. Indeed, in Gell-Mann’s triplet quark model we realize that there is a simple alternative representation of strangeness. When the concept of generations is incorporated into the quark model we find that only the second alternative version of strangeness remains meaningful, whereas the original one does no longer keep its significance. PMID:18997448

  2. CAGE--COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CAGE provides information on low-emitting alternative coating technologies to coatings users and technical assistance program representatives. The Coatings GuideTM, a pollution prevention tool for paints and coatings users, contains several tools to help users identify low-volati...

  3. Alternative Approaches to Introductory Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonello, Frank J.; And Others

    This document examines the educational output of three alternative approaches to introductory macroeconomics at the University of Notre Dame. The framework for evaluation consists of the cognitive and affective tradeoffs entailed by using a new experimental course as opposed to two more traditional courses. The experimental course is a freshman…

  4. Alternative Certification: Effectively Preparing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Christopher; Bishop, Carolyn A.; Hernandez, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses questions related to teacher preparation through online supported learning in an alternative certification program, CalStateTEACH. Specifically, this study analyzes and reports survey responses of 130 teachers and 84 supervisors related to preparedness of program completers to teach in a multiple subject classroom. The…

  5. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  6. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches Alternatives for Jet Engine Control is reported. A numerical study employing feedback tensors for optimal control of nonlinear systems was completed. It is believed that these studies are the first of their kind. State regulation, with a decrease in control power is demonstrated. A detailed treatment follows.

  7. Alternative Careers in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordham, Sheldon L.

    A program offering alternative career education for physical education majors is described. At the Chicago Circle campus of the University of Illinois, the School of Physical Education was recently granted college status and became the College of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. This move was responsive to the declining demand for…

  8. Alternatives To Dissection. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill, Ed.; Winiarskyj, Lesia, Ed.

    This packet attempts to provide educationally sound alternatives to dissection in the classroom, thereby making it possible for teachers to eliminate dissection from the curriculum. This packet can also be used by educators who include dissection in their curricula but consider it important to respect the expression of students' ethical, moral, or…

  9. Alternative Careers in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Charlotte

    Several alternate definitions of "physical education" can be presented to illustrate the fact that changes in name or definition open the way to new opportunities and new ways of thinking of career options. Traditional definitions of physical education have limited it to a profession of teaching in the traditional school system normal children…

  10. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control is reported. Extensive numerical testing is included. It is indicated that optimal inputs contribute significantly to the process of calculating tensor approximations for nonlinear systems, and that the resulting approximations may be order-reduced in a systematic way.

  11. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  12. Alternative nitrogen sources for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several alternative nitrogen (N) sources, rates of N, and amendments were evaluated at Prattville, Alabama, on cotton in 2008. Nitrogen rates reported are for sidedress application only. Dry urea produced the highest yield, averaging 1100 pounds lint per acre. Ammonia volatilization was measured fr...

  13. Alternatives to Afrocentrism. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John J., Ed.

    The essays in this collection place the current Afrocentric movement in its historical context and offer alternative suggestions about how to teach African American students about their history. The first section deals with the roots of Afrocentrism, analyzes the content of Afrocentric books and curricula, and discusses the impact of Afrocentrism…

  14. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  15. Alternative Math Techniques Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard

    This guide contains a collection of alternative techniques for teaching arithmetic that have proved useful in teaching both children and adults with various learning problems. Discussed first are several underlying principles of instructing individuals with learning disabilities, problems, and differences and special accommodations for…

  16. An Alternative to Liberal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Larry M.; Smith, Royse J.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies the better known Anglo-American liberal political theories and critically analyzes the values that underlie these theories (i.e. individualism, proceduralism, tolerance, science, and objectivity). Provides an alternative to the present liberal pedagogy and suggests implications for future political education. (JDH)

  17. Alternate Theory Formation by Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, R. Keith

    Video tapes of student teachers micro-teaching in a high school biology class were analyzed. Attention was focussed on students' interpretations of data and the teacher's responses to these interpretations. Examples are given of student explanations which teachers find unsatisfactory but which are valid alternatives based on the data available to…

  18. Alternative refined Gribov-Zwanziger Lagrangian

    SciTech Connect

    Gracey, J. A.

    2010-10-15

    We consider the implications of the condensation of a general local Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariant dimension two operator built out of the localizing ghost fields of the Gribov-Zwanziger Lagrangian which is a localized Lagrangian incorporating the Gribov problem in the Landau gauge. For different color tensor projections of the general operator, the properties of a frozen gluon propagator and unenhanced Faddeev-Popov ghost propagator, which are observed in lattice computations, can be reproduced. The alternative possibilities are distinguished by the infrared structure of the propagators of the spin-1 fields, other than those of the gluon and Faddeev-Popov ghost, for which there is no numerical simulation data to compare with yet.

  19. NEW CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVES FOR THE PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study that focused on the investigation of fluorinated derivatives of propane and butane to determine if synthesis routes of such compounds were feasible and economical and to measure the physical properties needed to evaluate the compounds as altern...

  20. ALTERNATE VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND WALL OF INDIGENOUS VOLCANIC RYOLITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ALTERNATE VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND WALL OF INDIGENOUS VOLCANIC RYOLITE EASTSIDE OF PIEDMONT AVENUE ADJACENT TO OAK GROVE AND CALIFORNIA MEMORIAL STADIUM. LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, June 29, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  1. ALTERNATE VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT BANCROFT WAY. SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ALTERNATE VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT BANCROFT WAY. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  2. ALTERNATE VIEW OF NORTH END OF PIEDMONT AVENUE. OAK GROVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ALTERNATE VIEW OF NORTH END OF PIEDMONT AVENUE. OAK GROVE AT LEFT REAR. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING SE. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  3. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    SciTech Connect

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  4. Remediation alternatives for low-level herbicide contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Conger, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    In early 1995, an evaluation of alternatives for remediation of a shallow groundwater plume containing low-levels of an organic herbicide was conducted at BASF Corporation, a petrochemical facility located in Ascension Parish, Louisiana. The contaminated site is located on an undeveloped portion of property within 1/4 mile of the east bank of the Mississippi River near the community of Geismar. Environmental assessment data indicated that about two acres of the thirty acre site had been contaminated from past waste management practices with the herbicide bentazon. Shallow soils and groundwater between 5 to 15 feet in depth were affected. Maximum concentrations of bentazon in groundwater were less than seven parts per million. To identify potentially feasible remediation alternatives, the environmental assessment data, available research, and cost effectiveness were reviewed. After consideration of a preliminary list of alternatives, only two potentially feasible alternatives could be identified. Groundwater pumping, the most commonly used remediation alternative, followed by carbon adsorption treatment was identified as was a new innovative alternative known as vegetative transpiration. This alternative relies on the natural transpiration processes of vegetation to bioremediate organic contaminants. Advantages identified during screening suggest that the transpiration method could be the best remediation alternative to address both economic and environmental factors. An experiment to test critical factors of the vegetatived transpiration alternative with bentazon was recommended before a final decision on feasibility can be made.

  5. Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soil water flux will result in larger increases in soil- adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distribution of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading.

  6. Alternative Life Styles for Extraterrestrial Chemists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, S.

    2002-12-01

    Life is no more (and no less) than a special type of organic chemistry, one that combines a frequently encountered property of organic molecules (the ability to undergo spontaneous chemical transformation) with an uncommon property (the ability to direct the synthesis of self-copies) in a way that allows new molecular features arising through spontaneous transformation to themselves be copied. Any chemical system having this combination will undergo natural selection, evolving in structure to replicate faster through more efficient use of molecular resources and energy. Axiomatically, life cannot exist in an environment at thermodynamic equilibrium. If it were, by the second law of thermodynamics, no net chemical transformation would be possible. Beyond this constraint, it is difficult to define environmental conditions or chemical structures necessary for life. Water is certainly not required for a chemical system to copy itself; in the laboratory, non-aqueous environments appear to support this behavior better. Chemical transformations that might support energy and chemical metabolisms are known in environments as acidic as the aerosols in the atmosphere of Venus, or as basic as the atmosphere of Jupiter. Laboratory experiments with analogs of the nucleic acids, proteins, sugars, and lipids show that the particular molecular structures found in terrean life need not be universal, even those life in water near neutral pH. Indeed, while both water and biological macromolecules are commonly regarded as essential for terrean-like life, water destroys terrean biological macromolecules. These chemical realities create a complex decision environment as NASA attempts to design instrumentation carried by missions, select places in the solar system to send them, and chose laboratory studies on Earth to provide their scientific support. This talk will review a hierarchy of chemical possibilities and constraints that start with the chemistry of terrean life, and takes steps towards weird life. We shall consider alternative amino acid building blocks for proteins, alternative building blocks for nucleic acids, alternative structural features of genetic and catalytic molecules, alternative nucleophile-electrophile pairs to support metabolism, non-polar reaction modes that might support metabolism, non-terrean pH (< 0, > 14) and solvent environments for life, extreme temperature ranges (especially sub zero Celsius) low temperature ranges, alternative thermodynamic design for metabolic pathways, alternative dimensionalities of genetic and catalytic molecules, and approaches for isolating life other than conventional cell structures. Each of these discussions will combine experimental and theoretical information. The first involves organic chemical synthesis that creates new forms of chemical matter to ask "What if?" and "Why not?" questions. The second draws on a century of literature in physical organic chemistry to formulate general constraints on the structure and transformation of organic matter to provide constraints on possible Darwinian chemistries in the galaxy.

  7. Alternative Splicing in Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengming; Tang, Fang; Zhu, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) occurs widely in plants and can provide the main source of transcriptome and proteome diversity in an organism. AS functions in a range of physiological processes, including plant disease resistance, but its biological roles and functional mechanisms remain poorly understood. Many plant disease resistance (R) genes undergo AS, and several R genes require alternatively spliced transcripts to produce R proteins that can specifically recognize pathogen invasion. In the finely-tuned process of R protein activation, the truncated isoforms generated by AS may participate in plant disease resistance either by suppressing the negative regulation of initiation of immunity, or by directly engaging in effector-triggered signaling. Although emerging research has shown the functional significance of AS in plant biotic stress responses, many aspects of this topic remain to be understood. Several interesting issues surrounding the AS of R genes, especially regarding its functional roles and regulation, will require innovative techniques and additional research to unravel. PMID:24918296

  8. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  9. Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration 

    E-print Network

    Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    ALTERNATIVES TO COGENERATION" K. R. SANDBERG, JR. INDUSTRIAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER - TEXAS GULF STATES UTILITIES COMPANY BEAUMONT, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper discusses electric rate slternatives to cogeneration for the industrisl customer and attempts... electricity to municipalities and rural electric cooperatives in both Texas and Louisiana. In Baton Rouge. GSU supplies steam and electricity to a large industrial customer through a cogeneration facility that the company has had in operation since...

  10. Ambitious Philippine alternative energy plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-07

    The Philippines is to spend $5.4 billion over the next ten years for the development of alternative sources of energy. These would include the development of fuel woods and other biomass, and the commercialization of a coconut/diesel-oil fuel. It is hoped that the Philippines' dependence on imported oil will be reduced from about 80% today to around 50% by the end of the decade.

  11. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  12. Alternate-fuel reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.R.

    1983-02-01

    A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a /sup 3/He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding.

  13. 41 CFR 102-117.130 - Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... use alternative fuels? 102-117.130 Section 102-117.130 Public Contracts and Property Management... § 102-117.130 Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels? No, but, whenever possible, you are encouraged to select TSPs that use alternative fuel vehicles and equipment, under policy in the Clean Air...

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.130 - Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... use alternative fuels? 102-117.130 Section 102-117.130 Public Contracts and Property Management... § 102-117.130 Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels? No, but, whenever possible, you are encouraged to select TSPs that use alternative fuel vehicles and equipment, under policy in the Clean Air...

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.130 - Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... use alternative fuels? 102-117.130 Section 102-117.130 Public Contracts and Property Management... § 102-117.130 Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels? No, but, whenever possible, you are encouraged to select TSPs that use alternative fuel vehicles and equipment, under policy in the Clean Air...

  16. 41 CFR 102-117.130 - Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use alternative fuels? 102-117.130 Section 102-117.130 Public Contracts and Property Management... § 102-117.130 Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels? No, but, whenever possible, you are encouraged to select TSPs that use alternative fuel vehicles and equipment, under policy in the Clean Air...

  17. 41 CFR 102-117.130 - Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... use alternative fuels? 102-117.130 Section 102-117.130 Public Contracts and Property Management... § 102-117.130 Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels? No, but, whenever possible, you are encouraged to select TSPs that use alternative fuel vehicles and equipment, under policy in the Clean Air...

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

    PubMed

    Moquin, Barbara; Blackman, Marc R; Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) appears to be on the rise in all adult age groups, including the elderly population. Many herbal and biologic preparations offer promise, but they are largely of unproven benefit. The content(s) are unregulated by government agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration, making their use problematic to recommend and guide. Use of CAM modalities in assisted living communities (ALCs) is by and large a hidden practice, but it is estimated that 5%-9% of residents ingest some kind of herbal remedy. Belief systems among residents and their families-for example, that a certain kind of tea is a cure for dementia-can be persuasive. Responsible for resident well-being, assisted living nurses are caught in the middle. Nurse licensure considers herbals as medications, yet physicians refuse to prescribe them, and nurses (or certified med techs) cannot administer them. In some states, "alternative practitioners" are not viewed as legal prescribers. Undaunted, residents (or their families) purchase alternative "medicines" that are contraindicated by their traditional medical regimen. Secreted in their room, nurses are unaware of the stash and the self-administrating practice. This article describes the state of the science regarding the efficacy and safety of CAM modalities and actions that ALC nurses might undertake to collaborate with residents to address their CAM interest and use respectfully. PMID:19520231

  19. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  20. The low-frequency alternative-current magnetic susceptibility and electrical properties of Si(100)/Fe40Pd40B20(X Ĺ)/ZnO(500 Ĺ) and Si(100)/ZnO(500 Ĺ)/Fe40Pd40B20(Y Ĺ) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Tsung; Xie, S. M.; Jheng, H. Y.

    2013-05-01

    The two deposition conditions are (a) Si(100)/Fe40Pd40B20(X Ĺ)/ZnO (500 Ĺ) and (b) Si(100)/ZnO(500 Ĺ)/Fe40Pd40B20(Y Ĺ), where X and Y are 25 Ĺ, 50 Ĺ, 75 Ĺ, and 100 Ĺ. The sputtering sequence and the thickness of the FePdB film were varied to examine their effects on the low-frequency alternative-current magnetic susceptibility (?ac), maximum phase angle (?max), maximum ?ac with corresponding optimal resonance frequency (fres), and electrical resistivity (?). Experimental results show that ZnO(500 Ĺ)/Fe40Pd40B20(Y Ĺ) is superior to Fe40Pd40B20(X Ĺ)/ZnO(500 Ĺ) because the ZnO(002) texture at the bottom can improve the magneto nanocrystalline anisotropy of Fe40Pd40B20, improving its magnetic properties. In particular, a comparison of high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observations of Fe40Pd40B20(100 Ĺ)/ZnO(500 Ĺ) and ZnO(500 Ĺ)/Fe40Pd40B20(100 Ĺ) demonstrates that the ZnO(002) texture induces a magneto nanocrystalline anisotropy in the nanocrystalline FePdB layer of ZnO(500 Ĺ)/Fe40Pd40B20(100 Ĺ), yielding a highest ?ac of approximately 2.8 with an fres of 1000 Hz and an ?max of 169°. Additionally, the ? is reduced as the FePdB thickness increases, because grain boundaries and the surface of thin films scatter the electrons, so thinner films have a greater resistance. The ? of ZnO(500 Ĺ)/Fe40Pd40B20(Y Ĺ) is lower than that of Fe40Pd40B20(X Ĺ)/ZnO(500 Ĺ) because stronger ZnO crystallization and nanocrystalline FePdB improve the scattering of electrons by the surface of the films.

  1. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    PubMed

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension. PMID:10907162

  2. Insights into alternative splicing of sarcomeric genes in the heart.

    PubMed

    Weeland, Cornelis J; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Creemers, Esther E

    2015-04-01

    Driven by rapidly evolving technologies in next-generation sequencing, alternative splicing has emerged as a crucial layer in gene expression, greatly expanding protein diversity and governing complex biological processes in the cardiomyocyte. At the core of cardiac contraction, the physical properties of the sarcomere are carefully orchestrated through alternative splicing to fit the varying demands on the heart. By the recent discovery of RBM20 and RBM24, two major heart and skeletal muscle-restricted splicing factors, it became evident that alternative splicing events in the heart occur in regulated networks rather than in isolated events. Analysis of knockout mice of these splice factors has shed light on the importance of these fundamental processes in the heart. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role and regulation of alternative splicing in the developing and diseased heart, specifically within the sarcomere. Through various examples (titin, myomesin, troponin T, tropomyosin and LDB3) we illustrate how alternative splicing regulates the functional properties of the sarcomere. Finally, we evaluate opportunities and obstacles to modulate alternative splicing in therapeutic approaches for cardiac disease. PMID:25683494

  3. Alternative implementation of Pade approximants

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we devise an alternative approach to the use of Pade approximants in the resummation of the perturbative (either divergent or convergent) series. Our procedure relies on the introduction of a nonphysical parameter and on the constraint that the physical observable be linear in this parameter. The relation between the unphysical parameter and the physical perturbative parameter is expressed in terms of a Pade approximant, whose form can be fully determined. We have applied this strategy to a number of examples and we have compared the results to those obtained following the standard Pade approach, observing that in many cases our approach is superior.

  4. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  5. Alternative Financing for Energy Efficiency 

    E-print Network

    Trevino, E.

    2013-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-KT-13-12-37.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2104 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-KT-13-12-37.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Alternative Financing... for Energy Efficiency • Eddy Trevino • Matt Golden – – Investor Confidence Project • Josh Briggs – QECBs • Michael Flores – High Performance New Construction • Denise Malloy – Performance Contracting for Public Sector Improvement Projects ESL-KT-13...

  6. Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

    2011-12-01

    The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to influence uniform rates. The welfare results of these exercises indicate that popular conceptions about increasing block rates may be incorrect insofar as the scarcity-endogenous uniform rate favors low-income households. That is, under scarcity conditions a switch from increasing block rates to full price uniform rates redistributes welfare so as to place more of the welfare burden of conservation on high-income households. Similarly, any household characteristic that tends to accompany low water use (e.g. low property value) generates a the same rate structure preference. These results are an intriguing addition to existing knowledge pertaining to the properties of increasing block rates and uniform rates with respect to criteria such as efficiency, simplicity, effectiveness, and (now) equity.

  7. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  8. Alternate nozzle ablative materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

  9. 36 CFR Appendix B to Part 1234 - Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System...Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION...Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System...contains information on the Fire-safety Detection and...

  10. 36 CFR Appendix B to Part 1234 - Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System...Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION...Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System...contains information on the Fire-safety Detection and...

  11. 36 CFR Appendix B to Part 1234 - Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System...Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION...Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System...contains information on the Fire-safety Detection and...

  12. Alternative designs for nanocrystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Atul

    Nanocrystalline silicon is an attractive material for solar cells. It has very small grains, about 20 nm, and yet its electronic properties are very similar to those of crystalline silicon. The material exhibits smaller mobilities than crystalline Silicon, but the minority carrier lifetimes are reasonable. It is known that the properties of the material depend critically upon deposition parameters, in particular, the degree of grain boundary passivation achieved during growth and grain size. Previous work has shown that as the material grows, the grains tend to agglomerate into a cluster, and the development of this cluster leads to poorer electronic properties. The traditional method for overcoming such clustering has been to change the hydrogen to silane dilution ratio as the material grows, keeping the material near its crystalline to amorphous transition zone. However, this method is dependent upon the precise growth chemistry and is not suitable for mass production. In this project, we develop a new device design, a superlattice comprising alternating layers of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon, which allows one to precisely control the agglomeration of grains without having to resort to hydrogen profiling techniques. We study structural properties such as grain size and the degree of crystallnity, and electronic properties such as carrier diffusion lengths and defect densities. We show that an appropriate design of the superlattice allows one to minimize defect densities and maximize carrier diffusion lengths. We also study how to reduce series resistance in solar cells, and show that an appropriate combination of superlattice and contacts can lead to devices with high fill factors and good solar cell efficiencies. We also report on a new discovery, namely that the optical absorption itself depends critically upon grain size. Larger grain sizes, up to 50 nm, lead to increased optical absorption, a totally unexpected and very useful discovery for devices, since higher absorption translates into larger current densities. We show that such grain sizes can be achieved using deposition at higher temperatures. We develop a new technique, post-deposition annealing, to help passivate the grain boundaries in devices prepared at higher temperatures. Without such annealing, the device properties for devices grown at higher temperatures with larger grains are very poor. We show that when the devices are grown with larger grains, and then passivated using this new annealing technique, the current and efficiencies increase by 40% compared to similar devices prepared at lower temperatures. We also propose the concept of a Multiphase cell by alloying germanium with silicon in the back layer of the device. Since germanium has a stronger absorption co-efficient than silicon, we show that we can enhance the infrared spectral response and also achieve good IV curves by optimally grading the germane flow. Finally, we implement these concepts on textured backreflectors to further enhance the efficiencies by light trapping.

  13. Alternative approach to multisensor navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, M. J.; Hollaar, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    An alternative to the Kalman filtering technique, based on logical rather than numerical techniques, is presented. It can be implemented on one or more microprocessors (with a fixed communications protocol between the individual microprocessors); requires only limited preprocessing of the input data; can have its constituent subsystem changed without major revision to the combiner as new or better navigation techniques, such as the global positioning system (GPS) or Loran-C, become available; and tolerates a wide variety of sensor, hardware, and software errors. The basic structure of the method and results of simulations of its performance in the presence of errors common to low-cost sensors (such as VOR or basic Omega) are presented, along with a discussion of possible extensions.

  14. First passage failure: Analysis alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    PAEZ,THOMAS L.; NGUYEN,H.P.; WIRSCHING,PAUL H.

    2000-04-17

    Most mechanical and structural failures can be formulated as first passage problems. The traditional approach to first passage analysis models barrier crossings as Poisson events. The crossing rate is established and used in the Poisson framework to approximate the no-crossing probability. While this approach is accurate in a number of situations, it is desirable to develop analysis alternatives for those situations where traditional analysis is less accurate and situations where it is difficult to estimate parameters of the traditional approach. This paper develops an efficient simulation approach to first passage failure analysis. It is based on simulation of segments of complex random processes with the Karhunen-Loeve expansion, use of these simulations to estimate the parameters of a Markov chain, and use of the Markov chain to estimate the probability of first passage failure. Some numerical examples are presented.

  15. Alternator control for battery charging

    DOEpatents

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  16. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners.

  17. Cigarette Alternatives: Are they Safe?

    PubMed

    Shantakumari, Nisha; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; John, Lisha Jenny; Sreedharan, Jayadevan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of limited data regarding the safety or effectiveness of electronic cigarette introduced into the market as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking, its popularity has increased enormously. E-cigarettes have penetrated the market rapidly owing to the elaborate marketing network and attractive marketing strategies. Stated advantages include the claim that they help quit smoking and produce less exposure than conventional smoking. The list of disadvantages is even more elaborate. While the majority of the studies supporting health claims and efficacy for quitting smoking are not scientifically sound, they are also challenged by studies providing contradictory results. Owing to the limited evidence on the potential advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarettes, the debate on their safety continues. PMID:25921182

  18. Recent advances in alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Ziment, I

    2000-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming more popular, and CAM remedies are used instead of, or integrated with, orthodox allopathic therapies by many patients with asthma. Although most CAM remedies may have no discernible effects when analyzed by conventional medical techniques, some double-blind controlled studies do suggest that a meaningful benefit can be obtained with acupunture and homeopathic management in asthma. Herbal medicine is more popular, despite little evidence that the vast majority of herbs for asthma have any useful effects other than a nonspecific expectorant action. Dietary adjustment may benefit a small percentage of patients with asthma, but extreme measures are very rarely indicated. Formal pyschologic approaches can help some patients by reducing anxiety. Although most CAM approaches are harmless, the lack of benefit of many remedies and the potential harm from some of them must be recognized. PMID:10608429

  19. Alternative calcination development status report

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

  20. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47...EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container...Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator may...procedures, or other label alternatives for individual,...

  1. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47...EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container...Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator may...procedures, or other label alternatives for individual,...

  2. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer treatment are there? Why are complementary and alternative therapies harder to evaluate? What are the risks of ... treatment? Can I safely use an alternative or complementary therapy? Will my insurance cover alternative and complementary therapies? ...

  3. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Associate Location: San Diego

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Associate Location: San Diego Basic Functions Center an Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Associate that has a passion for sustainability, the environment, and accelerating the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy! The Alternative Fuel Infrastructure

  4. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. The areas covered were: (1) development of a theoretical expression for the rotating ring disk electrode technique; (2) determination of the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; (3) determination of oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoreomethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) which was considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and (4) the measurement of transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures.

  5. Alternative sewerage solution: Condominial method and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker, Umut

    In this study, the fundamental of the theory of condominial sewer design is discussed through a readily available computer program and the theory is used to bring out the effect of pipe diameter and sewer gradient on design calculations through alternative solutions. It is proved that the roughness of the pipe is effective on the size, lifetime, and cost-saving property of the condominial sewer system, whereas the pipe diameter is not a vital parameter for the same criteria. Any expansion on the pipe roughness increased the gradient of flow and thus enlarged the excavation area hence; undermine the cost-saving property of the condominial method.

  6. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a...

  7. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a...

  8. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a...

  9. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a...

  10. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a...

  11. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  12. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  13. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  14. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  15. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

  20. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

  1. School Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delon, Floyd G.

    This chapter, one of seven in the 1973 Yearbook of School Law, reviews the status and development of the law governing school property during 1972. It is based primarily on an analysis of court decisions during that year. The cases divide into (1) those dealing with the acquisition, management, and disposition of school property; and (2) those…

  2. Boom Rendezvous Alternative Docking Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    Space rendezvous and docking has always been attempted with primarily one philosophic methodology. The slow matching of one vehicle's orbit by a second vehicle and then a final closing sequence that ends in matching the orbits with perfect precision and with near zero relative velocities. The task is time consuming, propellant intensive, risk inherent (plume impingement, collisions, fuel depletion, etc.) and requires substantial hardware mass. The historical background and rationale as to why this approach is used is discussed in terms of the path-not-taken and in light of an alternate methodology. Rendezvous and docking by boom extension is suggested to have inherent advantages that today s technology can readily exploit. Extension from the primary spacecraft, beyond its inherent large inertia, allows low inertia connections to be made rapidly and safely. Plume contamination issues are eliminated as well as the extra propellant mass and risk required for the final thruster (docking) operations. Space vehicle connection hardware can be significantly lightened. Also, docking sensors and controls require less fidelity; allowing them to be more robust and less sensitive. It is the potential safety advantage and mission risk reduction that makes this approach attractive, besides the prospect of nominal time and mass savings.

  3. Alternative systematic approaches to training

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This handbook is approved for use by all DOE Components and contractors. The handbook was prepared primarily for DOE nuclear facilities, but the information can be effectively used by any other type of facility. DOE nuclear, DOE non-nuclear, commercial nuclear reactor, fuel fabrication, chemical processing, or other types of facilities may also apply the principles of this approach and find it useful and applicable to local needs. The handbook provides DOE and contractor operating organizations with concepts and guidance regarding the use of alternative techniques to implement a systematic approach to training (SAT). The techniques described in this handbook are endorsed by DOE and use of the guidance in this handbook is appropriate for establishment of technical training programs at DOE nuclear facilities. The use of guidance on selection and implementation of appropriate training approaches after consideration of job complexity, the consequences of error based on risk/hazard potential, and available training media should result in effective and efficient training programs. The information presented in this handbook can be used to grade the level of effort and formality used in developing training programs.

  4. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M

    2015-09-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres remains elusive. Mounting evidence suggests that the long noncoding telomeric RNA TERRA renders ALT telomeres recombinogenic by forming RNA:DNA hybrids with the telomeric C-rich strand. TERRA and telomeric hybrids act in concert with a number of other factors, including the RNA endoribonuclease RNaseH1 and the single stranded DNA binding protein RPA. The functional interaction network built upon these different players seems indispensable for ALT telomere maintenance, and digging into the molecular details of this previously unappreciated network might open the way to novel avenues for cancer treatments. PMID:26158306

  5. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  6. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cherney, PhD

    2012-02-22

    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time â??dashboardâ?ť and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  7. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  8. An Alternative to Laser Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raizen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Laser cooling has been the standard approach for over thirty years for cooling the translational motion of atoms. While laser cooling is an extremely successful method, it has been limited to a small set of elements in the periodic table. The performance of laser cooling for those elements has saturated in terms of flux of ultra-cold atoms, density, and phase-space density. I report our progress towards the development of an alternative to laser cooling. Our approach relies on magnetic stopping of supersonic beams, an atomic coilgun. A recent advance is the experimental realization of an adiabatic coilgun which preserves phase-space density. Further cooling was demonstrated with a one-way wall, realizing the historic thought experiment of Maxwell's Demon. More recently, we showed how to apply this method to compress atomic phase space with almost no loss of atom number. Our approach is fundamentally different than laser cooling as it does not rely on the momentum of the photon, but rather the photon entropy. I will report on our experimental progress towards this goal, and describe future experiments that will be enabled by this work.

  9. Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Park, O.; Veloo, Peter S.; Liu, N.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of laminar flame speeds, as well as extinction and ignition limits of premixed flames. The experiments were modeled using the USC Mech II kinetic model. It was determined that when hydrocarbons are added to hydrogen flames as additives, flame ignition, propagation, and extinction are affected in a counterintuitive manner. More specifically, it was found that by substituting methane by propane or n-butane in hydrogen flames, the reactivity of the mixture is reduced both under pre-ignition and vigorous burning conditions. This behavior stems from the fact that propane and n-butane produce higher amounts of methyl radicals that can readily recombine with atomic hydrogen and reduce thus the rate of the H + O{sub 2} ? O + OH branching reaction. The kinetic model predicts closely the experimental data for flame propagation and extinction for various fuel mixtures and pressures, and for various amounts of carbon dioxide in the fuel blend. On the other hand, it underpredicts, in general, the ignition temperatures.

  10. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevito?lu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  11. Aqueous alternatives for metal and composite cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quitmeyer, Joann

    1994-01-01

    For many years the metalworking industry has cleaned metal and composite substrates with chlorinated solvents. Recently, however, health and disposal related environmental concerns have increased regarding chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, or Freon'. World leaders have instituted a production ban of certain ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) by 1996. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has instituted worker vapor exposure limitations for virtually all of the solvents used in solvent-based cleaners. In addition, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has defined nearly all solvent-based cleaners as 'hazardous'. Cradle to grave waste responsibility is another reason manufacturers are trying to replace chlorinated solvents in their cleaning processes. Because of these factors, there now is a world wide effort to reduce and/or eliminate the use of chlorinated solvents for industrial cleaning. Waterbased cleaners are among the alternatives being offered to the industry. New technology alkaline cleaners are now available that can be used instead of chlorinated solvents in many cleaning processes. These waterbased cleaners reduce the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) by as much as 99 percent. (The definition and method of calculation of VOC's now varies from region to region.) Hazardous waste generation can also be significantly reduced or eliminated with new aqueous technology. This in turn can ease worker exposure restrictions and positively impact the environment. This paper compares the chemical and physical properties of this aqueous cleaners versus chlorinated solvents.

  12. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW Intellectual Property

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    faculty at UCI Law have written treatises, monographs, casebooks and articles that are regularlyINTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW #12;Intellectual Property Scholarship at UCI Law Consistently recognized to UC Irvine's No. 6 ranking among U.S. law school faculties for scholarly impact in 20151 -- the IP

  13. Frequency sampling in microhistological studies: An alternative model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    Frequency sampling in microhistological studies is discussed in terms of sampling procedures, statistical properties, and biological inferences. Two sampling approaches are described and con-trasted, and some standard methods for improving the stability of density estimators are discussed. Possible sources of difficulty are highlighted in terms of sampling design and statistical analysis. An alternative model is proposed that accounts for 2-stage sampling, and yields reasonable, we!!-behaved estimates of relative densities.

  14. Academic Programs in Alternative Education: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzzi, Betsy Brown; Kraemer, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    This paper, second in a series of papers on alternative education, examines the academic programming in alternative education programs by reviewing the literature specifically focused on the academic programs in alternative education and summarizing a survey of fifteen alternative education programs. It suggests options for further research on…

  15. Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-04-08

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

  16. Alternative to particle dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Justin

    2015-01-01

    We propose an alternative to particle dark matter that borrows ingredients of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) while adding new key components. The first new feature is a dark matter fluid, in the form of a scalar field with small equation of state and sound speed. This component is critical in reproducing the success of cold dark matter for the expansion history and the growth of linear perturbations, but does not cluster significantly on nonlinear scales. Instead, the missing mass problem on nonlinear scales is addressed by a modification of the gravitational force law. The force law approximates MOND at large and intermediate accelerations, and therefore reproduces the empirical success of MOND at fitting galactic rotation curves. At ultralow accelerations, the force law reverts to an inverse-square law, albeit with a larger Newton's constant. This latter regime is important in galaxy clusters and is consistent with their observed isothermal profiles, provided the characteristic acceleration scale of MOND is mildly varying with scale or mass, such that it is 12 times higher in clusters than in galaxies. We present an explicit relativistic theory in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field is governed by a Dirac-Born-Infeld action and behaves as a dark matter fluid on large scales. The second scalar field also has single-derivative interactions and mediates a fifth force that modifies gravity on nonlinear scales. Both scalars are coupled to matter via an effective metric that depends locally on the fields. The form of this effective metric implies the equality of the two scalar gravitational potentials, which ensures that lensing and dynamical mass estimates agree. Further work is needed in order to make both the acceleration scale of MOND and the fraction at which gravity reverts to an inverse-square law explicitly dynamical quantities, varying with scale or mass.

  17. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  18. Fuel properties of cottonseed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E.; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E.

    1999-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

  19. Alternate Energy from the Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, E.

    2003-12-01

    Due to rapid growth of the world's population and more demands for energy, and due to limited amount of fossil fuels (which provide 95 % of the world's energy needs), harnessing of alternate energy sources such as solar and wind power should be considered. In addition to the mountain passes with usually high wind, vast and flat desert areas could be good candidates for harvesting both solar and wind power. We set up a weather station in the middle of a desert, approximately 65 km east-west by 130 km north-south, located at Dugway (40\\deg 08' N, 113\\deg 27' W, 1124 m above mean sea level) in northwestern Utah, USA, in 1999. This station measured the incoming (Rsi) and outgoing (Rso) solar or shortwave radiation using two CM21 Kipp & Zonen pyranometers (one inverted), the incoming (Rli or atmospheric) and outgoing (Rlo or terrestrial) longwave radiation, using two CG1 Kipp & Zonen pyrgeometers (one inverted), and the net (Rn) radiation using a Q*7 net radiometer (Radiation Energy Balance System, REBS). We also measured the 3-m wind speed (U3) and direction (R.M. Young wind monitor) and precipitation (Campbell Sci., Inc.) and some other weather parameters. The measurements were taken every two seconds, and averaged into 20-min, continuously, throughout the year. The two-year (January 2000 - December 2001) period comparisons of global or solar radiation and windiness with two other stations in central (Hunter) and northern (Logan) Utah, indicate higher average solar radiation [Rsi,Dugway = 601 MJ / (m2-month) vs. Rsi, Hunter = 5371 MJ /(m2-month) and Rsi, Logan = 516 MJ /(m2-month)] and much higher 10-m average wind (UDugway = 478 km/d vs. UHunter = 323 km/d and ULogan = 275 km/d) throughout the period over the desert. These data reveal the possibility of simultaneously harvesting these two sources of clean energies at this vast and uniform desert area. Keywords: Desert, energy, radiation balance, solar and wind energies, windiness.

  20. The Alternative Low Noise Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Elliott, David M.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Moore, Royce D.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2000-01-01

    A 106 bladed fan with a design takeoff tip speed of 1100 ft/sec was hypothesized as reducing perceived noise because of the shift of the blade passing harmonics to frequencies beyond the perceived noise rating range. A 22 in. model of this Alternative Low Noise Fan, ALNF, was tested in the NASA Glenn 9x 15 Wind Tunnel. 'Me fan was tested with a 7 vane long chord stator assembly and a 70 vane conventional stator assembly in both hard and acoustically treated configurations. In addition a partially treated 7 vane configuration was tested wherein the acoustic material between the 7 long chord stators was made inactive. The noise data from the 106 bladed fan with 7 long chord stators in a hard configuration was shown to be around 4 EPNdB quieter than a low tip speed Allison fan at takeoff and around 5 EPNdB quieter at approach. Although the tone noise behaved as hypothesized, the majority of this noise reduction was from reduced broadband noise related to the large number of rotor blades. This 106 bladed ALNF is a research fan designed to push the technology limits and as such is probably not a practical device with present materials technology. However, a low tip speed fan with around 50 blades would be a practical device and calculations indicate that it could be 2 to 3 EPNdB quieter at takeoff and 3 to 4 EPNdB quieter at approach than the Allison fan. 7 vane data compared with 70 vane data indicated that the tone noise was controlled by rotor wake-stator interaction but that the broadband noise is probably controlled by the interaction of the rotor with incoming flows. A possible multiple pure tone noise reduction technique for a fan/acoustic treatment system was identified. The data from the fully treated configuration showed significant noise reductions over a large frequency range thereby providing a real tribute to this bulk absorber treatment design. The tone noise data with the partially treated 7 vane configuration indicated that acoustic material in the source noise generation region may be more effective than similar material outside of the generation region.

  1. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water bottle, insulating tape, a screwdriver, a connecting block, a solar motor, a plastic fan and thin wires. The only difference was that the wind groups were issued hairdryers and the hydroelectric groups worked at a sink. The wave turbine was constructed in a similar way using the bases from two 5 litre water bottles. Various investigations were conducted into the factors affecting the voltage produced. For instance, the effect of the distance from the light source, the area of the solar cell, the type of blades, the depth of water and the wind speed were studied. The lessons reinforced their understanding of ideas covered in Science and Geography, such as voltage, power, fair tests, compass directions and map contours. Students also had the opportunity to practise connecting electrical components in series and they consolidated their understanding of energy changes, observing that generators convert kinetic energy to electrical energy. The activities allowed students to learn the basics of how renewable energy technologies work. The tasks provided a hands-on experience of renewable energy being used to power small-scale electrical devices such as an LED. The students also gained an appreciation of the complex issues involved in planning and implementing renewable energy generation in the real world.

  2. Demagnetization Tests Performed on a Linear Alternator for a Stirling Power Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    2011-01-01

    Demagnetization temperature of a linear alternator (LA) can be accurately predicted through an analytical Maxwell model. The M-H characteristics of the alternator magnets must be known. Vendor data are given for cube-shaped magnets, and the shape of a LA magnet may affect its magnetic properties. At GRC, M-H data are directly measured for each LA magnet. This method was validated using TDC alternator tests on the Alternator Test Rig. The analytical Maxwell modeling was utilized on a different style linear alternator to predict demagnetization temperatures for the Advanced Stirling Convertor.

  3. Utiization of alternate fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Lestz, S.S.

    1980-09-01

    Accomplishments during three years entitled The Utilization of Alternate Fuels in Diesel Engines are summarized. Experiments were designed and test equipment set-up for the purpose of evaluating the use of methanol as a fumigant for light-duty Diesel engine service. The major experimental results were obtained from a multicylinder automotive Diesel engine. However, fundamental studies employing a GC/micro-reactor and a constant volume combustion bomb were also started. The purpose of this work was to measure some of the chemical and physical properties of methanol and methanol-air mixtures. The laminar flame velocity for various mixtures has been measured in the combustion bomb and thermal degradation studies have begun in the GC/micro-reactor. An Oldsmobile 5.7 liter V/8 Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 40% of the fuel energy. The primary objectives of the study were to determine the effect of methanol fumigation on fuel efficiency, smoke, nitric oxide emission, and the occurrence of severe knock. An assessment of the biological activity for samples of the raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract was also made using boh the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test and the B. subtilis Comptest. Generally, methanol fumigation was found to decrease NO emission for all conditions, to have a slight effect on smoke opacity, and to have a beneficial effect on fuel efficiency at higher loads. Also at higher loads, the methanol was found to induce what was defined as knock limited operation. The biological activity of the raw particulate matter was fond to be less than that of its soluble organic extract. However, for both the fumigation of methanol did enhance the biological activity.

  4. Compost and Fertilizer -Alternatives or Complementary?

    E-print Network

    Compost and Fertilizer - Alternatives or Complementary? Management Feasibility and Long-Term Effects on Soil Fertility in an Ethiopian Village Workneh Bedada Faculty of Natural Resources. Karltun) #12;Compost and Fertilizer: Alternatives or Complementary? Man- agement Feasibility and Long

  5. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  6. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  7. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  8. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  9. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  10. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  11. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  12. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  13. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  14. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  15. Many Seniors with Cancer Use Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_154373.html Many Seniors With Cancer Use Alternative Medicines: Study And a majority of these patients don' ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many elderly cancer patients use alternative medicines, including some that could interfere with their treatment, ...

  16. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  17. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  18. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  19. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  20. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  1. 42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...of Medicare Coverage and Alternative Sanctions for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Facilities § 488.606 Alternative sanctions...encompass the supplier's geographic area; and (2) This failure does not jeopardize patient health and safety. (b)...

  2. 42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...of Medicare Coverage and Alternative Sanctions for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Facilities § 488.606 Alternative sanctions...encompass the supplier's geographic area; and (2) This failure does not jeopardize patient health and safety. (b)...

  3. Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz Energy Frontier Workshop, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2013 Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A tension between naturalness and simplicity The decades prior

  4. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  5. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  6. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  7. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  8. 7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

  9. Are There Feasible Alternatives to Laboratory Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses several alternatives to the use of laboratory animals in investigating biomedical problems. Alternatives include tissue culture, use of plant and bacterial material, redesigning experiments, and construction of mathematical and computer models. (CS)

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and their FAMILIES COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet is provided to help you ... complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is ...

  11. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

  12. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  13. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is ... based on scientific evidence from research studies. Complementary medicine refers to treatments that are used with standard ...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

  15. 7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

  16. 7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

  17. 7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

  18. 7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

  19. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Council, during...

  20. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Council, during...

  1. Bond Alternation, Polarizability and Resonance Detuning in Methine Dyes

    E-print Network

    Seth Olsen; Ross H. McKenzie

    2011-02-22

    We derive structure-property relationships for methine ("Brooker") dyes relating the color of the dye and its symmetric parents to its bond alternation in the ground state and also to the dipole properties associated with its low-lying charge-resonance (or charge-transfer) transition. We calibrate and test these relationships on an array of different protonation states of the green fluorescent protein chromophore motif (an asymmetric halochromic methine dye) and its symmetric parent dyes. The relationships rely on the assumption that the diabatic states that define the Platt model for methine dye color [J.R. Platt, J. Chem. Phys. 25 80 (1956)] can also be distinguished by their single-double bond alternation and by their charge localization character. These assumptions are independent of the primary constraint that defines the diabatic states in the Platt model - specifically, the Brooker deviation rule for methine dyes [L.G.S. Brooker, Rev. Mod. Phys. 14 275 (1942)]. Taking these assumptions, we show that the Platt model offers an alternate route to known structure-property relationships between the bond length alternation and the quadratic nonlinear polarizability {\\beta}. We show also that the Platt model can be parameterized without the need for synthesis of the symmetric parents of a given dye, using dipole data obtained through spectroscopic measurements. This suggests that the Platt model parameters may be used as independent variables in free-energy relationships for chromophores whose symmetric parents cannot be synthesized or chromophores strongly bound to biomolecular environments. The latter category includes several recently characterized biomolecular probe constructs. We illustrate these concepts by an analysis of previously reported electroabsorption and second-harmonic generation experiments on green fluorescent proteins.

  2. Note on alternating directed cycles Gregory Gutin

    E-print Network

    Gutin, Gregory

    . This is a generalization of the alternating cycle problem in 2-edge- coloured graphs (proved to be polynomial time solvable n) and g(n) = (log n). Keywords: Alternating cycles, even cycles, edge-coloured directed graphs. 1 consecutive arcs (edges) of C have distinct colours. The problem of the existence of an alternating cycle

  3. A STRONG TITS ALTERNATIVE EMMANUEL BREUILLARD

    E-print Network

    Breuillard, Emmanuel

    A STRONG TITS ALTERNATIVE EMMANUEL BREUILLARD Abstract. We show that for every integer d # N. This improves the original statement of the Tits alternative. It also implies a growth gap and a co­growth gap is a strengthening of the classi­ cal Tits alternative [39], which asserts that any finitely generated subgroup #F

  4. A STRONG TITS ALTERNATIVE EMMANUEL BREUILLARD

    E-print Network

    Breuillard, Emmanuel

    A STRONG TITS ALTERNATIVE EMMANUEL BREUILLARD of the Tits alternative. It also implies a growth gap* * and a co-growth gap for non-amenable linear that if f 2 F then f-1 2 F. This statement is a strengthening of the classi- cal Tits alternative [39

  5. A STRONG TITS ALTERNATIVE EMMANUEL BREUILLARD

    E-print Network

    Breuillard, Emmanuel

    A STRONG TITS ALTERNATIVE EMMANUEL BREUILLARD Abstract. We show that for every integer d N. This improves the original statement of the Tits alternative. It also implies a growth gap and a co-growth gap is a strengthening of the classi- cal Tits alternative [39], which asserts that any finitely generated subgroup F

  6. Amending pine bark with alternative substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to a number of factors, pine bark supplies have significantly decreased over the past few years. While alternative substrates are being evaluated, many growers are asking if these alternative substrates can be used to stretch existing PB supplies. In this study, two alternative substrates, “Cl...

  7. Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy

    E-print Network

    Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy storage technologies and what the future may hold for multi-scale storage applications Presented by: Dave Lucero, Director Alternative Energy Implantable Devices Aerospace Systems Satellites Aircraft Commercial Alternative Energy #12;4Copyright© 2010

  8. Quantum properties of exponential states

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo

    2007-05-15

    The use of Renyi entropy as an uncertainty measure alternative to variance leads to the study of states with quantum fluctuations below the levels established by Gaussian states, which are the position-momentum minimum uncertainty states according to variance. We examine the quantum properties of states with exponential wave functions, which combine reduced fluctuations with practical feasibility.

  9. Optimizing biodiesel composition and properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel prepared from vegetable oils, animal fats or other oil-containing materials. While it is technically competitive with conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum, some of its fuel properties still require improvement. This article briefly summarizes the t...

  10. Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

  11. COMMUNICATION: Alternative splicing and genomic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Alternative splicing allows an organism to make different proteins in different cells at different times, all from the same gene. In a cell that uses alternative splicing, the total length of all the exons is much shorter than in a cell that encodes the same set of proteins without alternative splicing. This economical use of exons makes genes more stable during reproduction and development because a genome with a shorter exon length is more resistant to harmful mutations. Genomic stability may be the reason why higher vertebrates splice alternatively. For a broad class of alternatively spliced genes, a formula is given for the increase in their stability.

  12. Evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhixi; Wang, Jianmin; Yu, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Gu, Xun

    2006-02-01

    Alternative splicing and gene duplication are two major sources of proteomic function diversity. Here, we study the evolutionary trend of alternative splicing after gene duplication by analyzing the alternative splicing differences between duplicate genes. We observed that duplicate genes have fewer alternative splice (AS) forms than single-copy genes, and that a negative correlation exists between the mean number of AS forms and the gene family size. Interestingly, we found that the loss of alternative splicing in duplicate genes may occur shortly after the gene duplication. These results support the subfunctionization model of alternative splicing in the early stage after gene duplication. Further analysis of the alternative splicing distribution in human duplicate pairs showed the asymmetric evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplications; i.e., the AS forms between duplicates may differ dramatically. We therefore conclude that alternative splicing and gene duplication may not evolve independently. In the early stage after gene duplication, young duplicates may take over a certain amount of protein function diversity that previously was carried out by the alternative splicing mechanism. In the late stage, the gain and loss of alternative splicing seem to be independent between duplicates. PMID:16365379

  13. Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato

    SciTech Connect

    Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

  14. Three-level schemes of the alternating triangular method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vabishchevich, P. N.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the schemes of the alternating triangular method are set out in the class of splitting methods used for the approximate solution of Cauchy problems for evolutionary problems. These schemes are based on splitting the problem operator into two operators that are conjugate transposes of each other. Economical schemes for the numerical solution of boundary value problems for parabolic equations are designed on the basis of an explicit-implicit splitting of the problem operator. The alternating triangular method is also of interest for the construction of numerical algorithms that solve boundary value problems for systems of partial differential equations and vector systems. The conventional schemes of the alternating triangular method used for first-order evolutionary equations are two-level ones. The approximation properties of such splitting methods can be improved by transiting to three-level schemes. Their construction is based on a general principle for improving the properties of difference schemes, namely, on the regularization principle of A.A. Samarskii. The analysis conducted in this paper is based on the general stability (or correctness) theory of operator-difference schemes.

  15. 40 CFR 65.7 - Monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting waivers and alternatives, and alternative work practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...The alternative work practice standard for monitoring...the alternative work practice requirements in paragraph...document the equipment, process units, and facilities...the alternative work practice will be used to identify...repair; (ii) Quality improvement plans; or...

  16. 40 CFR 65.7 - Monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting waivers and alternatives, and alternative work practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...The alternative work practice standard for monitoring...the alternative work practice requirements in paragraph...document the equipment, process units, and facilities...the alternative work practice will be used to identify...repair; (ii) Quality improvement plans; or...

  17. Soot Optical Property Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K. T.; Hassan, M. I.; Krishnan, S. S.; Lin, K.-C.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent past studies of soot reaction processes in laminar premixed and nonpremixed flames generally have used the intrusive technique of thermophoretic sampling and analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe soot structure and obtain important fundamental information about soot particle properties, such as soot primary particle diameters, the rate of change of soot primary particle diameter as a function of time (or rate of soot surface growth or oxidation), the amount of soot particle reactive surface area per unit volume, the number of primary soot particles per unit volume, and the rate of formation of primary soot particles (or the rate of soot primary particle nucleation). Given the soot volume per unit volume of the flame (or the soot volume fraction), all these properties are readily found from a measurement of the soot primary particle diameter (which usually is nearly a constant for each location within a laminar flame). This approach is not possible within freely propagating flames, however, because soot properties at given positions in such flames vary relatively rapidly as a function of time in the soot formation and oxidation regions compared to the relatively lengthy sampling times needed to accumulate adequate soot samples and to minimize effects of soot collected on the sampling grid as it moves to and from the sampling position through other portions of the flame. Thus, nonintrusive optical methods must be used to find the soot primary particle diameters needed to define the soot surface reaction properties mentioned earlier. Unfortunately, approximate nonintrusive methods used during early studies of soot reaction properties in flames, found from laser scattering and absorption measurements analyzed assuming either Rayleigh scattering or Mie scattering from polydisperse effective soot particles having the same mass of soot as individual soot aggregates, have not been found to be an effective way to estimate the soot surface reaction area per unit volume. Thus, alternative nonintrusive optical methods of finding these properties must be sought, which was the objective of this phase of the investigation. The alternative method used here involves use of the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans-Polydisperse-Fractal-Aggregate (RDG-PFA) scattering approximation for soot aggregates in flames. Thus, the development of this method will be discussed next before describing its evaluation as a means of nonintrusively measuring soot primary particle diameters in soot-containing flames.

  18. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  19. Nominalization and Alternations in Biomedical Language

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Palmer, Martha; Hunter, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper presents data on alternations in the argument structure of common domain-specific verbs and their associated verbal nominalizations in the PennBioIE corpus. Alternation is the term in theoretical linguistics for variations in the surface syntactic form of verbs, e.g. the different forms of stimulate in FSH stimulates follicular development and follicular development is stimulated by FSH. The data is used to assess the implications of alternations for biomedical text mining systems and to test the fit of the sublanguage model to biomedical texts. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined 1,872 tokens of the ten most common domain-specific verbs or their zero-related nouns in the PennBioIE corpus and labelled them for the presence or absence of three alternations. We then annotated the arguments of 746 tokens of the nominalizations related to these verbs and counted alternations related to the presence or absence of arguments and to the syntactic position of non-absent arguments. We found that alternations are quite common both for verbs and for nominalizations. We also found a previously undescribed alternation involving an adjectival present participle. Conclusions/Significance We found that even in this semantically restricted domain, alternations are quite common, and alternations involving nominalizations are exceptionally diverse. Nonetheless, the sublanguage model applies to biomedical language. We also report on a previously undescribed alternation involving an adjectival present participle. PMID:18779866

  20. Properties of perturbations in conformal cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, S.

    2015-11-01

    This review is centered on the properties and mechanisms underlying the generation of perturbations in models of the early Universe with conformal invariance, which could be alternatives to inflation. A detailed analysis of the properties of primary scalar perturbations, i.e., power spectrum, statistical anisotropy, and non-Gaussianity is performed within the framework of these models. Properties of primary gravitational waves are also considered.

  1. Regulated functional alternative splicing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Julian P.; Tazi, Jamal; Juge, François

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing expands the coding capacity of metazoan genes, and it was largely genetic studies in the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster that established the principle that regulated alternative splicing results in tissue- and stage-specific protein isoforms with different functions in development. Alternative splicing is particularly prominent in germ cells, muscle and the central nervous system where it modulates the expression of various proteins including cell-surface molecules and transcription factors. Studies in flies have given us numerous insights into alternative splicing in terms of upstream regulation, the exquisite diversity of their forms and the key differential cellular functions of alternatively spliced gene products. The current inundation of transcriptome sequencing data from Drosophila provides an unprecedented opportunity to gain a comprehensive view of alternative splicing. PMID:21908400

  2. Power system design and application for alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Denno, K.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents principles of system design and applications of alternative power sources that may be used in laboratories, domestic-residential systems, and industrial grids and electric utilities generating structures. Chapters include review questions, problems, solved examples and references. Topic covered include: Fuel cells and storage batteries; Modeling and economics of storage batteries and fuel cells; Bioelectrochemical conversion of refuse to synthetic fuel and energy; The redox-flow -cell power system (feasibility and magnetic properties); Dynamic modeling of economics of storage batteries and fuel cells; Bioelectrochemical conversion of refuse to synthetic fuel and energy; The redox-flow-cell power system (feasibility and magnetic properties); Dynamic modeling of basic types of solid-state power inverters; Ocean thermal energy conversion; and Linkage of OTEC to other modes of energy systems.

  3. One-to-one encapsulation based on alternating droplet generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirama, Hirotada; Torii, Toru

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the preparation of encapsulated particles as models of cells using an alternating droplet generation encapsulation method in which the number of particles in a droplet is controlled by a microchannel to achieve one-to-one encapsulation. Using a microchannel in which wettability is treated locally, the fluorescent particles used as models of cells were successfully encapsulated in uniform water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion droplets. Furthermore, 20% of the particle-containing droplets contained one particle. Additionally, when a surfactant with the appropriate properties was used, the fluorescent particles within each inner aqueous droplet were enclosed in the merged droplet by spontaneous droplet coalescence. This one-to-one encapsulation method based on alternating droplet generation could be used for a variety of applications, such as high-throughput single-cell assays, gene transfection into cells or one-to-one cell fusion.

  4. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. PMID:25743421

  5. Should pharmacologists care about alternative splicing? IUPHAR Review 4

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, T I

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing of mRNAs occurs in the majority of human genes, and most differential splicing results in different protein isoforms with possibly different functional properties. However, there are many reported splicing variations that may be quite rare, and not all combinatorially possible variants of a given gene are expressed at significant levels. Genes of interest to pharmacologists are frequently expressed at such low levels that they are not adequately represented in genome-wide studies of transcription. In single-gene studies, data are commonly available on the relative abundance and functional significance of individual alternatively spliced exons, but there are rarely data that quantitate the relative abundance of full-length transcripts and define which combinations of exons are significant. A number of criteria for judging the significance of splice variants and suggestions for their nomenclature are discussed. PMID:24670145

  6. One-to-one encapsulation based on alternating droplet generation.

    PubMed

    Hirama, Hirotada; Torii, Toru

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of encapsulated particles as models of cells using an alternating droplet generation encapsulation method in which the number of particles in a droplet is controlled by a microchannel to achieve one-to-one encapsulation. Using a microchannel in which wettability is treated locally, the fluorescent particles used as models of cells were successfully encapsulated in uniform water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion droplets. Furthermore, 20% of the particle-containing droplets contained one particle. Additionally, when a surfactant with the appropriate properties was used, the fluorescent particles within each inner aqueous droplet were enclosed in the merged droplet by spontaneous droplet coalescence. This one-to-one encapsulation method based on alternating droplet generation could be used for a variety of applications, such as high-throughput single-cell assays, gene transfection into cells or one-to-one cell fusion. PMID:26487193

  7. One-to-one encapsulation based on alternating droplet generation

    PubMed Central

    Hirama, Hirotada; Torii, Toru

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of encapsulated particles as models of cells using an alternating droplet generation encapsulation method in which the number of particles in a droplet is controlled by a microchannel to achieve one-to-one encapsulation. Using a microchannel in which wettability is treated locally, the fluorescent particles used as models of cells were successfully encapsulated in uniform water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion droplets. Furthermore, 20% of the particle-containing droplets contained one particle. Additionally, when a surfactant with the appropriate properties was used, the fluorescent particles within each inner aqueous droplet were enclosed in the merged droplet by spontaneous droplet coalescence. This one-to-one encapsulation method based on alternating droplet generation could be used for a variety of applications, such as high-throughput single-cell assays, gene transfection into cells or one-to-one cell fusion. PMID:26487193

  8. ASDB: database of alternatively spliced genes.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, M S; Dubchak, I; Dralyuk, I; Zorn, M

    1999-01-01

    A database of alternatively spliced genes (ASDB) has been constructed based on (i) the results of the analysis of Swiss-Prot entries containing products of these genes and (ii) clustering procedure joining proteins that could arise by alternative splicing of the same gene. ASDB incorporates information about alternatively spliced genes, their products and expression patterns. It can be searched in order to find all products of alternative splicing produced in a particular tissue or a given organism, or all variants generated by a particular transcript. ASDB currently contains about 1700 protein sequences and can be accessed via the Internet at URL http://cbcg.nersc.gov/asdb PMID:9847209

  9. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate...

  10. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

  16. 7 CFR 1218.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.44 Alternate...

  17. 7 CFR 1218.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.44 Alternate...

  18. 7 CFR 1218.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.44 Alternate...

  19. 7 CFR 1218.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.44 Alternate...

  20. 7 CFR 1218.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.44 Alternate...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate...

  6. Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief*

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Nathan B.; Friebel, Hans; Hahn, Klaus-Jürgen; Halbach, Hans

    1969-01-01

    This chapter concludes the survey of experimental and clinical data on the analgesic and antitussive properties of codeine and its potential therapeutic alternates. From an evaluation of their effectiveness on the one hand and the side-effects, including tolerance, dependence and abuse liability on the other, it would appear that the therapeutic goals of codeine could be achieved by other substances, except perhaps where analgesia, cough relief, and sedation are required simultaneously. The use of these other substances would, however, result in no particular gain and probably no particular loss. PMID:4898386

  7. Computer Simulations of Charged Colloids in Alternating Electric Fields

    E-print Network

    Jiajia Zhou; Friederike Schmid

    2014-01-07

    We briefly review recent theoretical and simulation studies of charged colloidal dispersions in alternating electric fields (AC fields). The response of single colloid to an external field can be characterized by a complex polarizability, which describes the dielectric properties of the colloid and its surrounding electrical double layer. We present computer simulation studies of single spherical colloid, using a coarse-grained mesoscale approach that accounts in full for hydrodynamic and electrostatic interactions as well as for thermal fluctuations. We investigate systematically a number of controlling parameters, such as the amplitude and frequency of the AC-fields. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions.

  8. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane conversions. This guide may be particularly helpful for organizations that are already using alternative fuels in their vehicles and have an alternative fuel supply or electric charging in place (e.g., golf cart charging stations at most golf courses). On the flip side, experiencing the benefits of using alternative fuels in mowing equipment may encourage organizations to try them in on-road vehicles as well. Whatever the case, alternative fuel commercial lawnmowers are a powerful and cost-effective way to reduce U.S. petroleum dependence and help protect the environment.

  9. Alternate Work Location Policy, Page 1 (revised 5/09) Alternate Work Location Agreement

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    Alternate Work Location Policy, Page 1 (revised 5/09) Alternate Work Location Agreement Part I When considering whether it is appropriate for an employee to work at an alternate location, it is important to consider the following questions. In order for an employee to be eligible to work at an alternate location

  10. Alternative Uses for Surplus School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield, Dept. of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

    The suggestions contained in this guide are intended for local Illinois school boards faced with surplus school property. School boards should have open meetings to advise the community of the decision to sell or lease the property. Liaison committees should be established for communication between the school board and the city council, planning…

  11. On the Lower Alternating Integral of Pontryagin in Linear Differential Games of Pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikol'ski?, M. S.

    1987-02-01

    In this article the concept of the lower alternating integral of Pontryagin, which differs from the analogous concept of A. Azamov (MR 83k: 90142), is introduced. The properties of this object are studied in comparison with those of the alternating integral of Pontryagin. A procedure is given for application of the lower alternating integral of Pontryagin to linear differential games of pursuit, with special consideration for the question of using the lower alternating integral of Pontryagin when there are countably many measurements of the phase vector. The results are illustrated in two known differential games: "the boy and the crocodile" and the "control example of Pontryagin."Bibliography: 18 titles.

  12. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  13. Alternatives to Student Ratings of College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Gordon E.; Ramagli, Howard J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on alternatives to student ratings as means of evaluating college teaching is reviewed. Conclusions focus on the validity and reliability of such alternatives as peer evaluation, administrative ratings, self-evaluation, direct measurement of student achievement, and systematic observation of teacher behavior. (Author/MLW)

  14. Methyl bromide alternatives being identified in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has become clear that the price and availability of methyl bromide (MB) will soon limit its use on Georgia farms. MB alternatives for many diseases and nematodes do exist. Recent research has focused on nutsedge response to MB alternatives in conjunction with various types of mulch. A study was c...

  15. Alternative Certification Pathways: Filling a Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Carlyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the proliferation of alternative certification pathways through an analysis of the role and history of teacher certification and supply followed by a synthesis of national, regional, and state research studies on alternative routes to certification programs and a review of studies conducted on well-known…

  16. 46 CFR 129.120 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative standards. 129.120 Section 129.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Provisions § 129.120 Alternative standards. (a) An OSV of 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length or less may meet the following requirements...

  17. 46 CFR 129.120 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative standards. 129.120 Section 129.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Provisions § 129.120 Alternative standards. (a) An OSV of 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length or less may meet the following requirements...

  18. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Alternative Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for alternative energy courses is part of a series of curriculum guides for use in the industrial arts curriculum in Connecticut. The guide contains two parts. Part 1 provides the following overview: (1) objectives of alternative energy education, including suggestions for course levels, class sizes, teaching methods, and…

  19. Tits alternatives for graph products Ashot Minasyan

    E-print Network

    Minasyan, Ashot

    Tits alternatives for graph products Ashot Minasyan (Joint work with Yago AntolĂ­n) University of Southampton Group Theory Webinar, 27.09.2012 Ashot Minasyan Tits alternatives for graph products #12;Background and motivation Theorem (J. Tits, 1972) Let H be a finitely generated subgroup of GLn(F) for some

  20. 27 CFR 19.930 - Alternating proprietorship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... whereupon it will be transferred to the new incoming proprietor. (e) Commencement of operations. Except for.... 232 Pub. L. 96-223, 94 Stat. 278 (26 U.S.C. 5181)) Permanent Discontinuance of Business ... the boundaries of the plant or any part thereof which is to be alternated. (d) Alternation...

  1. SKOLE: The Journal of Alternative Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leue, Mary, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The four issues of "SKOLE" published in 1996 include articles about alternatives to public education, the value of free schools and home-schooling, and children's learning experiences. Feature articles include profiles of alternative schools and educational programs; descriptions of learning experiences and teaching practices; a study of full…

  2. Joint Custody: A Viable and Ideal Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Douglas F.; Weinstein, Jeffrey

    1977-01-01

    Defines and restructures custodial rights and remedies of parents involved in a divorce proceeding. Conveys an alternative to custodial awards as they exist today and points toward joint custody as an ideal solution and viable alternative that cries out for acceptance. (Author)

  3. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  6. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  7. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  8. Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

  9. Specialty Recognition--Academic and Professional Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemberger, August P.

    1976-01-01

    Since pharmacy and pharmaceutical education offer the opportunity for students to select from various alternatives for recognition of general and specialized competencies, an effort must be made to clearly define those alternatives and to set minimum levels of competence and qualifications for licensure. (LBH)

  10. 49 CFR 219.407 - Alternate policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate policies. 219.407 Section 219.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Identification of Troubled Employees § 219.407 Alternate policies. (a) In lieu of a...

  11. How To Establish an Alternative School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellmayer, John

    Based on the assertion that punitive programs for at-risk students are ineffective, this book describes in detail how to start an effective alternative program to redirect the lives of at-risk youth. Following the preface, chapter 1 presents a historical background and an overview of alternative education. The second chapter describes strategies…

  12. Alternative Splicing Events I. Elizabeth Cha1

    E-print Network

    Rouchka, Eric

    splicing variation in which the coding regions for a eukaryotic gene, called exons, are ex- tractedAlternative Splicing Events I. Elizabeth Cha1 , Katherine L. Hoblitzell1 , and Eric C. Rouchka1 TR Technical Report Series 1 Bioinformatics Review Alternative Splicing Events I. Elizabeth Cha1 , Katherine L

  13. Grants for Alternative Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    There seem to be no grants directly geared toward alternative programs (although the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has an interest in funding projects focusing on reforming high schools). This should not be a deterrent, however, as there are plenty of funding sources interested in projects and activities which would support an alternative

  14. Methyl bromide alternatives for grape replant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The project is part of the USDA-ARS Pacific Area-Wide Pest Management Program for Methyl Bromide Alternatives. The Critical Use Exemption (CUE) for methyl bromide (MB) on all grapes (wine, raisin, and table) is a short term solution until alternatives to MB are identified, and active research on MB ...

  15. 16 CFR 1.20 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative procedures. 1.20 Section 1.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act § 1.20 Alternative procedures....

  16. Alternative Internship Opportunities Ready Reference C5

    E-print Network

    Alternative Internship Opportunities Ready Reference C5 College of Engineering, Architecture/24/14 Looking for a work experience outside of the traditional industry internship? There are other types of opportunities available to gain experience and build your resume. Below is a list of alternative internship

  17. Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James Anthony; Palmer, Brent J; Perry, Keith Joseph

    2003-12-01

    A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided.

  18. 46 CFR 126.235 - Alternate compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate compliance. 126.235 Section 126.235 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 126.235 Alternate compliance. (a) In place of compliance with other applicable provisions of this subchapter,...

  19. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  20. Digital Technology: The Potential for Alternative Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogrebe, Edmund F. M.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluates digital communication media in terms of two basic antagonisms of communications: vertical v horizontal and dominated v alternative communication. Analyzes four categories of digital communications in light of these antagonisms and suggests a strategy for alternatives dealing with issues of access, localism, and political and legal…

  1. an educational alternative futures wildland planning game

    E-print Network

    an educational alternative futures wildland planning game Edward C. Thor James L. Creighton PACIFIC of which may occur. Mystic Mountain is an educational game which teaches wildland planners and managers management; resource management; futures plan- ning; alternatives management games. #12;an educational

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  3. Third Party Financing of Alternate Energy Projects 

    E-print Network

    Jones, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    of financing alternate energy projects. By the term 'alternate energy' most financial people mean a project which will sell at least part of its total energy output to an electric utility, taking advantage of the rules of PURPA already outlines for you by Marty...

  4. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roizen, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

  5. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, K.; Riley, C.; Raye, M.

    1998-11-30

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the accomplishments of the Clean Cities coalitions during the past 5 years. Now Clean Cities advocates in city after city across the US are building stations and driving alternative fuel vehicles, in addition to enhancing public awareness.

  6. Rotor windage losses for Lundell alternators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorland, S. H.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The Lundell alternator is being investigated for power system applications. At the high speeds required, power loss due to windage can become high and result in significant heating of the alternator. This loss must be incorporated in the cooling design. The velocity profiles expected in these alternators are highly turbulent, and the Reynolds numbers are well above the levels previously reported; the available data could only be extrapolated. For this reason, a range of experimental data was generated to permit accurate calculation of the windage power loss for Lundell alternator design. Windage tests were conducted on two concentric rotor-stator configurations in ambient air, producing Reynolds numbers as high as 100,000. Using the data obtained, a method was developed to calculate the windage loss for any Lundell alternator given the geometry and cavity conditions.

  7. Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pytlinski, J.T. )

    1992-01-01

    All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

  8. The ethics of alternative medicine therapies.

    PubMed

    Clark, P A

    2000-01-01

    It is estimated that 42% of the American public is using some form of alternative medicine, which reflects the changing needs and values in our society. Unfortunately, Western medicine has failed to see alternative medicine as complementary and integrative with conventional medicine. This is due to the fact that there is very little scientific data available regarding the safety, efficacy, optimal dosage and side-effects or interactions of these alternative medicine therapies. Many physicians dismiss a patient's questions concerning alternative medicine because the physician believes it is "quackery," without any proof to support this claim. This violates the patient's right to full disclosure of all possible treatment options and encourages patients to use these therapies without their physician's knowledge. As a result, it is estimated that 46% of those using alternative medicine do so without the supervision of their primary care physicians or alternative medicine practitioners. At the present time there is no regulatory process to ensure the safety and efficacy of these alternative medicine therapies. Manufacturers do not have to prove that their product works, but they must ensure that their product is not harmful. The combination of failure to inform physicians of usage and the possibility of adverse reactions with prescription drugs is placing the lives of many Americans in jeopardy. Ethically, consumers have the right to use alternative medicine therapies as a matter of autonomy, but they also have the duty not to harm themselves. To ensure their safety, alternative medicine therapies must be evaluated in regards to safety and efficacy so that they can be integrated into conventional medicine. The Federal Drug Administration has the ethical responsibility to take the lead in this area. To protect the common good, there is a need to know not only what alternative medicine can do for us but what it can do to us. PMID:11214376

  9. PROPERTY MANUAL Berkeley Laboratory Property Management

    E-print Network

    Knowles, David William

    PROPERTY MANUAL Issued by Berkeley Laboratory Property Management Lawrence Berkeley National Berkeley Laboratory policies is available in the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM). · Overview of property entrusted to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Laboratory) by the U.S. Department

  10. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis used to evaluate the energy and emission impact of two pathways of alternative energy development. The results show that China can only meets its 2015 and 2020 targets for non-fossil penetration if it successfully achieves all of its capacity targets for 2020 with continued expansion through 2030. To achieve this level of alternative generation, significant amounts of raw materials including 235 Mt of concrete, 54 Mt of steel, 5 Mt of copper along with 3 billion tons of water and 64 thousand square kilometers of land are needed. China’s alternative energy supply will likely have relatively high average energy output to fossil fuel input ratio of 42 declining to 26 over time, but this ratio is largely skewed by nuclear and hydropower capacity. With successful alternative energy development, 32% of China’s electricity and 21% of its total primary energy will be supplied by alternative energy by 2030. Compared to the counterfactual baseline in which alternative energy development stumbles and China does not meet its capacity targets until 2030, alternative energy development can displace 175 Mtce of coal inputs per year and 2080 Mtce cumulatively from power generation by 2030. In carbon terms, this translates into 5520 Mt of displaced CO{sub 2} emissions over the twenty year period, with more than half coming from expanded nuclear and wind power generation. These results illustrate the critical role that alternative energy development can play alongside energy efficiency in reducing China’s energy-related carbon emissions.

  11. Annual Report FY2014 Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2015-01-01

    Due to concerns about future petroleum supply and accelerating climate change, increased engine efficiency and alternative fuels are of interest. This project contributes to the science-base needed by industry to develop highly efficient DISI engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Lean operation is studied since it can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, focus is on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification can be used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion, but may lead to soot and NOx emissions challenges. Advanced ignition system and intake air preheating both promote ignition stability. Controlled end-gas autoignition can be used maintain high combustion efficiency for ultra-lean well-mixed conditions. However, the response of both combustion and exhaust emission to these techniques depends on the fuel properties. Therefore, to achieve optimal fuel-economy gains, the combustion-control strategies of the engine must adopt to the fuel being utilized.

  12. Selecting for Functional Alternative Splices in ESTs

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Zhengyan; States, David; Gish, Warren

    2002-01-01

    The expressed sequence tag (EST) collection in dbEST provides an extensive resource for detecting alternative splicing on a genomic scale. Using genomically aligned ESTs, a computational tool (TAP) was used to identify alternative splice patterns for 6400 known human genes from the RefSeq database. With sufficient EST coverage, one or more alternatively spliced forms could be detected for nearly all genes examined. To identify high (>95%) confidence observations of alternative splicing, splice variants were clustered on the basis of having mutually exclusive structures, and sample statistics were then applied. Through this selection, alternative splices expected at a frequency of >5% within their respective clusters were seen for only 17%–28% of genes. Although intron retention events (potentially unspliced messages) had been seen for 36% of the genes overall, the same statistical selection yielded reliable cases of intron retention for <5% of genes. For high-confidence alternative splices in the human ESTs, we also noted significantly higher rates both of cross-species conservation in mouse ESTs and of validation in the GenBank mRNA collection. We suggest quantitative analytical approaches such as these can aid in selecting useful targets for further experimental characterization and in so doing may help elucidate the mechanisms and biological implications of alternative splicing. PMID:12466287

  13. Mechanism of alternative splicing and its regulation

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YAN; LIU, JING; HUANG, BO; XU, YAN-MEI; LI, JING; HUANG, LIN-FENG; LIN, JIN; ZHANG, JING; MIN, QING-HUA; YANG, WEI-MING; WANG, XIAO-ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an essential mechanism to increase the complexity of gene expression, and it plays an important role in cellular differentiation and organism development. Regulation of alternative splicing is a complicated process in which numerous interacting components are at work, including cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors, and is further guided by the functional coupling between transcription and splicing. Additional molecular features, such as chromatin structure, RNA structure and alternative transcription initiation or alternative transcription termination, collaborate with these basic components to generate the protein diversity due to alternative splicing. All these factors contributing to this one fundamental biological process add up to a mechanism that is critical to the proper functioning of cells. Any corruption of the process may lead to disruption of normal cellular function and the eventuality of disease. Cancer is one of those diseases, where alternative splicing may be the basis for the identification of novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as new strategies for therapy. Thus, an in-depth understanding of alternative splicing regulation has the potential not only to elucidate fundamental biological principles, but to provide solutions for various diseases. PMID:25798239

  14. Characterization of alternative FBR development strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Boegel, A.J.; Clausen, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    Near-term decisions regarding the nature and place of the FBR development program must be made. This study is part of a larger program designed to provide the Department of Energy (DOE) with imformation that can be used to make strategic programmatic decisions. The focus of this report is the description of alternative approaches for developing the FBR and the quantification of the duration and cost of each alternative. The time frames of the alternative approaches are investigated in companion reports (White 1981 and Fraley 1981). The results of these analyses will be described in a summary report (Burnham et al. 1981).

  15. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Samuel E; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing "minigene" in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest. PMID:26721495

  16. Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

  17. ASGS: an alternative splicing graph web service.

    PubMed

    Bollina, Durgaprasad; Lee, Bernett T K; Tan, Tin Wee; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2006-07-01

    Alternative transcript diversity manifests itself a prime cause of complexity in higher eukaryotes. The Alternative Splicing Graph Server (ASGS) is a web service facilitating the systematic study of alternatively spliced genes of higher eukaryotes by generating splicing graphs for the compact visual representation of transcript diversity from a single gene. Taking a set of transcripts in General Feature Format as input, ASGS identifies distinct reference and variable exons, generates a transcript splicing graph, an exon summary, splicing events classification and a single line graph to facilitate experimental analysis. This freely available web service can be accessed at http://asgs.biolinfo.org. PMID:16845045

  18. Who is the best alternative allotransplant donor?

    PubMed Central

    Gale, RP; Eapen, M

    2015-01-01

    Assuming that most physicians will chose an HLA-identical sibling as the best allotransplant donor, the question arises who is the best alternative donor when an HLA-identical sibling is unavailable? The most commonly used alternative donors are HLA-identical or -mismatched unrelated donors, HLA-matched or -mismatched umbilical cord blood donor or a related, HLA-haplotype-matched related donors. Each alternative donor option has advantages and disadvantages. We discuss selected aspects of these issues based on data from randomized clinical trials and observational databases. However, because there are limited data to address specific clinical settings, quantification of expert opinion is sometimes needed. PMID:26039206

  19. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  20. Chromatin, DNA structure and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Nieto Moreno, Nicolás; Giono, Luciana E; Cambindo Botto, Adrián E; Muńoz, Manuel J; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2015-11-14

    Coupling of transcription and alternative splicing via regulation of the transcriptional elongation rate is a well-studied phenomenon. Template features that act as roadblocks for the progression of RNA polymerase II comprise histone modifications and variants, DNA-interacting proteins and chromatin compaction. These may affect alternative splicing decisions by inducing pauses or decreasing elongation rate that change the time-window for splicing regulatory sequences to be recognized. Herein we discuss the evidence supporting the influence of template structural modifications on transcription and splicing, and provide insights about possible roles of non-B DNA conformations on the regulation of alternative splicing. PMID:26296319

  1. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    DOEpatents

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond (Plymouth, MI); Miller, John Michael (Saline, MI)

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  2. ASGS: an alternative splicing graph web service

    PubMed Central

    Bollina, Durgaprasad; Lee, Bernett T. K.; Tan, Tin Wee; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2006-01-01

    Alternative transcript diversity manifests itself a prime cause of complexity in higher eukaryotes. The Alternative Splicing Graph Server (ASGS) is a web service facilitating the systematic study of alternatively spliced genes of higher eukaryotes by generating splicing graphs for the compact visual representation of transcript diversity from a single gene. Taking a set of transcripts in General Feature Format as input, ASGS identifies distinct reference and variable exons, generates a transcript splicing graph, an exon summary, splicing events classification and a single line graph to facilitate experimental analysis. This freely available web service can be accessed at . PMID:16845045

  3. Property Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Van is used by Land Inventory Systems to measure and map property for tax assessment purposes. It is adapted from navigation system of the Lunar Rover wheeled vehicle in which moon-exploring astronauts traveled as much as 20 miles from their Lunar Module base. Astronauts had to know their precise position so that in case of emergency they could take the shortest route back. Computerized navigational system kept a highly accurate record of the directional path providing continuous position report. Distance measuring subsystem was a more accurate counterpart of automobile odometer system counts revolutions of wheels and encoders generate electrical pulses for each fractional revolution and the computer analyzed the pulses to determine the distance traveled in a given direction.

  4. Coexistence of alternating ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic intermolecular interactions in organic compounds. Synthesis, structure, thermal stability, and magnetic properties of 2,4-hexadiynylenedioxybis[2-(p,phenylene)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-1-oxyl] diradical

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Gasio, E.; Mas, M.; Molins, E.; Rovira, C.; Veciana, J.; Borras-Almenar, J.J.; Coronada, E.

    1994-12-01

    A crystalline phase of the title diradical has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR, UV-vis, and EPR spectroscopies, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. This phase belongs to the C2/c space group [a = 16.57(2) {angstrom}, b = 16.116(2) {angstrom}, c = 13.10(1) {angstrom}, {beta} = 123.05(4){degrees}, V = 2931(4) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 4, d{sub calc} = 1.30 g cm{sup {minus}3}, T = 21{degrees}C, R{sub u} = 0.092, R{sub w} = 0.116]. The molecular structure of the diradical is characterized by an asymmetrical Z-shaped conformation. The most relevant features observed in the molecular packing are the large interdiacetylene separations - the shortest one is 8.285 {angstrom}-and the alternation in the characteristics of the intermolecular contacts between the radical side groups of the DA; which are jointed by hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of NO groups and aromatic hydrogen atoms. On the basis of accepted structural criteria, this solid-state structure should not support a single-crystal topochemical polymerization and, accordingly, the UV-induced polymerization is not achieved. Thermal treatment, however, turns the crystals from blue to dark brown. Thermal analyses under nitrogen, performed with DSC and TGA techniques, reveal an explosive and complex decomposition, at temperatures higher than 90{degrees}C, with an evolution of gaseous NO (GC-MS) and a destruction of most of the radical centers of diradical molecules, as demonstrated by EPR and magnetic measurements. The study of the temperature dependence of the EPR signals of very diluted solutions of diradical 1 shows that it has a thermally modulated intramolecular exchange interaction due to the flexibility of the spacers joining the two radical centers and, furthermore, that when this diradical adopts a rigid conformation the two radical moieties are magnetically isolated (J{sup intra}/k {approximately} 0 K). 44 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. 40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.26 Alternative provisions. The Administrator may, by rule, substitute for any of the...

  6. 40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.26 Alternative provisions. The Administrator may, by rule, substitute for any of the...

  7. 40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.26 Alternative provisions. The Administrator may, by rule, substitute for any of the...

  8. 40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.26 Alternative provisions. The Administrator may, by rule, substitute for any of the...

  9. 40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.26 Alternative provisions. The Administrator may, by rule, substitute for any of the...

  10. Validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing.

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, L H; Carr, G J; Curren, R D; Chamberlain, M

    1998-01-01

    Before nonanimal toxicity tests may be officially accepted by regulatory agencies, it is generally agreed that the validity of the new methods must be demonstrated in an independent, scientifically sound validation program. Validation has been defined as the demonstration of the reliability and relevance of a test method for a particular purpose. This paper provides a brief review of the development of the theoretical aspects of the validation process and updates current thinking about objectively testing the performance of an alternative method in a validation study. Validation of alternative methods for eye irritation testing is a specific example illustrating important concepts. Although discussion focuses on the validation of alternative methods intended to replace current in vivo toxicity tests, the procedures can be used to assess the performance of alternative methods intended for other uses. Images Figure 1 PMID:9599695

  11. Treating Psoriasis: Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or safe. Read more about herbal remedies » Mind/Body Therapies Mind-body techniques can help reduce your stress levels. Learn about mind/body therapies » Alternative Therapies Some psoriasis patients report hands- ...

  12. 46 CFR 183.130 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... applicable: (i) E-8, “Alternating Current (AC) Electrical Systems on Boats;” (ii) E-9, “Direct Current (DC... installation operating at less than 50 volts may meet the requirements in 33 CFR 183.430 instead of those...

  13. 46 CFR 183.130 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... applicable: (i) E-8, “Alternating Current (AC) Electrical Systems on Boats;” (ii) E-9, “Direct Current (DC... installation operating at less than 50 volts may meet the requirements in 33 CFR 183.430 instead of those...

  14. 46 CFR 183.130 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable: (i) E-8, “Alternating Current (AC) Electrical Systems on Boats;” (ii) E-9, “Direct Current (DC... installation operating at less than 50 volts may meet the requirements in 33 CFR 183.430 instead of those...

  15. 46 CFR 183.130 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... applicable: (i) E-8, “Alternating Current (AC) Electrical Systems on Boats;” (ii) E-9, “Direct Current (DC... installation operating at less than 50 volts may meet the requirements in 33 CFR 183.430 instead of those...

  16. 46 CFR 183.130 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... applicable: (i) E-8, “Alternating Current (AC) Electrical Systems on Boats;” (ii) E-9, “Direct Current (DC... installation operating at less than 50 volts may meet the requirements in 33 CFR 183.430 instead of those...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1506 - Refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...proximity to potential fire or ignition sources...shall be monitored. Changes or adjustments shall...alternatives shall contain a fire extinguisher that...appropriate for extinguishing fires involving the chemicals used for harmful...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1506 - Refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...proximity to potential fire or ignition sources...shall be monitored. Changes or adjustments shall...alternatives shall contain a fire extinguisher that...appropriate for extinguishing fires involving the chemicals used for harmful...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1506 - Refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...proximity to potential fire or ignition sources...shall be monitored. Changes or adjustments shall...alternatives shall contain a fire extinguisher that...appropriate for extinguishing fires involving the chemicals used for harmful...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1506 - Refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...proximity to potential fire or ignition sources...shall be monitored. Changes or adjustments shall...alternatives shall contain a fire extinguisher that...appropriate for extinguishing fires involving the chemicals used for harmful...

  1. ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION FOR SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) developed by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc., was evaluated for a 2-year period. CE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous...

  2. Parallelizing alternating direction implicit solver on GPUs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present a parallel Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) solver on GPUs. Our implementation significantly improves existing implementations in two aspects. First, we address the scalability issue of existing Parallel Cyclic Reduction (PCR) implementations by eliminating their hardware resource con...

  3. Beating the traffic with commuting alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This pamphlet describes how, by encouraging commuting options, local governments can help reduce air pollution, fuel consumption, and traffic congestion. Minimizing these problems makes the community more appealing to businesses, residents, and visitors and boosts the local economy. Approaches to alternative transportation are as varied as the communities devising and using them. But the critical factor is initiative from local governments, often one of communities largest employers. They can use and promote commuting alternatives among their employees. Local governments can also promote alternative transportation among other employers and the general public. They can provide information on commuting options, improve the infrastructure, and use local authority to require and reward those changes necessary to make alternative transportation a widely accepted part of community life. Best of all, local governments can lead by example and establish a template for other employers to follow.

  4. An Alternative Framework for Defining Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda M.; Graham, John W.; Flaherty, Brian P.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an alternative framework for evaluating mediated relationships. The distinguishing feature of mediation is that mediation involves a chain reaction. The definition presented emphasizes the intra-individual, time-ordered nature of mediation. (SLD)

  5. 7 CFR 922.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 922.27 Alternate...

  6. 7 CFR 922.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 922.27 Alternate...

  7. 7 CFR 922.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 922.27 Alternate...

  8. 7 CFR 922.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 922.27 Alternate...

  9. 7 CFR 922.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 922.27 Alternate...

  10. Design and Evaluation of Alternative Cogeneration Systems 

    E-print Network

    Mauro, R. L.; Hu, S. D.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1973, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRIY initiated a program for design and evaluation of alternate cogeneration systems. The primary objective of the study is to analyze the overall system (industry and utility) value...

  11. Alternative Work Schedules Increase Employee Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, John R.; Cohen, Stanley L.

    1983-01-01

    Facets of alternative work schedules (AWS) are discussed: importance of employee control, possible negative consequences, AWS handbook, time monitoring systems, and treatment of exceptions. AWS' effect on productivity and motivation is examined. (SK)

  12. PILOT INVESTIGATION OF SECONDARY SLUDGE DEWATERING ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot investigation of biological sludge thickening and dewatering alternatives, including pressure filtration, precoat vacuum filtration, filter belt pressing, capillary suction, dewatering, gravity filtration, centrifugation, and ultrafiltration has been conducted on waste ac...

  13. A call for antibiotic alternatives research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance and decreased profitability of new antibiotics have created the dangerous prospect of ineffective therapies against bacterial diseases. The discovery, development, and application of effective antibiotic alternatives, especially in agriculture, sho...

  14. 7 CFR 917.27 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits...An alternate shall, in the event of such member's absence at...of such member; and, in the event of such member's...

  15. 7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits...stead of such member. In the event a member and his or her alternate...handler) as the member. In the event of the death, removal,...

  16. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation, an ancient disease, is prevalent, and costly in the general population. Complementary and alternative therapies are frequently used for constipation. This review introduces various methods of complementary and alternative therapies, including acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, and herbal medicine. Efficacy, safety, influence factors, sham control design, and mechanisms of these therapies are discussed and evaluated. Acupuncture or electroacupuncture was found to be most commonly used for constipation among these complementary and alternative therapies, followed by herbal medicine. Although only a small number of clinical studies are flawless, our review of the literature seems to suggest that acupuncture or electroacupuncture and herbal medicine are effective in treating constipation, whereas findings on massage and moxibustion are inconclusive. More well-designed clinical trials are needed to improve and prove the efficacy of the complementary and alternative therapies for constipation; mechanistic studies that would lead to wide spread use and improvement of the methods are also discussed in this review. PMID:26064163

  17. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  18. An alternative to the Schwarzschild Christian Corda

    E-print Network

    Research, P. O. Box 1577, Palm Harbor, FL 34682, USA and Associazione Galileo Galilei, Via Buozzi 47, 59100 PRATO, Italy E­mail addresses: cordac.galilei@gmail.com Abstract We propose an alternative to the famous

  19. Alternative Breaks Emergency Contact & Verification of Medical

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Alternative Breaks Emergency Contact & Verification of Medical Insurance Form Participant Name: ___________________________ Emergency Contact/Medical Info Please list any allergies, medical conditions or medications you of Utah policy. Do you have personal medical health insurance? Yes No If Yes: I

  20. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...