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1

Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Alternative Refrigerants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of refrigerant mixtures for R22 alternative has recently been attracted in refrigerating and air conditioning industry. However, there has not been enough information about thermodynamic properties required to analyse the properties of mixtures. In this paper, stressing the adaptability of the modified van der Waals equation of state for refrigerant mixtures, the prediction methods of thermodynamic properties for the a1ternative refrigerant and mixture are explained. Seven generalized equations of state are chosen for the subjects of discussion. Data on R32,R125,R134a and their mixtures are applied to discuss the adaptability of these equations. Resu1ts of calculation using these equations are compared with available experimental and reference data. The optimum binary interaction parameters for those equations of state are a1so presented.

Fukushima, Masato

2

Thermodynamic properties for the alternative refrigerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models commonly used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of refrigerants are summarized. For pure refrigerants, the virial, cubic, Martin-Hou, Benedict-Webb-Rubin, and Helmholtz energy equations of state and the extended corresponding states model are discussed. High-accuracy formulations for 16 refrigerants are recommended. These models may be extended to mixtures through the use of mixing rules applied either to the parameters of

Mark O McLinden; Eric W Lemmon; Richard T Jacobsen

1998-01-01

3

Experiences with the Massachusetts Alternative Energy Property Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Massachusetts Alternative Energy Property Program (AEPP) is a $5 million matching grant program. Public agencies in the Commonwealth are being funded to build or redevelop hydropower, wind, wood, biomass, photovoltaic, passive solar and solar thermal projects. To date 32 projects have received funding under the solar thermal section of the AEPP. The projects range from a small domestic hot

Guertin

1983-01-01

4

Phase transition properties of ferroelectric superlattices with three alternative layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Curie temperature, polarization and susceptiblity of ferroelectric superlattices with three alternative layers have been obtained using the transverse Ising model in the mean field approximation. The interface layers show crucial influence on the properties of superlattices when the period is small enough.

C. L Wang; Y Xin; X. S Wang; W. L Zhong; P. L Zhang

2000-01-01

5

Alternation in Properties of Long Chain Carbon Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONE of the most interesting features of long chain compounds in the solid state is the well-known alternation in properties depending upon whether the chain contains an even or an odd number of carbon atoms. The X-ray work of Müller on single crystals and of Piper, and Müller and Shearer on the long crystal spacings has shown that long chain

T. Malkin

1931-01-01

6

Thermophysical properties of a new environment friendly alternative — Trifluoroiodomethane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trifluoroiodomethane (CF3I) is considered as a promising refrigerant alternative, especially as a component in mixtures, to replace CFC-12. But reliable thermophysical property data for CF3I are still limited. The investigations on thermophysical properties of CF3I developed by us are summarized in this paper. Experimental data of critical parameters, and the correlations of saturated liquid and vapor density, enthalpy of vaporization, vapor pressure, PVT properties, second virial coefficient, ideal-gas heat capacity, surface tension, viscosity and thermal conductivity are given in the present paper.

Duan, Yuanyuan; Shi, Lin; Zhu, Mingshan; Han, Lizhong

1999-06-01

7

Survey of Current Worldwide Research on the Thermophysical Properties of Alternative Refrigerants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The survey represents an exhaustive compilation of the research activities throughout the world concerned with either measurements or correlations of the thermophysical properties of alternative refrigerants. The properties covered in the study include th...

M. O. McLinden W. M. Haynes J. T. R. Watson K. Watanabe

1991-01-01

8

Physical Property Data on Fluorinated Propanes and Butanes as CFC and HCFC Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses results of the measurement and estimation of the physical properties of fluorinated propane derivatives as second generation alternatives for currently used CFC and HCFC chemicals. One fluorinated ether was also studied. A total of 22 ...

A. L. Beyerlein D. D. DesMarteau S. L. Hwang N. D. Smith P. Joyner

1992-01-01

9

PHYSICAL PROPERTY DATA ON FLUORINATED PROPANES AND BUTANES AS CFC AND HCFC ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses results of the measurement and estimation of the physical properties of fluorinated propane derivatives as second generation alternatives for currently used CFC and HCFC chemicals. ne fluorinated ether was also studied. NOTE: lthough synthesis of the derivativ...

10

IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS ON SOOT PROPERTIES AND DPF REGENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, fuel formulation exerted a strong influence on the properties of diesel particulates leading to differences in oxidation rate. These differences were especially significant when comparing soot derived from the combustion of soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel (B100) and soot obtained from combustion of a Fischer–Tropsch diesel fuel (FT). These 2 fuels mainly differ in fuel oxygen content. Although

JUHUN SONG; MAHABUBUL ALAM; ANDRÉ L. BOEHMAN

2007-01-01

11

Study of Alternatives to the Property Tax for the City of Boise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a number of studies related to property taxation in the city of Boise, Ada County, and the state of Idaho. The principal thrust of those studies was to investigate alternative forms of taxation to the property tax. Loca...

C. M. Merz D. F. Groebner

1976-01-01

12

A synthetic alternative to natural lecithins with antimicrobial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two soft biocompatible cationic surfactants from the amino acid arginine, 1,2-dilauroyl-3-acetylarginyl-rac-glycerol (1212RAc) and 1,2-dimirystoyl-3-acetylarginyl-rac-glycerol (1414RAc), were prepared. Their physicochemical properties show that they can be classified as multifunctional surfactants with self-aggregation behaviour comparable to that of short-chain lecithins. The two surfactants can simultaneously stabilise water-in-oil (W\\/O) droplets and oil-in-water (O\\/W) droplets, forming multiple emulsions. They have antimicrobial activity similar to

L. Pérez; M. R. Infante; R. Pons; C. Morán; P. Vinardell; M. Mitjans; A. Pinazo

2004-01-01

13

A survey of current worldwide research on the thermophysical properties of alternative refrigerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survey represents an exhaustive compilation of the research activities throughout the world concerned with either measurements or correlations of the thermophysical properties of alternative refrigerants. The properties covered include thermodynamic, transport, phase equilibria, and other properties such as dielectric constant and refractive index. The survey included a wide range of fluids (including R23, R32, R125, R143a, R22, R134a, R152a,

M. O. McLinden; W. M. Haynes; J. T. R. Watson; K. Watanabe

1991-01-01

14

Alternating antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic exchange interactions in the S = 1 Heisenberg chain. Theory and magnetic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We focus on the magnetic properties of the S = 1 Heisenberg chain with alternating antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic exchange interactions J1 and J2. The magnetic behavior of this system is calculated as a function of the alternation parameter ? = J2/| J1|, from a general numerical procedure based on closed spin chains of increasing length. These theoretical results are fitted to rational unified expressions, which are subsequently used to describe the magnetic behavior of a nickel (II) complex, [Ni(bipy)(N 3) 2] n, exhibiting an alternating chain structure with a dominant ferromagnetic exchange.

Borrás-Almenar, Juan J.; Clemente-Juan, Juan M.; Coronado, Eugenio; Lloret, Francesc

1997-08-01

15

An alternate method for prediction of the micromechanical properties of laminated composites  

SciTech Connect

The theory for an alternate method to classical laminate theory for the prediction of the macromechanical properties of laminated composite materials is developed and verified by comparing the predicted lamina stresses to those from a detailed finite element calculation. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by comparing the load-displacement calculation using the equivalent properties to experimentally measured data from a 4-Point bending experiment.

Bennett, J.; Kenamond, M.; Haberman, K.

1996-02-01

16

Effect of elastic property of material on stress in solar panel under alternative temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of material's elastic property on the maximal stress in solar panel (SP) under alternative temperature was investigated using an analytical method. Results showed that the maximal tensile\\/press and the shear stress existed in polyimide and the silicone rubber between composite materials and polyimide film. Employing polyimide with lower elastic modulus or silicone rubber with lower shear modulus would

Xiaoyan Wang; Hongbin Geng; Shiyu He

2006-01-01

17

Spray properties of alternative fuels: A comparative analysis of ethanol–gasoline blends and gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is an attracted alternative fuel and ethanol–gasoline blends can be used as fuel in order to substitute some part of gasoline in engine applications. In this study, the spray properties of different blends of ethanol–gasoline (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% ethanol) as well as pure gasoline are investigated under various ambient conditions by means of high-speed schlieren photography technique.

Jian Gao; Deming Jiang; Zuohua Huang

2007-01-01

18

Optical Properties of Neutral and Charged Low Band Gap Alternating Copolyfluorenes: TD-DFT Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic structure and optical properties of neutral and charged low band gap alternating copolyfluorenes (Green 1, which is based on alternating repeating units consisting of alkyl-substituted fluorene and a thiophene-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo-[3,4]quinoxaline-thiophene (T-TDQ-T) unit were investigated theoretically with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method, and their excited state properties were further analyzed with 2D site and 3D cube representations. For neutral Green 1, the band gap, binding energy, exciton binding energy, and nuclear relaxation energy were obtained. The transition dipole moments of neutral and charged Green 1 are compared using 3D transition density, which reveals the orientation and strength of transition dipole moments. The charge redistribution of neutral and charged Green 1 upon excitation are displayed and compared with 3D charge difference density. The electron-hole coherences of neutral and charged Green 1 upon excitation are investigated with 2D site representation (transition density matrix). The excited state properties of neutral Green 1 calculated with TD-DFT method are compared with that calculated with ZINDO method, which reveals the importance of electron-electron interaction (in TD-DFT) in the excited state properties.

Ding, Yong; Zhao, Jun-feng; Wang, Xiang-si; Liu, Sha-sha; Ma, Feng-cai

2009-08-01

19

A survey of current worldwide research on the thermophysical properties of alternative refrigerants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The survey represents an exhaustive compilation of the research activities throughout the world concerned with either measurements or correlations of the thermophysical properties of alternative refrigerants. The properties covered include thermodynamic, transport, phase equilibria, and other properties such as dielectric constant and refractive index. The survey included a wide range of fluids (including R23, R32, R125, R143a, R22, R134a, R152a, R134, R124, R142b, R123, R123a, R141b) along with mixtures containing at least one of these fluids. Summary information is presented in tabular form about each research activity; the survey does not present raw data or correlating equations.

McLinden, M. O.; Haynes, W. M.; Watson, J. T. R.; Watanabe, K.

1991-06-01

20

Physical properties of fluorinated propane and butane derivatives as alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents physical property measurements for 24 fluorinated propane and butane derivatives and one fluorinated ether which include melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure below the boiling point, heat of vaporization at the boiling point, critical properties (temperature and density), and liquid-phase heat capacities at 40 C. Measured vapor pressures are reported to the critical temperature for four of the compounds: HFC-227ea, HFC-245cb, HFC-236ea, and HFE-125a. These measured data, combined with estimated vapor-phase densities, heat capacities, and vapor pressures, may be used to evaluate the potentials of these chemicals as alternative refrigerants. Modified corresponding states methods, using HFC-134a as a reference fluid, are presented as a way to obtain the needed estimated data, and the accuracy of these methods is judged by comparisons with measured data.

Beyerlein, A.; DesMarteau, D.; Hwang, S.; Smith, N.; Joyner, P.

1993-01-01

21

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Final report, 1 April 1994--31 October 1996  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of the project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for one pure refrigerant and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R-502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigerant applications.

Haynes, W.M.

1996-11-01

22

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W.M.

1996-01-01

23

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W.M.

1995-07-01

24

Magnetic properties of multisegmented cylindrical nanoparticles with alternating magnetic wire and tube segments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties in multisegmented cylindrical nanostructures comprised of nanowire and nanotube segments are investigated numerically as a function of their geometry. In this work we report systematic changes in the coercivity and remanence in these systems. Besides, we have found the ideal conditions for a magnetic configuration with two antiparallel domains that could be used to help to stabilize magnetic nanoparticles inside ferromagnetic multisegmented cylindrical nanoparticles. This magnetic behavior is due to the fact that the tube segment reverses its magnetization before the wire segment, allowing the control of the magnetic domain walls motion between two segments. In this way, these magnetic nanoobjects can be an alternative to store information or even perform logic functions.

Salazar-Aravena, D.; Corona, R. M.; Goerlitz, D.; Nielsch, K.; Escrig, J.

2013-11-01

25

Kinetic properties of alternatively spliced isoforms of laccase-2 from Tribolium castaneum and Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Laccase-2 is a highly conserved multicopper oxidase that functions in insect cuticle pigmentation and tanning. In many species, alternative splicing gives rise to two laccase-2 isoforms. A comparison of laccase-2 sequences from three orders of insects revealed eleven positions at which there are conserved differences between the A and B isoforms. Homology modeling suggested that these eleven residues are not part of the substrate binding pocket. To determine whether the isoforms have different kinetic properties, we compared the activity of laccase-2 isoforms from Tribolium castaneum and Anopheles gambiae. We partially purified the four laccases as recombinant enzymes and analyzed their ability to oxidize a range of laccase substrates. The predicted endogenous substrates tested were dopamine, N-acetyldopamine (NADA), N-?-alanyldopamine (NBAD) and dopa, which were detected in T. castaneum previously and in A. gambiae as part of this study. Two additional diphenols (catechol and hydroquinone) and one non-phenolic substrate (2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) were also tested. We observed no major differences in substrate specificity between the A and B isoforms. Dopamine, NADA and NBAD were oxidized with catalytic efficiencies ranging from 51 – 550 min?1 mM?1. These results support the hypothesis that dopamine, NADA and NBAD are endogenous substrates for both isoforms of laccase-2. Catalytic efficiencies associated with dopa oxidation were low, ranging from 8 – 30 min?1 mM?1; in comparison, insect tyrosinase oxidized dopa with a catalytic efficiency of 201 min?1 mM?1. We found that dopa had the highest redox potential of the four endogenous substrates, and this property of dopa may explain its poor oxidation by laccase-2. We conclude that laccase-2 splice isoforms are likely to oxidize the same substrates in vivo, and additional experiments will be required to discover any isoform-specific functions.

Gorman, Maureen J.; Sullivan, Lucinda I.; Nguyen, Thi D. T.; Dai, Huaien; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Dittmer, Neal T.; Syed, Lateef U.; Li, Jun; Hua, Duy H.; Kanost, Michael R.

2011-01-01

26

Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM): An Alternative Analytical Method for Investigation in Real-Time of Liquid Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the possibility to develop an alternative Analytical Method for Investigation in Real-Time of Liquid Properties, the layout and the operation with Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Systems. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) can be accepted as a powerful technique to monitor adsorption and desorption processes at interfaces in different chemical and biological areas. In our paper,

Gh. V. Cimpoca; C. Radulescu; I. V. Popescu; I. D. Dulama; I. Ionita; M. Cimpoca; I. Cernica; R. Gavrila

2010-01-01

27

Conservation laws, symmetry properties, and the equivalence principle in a class of alternative theories of gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a subclass of alternative theories of gravitation obtained by a first order formalism from a Lagrangian density LT=f(R)-g+LM where the matter field Lagrangian density LM does not depend on the connection. For this theory we derive an analogue of the Einstein pseudotensor and the von Freud superpotential. Then we derive, using the arbitrariness that is always present in the choice of pseudotensor and superpotential, a generalization of the Møller superpotential as associated with a double-index differential conservation law. This superpotential allows us to deduce that there are two analogues of the Komar vector of general relativity (GR): one associated with the general connection and the other with the metric connection. Astonishingly both of them satisfy the physical condition that the inertial mass must be equal to the gravitational (active) mass for any class of matter. We also obtain a generalization of Tolman's expression for the energy, and prove that those theories with f(0)=0 share with GR the property that the total energy is independent of any two-dimensional surface which encloses the support of the matter distribution.

Barraco, D. E.; Domínguez, E.; Guibert, R.

1999-08-01

28

Optical properties of subwavelength patterned metal gratings for photonic device application and an alternative proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated optical properties of subwavelength patterned metal gratings for photonic device application. It was known that optical transmittance of metal films with subwavelength periodic hole arrays can be controlled by applying a dielectric overlay to the film and the films can act as wavelength or frequency selective filters. Following advancement in lithography technology it could be applied up to complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors (CIS) by patterning metal layers placed on each pixel's photo detective device. However it is not easy to replace organic color filters applied on CIS up to date because the standard CIS structure has multi-metal layers, thick dielectric layers, and too thick metal layers. In this work, we explore possibility to integrate the metal film into a CIS chip and present an alternative proposal by computer simulation utilizing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. We applied aluminum (Al) for the metal film and the dispersion information associated with Al was derived from the Lorentz-Drude model. We expect that this work could contribute to search to apply subwavelength patterned metal gratings to photonic devices.

Lyu, Hong-Kun; Woo, Sungho; Jo, Sung-Hyun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

2013-09-01

29

Bioinformatic analyses of mammalian 5'-UTR sequence properties of mRNAs predicts alternative translation initiation sites  

PubMed Central

Background Utilization of alternative initiation sites for protein translation directed by non-AUG codons in mammalian mRNAs is observed with increasing frequency. Alternative initiation sites are utilized for the synthesis of important regulatory proteins that control distinct biological functions. It is, therefore, of high significance to define the parameters that allow accurate bioinformatic prediction of alternative translation initiation sites (aTIS). This study has investigated 5'-UTR regions of mRNAs to define consensus sequence properties and structural features that allow identification of alternative initiation sites for protein translation. Results Bioinformatic evaluation of 5'-UTR sequences of mammalian mRNAs was conducted for classification and identification of alternative translation initiation sites for a group of mRNA sequences that have been experimentally demonstrated to utilize alternative non-AUG initiation sites for protein translation. These are represented by the codons CUG, GUG, UUG, AUA, and ACG for aTIS. The first phase of this bioinformatic analysis implements a classification tree that evaluated 5'-UTRs for unique consensus sequence features near the initiation codon, characteristics of 5'-UTR nucleotide sequences, and secondary structural features in a decision tree that categorizes mRNAs into those with potential aTIS, and those without. The second phase addresses identification of the aTIS codon and its location. Critical parameters of 5'-UTRs were assessed by an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for identification of the aTIS codon and its location. ANNs have previously been used for the purpose of AUG start site prediction and are applicable in complex. ANN analyses demonstrated that multiple properties were required for predicting aTIS codons; these properties included unique consensus nucleotide sequences at positions -7 and -6 combined with positions -3 and +4, 5'-UTR length, ORF length, predicted secondary structures, free energy features, upstream AUGs, and G/C ratio. Importantly, combined results of the classification tree and the ANN analyses provided highly accurate bioinformatic predictions of alternative translation initiation sites. Conclusion This study has defined the unique properties of 5'-UTR sequences of mRNAs for successful bioinformatic prediction of alternative initiation sites utilized in protein translation. The ability to define aTIS through the described bioinformatic analyses can be of high importance for genomic analyses to provide full predictions of translated mammalian and human gene products required for cellular functions in health and disease.

Wegrzyn, Jill L; Drudge, Thomas M; Valafar, Faramarz; Hook, Vivian

2008-01-01

30

Satisfiability and Finite Model Property for the Alternating-Time mu-Calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a decision procedure for the alternating- time µ-calculus. The algorithm is based on a representation of alternating-time formulas as automata over concurrent game structures. We show that language emptiness of these automata can be checked in exponential time. The complexity of our construction meets the known lower bounds for deciding the satisfiability of the classic µ-calculus. It

Sven Schewe; Bernd Finkbeiner

2006-01-01

31

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUORINATED PROPANE AND BUTANE DERIVATIVES AS ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Physical property measurements are presented for 24 fluorinated propane and butane derivatives and one fluorinated ether. These measurements include melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure below the boiling point, heat of vaporization at the boiling point, critical propertie...

32

Optimality properties of alternative systems of taxation of foreign capital income  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign source capital income taxes are examined from the point of view of optimal taxation. In the framework of a simple economy with international real capital flows, a taxonomy of alternative systems of such taxation is first presented, showing how crediting and other tax parameters induce what are called source-based, residence-based and related systems. Next, tax rates are determined that

Jack Mintz; Henry Tulkens

1996-01-01

33

Optimality Properties of Alternative Systems of Taxation of Foreign Capital Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign source capital income taxes are examined from the point of view of optimal taxation. In the framework of a simple economy with international real capital flows, a taxonomy of alternative systems of such taxation is first presented, showing how crediting and other tax parameters induce what are called source-based, residence-based and related systems. Next, tax rates are determined that

Jacques MINTZ; Henry Tulkens

1994-01-01

34

Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester–diesel fuel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the

Duran Alt?parmak; Ali Keskin; Atilla Koca; Metin Gürü

2007-01-01

35

Physical Properties of Fluorinated Propane and Butane Derivatives as Alternative Refrigerants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents physical property measurements for 24 fluorinated propane and butane derivatives and one fluorinated ether which include melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure below the boiling point, heat of vaporization at the boiling point, cr...

A. Beyerlein D. DesMarteau S. Hwang N. Smith P. Joyner

1993-01-01

36

Direct current and alternating current electrical transport properties of regioregular poly[3-(4-alkoxyphenyl)-thiophenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the direct current and alternating current (ac) electrical transport properties of doped and undoped regioregular poly[3-(4-alkoxyphenyl)-thiophenes], where the alkoxy groups are O-(CH2)n-1CH3 with n=1,4,6, and 8, have been investigated. The films have been synthesized by an experimental procedure based on the oxidation of 3-(4-alkoxylphenyl)-thiophenes with molecular oxygen in presence of VO(acac)2, as the catalyst. Unlike other examples

M. Barra; M. Biasiucci; A. Cassinese; P. D'Angelo; A. C. Barone; A. Carella; A. Roviello

2007-01-01

37

Hyperbranched alternating block copolymers using thiol-yne chemistry: materials with tuneable properties.  

PubMed

Alternating-block hyperbranched polymers were synthesized using the highly versatile thiol-yne reaction. Dimethyl acrylamide-styrene and tert-butyl acrylate-styrene polymers were prepared, with subsequent hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester to acrylic acid. The dimethyl acrylamide-styrene hyperbranched polymers self-assembled into large aggregates, as did the acrylic acid-styrene system at low pH. However, high pH triggers the formation of very well defined small particles in the latter system. PMID:20820536

Konkolewicz, Dominik; Poon, Cheuk Ka; Gray-Weale, Angus; Perrier, Sébastien

2010-09-01

38

A Survey of Public Acceptance of Restitution as an Alternative to Imprisonment for Property Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposition that the public will be likely to accept a reduction in the use of imprisonment as a penalty for property offenders if these offenders are required to make restitution was tested through the use of simultaneously conducted surveys of two random samples of 1200 persons each drawn from the New Zealand electoral rolls. Both the control and experimental

Burt Galaway

1984-01-01

39

Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from

J. W. Frankenfeld; W. F. Taylor

1980-01-01

40

The Alternative complex III: properties and possible mechanisms for electron transfer and energy conservation.  

PubMed

Alternative complexes III (ACIII) are recently identified membrane-bound enzymes that replace functionally the cytochrome bc(1/)b(6)f complexes. In general, ACIII are composed of four transmembrane proteins and three peripheral subunits that contain iron-sulfur centers and C-type hemes. ACIII are built by a combination of modules present in different enzyme families, namely the complex iron-sulfur molybdenum containing enzymes. In this article a historical perspective on the investigation of ACIII is presented, followed by an overview of the present knowledge on these enzymes. Electron transfer pathways within the protein are discussed taking into account possible different locations (cytoplasmatic or periplasmatic) of the iron-sulfur containing protein and their contribution to energy conservation. In this way several hypotheses for energy conservation modes are raised including linear and bifurcating electron transfer pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). PMID:22609325

Refojo, Patrícia N; Teixeira, Miguel; Pereira, Manuela M

2012-05-16

41

Alternative dielectrics for advanced SOI MOSFETs: thermal properties and short channel effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOI devices exhibit excellent performance and scalability, but the presence of the buried oxide (BOX) induces self-heating. A possible solution is to replace the SiO2 BOX with other dielectrics that offer improved thermal conductance without degrading the electrical properties. The trade-off between short-channel and thermal effects in advanced SOI MOSFETs (10 nm thick, 20-50 nm long) is examined by comparing

N. Bresson; S. Cristoloveanu; K. Oshima; C. Mazure; F. Letertre; H. Iwai

2004-01-01

42

Properties of excited xenon atoms in an alternating current plasma display panel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of excited xenon atoms in the discharge cells of a plasma display panel are investigated by measuring the excited atom density via laser absorption spectroscopy. The density of the excited xenon atoms in the metastable state increases from zero, reaches its peak, and decreases with time in the discharge cells, as expected from a theoretical model. The profile of an excited xenon atom is also studied in terms of the xenon mole fraction. The typical density of excited xenon atoms in a metastable state is on the order of 1013 atoms/cm3.

Uhm, Han S.; Oh, Phil Y.; Choi, Eun H.

2008-11-01

43

Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

2013-01-01

44

Thin-coating as an alternative approach to improve flow properties of ibuprofen powder.  

PubMed

In the present study, thin-coating as a potential method for improving flow properties of cohesive ibuprofen powder was introduced. Briefly, the technique was based on the successive deposition of ultrasound-assisted fine polymer mist onto the surface of the powdered active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), producing individual particles with a hydrophilic thin-coat. A 0.15% m/V aqueous solution of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was used. Particle size and surface analysis revealed a decrease in the cohesiveness of ibuprofen powder and an increase in the homogeneity of particle surfaces as a result of polymer treatment. Superficial changes caused a substantial improvement on the flowing characteristics of coated substance over uncoated. The enhancement in flow rate proceeded as the uniformity of the HPMC layer increased. In conclusion, the proposed technique is a simple and effective method that can be used as a continuous process to modify API particle surface properties, which in turn improve the handling of poorly flowable powder. PMID:20005929

Genina, Natalja; Räikkönen, Heikki; Ehlers, Henrik; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Veski, Peep; Yliruusi, Jouko

2009-12-25

45

Influence of Nitrogen Addition on Fundamental Discharge Properties in Alternating Current Plasma Display Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to clarify the influence of nitrogen addition on the fundamental properties of plasma display panel (PDP) discharges in Ne/Xe(10%) gas mixture, the PDP discharges in Ne/Xe/N2 gas mixtures have been simulated using an one-dimensional fluid model, based on the continuity equations for electrons, ions, excited atoms and molecules, the Poisson equation and the electron energy balance equation. From simulation results, it is found that pulsed discharge with a short time (?100 ns) occurs once during every half cycle. In case of nitrogen concentration more than 100 ppm, the phase-delay of the gap-voltage and discharge current in Ne/Xe gas mixture PDP discharges began to appear.

Oda, Akinori; Hirano, Yoshikuni

46

Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program  

SciTech Connect

The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from Occidental Shale Company was fractionated to give three liquids in the diesel fuel boiling range. The initial boiling point in each case was 325/sup 0/F (163/sup 0/C). The final boiling points were 640/sup 0/F (338/sup 0/C), 670/sup 0/F (354/sup 0/C) and 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/F). Each fraction was hydrotreated to three different severities (800, 1200 and 1500 psi total pressure) over a Shell 324 nickel molybdate on alumina catalyst at 710 to 750/sup 0/F to afford 9 different model fuels. A variety of commercial and experimental additives were evaluated as cold flow improvers in the model fuels at treat levels of 0.04 to 0.4 wt %. Both the standard pour point test (ASTM D97) and a more severe low temperature flow test (LTFT) were employed. Reductions in pour points of up to 70/sup 0/F and improvements in LTFT temperatures up to 16/sup 0/F were achieved. It is concluded that flow improver additives can play an important role in improving the cold flow properties of future synthetic fuels of the diesel type derived from oil shale.

Frankenfeld, J.W.; Taylor, W.F.

1980-11-01

47

Charge trapping properties of alternative high-kappa dielectrics in MOS devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-kappa dielectrics are promising candidates to replace SiO 2 in advanced integrated circuits in future space systems. Studies of the effects of ionizing radiation and bias-temperature stress (BTS) on high-kappa dielectrics were performed. Trapped charge densities are evaluated as functions of temperature and stress time. Prior radiation exposure enhances BTS-induced degradation in these devices. Worst-case responses in combined effects are positive (or zero) bias irradiation followed by NBTS for HfO2-based devices. Degradation due to oxide or interface trap-charge changes in magnitude with the bias polarity during switched-bias annealing either after irradiation or constant voltage stress (CVS). This demonstrates that metastable electron trapping (dominant during post-rad annealing) and hydrogen transport and reactions (dominant during post-CVS annealing) in the near-interfacial dielectric layers play significant roles in the defect formation process. Additional defect growth with time was observed as a result of additional charge injection through the gate stacks during the annealing process. These results provide insights into fundamental trapping properties of high-kappa dielectrics and can be used to help predict long-term reliability of these devices.

Zhou, Xing

48

Modeling of magnetic properties and alternate current losses in high-Tc superconductors using a power law voltage-current characteristic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents numerical diffusion models which describe the electromagnetic properties and alternate current (ac) losses of a high-Tc superconducting tape carrying transport current. The models simulate the tape as a highly nonlinear conductor with equivalent resistivity being a function of J, the local current density, as deduced from a power law E-J characteristic of the material. The power law

A. E. Mahdi; A. Tami; R. L. Stoll

1999-01-01

49

Modeling of magnetic properties and alternate current losses in high-Tc superconductors using a power law voltage–current characteristic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents numerical diffusion models which describe the electromagnetic properties and alternate current (ac) losses of a high-Tc superconducting tape carrying transport current. The models simulate the tape as a highly nonlinear conductor with equivalent resistivity being a function of J, the local current density, as deduced from a power law E–J characteristic of the material. The power law

A. E. Mahdi; A. Tami; R. L. Stoll

1999-01-01

50

Time-series analysis of the female percentage of arrests for property crimes, 1960–1985: A test of alternative explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine rival explanations of trends in the female share of offending in property crimes since 1960, with particular emphasis on the gender equality or “liberation” thesis. The alternative explanations examined focus on trends in the economic marginality of females and trends in formal policing. The analysis is based on U.S. arrest data covering the 1960–1985 period, with data from

Darrell Steffensmeier; Cathy Streifel

1992-01-01

51

Study of Low Temperature Magnetic Properties of a Single Chain Magnet with Alternate Isotropic and Non-collinear Anisotropic Units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we study thermodynamic properties of an important class of single-chain magnets (SCMs), where alternate units are isotropic and anisotropic with anisotropy axes being non-collinear. This class of SCMs shows slow relaxation at low temperatures which results from the interplay of two different relaxation mechanisms, namely dynamical and thermal. Here anisotropy is assumed to be large and negative, as a result, anisotropic units behave like canted spins at low temperatures; but even then simple Ising-type model does not capture the essential physics of the system due to quantum mechanical nature of the isotropic units. We here show how statistical behavior of this class of SCMs can be studied using a transfer matrix (TM) method. We also, for the first time, discuss in detail how weak inter-chain interactions can be treated by a TM method. The finite size effect is also discussed which becomes important for low temperature dynamics. At the end of this paper, we apply this technique to study a real helical chain magnet.

Sahoo, Shaon; Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Ramasesha, S.

2012-04-01

52

Alternate stresses and temperature variation as factors of influence of ultrasonic vibration on mechanical and functional properties of shape memory alloys.  

PubMed

It is known that the main factors in a variation in the shape memory alloy properties under insonation are heating of the material and alternate stresses action. In the present work the experimental study of the mechanical behaviour and functional properties of shape memory alloy under the action of alternate stresses and varying temperature was carried out. The data obtained had demonstrated that an increase in temperature of the sample resulted in a decrease or increase in deformation stress depending on the structural state of the TiNi sample. It was shown that in the case of the alloy in the martensitic state, a decrease in stress was observed, and on the other hand, in the austenitic state an increase in stress took place. It was found that action of alternate stresses led to appearance of strain jumps on the strain-temperature curves during cooling and heating the sample through the temperature range of martensitic transformation under the constant stress. The value of the strain jumps depended on the amplitude of alternate stresses and the completeness of martensitic transformation. It was shown that the heat action of ultrasonic vibration to the mechanical behaviour of shape memory alloys was due to the non-monotonic dependence of yield stress on the temperature. The force action of ultrasonic vibration to the functional properties was caused by formation of additional oriented martensite. PMID:23870387

Belyaev, Sergey; Volkov, Alexander; Resnina, Natalia

2013-07-04

53

Environmental investigation for property transfer, Fort Holabird Crime Records Center. Environmental investigation and alternatives assessment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Environmental Investigation and Alternatives Assessment was conducted for the Crime Records Center at Fort Holabird in Baltimore, Maryland. Groundwater sampling, underground storage tank tightness testing, radon sampling, asbestos sampling, soil observations, and a review of previously collected data were used to develop remedial alternatives and recommendations. Removal and record keeping were recommended for asbestos. The recommendation for groundwater was

F. J. Finger; Q. R. Todd

1992-01-01

54

Environmental investigation for property transfer, Fort Holabird Crime Records Center. Environmental investigation and alternatives assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An Environmental Investigation and Alternatives Assessment was conducted for the Crime Records Center at Fort Holabird in Baltimore, Maryland. Groundwater sampling, underground storage tank tightness testing, radon sampling, asbestos sampling, soil observations, and a review of previously collected data were used to develop remedial alternatives and recommendations. Removal and record keeping were recommended for asbestos. The recommendation for groundwater was no action.

Finger, F.J.; Todd, Q.R.

1992-03-01

55

Influence of ZrO2 addition on the microstructure and discharge properties of Mg-Zr-O protective layers in alternating current plasma display panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mg-Zr-O protective layers for alternating current plasma display panels were deposited by e-beam evaporation. The effect of the ZrO2 addition on both the discharge properties [firing voltage Vf, minimum sustaining voltage Vs, and memory coefficient (MC)] and the microstructure of deposited Mg-Zr-O films were investigated. The results show that the film microstructure changes and the electron emission enhancement due to

Bingang Guo; Chunliang Liu; Zhongxiao Song; Liu Liu; Yufeng Fan; Xing Xia; Duowang Fan

2005-01-01

56

Extensive alternative splicing and dual promoter usage generates TCF-1 protein isoforms with differential transcription control properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported the isolation of cDNA clones representing four alternative splice forms of TCF-1, a T-cell-specific transcription factor. In the present study, Western blotting (immunoblotting) yielded a multi- tude of TCF-1 proteins ranging from 25 to 55 kDa, a pattern not simply explained from the known splice alternatives. Subsequent cDNA cloning, PCR amplification, and analysis by rapid amplification of

M. van de Wetering; JAN CASTROP; VLADIMIR KORINEK; J. C. Clevers

1996-01-01

57

Crystal structure and magnetic properties of piperazinium hexadichlorocuprate: A new S=(1/2) antiferromagnetic chain with alternating exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal structure of piperazinium hexadichlorocuprate (PHCC) has been determined. In this compound, the Cu(II) ions are arranged in zig-zag chains well separated from each other. As temperature is decreased from the ambient temperature, the magnetic susceptibility exhibits a maximum at T=15 K and then tends to zero. This behavior is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for an S=1/2 alternating antiferromagnetic chain with J1/k=-12.5 K and an alternation parameter close to 0.6. An orbital interpretation of this behavior is given.

Daoud, A.; Ben Salah, A.; Chappert, C.; Renard, J. P.; Cheikhrouhou, A.; Duc, Tranqui; Verdaguer, M.

1986-05-01

58

Growth behavior and optical properties of metal-nanoparticle dispersed dielectric thin films formed by alternating sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volmer–Weber type island growth mode was adopted to form nano-sized metal particles embedded in a dielectric matrix by the alternate deposition of metal and dielectric layers. Particle size and volume fraction were controlled by changing the nominal thickness of the metal layer and its ratio to that of dielectric layer, respectively. For comparison, the Au cluster formation was investigated in

S. H. Cho; S. Lee; D. Y. Ku; T. S. Lee; B. Cheong; W. M. Kim; K. S. Lee

2004-01-01

59

In situ RHEED study of CdSe\\/ZnSe quantum dots formation during alternate beam supply and photoluminescence properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ RHEED observation of dot-assembling process during the MBE growth of CdSe on ZnSe(100) by alternate supply of Se and Cd beams was studied. Two-monolayer CdSe wetting layer is formed on Zn-terminated ZnSe(100). The third CdSe layer is formed once on the wetting layer, but this layer is unstable and immediately changes to CdSe dots and the CdSe dots

Masakazu Ohishi; Hiroshi Saito; Minoru Yoneta; Takaaki Ichikawa; Tomohiro Fujimoto

2000-01-01

60

Thermodynamic and transport properties of some alternative ozone-safe refrigerants for industrial refrigeration equipment: Study in Belarus and Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

The study of several hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and fluorocarbons (FC) and their binary mixtures that have no ozone-depleting ability is being carried out in the framework of Belarus National program. The fluids include HFCs R134a, R152a, R125, and R32, and FC R218. The following properties are being investigated: (1) phase equilibrium parameters including the boiling and condensing curve and critical point, thermophysical properties at these parameters, and heat of evaporation; (2) isobaric and isochoric heat capacity, ethalpy, and entropy in the gas and liquid state; (3) speed of sound, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and density in the gas and liquid state; (4) dielectric properties and surface tension; (5) behavior of combined construction materials inside the refrigerant medium; and (6) solubility in compressor oils and other technological characteristics. The series of results obtained by authors during the period 1990-1993 is presented.

Grebenkov, A.J.; Klepatsky, P.M.; Beljajeva, O.V. [Inst. of Power Engineering Problems, Minsk (Belgium)] [and others

1996-05-01

61

32—AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO TWO-FOLD WEAVING YARN PART V: THE PROPERTIES OF TWO-STRAND YARNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a second mechanism by which surface fibres can be trapped during two-strand-yarn formation, which may also contribute to the improved performance of such yarns. The effects of strand-spacing, strand-twist, and machine parameters on properties affecting weavability are explored, and the possible contribution of the two fibre-trapping mechanisms is discussed.

D. E. A. Plate

1983-01-01

62

Thermodynamic and transport properties of some alternative ozone-safe refrigerants for industrial refrigeration equipment: Study in Belarus and Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of several hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and fluorocarbons (FC) and their binary mixtures that have no ozone-depleting ability is being carried Out in the framework of Belarus National Program. The fluids include HFCs R134a. R152a, R135, and R32, and FC R218. The following properties are being investigated: ( I ) phase equilibrium parameters including the boiling and condensing curve and

A. J. Grebenkov; V. P. Zhelezny; P. M. Klepatsky; O. V. Beljajeva; Yu. A. Chernjak; Yu. G. Kotelevsky; B. D. Timofejev

1996-01-01

63

Atomic Layer Deposition and Properties of Silicon Oxide Thin Films Using Alternating Exposures to SiH2Cl2 and O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the process for the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon dioxide thin films on a silicon wafer by alternating exposures to SiH2Cl2 and O3. The growth kinetics of silicon oxide films was examined by varying reactant exposures at various deposition temperatures ranging from 250 to 450 °C. The deposition was governed by a self-limiting surface reaction, and the growth rate at 350 °C was saturated at 0.25 nm/cycle for SiH2Cl2 exposures of over 5× 109 L (10-6 Torr\\cdots). The chlorine content and the wet-etching rate in a diluted HF solution were reduced by increasing the deposition temperature. The films deposited at temperatures ranging from 350 to 450 °C exhibited excellent physical and electrical properties that were equivalent to those of silicon oxide films deposited at 760 °C by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

Won-Jun Lee,; Chang-Hee Han,; Jae-Kyun Park,; Youn-Seoung Lee,; Sa-Kyun Rha,

2010-07-01

64

Theory of magnetic fluid heating with an alternating magnetic field with temperature dependent materials properties for self-regulated heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) offer promise for local hyperthermia, thermoablative cancer therapy and microwave curing of polymers. Rosensweig's theory predicts that particle size dependence on RF magnetic heating of ferrofluids is chiefly determined by magnetic moment, magnetic anisotropy, and the viscosity of the fluid. Since relaxation times are thermally activated and material parameters can have strong T dependences, heating rates peak at a certain temperature. We extend the model to include the T dependence of the magnetization and anisotropy using mean field theory and literature reported T dependences of selected fluids considered for biomedical applications. We model materials with Curie temperatures near room temperature for which the magnetic properties are strongly T dependent to address the problem of self-regulated heating of ferrofluids.

Ondeck, C. L.; Habib, A. H.; Ohodnicki, P.; Miller, K.; Sawyer, C. A.; Chaudhary, P.; McHenry, M. E.

2009-04-01

65

Microphysical and optical properties of precipitating drizzle and ice particles obtained from alternated lidar and in situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the international ASTAR experiment (Arctic Study of Aerosols, Clouds and Radiation) carried out from Longyearbyen (Spitsbergen) from 10 May to 11 June 2004, the AWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) Polar 2 aircraft was equipped with a unique combination of remote and in situ instruments. The airborne AMALi lidar provided downward backscatter and Depolarisation ratio profiles at 532 nm wavelength. The in situ instrumental setup comprised a Polar Nephelometer, a Cloud Particle Imager (CPI) as well as a Nevzorov and standard PMS probes to measure cloud particle properties in terms of scattering characteristics, particle morphology and size, and in-cloud partitioning of ice/water content. The objective of the paper is to present the results of a case study related to observations with ice crystals precipitating down to supercooled boundary-layer stratocumulus. The flight pattern was predefined in a way that firstly the AMALi lidar probed the cloud tops to guide the in situ measurements into a particular cloud formation. Three kinds of clouds with different microphysical and optical properties have therefore been quasi-simultaneously observed: (i) water droplets stratiform-layer, (ii) drizzle-drops fallstreak and (iii) precipitating ice-crystals from a cirrus cloud above. The signatures of these clouds are clearly evidenced from the in situ measurements and from the lidar profiles in term of backscatter and Depolarisation ratio. Accordingly, typical lidar ratios, i.e., extinction-to-backscatter ratios, are derived from the measured scattering phase function combined with subsequent particle shapes and size distributions. The backscatter profiles can therefore be retrieved under favourable conditions of low optical density. From these profiles extinction values in different cloud types can be obtained and compared with the direct in situ measurements.

Gayet, J.-F.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Jourdan, O.; Shcherbakov, V.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Neuber, R.

2007-07-01

66

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans: a novel and alternative approach to suppress quorum-sensing mechanism.  

PubMed

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

Hasan, Sadaf; Danishuddin, Mohd; Adil, Mohd; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K; Khan, Asad U

2012-07-05

67

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans.

Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

2012-01-01

68

Hydrofluoropolyethers: Another alternative to CFCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorinated fluids are widely used because of their unique properties: They are chemically and biologically inert, nontoxic, stable, nonflammable, and miscible in most solvents. However, because many of these fluids cause ozone-depleting and global-warming effects, one must search for viable alternatives. A recent CHEMTECH article described the properties of perfluorinated ethers as alternative refrigerants. Here the authors describe hydrofluoropolyethers (HFPEs),

M. Visca; R. Silvani; G. Marchionni

1997-01-01

69

Alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

Not Available

1991-07-01

70

Influence of chloroplastic photo-oxidative stress on mitochondrial alternative oxidase capacity and respiratory properties: a case study with Arabidopsis yellow variegated 2.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX), the unique respiratory terminal oxidase in plants, catalyzes the energy-wasteful cyanide (CN)-resistant respiration. Although it has been demonstrated that leaf AOX is up-regulated under high-light (HL) conditions, the in vivo mechanism of AOX up-regulation by light is still unknown. In the present study, we examined whether the photo-oxidative stress in the chloroplast modulates mitochondrial respiratory properties, especially the AOX capacity, using Arabidopsis leaf-variegated mutant yellow variegated 2 (var2) and exposing plants to HL. var2 mutants lack FtsH2 metalloprotease required for the repair of damaged PSII. Indeed, var2-1 suffered from photo-oxidative stress even before the HL treatments. While the activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and cytochrome c oxidase in var2-1 were almost identical to those in the wild type, the amount of AOX protein and the CN-resistant respiration rate were higher in var2-1. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that HL treatment induced the expression of some energy-dissipating respiratory genes, including AOX1a, NDB2 and UCP5, more strongly in var2-1. Western blotting using var2-1 leaf extracts specific to green or white sectors, containing functional or non-functional photosynthetic apparatus, respectively, revealed that more AOX protein was induced in the green sectors by the HL treatment. These results indicate that photo-oxidative stress by excess light is involved in the regulation of respiratory gene expression and the modulation of respiratory properties, especially the AOX up-regulation. PMID:18296449

Yoshida, Keisuke; Watanabe, Chihiro; Kato, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Wataru; Noguchi, Ko

2008-02-21

71

Properties of the phase-alternating phase-shift (PHAPS) multiple spin-echo protocol in MRI: a study of the effects of imperfect RF pulses.  

PubMed

The effects of imperfect radiofrequency (RF) pulses on the echo amplitudes from the Carr-Purcell (CP), Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG), and the PHase-Alternating Phase-Shift (PHAPS; combination of CP and CPMG) multiple spin-echo schemes were studied. Properties of the PHAPS scheme for transverse relaxation time measurements was emphasized. Numerical simulations on non-relaxing spin systems were performed to assess the properties of selective (damped sinc shaped) and nonselective refocusing pulses in terms of effective spatial selectivity and generation of secondary echo signal. Analytical solutions of the Bloch equations were applied to study the generation and propagation of stimulated echo signal caused by nonideal 180 degrees phase reversals, and the results were used to analyse the numerical simulations in terms of primary and stimulated echo components. Finally, the simulated echo train patterns from the different MSE schemes were compared with MR imaging measurements. It was found that the underestimation of T2 values by the PHAPS protocol with selective refocusing pulses is mainly an effect of an "artificial" echo amplitude decay in the CP scheme, while the CPMG scheme produces a typical even-odd echo pattern (different from corresponding echo patterns in conventional high resolution NMR). Both effects are related to the flip angle error and phase dispersion along the slice selection direction from selective RF pulses, and are not significantly influenced by stimulated echo interference for nonrelaxing spin systems. However, the presence of stimulated echoes at the time of the primary echoes implies a dependence on T1 of the PHAPS echo amplitudes. In the CPMG protocol, different gradient schemes have been implemented to defocus stimulated echoes. However, the results indicate that there exists stimulated components that will not be affected by such gradients, and that the optimization of the RF refocusing pulses then remain the main objective. PMID:8371633

Fransson, A; Ericsson, A; Jung, B; Sperber, G O

1993-01-01

72

Alternative Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This special double issue focuses on the issue of alternative assessment and its place in educational reform. "Alternative Assessment: A National Perspective" (T. Stefonek) emphasizes that the fundamental purposes of new assessment methods are grounded in educational goals, meaningful outcomes, and curricular and instructional programs promoting…

Stefonek, Tom; And Others

1991-01-01

73

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

Piele, Philip K.

74

Case study II: application of the divalent cation bridging theory to improve biofloc properties and industrial activated sludge system performance-using alternatives to sodium-based chemicals.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the application of the divalent cation bridging theory (DCBT) as a tool in the chemical selection process at an activated sludge plant to improve settling, dewatering, and effluent quality. According to the DCBT, to achieve improvements, the goal of chemical selection should be to reduce the ratio of monovalent-to-divalent (M/D) cations. A study was conducted to determine the effect of using magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] as an alternative to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at a full-scale industrial wastewater treatment plant. Floc properties and treatment plant performance were measured for approximately one year during two periods of NaOH addition and Mg(OH)2 addition. A cost analysis of plant operation during NaOH and Mg(OH)2 use was also performed. During NaOH addition, the M/D ratio was 48, while, during Mg(OH)2 addition, this ratio was reduced to an average of approximately 0.1. During the Mg(OH)2 addition period, the sludge volume index, effluent total suspended solids, and effluent chemical oxygen demand were reduced by approximately 63, 31, and 50%, respectively, compared to the NaOH addition period. The alum and polymer dose used for clarification was reduced by approximately 50 and 60%, respectively, during Mg(OH)2 addition. The dewatering properties of the activated sludge improved dewatering as measured by decreased capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), along with an increase in cake solids from the SRF test. This corresponded to a reduction in the volume of solids thickened by centrifuges at the treatment plant, which reduced the disposal costs of solids. Considering the costs for chemicals and solids disposal, the annual cost of using Mg(OH)2 was approximately 30,000 dollars to 115,000 dollars less than using NaOH, depending on the pricing of NaOH. The results of this study confirm that the DCBT is a useful tool for assessing chemical-addition strategies and their potential effect on activated sludge performance. PMID:15508426

Higgins, Matthew J; Sobeck, David C; Owens, Steven J; Szabo, Lynn M

75

Alternative Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)|

Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

2002-01-01

76

Alternative Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an alternative method of assessment, students create portfolios by submitting monthly entries that demonstrate and expand their understanding of science concepts. Teachers can also use the portfolios to assess the success of their teaching practices an

Valdez, Penelope S.

2001-11-01

77

[Alternative medicine].  

PubMed

In a critical situation of world official medicine, we can find different alternatives therapies: natural therapy traditional and complementary, survival sometimes, of antique stiles and conditions of life. New sciences presented for them empiricism to the margin of official science. Doctors and sorcerer do the best to defeat the horrible virus that contribute to build symbols categories of sick. The alternatives put dangerously in game the scientific myth of experiment and exhume, if they got lost, antique remedy, almost preserved like cultural wreck very efficient where the medicine is impotent. Besides alternatives and complementary therapies, that are remedies not recognized conventional from official medicine, there are the homeopathic, phytotherapy, pranotherapy, nutritional therapy, the ayurveda, the yoga, ecc. Italians and internationals research show a composite picture of persons that apply that therapies. Object of this work is to understand and know the way that sick lighten their sufferings and role that have o that can assume the nurses to assist this sick. PMID:12146072

Mitello, L

78

Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of regular alternating ?-bpm/di-?-X copper(II) chains (bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine; X = OH, F).  

PubMed

The preparation and X-ray crystal structure of four 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm)-containing copper(II) complexes of formula {[Cu(2)(?-bpm)(H(2)O)(4)(?-OH)(2)][Mn(H(2)O)(6)](SO(4))(2)}(n) (1), {[Cu(2)(?-bpm)(H(2)O)(4)(?-OH)(2)]SiF(6)}(n) (2), {Cu(2)(?-bpm)(H(2)O)(2)(?-F)(2)F(2)}(n) (3), and [Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(2)F(NO(3))][Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(3)F]NO(3)·2H(2)O (4) are reported. The structures of 1-3 consist of chains of copper(II) ions with regular alternation of bis-bidentate bpm and di-?-hydroxo (1 and 2) or di-?-fluoro (3) groups, the electroneutrality being achieved by either hexaaqua manganese(II) cations plus uncoordinated sulfate anions (1), uncoordinated hexafluorosilicate anions (2), or terminally bound fluoride ligands (3). Each copper(II) ion in 1-4 is six-coordinated in elongated octahedral surroundings. 1 and 2 show identical, linear chain motifs with two bpm-nitrogen atoms and two hydroxo groups building the equatorial plane at each copper(II) ion and the axial position being filled by water molecules. In the case of 3, the axial sites at the copper atom are occupied by a bpm-nitrogen atom and a bis-monodentate fluoride anion, producing a "step-like" chain motif. The values of the angle at the hydroxo and fluoro bridges are 94.11(6) (1), 94.75(4) (2), and 101.43(4)° (3). In each case, the copper-copper separation through the bis-bidentate bpm [5.428(1) (1), 5.449(1) (2), and 5.9250(4) Å (3)] is considerably longer than that through the di-?-hydroxo [2.8320(4) (1) and 2.824(1) Å (2)] or di-?-fluoro [3.3027(4) Å (3)] bridges. Compound 4 is a mononuclear species whose structure is made up of neutral [Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(2)F(NO(3))] units, [Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(3)F](+) cations, uncoordinated nitrate anions, and crystallization water molecules, giving rise to a pseudo-helical, one-dimensional (1D) supramolecular motif. The magnetic properties of 1-3 have been investigated in the temperature range 1.9-300 K. Relatively large, alternating antiferro- [J = -149 (1) and -141 cm(-1) (2) across bis-bidentate bpm] and ferromagnetic [?J = +194 (1) and +176 cm(-1) (2) through the dihydroxo bridges] interactions occur in 1 and 2 [the Hamiltonian being defined as H = -J?(i=1)(n/2) (S(2i)·S(2i-1) - ?S(2i)·S(2i+1))]. These values compare well with those previously reported for parent examples. Two weak intrachain antiferromagnetic interactions [J = -0.30 and ?J = -8.1 cm(-1) across bpm and the di-?-fluoro bridges, respectively] whose values were substantiated by density functional theory (DFT)-type calculations occur in 3. PMID:22428904

Marino, Nadia; Armentano, Donatella; De Munno, Giovanni; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

2012-03-19

79

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter deals with 1981 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving the detachment and attachment of land continue to dominate the property chapter with 11 cases reported, the same number summarized in last year's chapter. One case involving school board referenda raised the interesting question of whether or not a state could…

Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

80

Alternative Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... derived from caprylic acid may provide an alternative energy source for brain cells that have lost their ability to use glucose ( ... are unlawful. Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba is a plant ... that may have positive effects on cells within the brain and the body. Ginkgo biloba ...

81

Alternative Conceptualizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

1992-01-01

82

Alternative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)|

Herman, Dan

1999-01-01

83

Predicting housing prices at alternative locations and in alternative scenarios of the spatial job distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative hedonic model formulations are used to compare predicted and observed prices of property transactions in alternative locations. The estimation of model parameters is based on data from Western Norway, and alternative model formulations primarily differ with respect to how spatial structure is represented. In addition to evaluating the predicability of alternative model formulations we also study how housing prices

Liv Osland; Inge Thorsen

2007-01-01

84

Alternate materials for alternate fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an extensive investigation of five different crystalline engineering thermoplastics and their reactions to various alternate fuels. The investigation covered acetal copolymer, nylon 6/6, polyphenylene sulfide, PBT polyester, and liquid crystal polymer. These five base resins were used in unfilled, glass fiber reinforced, impact modified, glass/mineral reinforced, and long-glass fiber reinforced grades. All of the materials were tested in ASTM reference Fuel C (50% toluene, 50% iso-octane), Auto-oxidized (sour gas), and Aggressive fuel with M25, M50, and M85 at 60{degrees} and 121{degrees} C. This study was undertaken due to the automotive industry's shift towards alternate fuels and higher operating temperatures.

Not Available

1992-04-01

85

Improvement of Photoluminescence Properties of ZnSe Film Grown by Hydrogen Radical-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Alternate Gas Supply and Substrate Bias Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-quality ZnSe films were successfully grown on GaAs (100) at low temperatures, 200°C or lower, by hydrogen radical-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HRCVD). Defects were markedly eliminated by the following factors: selection of source materials, avoidance of ion bombardment, and suppression of formation of adducts by alternate gas supply.

Jun Gotoh; Hajime Shirai; Jun-ichi Hanna; Isamu Shimizu

1991-01-01

86

Development of an alternative low salt bovine hide preservation using PEG and crude glycerol, part II: quality assessment and mechanical properties of leather products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To obtain good quality leather products, the hides from which it is derived from should be temporarily preserved properly while in storage and in transit by preventing putrefaction. One of the objectives of the current study is to develop an alternative brining process that requires lesser amount of...

87

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid

Sadaf Hasan; Mohd Danishuddin; Mohd Adil; Kunal Singh; Praveen K. Verma; Asad U. Khan

2012-01-01

88

A new system for measuring alternating current magnetic susceptibility of natural materials over a wide range of frequencies: A new rock magnetic property for environmental magnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new measurement system has been developed for detecting frequency dependence of low-field alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility in natural samples. Instead of employing intricate AC bridge circuits, this system configuration is simple and consists of a set of primary, secondary (pick-up), and compensation coils, a function generator, and a two-phase lock-in amplifier. This system can measure both in-phase and

K. Kodama

2010-01-01

89

Development of alternate silicone potting compounds. Volume 11. Influences of temperature, material variables, and composition variables on the properties of substitute potting compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect that Sylgard 184 and 186 and Dielectric Gel Q3-6527 have on the mechanical properties of cured Sylgard starting materials, cured APC2.5, and APC10 substitute potting compounds. We looked specifically at the influences of five variables of 184, 186, and Q3-6527 on the 25°C mechanical properties, namely temperature, platinum content of the accelerator, amount of accelerator used,

Cady

1983-01-01

90

Deductive verification of alternating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternating systems are models of computer programs whose behavior is governed by the actions of multiple agents with, potentially,\\u000a different goals. Examples include control systems, resource schedulers, security protocols, auctions and election mechanisms.\\u000a Proving properties about such systems has emerged as an important new area of study in formal verification, with the development\\u000a of logical frameworks such as the alternating

Matteo Slanina; Henny B. Sipma; Zohar Manna

2008-01-01

91

Nutrition Research Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The assessment is an analysis of nutrition research alternatives -- alternative goals and priorities, alternative definitions and funding, and alternative research personnel requirements. Its principal finding is that Federal human nutrition research prog...

1978-01-01

92

Structural and dynamic properties of the new alternative refrigerant 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (HFO-1234yf) in the liquid state.  

PubMed

The local intermolecular structure and dynamics of a recently proposed alternative refrigerant 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene has been investigated using classical molecular dynamics and ab initio quantum chemical techniques. The potential for hydrogen bonding is investigated, and evidence is found for weak interactions that do not differ substantially between the two types of fluorine atom acceptor. The dynamics of the weak hydrogen bonding are examined via residence and reorientational dynamics. Spectral densities are computed from atomic velocity autocorrelation functions and discussed in concert with the ab initio infrared vibrational spectrum of the (gas-phase) monomer and dimers; particular attention is paid to the presence of low-wavenumber librational motions. The net result of this study is a more detailed picture of the local structural ordering and dynamics within this weakly hydrogen-bonding liquid. PMID:21138307

Skarmoutsos, Ioannis; Hunt, Patricia A

2010-12-07

93

Predicting housing prices at alternative locations and under alternative scenarios of the spatial job distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative hedonic model formulations are used to compare predicted and observed prices of property transactions at alternative\\u000a locations. The estimation of model parameters is based on data from western Norway. In addition to evaluating the predictability\\u000a of alternative model formulations we study how housing prices in different areas are affected by changes in the spatial distribution\\u000a of employment. Alternative scenarios

Liv Osland; Inge Thorsen

2009-01-01

94

Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-x%BaTiO3 textured ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of alternating (ac) and direct current (dc) fields on the structural and dielectric properties of [001]PC textured Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-7%BaTiO3 (NBT-7%BT) ceramics has been investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the depolarization at temperature Td in poled samples resulted from a tetragonal --> pseudo-cubic transition on heating. Moderate ac drive and dc bias had opposite influences on Td: ac drive decreased the Td, whereas dc bias increased it. These investigations suggested an effective method to expand the working temperature range of NBT-x%BT textured ceramics to a high temperature.

Ge, Wenwei; Maurya, Deepam; Li, Jiefang; Priya, Shashank; Viehland, D.

2013-06-01

95

A lagrange multiplier test of uniformity against beta alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test of uniformity is derived as a Lagrange Multiplier test against the beta family. As such, it has desirable properties against beta alternatives. Monte Carlo results show that it also has good power against non-beta alternatives.

Martin Sefton

1992-01-01

96

Optical devices having flakes suspended in a host fluid to provide a flake/fluid system providing flakes with angularly dependent optical properties in response to an alternating current electric field due to the dielectric properties of the system  

DOEpatents

Optical devices utilizing flakes (also called platelets) suspended in a host fluid have optical characteristics, such as reflective properties, which are angular dependent in response to an AC field. The reflectivity may be Bragg-like, and the characteristics are obtained through the use of flakes of liquid crystal material, such as polymer liquid crystal (PLC) materials including polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) and polymer nematic liquid crystal (PNLC) material or birefringent polymers (BP). The host fluid may be propylene carbonate, poly(ethylene glycol) or other fluids or fluid mixtures having fluid conductivity to support conductivity in the flake/host system. AC field dependent rotation of 90.degree. can be obtained at rates and field intensities dependent upon the frequency and magnitude of the AC field. The devices are useful in providing displays, polarizers, filters, spatial light modulators and wherever switchable polarizing, reflecting, and transmission properties are desired.

Kosc, Tanya Z. (Rochester, NY); Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY); Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY)

2006-05-09

97

NEW CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVES TO CHLOROFLOUROCARBONS AND HALONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a determination of the basic properties of laboratory quantities of potential alternative compounds which may be used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons listed in the "Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer." he property te...

98

Alternative and Integrative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... These alternative medicine systems often are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, ... medicine emphasizes health restoration rather than disease treatment. Learning More Given how much information about alternative medicine ...

99

Alternative Futures Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development and application of planning procedures which involve the public in projecting alternative futures and then provide a method of evaluating alternatives in an effort to protect, rather than foreclose, the options repres...

J. L. Creighton

1976-01-01

100

Complementary and Alternative Therapies  

PubMed Central

Complementary and alternative therapies are increasingly used by many pregnant women in the United States; however, limited research is available on many therapies. The number of studies should increase with the establishment of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine by the National Institutes of Health. This column reviews recent studies of both herbal medicines and alternative therapies used in pregnancy.

Moore, Mary Lou

2002-01-01

101

Current Alternative Engine Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, methyl and ethyl alcohols, hydrogen, biodiesel, boron, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, p-series, electricity, and solar fuels were concluded as alternative engine fuels. Alternative engine fuels are competitive fuels to petroleum. These fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. There are many benefits the environment, economy and consumers in using alternative fuels.

MUSTAFA BALAT

2005-01-01

102

Alternative Teacher Certification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines issues related to alternative teacher certification, discussing teacher certification in Texas and noting that most researchers agree that both traditional and alternative routes to teacher preparation need improvement. For over a decade, alternative certification has become increasingly available in Texas. This paper…

Newman, Carol; Thomas, Kay

103

Depleted uranium management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

1994-08-01

104

Alternative splicing in ascomycetes.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is a complex and regulated process, which results in mRNA with different coding capacities from a single gene. Extend and types of alternative splicing vary greatly among eukaryotes. In this review, I focus on alternative splicing in ascomycetes, which in general have significant lower extend of alternative splicing than mammals. Yeast-like species have low numbers of introns and consequently alternative splicing is lower compared to filamentous fungi. Several examples from single studies as well as from genomic scale analysis are presented, including a survey of alternative splicing in Neurospora crassa. Another focus is regulation by riboswitch RNA and alternative splicing in a heterologous system, along with putative protein factors involved in regulation. PMID:23515838

Kempken, Frank

2013-03-21

105

Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Tetragonal Sr2M3As2O2 (M3 = Mn3, Mn2Cu and MnZn2) Compounds Containing Alternating CuO2-Type and FeAs-Type Layers  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline samples of Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2, Sr2Mn3As2O2, and Sr2Zn2MnAs2O2 were synthesized. Their temperature- and applied magnetic field-dependent structural, transport, thermal, and magnetic properties were characterized by means of x-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical resistivity , heat capacity, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements. These compounds have a body-centered-tetragonal crystal structure (space group I 4/mmm) that consists of MO2 (M = Zn and/or Mn) oxide layers similar to the CuO2 layers in high superconducting transition temperature Tc cuprate superconductors, and intermetallic MAs (M = Cu and/or Mn) layers similar to the FeAs layers in high-Tc pnictides. These two types of layers alternate along the crystallographic c-axis and are separated by Sr atoms. The site occupancies of Mn, Cu and Zn were studied using Rietveld refinements of x-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. The temperature dependences of suggest metallic character for Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2 and semiconducting character for Sr2Mn3As2O2 and Sr2Zn2MnAs2O2. Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2 is inferred to be a ferrimagnet with a Curie temperature TC = 95(1) K. Remarkably, we find that the magnetic ground state structure changes from a G-type antiferromagnetic structure in Sr2Mn3As2O2 to an A-type ferrimagnetic structure in Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2 in which the Mn ions in each layer are ferromagnetically aligned, but are antiferromagnetically aligned between layers.

Nath, R [Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Goldman, Alan [Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University; Johnston, david C [Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University

2010-01-01

106

Screening of pure fluids as alternative refrigerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrofluorocarbons are now well established as refrigerants because of their zero ozone depletion potential. Since they have a high global warming potential, other alternatives as, e.g. fluorinated ethers or cyclic hydrocarbons are considered as next-generation refrigerants. Screening of alternative refrigerants is difficult because mostly no or only few data are available. To evaluate, e.g. the cycle performance, the thermodynamic properties

B. Saleh; M. Wendland

2006-01-01

107

Aberrant Alternative Splicing Is Another Hallmark of Cancer  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of human genes are alternatively spliced. Not surprisingly, aberrant alternative splicing is increasingly linked to cancer. Splice isoforms often encode proteins that have distinct and even antagonistic properties. The abnormal expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in cancer changes the alternative splicing of critically important pre-mRNAs. Aberrant alternative splicing should be added to the growing list of cancer hallmarks.

Ladomery, Michael

2013-01-01

108

REACT: Alternatives to Critical Materials in Magnets  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s REACT Project, short for “Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies”, are developing cost-effective alternatives to rare earths, the naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. The REACT projects will identify low-cost and abundant replacement materials for rare earths while encouraging existing technologies to use them more efficiently. These alternatives would facilitate the widespread use of EVs and wind power, drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

None

2012-01-01

109

Alternative fuel information: Alternative fuel vehicle outlook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major automobile manufacturers continue to examine a variety of alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) options in an effort to provide vehicles that meet the fleet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAC...

1994-01-01

110

Alternative Therapies for Fibromyalgia  

MedlinePLUS

... Articles Español Acupuncture Advocacy Alternative Therapies Animals Chiropractic Depression Diagnosis Disability Doctor-Patient Relationship Exercise Fibrofog Finances Goal Setting Hands-on Therapies Holidays ...

111

Alternative Automobile Engines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)|

Wilson, David Gordon

1978-01-01

112

Alternative Automobile Engines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

Wilson, David Gordon

1978-01-01

113

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

This report contains data on the number of onroad alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities and data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume.

Information Center

2013-04-08

114

Alternative wastewater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternative wastewater systems have been developed not only to broaden the wastewater disposal technology but also to offer efficient alternatives to conventional sewers, septic tanks, sludge disposal, and water pollution problems. Economic tradeoffs are achieved using sewage grinders and small?diameter pressure sewers which require increased energy but permit development in hilly or rocky terrain. Vacuum sewers offer water conservation

Rein Laak; Roger E. Machmeier

1982-01-01

115

Concepts in alternative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

After discussing some important alternative approaches, different interpretations are presented of the concepts of health, disease, diagnosis, therapy and patient. These differences are elucidated in three main frames of medical thinking: the pharmaceutical, the integrational and the holistic model. Attention is given to the problem of scientific proof, especially in relation to the effectiveness of alternative therapies. In a concluding

C. W. Aakster

1986-01-01

116

Alternative fuel transit buses  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K. [and others

1996-10-01

117

Alternative fuel information: Alternative fuel vehicle outlook  

SciTech Connect

Major automobile manufacturers continue to examine a variety of alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) options in an effort to provide vehicles that meet the fleet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The current generation of AFVs available to consumers is somewhat limited as the auto industry attempts to respond to the presently uncertain market. At the same time, however, the automobile industry must anticipate future demand and is therefore engaged in research, development, and production programs on a wide range of alternative fuels. The ultimate composition of the AFV fleet may be determined by state and local regulations which will have the effect of determining demand. Many state and regional groups may require vehicles to meet emission standards more stringent than those required by the federal government. Therefore, a significant impact on the market could occur if emission classifications begin serving as the benchmark for vehicles, rather than simply certifying a vehicle as capable of operating on an ``alternative`` to gasoline. Vehicles classified as Zero-Emissions, or even Inherently Low-Emissions, could most likely be met only by electricity or natural gas, thereby dictating that multi-fuel vehicles would be unable to participate in some clean air markets. In the near-term, the Clinton Administration desires to accelerate the use of alternative fuels as evidenced by an executive order directing the federal government to increase the rate of conversion of the federal fleet beyond that called for in EPACT. The Administration has expressed particular interest in using more compressed natural gas (CNG) as a motor fuel, which has resulted in the auto industry`s strong response of concentrating short-term efforts on CNG vehicles. For the 1994 model year, a number of CNG cars and trucks will be available from major automobile manufacturers.

Not Available

1994-06-01

118

Hydrofluoropolyethers: Another alternative to CFCs  

SciTech Connect

Fluorinated fluids are widely used because of their unique properties: They are chemically and biologically inert, nontoxic, stable, nonflammable, and miscible in most solvents. However, because many of these fluids cause ozone-depleting and global-warming effects, one must search for viable alternatives. A recent CHEMTECH article described the properties of perfluorinated ethers as alternative refrigerants. Here the authors describe hydrofluoropolyethers (HFPEs), a new family of fluoropolyethers they have synthesized, which show promise as fire-extinguishing agents and heat exchange fluids. The molecules they discuss have terminal hydrogen atoms in the difluoromethoxy groups at the end of a linear perfluorinated polyether backbone that contains only CF{sub 2}O and CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}O units. These products maintain the chemical and thermooxidative inertness of perfluorinated fluids. However, their solubility parameters are significantly modified, allowing higher compatibility with organic polar solvents. The reactivity toward radical reactions involving the terminal C{single_bond}H bonds limits the atmospheric lifetime of these molecules. Furthermore, no long-lived secondary decomposition products are formed; atmospheric decomposition results in the complete mineralization of the molecule.

Visca, M.; Silvani, R.; Marchionni, G.

1997-02-01

119

Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C1–C4 saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of

Peter S. Veloo; Ning Liu; Fokion N. Egolfopoulos

2011-01-01

120

Making a Non-animal Alternative Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is the author's decision to help a student find alternatives to performing several terminal experiments on animals in a college physiology class. Replacement exercises used for studying the properties of muscle types are described. Details about the difficulties and successes of the entire experience are reported. (KR)|

Zawistowski, Stephen

1990-01-01

121

Some Remarks on Alternating Temporal Epistemic Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternating-Time Epistemic Logic (ATEL) has been pro- posed recently for specication and verication of multi-agent systems properties in situations of incomplete information. Some minor prob- lems with ATEL semantics are characterized in this paper: an agent can 'access' the current state of the whole system when making up his strat- egy (even when he should be uncertain about the state);

Wojciech Jamroga

122

Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

123

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale,

J. Cairelli; D. Horvath

1981-01-01

124

Alternating to Direct: Rectifying Alternating Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this activity for classes learning about diodes and electrical currents. The laboratory illustrates how diodes can be used to rectify alternating current. It uses a galvanometer to determine the direction of current flow when an AC or DC current is applied to the circuit containing a diode in series with a resistor and a galvanometer.The lesson includes step by step directions for the experiment.The activity should require about 20-30 minutes of class time to complete. Discussion questions and teacher notes are included.

2012-12-03

125

Alternative fuel information sources  

SciTech Connect

This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

Not Available

1994-06-01

126

Alternatives to Source Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Source reduction means reducing waste before it's created. This can be accomplished by reducing the amount of material designed into a product, and by using recyclable alternative materials wherever possible. An area overlooked as a target for waste reduc...

R. Carstens

1990-01-01

127

Niobium Technological Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process-product matrix of Niobium is presented, through which the technological alternatives for Niobium are identified. It is shown that the three axes of Niobium application, steels, superalloys and metallic Niobium have a tendency to be economical ...

A. F. Sartori C. A. Baldan C. R. Dainesi D. G. Pinatti W. P. Longo

1981-01-01

128

Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) encompasses practices and therapeutic modalities that fall outside of the mainstream\\u000a of conventional medicine. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health\\u000a (NCCAM, NIH)(2008) identifies four domains of CAM therapies, including mind–body, touch, energy, and biological therapies\\u000a (www.nccam.nih.gov). Children with cancer use therapies from all domains; most often used

Janice Post-White; Elena Ladas

129

MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATING IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. his study was ini...

130

MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

131

Evaluating Housing Price Predictability of Alternative Hedonic Model Formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first use alternative hedonic model formulations to compare predicted and observed prices of property transactions in alternative locations. The estimation of model parameters is based on data from Western Norway, and the model formulations differ with respect to the representation of spatial structure. We discuss how measures like the distance to the cbd and a gravity based accessibility measure

Liv Osland; Inge Thorsen

2006-01-01

132

Domestic energy alternatives  

SciTech Connect

These alternatives include biomass, clean coal, geothermal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, solar and photovoltaic, and wind. With the current, volatile situation in the Middle East, this nation's political leaders appear to be left scratching their heads in their attempts to come up with new, sound, energy policies to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Therefore, the FORTNIGHTLY's editorial staff thought that this might be an opportune time to briefly examine some home-grown and environmentally responsible fuel alternatives to black gold. While some of these electricity-producing technologies are still on the horizon, others are available now.

Greenberger, L.S.; Rodgers, L.M.; Whiteaker, J.J.

1991-01-15

133

Alternative Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to the most common alternative energy sources that they may encounter in electronic work including fuel cells, solar power, and ultracapacitors. The module includes course materials covering each of these alternative energy sources along with three "Knowledge Probes" which provide an opportunity for students to master the objectives of the module. By clicking on "Learning Resources" at the top of the page, users will also find supplemental learning activities and additional resources for practice and research. The module also includes a glossary of terms and a notebook function.

2008-09-09

134

Alternatives to GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy is currently pursuing several approaches to improving the reliability of precision navigation systems, including those that would still permit precision navigation in the event that the Global Positioning System (GPS) is denied or unavailable. This paper examines two alternatives to GPS: bathymetric and celestial navigation. Bathymetric navigation, a non-deniable source of position, determines a position by correlating

F. Pappalardi; S. J. Dunham; M. E. LeBlang; T. E. Jones; J. Bangert; G. Kaplan

2001-01-01

135

Compensated pulsed alternator  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX); Driga, Mircea D. (Austin, TX); Woodson, Herbert H. (Austin, TX)

1980-01-01

136

Alternatives aux prothèses mammaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of implants is a basic technique in breast reconstruction after mastectomy, for the correction of breast abnormalities or even more in aesthetic breast augmentation. However, especially in difficult cases, implants can have inconveniences and insufficiencies (poor natural aspect, necessity of replacement, capsular contracture). To mitigate these, numerous alternatives were developed. These autologous techniques use mainly the pedicled or

E. Delay; T. Delaporte; R. Sinna

2005-01-01

137

Alternative Break Service Trips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even as educators understand how their millennial students learn in such different ways than previous generations (watching how-to videos downloaded from YouTube or engaging in experiential learning adventures), colleges still rely heavily on in-the-classroom learning. The author can't offer an alternative to this classroom format, but she…

DuPre, Carrie

2010-01-01

138

Alternatives in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper on alternatives in teacher education begins by analyzing the current emphasis on the scientific approach in education. The author finds the promise of the scientific approach to be illusory. He defines it as education that promotes behavior change in some desirable direction. However, this definition, which the author finds equally…

Clements, Millard

139

Characteristics of Alternative Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Alternative secondary schools were placed in separate groups based on patterns of organizational variables including goals, instructional features, size, sources of funding, and target school population. Distinct patterns of student perceptions of their school learning environment seem to be associated with identifiable patters of organizational…

Stevens, Marcia

1985-01-01

140

Fuel Alternatives to Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all motor vehicles today are powered by either gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The main alternative fuels include vegetable oil degradation products, alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, and electricity. Methanol and

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

141

The SOLAR Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only when the sun's energy can be captured at a comparable or lower opportunity cost than that of competing sources will solar energy systems become viable alternatives. Economic issues of solar energy are discussed. The legitimate role of government is also examined. (RM)

Warren, E. H., Jr.; Walton, A. L.

1984-01-01

142

The SOLAR Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Only when the sun's energy can be captured at a comparable or lower opportunity cost than that of competing sources will solar energy systems become viable alternatives. Economic issues of solar energy are discussed. The legitimate role of government is also examined. (RM)|

Warren, E. H., Jr.; Walton, A. L.

1984-01-01

143

Archive Storage Media Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews requirements for a data archive system and describes storage media alternatives that are currently available. Topics discussed include data storage; data distribution; hierarchical storage architecture, including inline storage, online storage, nearline storage, and offline storage; magnetic disks; optical disks; conventional magnetic…

Ranade, Sanjay

1990-01-01

144

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative

Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

2006-01-01

145

China: alternative futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

What alternatives are available to China in the next one or two decades? `More of the same' is not a likely scenario, because one-party rule is not optimal for coping with the challenges of modernization and global interdependence. A second model, Singapore's authoritarian capitalism, appeals to many CCP leaders. But Singapore's scale and way of life are so different that

Walter C Clemens Jr

1999-01-01

146

Alternative Education Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide deals with various areas of alternative education programs, including current practices and different options available to school and community personnel. Steps are outlined to assess present educational settings, design new programs, select the participants, and implement and evaluate the new program. The first appendix contains…

Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

147

A Better Alternative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mandated as an option for students who have not been successful in traditional programs, continuation education provides as alternative setting that helps students meet graduation requirements and earn their high school diplomas. Continuation high schools are quite successful in helping their students. This is due to their small size (usually…

Knoeppel, Janet

2007-01-01

148

Alternative Energy Busing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of…

LaFee, Scott

2012-01-01

149

An Alternative Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In reference to a preceding article by Bogdan, outlines an "alternative model" for the teaching of educational fieldwork to graduate students. The course described is an introduction to fieldwork based on the concept of the classroom as the most fundamental unit in contemporary educational systems. (GC)

Smith, Louis M.

1983-01-01

150

Alternatives in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper on alternatives in teacher education begins by analyzing the current emphasis on the scientific approach in education. The author finds the promise of the scientific approach to be illusory. He defines it as education that promotes behavior change in some desirable direction. However, this definition, which the author finds equally…

Clements, Millard

151

Alternative fuels for aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of energy programs to provide hydrocarbon fuels from new sources is examined. Experience in the United States with non-hydrocarbon fuels for turbine powered aircraft is analyzed. The various alternate sources of hydrocarbon fuels are defined. The use of metals and metal slurries as turbine fuels is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of liquid hydrogen as an aircraft fuel

I. I. Pinkel

1974-01-01

152

Alternative fuels for transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternatives to the oil based fuels for transportation are considered and analysed. These are the synthetic fuels, made from coal, the liquid petroleum gases of propane and butane, compressed natural gas and methanol. The problems associated with the use of electric vehicles are discussed; the main problem being that of range.The possible use of hydrogen as a fuel is

G. G. Lucas; W. L. Richards

1982-01-01

153

The alternative peace press  

Microsoft Academic Search

By now there are many progressive evaluations of the mainstream media. Among others, Michael Parenti's Inventing Reality (St. Martin's), Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky's Manufacturing Consent (Pantheon), and Ben Bagdikian's Media Monopoly (Beacon) have shown how the media convey information that largely promotes the power of the privileged. Less attention has been paid to alternative media, produced by and for

Abigail A. Fuller

1993-01-01

154

Alternative Medicine: A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reflection on the scientific behavior of adherents of conventional medicine toward one form of alternative medicine—homeopa- thy—teaches us that physicians do reject seemingly solid evidence because it is not compatible with theory. Further reflection, how- ever, shows that physicians do the same within conventional medical science: Sometimes they discard a theory because of new facts, but at other times

Jan P. Vandenbroucke; Anton J. M. de Craen

2001-01-01

155

Alternative energy sources VII  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the economic aspects of renewable energy sources. Topics considered at the conference included socio-economic factors affecting energy source development, an economic evaluation of solar thermal energy systems, energy planning and management, alternative energy in developing countries, energy conservation, environmental policy, and energy education.

Veziroglu

1985-01-01

156

Alternative energy sources III  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is based upon the 3rd Clean Energy Research Institute International Conference on Alternative Energy Sources. It provides coverage on the latest advances and developments in the scientific and technical search for energy sources with reduced health and environmental hazards. Topics covered in this book include solar energy; ocean thermal energy; wind energy; geothermal power; hydropower; nuclear breeders and

Veziroglu

1983-01-01

157

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative energy sources and technologies can play a vital role

Denis Kouroussis; Shahram Karimi

2006-01-01

158

Alternatives to Evolutionism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses alternative theories to evolutionism. Five theories are mentioned, but most attention is given to the steady state theory of species which the author considers the most suitable partner for Darwinism in O- and A-level biology courses in the United Kingdom. (HM)

Harper, G. H.

1979-01-01

159

Augmentative & Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

Murphy, Patti

2007-01-01

160

A Better Alternative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mandated as an option for students who have not been successful in traditional programs, continuation education provides as alternative setting that helps students meet graduation requirements and earn their high school diplomas. Continuation high schools are quite successful in helping their students. This is due to their small size (usually 20:1…

Knoeppel, Janet

2007-01-01

161

Thermophysical properties  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the fourth quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

Kayser, R.F.

1993-01-01

162

Thermophysical properties  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment, and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. Objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the third quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

Kayser, R.F.

1992-10-01

163

26 CFR 1.48-9 - Definition of energy property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...is alternative energy property. Synthetic...such as an oxygen plant, that...if located at the plant. However, similar...eligible alternative energy propertyâ is energy...devices as solar cells or other collectors. However, solar energy property used...

2013-04-01

164

High Level Waste (HLW) Transfer Staging Alternatives Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies potentially problematic transfers of high level waste (HLW) to the Waste Treatment Plant and assesses whether simple staging alternatives are available to resolve them. The problematic transfers are those transfers that could exceed allowable transfer-line operating pressures at the predicted critical velocity. If the actual waste properties for these transfers approach the bounding properties used in prior analysis, then there are no simple staging alternatives to resolve the problematic transfers. However, several alternatives were suggested that could work if it can be demonstrated that the actual median particle size is significantly less that the bounding value.

WILLIS, W.L.

2001-02-01

165

Representing Properties Locally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of knowledge such as feature lists, semantic networks, and localist neural nets typically use a single global symbol to represent a property that occurs in multiple concepts. Thus, a global symbol represents mane across HORSE, PONY, and LION. Alternatively, perceptual theories of knowledge, as well as distributed representational systems, assume that properties take different local forms in different concepts.

Karen Olseth Solomon; Lawrence W. Barsalou

2001-01-01

166

[Breast implant alternatives].  

PubMed

The use of implants is a basic technique in breast reconstruction after mastectomy, for the correction of breast abnormalities or even more in aesthetic breast augmentation. However, especially in difficult cases, implants can have inconveniences and insufficiencies (poor natural aspect, necessity of replacement, capsular contracture). To mitigate these, numerous alternatives were developed. These autologous techniques use mainly the pedicled or free musculocutaneous flaps, which were at first used in breast reconstruction. Their indications were then widened in surgery of breast abnormalities and in aesthetic surgery of the breast. Main alternatives, described, in the breast implants are envisaged by clarifying their advantages, inconveniences, indications and contraindications. The current place of the fat grafting in breast plastic surgery is defined by taking into account the most recent data. PMID:16169142

Delay, E; Delaporte, T; Sinna, R

2005-10-05

167

Judicial Sanctioning Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The concern in this chapter is with the various sanctioning alternatives available within juvenile justice systems. These\\u000a range from dismissal with warning, through various preadjudicatory measures, to judicial dispositions ranging from probation\\u000a to custody and parole. These judicial actions may incorporate treatment efforts. For example, individual or family counseling\\u000a are sometimes delivered as part of probation orders, and youths in

Robert D. Hoge

168

Alternatives to source reduction  

SciTech Connect

Source reduction means reducing waste before it`s created. This can be accomplished by reducing the amount of material designed into a product, and by using recyclable alternative materials wherever possible. An area overlooked as a target for waste reduction is the ordinary corrugated box. According to the Fibre Box Association, 20 million tons of corrugated were produced in 1989, about half of which was recycled.

Carstens, R.

1990-11-01

169

Alternative Energy Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website has 23 lesson plans in alternative energy developed by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The lesson plans include the following topics: the photoelectric effect, efficiency of energy conversion, the photoelectric effect in photocells, chemical consequences of burning fossil fuels, The Geology of Oil and Coal, environmental pollution, Where Do Plants Get Their Food?, considerations in heating a house, and many more valuable and useful classroom lessons.

2008-11-12

170

Alternatives to Antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens has stimulated a need to find alternatives to antimicrobials. Currently, no\\u000a single treatment is available that can eliminate the need for antimicrobials; particularly for immunocompromised individuals.\\u000a Prudent use to protocols have been called for to decrease the consumption of antimicrobials. This includes the use to antimicrobials\\u000a for individuals clinically diagnosed with bacterial infections and

Toni L. Poole; Todd R. Callaway; David J. Nisbet

171

Alternative isotope enrichment processes  

SciTech Connect

Alternative processes such as gas centrifugation, plasma separation, and laser excited separation are evaluated for use at the ORNL Stable Isotope Enrichment Facility. The applicabiliy of each process to the isotopic enrichment of the calutron feed material and to the selective production of isotopes is determined. The process energy demands are compared to those of the existing facilities. The isotopic enrichment of the feed material prior to a first-pass through the calutrons can result in a significant saving in energy.

Terry, J.W.

1983-01-01

172

Alternating current conditioner  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an alternating current conditioner. It comprises a magnetic core having a gap; a primary winding about the core; a secondary winding about the core; a magnetic shunt providing a shunt path for the primary flux and a shunt path for the secondary flux; circuit means for providing an input signal when the rechargeable battery is being charged; a counter means responsive to the input signal which increments a cycle count.

Bobry, H.H.

1992-05-26

173

MSAT an alternative choice?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of potential applications are described of MSAT that use the unique properties of this transportation mechanism. Emphasis is placed on the market introduction strategy for the North American system.

Fagan, K. E.; Elmer, C.

174

Toward alternative transportation fuels  

SciTech Connect

At some time in the future the U.S. will make a transition to alternative fuels for transportation. The motivation for this change is the decline in urban air quality and the destruction of the ozone layer. Also, there is a need for energy independence. The lack of consensus on social priorities makes it difficult to compare benefits of different fuels. Fuel suppliers and automobile manufacturers would like to settle on a single alternative fuel. The factors of energy self-sufficiency, economic efficiency, varying anti-pollution needs in different locales, and global warming indicate a need for multiple fuels. It is proposed that instead of a Federal command-and-control type of social regulation for alternative fuels for vehicles, the government should take an incentive-based approach. The main features of this market-oriented proposal would be averaging automobile emission standards, banking automobile emissions reductions, and trading automobile emission rights. Regulation of the fuel industry would allow for variations in the nature and magnitude of the pollution problems in different regions. Different fuels or fuel mixture would need to be supplied for each area. The California Clean Air Resources Board recently adopted a fuel-neutral, market-oriented regulatory program for reducing emissions. This program will show if incentive-based strategies can be extended to the nation as a whole.

Sperling, D. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1990-01-01

175

Alternative futures lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternative futures studies are a valuable yet resource-intensive way in which environmental scientists try to conduct informed debates about policies for specific geographic regions. These studies require modeling what the future would look like if different stakeholder groups had their way. The modeling is carried out by applying historical trend data to future projections that are rooted in the preferences of the different groups. Alternative future studies can be controversial due to the limitations of modeling and to the extent to which the models represent fully the different possible scenarios. Yet, they can be especially valuable for decision making about which areas in the region would be most appropriate and most acceptable for the applications of different policies such as development and restoration. Through a series of hands-on classroom activities that are the culmination of a variety of field trips, case studies, and analyses of GIS data about river systems and river restoration options, the students build deep understanding about what alternative futures studies entail and what are the applications of such studies to specific rivers in the Puget Sound area.

Zalles, Dan

176

State alternative route designations  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

Not Available

1989-07-01

177

State alternative route designations  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

Not Available

1989-07-01

178

The Market Alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water generally has been regarded as a ‘free good’, available for use by anyone with access to it. Because the water can be\\u000a used multiple times, water traditionally has been a ‘public good’, held by the community, either as common property or as\\u000a public property, although rights to make particular uses of water might be assigned to particular persons to

Joseph W. Dellapenna

179

Knot Properties of Alternating Sliding Knots with Different Patterns in Comparison to Alternating and Simple Sliding Knots 1 1 This work is done in the Biomedical Engineering Institute in collaboration with the Polymer Research Center at Bo?aziçi University. It is supported by the Bo?aziçi University Research fund under project no. 95HX0009. Surgical sutures were provided by Do?san Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to compare the alternating sliding knots with different patterns with the alternating and simple sliding knots. Silk and nylon sutures of 2–0 and 4–0 United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sizes were mechanically tested. The values of knot holding capacities (KHCs) varied depending on knot configuration, suture material, and size. The parallel alternating knot with different patterns showed a

Zeina Babetty; Aykut Sümer; Sabri Alt?nta?

1998-01-01

180

Transportation alternatives 92: Alternative fueled vehicles, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transportation Alternatives 92 (alternative fueled vehicles) was held October 8-9, 1992 at the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources, Boston, MA. The relevant papers have been entered individually.

181

The effects of nickel-pigmented aluminium oxide selective coating over aluminium alloy on the optical properties and thermal efficiency of the selective absorber prepared by alternate and reverse periodic plating technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffused reflectance measurements and Kubelka–Munk values were studied. The effects of the alumina layer and the nickel content on the optical properties of the selective absorber were discussed. In general and with respect to aluminium alloy substrate, the diffused reflectance decreased by 85.25–91.42% (±0.01%). The emissivity increased by a factor of 252.50–624.50 (±0.01). The average absorptivity increased by a factor

A. Wazwaz; J. Salmi; R. Bes

2010-01-01

182

Alternatives to Seesaw  

SciTech Connect

The seesaw mechanism is attractive not only because it"explains'' small neutrino mass, but also because of its packaging with the SUSY-GUT, leptogenesis, Dark Matter, and electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this package has the flavor, CP, and gravitino problems. I discuss two alternatives to the seesaw mechanism. In one of them, the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking solves these problems, while predicts naturally light Dirac neutrinos. In the other, the light Majorana neutrinos arise from supersymmetry breaking with right-handed neutrinos below TeV, and the Dark Matter and collider phenomenology are significantly different.

Murayama, Hitoshi

2004-10-10

183

Alternative transportation fuels  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the 1970s and the 1980s, energy policy has been a hotly debated topic. Governments around the world have struggled to respond to a changing energy market. Yet the policy-making process is all too often distorted by self-interest groups who are informed by narrow, technical research. The question addressed by this volume is one of the most timely and critical of the energy-related questions: How much longer can we rely on petroleum as a transportation fuel This book offers a broad exploration of alternative fuels.

Sperling, D. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States))

1989-01-01

184

Potential alternate life biochemistries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

Konesky, Gregory

2013-09-01

185

Polyphase alternating codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p 1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p 1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

Markkanen, M.; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

2008-08-01

186

Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment & Care > Medication > Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines Listen Today, more and ... adapted from The American Diabetes Association Guide to Herbs & Nutritional Supplements , written by Laura Shane-McWhorter, PharmD, ...

187

Alternative Medical Systems in Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... training CAM researchers, and disseminating authoritative information. Alternative Medical Systems in Cancer Information about the use of ... intervention, and other criteria. General Information on Alternative Medical Systems In addition to cancer-related information on ...

188

Energy Alternatives and the Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers energy alternatives to the proposed action in the Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2002-2007 (5-Year Program). The Minerals Management Service (MMS) is concerned with energy alternatives for three major reasons: Th...

W. E. King

2001-01-01

189

Energy Alternatives and the Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers energy alternatives to the proposed action in the Proposed Final Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2007-2012 (Proposed Final Program). The Minerals Management Service (MMS) is concerned with energy alternatives for ...

W. E. King

2007-01-01

190

Assessing alternative drug control regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate over alternative regimes for currently illicit psychoactive substances focuses on polar alternatives: harsh prohibition and sweeping legalization. This study presents an array of alternatives that lies between these extremes. The current debate lacks an explicit and inclusive framework for making comparative judgments. In this study, we sketch out such a framework, as a reminder of possible policy levers

Robert MacCoun; Peter Reuter; Thomas Schelling

1996-01-01

191

Orthogonal-polarization alternating codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that by using orthogonal polarizations for alternating bauds of an alternating code, improvements are available both in cycle length, by means of using weak condition alternating codes, and in code performance through a reduction of autocorrelation function estimate variances by a factor of 4. This means an increase in the speed of incoherent scatter radar experiments by the same factor of 4.

Gustavsson, B.; Grydeland, T.

2009-12-01

192

Deployable antennae design alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

To have a large spectrum of design and decision criteria, some RF configurations of microwave reflector antennas which seem to achieve the best RF properties, especially in a deployable configuration, are considered. Antenna concepts suitable for the 12 GHz range (high surface accuracy, low weight, and high stiffness) were considered. An RF configuration with about 3m diameter and 12 GHz

E. Frisch; L. Heichele; W. Nagl; H. Popp; W. Schaefer

1975-01-01

193

Synthesis, structure, and properties of tetragonal Sr2M3As2O2 ( M3=Mn3 , Mn2Cu , and MnZn2 ) compounds containing alternating CuO2 -type and FeAs-type layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline samples of Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2 , Sr2Mn3As2O2 , and Sr2Zn2MnAs2O2 were synthesized. Their temperature- and applied magnetic field-dependent structural, transport, thermal, and magnetic properties were characterized by means of x-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical resistivity rho , heat capacity, magnetization, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. These compounds have a body-centered-tetragonal crystal structure (space group I4\\/mmm ) that consists of MO2 ( M=Zn

R. Nath; Vasile O Garlea; Alan Goldman; david C Johnston

2010-01-01

194

BIO: an alternative to RIO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RED (Random Early Detection) is the most popular active queue management algorithm, although it has some weaknesses. Recently, another active queue management algorithm, BLUE, was proposed and shown that it is more successful in controlling the queue length when high number of flows are active on ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) capable networks. In this paper, RED and BLUE algorithms are evaluated for different levels of RTTs, with/without ECN support. It is shown that BLUE on ECN incapable networks is not as successful as on ECN capable networks. Differentiated Services architecture suggests that RIO (Red with In and Out) style queue management algorithms are to be used on each AF (Assured Forwarding) queue to offer different levels of services for different priorities at each AF class. Inspired of BLUE's success over RED on ECN capable networks, we developed a simple alternative to RIO, BIO (BLUE with In and Out). BIO, which runs two different BLUE algorithms for in and out packets, was expected to achieve lower loss rates while maximizing link utilization for high number of active flows on AF queues. However, due to the self-configuring architecture of the algorithm, it is observed that BIO marks packets too aggressively and degrades utilization. In this paper, the properties of BIO are also explained and the results obtained are justified.

Okuroglu, Bahri; Oktug, Sema

2001-07-01

195

Experimental performance of ozone-safe alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

Several compounds proposed as near-term or longer range substitutes for the regulated chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants were tested in a breadboard vapor-compression circuit, and their performance was evaluated relative to more commonly used refrigerants. The limited physical property information available in the literature for these alternative compounds was used to fit an equation of state so coefficients of performance (COP) and capacities calculated from refrigerant property subroutines could be compared to those obtained experimentally. Comparisons of measured and modeled performance are given for 11 alternatives and for R22, R12, ad R11 Estimates of compressor efficiency with each refrigerant are provided. Several of the alternatives exhibited better performance than the more widely used refrigerants at some or all of the conditions tested. Ozone-safe, alternative refrigerants that performed better than CFC counterparts-at selected conditions are R152a, R143a, R134a, and R142b.

Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Nowak, R.J. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (US))

1990-01-01

196

Exploring new energy alternatives.  

SciTech Connect

What is most likely to satisfy our energy needs in the future - wind farms and photovoltaic arrays, or something yet to be invented? Options for the world's energy future may include surprises, thanks to innovative research under way around the world. The article focuses on the energy sources alternatives in the U.S. It explores innovations for energy sources such as wind farms, solar thermal concentrators, solar cells, and geothermal energy production. It states that the attainment of energy efficiency through conversation or improved technology allows to extract more applied energy. It points out that techniques are being explored to expand the possible fuel materials to includes other types of uranium and thorium. Furthermore, it discusses the capability of nanotechnology in offering a tool which could help create designs that convert energy more efficiently.

LePoire, D.J. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-09-01

197

Alternatives to gold.  

PubMed

Despite, or perhaps because of, its antiquity the lost wax casting process which we use in dentistry still produces the most accurate and durable restorations in our armamentarium. Although high-gold content alloys still act as the benchmark of quality, fit, and durability in the aggressive conditions of the mouth, their inherent cost, high density and low modulus have stimulated a search for alternatives. This has ranged widely through the metallurgical world and across the periodic table of the elements. As a result dental alloys for casting into inlays, crowns and bridges (with or without facings of dental porcelain) have become incredibly complex. This article will explain some of the reasons behind the developments. PMID:1291381

Brown, D; Curtis, R V

1992-10-01

198

Alternative energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

Todd, R. W.

1982-04-01

199

Neuronal Signaling through Alternative Splicing: Some Exons CaRRE...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternative splicing represents a mechanism by which a single gene can be used to create proteins with different functions. Neurons use alternative splicing to produce channels with different sequences and biophysical or regulatory properties. O'Donovan and Darnell discuss a mechanism by which neurons can alter channel splicing in response to neuronal activity through a signal generated by calcium and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase activity.

Kevin J. O'Donovan (The Rockefeller University;Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV); Robert B. Darnell (The Rockefeller University;Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV)

2001-08-07

200

Synthesis, structure, and properties of tetragonal Sr_{2}M_{3}As_{2}O_{2} (M_{3}=Mn_{3}, Mn_{2}Cu, and MnZn_{2}) compounds containing alternating CuO_{2}-type and FeAs-type layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline samples of Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2, Sr2Mn3As2O2, and Sr2Zn2MnAs2O2 were\\u000asynthesized. Their temperature- and applied magnetic field-dependent\\u000astructural, transport, thermal, and magnetic properties were characterized by\\u000ameans of x-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical resistivity rho, heat\\u000acapacity, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements. These\\u000acompounds have a body-centered-tetragonal crystal structure (space group\\u000aI4\\/mmm) that consists of MO2 (M = Zn and\\/or Mn) oxide

R. Nath; V. O. Garlea; A. I. Goldman; D. C. Johnston

2010-01-01

201

Alternative splicing in angiogenesis: the vascular endothelial growth factor paradigm.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing, first discovered in the 1970s, has emerged as one of the key generators of proteomic diversity. Not surprisingly, alternative splicing is increasingly linked to the etiology of cancer. This is illustrated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the dominant angiogenic factor. Recently, an antiangiogenic family of VEGF isoforms was discovered, and termed VEGF(xxx)b. VEGF(xxx)b isoforms arise from an alternative 3' splice site in exon 8, and differ by a mere six amino acids at the C-terminus. These alternative six amino acids radically change the functional properties of VEGF. VEGF(xxx)b isoform expression is regulated in human tissues and development, and disregulated in many pathological states including cancer. Understanding what regulates VEGF(xxx)b alternative splicing, and therefore the balance of pro- and antiangiogenic isoforms is of great importance and will be explored in detail over the next few years. PMID:17027147

Ladomery, Michael R; Harper, Steven J; Bates, David O

2006-10-05

202

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood.  

PubMed

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a very rare disease characterized by recurrent attacks of loss of muscular tone resulting in hypomobility of one side of the body. The etiology of the disease due to ATP1A3 gene mutations in the majority of patients. Few familial cases have been described. AHC has an onset in the first few months of life. Hemiplegic episodes are often accompanied by other paroxysmal manifestations, such as lateral eyes and head deviation toward the hemiplegic side and a very peculiar monocular nystagmus. As the attack progresses, hemiplegia can shift to the other side of the body. Sometimes the attack can provoke bilateral paralysis, and these patients may have severe clinical impairment, with difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Hemiplegic attacks may be triggered by different stimuli, like bath in warm water, motor activity, or emotion. The frequency of attacks is high, usually several in a month or in a week. The duration is variable from a few minutes to several hours or even days. Sleep can stop the attack. Movement disorders such as dystonia and abnormal movements are frequent. Cognitive delay of variable degree is a common feature. Epilepsy has been reported in 50% of the cases, but seizure onset is usually during the third or fourth year of life. Many drugs have been used in AHC with very few results. Flunarizine has the most supportive anecdotal evidence regarding efficacy. PMID:23622289

Kansagra, Sujay; Mikati, Mohamad A; Vigevano, Federico

2013-01-01

203

Alternative Theories of Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates alternative theories of gravity, the solutions to their field equations and the constraints that can be imposed upon them from observation and experiment. Specifically, we consider the cosmologies and spherically symmetric solutions that can be expected to result from scalar-tensor and fourth-order theories of gravity. We find exact cosmological solutions of various different kinds; isotropic and anisotropic, homogeneous and inhomogeneous. These solutions are used to investigate the behaviour of the Universes at both late and early times, to investigate the effects of corrections to general relativity on approach to an initial singularity and to look for effects which may be observable in the present day Universe. We use physical processes, such as the primordial nucleosynthesis of the light elements, to impose constraints upon any deviations from the standard model. Furthermore, we investigate the vacuum spherically symmetric solutions of these theories. This environment is of particular interest for considerations of the local effects of gravity, where the most accurate experiments and observations of gravitational phenomena can be performed. Exact solutions are obtained for this situation and their stability analysed. It is found that a variety of new behaviour is obtainable in these theories that was not previously possible in the standard model. This new behaviour allows us an extended framework in which to consider gravitational physics, and its cosmological consequences.

Clifton, T.

2006-10-01

204

Diesel Engine Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

Ryan, T

2003-08-24

205

Pattern avoiding doubly alternating permutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study pattern avoiding doubly alternating (DA) permutations, i.e., alternating (or zigzag) permutations whose inverse is also alternating. We exhibit a bijection between the 1234-avoiding permuta- tions and the 1234-avoiding DA permutations of twice the size using the Robinson-Schensted correspondence. Further, we present a bijection between the 1234- and 2134-avoiding DA permutations and we prove that the 2413-avoiding DA permutations

Erik Ouchterlony

206

Choice coordination with multiple alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Choice Coordination Problem with κ alternatives (κ-CCP) was introduced by Rabin in 1982. The goal is to design a wait-free protocol for n asynchronous processes which causes all correct processes to agree on one out of κ possible alternatives. Each of the κ alternatives has an associated shared register and a solution to the κ-CCP requires that a special

D. S. Greenberg; G. Taubenfeld; D. W. Wang

1992-01-01

207

Alternative Certification: Aspirations and Realities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the number of alternative programs is ever increasing, shortages in the number of qualified science teachers continue. These programs have not solved the teacher shortage problem alone, but they should not bear full responsibility. Numerous societal and financial reasons make teaching a less desirable profession. The more contentious issue is whether alternative programs prepare qualified teachers or, in terms of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), "highly qualified" teachers. Initially, the authors believed that alternative programs did not produce competent teachers when they started their review. However, the limited research appears to indicate otherwise. This chapter discusses the aspirations and realities of alternative certification.

Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.

2006-01-01

208

Alternative weighting material  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Inc.'s experiences with mined iron oxide used as an alternative weighting material for barite are presented. This paper discusses laboratory studies made before field application of this product. Also included are test results of a SWACO choke assembly to simulate field conditions. Some abrasion appears to occur in the highvelocity fluid regimes. This is particularly true in smallhole drilling and where small liners are used in pumps. It is possible that changes in hydraulic programs will alleviate this situation. The effect of high-density muds containing iron compounds on bit wear is, at best, questionable. While there are indications of severe bit wear, there are also times when long bit runs are made with no problems. Centrifugal-pump wear is a problem. The iron materials seem to intrude between the bearings and shaft. No excessive wear of impellers has been seen. These problems can be controlled by keeping discharge pressures as low as possible. There have been no problems with chokes and valves during circulation. It appears that electric motors and magnetic probes should be protected. There have been indications of some problem. A dust catcher on bins could alleviate this problem. Pipe makeup must be watched very closely, and pipe threads must be thoroughly cleaned to ensure makeup to prevent washouts from occurring. There seems to be a problem with mined iron oxide wetting once added to the mud. It appears that up to 48 hours may be required depending on the amount added. The materials do stain. Iron-base materials may be used successfully as a substitute for barite. Just how successful they can be will be determined only with time and numerous applications.

Walker, C.O.

1983-12-01

209

Environment and alternative development  

SciTech Connect

This global review stresses the present-day human predicament, marked by the inequity of simultaneous material abundance and overdevelopment in some regions or sections and underdevelopment, increasing poverty, and deprivation in some others. It seeks to examine the dynamics of a global structure that forces a continual flow of resources away from non-industrialized into industrialized countries, and from a steady and sustainable to an accelerating use and rapacious use of resources in the service of a wasteful life-style that is now spreading to the developing countries. The science and technology that sets this process in motion and sustains it leads to the domination of man by machine, blights the life chances of future generations, and posits development and environment in an adversary relationship. The paper examines the philosophical, historical, cultural and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology and points to the urgent need for rediscovering the other traditions that take an integrated and holistic view of life as a whole, in which science and technology and development and environment all merge in a symbiotic relationship. This entails the search for an alternative concept of both development and technology as well as of life-styles, so as to ensure diversity in consonance with local resource endowments (human, material and technical), foster self-reliance and autonomy, and promote equity and participation, not only in economic and political processes, but also in giving meaning and content to human dignity at various levels. At the end, the paper spells out the policy implications of such an approach.

Kothari, R.

1980-01-01

210

Alternative Astronomical Software Packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a time when the United Nations, in collaboration with Wolfram Research, has selected the Mathematica software package to inform developing countries about available scientific tools, it is important to review other choices of software being used by active scientists around the world. For observational astronomers with large volumes of digital data to be analyzed, the main challenges are data reductions, image handling, model comparisons, interactive fits, data simulations and visualizations, etc. There are several good alternative software packages such as: AIPS, IRAF, MIDAS and IDL The first three packages can be obtained free of charge by contacting the sponsoring institutions. Information can be obtained, via the World Wide Web, from the URLs indicated in the footnotes. IDL is a commercial package that can be used in all kinds of computer platforms and is extensively used in space astronomy (e.g., main language of software reduction packages of missions like IUE, HST, ROSAT, SOHO, etc). All of these packages are able to handle some of the most common commercial and scientific data formats (FITS, CDF and HDF). These software packages provide general tools for image processing and data reduction with emphasis on, but not limited to, astronomical applications. All of these packages have good active customer support strategies, the most useful ones being periodic newsletters, related meetings (e.g., annual meeting on Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems), software user groups, bulletin board discussions, FAQs, etc. The purpose of this paper is to present the relative usefulness, available platforms, associated libraries, related resources, of these software packages and the many already existing and potential astronomical applications.

Pérez, M. R.

1997-05-01

211

Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

Rubin, David

1998-01-01

212

Alternative Funerals: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied attitudes and beliefs related to death and funeral preferences in a small midwestern Protestant congregation. While most respondents felt a ceremony or funeral was important, 75 percent preferred an alternative to the conventional funeral. Alternatives considered building a simple coffin with private burial and later public ceremony.…

Bergen, M. Betsy; Williams, Robert R.

1981-01-01

213

Alternative transportation fuels and vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This book is a collection of papers presented at the American Solar Energy Society Issues Roundtable on alternative transportation fuels and vehicles, April 28, 1992. The topics of the papers include new government programs and legislation, the state-of-the-art of alternative fuels and vehicles, response to legislation and trends, and future direction of the automobile industry.

Not Available

1992-01-01

214

Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

Rubin, David

1998-01-01

215

Children's Understanding of Counterfactual Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how children integrate information about counterfactual alternatives in making judgments. Previous research in adults had shown that they make judgments on the basis of comparisons between factual events and counterfactual alternatives. We suggest that children adopt a summative strategy instead, where they focus on the presented outcomes, both real and counterfactual, and base their judgments on the

Rachel McCloy; Paul Strange

216

Alternative Financing Methods for College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how changes in government policies have caused college students to seek alternative ways to finance college. Explores strategies used by students to pay for college, and the impact work has on their success. Looks at some alternative ways to pay for college, such as employee supported educational programs, savings incentives, and the…

DeBard, Robert

2000-01-01

217

Alternative Health and Spiritual Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many alternative health practices have their origins in spiritual traditions and practices. Through the research and clinical uses of meditation, biofeedback, prayer, imagery, music, relaxation, therapeutic touch, yoga, and other methods, the alternative health practitioner is discovering which practices actually alleviate human suffering and promote healing. In doing so, the practitioner is participating in a sociocultural event with as yet

Richard Schaub

1995-01-01

218

Another look at alternative fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Alcohol fuels have disadvantages with regard to handling, water absorption, corrosion, lubrication, and toxicity. Gaseous fuels such as methane, hydrogen, producer gas, and liquefied forms have handling and volumetric problems. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is only an alternative if derived from gas fields, not from crude oil fields. Rather than modifying

Thring

1984-01-01

219

Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties. A second objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication methods for these materials whereby they can be processed in air into SOFC's. The approach is to: (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFC's; (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions; (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties; (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte; and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions. This paper summarizes a comprehensive study that assessed the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on the stability of air-sinterable chromites and the sintering behavior of doped lanthanum manganites.

Stevenson, J. W.; Armstrong, T. R.

1994-08-01

220

Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties. A second objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication methods for these materials whereby they can be processed in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions. This paper summarizes a comprehensive study that assessed the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on the stability of air-sinterable chromites and the sintering behavior of doped lanthanum manganites.

Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.

1994-08-01

221

ALTERNATE VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND WALL OF INDIGENOUS VOLCANIC RYOLITE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ALTERNATE VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND WALL OF INDIGENOUS VOLCANIC RYOLITE EASTSIDE OF PIEDMONT AVENUE ADJACENT TO OAK GROVE AND CALIFORNIA MEMORIAL STADIUM. LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, June 29, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

222

Saturated Liquid Viscosity and Surface Tension of Alternative Refrigerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light scattering by thermally excited capillary waves on liquid surfaces or interfaces can be used for the investigation of viscoelastic properties of fluids. In this work, we carried out the simultaneous determination of the surface tension and the liquid kinematic viscosity of some alternative refrigerants by surface light scattering (SLS) on a gas–liquid interface. The experiments are based on a

A. P. Fröba; S. Will; A. Leipertz

2000-01-01

223

Experimental performance of ozone-safe alternative refrigerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several compounds proposed as near-term or longer range substitutes for the regulated chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants were tested in a breadboard vapor-compression circuit, and their performance was evaluated relative to more commonly used refrigerants. The limited physical property information available in the literature for these alternative compounds was used to fit an equation of state so coefficients of performance (COP) and

J. R. Sand; E. A. Vineyard; R. J. Nowak

1990-01-01

224

Semianalytical analysis of hyporheic flow induced by alternate bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effects of alternate bar morphology on the hyporheic flow in gravel bed rivers. Our goal is to investigate the relations between residence time distribution of a conservative tracer and the parameters controlling bed form morphology. We assume homogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic hydraulic properties of the streambed sediment and constant flow regime in equilibrium with the bed form,

A. Marzadri; D. Tonina; A. Bellin; G. Vignoli; M. Tubino

2010-01-01

225

Alternative sewerage solution: Condominial method and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the fundamental of the theory of condominial sewer design is discussed through a readily available computer program and the theory is used to bring out the effect of pipe diameter and sewer gradient on design calculations through alternative solutions. It is proved that the roughness of the pipe is effective on the size, lifetime, and cost-saving property

Umut Türker

2011-01-01

226

Stability of dehydrofrozen tomatoes pretreated with alternative osmotic solutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of frozen tomato can significantly be improved by means of osmotic dehydration as a prefreezing treatment. The objective of this work was to study the effect of osmotic pretreatment with alternative osmotic solutes—glucose, a high DE maltodextrin (HDEM), oligofructose and trehalose—on the quality and functional properties of frozen tomato tissue. Colour, vitamin C content and texture characteristics of pretreated

E. K. Dermesonlouoglou; M. C. Giannakourou; P. Taoukis

2007-01-01

227

NEW CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVES FOR THE PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study that focused on the investigation of fluorinated derivatives of propane and butane to determine if synthesis routes of such compounds were feasible and economical and to measure the physical properties needed to evaluate the compounds as altern...

228

Alternative Jet Engine Fuels. Volume II. Main Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Propulsion and Energetics Panel set up Working Group 13 on Alternative Jet Engine Fuels in 1978 to investigate possible properties of future civil and military aviation fuels and their effects on existing and new jet engines. This report discusses the...

R. B. Whyte R. S. Colladay W. G. Dukek J. S. Grobman J. Odgers

1982-01-01

229

Limited Liability Company--An Alternative Business Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited Liability Companies is a new business organization that · combines the taxation of a partnership with the limited liability of a corporation; · can facilitate the transfer of property ownership from one organization to another; · offers an alternative for businesses involved in environmentally sensitive activities; · must meet the same requirements as North Dakota farm corporations if the

Tracy L. Kolb; Jon E. Strinden; David M. Saxowsky

1994-01-01

230

Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene  

SciTech Connect

In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

2008-11-07

231

FUEL PROPERTIES OF BIODIESEL COMPONENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel obtained by transesterifying vegetable oils or animal fats, is a mixture of alkyl esters of fatty acids. The physical and fuel properties of the individual alkyl esters are determined by both the fatty acid and alcohol moieties of the esters. Such properties h...

232

Alternatives in Environmental Health Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role environmental health should play in management of the environment is examined. Four major environmental health administration models presently available and possible alternatives are presented. A basic set of environmental health principles is included. (BT)|

El-Ahraf, Amer; Hanson, Donald

1975-01-01

233

Peat as an energy alternative  

SciTech Connect

The importance of developing alternative energy sources to augment supplies of fossil fuels is growing all over the world. Coal, oil shale, tar sands, biomass, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power have received considerable attention as alternative energy sources. One large energy resource, however, has received little attention until recently. That resource is peat. Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries including the United States. This paper provides an understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization.

Punwani, D.V.

1980-07-01

234

The Generation of Alternate Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Terry L.M. Bartelt of Wisconsin Online Resource Center is a learning object lesson of the generation of alternate current. This is a nice brief introduction for those interested in basic electronic theories.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2010-09-24

235

Alternate Nozzle Ablative Materials Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10...

N. A. Kimmel

1984-01-01

236

Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar propert...

A. Bhargava A. J. Beyersdorf B. Lee B. E. Anderson C. Wey C. H. Hudgins D. Bulzan D. Hagen E. Corporan E. Woods E. L. Winstead G. Santoni J. V. Plant K. Tacina K. L. Thornhill L. D. Ziemba M. Timko P. Lobo P. Whitefield R. Howard R. VanderWal R. C. Miake-Lye S. C. Herndon W. Dodds W. B. Knighton

2011-01-01

237

Alternative Futures and Environmental Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book is divided into two parts. Part One, Challenges of Alternative Futures, reviews the environmental and population issues, presents a recent systems method of analyzing the problems of growth and summarizes the international implications of growth...

P. Barth M. Bowen J. Calhoun A. Christakis C. Cooper

1973-01-01

238

Alternative splicing and muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is a major contributor to proteomic diversity and to the control of gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells. For this reasons, alternative splicing is tightly regulated in different tissues and developmental stages and its disruption can lead to a wide range of human disorders. The aim of this review is to focus on the relevance of alternative splicing for muscle function and muscle disease. We begin by giving a brief overview of alternative splicing, muscle-specific gene expression and muscular dystrophy. Next, to illustrate these concepts we focus on two muscular dystrophy, myotonic muscular dystrophy and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, both associated to disruption of splicing regulation in muscle.

Pistoni, Mariaelena; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide

2013-01-01

239

Alternative Scenarios Utilizing Nonterrestrial Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever ...

C. H. Eldred B. B. Roberts

1992-01-01

240

Alternative cover design. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investiga...

1988-01-01

241

SAGE--SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE does not recommend any ozone depleting chemicals. SAGE was developed by the Surface Cleaning Program at Research Triang...

242

Hematologic Complications of Alternative Remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alternative therapies increased dramatically over the last decade with a wide variety of methods and interventions.\\u000a Dietary supplements are a very common form of alternative therapy used by healthy people as well as patients with serious\\u000a health problems.The use of these untested, unregulated therapies may carry inherent risks. Hematologic complications are known\\u000a side effects of these remedies

Abdul Rahman Jazieh; Maisaa Khalil

2001-01-01

243

Citrus Canker: Alternatives for Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do you do when county officials show up to cut down the orange trees in your backyard? What causes citrus canker and how is it spread? This plant pathogen was the first microbe to have its genome sequenced outside of the US. There is much to investigate before deciding on the best alternative for control. * examine international alternatives for the control of citrus canker

Linda Weinland (Edison College;Biology); Peter Woodruff (Champlain College;Biology); Margaret Waterman (Southeast Missouri State University;Biology); Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

244

Industry experience with alternative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'ORÉAL has been using alternative methods for almost 30 years and this has led to their current widespread in-house use for evaluation of local effects in safety and efficacy. Alternative methods are used daily to assess eye and skin tolerance, phototoxicity, photoprotection, skin sensitization, percutaneous absorption and skin and hair care. For eye irritation, many years of in-house studies have

Jacques LeClaire; Odile de Silva

1998-01-01

245

Alternative Fuel School Bus Information Resources  

SciTech Connect

This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of important resources for learning more about alternative fuels in school buses. It includes information regarding Alternative Fuel School Bus Manufacturers, Alternative Fuel HD Engine Manufacturers, Alternative Fuel School Bus Operators, and Key Web Resources for Alternative Fuels.

Not Available

2004-04-01

246

Community assembly: alternative stable states or alternative transient states?  

PubMed Central

The concept of alternative stable states has long been a dominant framework for studying the influence of historical contingency in community assembly. This concept focuses on stable states, yet many real communities are kept in a transient state by disturbance, and the utility of predictions for stable states in explaining transient states remains unclear. Using a simple model of plant community assembly, we show that the conditions under which historical contingency affects community assembly can differ greatly for stable versus transient states. Differences arise because the contribution of such factors as mortality rate, environmental heterogeneity and plant-soil feedback to historical contingency changes as community assembly proceeds. We also show that transient states can last for a long time relative to immigration rate and generation time. These results argue for a conceptual shift of focus from alternative stable states to alternative transient states for understanding historical contingency in community assembly.

Fukami, Tadashi; Nakajima, Mifuyu

2011-01-01

247

Novel Alternative Scaffolds and Their Potential Use for Tumor Targeted Radionuclide Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The class of macromolecules referred to as “Alternative Scaffolds” is reviewed in this chapter. A general introduction to\\u000a alternative scaffolds is presented, and groups of alternative scaffolds are described according to structural folds. The properties\\u000a of these biomolecules as molecular recognition tools are presented, scaffolds of special interest for targeted radionuclide\\u000a therapy are highlighted and tumor targeting data is discussed.

Fredrik Y. Frejd

248

Investigation of Alternative Methods Including Jackknifing for Estimating Point Availability of a System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Properties of two alternative procedures to the Jackknife Point and Confidence Interval Estimation Procedure of Gaver and Chu have been studied. They are called the Log-Normal Likelihood Procedure (LNLJ) and the Moment Procedure (MP). These two procedures...

B. Aba

1981-01-01

249

Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 13 on Alternative Jet Engine Fuels. Volume 2. Main Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Effects of Projected Fuels on Engines and Fuel Systems; Supply/Demand Framework for Alternative Fuels; The Effects of Fuel Property Variations on Jet Aircraft Engines and Fuel Systems; Combustor Heat Transfer and Exhaust Pollutants; Combustor Sp...

R. B. Whyte R. S. Colladay W. G. Dukek J. S. Grobman J. Odgers

1982-01-01

250

Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 6, No. 4  

SciTech Connect

Quarterly magazine with articles on Alternate Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) in India, alternative fuels for emergency preparedness, and testing of propane vehicles by UPS. Also an interview of author Jeremy Rifkin on how alternative fuels provide pathways to hydrogen.

Not Available

2003-03-01

251

Ear Infection Treatment: Do Alternative Therapies Work?  

MedlinePLUS

... use only. Ear infection treatment: Do alternative therapies work? By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... Sign up Ear infection treatment: Do alternative therapies work? Alternative ear infection treatments aren't generally recommended ...

252

60 FR 42213 - Alternate Designs for Bridges  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Highway Administration Alternate Designs for Bridges AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration...policy on the development of alternate designs for major bridges to be constructed with...best interest to require alternate bridge designs. DATES: This policy is effective...

1995-08-15

253

Fracture toughness and impact properties of laminated metal composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminated metal composites consist of alternating metal (or metal matrix composite) layers bonded together. These materials can provide fracture toughness and impact properties superior to those of the component materials. These properties are a function of component material properties, laminate architecture (volume fraction, thickness) and interface properties. Properties are compared for seven lightweight materials.

D. R. Lesuer; R. A. Riddle; R. P. Gogolewski; C. K. Syn; B. J. Cunningham

1996-01-01

254

Fracture toughness and impact properties of laminated metal composites  

SciTech Connect

Laminated metal composites consist of alternating metal (or metal matrix composite) layers bonded together. These materials can provide fracture toughness and impact properties superior to those of the component materials. These properties are a function of component material properties, laminate architecture (volume fraction, thickness) and interface properties. Properties are compared for seven lightweight materials.

Lesuer, D.R.; Riddle, R.A.; Gogolewski, R.P.; Syn, C.K.; Cunningham, B.J.

1996-03-04

255

Creep and shrinkage behavior of improved alternate substrates for magnetic tapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term creep deformation and shrinkage characteristics of improved alternate substrates for magnetic tapes are presented. The substrates include two polyesters (PET and PEN) and aromatic polyamide (ARAMID). PET film is currently the standard substrate used for magnetic tapes and thinner tensilized-type PET, PEN and ARAMID have recently been used as alternate substrates with improved material properties. The thickness of

Takuji Higashioji; Bharat Bhushan

2001-01-01

256

The Alternative Fuels Data Center  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) became Public Law 100-494. The AMFA encourages the production and use of motor vehicles designed to operate on alternative fuels. The alternative fuels specified in the law are methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. The Department of Energy (DOE), along with several other federal, state, and local agencies, has undertaken numerous activities aimed at fulfilling the AMFA directives. Among these activities is the establishment of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC), operated and managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in Golden Colorado. The AMFA targets activities for three vehicle types using alternative fuels: (1) light-duty vehicles such as automobiles, mini-vans, and light-duty; (2) heavy-duty vehicles such as tractor trailers and garbage trucks; and (3) urban transit buses. The primary purpose of the AFDC is to gather and analyze information on the fuel consumption, emissions, operation, and durability of these vehicles types. The AFDC staff work with an Oracle Relational Database Management System and statistical software to provide information to users.

Not Available

1991-08-01

257

43 CFR 46.450 - Identifying the environmentally preferable alternative(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identifying the environmentally preferable alternative(s). 46.450 Section 46...Impact Statements § 46.450 Identifying the environmentally preferable alternative(s). In accordance...

2010-10-01

258

43 CFR 46.450 - Identifying the environmentally preferable alternative(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Identifying the environmentally preferable alternative(s). 46.450 Section 46...Impact Statements § 46.450 Identifying the environmentally preferable alternative(s). In accordance...

2009-10-01

259

Alternative Life Styles for Extraterrestrial Chemists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life is no more (and no less) than a special type of organic chemistry, one that combines a frequently encountered property of organic molecules (the ability to undergo spontaneous chemical transformation) with an uncommon property (the ability to direct the synthesis of self-copies) in a way that allows new molecular features arising through spontaneous transformation to themselves be copied. Any chemical system having this combination will undergo natural selection, evolving in structure to replicate faster through more efficient use of molecular resources and energy. Axiomatically, life cannot exist in an environment at thermodynamic equilibrium. If it were, by the second law of thermodynamics, no net chemical transformation would be possible. Beyond this constraint, it is difficult to define environmental conditions or chemical structures necessary for life. Water is certainly not required for a chemical system to copy itself; in the laboratory, non-aqueous environments appear to support this behavior better. Chemical transformations that might support energy and chemical metabolisms are known in environments as acidic as the aerosols in the atmosphere of Venus, or as basic as the atmosphere of Jupiter. Laboratory experiments with analogs of the nucleic acids, proteins, sugars, and lipids show that the particular molecular structures found in terrean life need not be universal, even those life in water near neutral pH. Indeed, while both water and biological macromolecules are commonly regarded as essential for terrean-like life, water destroys terrean biological macromolecules. These chemical realities create a complex decision environment as NASA attempts to design instrumentation carried by missions, select places in the solar system to send them, and chose laboratory studies on Earth to provide their scientific support. This talk will review a hierarchy of chemical possibilities and constraints that start with the chemistry of terrean life, and takes steps towards weird life. We shall consider alternative amino acid building blocks for proteins, alternative building blocks for nucleic acids, alternative structural features of genetic and catalytic molecules, alternative nucleophile-electrophile pairs to support metabolism, non-polar reaction modes that might support metabolism, non-terrean pH (< 0, > 14) and solvent environments for life, extreme temperature ranges (especially sub zero Celsius) low temperature ranges, alternative thermodynamic design for metabolic pathways, alternative dimensionalities of genetic and catalytic molecules, and approaches for isolating life other than conventional cell structures. Each of these discussions will combine experimental and theoretical information. The first involves organic chemical synthesis that creates new forms of chemical matter to ask "What if?" and "Why not?" questions. The second draws on a century of literature in physical organic chemistry to formulate general constraints on the structure and transformation of organic matter to provide constraints on possible Darwinian chemistries in the galaxy.

Benner, S.

2002-12-01

260

Risk assessment of alternative proliferation routes  

SciTech Connect

Multi-Attribute Decision Theory is applied to rank II alternative routes to nuclear proliferation in order of difficulty in acquiring nuclear weapons by nonnuclear countries. The method is based on reducing the various variables affecting the decision to a single function providing a measure for the proliferation route. The results indicate that the most difficult route to obtain atomic weapons is through nuclear power reactors, specifically the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, heavy water Canada deuterium uranium reactor, and light water reactors such as boiling water and pressurized water reactors. The easiest routes are supercritical centrifuge isotope separation, laser isotope separation, and research reactor. However, nonnuclear routes available that result in substantial damage to life and property are easier than any nuclear route.

Ahmed, S.; Husseiny, A.A.

1982-03-01

261

Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

1980-11-01

262

Advances in alternative cementitious binders  

SciTech Connect

There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

Juenger, M.C.G., E-mail: mjuenger@mail.utexas.edu [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C 1748, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Winnefeld, F. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Provis, J.L. [University of Melbourne, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ideker, J.H. [Oregon State University, School of Civil and Construction Engineering, 220 Owen Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

2011-12-15

263

Alternative gaseous-fuels safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

A relative safety assessment of alternative gaseous and reference liquid fuels utilized for light automotive transportation in the public sector was completed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and the liquid fuels, gasoline and diesel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. A technique involving a method of eliciting expert judgment combined with a comparative scoring methodology was applied in establishing fuel relative safety rankings. Limitations of this type of assessment are discussed. Selected accident scenarios included fuel leakage in both residential and public garages; fueling line rupture at a refueling station in the presence of user vehicles or delivery vehicles; and vehicle collisions under rural, urban, and vehicular tunnel conditions. Overall, the results obtained demonstrate dependency upon the specific application or scenario. Gaseous fuels have increased relative risks in certain situations and are relatively safe in others. The results suggest that alternative gaseous fuels are not disqualified for public usage. The assessment also provides rationale for the development of selected safe handling criteria and recommendations.

Krupka, M.C.; Peaslee, A.T. Jr.; Laquer, H.L.

1983-01-01

264

Alternative protocols on dynamic speckle laser analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biospeckle or dynamic laser speckle is a phenomenon developed when a dynamic process occurs in a material under laser illumination. This phenomenon contains considerable information related to both biological and non-biological activity of the material under study. As a non-invasive, non-destructive and low cost technique, biospeckle laser (BSL) has been an outstanding tool for monitoring biological properties. Thus, its application in optical instrumentation has grown over the years, especially in the areas of biology, medicine and agriculture. High sensitivity of biospeckle laser (BSL) technique and variability of biological material combined with the large number of variables involved in speckle pattern formation have brought great challenges to the search for safer, more robust analysis techniques. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and refine methodologies for the BSL analysis and tested alternative protocols for the prime analysis. Particularly, we present a protocol to obtain requirements before the main analysis, in an attempt to eliminate image quality based on subjectivism or research experience. This protocol was based on the creation of requirements to achieve the best speckle patterns such as evaluating the saturation, the homogeneity and the contrast of the grains. The alternative protocol offered a testing approach before the main experiment to increase the certainty to get image and data in an accepted quality, avoiding the loose of time and samples in analysis of a row of a questionable data. The tests were performed in well-known BSL data and presented as a feasible step before the main experiments.

Cardoso, Rafael R.; Braga, Roberto A.; Rabal, Hector J.

265

FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative  

SciTech Connect

Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

NONE

1996-09-01

266

Two alternative versions of strangeness  

PubMed Central

The concept of strangeness emerged from the low energy phenomenology before the entry of quarks in particle physics. The connection between strangeness and isospin is rather accidental and loose and we recognize later that the definition of strangeness is model-dependent. Indeed, in Gell-Mann’s triplet quark model we realize that there is a simple alternative representation of strangeness. When the concept of generations is incorporated into the quark model we find that only the second alternative version of strangeness remains meaningful, whereas the original one does no longer keep its significance.

Nishijima, Kazuhikoa

2008-01-01

267

Multipebble Simulations for Alternating Automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study generalized simulation relations for alternating Büchi automata (ABA), as well as alternating finite automata. Having multiple pebbles allows the Duplicator to "hedge her bets" and delay decisions in the simulation game, thus yielding a coarser simulation relation. We define (k 1,k 2)-simulations, with k 1/k 2 pebbles on the left/right, respectively. This generalizes previous work on ordinary simulation (i.e., (1,1)-simulation) for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA)[4] in and ABA in [5], and (1,k)-simulation for NBA in [3].

Clemente, Lorenzo; Mayr, Richard

268

Alternative fuels for general aviation  

SciTech Connect

The price and availability of fuel continues to be a major barrier to the free expansion of general aviation. Although this increase in fuel prices had a more severe impact on airlines, it has also slowed the demand for general aviation aircraft. With the sales of general aviation aircraft in a depressed state, the development of alternative fuels such as liquid methane, ethanol, methanol, and automobile gasoline can help spur the industry back to health. Recent flight tests of these alternative fuels are examined.

Not Available

1983-01-01

269

Spent-fuel-storage alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

Not Available

1980-01-01

270

Fuel properties of cottonseed oil  

SciTech Connect

The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E. [Sakarya Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-11-01

271

Alternative gaseous fuels safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public acceptance of alternative transportation fuels in the United States is contingent not only upon the requisite technical, environmental, and economic factors but also upon demonstration through adequate assessment, testing, and operational experience that the intrinsic risk is either equivalent to or less than that associated with energy carriers presently in common use. In support of work sponsored by the

M. C. Krupka; H. L. Laquer; A. T. Peaslee

1983-01-01

272

Alternative theory and utopian models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model of human systems is presented based on the basic paradigms upon which families, groups, and social systems can be organized. Four fundamentally distinct paradigms are described and the interrelationships among them explored, with special consideration given to the “social evolution” of systems organized on these paradigms. Implications for the study of alternative lifestyles and utopian societies are

Larry L. Constantine

1984-01-01

273

Imaging Alternative Future School Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication presents the proceedings of the University of Minnesota UCEA Career Development Seminar on alternative school organization for the future. Participants addressed themselves to how both universities and public school systems must adapt to changing social aspirations if they are to remain effective. This entails education…

Popper, Samuel H., Ed.

274

Alternative Nitrogen Sources for Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several alternative nitrogen (N) sources, rates of N, and amendments were evaluated at Prattville, Alabama, on cotton in 2008. Nitrogen rates reported are for sidedress application only. Dry urea produced the highest yield, averaging 1100 pounds lint per acre. Ammonia volatilization was measured fr...

275

Alternative Nuclear Paths To 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

he circumstances surrounding nuclear power worldwide and the importance that may be given to issues affecting its future development point toward very different alternative paths over the next 50 years. Economic deregulation, lack of competitiveness in some countries, negative public perception and concerns about waste issues suggest that nuclear power might decrease progressively with a potential phase-out of the technology

Ivan Vera; Evelyne Bertel; Geoffrey Stevens

276

Assessing Readability: Formulas and Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that readability formulas are strictly text-based and therefore do not reflect the interactive nature of the reading process, this paper argues that many of the instructional material evaluations for which such formulas are used are inappropriate and offers more reader-based alternatives to the use of formulas. The first half of the paper…

Rush, R. Timothy

277

Alternatives to Afrocentrism. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The essays in this collection place the current Afrocentric movement in its historical context and offer alternative suggestions about how to teach African American students about their history. The first section deals with the roots of Afrocentrism, analyzes the content of Afrocentric books and curricula, and discusses the impact of Afrocentrism…

Miller, John J., Ed.

278

Alternative Careers in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several alternate definitions of "physical education" can be presented to illustrate the fact that changes in name or definition open the way to new opportunities and new ways of thinking of career options. Traditional definitions of physical education have limited it to a profession of teaching in the traditional school system normal children…

Lambert, Charlotte

279

Alternative Fuels for Martime Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this study were to review the potential fuels that may be available to the marine industry from 1980 to 2000 and to define the economic, technical, environmental, and social impacts of these alternative fuels on marine power plants. From...

1980-01-01

280

Alternative Locations for School Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School systems in urbanized or built-up areas have difficulties locating suitable sites for new buildings. Examples of the use of space in alternative locations include the Parkway Program in Philadelphia; the Work Place School in Alberta, Canada; the Metropolitan Learning Alliance in Minnesota; and the Schoolhouse Boat in Vienna, Austria. (MLF)

Earthman, Glen I.

1999-01-01

281

Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

282

Lecture Alternatives in Teaching English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The five sections of the document are: General Discussion; Classroom Experiences; Evaluation and Non-Lecture Teaching; A Closing Note; and Appendix. The ten papers presented are as follows: "Lecture Alternatives and the English Class" by Stephen Judy; "Let's See How it Goes: A View of the Teacher as Manager of Student-Initiated Activities" by…

Judy, Stephen, Ed.

283

Alternatives ... Bruderhof Education: Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the quality of teaching offered at the Hutterian kindergarten school in New Meadow Run, Pennsylvania, as an example of an outdoor school. Suggests that, based on the ideas of Rousseau, Pestallozzi, and Froebel on early play and natural development, outdoor schools can offer an alternative to current structured academic school activities…

Wardle, Francis

1995-01-01

284

Augmentative and Alternative Communication Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication is a dynamic process that creates and conveys a mutual understanding between two or more people. Since this process is complex and not easily taught, there exist many communication disorders ranging from a physical limitation, such as ALS, to a cognitive language disorder, such as autism. Augmentative and alternative communication systems (AACs) help people with communication disorders by providing

Gondy Leroy; Gianluca De Leo

285

Alternative Education: The Cutting Edge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miami Valley Career Technology Youth Connections, an alternative high school located in Dayton, Ohio, has an enrollment of 160 students and was created as a joint venture among local politicians to address the high dropout rates in Montgomery County, Ohio. To achieve this, the Montgomery County commissioners created a task force to develop…

Byrne, Jay

2004-01-01

286

Alternative sources of gas supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternative sources considered include imported liquefied natural gas, and substitute natural gas produced from oil, coal, oil shale, peat, and biomass. Data are included on fuel prices, electricity prices, environmental impacts, fossil fuel resources, and unconventional sources of natural gas. It is noted that some of the technologies to tap these resources are in early stages of development and

1978-01-01

287

CAGE--COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

CAGE provides information on low-emitting alternative coating technologies to coatings users and technical assistance program representatives. The Coatings GuideTM, a pollution prevention tool for paints and coatings users, contains several tools to help users identify low-volati...

288

Alternative energy sources. Volume VI  

SciTech Connect

This book covers research and development work on alternative energies, including planning, economics, environmental and international problems. Topics covered include the following: solar collectors; thermal energy; storage; heat pipes; solar drying; solar energy applications; lighting; biogas; bioconversion; wind machines; wave energy; fission energy; fusion energy/MHD; hydrogen energy; environment and safety; and energy planning and policies.

Veziroglu, T.N.

1985-01-01

289

An Alternative to Thought Suppression?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.|

Boice, Robert

2012-01-01

290

An alternative to thought suppression?  

PubMed

Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression. PMID:22963421

Boice, Robert

2012-09-01

291

Alternative energy technologies in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is imperative that Brazil consider alternative energy production and conservation techniques in order to cope with the energy crisis. Brazil imports about 650,000 bbl.\\/day of petroleum, which accounts for more than 78 percent of total consumption. Oil amounts to 50 percent of the total energy utilized in Brazil. After a brief review of the energy resources in Brazil (water

Miccolis

1977-01-01

292

Pupils' Alternative Frameworks in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishThe work of Jean Piaget and others on the development of children's thinking, has indicated that far from being the ‘tabula rasa’ of repute, pupils bring to their school learning in science ideas, expectations and beliefs concerning natural phenomena which they have developed to make sense of their own past experiences. These alternate frameworks, in some cases strongly held and

Rosalind Driver

1981-01-01

293

USNO Alternate Master Clock Steering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary mission of the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) Alternate Master Clock (AMC) facility, located at Schriever AFB, is to back up the critical functions of the USNO Time Service Department in Washington, D.C. The USNO AMC operates two Master Clocks,...

P. A. Koppang S. T. Hutsell

2000-01-01

294

Alternative energy sources. Volume VI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers research and development work on alternative energies, including planning, economics, environmental and international problems. Topics covered include the following: solar collectors; thermal energy; storage; heat pipes; solar drying; solar energy applications; lighting; biogas; bioconversion; wind machines; wave energy; fission energy; fusion energy\\/MHD; hydrogen energy; environment and safety; and energy planning and policies.

Veziroglu

1985-01-01

295

Alternative Assessment for Transitional Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A teacher-developed alternative assessment of reading comprehension was specifically designed for transitional English language learners. Use of the measure with 89 fifth-graders in their first year of English language instruction showed that the students could successfully engage with English texts and provided teachers with useful information…

Beaumont, Carol; de Valenzuela, Julia Scherba; Trumbull, Elise

2002-01-01

296

Looking for alternative energy sources.  

PubMed

With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn. PMID:22468274

Gross, Michael

2012-02-21

297

Alternative energy sources. Part A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceedings of the 'Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences' held in February 1980, are presented. Papers discuss enhanced oil recovery, tar sands technology,synthetic fuels from coal, production of synthetic fuels from biomass, ethanol from biomass, prospects for photovoltic conversion of solar energy, and the wind energy programme in

Manassah

1981-01-01

298

Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

Not Available

2009-04-01

299

Alternative energy sources. Part B  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text has been assembled from the proceedings of the Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) that was held in Kuwait in February 1980. The focus of this symposium was to review and assess those technologies that presently complement and will most likely substitute in the future

Manassah

1981-01-01

300

Strategies for alternative energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies for alternative energy sources are developed out of an understanding of the historical evolution and possible future options for energy consumption. Work is presented that attempts to develop a fundamental and intuitive understanding of energy substitution and utilization patterns for a complex energy economy. A simple market penetration model is used to characterize the historical evolution and to assess

G. C. Ferrell

1978-01-01

301

Alternatives ... Bruderhof Education: Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the quality of teaching offered at the Hutterian kindergarten school in New Meadow Run, Pennsylvania, as an example of an outdoor school. Suggests that, based on the ideas of Rousseau, Pestallozzi, and Froebel on early play and natural development, outdoor schools can offer an alternative to current structured academic school activities…

Wardle, Francis

1995-01-01

302

Alternative Materials for Sustainable Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A shortage of asphalt and polymers is creating opportunities for engineers to utilize alternative pavement materials. Three types of bio oil, untreated bio oil (UTB), treated bio oil (TB) and polymer-modified bio oil (PMB) were studied in this research. T...

J. Mills-Beale Q. Dai X. Yang Z. You

2012-01-01

303

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-05-01

304

Demonstration of packaging materials alternatives to expanded polystyrene. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report presents information on the environmental, economical, and performance characteristics of alternative packaging materials. Three alternative cushioning materials were identified for evaluation within this research; starch-based foam planks, layered corrugated pads, and recycled polyethylene foam. Through some have been used as cushioning materials for some time, these materials are termed alternative because each offers unique features beyond their cushioning capabilities. These unique features include their manufacture from recycled materials, biodegradability, water solubility, recyclability, and reusability. The properties and cushioning characteristics of expanded polystyrene (EPS) represent the baseline for this research; evaluation results for each material are compared against those of EPS. Technical, environmental, and economic evaluations were completed to assess various characteristics and parameters concerning the cushioning materials.

Menke, D.M.

1998-04-01

305

Alternative energy sources for the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents forecasts concerning alternative energy sources in the United Kingdom. These are alternative sources of heat - solar and geothermal energy, and alternative sources of electricity - wind, tides, and waves. A tentative judgment of the potential contribution of alternative sources to UK energy supplies in the year 2000 is presented.

J. K. Dawson

1976-01-01

306

Academic Programs in Alternative Education: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper, second in a series of papers on alternative education, examines the academic programming in alternative education programs by reviewing the literature specifically focused on the academic programs in alternative education and summarizing a survey of fifteen alternative education programs. It suggests options for further research on…

Ruzzi, Betsy Brown; Kraemer, Jacqueline

2006-01-01

307

Estimating fire properties by remote sensing - Treesearch  

Treesearch

... the global environment is limited by inadequate measurements of the extent and ... properties including flame temperature, fractional area, and radiant-energy flux ... Alternative approaches using radiances at wavelengths near 4 and 12 µm  ...

308

Strong-current arc discharges of alternating current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review of experimental results of strong current (I=10-104 A) quasi-stationary ac discharges in high pressure (P⩾105 Pa) gases is presented. Structure and properties of alternating current arc in vortex, turbulent flows of air, argon, nitrogen, and hydrogen were investigated. The existence of two arc discharge column regimes, contracted and diffusion, has been established. The processes of heat exchange between

Philip G. Rutberg; Aleksei A. Safronov; Vladislav L. Goryachev

1998-01-01

309

Designing structured tight frames via an alternating projection method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tight frames, also known as general Welch-Bound- Equality sequences, generalize orthonormal systems. Numer- ous applications—including communications, coding and sparse approximation—require finite-dimensional tight frames that pos- sess additional structural properties. This paper proposes a versatile alternating projection method that is flexible enough to solve a huge class of inverse eigenvalue problems, which includes the frame design problem. To apply this method,

Joel A. Tropp; Inderjit S. Dhillon; Robert W. Heath Jr.; Thomas Strohmer

2005-01-01

310

Thermal analysis of alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively poor cold-flow properties of monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats (biodiesel) present a major\\u000a obstacle to their development as alternative fuels and extenders for combustion in direct injection compressionignition (diesel)\\u000a engines. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating and cooling curves of methyl soyate (SME), methyl tallowate\\u000a (TME), SME\\/TME admixtures, and winterized SME were analyzed.

Robert O. Dunn

1999-01-01

311

Alternative Medicine and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative medicine has an extensive worldwide history and is commonly used by older patients. A number of different alternative medicines are used by patients having Alzheimer's disease. It is both desirable and expected for clinicians to be acquainted with these medications. Review Summary This paper discusses the available clinical trial evidence regarding eight agents commonly used by people having Alzheimer's disease. We provide an overview of the history and basic scientific evidence available for each agent, followed by a critical analysis of the evidence available from clinical trials, including the number of participants, trial duration and specific outcomes evaluated. Conclusion While many of these compounds have been associated with interesting basic science, none has shown clear clinical benefit to date. Data available for some, such as ginkgo biloba, curcumin and huperzine A, suggest that further evaluation is warranted. Familiarity with this literature will allow clinicians to provide meaningful recommendations to patients who wish to use these agents.

Kelley, Brendan J.; Knopman, David S.

2009-01-01

312

ALTERNATIVE FEED INGREDIENTS FOR PIGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largely due to the demand for grains for the bio-fuel industry, the cost of feed energy will increase worldwide. Therefore, alternative energy supplying pig feed ingredients should be explored, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), field peas, wheat shorts and liquid co-products from the bio-fuel and food industry. The inclusion of DDGS in diets is limited by the fiber

Hans Stein; Kees de Lange

313

Alternative approaches to plasma confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron

J. R. Roth

1978-01-01

314

Analysis of supermarket dehumidification alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative methods to provide space conditioning in supermarkets were studied. Four basic air-conditioning systems were selected for evaluation in a store in Miami, Florida: (1) conventional vapor compression systems, (2) vapor compression air-conditioning systems designed for supermarket loads, (3) hybrid desiccant air-conditioning systems, and (4) cool storage systems. Computer models were created and annual simulations of performance were made. The

R. E. J. W. Urban; W. A. Beckman; C. E. Dorgan; C. J. Lindell

1992-01-01

315

Hydrogen and transportation: alternative scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

If hydrogen (H2) is to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and oil use, it needs to displace conventional transport fuels and be\\u000a produced in ways that do not generate significant greenhouse gas emissions. This paper analyses alternative ways H2 can be produced, transported and used to achieve these goals. Several H2 scenarios are developed and compared to each other. In

Carmen Difiglio; Dolf Gielen

2007-01-01

316

Spontaneous alternation behavior in Paramecium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous alternating behavior (SAB), the tendency of an organism to successively turn left and right in a maze, is a standard\\u000a metric of short-term memory in developmental and pyschopharmacological studies. Although SAB is perhaps the most phylogenetically\\u000a widespread behavior in motile lifeforms, conflicting data on SAB exist for several sets of closely related taxa. For example,\\u000a previous studies provide contradictory

Alan W. Harvey; Nyron K. A. Bovell

2006-01-01

317

Cost-benefit evaluation of using biodiesel as an alternative fuel for fishing boats in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel, which is manufactured from vegetables oils, animal fats, or algae can be an excellent alternative fuel to petroleum diesel due to its superior fuel properties and lower pollutant emissions. In contrast, fishing-boat fuel generally has much poorer fuel properties and a high sulfur content that can reach several hundred times that of the premium diesel used in land-based vehicles.

Cherng-Yuan Lin; Tsan-Huang Huang

2012-01-01

318

Tannin and tannate from the quebracho tree: an eco-friendly alternative for controlling marine biofouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current antifouling coatings are based on toxic compounds that can be harmful to the natural environment. A promising alternative to these compounds is the use of natural products that are non-toxic, but have antifouling properties. Tannins are natural, water-soluble, complex polyphenolic substances, which precipitate proteins and have anticorrosive and antimicrobial properties. In this study, the effect of quebracho tannin as

Miriam Pérez; Mónica García; Guillermo Blustein; Mirta Stupak

2007-01-01

319

New chemical alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons and halons. Report for August 1988February 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a determination of the basic properties of laboratory quantities of potential alternative compounds which may be used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons listed in the Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The property testing currently posed for investigation was designed to assist in the determination of applicability for replacements for CFCs and halons

J. C. Bare; N. D. Smith; J. L. Adcock

1989-01-01

320

High efficiency electrical alternator system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an alternator employed in an engine having a drive shaft. It comprises: a flywheel connected to the drive shaft forming a rotor of the alternator, and the rotor having an interior cupshaped portion receiving a plurality of ceramic magnets; a stator constructed of silicon steel laminations positioned within the cup-shaped portion of the rotor and having at least one alternator coil on a stator pole positioned relative to the magnets on the rotor such that the magnets are directly adjacent and move past a pole face of the pole as the rotor rotates; the rotor cup-shaped portion being circumferentially defined by an outer circular wall surrounding the stator and having the ceramic magnets mounted directly on an inside surface thereof facing the at least one stator pole face; a ring-shaped starter motor ring gear surrounding the rotor and mounted on an outside surface of the outer circular wall; the outer circular wall having a thickness at a location where the magnets are mounted of equal to or less than 0.3 inches. The thickness of the outer circular wall expressed as a percentage of radius of the rotor from a central axis thereof to the outer surface of the outer circular wall being equal to or less than 7%. The rotor being of one-piece construction and comprising a ductile iron casting.

Safranek, E.J.

1989-10-17

321

State Profiles on Alternative Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards. A Report from the National Study on Alternate Assessments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Study on Alternate Assessments (NSAA) was mandated by the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA). Specifically, the law called for a 'Study on Ensuring Accountability for Students Who Are Held to Alternative Ac...

2009-01-01

322

Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex and interesting electromagnetic behavior can be found in spaces with non-flat topology. When considering the properties of an electromagnetic medium under an arbitrary coordinate transformation an alternative interpretation presents itself. The transformed material property tensors may be interpreted as a different set of material properties in a flat, Cartesian space. We describe the calculation of these material properties for

D. Schurig; J. B. Pendry; D. R. Smith

2006-01-01

323

76 FR 31513 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles (``Alternative Fuels Rule'' or ``Rule''). As part of its systematic review of all FTC rules and guides, the Commission requests public comment on the overall costs, benefits,...

2011-06-01

324

[Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].  

PubMed

Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension. PMID:10907162

Happle, R

2000-06-01

325

Alternative oxidase and uses thereof  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to a method for combating disorders affecting the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system by allotopic expression of the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX) in human cells. The successful expression of AOX in human cells and in Drosophila has been shown to confer spectacular cyanide-resistance to mitochondrial substrate oxidation, alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis susceptibility and metabolic acidosis. AOX is well tolerated when expressed ubiquitously in the whole organism. AOX expression is a valuable tool to limit the deleterious consequences of respiratory chain deficiency.

2009-08-11

326

Alternatives for Rebuilding Curricula (ARC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternatives for Rebuilding Curricula (ARC) is a collaboration of the Consortium for Mathematics and Its Applications (COMAP) and the three elementary mathematics curriculum projects (Investigations in Number, Data, and Space; Everyday Mathematics; and Math Trailblazers). The curriculum projects are funded by the National Science Foundation and reflective of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards. The website includes curriculum summaries and descriptions of sample activities. Also posted are at least three "implementation stories from the field" for each curricula. Information on ARC's consultation and professional development services is also provided.

327

Alternative heat pump cycle studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to conceive and evaluate alternative heat pump cycles for space conditioning applications that offer improved performance or the option to use a non-chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) working fluid. Heat pump cycles that have been or will be examined in this study include various air-cycle systems, the Stirling cycle, and an ejector cycle, but no specific mechanical configurations have been developed. The concept is discussed. Results of preliminary studies on the air cycles and the Stirling heat pump are discussed briefly. Ejector heat pump studies are at a very preliminary stage and no conclusions have been made. (MCW)

Creswick, F.A.

1981-01-01

328

Transitions to alternative energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Transitions to Alertnative Energy Systems attempts to understand, through a series of case studies, the roles of technical and social entrepreneurs, policy-makers, and other change-agents in the development of alternative energy technologies (solar, wind, geothermal, wood, peat, and heat pumps). The book indicates, the introduction of a new technology requires more than simply showing technical and economic feasibility to guarantee success. Also of major importance are sociopolitical elements, including public perceptions of a new technology (as affected by marketing strategies), the influence of monopolistic industries (e.g., through political lobbying efforts), the inclinations of politically powerful individuals and institutions, and the degree of change required from traditional systems.

Baumgartner, T.; Burns, T.R.

1984-01-01

329

Advances in diver alternative systems  

SciTech Connect

The basic design and selection of oil rig equipment offshore is greatly influenced by the ability to maintain and service such equipment as and when required. A critical analysis of underwater work systems was made and primary research and development conducted that has resulted in advanced new diver alternative systems. Two new systems, a one person one atmosphere microsubmersible, DEEP ROVER, and a robotic device, RIG ROVER, both equipped with newly developed sensory manipulator systems are described. These systems markedly improve work capability subsea and may influence future offshore developments, particularly in deep water.

Hawkes, G.S.

1983-03-01

330

Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition  

PubMed Central

The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical properties.

de Godoy, Maria R. C.; Kerr, Katherine R.; Fahey, George C.

2013-01-01

331

20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.230 Guaranteed alternative. (a) General. If you reach...

2013-04-01

332

33 CFR 156.107 - Alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL TRANSFER OPERATIONS Oil and Hazardous Material...Operations § 156.107 Alternatives. (a) The COTP may...time; and (3) The alternative provides an equivalent...protection from pollution by oil or hazardous...

2013-07-01

333

33 CFR 156.107 - Alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL TRANSFER OPERATIONS Oil and Hazardous Material...Operations § 156.107 Alternatives. (a) The COTP may...time; and (3) The alternative provides an equivalent...protection from pollution by oil or hazardous...

2010-07-01

334

33 CFR 156.107 - Alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL TRANSFER OPERATIONS Oil and Hazardous Material...Operations § 156.107 Alternatives. (a) The COTP may...time; and (3) The alternative provides an equivalent...protection from pollution by oil or hazardous...

2009-07-01

335

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2012-01-01

336

Are There Feasible Alternatives to Laboratory Animals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses several alternatives to the use of laboratory animals in investigating biomedical problems. Alternatives include tissue culture, use of plant and bacterial material, redesigning experiments, and construction of mathematical and computer models. (CS)|

Rowan, A. N.

1976-01-01

337

21 CFR 640.120 - Alternative procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Alternative Procedures § 640.120 Alternative...title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations regarding blood, blood components, or blood products....

2011-04-01

338

Safe Operating Procedures for Alternative Fuel Buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe Operating Procedures for Alternative Fuel Buses includes information on the use of methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and other alternative fuels for buses.

Geoffrey V. Hemsley

1993-01-01

339

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 4, Number 3  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Alternative Fuel News focuses on transit buses and refuse haulers. Many transit agencies and waste management companies are investigating alternatives to traditional diesel buses and refuse haulers.

Ficker, C.

2000-11-14

340

7 CFR 1250.332 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Egg Board § 1250.332 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Board, during...

2012-01-01

341

77 FR 59346 - Payday-Alternative Loans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE08 Payday-Alternative Loans AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA...reviewing its regulation governing payday-alternative loans (PAL or PAL loans), formerly known as short-term, small amount...

2012-09-27

342

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

343

42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...area; and (2) This failure does not jeopardize patient health and safety. (b) Alternative sanctions. The alternative...1) Denial of payment for services furnished to patients first accepted for care after the effective...

2011-10-01

344

42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...area; and (2) This failure does not jeopardize patient health and safety. (b) Alternative sanctions. The alternative...1) Denial of payment for services furnished to patients first accepted for care after the effective...

2012-10-01

345

33 CFR 101.120 - Alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...under part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter identifying which Alternative Security Program they have implemented, identifying those vessels or facilities that will implement the Alternative Security Program, and attesting that they...

2013-07-01

346

33 CFR 101.120 - Alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...under part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter identifying which Alternative Security Program they have implemented, identifying those vessels or facilities that will implement the Alternative Security Program, and attesting that they...

2009-07-01

347

33 CFR 101.120 - Alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...under part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter identifying which Alternative Security Program they have implemented, identifying those vessels or facilities that will implement the Alternative Security Program, and attesting that they...

2010-07-01

348

7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the...

2012-01-01

349

7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the Board shall act in the...

2013-01-01

350

7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

2012-01-01

351

7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

2013-01-01

352

Studies of Alternating Current Corrosion of Iron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of the effects of alternating current on the corrosion of iron is presented. The corrosion efficiency of iron, generation efficiency of hydrogen gas, and polarization characteristics in the alternating current electrolysis of iron in the aqueo...

Y. Torigoe

1972-01-01

353

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane conversions. This guide may be particularly helpful for organizations that are already using alternative fuels in their vehicles and have an alternative fuel supply or electric charging in place (e.g., golf cart charging stations at most golf courses). On the flip side, experiencing the benefits of using alternative fuels in mowing equipment may encourage organizations to try them in on-road vehicles as well. Whatever the case, alternative fuel commercial lawnmowers are a powerful and cost-effective way to reduce U.S. petroleum dependence and help protect the environment.

Not Available

2011-10-01

354

Alternative therapies for postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Alternative therapies are being used by postmenopausal women in attempts to treat all of the complaints and medical conditions of the menopause. One-fifth of those who take prescription drugs for these indications also take herbal remedies and/or high-dose vitamins, most often without disclosing the fact to the physician. Although studies of alternative therapies are short-term and rarely focused on safety--let alone efficacy--in the long-term, there are many studies spread over the large number of substances involved. More than 130 studies, including meta-analyses, are reviewed in this article under the headings of phytoestrogens, especially from soy; therapies for hot flushes; and preventives for cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and breast cancer. Special attention is given to the recently recognized daidzein metabolite equol, and for the sake of completeness there are reviews of the unconventional, but not botanical, treatments estriol, transdermal progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. The total picture produced by conscientious review of the studies is bleak overall, but there seems to be good reason to pursue the possibilities inherent in soy protein with phytoestrogens in populations of women who endogenously produce equol. PMID:16279503

Speroff, Leon

355

Interferometric spectropolarimetry: alternate experimental methods.  

PubMed

Three alternate methods of obtaining spectra of the intensity and state of polarization of light are proposed. The methods make use of a two-beam amplitude division interferometer using the technique of Fourier spectroscopy. They can be applied to either emerging beam, source beam, or detector beam r to both. They do not require the presence of polarizers in the arms of the instrument. In one method (Method 2) a single analyzer is used in front of the detector with three successive orientations of its transmission axis azimuth (0 degrees , 45 degrees , 90 degrees ). In another method (Method 3) a (linear) polarizer assuming the same set of orientations is placed in the incident beam. A third method (Method 4), a hybrid of the former two methods, makes use of both a polarizer and an analyzer in the locations indicated. The latter method presents itself three alternate possibilities. Method 2 permits the determination of all four Stokes parameters of polarization, whereas Methods 3 and 4 cannot yield the ellipticity parameter. All methods require the recording of three interferograms. However, two interferograms can provide the intensity and degree of polarization in any of the methods described. The theory of our earlier method (Method 1, Fymat and Abhyankar, 1970) is also established more rigorously concerning the proposed interferometric arrangements, the applicability of the method to the source beam, and the possibility of deriving the orientation of the plane of polarization and the ellipticity from a single interferogram. PMID:20119321

Fymat, A L

1972-10-01

356

33 CFR 154.107 - Alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL...General § 154.107 Alternatives. (a) The COTP...impractical; (2) The alternative provides an equivalent...protection from pollution by oil or hazardous material...written request for the alternative. (b) The...

2010-07-01

357

33 CFR 154.107 - Alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL...General § 154.107 Alternatives. (a) The COTP...impractical; (2) The alternative provides an equivalent...protection from pollution by oil or hazardous material...written request for the alternative. (b) The...

2013-07-01

358

33 CFR 154.107 - Alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL...General § 154.107 Alternatives. (a) The COTP...impractical; (2) The alternative provides an equivalent...protection from pollution by oil or hazardous material...written request for the alternative. (b) The...

2009-07-01

359

Understanding alternative splicing: towards a cellular code  

Microsoft Academic Search

In violation of the 'one gene, one polypeptide' rule, alternative splicing allows individual genes to produce multiple protein isoforms — thereby playing a central part in generating complex proteomes. Alternative splicing also has a largely hidden function in quantitative gene control, by targeting RNAs for nonsense-mediated decay. Traditional gene-by-gene investigations of alternative splicing mechanisms are now being complemented by global

Arianne J. Matlin; Francis Clark; Christopher W. J. Smith

2005-01-01

360

Pichia pastoris 'just in time' alternative respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative oxidases (Aox or Aod) are present in the mitochondria of plants, fungi and many types of yeast. These enzymes transfer electrons from the ubiquinol pool directly to oxygen without contributing to the proton transfer across the mitochondrial membrane. Alternative oxidases are involved in stress responses, programmed cell death and maintenance of the cellular redox balance. The alternative oxidase gene

Alexander Kern; Franz S. Hartner; Maria Freigassner; Julia Spielhofer; Cornelia Rumpf; Laura Leitner; Kai-Uwe Frohlich; Anton Glieder

2007-01-01

361

Postlayout logic restructuring using alternative wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a layout-driven synthesis approach for field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's). The approach attempts to identify alternative wires and alternative functions for wires that cannot be routed due to the limited routing resources in FPGA. The alternative wires (in the logic level) that can be routed through less congested areas substitute the unroutable wires without changing

Shih-chieh Chang; Kwang-ting Cheng; Nam-Sung Woo; Malgorzata Marek-sadowska

1997-01-01

362

Alternatives to Punishment: Words and Ice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative programs need to offer troubled and troubling students alternatives to punishment, expedient control, and rejection. This article demonstrates how the alternatives of building trusting relationships and effective, empathic communication can provide the re-education to improve a child's life.

Valore, Thomas G.; Siemen, Kenneth A.

2003-01-01

363

A New Design for Automotive Alternators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new design for alternator systems that provides dramatic increases in peak and average power output from a conventional Lundell alternator, along with substantial improvements in efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate these capability improvements. Additional performance and functionality improvements of particular value for high- voltage (e.g., 42 V) alternators are also demonstrated. Tight load-dump transient suppression can be

David J. Perreault; Vahe Caliskan

2000-01-01

364

Alternative Materials in Libraries: A Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The papers presented focus on the library acquisition, processing, and use of alternative publications, which include small press and other materials produced by non-standard, non-establishment groups or individuals. In "Libraries and Alternatives: An Essay," Patricia Glass Schuman discusses the importance of alternative publications and the role…

Shore, Elliott, Ed.; Danky, James, Ed.

365

Methanol - Alternative Fuel Road Traffic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This brochure names the fuel properties that are required for road traffic, discusses the replacement of petrol by methanol, discusses the possibilities of manufacturing methanol, draws up a timetable and an organigram for a (M-15) large scale test and co...

H. Muendler

1980-01-01

366

Tumor exploits alternative strategies to achieve vascularization.  

PubMed

Neoangiogenesis is crucial for solid tumor growth and invasion, as the vasculature provides metabolic support and access to the circulation. Current antiangiogenic therapies have been designed on the assumption that endothelial cells forming the tumor vasculature exhibit genetic stability. Recent studies demonstrate that this is not the case. Tumor endothelial cells possess a distinct phenotype, differing from normal endothelial cells at both molecular and functional levels. This challenges the concept that tumor angiogenesis exclusively depends on normal endothelial cell recruitment from the surrounding vascular network. Indeed, recent data suggest alternative strategies for tumor vascularization. It has been reported that tumor vessels may derive from an intratumor embryonic-like vasculogenesis. This condition might be due to differentiation of normal stem and progenitor cells of hematopoietic origin or resident in tissues. Cancer stem cells may also participate in tumor vasculogenesis by virtue of their stem and progenitor cell properties. Finally, normal endothelial cells might be reprogrammed to a proangiogenic or dedifferentiated phenotype by genetic information transmitted from the tumor trough apoptotic bodies, or following mRNA and microRNA transfer by exosomes and microvesicles. In this review, we discuss the different aspects of intratumor angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, the known mechanisms involved, and the possible implications for the response to antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:21628445

Bussolati, Benedetta; Grange, Cristina; Camussi, Giovanni

2011-05-31

367

Indigofera suffruticosa: An Alternative Anticancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabeceae) occurs in the Northeast countryside and has intensive popular use in the treatment of infectious, inflammatory and other processes. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion and maceration as well as to evaluate the toxicological properties. Aqueous extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity against HEp-2 (human epidermoid cancer cell) cell lines by MTT method. From the aqueous extract by infusion, the toxicological assay showed low order of toxicity. The antitumor effect of aqueous extracts by infusion (64.53%) and maceration (62.62%) against sarcoma 180 in mice at a dose of 50 mg kg?1 (intraperitoneally), based on low order of toxicity was comparable to the control group, which showed 100% development. Considering the low order of toxicity and that it is highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumors, the aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa may be used as an alternative anticancer agent.

Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; de Souza, Ivone Antonia; do Nascimento, Silene Carneiro

2007-01-01

368

Unique mode properties of optical metacavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unusual optical properties of a cavity that contains a layered structure with an alternating refractive index are considered. The layers with the negative refraction and the negative phase velocity provide for drastic changes to the properties of the longitudinal and transverse modes. The transverse-mode structure depends on the effective diffraction length whereas the spectrum of longitudinal modes is determined by

D. O. Saparina; A. P. Sukhorukov

2009-01-01

369

Evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplication  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing and gene duplication are two major sources of proteomic function diversity. Here, we study the evolutionary trend of alternative splicing after gene duplication by analyzing the alternative splicing differences between duplicate genes. We observed that duplicate genes have fewer alternative splice (AS) forms than single-copy genes, and that a negative correlation exists between the mean number of AS forms and the gene family size. Interestingly, we found that the loss of alternative splicing in duplicate genes may occur shortly after the gene duplication. These results support the subfunctionization model of alternative splicing in the early stage after gene duplication. Further analysis of the alternative splicing distribution in human duplicate pairs showed the asymmetric evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplications; i.e., the AS forms between duplicates may differ dramatically. We therefore conclude that alternative splicing and gene duplication may not evolve independently. In the early stage after gene duplication, young duplicates may take over a certain amount of protein function diversity that previously was carried out by the alternative splicing mechanism. In the late stage, the gain and loss of alternative splicing seem to be independent between duplicates.

Su, Zhixi; Wang, Jianmin; Yu, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Gu, Xun

2006-01-01

370

Basic Sciences: An Alternative career?  

PubMed

Career selection is a crucial and a complex process which is also true for the medical profession. In the context of our country, due to the limited opportunity and proper guidance, migration of medical graduates to foreign countries is increasing. Though, clinical subjects have a huge attraction, basic science field has failed to impress our medical graduates. In current scenario, basic science field seems to be a dumping site for the incompetent as the candidates who have failed trying their luck elsewhere stumble upon basic science careers though it is not true for all. Moreover, a very few medical graduates are interested in developing their career as a basic scientist. Therefore, to motivate today's young medical graduates, there is a need of a good mentor along with a proper career guidance which can help them to understand the basic science field as an alternative career. PMID:23774420

Khatri, R

371

Alternative approaches to antifungal therapies  

PubMed Central

The expansive use of immunosuppressive medications in fields such as transplantational medicine and oncology, the higher frequency of invasive procedures in an aging population and the HIV/AIDS pandemic have increased the frequency of systemic fungal infections. At the same time, increased resistance of pathogenic fungi to classical antifungal agents has led to sustained research efforts targeting alternative antifungal strategies. In this review, we focus on two promising approaches: cationic peptides and the targeting of fungal virulence factors. Cationic peptides are small, predominantly positively charged protein fragments which exert direct and indirect antifungal activities, one mechanism of action being the permeabilization of the fungal membrane. They include lysozyme, defensins, and cathelicidins, as well as novel synthetic peptides. Amongst fungal virulence factors, the targeting of candidal secreted aspartic proteinases seems to be a particularly promising approach.

Mehra, T; Koberle, M; Braunsdorf, C; Mailander-Sanchez, D; Borelli, C; Schaller, M

2012-01-01

372

First passage failure: Analysis alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Most mechanical and structural failures can be formulated as first passage problems. The traditional approach to first passage analysis models barrier crossings as Poisson events. The crossing rate is established and used in the Poisson framework to approximate the no-crossing probability. While this approach is accurate in a number of situations, it is desirable to develop analysis alternatives for those situations where traditional analysis is less accurate and situations where it is difficult to estimate parameters of the traditional approach. This paper develops an efficient simulation approach to first passage failure analysis. It is based on simulation of segments of complex random processes with the Karhunen-Loeve expansion, use of these simulations to estimate the parameters of a Markov chain, and use of the Markov chain to estimate the probability of first passage failure. Some numerical examples are presented.

PAEZ,THOMAS L.; NGUYEN,H.P.; WIRSCHING,PAUL H.

2000-04-17

373

Recent advances in alternative therapies.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming more popular, and CAM remedies are used instead of, or integrated with, orthodox allopathic therapies by many patients with asthma. Although most CAM remedies may have no discernible effects when analyzed by conventional medical techniques, some double-blind controlled studies do suggest that a meaningful benefit can be obtained with acupunture and homeopathic management in asthma. Herbal medicine is more popular, despite little evidence that the vast majority of herbs for asthma have any useful effects other than a nonspecific expectorant action. Dietary adjustment may benefit a small percentage of patients with asthma, but extreme measures are very rarely indicated. Formal pyschologic approaches can help some patients by reducing anxiety. Although most CAM approaches are harmless, the lack of benefit of many remedies and the potential harm from some of them must be recognized. PMID:10608429

Ziment, I

2000-01-01

374

Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative  

SciTech Connect

This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners.

Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

1985-01-01

375

The Integrity Full Replacement Alternating Mattress.  

PubMed

The Integrity Full Replacement Alternating Mattress, manufactured and distributed by Sumed, is an innovative alternative for those users who find conventional alternating pressure mattresses uncomfortable. The mattress is designed with smaller cells than conventional alternating mattresses and this has a number of benefits for the user, in that posture within the bed is not compromised as the cells alternatively inflate and deflate, maintaining mobility and function. Furthermore, users report that the small cell size results in their experiencing far more comfort on this mattress comparered with other alternating mattresses previously tried, as they feel far less movement with the alternation. Importantly, the construction of the mattress affords significant safety to the user in the event of power failure, and this is particularly pertinent in the community setting where the user is monitored less frequently. This article discusses pressure injury prevention in the community and describes how the Integrity mattress provides a solution. PMID:23682499

Collins, Fiona

2013-03-01

376

Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato  

SciTech Connect

Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-05-01

377

Alternative calcination development status report  

SciTech Connect

The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

Boardman, R.D.

1997-12-01

378

Explicit and Implicit Qualities of Alternative Fuels: Issues to Consider for Their Use in Marine Diesel Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the explicit and implicit properties of petroleum-derived fuels and the alternative Fischer-Tropsch (F T), pyrolysis, and biodiesel fuels. These alternative fuels are compared to two jet fuels (JP 5 and JP-8) and distillate fuel mari...

D. M. Stamper G. F. Lee

2008-01-01

379

Comparison of sensory differences of stored Russet Burbank potatoes treated with CIPC and alternative sprout inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory properties of Russet Burbank potatoes treated with three naturally occurring volatile compounds, as alternatives\\u000a to CIPC for sprout inhibition, were evaluated. Potatoes from the 1995 and 1996 crop years were treated with salicylaldehyde,\\u000a 1,8-cineole, 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene, or CIPC prior to dormancy break during storage and stored for up to 16 wk. Sensory differences\\u000a between potatoes treated with alternative sprout

Terri D. Boylston; Joseph R. Powers; Karen M. Weiler; Jian Yang

2001-01-01

380

Pyrolysis decomposition of tamarind seed for alternative fuel.  

PubMed

The conversion of tamarind seed into bio-oil by pyrolysis has been taken into consideration in the present work. The major components of the system were fixed bed fire-tube heating reactor, liquid condenser and collector. The crushed tamarind seed in particle form was pyrolyzed in an electrically heated fixed bed reactor. The products were liquid, char and gasses. The parameters varied were reactor temperature, running time, gas flow rate and feed particle size. The maximum liquid yield was 45wt% at 400°C for a feed size of 3200?m diameter at a gas flow rate of 6l/min with a running time of 30min. The obtained pyrolysis liquid at these optimum process conditions were analyzed for physical and chemical properties to be used as an alternative fuel. The results show the potential of tamarind seed as an important source of alternative fuel and chemicals as well. PMID:24084198

Kader, M A; Islam, M R; Parveen, M; Haniu, H; Takai, K

2013-09-17

381

Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels. [From coal  

SciTech Connect

The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

Kalfayan, S.H.; Fedors, R.F.; Reilly, W.W.

1979-06-01

382

40 CFR 35.2032 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.2032 Section 35.2032...2032 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Funding for innovative and alternative technologies. Projects or portions of...

2013-07-01

383

Comparison of translation loads for standard and alternative genetic codes  

PubMed Central

Background The (almost) universality of the genetic code is one of the most intriguing properties of cellular life. Nevertheless, several variants of the standard genetic code have been observed, which differ in one or several of 64 codon assignments and occur mainly in mitochondrial genomes and in nuclear genomes of some bacterial and eukaryotic parasites. These variants are usually considered to be the result of non-adaptive evolution. It has been shown that the standard genetic code is preferential to randomly assembled codes for its ability to reduce the effects of errors in protein translation. Results Using a genotype-to-phenotype mapping based on a quantitative model of protein folding, we compare the standard genetic code to seven of its naturally occurring variants with respect to the fitness loss associated to mistranslation and mutation. These fitness losses are computed through computer simulations of protein evolution with mutations that are either neutral or lethal, and different mutation biases, which influence the balance between unfolding and misfolding stability. We show that the alternative codes may produce significantly different mutation and translation loads, particularly for genomes evolving with a rather large mutation bias. Most of the alternative genetic codes are found to be disadvantageous to the standard code, in agreement with the view that the change of genetic code is a mutationally driven event. Nevertheless, one of the studied alternative genetic codes is predicted to be preferable to the standard code for a broad range of mutation biases. Conclusions Our results show that, with one exception, the standard genetic code is generally better able to reduce the translation load than the naturally occurring variants studied here. Besides this exception, some of the other alternative genetic codes are predicted to be better adapted for extreme mutation biases. Hence, the fixation of alternative genetic codes might be a neutral or nearly-neutral event in the majority of the cases, but adaptation cannot be excluded for some of the studied cases.

2010-01-01

384

Regulated functional alternative splicing in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing expands the coding capacity of metazoan genes, and it was largely genetic studies in the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster that established the principle that regulated alternative splicing results in tissue- and stage-specific protein isoforms with different functions in development. Alternative splicing is particularly prominent in germ cells, muscle and the central nervous system where it modulates the expression of various proteins including cell-surface molecules and transcription factors. Studies in flies have given us numerous insights into alternative splicing in terms of upstream regulation, the exquisite diversity of their forms and the key differential cellular functions of alternatively spliced gene products. The current inundation of transcriptome sequencing data from Drosophila provides an unprecedented opportunity to gain a comprehensive view of alternative splicing.

Venables, Julian P.; Tazi, Jamal; Juge, Francois

2012-01-01

385

HFIR spent fuel management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems` Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

1992-10-15

386

HFIR spent fuel management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

1992-10-15

387

Networking requirements and future alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The Working Group on Networking Requirements and Future Alternatives recommends creation of an international, interagency networking facility for science, whose 15-year mission is to ensure that US scientists have available the most advanced wide area networking facilities in the world, and to ensure that US wide area network technology maintains a position of world leadership. A minimum of 1.5-Mbit/s access to major government and academic research centers should be provided. Such a network would greatly benefit the competitive position of the United States in scientific research. It would also place the US in a leadership position in utilization of high bandwidth, wide area networks. United States industries supporting wide area network technologies would gain a significant competitive advantage over other countries. An ongoing program of research and development into both wide area network technology and network management is necessary for this endeavor to be successful. As part of the second year study, the Working Group recommends that an interagency coordinating committee be established to identify short-term implementation issues that can be investigated and resolved in parallel with long-term issues. This would provide immediate benefit to the nation's scientific community.

Brown, A.; Fath, A.F.; Fitzgerald, J.; Gross, P.; Hall, D.; Haverty, J.; Kennedy, C.M.; Lasinski, T.; McClain, F.; McGregor, P.

1987-06-01

388

[Pollution and alternative energy sources].  

PubMed

In order to reach higher standards of living, man has always been interested in searching new energy sources. Natural energy from sun, wind and water has been overcame by more sophisticated resources such as coal, vapour, hydroelectricity, natural gas, petroleum, and, at least, nuclear energy. However all these resources present unwanted effects, namely various hazards to man and environment. On this matter society is quering the risk-benefit balance of some energy choices and optimum performance with new safety means to limit dangerousness are being pursued and developed. It is necessary to evaluate carefully every aspect of safety without under-estimating or over-evaluating problems. For each energy source a "real price" has to be paired, even more in the future, since more energy will be required to guarantee the necessary technological progress linked to a better quality of life. In the present review all risks related to different energy sources are described and discussed aiming at defining: 1) specific risks for different sources 2) benefit from their utilization 3) means of defence guaranteeing security for man and environment. Italy is strictly dependent for energy production, which comes for 80% from abroad. An appropriate balance is required considering economical and social factors and real availability of energy. This balance needs therefore to be clearly evaluated hoping in a better future for an alternative energy, less dangerous and more clear, such as that from nuclear fusion. PMID:2483087

Melino, C

389

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01

390

Alternative therapies for stroke treatment in Asia.  

PubMed

Patients seek alternative therapies for stroke in Asia due to dissatisfaction with poststroke recovery. Most alternative therapies are of unproven benefit in rehabilitation. Well-conducted trials are needed to better define the role of alternative therapies in the process of poststroke recovery; the CHInese Medicine Neuroaid Efficacy on Stroke recovery is ongoing. However, further studies, better health education and rehabilitation services and centers are also required. PMID:22111799

Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Liu, Ming; Misbach, Jusuf; Venketasubramanian, N

2011-12-01

391

Alternative Regulatory Cases Challenging Consumer Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of the concept of postmodern politics, we provide insights into how alternative regulation is challenging consumer\\u000a policy. New actors, new forms of interaction, and new goals are emerging alongside established forms of consumer policy. In\\u000a particular, we examine two alternative regulatory cases: trust marks and consumer-generated information systems. They both\\u000a exemplify alternative regulation of electronic commerce, which has

Petteri Repo; Päivi Timonen; Kim Zilliacus

2009-01-01

392

Selecting for Functional Alternative Splices in ESTs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expressed sequence tag (EST) collection in dbEST provides an extensive resource for detecting alternative splicing on a genomic scale. Using genomically aligned ESTs,a computatio nal tool (TAP) was used to identify alternative splice patterns for 6400 known human genes from the RefSeq database. With sufficient EST coverage,one or more alternatively spliced forms could be detected for ne arly all

Zhengyan Kan; David States; Warren Gish

2002-01-01

393

Legal issues in alternative health care.  

PubMed

This article reviews the use of alternative and complementary health care practices by orthodox medical practitioners. Many alternative modalities such as chiropractic, acupuncture, naturopathic, and homeopathic treatments are available, and modern patients who are increasingly "consumer-oriented" and educated may inquire about these treatments. The article examines issues of informed consent, standards, procedures, and liability as they relate to a medical practice that opts to provide alternative treatments. PMID:12122846

Freedman, Allan

2002-05-01

394

Evaluation of hemostatic effects of Ankaferd as an alternative medicine.  

PubMed

Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), a unique traditional herbal mixture, has been used topically to stop bleeding for centuries in Anatolia. ABS is a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. Through its effects on the endothelium, blood cells, angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, vascular dynamics, and cell mediators, ABS is now becoming an official alternative hemostatic medicine for intractable bleedings that are resistant to conventional anti-hemorrhagic measurements in Turkey. Furthermore, ABS seems to have a considerable therapeutic benefit, because of its anti-infective, anti-neoplastic, and wound healing properties, to restore and maintain tissue homeostasis in a variety of diseases. PMID:21194248

Beyazit, Yavuz; Kurt, Mevlut; Kekilli, Murat; Goker, Hakan; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin

2010-12-01

395

Repulsive Casimir Forces and Alternatives to Einsteinian Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A basic property of the Casimir force is that, in most cases, it is attractive. The quest for workable configurations which exhibit repulsion is, at the same time, important and difficult, both in the nanophysics laboratory (e.g. to avoid stickness) and at cosmological scales (to account for the accelerated expansion of our universe). We shall here report on some configurations which exhibit the two signs of the Casimir force in function of the distance, and also on some alternatives to Einsteinian gravitation with the eventual aim to try to get around the cosmological constant problem.

Elizalde, E.

2010-04-01

396

40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND...WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.26 Alternative...

2013-07-01

397

Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food Processing Technologies -- High Voltage Arc Discharge. ... High voltage electrical impulse. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/safepracticesforfoodprocesses

398

7 CFR 1218.44 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.44 Alternate...

2013-01-01

399

7 CFR 1218.44 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.44 Alternate...

2012-01-01

400

Utiization of alternate fuels in diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments during three years entitled The Utilization of Alternate Fuels in Diesel Engines are summarized. Experiments were designed and test equipment set-up for the purpose of evaluating the use of methanol as a fumigant for light-duty Diesel engine service. The major experimental results were obtained from a multicylinder automotive Diesel engine. However, fundamental studies employing a GC/micro-reactor and a constant volume combustion bomb were also started. The purpose of this work was to measure some of the chemical and physical properties of methanol and methanol-air mixtures. The laminar flame velocity for various mixtures has been measured in the combustion bomb and thermal degradation studies have begun in the GC/micro-reactor. An Oldsmobile 5.7 liter V/8 Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 40% of the fuel energy. The primary objectives of the study were to determine the effect of methanol fumigation on fuel efficiency, smoke, nitric oxide emission, and the occurrence of severe knock. An assessment of the biological activity for samples of the raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract was also made using boh the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test and the B. subtilis Comptest. Generally, methanol fumigation was found to decrease NO emission for all conditions, to have a slight effect on smoke opacity, and to have a beneficial effect on fuel efficiency at higher loads. Also at higher loads, the methanol was found to induce what was defined as knock limited operation. The biological activity of the raw particulate matter was fond to be less than that of its soluble organic extract. However, for both the fumigation of methanol did enhance the biological activity.

Lestz, S.S.

1980-09-01

401

Tastier and healthier alternatives to French fries.  

PubMed

The effect of both the origin and shape of potato cuts on fry quality was investigated in this study. Linear strips from the inner core of tubers were compared to those from outer tissues, both before and after processing, and strips from either specific tissues or whole peeled tubers were also evaluated against ring-shaped cuts. Both strips and rings had 0.7 cm sides and, in most cases, a volume of 4.9 cm(3). They were analyzed for moisture content, antioxidants, asparagine, and reducing sugars. The material was then blanched, dipped in 0.5% disodium acid pyrophosphate and 0.3% glucose, dried at 77 degrees C, par-fried in soybean oil at 191 degrees C, and finish-fried at 168 degrees C. The fried product was analyzed for sensory characteristics and oil, salt, and acrylamide content. Our results showed that strips from the inner core absorbed 28% more oil and exhibited inferior sensory characteristics compared to strips from the outer parts. The extended drying and frying times needed to match the crispness and flavor of inner strips to those of regularly fried outer strips resulted in a further increased absorption of oil and, importantly, triggered a 163% increase in levels of the toxic Maillard reaction product acrylamide. Potato rings consisted of higher dry matter material, contained more antioxidants, and had a lower surface-to-volume ratio than the conventional linear strips. Upon processing, they also absorbed 22% less oil, contained 26% less salt, and displayed superior sensory properties. Thus, ring fries may represent an attractive alternative to French fries as processed staple food. PMID:20546404

Rommens, Caius M; Shakya, Roshani; Heap, Mark; Fessenden, Kristi

2010-05-01

402

Planetary Protection Alternate Protocol Certification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The talk presents a standardized approach for new method certification or alterative testing protocol (ATP) certification against the existing U.S. Planetary Protection Standards. In consideration of new method certification there are two phases of activities that are relevant to the certification process. The first is sample acquisition which typically incorporates swab or wipes sampling on relevant hardware, associated facilities and ground support equipment. The sampling methods introduce considerations of field sampling efficiency as it relates to spore distribution on the spacecraft, spacecraft material influences on the ability of the swab or wipe to remove spores from the hardware, the types of swabs and wipes used (polyester, cotton, macrofoam), and human sampling influences. The second portion of a new protocol certification looks specifically at the lab work-up or analysis of the samples provided to the laboratory. Variables in this process include selection of appropriate biomarkers, extraction efficiencies (removal of spores or constituents of interest from the sampling device), and a method's ability to accurately determine the number of spores present in the sample with a statistically valid level of confidence as described by parameters such as precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity and sensitivity. Considerations for alternative testing protocols such as those which utilize bioburden reduction techniques include selection of appropriate biomarkers for testing, test materials and a defined statistical approach that provides sufficient scientific data to support the modification of an existing NASA specification or the generation of a new NASA specification. Synergies between the U.S. and European Space Agency approaches will also be discussed.

Baker, Amy; Barengoltz, Jack; Tisdale, David

403

Natural crude oil as an alternate fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural crude oil is presently the principal energy source in the USA but is considered an alternate fuel under certain conditions. The oil is excluded from the category of primary fuel due to lack of availability. Both the residue left in producing fields and the undiscovered deposits are classed as alternate fuels. The development of such resources is discussed and

F. S. Crane

1976-01-01

404

Alternatives: Strategies and Stumbling-Blocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report on alternative educational systems presents an overview of some current theories and proposals for educational reform as background to the description of development of three alternative schools in Toronto. The evolution of schools formed by groups outside the public system and established under the jurisdiction of the Toronto Board…

Cable, Greg

405

Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to

Bernward Garthoff; Bernward

2005-01-01

406

An Alternative Fuel for Motor Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unprecedented increase in oil prices has researchers scrambling for alternative fuel sources. This crisis gives environmentally conscious researchers a new argument in favor of renewable energy. Unfortunately, most renewable energy sources are either inefficient or too expensive. Vehicles around the world are creating a massive environmental problem. Researchers are now looking for an economical and useful alternative to fossil

M. E. Hossain; M. R. Islam

2008-01-01

407

Grants for Alternative Programs. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There seem to be no grants directly geared toward alternative programs (although the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has an interest in funding projects focusing on reforming high schools). This should not be a deterrent, however, as there are plenty of funding sources interested in projects and activities which would support an alternative

Muir, Mike

2004-01-01

408

Bioinformatics of alternative splicing and its regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequencing of the human genome and ensuing wave of data generation have brought new light upon the extent and importance of alternative splicing as an RNA regulatory mechanism. Alternative splicing could potentially explain the complexity of protein repertoire during evolution, and defects in the splicing mechanism are responsible for diseases as complex as cancer. Among the challenges that rise

Liliana Florea

2006-01-01

409

ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING SOLVENT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

There are economic and regulatory incentives for considering alternatives to the direct land disposal of solvent-bearing hazardous waste streams (EPA Hazardous Waste Codes: F001, F002, F003, F004, and F005). These alternatives include recycle/reuse (including use as a fuel substi...

410

Tonal Alternations and Prosodic Structure in Somali  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the prosody of focalisation in Somali, a cushitic tonal accent language. The Somali nouns undergo many tonal accent alternations according to the discursive contexts. A primary aim of the study is to explain these alternations by assuming that they are triggered by intonative tones. However, very little attention has been devoted to the intonation of Somali. As

David Le Gac

2002-01-01

411

Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

412

Renewable energy alternatives for developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines renewable energy alternatives in developed countries: environmental mechanisms; future energy alternatives; green electricity marketing and its potential; pricing; and limitations on the eve of open access. It discusses objectives in electricity restructuring; the role of resources planning in forming long range energy environmental policies; feasibility of electricity trading mechanisms; green marketing in the United States and Australia;

Thomas James Hammons; Jeannette C. Boyer; Stephen R. Conners; Michael Davies; Mark Ellis; Marion Fraser; Edward A. Holt; Jochen Markard

2000-01-01

413

Alternator-powered, electrically heated catalyst  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a system for increasing system reliability for an electrically heated automotive exhaust system catalyst (EHC) by powering the system from the automobiles alternator rather than its battery. The topics of the article include a description of the EHC, matching EHC power requirements to alternator power capabilities, test results, and EHC performance.

Laing, P.M. (Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States))

1994-04-01

414

Alternator-powered, electrically heated catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a system for increasing system reliability for an electrically heated automotive exhaust system catalyst (EHC) by powering the system from the automobiles alternator rather than its battery. The topics of the article include a description of the EHC, matching EHC power requirements to alternator power capabilities, test results, and EHC performance.

Laing

1994-01-01

415

Characterization and prediction of alternative splice sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human alternative isoform, cryptic, skipped, and constitutive splice sites from the ALTEXTRON database were analysed regarding splice site strength, composition, GC content, position and binding site strength of polypyrimidine tract and branch site. Several features were identified which distinguish alternative isoform and cryptic splice sites, but not skipped splice sites from constitutive ones. These include splice site strength, introns GC

Magnus Wang; Antonio Marín

2006-01-01

416

Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world sup...

D. L. Greene

1994-01-01

417

Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

418

Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

419

Regulation of Alternative Splicing by Histone Modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is a prominent mechanism to generate protein diversity, yet its regulation is poorly understood. We demonstrated a direct role for histone modifications in alternative splicing. We found distinctive histone modification signatures that correlate with the splicing outcome in a set of human genes, and modulation of histone modifications causes splice site switching. Histone marks affect splicing

Reini F. Luco; Qun Pan; Kaoru Tominaga; Benjamin J. Blencowe; Olivia M. Pereira-Smith; Tom Misteli

2010-01-01

420

Depolarization-Mediated Regulation of Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing in eukaryotes plays an important role in regulating gene expression by selectively including alternative exons. A wealth of information has been accumulated that explains how alternative exons are selected in a developmental stage- or tissue-specific fashion. However, our knowledge of how cells respond to environmental changes to alter alternative splicing is very limited. For example, although a number of alternative exons have been shown to be regulated by calcium level alterations, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. As calcium signaling in neurons plays a crucial role in essential neuronal functions such as learning and memory formation, it is important to understand how this process is regulated at every level in gene expression. The significance of the dynamic control of alternative splicing in response to changes of calcium levels has been largely unappreciated. In this communication, we will summarize the recent advances in calcium signaling-mediated alternative splicing that have provided some insights into the important regulatory mechanisms. In addition to describing the cis-acting RNA elements on the pre-mRNA molecules that respond to changes of intracellular calcium levels, we will summarize how splicing regulators change and affect alternative splicing in this process. We will also discuss a novel mode of calcium-mediated splicing regulation at the level of chromatin structure and transcription.

Sharma, Alok; Lou, Hua

2011-01-01

421

The Eden Alternative: Impact on Student Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nursing homes as clinical sites for student learning have the potential to produce negative attitudes toward aging. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to determine the impact of the Eden Alternative on the attitudes of students toward elders residing in nursing homes. Prior to beginning implementation of the Eden Alternative, 61…

Rosher, Richard B.; Robinson, Sherry

2005-01-01

422

Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

Roizen, Nancy J.

2005-01-01

423

Local government reform: Privatisation and its alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privatisation is only one of several alternatives for local government reform. Problems with lack of cost savings and the challenges of contract management have led local government reformers to explore other alternatives including municipal corporations, relational contracting and dynamic market management. Empirical analysis shows concerns with fiscal stress, efficiency, and managing political and citizen interests drive the reform process more

Germà Bel; Robert Hebdon; Mildred Warner

2007-01-01

424

Meat alternatives — market developments and health benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing range of food ingredients is used in the manufacture of meat alternative products reflecting technological and innovative developments and consumer demand for high quality meat alternative products. This article reviews the market size and market drivers for such products, the key technological developments to date, the nutritional value, health benefits and potential contribution to public health of such

Michele J Sadler

2004-01-01

425

Alternative automotive engines and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential ability of alternatives to the internal combustion engine (ICE) to contribute towards the dual goals of reduction in the power consumed by the United States passenger car fleet and reduction in air pollutant emissions is assessed. The principal advantages and limitations of a variety of alternative engines are identified, including the Wankel spark-ignition engine, the carbureted prechamber stratified

J. B. Heywood; L. H. Linden

1976-01-01

426

Alternative Setting-Wide Positive Behavior Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has an established evidence base in general education settings, and emerging evidence suggests that SWPBS may be effective in alternative settings (e.g., alternative, residential, or hospital schools; psychiatric hospitals). Given the intense educational and behavioral needs of students typically…

Simonsen, Brandi; Jeffrey-Pearsall, Jennifer; Sugai, George; McCurdy, Barry

2011-01-01

427

Alternative Setting-Wide Positive Behavior Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has an established evidence base in general education settings, and emerging evidence suggests that SWPBS may be effective in alternative settings (e.g., alternative, residential, or hospital schools; psychiatric hospitals). Given the intense educational and behavioral needs of students typically…

Simonsen, Brandi; Jeffrey-Pearsall, Jennifer; Sugai, George; McCurdy, Barry

2011-01-01

428

Psychology and Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can the fields of complementary and alternative medicine provide psychologists with new career opportunities in practice, education, and research? With 42% of Americans estimated to be seeking unconventional treatments, collectively spending $21.2 billion annually, it is recommended that psychologists become informed about alternative medical practices, possible benefits and risks of such practices, and relevant licensing laws and education required for

Kathryn P. White

2000-01-01

429

Lessons from an Alternative-Certification Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Kentucky's Alternative Training Program for the Preparation of Candidates for Initial Certification, presenting the story of one individual who made a career change to teaching after 15 years as a broadcast journalist. The paper discusses state guidelines, the mentor teacher, the school district alternative training program, the…

Barkley, Brenda Stallion

1999-01-01

430

Alternative Maternity Services in Washington State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of maternity services has changed in the past 20 years, with a movement away from traditional (physician delivery in a hospital) towards other alternative services. This study examined alternative maternity services in Washington State, which ranks eighth in the country in the use of such services. Data were collected from birth and…

Starzyk, Patricia M.

431

Economic Analysis of Alternative Fuel School Buses  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Cities final report provides a general idea of the potential economic impacts of choosing alternative fuels for school bus fleets. It provides information on different school bus types, as well as analysis of the three main types of alternative fuel used in school bus fleets today (natural gas, propane, and biodiesel).

Laughlin, M.

2004-04-01

432

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996  

SciTech Connect

Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

NONE

1997-12-01

433

Young doctors' views on alternative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was undertaken to explore attitudes to alternative medicine among 100 general practitioner trainees. A positive attitude emerged from the 86 respondents, with 18 doctors using at least one alternative method themselves and 70 wanting to train in one or more. A total of 31 trainees had referred patients for such treatments; 12 of these doctors made referrals to

D T Reilly

1983-01-01

434

40 CFR 191.04 - Alternative standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) The Administrator may issue alternative standards from those standards established in § 191.03(b) for waste management and storage activities at facilities that are not regulated by the Commission or Agreement States if, upon review of an application for such alternative...

2011-07-01

435

Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

436

Modified Waste Emplacement Mode Design Alternative Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal

Rick Wilson

1999-01-01

437

Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In

V. C. Mei; F. C. Chen; D. M. Kyle

1992-01-01

438

43 CFR 46.450 - Identifying the environmentally preferable alternative(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.450 Identifying the environmentally preferable alternative(s). In...

2012-10-01

439

43 CFR 46.450 - Identifying the environmentally preferable alternative(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.450 Identifying the environmentally preferable alternative(s)....

2011-10-01

440

Biology teachers' attitudes to dissection and alternatives.  

PubMed

A survey of 5000 American middle and high school level biology teachers was completed to assess attitudes and classroom practice relating to dissection and alternative teaching methods. A preliminary sample of 494 respondents revealed that 79% of teachers used dissection to teach biology. While 72% believed that dissection was an important part of the curriculum, 17% disagreed; 69% considered dissection to be an essential hands-on activity. While 31% believed that alternatives were as good as dissection for teaching anatomy and physiology, 55% disagreed. The primary reason given for continuing dissection, rather than exclusively using alternatives, was the hands-on aspect of dissection (69%). While the majority (66%) of biology teachers favoured student choice between dissection and other learning methods, 20% disagreed. Although the effectiveness of alternative methods has been documented, and ethical arguments against dissection have been advanced, the mainstream introduction of humane alternatives to dissection requires a transformation of the beliefs, experience and practice of biology teachers. PMID:23581121

King, Lesley A; Ross, Cheryl L; Stephens, Martin L; Rowan, Andrew N

2004-06-01

441

The Application of Alternative Splicing Graphs in Quantitative Analysis of Alternative Splicing Form from EST Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing of a single pre-mRNA can give rise to different mRNA transcripts. Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA is an important layer of gene expression regulation in eukaryotic cell. Consequently, alternative splicing is an important mechanism for generating protein diversity from a single gene. Although alternative splicing is an important biological process, standard molecular biology techniques have only identified several

Hsun-chang Chang; Po-shun Yu; Tze-wei Huang; Yaw-ling Lin; Fang-rong Hsu

2004-01-01

442

Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resouces. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternate fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are to develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternate fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and to provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. Efforts this past year have been to evaluate experimental procedures for studying alternate fuel combustion effects and to determine current analytical capabilities for prediction of these effects. Jet Stirred Combustor studies during this period have produced new insights into soot formation in strongly backmixed systems and have provided much information for comparison with analytical predictions. The analytical effort included new applications of quasi-global modeling techniques as well as comparison of prediction with the experimental results generated.

Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Harsha, P.T.

1978-09-11

443

Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

Not Available

1980-06-01

444

The expression of alternative oxidase and alternative respiratory capacity in cytoplasmic male sterile common bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternative respiratory pathway is present in all plant species investigated to date. Yet, the role of the alternative pathway is not clear. Some evidence suggests an important role in pollen development. We undertook this study to investigate the expression of alternative oxidase, in comparison with expression of a component of cytochrome oxidase, during pollen formation in common bean (Phaseolus

C. Johns; R. Nickels; L. McIntosh; Sally Mackenzie

1993-01-01

445

The Alternative Motor Fuels Act, alternative-fuel vehicles, and greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard is the major policy tool to improve the fleet average miles per gallon of automobile manufacturers in the US. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) provides special treatment in calculating the fuel economy of alternative-fuel vehicles to give manufacturers CAFE incentives to produce more alternative-fuel vehicles. AMFA has as its goals an increase

Yimin Liu; Gloria E. Helfand

2009-01-01

446

Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis used to evaluate the energy and emission impact of two pathways of alternative energy development. The results show that China can only meets its 2015 and 2020 targets for non-fossil penetration if it successfully achieves all of its capacity targets for 2020 with continued expansion through 2030. To achieve this level of alternative generation, significant amounts of raw materials including 235 Mt of concrete, 54 Mt of steel, 5 Mt of copper along with 3 billion tons of water and 64 thousand square kilometers of land are needed. China’s alternative energy supply will likely have relatively high average energy output to fossil fuel input ratio of 42 declining to 26 over time, but this ratio is largely skewed by nuclear and hydropower capacity. With successful alternative energy development, 32% of China’s electricity and 21% of its total primary energy will be supplied by alternative energy by 2030. Compared to the counterfactual baseline in which alternative energy development stumbles and China does not meet its capacity targets until 2030, alternative energy development can displace 175 Mtce of coal inputs per year and 2080 Mtce cumulatively from power generation by 2030. In carbon terms, this translates into 5520 Mt of displaced CO{sub 2} emissions over the twenty year period, with more than half coming from expanded nuclear and wind power generation. These results illustrate the critical role that alternative energy development can play alongside energy efficiency in reducing China’s energy-related carbon emissions.

Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

2011-06-15

447

Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various energy usages will determine the demand, forecast future need and identify the differences in energy costs, narrowing the focus of the work and defining its scope. The Tribe's peak demand periods will help determine the scope of need for alternative energy sources. The Tribe's Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis report included several system investigations which include fuel cells, wind turbines, solar panels, hydro electric, ground source heat pumps, bio mass, cogeneration & energy conservation and implementation for the existing properties. The energy analysis included site visits to collect and analyze historical energy usage and cost. The analysis also included the study of the building systems for the Elk Valley Casino, Elk Valley Rancheria administration complex, United Indian Health Service/Small Community Center complex and the Tribal Gaming Commission Offices. The analysis involved identifying modifications, performing an engineering economic analysis, preparation of a rank ordered list of modifications and preparation of a report to provide recommendations and actions for the Tribe to implement.

Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

2011-11-30

448

New alternatives to cosmetics preservation.  

PubMed

In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (< or = 0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products. PMID:20447363

Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C

449

Used oil as an alternative boiler fuel-promises and problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine used oil as a boiler fuel, comparing the properties of used oil fuel with fuel oil and addressing environmental concerns. Availability and cost factors are investigated, and savings available to a medium-sized municipal utility are evaluated. Of special concern to that utility and to others considering the used oil fuel as an alternative are the modifications required

E. Menge; K. Nicholson

1993-01-01

450

A study on using fish oil as an alternative fuel for conventional combustors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion tests for fish oil and its blends with fuel oils were performed in a pilot tunnel furnace and two residential boilers to evaluate fish oil as an alternative fuel for conventional boilers and furnaces. Droplet evaporation tests were also conducted as a complementary study of the combustion properties. Fish oil and the blends burned readily in the facilities. The

Fernando Preto; Frank Zhang; Jinsheng Wang

2008-01-01

451

Biodiesel from Pongamia pinnata L. Oil: A Promising Alternative Bioenergy Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pongame oil is non-edible oil extracted from seeds of Pongamia pinnata L. It is a tree of 12–15 m height, with spread branches. This study investigates the potential of Pongame oil as an alternative source of bioenergy (biodiesel). Seeds of Pongamia pinnata yield 35% oil by weight. Fuel properties of transesterified Pongame oil chemically known as methyl esters (biodiesel) were

M. Ahmad; M. Zafar; M. A. Khan; S. Sultana

2009-01-01

452

Software Performance Engineering: A Case Study Including Performance Comparison with Design Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software performance engineering (SPE) provides an approach to constructing systems to meet performance objectives. The authors illustrate the application of SPE to an example with some real-time properties and demonstrate how to compare performance characteristics of design alternatives. They show how SPE can be integrated with design methods and demonstrate that performance requirements can be achieved without sacrificing other desirable

Connie U. Smith; Lloyd G. Williams

1993-01-01

453

Alternative Splice Variant of ?-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Alters Activation by Calmodulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a ubiquitous, multifunctional enzyme family involved in the regulation of a variety of Ca2+-signaling pathways. These family members are expressed from four highly homologous genes (?, ?, ?, and ?) with similar catalytic properties. Additional isoforms of each gene, created by alternative splicing of variable regions I–XI, are differentially expressed in various cell types.

Ann P. Kwiatkowski; James M. McGill

2000-01-01

454

Predicting House Prices with Spatial Dependence: Impacts of Alternative Submarket Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the impacts of alternative submarket definitions when predicting house prices in a mass appraisal context, using both ordinary least squares (OLS) and geostatistical techniques. For this purpose, we use over 13,000 housing transactions for Louisville, Kentucky. We use districts defined by the local property tax assessment office as well as a classification of census tracts generated by principal

Steven C. Bourassa; Eva Cantoni; Martin Hoesli

2008-01-01

455

Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

2009-01-01

456

THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE AVIATION FUELS IN AN AERO-ENGINE COMBUSTION CHAMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

When considering alternative fuels for aviation, factors such as the overall efficiency of the combustion process and the levels of emissions emitted to the atmosphere, need to be critically evaluated. The physical and chemical properties of a fuel influence the combustion efficiency and emissions and therefore need to be considered. The energy content of a biofuel, which is influenced negatively

I. Uryga; M. Pourkashanian; D. Borman; E. Catalanotti; C. W. Wilson

2009-01-01

457

White golds: A review of commercial material characteristics & alloy design alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

White gold alloys became popular in the 1920s as alternatives to platinum in certain types of diamond-set jewellery. In this\\u000a article the author reviews the status of white gold alloy technology today and the efforts that have been made to improve\\u000a the properties of these materials.

Greg Normandeau

1992-01-01

458

A Preliminary Evaluation of Methacoal as an Alternative Method of Coal Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methacoal fuel is a mechanically stabilized suspension of coal in methanol which is produced by adjusting the weight ratio of carbon-hydrocarbon particles to alcohol to about 67% solids. The introduction of low intensity shear forces causes the fluid to exhibit pseudoplastic properties. This study establishes that there is a growing need for alternate fuel supplies, describes available coal gasification—methanol production

Irvin L. Bilsky; Michael E. Leesley

1979-01-01

459

Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations of Adulteration Effect on Bond Alternating Spin=1/2 Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The S=1/2 Heisenberg chain with bond alternation and randomness of antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) interactions is investigated by quantum Monte Carlo simulations of loop/cluster algorithm. Our results have shown interesting finite temperature magnetic properties of this model. The relevance of our study to former investigation results is discussed.

Zhang, Peng; Xu, Zhaoxin; Ying, Heping; Dai, Jianhui; Crompton, Peter

460

Organic solid waste originating from the meat processing industry as an alternative energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosolids originating from the wastewater treatment process of two meat processing plants (LFP and LFG) were characterized as a fuel and their potential for utilization as alternative energy sources was assessed through the combustion of LFP in a pilot scale cyclone combustor. A comparative evaluation of the LFP, LFG and SD (sawdust) properties as well as the emissions during

Elaine Virmond; Robson L. Schacker; Waldir Albrecht; Chtistine A. Althoff; Maurício de Souza; Regina F. P. M. Moreira; Humberto J. José

2011-01-01

461

ALTERNATIVES FOR SMALL FARM SURVIVAL: GOVERNMENT POLICIES VERSUS THE FREE MARKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly outlines a topology of small farms and then considers the role of the government versus the market in key public policies such as commodity income support, environment, stability, research, and rural development. A number of options are explored for public policy to better serve small farms, including drastic alternatives such as graduated property taxes on farmland, with

Luther G. Tweeten; William A. Amponsah

1996-01-01

462

Boosted Fast Flux Loop Alternative Cooling Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project was instituted to develop the means for conducting fast neutron irradiation tests in a domestic radiation facility. It made use of booster fuel to achieve the high neutron flux, a hafnium thermal neutron absorber to attain the high fast-to-thermal flux ratio, a mixed gas temperature control system for maintaining experiment temperatures, and a compressed gas cooling system to remove heat from the experiment capsules and the hafnium thermal neutron absorber. This GTL system was determined to provide a fast (E > 0.1 MeV) flux greater than 1.0E+15 n/cm2-s with a fast-to-thermal flux ratio in the vicinity of 40. However, the estimated system acquisition cost from earlier studies was deemed to be high. That cost was strongly influenced by the compressed gas cooling system for experiment heat removal. Designers were challenged to find a less expensive way to achieve the required cooling. This report documents the results of the investigation leading to an alternatively cooled configuration, referred to now as the Boosted Fast Flux Loop (BFFL). This configuration relies on a composite material comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) in an aluminum matrix to transfer heat from the experiment to pressurized water cooling channels while at the same time providing absorption of thermal neutrons. Investigations into the performance this configuration might achieve showed that it should perform at least as well as its gas-cooled predecessor. Physics calculations indicated that the fast neutron flux averaged over the central 40 cm (16 inches) relative to ATR core mid-plane in irradiation spaces would be about 1.04E+15 n/cm2-s. The fast-to-thermal flux ratio would be in excess of 40. Further, the particular configuration of cooling channels was relatively unimportant compared with the total amount of water in the apparatus in determining performance. Thermal analyses conducted on a candidate configuration showed the design of the water coolant and Al-Hf alloy heat sink system is capable of maintaining all system components below their maximum temperature limits. The maximum temperature of this conduction cooling system, 224.2°C (435.6 °F) occurs in a small, localized region in the heat sink structure near the core mid-plane. The total coolant flow rate requirement for this configuration is 207 L/min (54.7 gpm). The calculated Flow Instability Ratio and Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio for this configuration under nominal conditions are 6.5 and 8.0, respectively, which safely exceed the minimum values of 2.0. Materials and fabrication issues inspection revealed that the neutron absorber would probably best be made from powdered Al3Hf mixed with aluminum powder and extruded or hot isostatically pressed. Although Al3Hf has not been specifically studied extensively, its mechanical and chemical properties should be very much like Al3Zr, which has been studied. Its behavior under irradiation should be very satisfactory, and resistance to corrosion will be investigated to a limited extent in planned miniplate irradiation tests in ATR. Pressurized water systems needed to effect heat removal are already available in the ATR complex, and mixed gas temperature control systems needed to trim experiment temperatures have been engineered and need only be fabricated and installed. In sum, it appears the alternately cooled configuration arrived at can be very successful. The cost estimate for this configuration indicates to

Glen R. Longhurst; Donna Post Guillen; James R. Parry; Douglas L. Porter; Bruce W. Wallace

2007-08-01

463

Review of methanol and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as alternative for transportation fuels  

SciTech Connect

Concern over the environment and a potential oil shortage has resulted in an intensified research for alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Two fuels given strong consideration are methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper is a comprehensive comparative study of methanol and CNG as transportation fuels. The physical properties of methanol and CNG are discussed. The various concerns, such as source and potential fuel supply, safety, toxicity and health hazards, engine performance and emissions, fuel storage, fuel tank and refueling of these alternative fuels are addressed briefly in this paper. The authors find that no single alternative fuel is best in all categories. The merits and drawbacks of each fuel are tabulated and the vehicle characteristics are compared with gasoline. The study concludes that the neat methanol may be considered as an alternative for passenger cars and CNG may be considered for fleets, light and heavy-duty vehicles as the best near-term solution.

Gandhidasan, P.; Ertas, A.; Anderson, E.E. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1991-06-01

464

Alternative poloidal field configurations for ITER  

SciTech Connect

The US Home Team has investigated the physics and engineering issues for two alternate poloidal field coil configurations for ITER. The first is called the Segmented CS configuration, where all of the solenoid modules are pancake-wound. The second option, termed the Hybrid CS configuration, utilizes a layer-wound central module and pancake-wound end modules. Performance comparisons are presented for the baseline design and the two alternate PF configurations, characterizing the 21 MA reference scenario. Alternate operating modes such as reverse-shear operation and a 17 MA driven mode were evaluated, but are not reported here.

Bulmer, R.H.; Neilson, G.H.

1997-09-02

465

Alternative Medicine: All in Your Mind?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest addition to the University of Wisconsin-Madison graduate school's Why Files (first mentioned in the August 9. 1996 Scout Report) is about alternative medicine and the actual biological effects that alternative medicine has on the human body. For many years, alternative medicine was considered "quackery", but this Web site presents some of the science behind the placebo effect and hypnosis. There is also a page on some of the effects of and concerns about St. John's Wort. A bibliography and links to related Why Files provide additional resources for those users who are not satisfied by this brief glance at the topic.

2001-01-01

466

Modified Waste Emplacement Mode Design Alternative Report  

SciTech Connect

The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative emplacement mode. Calculations to determine seepage rates from degraded waste packages, and therefore exposure rates to the environment over time, were not generated. Since total system performance is highly dependent upon waste package performance, additional calculations are required to determine the complete results of this evaluation. The TSPA calculations that were generated for the alternative emplacement modes were then compared with the results of the TSPA-VA. The short cross-drift and the borehole emplacement modes are similar to the TSPA-VA Base Case, and therefore, the waste package failure rates and the total system performance are also expected to be similar. Calculations for TSPA for the in-trench emplacement modes were not generated. However, preliminary analysis by the Performance Assessment organization provides some initial evidence that the total system performance is expected to be similar to the TSPA-VA Base Case. Hence, the alternative emplacement modes considered in this report are not expected to rate higher in postclosure performance when compared to the VA reference design. The alternative emplacement modes rate below or equivalent to the VA reference design in preclosure performance, assurance of safety, engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance, schedule, cost and environmental considerations. Based upon these ratings, none of the alternative emplacement mode concepts appear superior to the VA reference design. Among the alternative emplacement modes, short cross-drift, which is the most similar to the reference emplacement mode appeared to rank highest, followed by in-trench emplacement, and then borehole emplacement. Although postclosure performance calculations have not been completed, none of the alternative emplacement modes are expected to perform superior to the VA reference design. Alternative emplacement modes, however, provide greater benefit to the VA design in allowing human access in the emplacement drift areas for infrequent, unusual or off-normal situations. Unless this benefit outweighs the lower rating

Rick Wilson

1999-06-16

467

Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Mineralogical Society of America describes the physical properties of minerals in terms that kids will understand. The site also includes the definition of a mineral, an identification chart, and links to descriptions of the physical properties used to identify minerals.

Mineralogy 4 Kids; America, Mineralogical S.

468

Lake Phosphorus Loading Graphs: An Alternative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As an alternative to loading graphs, a graph of mean influent phosphorus concentration versus phosphorus retention capacity is proposed to express the relationship between phosphorus supply and hydraulic flow to, and resultant trophic state of, lakes. Lin...

D. P. Larsen H. T. Mercier

1975-01-01

469

40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative...

2013-07-01

470

Radiation from an Alternating Current Nitrogen Arc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation of the total power radiated per unit length from a nitrogen arc operating on alternating and direct current is outlined and sample results are given. The measured results include average and instantaneous radiant power, avera...

P. W. Schreiber

1965-01-01

471

Analysis of Alternative Requisition Cycle Lengths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to analyze the potential impacts of implementing alternative requisition cycle lengths in enlisted distribution. The analysis in this paper is based on solving 288 optimization problems using the Assignment Policy Management...

R. W. Nimon R. D. Hall G. Subramanian H. Zaki

2006-01-01

472

PILOT INVESTIGATION OF SECONDARY SLUDGE DEWATERING ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot investigation of biological sludge thickening and dewatering alternatives, including pressure filtration, precoat vacuum filtration, filter belt pressing, capillary suction, dewatering, gravity filtration, centrifugation, and ultrafiltration has been conducted on waste ac...

473

Alternate Fuels for use in Commercial Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engine and commercial aircraft research and development communities have been investigating the practicality of using alternative fuels in near, mid, and far-term aircraft. Presently, it appears that an approach of using a \\

David L. Daggett; Robert C. Hendricks; Edwin Corporan

474

An Analysis of Alternative Mideastern Oil Agreements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an application of prescriptive decision analysis to a problem of choosing between alternative U.S. foreign policy options. More specifically, the choice relates to possible agreements with a Mideastern country which involve different...

R. V. Brown C. R. Peterson J. W. Ulvila

1975-01-01

475

Alternatives to Paper-and-Pencil Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that some student products, performances, and skills are not suited to evaluation using paper-and-pencil tests. Describes three alternative methods for evaluating student achievement using rating scales, checklists, and anecdotal records. (PGD)

Cornett, Joe D.

1982-01-01

476

Alternative energy activities for young children  

SciTech Connect

Several successful alternative energy activities for children 5 to 10 years old are presented in this paper. Responses of the children are documented and three of their poster drawings for an evening presentation to the parents are included.

Blair, J.

1981-01-01

477

Effectiveness of alternative management strategies in meeting ...  

Treesearch

Species approaches we consider here include those focused on managing for ... species or groups of species, plus geographic approaches focused on ... Effectiveness of alternative management strategies in meeting conservation objectives.

478

INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

479

Cogeneration Alternatives for Keyes Fibre Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cogeneration alternatives for Keyes Fibre Company paper mill are assessed. Four coal-fired cogeneration systems and one thermal-energy-only plant are conceptually designed and evaluated with respect to the existing oil-fired, noncogenerating system. Cogen...

C. Lee A. Davis

1980-01-01

480

Avoiding Medical and Alternative Health Scams  

MedlinePLUS

Avoiding Medical and Alternative Health Scams by Mitzi Waltz Dodgy little blue pills and dubious anti-aging creams aren’t the only face of medical scams. There are predators aplenty willing to prey ...

481

World futures: A critical analysis of alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews and analyzes the future studies on multiple issues (food, population, economics, resources, values and political structures). It shows how differences arise from alternative world views, competing methodologies and theories, and contradictory evidence.

Hughes, B.B.

1985-01-01

482

7 CFR 948.52 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.52 Alternates. (a) For each committee member there shall...

2013-01-01

483

ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION FOR SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) developed by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc., was evaluated for a 2-year period. CE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous...

484

Mechanisms and consequences of alternative polyadenylation  

PubMed Central

Summary Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is emerging as a widespread mechanism used to control gene expression. Like alternative splicing, usage of alternative poly(A) sites allows a single gene to encode multiple mRNA transcripts. In some cases, this changes the mRNA coding potential; in other cases, the code remains unchanged but the 3’UTR length is altered, influencing the fate of mRNAs in several ways, for example, by altering the availability of RNA binding protein sites and microRNA binding sites. The mechansims governing both global and gene-specific APA are only starting to be deciphered. Here we review what is known about these mechanisms and the functional consequences of alternative polyadenlyation.

Di Giammartino, Dafne Campigli; Nishida, Kensei; Manley, James L.

2011-01-01

485

Evaluation of Alternatives in Downhole Steam Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective is to evaluate two alternative approaches, taken by Sandia and World Energy Systems in their development of downhole steam generators, in terms of the requirements for commercialization and the technical and economic goals which each one mus...

1981-01-01

486

Value Tree Analysis of Energy Supply Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the use of value trees in multiattribute evaluations of energy supply alternatives. A value tree relating general values and concerns to specific value relevant attributes was constructed to compare three energy options: nuclear, coal,...

W. G. Stillwell D. Winterfeldt R. S. John

1981-01-01

487

Alternative Energy Sources for Wastewater Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies...

1988-01-01

488

Non-halogenated alternative cleaning agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cleaning efficiency of five alternative cleaning agents have been evaluated as possible replacements chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and chlorohydrocarbon (CHC) solvents used in the manufacture of certain electronic components. These cleaning agents were eva...

P. J. Nigrey

1992-01-01

489

Comparative Analysis of Alternate MHS Configurations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given the possibility that the passive Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) may have to be replaced, two alternate configurations are analyzed in this document. One option mirrors AMSU-B, the Advanced Microwave Sounding...

C. R. Cabrera-mercader D. H. Staelin

1995-01-01

490

Alternative Boundaries for New Jersey's Coastal Zone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This staff working paper presents alternative boundaries for New Jersey's Coastal Zone under the Federal Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended. Diverse pressures confront the coast of New Jersey. Different publics hold various preceptions of the...

1976-01-01

491

Study of Alternatives: Dayton's Aviation Heritage, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Study of Alternatives focuses on the three nationally significant resources in Dayton, Ohio (Wright Cycle Company building, Huffman Prairie Flying Field, and Wright Flyer III), as well as includes limited discussion of the Hoover Block and Hawthorn Hi...

1991-01-01

492

Alternative Aviation Fuels and the Army.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Core Characteristics defining the Energy Security necessary for the full range of Army missions: Surety: Preventing loss of access to power and fuel sources. Survivability: Ensuring resilience in energy systems. Supply: Accessing alternative and renewable...

E. Sattler

2010-01-01

493

Alternate Methods of Avalanche Control. Phase IV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Alternate Methods of Avalanche Control project has been funded by the Washington State Highway Commission since August 1974 in order to develop simple, reliable and repeatable methods of triggering avalanche release which are free from the storage, ha...

E. R. LaChapelle D. B. Bell J. B. Johnson R. W. Lindsay E. M. Sackett

1978-01-01

494

Capital Cost Analysis of Airport Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the study, a series of airport development program alternatives, identified by RASSC as satisfying Bay Area traffic demand, were reviewed for cost and then considered on a present value basis to allow further assessments when weighed against the income...

1971-01-01

495

OZONE PRECURSOR EMISSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVELY FUELED VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Smog chamber tests were conducted using automobile exhaust gas generated during emission tests with a group of alternatively fueled vehicles. he tests were designed to evaluate the photochemical characteristics of organic emissions from vehicles operating on compressed natural ga...

496

Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Evaluate Treatment Claims  

MedlinePLUS

... if you have questions. Weed out misinformation The Internet is full of information about alternative medicine treatments, ... you follow any advice you read on the Internet, check with your conventional doctor for guidance. Supplements: ' ...

497

7 CFR 906.27 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designate another alternate of the same classification (handler or producer, and to the extent practical, independent, or co-op) to serve in such member's place and stead. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or...

2013-01-01

498

Alternating Current Electrocoagulation for Superfund Site Remediation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) was evaluated for a 2-year period. ACE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous media for the ...

N. P. Barkley C. W. Farrell T. W. Gardner-Clayson

1993-01-01

499

7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 930.28 Alternate members....

2013-01-01

500

Directory of Resources for Educational Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists 34 resources related to alternative education, including parent organizations, graduate programs, Web sites, clearinghouses, journals, advocacy groups, publishers, newsletters, and national organizations. Listings include contact information and a brief description. (LP)

Paths of Learning: Options for Families & Communities, 1999

1999-01-01