These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Alternative splicing results in RET isoforms with distinct trafficking properties  

PubMed Central

RET encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase that is essential for spermatogenesis, development of the sensory, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems and the kidneys, as well as for maintenance of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. RET is alternatively spliced to encode multiple isoforms that differ in their C-terminal amino acids. The RET9 and RET51 isoforms display unique levels of autophosphorylation and have differential interactions with adaptor proteins. They induce distinct gene expression patterns, promote different levels of cell differentiation and transformation, and play unique roles in development. Here we present a comprehensive study of the subcellular localization and trafficking of RET isoforms. We show that immature RET9 accumulates intracellularly in the Golgi, whereas RET51 is efficiently matured and present in relatively higher amounts on the plasma membrane. RET51 is internalized faster after ligand binding and undergoes recycling back to the plasma membrane. This differential trafficking of RET isoforms produces a more rapid and longer duration of signaling through the extracellular-signal regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway downstream of RET51 relative to RET9. Together these differences in trafficking properties contribute to some of the functional differences previously observed between RET9 and RET51 and establish the important role of intracellular trafficking in modulating and maintaining RET signaling. PMID:22875993

Richardson, Douglas S.; Rodrigues, David M.; Hyndman, Brandy D.; Crupi, Mathieu J. F.; Nicolescu, Adrian C.; Mulligan, Lois M.

2012-01-01

2

PHYSICAL PROPERTY DATA ON FLUORINATED PROPANES AND BUTANES AS CFC AND HCFC ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses results of the measurement and estimation of the physical properties of fluorinated propane derivatives as second generation alternatives for currently used CFC and HCFC chemicals. ne fluorinated ether was also studied. NOTE: lthough synthesis of the derivativ...

3

Electrical properties of blood and its constitutents: Alternating current spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical properties of blood and its constituents are reviewed over the frequency range from less than 100 Hz to nearly 100 GHz. The conductivity and dielectric constant display strongly dispersive behavior with three distinct relaxation regions. Mechanism responsible for this behavior are stated and possible applications indicated.

H. P. Schwan

1983-01-01

4

Optical properties of alternating phase-shifting masks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2005 edition of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors specifies that phase errors of alternating phase-shifting masks (APSM) should approach +/- 1 degree by 2008. This specification is reasonably motivated by the desire to keep imaging effects of mask errors below those of aberrations of projection optics, but it implies a questionable assumption that the phase of a feature is a well-defined quantity. Variations of both phase and amplitude across apertures are significant. In addition to the variables that we expect mask manufacturers to control, such as trench depth, wall slope, and bottom-surface flatness, phase also depends on polarization, illumination angle, widths of apertures, and proximity of other features. Dependence of phase on variables in addition to trench depth will increase as we shrink to pitches available with immersion lithography, perhaps restricting layouts that can be printed with APSM technology. Mask manufacturers must develop methods to set and measure phase to necessary tolerance.

Gleason, Bob; Cheng, Wen-Hao

2006-10-01

5

A synthetic alternative to natural lecithins with antimicrobial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two soft biocompatible cationic surfactants from the amino acid arginine, 1,2-dilauroyl-3-acetylarginyl-rac-glycerol (1212RAc) and 1,2-dimirystoyl-3-acetylarginyl-rac-glycerol (1414RAc), were prepared. Their physicochemical properties show that they can be classified as multifunctional surfactants with self-aggregation behaviour comparable to that of short-chain lecithins. The two surfactants can simultaneously stabilise water-in-oil (W\\/O) droplets and oil-in-water (O\\/W) droplets, forming multiple emulsions. They have antimicrobial activity similar to

L. Pérez; M. R. Infante; R. Pons; C. Morán; P. Vinardell; M. Mitjans; A. Pinazo

2004-01-01

6

Dynamics of soil physical properties under alternative systems to slash-and-burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A change from slash-and-burn to continuously cropped agricultural systems is occurring in heavily populated areas in the humid tropics. Well managed alternative systems to slash-and-burn can reduce soil structure deterioration, maintain soil fertility, and promote long-term productivity. The objectives of this paper are to describe the dynamics of soil physical properties under slash-and-burn and some alternative systems. Different land-clearing methods

Julio C. Alegre; D. K. Cassel

1996-01-01

7

An alternate method for prediction of the micromechanical properties of laminated composites  

SciTech Connect

The theory for an alternate method to classical laminate theory for the prediction of the macromechanical properties of laminated composite materials is developed and verified by comparing the predicted lamina stresses to those from a detailed finite element calculation. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by comparing the load-displacement calculation using the equivalent properties to experimentally measured data from a 4-Point bending experiment.

Bennett, J.; Kenamond, M.; Haberman, K.

1996-02-01

8

Effect of elastic property of material on stress in solar panel under alternative temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of material's elastic property on the maximal stress in solar panel (SP) under alternative temperature was investigated using an analytical method. Results showed that the maximal tensile\\/press and the shear stress existed in polyimide and the silicone rubber between composite materials and polyimide film. Employing polyimide with lower elastic modulus or silicone rubber with lower shear modulus would

Xiaoyan Wang; Hongbin Geng; Shiyu He

2006-01-01

9

Estimation of PVT properties and vapour pressure of alternate PUREX\\/UREX extractant TRI iso amyl phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tri-iso-amyl phosphate is an alternate solvent, proposed in literature as an alternate to the PUREX\\/UREX solvent tri-n-butyl\\u000a phosphate for better physical properties. Its PVT properties and accurate expression for estimation of its vapour pressure\\u000a are not available in the literature. Recently PVT properties of TiAP were estimated by authors and its vapour pressure was\\u000a measured in a ASTM certified vapor

M. Muthukumar; Shekhar Kumar; P. K. Sinha; U. Kamachi Mudali; R. Natarajan

2011-01-01

10

Alternative representation of the Kubo formula for the optical conductivity: A shortcut to transport properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kubo formula for the electrical conductivity is expressed in terms of a weighted sum of Drude-like contributions associated to the exact eigenstates of the interacting system, each characterized by its own frequency-dependent relaxation time. This alternative formulation considerably simplifies the access to the static properties (dc conductivity) and resolves the long-standing difficulty to connect the Boltzmann transport theory and the Kubo formula. In particular, at the lowest order of the perturbation theory, the correct transport scattering lifetime depending on the momentum k, which appears in the Boltzmann theory, instead of the single-electron lifetime appearing in the Green function, can be recovered. This alternative formulation is applied to (i) the elastic scattering in metals, and (ii) the inelastic scattering in the Fröhlich polaron model to obtain the exact result of the mobility in the low-temperature weak-coupling limit.

De Filippis, G.; Cataudella, V.; de Candia, A.; Mishchenko, A. S.; Nagaosa, N.

2014-07-01

11

Consideration of Alternate Working Fluid Properties in Gas Lubricated Foil Journal Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program at the NASA Glenn Research center is committed to, revolutionary improvements in performance, efficiency and reliability of turbomachinery propulsion systems. One of the key breakthroughs by which this goal is being achieved is the maturation of air lubricated foil bearing technology. Through experimental testing, foil bearings have demonstrated a variety of exceptional qualities that show them to have an important role in the future of rotordynamic lubrication. Most of the work done with foil bearings thus far has considered ambient air at atmospheric pressure as the working fluid or lubricating fluid in the bearing. However, special applications of oil-free technology require the use of air at non- standard ambient conditions or completely different working fluids altogether. The NASA Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter program presents power generation needs far beyond that of any previous space exploration effort. The proposed spacecraft will require significant power generation to provide the propulsion necessary to reach the moons of Jupiter and navigate between them. Once there, extensive scientific research will be conducted that will also present significant power requirements. Such extreme needs require exploring a new method for power generation in space. A proposed solution involves a Brayton cycle nuclear fission reactor. The nature of this application requires reliable performance of all reactor components for many years of operation under demanding conditions. This includes the bearings which will be operating with an alternative working fluid that is a combination of Helium and Xenon gases commonly known as HeXe. This fluid has transport and thermal properties that vary significantly from that of air and the effect of these property differences on bearing performance must be considered. One of the most promising applications of oil-free technology is in aircraft turbine engines. Eliminating the oil supply systems from aircraft engines will lead to significant weight and maintenance reduction. In such applications, the lubricating fluid will be high altitude air. This air will be at much lower pressure than that at sea level. Again this property change will result in a change in bearing performance, and analysis is required to quantify this effect. The study of these alternate working fluid properties will be conducted in two ways: analytically and experimentally. Analytical research will include the use of a mathematical code that can predict film thickness profiles for various ambient conditions. Estimations of load capacity can be made based upon the film thickness trends. These values will then be compared to those obtained from classical rigid bearing analysis. Experimental Research will include testing a foil bearing at a variety of ambient air pressures. The analytical and experimental data will be compared to draw conclusions on bearing performance under alternate working fluid properties.

Smith, Matthew J.

2004-01-01

12

Regulation of TMEM16A Chloride Channel Properties by Alternative Splicing*  

PubMed Central

Expression of TMEM16A protein is associated with the activity of Ca2+-activated Cl? channels. TMEM16A primary transcript undergoes alternative splicing. thus resulting in the generation of multiple isoforms. We have determined the pattern of splicing and assessed the functional properties of the corresponding TMEM16A variants. We found three alternative exons, 6b, 13, and 15, coding for segments of 22, 4, and 26 amino acids, respectively, which are differently spliced in human organs. By patch clamp experiments on transfected cells, we found that skipping of exon 6b changes the Ca2+ sensitivity by nearly 4-fold, resulting in Cl? currents requiring lower Ca2+ concentrations to be activated. At the membrane potential of 80 mV, the apparent half-effective concentration decreases from 350 to 90 nm when the segment corresponding to exon 6b is excluded. Skipping of exon 13 instead strongly reduces the characteristic time-dependent activation observed for Ca2+-activated Cl? channels at positive membrane potentials. This effect was also obtained by deleting only the second pair of amino acids corresponding to exon 13. Alternative splicing appears as an important mechanism to regulate the voltage and Ca2+ dependence of the TMEM16A-dependent Cl? channels in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:19819874

Ferrera, Loretta; Caputo, Antonella; Ubby, Ifeoma; Bussani, Erica; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Pagani, Franco; Galietta, Luis J. V.

2009-01-01

13

Measurement Properties of Questionnaires Assessing Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Pediatrics: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used by children, but estimates of that use vary widely partly due to the range of questionnaires used to assess CAM use. However, no studies have attempted to appraise measurement properties of these questionnaires. The aim of this systematic review was to critically appraise and summarize measurement properties of questionnaires of CAM use in pediatrics. Study design A search strategy was implemented in major electronic databases in March 2011 and conference websites, scientific journals and experts were consulted. Studies were included if they mentioned a questionnaire assessing the prevalence of CAM use in pediatrics. Members of the team independently rated the methodological quality of the studies (using the COSMIN checklist) and measurement properties of the questionnaires (using the Terwee and Cohen criteria). Results A total of 96 CAM questionnaires were found in 104 publications. The COSMIN checklist showed that no studies reported adequate methodological quality. The Terwee criteria showed that all included CAM questionnaires had indeterminate measurement properties. According to the Cohen score, none were considered to be a well-established assessment, two approached the level of a well-established assessment, seven were promising assessments and the remainder (n?=?87) did not reach the score’s minimum standards. Conclusion None of the identified CAM questionnaires have been thoroughly validated. This systematic review highlights the need for proper validation of CAM questionnaires in pediatrics, which may in turn lead to improved research and knowledge translation about CAM in clinical practice. PMID:22768098

Toupin April, Karine; Moher, David; Stinson, Jennifer; Byrne, Ani; White, Meghan; Boon, Heather; Duffy, Ciaran M.; Rader, Tamara; Vohra, Sunita; Tugwell, Peter

2012-01-01

14

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Final report, 1 April 1994--31 October 1996  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of the project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for one pure refrigerant and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R-502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigerant applications.

Haynes, W.M.

1996-11-01

15

Measuring fluid flow properties of waste and assessing alternative conceptual models of pore structure.  

PubMed

Laboratory procedures were developed to obtain constitutive relations for fluid flow in refuse. Five different types of experiments were conducted for the same waste sample: a drainage experiment, multi step outflow experiment, total porosity measurement, saturated hydraulic conductivity test, and gas permeability tests. To investigate fundamental processes affecting water movement and moisture retention, samples consisted entirely of newspaper. Samples were prepared in two particle sizes and two compaction pressures and packed in compression cells to replicate stress conditions in landfills. Data were modeled using HYDRUS-1D, which allowed alternative conceptual models of the pore space to be assessed. A dual-permeability model performed significantly better than a single-porosity model for water movement, suggesting that a dual domain description is required to describe water flow in landfills with significant amounts of paper and paperboard. However, a single-porosity model was adequate for describing gas transport. Results indicated that properties of the fracture domain, the large openings between refuse particles, are significantly affected by the size of waste materials and compaction, and may be best studied with field-scale measurements. On the other hand properties of the matrix domain, the smaller pore openings within and between refuse particles, are likely amenable to laboratory study because representative samples sizes should be much smaller. PMID:20970978

Han, Byunghyun; Scicchitano, Vincent; Imhoff, Paul T

2011-03-01

16

Hygroscopic Properties of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Aerosol Produced From Traditional and Alternative Fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols constitute an important component of anthropogenic climate forcing, of which aerosol-cloud interactions remain poorly understood. It is currently thought that the ability of these aerosols to alter upper tropospheric cirrus cloud properties may produce radiative forcings many times larger than the impact of linear contrails alone and which may partially offset the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from aviation (Burkhardt and Karcher, Nature, 2011). Consequently, it is important to characterize the ability of these engine-emitted aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) to form clouds. While a number of studies in the literature have examined aerosol-cloud interactions for laboratory-generated soot or from aircraft engines burning traditional fuels, limited attention has been given to how switching to alternative jet fuels impacts the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to form clouds. The key to understanding these changes is the aerosol hygroscopicity. To address this need, the second NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-II) was conducted in 2011 to examine the aerosol emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different engine power and fuel type conditions. Five fuel types were considered including traditional JP-8 fuel, synthetic Fischer-Tropsh (FT) fuel , sulfur-doped FT fuel (FTS) , hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel, and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 with HRJ. Emissions were sampled from the DC-8 on the airport jetway at a distance of 145 meters downwind of the engine by a comprehensive suite of aerosol instrumentation that provided information on the aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and CCN activity. Concurrent measurements of carbon dioxide were used to account for plume dilution so that characteristic emissions indices could be determined. It is found that both engine power and fuel type significantly influence the hygroscopic properties of the emitted aerosol, with emissions from FT fuel being much less hygroscopic than those from the JP-8 or blended fuels. Doping the FT fuel with sulfur greatly increased the hygroscopicity of the emitted aerosol beyond that for the other fuels considered. In addition, it was observed that aerosol emitted during low engine power were smaller but more hygroscopic than those emitted during typical takeoff or cruise conditions. The implications of these property changes for contrail formation will be discussed.

Moore, R.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Chen, G.; Anderson, B. E.

2012-12-01

17

Functional properties of p54, a novel SR protein active in constitutive and alternative splicing.  

PubMed Central

The p54 protein was previously identified by its reactivity with an autoantiserum. We report here that p54 is a new member of the SR family of splicing factors, as judged from its structural, antigenic, and functional characteristics. Consistent with its identification as an SR protein, p54 can function as a constitutive splicing factor in complementing splicing-deficient HeLa cell S100 extract. However, p54 also shows properties distinct from those of other SR family members, p54 can directly interact with the 65-kDa subunit of U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF65), a protein associated with the 3' splice site. In addition, p54 interacts with other SR proteins but does not interact with the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein U1-70K or the 35-kDa subunit of U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF35). This protein-protein interaction profile is different from those of prototypical SR proteins SC35 and ASF/SF2, both of which interact with U1-70K and U2AF35 but not with U2AF65. p54 promotes the use of the distal 5' splice site in E1A pre-mRNA alternative splicing, while the same site is suppressed by ASF/SF2 and SC35. These findings and the differential tissue distribution of p54 suggest that this novel SR protein may participate in regulation of alternative splicing in a tissue- and substrate-dependent manner. PMID:8816452

Zhang, W J; Wu, J Y

1996-01-01

18

Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM): An Alternative Analytical Method for Investigation in Real-Time of Liquid Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the possibility to develop an alternative Analytical Method for Investigation in Real-Time of Liquid Properties, the layout and the operation with Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Systems. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) can be accepted as a powerful technique to monitor adsorption and desorption processes at interfaces in different chemical and biological areas. In our paper,

Gh. V. Cimpoca; C. Radulescu; I. V. Popescu; I. D. Dulama; I. Ionita; M. Cimpoca; I. Cernica; R. Gavrila

2010-01-01

19

Optical properties of subwavelength patterned metal gratings for photonic device application and an alternative proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated optical properties of subwavelength patterned metal gratings for photonic device application. It was known that optical transmittance of metal films with subwavelength periodic hole arrays can be controlled by applying a dielectric overlay to the film and the films can act as wavelength or frequency selective filters. Following advancement in lithography technology it could be applied up to complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors (CIS) by patterning metal layers placed on each pixel's photo detective device. However it is not easy to replace organic color filters applied on CIS up to date because the standard CIS structure has multi-metal layers, thick dielectric layers, and too thick metal layers. In this work, we explore possibility to integrate the metal film into a CIS chip and present an alternative proposal by computer simulation utilizing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. We applied aluminum (Al) for the metal film and the dispersion information associated with Al was derived from the Lorentz-Drude model. We expect that this work could contribute to search to apply subwavelength patterned metal gratings to photonic devices.

Lyu, Hong-Kun; Woo, Sungho; Jo, Sung-Hyun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

2013-09-01

20

Asymptotic Power Properties of the Cramer-von Mises Test Under Contiguous Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The asymptotic power of the Cramer-von Mises test when parameters are estimated from the data is studied under certain local (contiguous) alternatives. Notion of (asymptotic) direction and distance from the null hypothesis of alternatives is introduced, and it is shown that there exist directions with maximum, minimum, and arbitrary intermediate…

Neuhaus, Georg

1976-01-01

21

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUORINATED PROPANE AND BUTANE DERIVATIVES AS ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Physical property measurements are presented for 24 fluorinated propane and butane derivatives and one fluorinated ether. These measurements include melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure below the boiling point, heat of vaporization at the boiling point, critical propertie...

22

IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL ON THE1 MECHANICAL AND TRANSFER PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE2  

E-print Network

OF CONCRETE2 3 Alexandre Pavoine, David Harbec, Thierry Chaussadent, Arezki Tagnit-Hamou and Loïc4 Divet5. The subject of his PhD thesis was the risk of development of Delayed9 Ettringite Formation in concretes. His research interests include durability of concrete and the10 development of alternative materials

23

Theory of the magnetic properties of igneous rocks in alternating fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each magnetic grain in a rock contains ferromagnetic domains with a range of sizes, the small ones being magnetically harder and responding less readily to demagnetizing fields than the larger ones. By exposing a grain which has a thermoremanent magnetic moment to an alternating field, domains larger than a critical size are demagnetized, leaving the smaller domains unaffected. Domain size

F. D. Stacey

1961-01-01

24

Soil Physical Properties and Tomato Yield and Quality in Alternative Cropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ability and resource stewardship, including declines in soil organic matter levels due to intensive tillage, surface The Sustainable Agriculture Farming Systems (SAFS) Project has water quality degradation due to reduced water infiltra- studied the transition to low-input and organic alternatives in Califor- nia's Sacramento Valley. This project compares a 4-yr rotation of tion rates, and reduced soil tilth (National Research

Giuseppe Colla; Jeffrey P. Mitchell; Brian A. Joyce; Leisa M. Huyck; Wesley W. Wallender; Steve R. Temple; Theodore C. Hsiao; Durga D. Poudel

2000-01-01

25

Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.  

PubMed

In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly. PMID:16524723

Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

2007-01-01

26

Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

27

Selection and Properties of Alternative Forming Fluids for TRISO Fuel Kernel Production  

SciTech Connect

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Doug Marshall; M. Baker; J. King; B. Gorman

2013-01-01

28

Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

2013-01-01

29

Thermoelectric properties of SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 for thermoelectric devices and alternative energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric properties of two antiperovskites SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 are calculated using first principles calculations. High values of Seebeck coefficients are observed for these materials. Electrical and thermal conductivities are also calculated. Increase in thermal conductivity and decrease in electrical conductivity are found with increasing temperature. The maximum values of thermal conductivity are 92×1014 W/m K s and 88×1014 W/m K s for SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 respectively at a temperature of 900 K. The peak values of 5×1020/? m s and 5.2×1020/? m s are achieved for n-type SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 respectively at a temperature of 300 K. Figure of merit is achieved for these materials at room temperature which shows that these materials can be useful for thermoelectric devices and alternative energy sources.

Bilal, M.; Khan, Banaras; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.; Maqbool, M.; Jalai Asadabadi, S.; Ahmad, I.

2014-05-01

30

Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program  

SciTech Connect

The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from Occidental Shale Company was fractionated to give three liquids in the diesel fuel boiling range. The initial boiling point in each case was 325/sup 0/F (163/sup 0/C). The final boiling points were 640/sup 0/F (338/sup 0/C), 670/sup 0/F (354/sup 0/C) and 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/F). Each fraction was hydrotreated to three different severities (800, 1200 and 1500 psi total pressure) over a Shell 324 nickel molybdate on alumina catalyst at 710 to 750/sup 0/F to afford 9 different model fuels. A variety of commercial and experimental additives were evaluated as cold flow improvers in the model fuels at treat levels of 0.04 to 0.4 wt %. Both the standard pour point test (ASTM D97) and a more severe low temperature flow test (LTFT) were employed. Reductions in pour points of up to 70/sup 0/F and improvements in LTFT temperatures up to 16/sup 0/F were achieved. It is concluded that flow improver additives can play an important role in improving the cold flow properties of future synthetic fuels of the diesel type derived from oil shale.

Frankenfeld, J.W.; Taylor, W.F.

1980-11-01

31

Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM): An Alternative Analytical Method for Investigation in Real-Time of Liquid Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the possibility to develop an alternative Analytical Method for Investigation in Real-Time of Liquid Properties, the layout and the operation with Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Systems. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) can be accepted as a powerful technique to monitor adsorption and desorption processes at interfaces in different chemical and biological areas. In our paper, Quartz Crystal Microbalance is used to monitor in real-time the polymer adsorption followed by azoic dye adsorption and then copolymer adsorption as well as optimization of interaction processes and determination of solution effects on the analytical signal. The solutions of azoic dye (5?10-4 g/L, 5?10-5 g/L and 5?10-6 g/L in DMF) are adsorbed at gold electrodes of QCM and the sensor responses are estimated through decrease and increase of QCM frequency. Also, the response of the sensor at maleic anhydride (MA) copolymer with styrene St (MA-St copolymer concentration of solution: 5?10-4 g/L; 5?10-5 g/L and 5?10-6 g/L in DMF) is fast, large, and reversible. The detailed investigation showed the fact that the Quartz Crystal Microbalance is a modern method to study a wider number of physical and chemical properties related to the surface and interfacial processes of synthesized copolymer leading to a higher reliability of the research results.

Cimpoca, Gh. V.; Radulescu, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Dulama, I. D.; Ionita, I.; Cimpoca, M.; Cernica, I.; Gavrila, R.

2010-01-01

32

Crystal structure and magnetic properties of FeSeO(3)F--alternating antiferromagnetic S = 5/2 chains.  

PubMed

The new oxofluoride FeSeO3F, which is isostructural with FeTeO3F and GaTeO3F, was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and its structure was determined by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties of FeSeO3F were characterized by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, by evaluating its spin exchanges on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and by performing a quantum Monte Carlo simulation of the magnetic susceptibility. FeSeO3F crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n and has one unique Se(4+) ion and one unique Fe(3+) ion. The building blocks of FeSeO3F are [SeO3] trigonal pyramids and cis-[FeO4F2] distorted octahedra. The cis-[FeO4F2] octahedra are condensed by sharing the O-O and F-F edges alternatingly to form [FeO3F]? chains, which are interconnected via the [SeO3] pyramids by corner-sharing. The magnetic susceptibility of FeSeO3F is characterized by a broad maximum at 75(2) K and a long-range antiferromagnetic order below ?45 K. The latter is observed by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. DFT calculations show that the Fe-F-Fe spin exchange is stronger than the Fe-O-Fe exchange, so each [FeO3F]? chain is a Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain with alternating antiferromagnetic spin exchanges. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is well-reproduced by a quantum-Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:24684563

Hu, Shichao; Johnsson, Mats; Law, Joseph M; Bettis, Jerry L; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Kremer, Reinhard K

2014-04-21

33

Purification, properties and alternate substrate specificities of arginase from two different sources: Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver  

PubMed Central

Arginase was purified from Vigna catjang cotyledons and buffalo liver by chromatographic separations using Bio-Gel P-150, DEAE-cellulose and arginine AH Sepharose 4B affinity columns. The native molecular weight of an enzyme estimated on Bio-Gel P-300 column for Vigna catjang was 210 kDa and 120 kDa of buffalo liver, while SDS-PAGE showed a single band of molecular weight 52 kDa for cotyledon and 43 kDa for buffalo liver arginase. The kinetic properties determined for the purified cotyledon and liver arginase showed an optimum pH of 10.0 and pH 9.2 respectively. Optimal cofactor Mn++ ion concentration was found to be 0.6 mM for cotyledon and 2 mM for liver arginase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for cotyledon arginase and hepatic arginase were found to be 42 mM and 2 mM respectively. The activity of guanidino compounds as alternate substrates for Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver arginase is critically dependent on the length of the amino acid side chain and the number of carbon atoms. In addition to L-arginine cotyledon arginase showed substrate specificity towards agmatine and L-canavanine, whereas the liver arginase showed substrate specificity towards only L-canavanine. PMID:16094464

2005-01-01

34

Alternate stresses and temperature variation as factors of influence of ultrasonic vibration on mechanical and functional properties of shape memory alloys.  

PubMed

It is known that the main factors in a variation in the shape memory alloy properties under insonation are heating of the material and alternate stresses action. In the present work the experimental study of the mechanical behaviour and functional properties of shape memory alloy under the action of alternate stresses and varying temperature was carried out. The data obtained had demonstrated that an increase in temperature of the sample resulted in a decrease or increase in deformation stress depending on the structural state of the TiNi sample. It was shown that in the case of the alloy in the martensitic state, a decrease in stress was observed, and on the other hand, in the austenitic state an increase in stress took place. It was found that action of alternate stresses led to appearance of strain jumps on the strain-temperature curves during cooling and heating the sample through the temperature range of martensitic transformation under the constant stress. The value of the strain jumps depended on the amplitude of alternate stresses and the completeness of martensitic transformation. It was shown that the heat action of ultrasonic vibration to the mechanical behaviour of shape memory alloys was due to the non-monotonic dependence of yield stress on the temperature. The force action of ultrasonic vibration to the functional properties was caused by formation of additional oriented martensite. PMID:23870387

Belyaev, Sergey; Volkov, Alexander; Resnina, Natalia

2014-01-01

35

Alternating-current conductivity and dielectric properties of Ge25Sb15- xBixS60 bulk and thin-film glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the replacement of antimony atoms by bismuth atoms on the electrical properties of compounds of the melt-quenched and thermally evaporated Ge25Sb15-xBixS60 (x = 0, 5, 10 and 15) chalcogenide system are reported for the first time. The results for the alternating-current (ac) conductivity sigmaac and the dielectric constant ?1 of some bulk and thin-film samples of the

M. M. El-Samanoudy

2002-01-01

36

Information Wants To Be Shared: An Alternative Framework for Approaching Intellectual Property Disputes in an Information Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the debate over intellectual property rights for digital media. Topics include why intellectual property should be protected; the evolution of copyright law; fair use doctrine; case studies; the philosophical theories of property, including labor theory, utilitarian theory, and personality theory; natural law theory; the social role of…

Tavani, Herman T.

2002-01-01

37

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory operates the Alternative Fuels Data Center, a Web site with vast amounts of information on alternative fuels and the vehicles that use them. A general table of fuel properties gives a quick comparison of gasoline to several alternatives, while sections devoted to eight different fuels go into much greater depth. There are several documents that examine new alternative fuel vehicles, including performance tests, fact sheets, statistics, and case studies. The site also has common questions and answers about converting a gasoline vehicle to one that uses alternative fuels.

38

Theoretical study on electronic properties of trans-oligomers of thiophenes, siloles and alternate thiophene and siloles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the geometrical structures, electronic structures, absorption and emission spectra of three series of oligomers containing thiophenes, siloles as well as both thiophene and siloles alternately, respectively, are comparatively studied by ab initio, B3LYP and TDDFT methods with basis set 6-31G(d).The results show that the highest occupied orbitals (HOMOs), the lowest unoccupied orbitals (LUMOs) of these oligomers increase

Gui-Xia Yang; Hai-Lin Fan; Xiaodi Niu; Pei-Pei Yang; Chen shao; Zong-Hao Huang

2010-01-01

39

Microstructure and electrical properties of YBaCuO tapes prepared by alternating electrodeposition and heat treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2.5 ?m thick YBaCuO layers have been synthesized on both sides of 50 ?m thick Ag tapes by alternating sequential electrolytic deposition of precursors and oxidation-reaction treatments. It was found that the process leads to a nearly perfect alignment of the “c” axis of the superconducting grains with the normal of the tapes when the last synthesis step is started in the presence of a liquid phase. The major problems encountered were: the presence of cracks generated by oxidation of the Y-base deposit, a large under-stoichiometry in Y and contamination by impurities like S and C. Once the problem of cracks was practically solved and the Y stoichiometry partially re-adjusted, the transport critical current density at 77K of our tapes was increased up to 6 600 A/cm2 in spiteof a critical temperature of only 82K

Régnier, P.; Poissonnet, S.; Villars, G.; Louchet, C.

1997-08-01

40

Impairment of alternative splice sites defining a novel gammaretroviral exon within gag modifies the oncogenic properties of Akv murine leukemia virus  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of an alternative splice donor site located within the gag region has previously been shown to broaden the pathogenic potential of the T-lymphomagenic gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus, while the equivalent mutations in the erythroleukemia inducing Friend murine leukemia virus seem to have no influence on the disease-inducing potential of this virus. In the present study we investigate the splice pattern as well as the possible effects of mutating the alternative splice sites on the oncogenic properties of the B-lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. Results By exon-trapping procedures we have identified a novel gammaretroviral exon, resulting from usage of alternative splice acceptor (SA') and splice donor (SD') sites located in the capsid region of gag of the B-cell lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. To analyze possible effects in vivo of this novel exon, three different alternative splice site mutant viruses, mutated in either the SA', in the SD', or in both sites, respectively, were constructed and injected into newborn inbred NMRI mice. Most of the infected mice (about 90%) developed hematopoietic neoplasms within 250 days, and histological examination of the tumors showed that the introduced synonymous gag mutations have a significant influence on the phenotype of the induced tumors, changing the distribution of the different types as well as generating tumors of additional specificities such as de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and histiocytic sarcoma. Interestingly, a broader spectrum of diagnoses was made from the two single splice-site mutants than from as well the wild-type as the double splice-site mutant. Both single- and double-spliced transcripts are produced in vivo using the SA' and/or the SD' sites, but the mechanisms underlying the observed effects on oncogenesis remain to be clarified. Likewise, analyses of provirus integration sites in tumor tissues, which identified 111 novel RISs (retroviral integration sites) and 35 novel CISs (common integration sites), did not clearly point to specific target genes or pathways to be associated with specific tumor diagnoses or individual viral mutants. Conclusion We present here the first example of a doubly spliced transcript within the group of gammaretroviruses, and we show that mutation of the alternative splice sites that define this novel RNA product change the oncogenic potential of Akv murine leukemia virus. PMID:17617899

S?rensen, Annette Balle; Lund, Anders H; Kunder, Sandra; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schmidt, Jorg; Wang, Bruce; Wabl, Matthias; Pedersen, Finn Skou

2007-01-01

41

Atomic Layer Deposition and Properties of Silicon Oxide Thin Films Using Alternating Exposures to SiH2Cl2 and O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the process for the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon dioxide thin films on a silicon wafer by alternating exposures to SiH2Cl2 and O3. The growth kinetics of silicon oxide films was examined by varying reactant exposures at various deposition temperatures ranging from 250 to 450 °C. The deposition was governed by a self-limiting surface reaction, and the growth rate at 350 °C was saturated at 0.25 nm/cycle for SiH2Cl2 exposures of over 5× 109 L (10-6 Torr\\cdots). The chlorine content and the wet-etching rate in a diluted HF solution were reduced by increasing the deposition temperature. The films deposited at temperatures ranging from 350 to 450 °C exhibited excellent physical and electrical properties that were equivalent to those of silicon oxide films deposited at 760 °C by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

Won-Jun Lee,; Chang-Hee Han,; Jae-Kyun Park,; Youn-Seoung Lee,; Sa-Kyun Rha,

2010-07-01

42

Atomic Layer Deposition and Properties of Silicon Oxide Thin Films Using Alternating Exposures to SiH2Cl2 and O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the process for the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon dioxide thin films on a silicon wafer by alternating exposures to SiH2Cl2 and O3. The growth kinetics of silicon oxide films was examined by varying reactant exposures at various deposition temperatures ranging from 250 to 450 °C. The deposition was governed by a self-limiting surface reaction, and the growth rate at 350 °C was saturated at 0.25 nm/cycle for SiH2Cl2 exposures of over 5×109 L (10-6 Torr·s). The chlorine content and the wet-etching rate in a diluted HF solution were reduced by increasing the deposition temperature. The films deposited at temperatures ranging from 350 to 450 °C exhibited excellent physical and electrical properties that were equivalent to those of silicon oxide films deposited at 760 °C by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

Lee, Won-Jun; Han, Chang-Hee; Park, Jae-Kyun; Lee, Youn-Seoung; Rha, Sa-Kyun

2010-07-01

43

Alternative Remedies  

MedlinePLUS

... or remedies that are not part of the traditional medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare professional. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is called complementary medicine . Alternative remedies can ...

44

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

2012-01-01

45

Ligand effects on the structure and magnetic properties of alternating copper(II) chains with 2,2'-bipyrimidine- and polymethyl-substituted pyrazolates as bridging ligands.  

PubMed

A novel series of heteroleptic copper(II) compounds of formulas {[Cu2(?-H2O)(?-pz)2(?-bpm)(ClO4)(H2O)]ClO4·2H2O}n (1), {[Cu2(?-H2O)(?-3-Mepz)2(?-bpm)](ClO4)2·2H2O}n (2), and {[Cu2(?-OH)(?-3,5-Me2pz)(?-bpm)(H-3,5-Me2pz)2](ClO4)2}n (3) [bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, Hpz = pyrazole, H-3-Mepz = 3-methylpyrazole, and H-3,5-Me2pz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole] have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction methods. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 consist of copper(II) chains with regular alternating bpm and bis(pyrazolate)(aqua) bridges, whereas that of 3 is made up of copper(II) chains with regular alternating bpm and (pyrazolate)(hydroxo) bridges. The copper centers are six- (1) or five-coordinate (2) in axially elongated, octahedral (1) or square-pyramidal (2) environments in 1 and 2, whereas they are five-coordinate in distorted trigonal-bipyramidal surroundings in 3. The values of the copper-copper separations across the bpm/pyrazolate bridges are 5.5442(7)/3.3131(6) (1), 5.538(1)/3.235(1) (2), and 5.7673(7)/3.3220(6) Å (3). The magnetic properties of 1-3 have been investigated in the temperature range of 25-300 K. The analysis of their magnetic susceptibility data through the isotropic Hamiltonian for an alternating antiferromagnetic copper(II) chain model [H = -J?i=1-n/2 (S2i·S2i-1 + ?S2i·S2i+1), with ? = J'/J and Si = SCu = 1/2] reveals the presence of a strong to moderate antiferromagnetic coupling through the bis(pyrazolate)(aqua) [-J = 217 (1) and 215 cm(-1) (2)] and (pyrazolate)(hydroxo) bridges [-J = 153 cm(-1) (3)], respectively, whereas a strong to weak antiferromagnetic coupling occurs through the bis-bidentate bpm [-J' = 211 (1), 213 (2), and 44 cm(-1) (3)]. A simple orbital analysis of the magnetic exchange interaction within the bpm- and pyrazolate-bridged dicopper(II) fragments of 1-3 visualizes the ?-type pathways involving the (dx(2)-y(2)) (1 and 2) or d(z(2)) (3) magnetic orbitals on each metal ion, which account for the variation of the magnetic properties in these three novel examples of one-dimensional copper(II) compounds with regular alternating intrachain antiferromagnetic interactions. PMID:24828822

Castro, Isabel; Calatayud, M Luisa; Barros, Wdeson P; Carranza, José; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Marino, Nadia; De Munno, Giovanni

2014-06-01

46

The structure, function and properties of sirohaem decarboxylase - an enzyme with structural homology to a transcription factor family that is part of the alternative haem biosynthesis pathway  

PubMed Central

Some bacteria and archaea synthesize haem by an alternative pathway, which involves the sequestration of sirohaem as a metabolic intermediate rather than as a prosthetic group. Along this pathway the two acetic acid side-chains attached to C12 and C18 are decarboxylated by sirohaem decarboxylase, a heterodimeric enzyme composed of AhbA and AhbB, to give didecarboxysirohaem. Further modifications catalysed by two related radical SAM enzymes, AhbC and AhbD, transform didecarboxysirohaem into Fe-coproporphyrin III and haem respectively. The characterization of sirohaem decarboxylase is reported in molecular detail. Recombinant versions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri AhbA/B have been produced and their physical properties compared. The D. vulgaris and M. barkeri enzyme complexes both copurify with haem, whose redox state influences the activity of the latter. The kinetic parameters of the D. desulfuricans enzyme have been determined, the enzyme crystallized and its structure has been elucidated. The topology of the enzyme reveals that it shares a structural similarity to the AsnC/Lrp family of transcription factors. The active site is formed in the cavity between the two subunits and a AhbA/B-product complex with didecarboxysirohaem has been obtained. A mechanism for the decarboxylation of the kinetically stable carboxyl groups is proposed. PMID:24865947

Palmer, David J; Schroeder, Susanne; Lawrence, Andrew D; Deery, Evelyne; Lobo, Susana A; Saraiva, Ligia M; McLean, Kirsty J; Munro, Andrew W; Ferguson, Stuart J; Pickersgill, Richard W; Brown, David G; Warren, Martin J

2014-01-01

47

Clearance of Human IgG1-Sensitised Red Blood Cells In Vivo in Humans Relates to the In Vitro Properties of Antibodies from Alternative Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC) were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human Fc?R, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the Fc?RI and Fc?RII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in Fc?RIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for Fc?RIIIa 158F, 20-fold for Fc?RIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for Fc?RIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with Fc?RIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where Fc?RI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only Fc?RIII binding and Fc?RIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of Fc?RIII in RBC clearance. PMID:25302805

Armour, Kathryn L.; Smith, Cheryl S.; Ip, Natasha C. Y.; Ellison, Cara J.; Kirton, Christopher M.; Wilkes, Anthony M.; Williamson, Lorna M.; Clark, Michael R.

2014-01-01

48

Alternative Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

2002-01-01

49

Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments for glaucoma. Use of alternative medicine continues to increase, although ... positive impact on your overall health and other glaucoma risk factors including high blood pressure. Always talk ...

50

Alternative splicing in the fiddler crab cognate ecdysteroid receptor: Variation in receptor isoform expression and DNA binding properties in response to hormone.  

PubMed

RXR cDNA cloning from three Uca species led to the identification of 4 conserved isoforms, indicative of alternative splicing in the hinge and ligand binding domains (LBD). Sequencing of overlapping clones from a Ucapugilator genomic library identified EcR isoforms matching previously identified cDNA variants; in addition, a cryptic exon in the LBD was detected and evidence for expression of this new isoform was obtained from next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq analysis also identified a new amino terminal EcR variant. EcR and RXR transcript abundance increases throughout ovarian maturation in U. pugilator, while cognate receptor transcript abundance remains constant in a related Indo-Pacific species with a different reproductive strategy. To examine if crab RXR LBD isoforms have different physical properties in vitro, electromobility shift assays were performed with different EcR isoforms. The cognate crab and fruit fly receptors differ in their responses to hormone. Ecdysteroids did not increase DNA binding for the crab heterodimers, while ecdysteroids stimulate binding for Drosophilamelanogaster EcR/USP heterodimers. In swapping experiments, UpEcR/USP heterodimers did not show ligand-responsive differences in DNA binding; both crab RXR LBD isoforms, however, conferred ligand-responsive increases in DNA binding with DmEcRs. These data indicate that both UpRXR LBD isoforms can heterodimerize with the heterologous DmEcR receptors and promote ligand and DNA binding. Unresponsiveness of the cognate receptors to ecdysteroid, however, suggest additional factors may be required to mediate endogenous, perhaps isoform-specific, differences in EcR conformation, consistent with previously reported effects of UpRXR isoforms on UpEcR ligand-binding affinities. PMID:25025945

Durica, David S; Das, Sunetra; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce; Phillips, Barret; Kappalli, Sudha; Anilkumar, Gopinathan

2014-09-15

51

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this chapter on decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning school property it is noted that no new trends emerged during the year. Among the topics addressed are the extent of school board authority over property use and other property matters; the attachment and detachment of land from school district holdings; school…

Goldblatt, Steven M.

52

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

Piele, Philip K.

53

Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of regular alternating ?-bpm/di-?-X copper(II) chains (bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine; X = OH, F).  

PubMed

The preparation and X-ray crystal structure of four 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm)-containing copper(II) complexes of formula {[Cu(2)(?-bpm)(H(2)O)(4)(?-OH)(2)][Mn(H(2)O)(6)](SO(4))(2)}(n) (1), {[Cu(2)(?-bpm)(H(2)O)(4)(?-OH)(2)]SiF(6)}(n) (2), {Cu(2)(?-bpm)(H(2)O)(2)(?-F)(2)F(2)}(n) (3), and [Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(2)F(NO(3))][Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(3)F]NO(3)·2H(2)O (4) are reported. The structures of 1-3 consist of chains of copper(II) ions with regular alternation of bis-bidentate bpm and di-?-hydroxo (1 and 2) or di-?-fluoro (3) groups, the electroneutrality being achieved by either hexaaqua manganese(II) cations plus uncoordinated sulfate anions (1), uncoordinated hexafluorosilicate anions (2), or terminally bound fluoride ligands (3). Each copper(II) ion in 1-4 is six-coordinated in elongated octahedral surroundings. 1 and 2 show identical, linear chain motifs with two bpm-nitrogen atoms and two hydroxo groups building the equatorial plane at each copper(II) ion and the axial position being filled by water molecules. In the case of 3, the axial sites at the copper atom are occupied by a bpm-nitrogen atom and a bis-monodentate fluoride anion, producing a "step-like" chain motif. The values of the angle at the hydroxo and fluoro bridges are 94.11(6) (1), 94.75(4) (2), and 101.43(4)° (3). In each case, the copper-copper separation through the bis-bidentate bpm [5.428(1) (1), 5.449(1) (2), and 5.9250(4) Å (3)] is considerably longer than that through the di-?-hydroxo [2.8320(4) (1) and 2.824(1) Å (2)] or di-?-fluoro [3.3027(4) Å (3)] bridges. Compound 4 is a mononuclear species whose structure is made up of neutral [Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(2)F(NO(3))] units, [Cu(bpm)(H(2)O)(3)F](+) cations, uncoordinated nitrate anions, and crystallization water molecules, giving rise to a pseudo-helical, one-dimensional (1D) supramolecular motif. The magnetic properties of 1-3 have been investigated in the temperature range 1.9-300 K. Relatively large, alternating antiferro- [J = -149 (1) and -141 cm(-1) (2) across bis-bidentate bpm] and ferromagnetic [?J = +194 (1) and +176 cm(-1) (2) through the dihydroxo bridges] interactions occur in 1 and 2 [the Hamiltonian being defined as H = -J?(i=1)(n/2) (S(2i)·S(2i-1) - ?S(2i)·S(2i+1))]. These values compare well with those previously reported for parent examples. Two weak intrachain antiferromagnetic interactions [J = -0.30 and ?J = -8.1 cm(-1) across bpm and the di-?-fluoro bridges, respectively] whose values were substantiated by density functional theory (DFT)-type calculations occur in 3. PMID:22428904

Marino, Nadia; Armentano, Donatella; De Munno, Giovanni; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

2012-04-01

54

ALTERNATIVE OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study chloramines, chlorine dioxide and ozone as alternative oxidants/disinfectants to chlorine for the control of disinfection by-rpdocuts (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes and haloa...

55

Magnetostrictive Alternator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

56

Alternative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

Herman, Dan

1999-01-01

57

The Alternate Atomic Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternate atomic model posits concentric electron and nucleon fields spinning together about an empty center. It is alternative to the generally accepted planetary system in which electron point particles orbit about a center clump of nucleon point particles. Introduced in 1992 as an alternative to the standard model of the nucleus it applies scientific space-time knowledge unknown when the standard model was conceived. Originally advanced in the spirit of alternative equivalence it evolved to model the entire atomic structure plus many features of space-time. Structural definitions assume space-time properties of: unidirectional expansion, special relativity, electrical field, magnetic field, spin field, gravity field, and space-time surface effect. Field effects are associated with Faraday lines of field force. Model properties feature symmetry and complementarily. Mass structures of the electron, proton,neutron, and protium atom plus the atomic and nuclear constituencies of all elements are developed. In addition the nuclear strong force is defined, the magnetic anomaly explained, etc. Model logic constructs the neutron as the complement of the hydrogen (protium) atom.

Ragland, Evan

2008-03-01

58

Predicting housing prices at alternative locations and in alternative scenarios of the spatial job distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative hedonic model formulations are used to compare predicted and observed prices of property transactions in alternative locations. The estimation of model parameters is based on data from Western Norway, and alternative model formulations primarily differ with respect to how spatial structure is represented. In addition to evaluating the predicability of alternative model formulations we also study how housing prices

Liv Osland; Inge Thorsen

2007-01-01

59

Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test  

E-print Network

Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test An alternating series is defined to be a series of the form: S = n=0 (-1)n an , (1) where all the an > 0. The alternating series test is a set and/or property 2 do not hold, then the alternating series test is inconclusive. Note that property 1

California at Santa Cruz, University of

60

Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test  

E-print Network

Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test An alternating series is defined to be a series of the form: S = # # n=0 (-1) n a n , (1) where all the a n > 0. The alternating series test but property 1 and/or property 2 do not hold, then the alternating series test is inconclusive. Note

California at Santa Cruz, University of

61

Alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

1977-01-01

62

Alternate-1 and Alternate-2 Orientations in Interchange (Reciprocal Translocation) Quadrivalents  

PubMed Central

The dynamic properties of the spindle, and published numerical data, argue that the differentiation of alternate-1 and alternate-2 orientations of an interchange quadrivalent is real and meaningful, contra Boussy (1982). PMID:17246129

Rickards, Geoffrey K.

1983-01-01

63

Methane number testing of alternative gaseous fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative gaseous fuels, like syn-gas and bio-gas, are attractive fuels for internal combustion engines due to energy and environmental concerns. Although the worldwide use of alternative gaseous fuels has increased, the knock properties of these fuels are not well understood. The methane number (MN) knock rating technique was selected based on its range and sensitivity. Eight alternative gaseous fuel compositions

Martin Malenshek; Daniel B. Olsen

2009-01-01

64

Alternative approaches to plasma confinement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.

Roth, J. R.

1977-01-01

65

Alternate Rules of Association  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Weyl correspondence rule (107) is not unique: there are a host of alternate equivalent association rules which specify corresponding representations. All these representations with equivalent formalisms are typified by characteristic quasi-distribution functions and ?-products, all systematically inter-convertible among themselves. They have been surveyed comparatively and organized in [Lee95, BJ84], on the basis of seminal classification work by Cohen [Coh66, Coh76]. Like different coordinate transformations, they may be favored by virtue of their different characteristic properties in varying applications...

Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

2014-11-01

66

Looking for an Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

Kennedy, Jack

1999-01-01

67

Effect of alternative aging process on the fracture and interfacial properties of particulate Al 2 O 3 -reinforced Al (6061) metal matrix composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different aging processes on ductility, fracture, and interfacial properties in particulate Al2O3-reinforced Al (6061) metal-matrix composite (MMCs) were studied. Tensile tests based on relevant ASTM standards were performed\\u000a to investigate the mechanical responses of specimens under different heat-treatment conditions. Scanning electron microscopy\\u000a (SEM), field-emission SEM (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out to correlate

H. R. Shakeri; Zhirui Wang

2002-01-01

68

Effect of alternative aging process on the fracture and interfacial properties of particulate Al2O3-reinforced Al (6061) metal matrix composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of different aging processes on ductility, fracture, and interfacial properties in particulate Al2O3-reinforced Al (6061) metal-matrix composite (MMCs) were studied. Tensile tests based on relevant ASTM standards were performed to investigate the mechanical responses of specimens under different heat-treatment conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission SEM (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out to correlate fracture mechanism(s) with microstructural features. Based on the experimental results, the overall effect of heat treatment on tensile properties is similar to that in the monolithic alloy, however, the rate of recovery in fracture-related properties, such as elongation to fracture, is lower in the overaged condition for the MMC samples. To explain this “low” recovery behavior of overaged MMCs, the following observations have been taken into account: (1) a shift of the materials’ behavior from particle fracture to interface (or near-interface) debonding fracture, when moving from the underaged to overaged regime, and (2) more frequent observations of interfacial reaction products (spinel) on the fracture surface of overaged specimens. The presence/formation of spinel phase at the interface was recognized as the main cause of this behavior. Although spinel products mainly form during material processing, they may continue to form in the solid state as well. As a result, the surface morphology of the spinel phase in the underaged specimens is different from that in the overaged specimens.

Shakeri, H. R.; Wang, Zhirui

2002-06-01

69

Predicting housing prices at alternative locations and under alternative scenarios of the spatial job distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative hedonic model formulations are used to compare predicted and observed prices of property transactions at alternative\\u000a locations. The estimation of model parameters is based on data from western Norway. In addition to evaluating the predictability\\u000a of alternative model formulations we study how housing prices in different areas are affected by changes in the spatial distribution\\u000a of employment. Alternative scenarios

Liv Osland; Inge Thorsen

2009-01-01

70

Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-x%BaTiO3 textured ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of alternating (ac) and direct current (dc) fields on the structural and dielectric properties of [001]PC textured Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-7%BaTiO3 (NBT-7%BT) ceramics has been investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the depolarization at temperature Td in poled samples resulted from a tetragonal ? pseudo-cubic transition on heating. Moderate ac drive and dc bias had opposite influences on Td: ac drive decreased the Td, whereas dc bias increased it. These investigations suggested an effective method to expand the working temperature range of NBT-x%BT textured ceramics to a high temperature.

Ge, Wenwei; Maurya, Deepam; Li, Jiefang; Priya, Shashank; Viehland, D.

2013-06-01

71

Peculiarities of Ferro-Antiferroelectric Phase Transitions 9. Alternative for dipole-glass description of properties of substances with coexisting ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases  

E-print Network

It is demonstrated that the substances with small difference in the free energies of the ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases possess a set of properties characteristic for the so-called "dipole glasses". Possible phase diagrams of the substances that can be misguidedly attributed to glasses are discussed. Main attention has been paid to the process of long-time relaxation of physical characteristics of these compounds after their state of thermodynamic equilibrium was disturbed by external influences. The long-time relaxation along with the pronounced frequency dependence of parameters (for example, dependence of dielectric or magnetic characteristics on the frequency of measuring field) is considered as main features due to which these systems are classified as dipole glasses. Our main purpose is to call attention to the fact that one has to be cautious during the interpretation of experimental results in substances with inhomogeneous states of coexisting domains of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases.

V. M. Ishchuk; V. L. Sobolev

2010-07-01

72

Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase 1 (Psd1) Promotes Mitochondrial Fusion by Regulating the Biophysical Properties of the Mitochondrial Membrane and Alternative Topogenesis of Mitochondrial Genome Maintenance Protein 1 (Mgm1)*  

PubMed Central

Non–bilayer-forming lipids such as cardiolipin, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) are proposed to generate negative membrane curvature, promoting membrane fusion. However, the mechanism by which lipids regulate mitochondrial fusion remains poorly understood. Here, we show that mitochondrial-localized Psd1, the key yeast enzyme that synthesizes PE, is required for proper mitochondrial morphology and fusion. Yeast cells lacking Psd1 exhibit fragmented and aggregated mitochondria with impaired mitochondrial fusion during mating. More importantly, we demonstrate that a reduction in PE reduces the rate of lipid mixing during fusion of liposomes with lipid compositions reflecting the mitochondrial membrane. This suggests that the mitochondrial fusion defect in the ?psd1 strain could be due to the altered biophysical properties of the mitochondrial membrane, resulting in reduced fusion kinetics. The ?psd1 strain also has impaired mitochondrial activity such as oxidative phosphorylation and reduced mitochondrial ATP levels which are due to a reduction in mitochondrial PE. The loss of Psd1 also impairs the biogenesis of s-Mgm1, a protein essential for mitochondrial fusion, further exacerbating the mitochondrial fusion defect of the ?psd1 strain. Increasing s-Mgm1 levels in ?psd1 cells markedly reduced mitochondrial aggregation. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial PE regulates mitochondrial fusion by regulating the biophysical properties of the mitochondrial membrane and by enhancing the biogenesis of s-Mgm1. While several proteins are required to orchestrate the intricate process of membrane fusion, we propose that specific phospholipids of the mitochondrial membrane promote fusion by enhancing lipid mixing kinetics and by regulating the action of profusion proteins. PMID:23045528

Chan, Eliana Y. L.; McQuibban, G. Angus

2012-01-01

73

Replication stress-induced alternative mRNA splicing alters properties of the histone RNA-binding protein HBP/SLBP: a key factor in the control of histone gene expression.  

PubMed

Animal replication-dependent histone genes produce histone proteins for the packaging of newly replicated genomic DNA. The expression of these histone genes occurs during S phase and is linked to DNA replication via S-phase checkpoints. The histone RNA-binding protein HBP/SLBP (hairpin-binding protein/stem-loop binding protein), an essential regulator of histone gene expression, binds to the conserved hairpin structure located in the 3'UTR (untranslated region) of histone mRNA and participates in histone pre-mRNA processing, translation and histone mRNA degradation. Here, we report the accumulation of alternatively spliced HBP/SLBP transcripts lacking exons 2 and/or 3 in HeLa cells exposed to replication stress. We also detected a shorter HBP/SLBP protein isoform under these conditions that can be accounted for by alternative splicing of HBP/SLBP mRNA. HBP/SLBP mRNA alternative splicing returned to low levels again upon removal of replication stress and was abrogated by caffeine, suggesting the involvement of checkpoint kinases. Analysis of HBP/SLBP cellular localization using GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion proteins revealed that HBP/SLBP protein and isoforms lacking the domains encoded by exon 2 and exons 2 and 3 were found in the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas HBP/SLBP lacking the domain encoded by exon 3 was predominantly localised to the nucleus. This isoform lacks the conserved region important for protein-protein interaction with the CTIF [CBP80/20 (cap-binding protein 80/20)]-dependent initiation translation factor and the eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E)-dependent translation factor SLIP1/MIF4GD (SLBP-interacting protein 1/MIF4G domain). Consistent with this, we have previously demonstrated that this region is required for the function of HBP/SLBP in cap-dependent translation. In conclusion, alternative splicing allows the synthesis of HBP/SLBP isoforms with different properties that may be important for regulating HBP/SLBP functions during replication stress. PMID:23941746

Rattray, Alexander M J; Nicholson, Pamela; Müller, Berndt

2013-01-01

74

Alternative aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

1978-01-01

75

Optical devices having flakes suspended in a host fluid to provide a flake/fluid system providing flakes with angularly dependent optical properties in response to an alternating current electric field due to the dielectric properties of the system  

DOEpatents

Optical devices utilizing flakes (also called platelets) suspended in a host fluid have optical characteristics, such as reflective properties, which are angular dependent in response to an AC field. The reflectivity may be Bragg-like, and the characteristics are obtained through the use of flakes of liquid crystal material, such as polymer liquid crystal (PLC) materials including polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) and polymer nematic liquid crystal (PNLC) material or birefringent polymers (BP). The host fluid may be propylene carbonate, poly(ethylene glycol) or other fluids or fluid mixtures having fluid conductivity to support conductivity in the flake/host system. AC field dependent rotation of 90.degree. can be obtained at rates and field intensities dependent upon the frequency and magnitude of the AC field. The devices are useful in providing displays, polarizers, filters, spatial light modulators and wherever switchable polarizing, reflecting, and transmission properties are desired.

Kosc, Tanya Z. (Rochester, NY); Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY); Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY)

2006-05-09

76

November 2008 Alternative Energy  

E-print Network

? In this paper we will discuss a range of alternative primary energy sources and alternative energy carriersNovember 2008 Alternative Energy Technologies for BC R.L. Evans CleaN eNergy researCh CeNtre, UNiversity of british ColUmbia PaCifiC iNstitUte for Climate solUtioNs AlternAtive energy #12;Pacific

Pedersen, Tom

77

Industry experience with alternative methods.  

PubMed

L'OREAL has been using alternative methods for almost 30 years and this has led to their current widespread in-house use for evaluation of local effects in safety and efficacy. Alternative methods are used daily to assess eye and skin tolerance, phototoxicity, photoprotection, skin sensitization, percutaneous absorption and skin and hair care. For eye irritation, many years of in-house studies have enabled us to develop and to select the most reliable tests. New in vitro methods have also been developed to help to understand the ocular irritation mechanisms which underlie the irritative properties of new chemicals. In the field of skin irritation, L'OREAL's work has focused mainly on the wide possibilities offered by reconstructed human skins to evaluate the skin tolerance of cosmetics. Today we have managed to introduce Langerhans cells in reconstructed epidermis to develop an alternative to skin sensitization. Besides these in-house investigations either in research or in evaluation, our laboratories have contributed actively to multicentric studies to help the prevalidation/validation process in various fields. The alternative approach is now totally integrated into the safety evaluation strategy, and this allowed L'OREAL to totally ban animal testing on cosmetic products several years ago. In vitro alternatives are very powerful tools: they allow the study of fine mechanisms and the use of human cells. This overall 'in vitro' approach is a scientific, ethical and industrial breakthrough. PMID:10022316

LeClaire, J; de Silva, O

1998-12-28

78

Center for Alternative Fuels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The success of the HEV programs under this grant prompted Macomb to launch this resource, the Center for Alternative Fuels. The center holds forums in which academic and industry experts discuss the technical and societal impact of alternative fuels.

2009-12-21

79

Centre for Alternative Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CAT is an environmental nonprofit that promotes sustainable living. Its key areas of work are renewable energy, environmental building, energy efficiency, organic growing and alternative sewage systems. The group offers workshops on alternative energy, including wind, solar, and microhydroelectric.

2007-06-28

80

26 CFR 20.2032-1T - Alternate valuation (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Alternate valuation (temporary). 20.2032-1T Section...Estate § 20.2032-1T Alternate valuation (temporary). (a) through (e...value of the property as of the alternate valuation date. For example, assume...

2010-04-01

81

Depleted uranium management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

1994-08-01

82

Alternation for sublogarithmic space-bounded alternating pushdown automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates infinite hierarchies on alternation-depth and alternation-size of alternating pushdown automata (apda's) with sublogarithmic space. We first show that there is an infinite hierarchy on alternation-depth for apda's with sublogarithmic space. We next investigate a relationship between alternation-depth and alternation-size, and show that for sublogarithmic space-bounded apda's, alternation-depth k is better than alternation-size k for each k?3. We

Jianliang Xu; Tsunehiro Yoshinaga; Katsushi Inoue; Yue Wang; Akira Ito

2001-01-01

83

On an Alternative Cosmology  

E-print Network

The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

A. Vankov

1998-11-10

84

Alternate drop pulse polarography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

1976-01-01

85

Alternative Automobile Engines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

Wilson, David Gordon

1978-01-01

86

Alternative Work Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and…

Kuehn, Kerri L.

2004-01-01

87

Alternative Schools, Mainstream Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative education has its own history. Having emerged in the sixties as a response to the social crisis, its goal was primarily to fight increasing bureaucracy and the depersonalization of public education by giving students more freedom and minimal adult supervision. In the eighties, the understanding of "alternative education" narrowed to…

McKee, Jan; Conner, Evguenia

2007-01-01

88

Alternative Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimates suggest that there are more than 20,000 alternative schools in operation in the United States. The number of alternative schools as well as the number of students educated in these schools has increased significantly over recent years. Oftentimes these schools serve students who are not successful in the traditional school setting, and…

Muir, Mike

2004-01-01

89

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

2013-01-01

90

Alternatives to blood transfusion.  

PubMed

The use of alternatives to allogeneic blood continues to rest on the principles that blood transfusions have inherent risks, associated costs, and affect the blood inventory available for health-care delivery. Increasing evidence exists of a fall in the use of blood because of associated costs and adverse outcomes, and suggests that the challenge for the use of alternatives to blood components will similarly be driven by costs and patient outcomes. Additionally, the risk-benefit profiles of alternatives to blood transfusion such as autologous blood procurement, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and haemostatic agents are under investigation. Nevertheless, the inherent risks of blood, along with the continued rise in blood costs are likely to favour the continued development and use of alternatives to blood transfusion. We summarise the current roles of alternatives to blood in the management of medical and surgical anaemias. PMID:23706802

Spahn, Donat R; Goodnough, Lawrence T

2013-05-25

91

Alternating proximal regularized dictionary learning.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for dictionary learning that is based on the alternating proximal algorithm studied by Attouch, Bolte, Redont, and Soubeyran ( 2010 ), coupled with a reliable and efficient dual algorithm for computation of the related proximity operators. This algorithm is suitable for a general dictionary learning model composed of a Bregman-type data fit term that accounts for the goodness of the representation and several convex penalization terms on the coefficients and atoms, explaining the prior knowledge at hand. As Attouch et al. recently proved, an alternating proximal scheme ensures better convergence properties than the simpler alternating minimization. We take care of the issue of inexactness in the computation of the involved proximity operators, giving a sound stopping criterion for the dual inner algorithm, which keeps under control the related errors, unavoidable for such a complex penalty terms, providing ultimately an overall effective procedure. Thanks to the generality of the proposed framework, we give an application in the context of genome-wide data understanding, revising the model proposed by Nowak, Hastie, Pollack, and Tibshirani ( 2011 ). The aim is to extract latent features (atoms) and perform segmentation on array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data. We improve several important aspects that increase the quality and interpretability of the results. We show the effectiveness of the proposed model with two experiments on synthetic data, which highlight the enhancements over the original model. PMID:25248086

Salzo, Saverio; Masecchia, Salvatore; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa

2014-12-01

92

Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

2011-01-01

93

An innovative alternative for managing contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A property owner was required to remove contaminated fill soils prior to the sale of a 10-ac parcel in an industrialized area of southern California. Based on the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, these soils were originally considered by the regulatory community to represent hazardous waste. Alternatives for their removal or remediation included disposal as hazardous waste at a cost of

1991-01-01

94

Making a Non-animal Alternative Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the author's decision to help a student find alternatives to performing several terminal experiments on animals in a college physiology class. Replacement exercises used for studying the properties of muscle types are described. Details about the difficulties and successes of the entire experience are reported. (KR)

Zawistowski, Stephen

1990-01-01

95

36 CFR Appendix B to Part 1234 - Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3...true Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression...Appendix B to Part 1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL...1234—Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and...

2013-07-01

96

36 CFR Appendix B to Part 1234 - Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3...false Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression...Appendix B to Part 1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL...1234—Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and...

2012-07-01

97

36 CFR Appendix B to Part 1234 - Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s)  

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3...false Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression...Appendix B to Part 1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL...1234—Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and...

2014-07-01

98

Alternating to Direct: Rectifying Alternating Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this activity for classes learning about diodes and electrical currents. The laboratory illustrates how diodes can be used to rectify alternating current. It uses a galvanometer to determine the direction of current flow when an AC or DC current is applied to the circuit containing a diode in series with a resistor and a galvanometer.The lesson includes step by step directions for the experiment.The activity should require about 20-30 minutes of class time to complete. Discussion questions and teacher notes are included.

2012-12-03

99

Some Natural Pesticide Alternatives  

MedlinePLUS

... Pest Management web site. http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ipm.htm City of Tucson/ Pima County ... Grant Road Printed on recycled paper. SOME NATURAL PESTICIDE ALTERNATIVES For the safety of you, your family ...

100

Alternative energy design toolkit  

E-print Network

This thesis concerns the concepts, structure, and applications of the Alternative Energy Design Toolkit. The toolkit is aimed to provide a widely accessible, easy to use, flexible, yet powerful modeling environment for ...

Sukkasi, Sittha

2004-01-01

101

Alternative fuel information sources  

SciTech Connect

This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

Not Available

1994-06-01

102

Enhanced next generation alternator  

E-print Network

The power requirements of automotive alternators are increasing significantly due to the introduction of new vehicle electrical loads. Moreover, the possible transition to a 42 V electrical system is introducing new concerns ...

Lorilla, Leandro M. (Leandro Manalac), 1977-

2005-01-01

103

Marketing alternative fueled automobiles  

E-print Network

Marketing alternative fueled vehicles is a difficult challenge for automakers. The foundation of the market, the terms of competition, and the customer segments involved are still being defined. But automakers can draw ...

Zheng, Alex (Yi Alexis)

2011-01-01

104

Alternatives to Nursing Homes  

MedlinePLUS

... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long term ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge planners ...

105

EXPLORING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students do research to determine the types of energy currently used in the U.S., study the economic effects of rising energy costs on average households, and come up with ideas for alternative energy sources.

Lisa Prososki (;)

2007-09-25

106

Alternatives to Blood Transfusion  

MedlinePLUS

... Find Local ACS Find Support & Treatment » Treatments and Side Effects » Treatment Types » Blood Product Donation and Transfusion » Alternatives to ... Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices ...

107

Alternative automotive fuels  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the current state of the art throughout the world in the use of alternative fuels in automotive engines. The fuels discussed are propane, compressed natural gas, liquid natural gas, alcohols, and hydrogen. Knowles covers the equipment necessary to utilize the fuel, including bulk storage, transfer to vehicles, and vehicle fuel tanks. He also includes the vehicle hardware and engine modifications necessary to use the alternative fuels. Advantages, disadvantages, cost, safety precautions, and applicable regulations are also discussed.

Knowles, D.

1984-01-01

108

Alternative Addition Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores recall of multiple alternative addition strategies of two-digit numbers. The lesson focus is to encourage students to use more than one strategy to solve addition problems. By reinforcing the multiple alternative addition strategies students will develop a strong understanding of addition structures and mechanics before moving on to three-digit addition. The lesson includes making an Addition Strategies Mini Booklet, which students can keep and use as a reference tool.

Scapecchi, Judith

2012-07-31

109

Funerals: Alternatives and Arrangements.  

E-print Network

the traditional funeral section. Memorial Service and Cremation Cremation followed by a memorial service is one of the least expensive alternatives. A con tainer made of cardboard or fiberboard may be used in place of a casket; however, a casket similar... the traditional funeral section. Memorial Service and Cremation Cremation followed by a memorial service is one of the least expensive alternatives. A con tainer made of cardboard or fiberboard may be used in place of a casket; however, a casket similar...

McCormick, Linda J.; Kerbel, Claudia M.

1981-01-01

110

Alternate policies for alternate energy sources  

SciTech Connect

Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

Hall, F.F.

1985-09-01

111

Verb Classes and Alternations in Bangla, German, English, and Korean  

E-print Network

In this report, we investigate the relationship between the semantic and syntactic properties of verbs. Our work is based on the English Verb Classes and Alternations of (Levin, 1993). We explore how these classes are ...

Jones, Douglas A.

1996-05-06

112

Alternative Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to the most common alternative energy sources that they may encounter in electronic work including fuel cells, solar power, and ultracapacitors. The module includes course materials covering each of these alternative energy sources along with three "Knowledge Probes" which provide an opportunity for students to master the objectives of the module. By clicking on "Learning Resources" at the top of the page, users will also find supplemental learning activities and additional resources for practice and research. The module also includes a glossary of terms and a notebook function.

2008-09-09

113

Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This Federal Technology Alert on alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), is intended for fleet managers in government agencies and other government officials who need to use more alternative fuels and AFVs in their fleets of cars and trucks. This publication describes the government's plans and progress in meeting goals for the use of AFVs, which are stated in the Energy Policy Act and various Executive Orders. It describes the types of AFVs available, lists actual and potential federal uses, makes some general recommendations, and presents field experiences to date.

Not Available

2003-09-01

114

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative energy sources and technologies can play a vital role

Denis Kouroussis; Shahram Karimi

2006-01-01

115

ALTERNATIVE SEWER STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of design and operational aspects for two popular alternative sewering techniques, i.e., pressure and small-diameter gravity sewers, was performed. The results provided insights useful to designers of these systems with regard to sulfide concentrations in these sewe...

116

Formative Evaluation Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of formative evaluation highlights alternative formative evaluation methods and tools and explains their advantages, disadvantages, and applicable contexts. Methods described include two-on-one evaluation; think-aloud protocols; computer interviewing; self-evaluation; panel reviews; evaluation meetings; computer journals and networks;…

Tessmer, Martin

1994-01-01

117

Recent Problems Alternative Routes  

E-print Network

#12; History Recent Problems Alternative Routes #12; Built in 1936 Length: 8.4 miles Made up Completion date slotted for late 2013 #12; One mile stretch linking Interstate 80 to Bay Bridge Needed Span 1.2 miles Five Lanes, 10 foot shoulders to keep traffic moving #12; Will connect Interstate 80

Nagurney, Anna

118

Canadian alternative fuels activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada, along with Italy and New Zealand, promotes domestic natural gas as a motor vehicle fuel. Government grants and gas utility loan programs encourage conversion of commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG) and the establishment of a network of public access refueling stations, where business is good. In addition to buses, alternative fuels activities include a 26-car ferry, locomotives,

McCoy

2009-01-01

119

Alternative automotive fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the current state of the art throughout the world in the use of alternative fuels in automotive engines. The fuels discussed are propane, compressed natural gas, liquid natural gas, alcohols, and hydrogen. Knowles covers the equipment necessary to utilize the fuel, including bulk storage, transfer to vehicles, and vehicle fuel tanks. He also includes the vehicle hardware

Knowles

1984-01-01

120

ALTERNATIVE FUELS RESEARCH STRATEGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this document was to lay a foundation for developing the scientific information needed to compare the benefits and risks of various motor vehicle fuels, especially alternative and reformulated fuels in relation to conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. Among the f...

121

Augmentative & Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

Murphy, Patti

2007-01-01

122

Alternatives in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper on alternatives in teacher education begins by analyzing the current emphasis on the scientific approach in education. The author finds the promise of the scientific approach to be illusory. He defines it as education that promotes behavior change in some desirable direction. However, this definition, which the author finds equally…

Clements, Millard

123

Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

1977-01-01

124

Environment and Alternative Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stressing the global dimension to the adversary relationship between economic development and environmental conservation, this monograph examines the philosophical, historical, cultural, and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology. In addition, the monograph spells out policy implications of an alternative concept of development and…

Kothari, Rajni

125

Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

Baltzer, Jan A.

126

Alternative Break Service Trips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even as educators understand how their millennial students learn in such different ways than previous generations (watching how-to videos downloaded from YouTube or engaging in experiential learning adventures), colleges still rely heavily on in-the-classroom learning. The author can't offer an alternative to this classroom format, but she…

DuPre, Carrie

2010-01-01

127

Compensated pulsed alternator  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX); Driga, Mircea D. (Austin, TX); Woodson, Herbert H. (Austin, TX)

1980-01-01

128

The Conservation Alternative  

E-print Network

of this alternative going all the way back to before the oil embargo. Most vivid, perhaps, in our memories is an early major study of our national energy problem; the Ford Foundation's "A Time To Choose" and its controversial proposal of zero energy growth as a...

Allaire, W. F.

1979-01-01

129

Alternative energy sources III  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is based upon the 3rd Clean Energy Research Institute International Conference on Alternative Energy Sources. It provides coverage on the latest advances and developments in the scientific and technical search for energy sources with reduced health and environmental hazards. Topics covered in this book include solar energy; ocean thermal energy; wind energy; geothermal power; hydropower; nuclear breeders and

Veziroglu

1983-01-01

130

Alternative energy sources VII  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the economic aspects of renewable energy sources. Topics considered at the conference included socio-economic factors affecting energy source development, an economic evaluation of solar thermal energy systems, energy planning and management, alternative energy in developing countries, energy conservation, environmental policy, and energy education.

Veziroglu

1985-01-01

131

Alternative Schools: New Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies elements of effective alternative high schools for New York City's truants, dropouts, and potential dropouts, including: (1) well-defined student populations; (2) strong academic leadership; (3) increased teacher participation in management; (4) academic innovation; (5) clear standards for conduct; and (6) small school size. Presents…

Foley, Eileen

1983-01-01

132

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative…

Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

2006-01-01

133

Alternative Energy Busing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

LaFee, Scott

2012-01-01

134

The SOLAR Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only when the sun's energy can be captured at a comparable or lower opportunity cost than that of competing sources will solar energy systems become viable alternatives. Economic issues of solar energy are discussed. The legitimate role of government is also examined. (RM)

Warren, E. H., Jr.; Walton, A. L.

1984-01-01

135

Alternatives in solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

Schueler, D. G.

1978-01-01

136

Virginia Power's alternative energy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 1981, the management of Virginia Electric and Power Company (now Virginia Power, or the Power Company) appointed a committee to formulate a study of conventional and alternative energy sources to meet future growth in electric power demand in a least-cost manner. This Committee on Conventional and Alternative Energy Sources recommended several energy alternatives for evaluation. The alternatives for

1986-01-01

137

Quasi-classical alternatives in quantum chemistry  

E-print Network

The article contains an overview of authors achievements in development of alternative quantum-chemical approaches oriented towards revival of the classical tradition of qualitative chemical thinking instead of obtaining numerical results. The above-mentioned tradition is concluded to be based mainly on principles (rules) of additivity, transferability and locality of molecular properties. Accordingly, model Hamiltonian matrices are used in the approaches under development (called quasi-classical alternatives), wherein algebraic parameters play the role of matrix elements and these are assumed to be transferable for similar atoms and/or atomic orbitals in addition. Further, passing to delocalized descriptions of electronic structures (as usual) is expected to be the main origin of difficulties seeking to formulate quasi-classical alternatives. In the framework of the canonical method of molecular orbitals (MOs), delocalization is shown to be partially avoidable by invoking a recently-suggested approach to sec...

Gineityte, V

2014-01-01

138

Finding alternatives to antibiotics.  

PubMed

The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. As the rate of development of new antibiotics has severely declined, alternatives to antibiotics must be considered in both animal agriculture and human medicine. Products for disease prevention are different from those for disease treatment, and examples of both are discussed here. For example, modulating the gut microbial community, either through feed additives or fecal transplantation, could be a promising way to prevent certain diseases; for disease treatment, non-antibiotic approaches include phage therapy, phage lysins, bacteriocins, and predatory bacteria. Interestingly, several of these methods augment antibiotic efficacy by improving bacterial killing and decreasing antibiotic resistance selection. Because bacteria can ultimately evolve resistance to almost any therapeutic agent, it is important to continue to use both antibiotics and their alternatives judiciously. PMID:24953233

Allen, Heather K; Trachsel, Julian; Looft, Torey; Casey, Thomas A

2014-09-01

139

Review of alternative fuels data bases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on an analysis of the interaction of fuel physical and chemical properties with combustion characteristics and indicators, a ranking of the importance of various fuel properties with respect to the combustion process was established. This ranking was used to define a suite of specific experiments whose objective is the development of an alternative fuels design data base. Combustion characteristics and indicators examined include droplet and spray formation, droplet vaporization and burning, ignition and flame stabilization, flame temperature, laminar flame speed, combustion completion, soot emissions, NOx and SOx emissions, and the fuels' thermal and oxidative stability and fouling and corrosion characteristics. Key fuel property data is found to include composition, thermochemical data, chemical kinetic rate information, and certain physical properties.

Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

1983-01-01

140

Alternative Work Arrangements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been increased employer use of alternative forms of employment contracts to supplement more traditional\\u000a employment arrangements. Using data from Swedish health-care workers (N=711; 86% women), this study compares full-time and\\u000a part-time permanent employees with contingent workers and sets out to answer the following questions: Do workers on non-traditional\\u000a work schedules experience more or less (1)

Magnus Sverke; Daniel G. Gallagher; Johnny Hellgren

141

Alternatives to Antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens has stimulated a need to find alternatives to antimicrobials. Currently, no\\u000a single treatment is available that can eliminate the need for antimicrobials; particularly for immunocompromised individuals.\\u000a Prudent use to protocols have been called for to decrease the consumption of antimicrobials. This includes the use to antimicrobials\\u000a for individuals clinically diagnosed with bacterial infections and

Toni L. Poole; Todd R. Callaway; David J. Nisbet

142

Alternative Energy Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website has 23 lesson plans in alternative energy developed by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The lesson plans include the following topics: the photoelectric effect, efficiency of energy conversion, the photoelectric effect in photocells, chemical consequences of burning fossil fuels, The Geology of Oil and Coal, environmental pollution, Where Do Plants Get Their Food?, considerations in heating a house, and many more valuable and useful classroom lessons.

2008-11-12

143

Alternative futures lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternative futures studies are a valuable yet resource-intensive way in which environmental scientists try to conduct informed debates about policies for specific geographic regions. These studies require modeling what the future would look like if different stakeholder groups had their way. The modeling is carried out by applying historical trend data to future projections that are rooted in the preferences of the different groups. Alternative future studies can be controversial due to the limitations of modeling and to the extent to which the models represent fully the different possible scenarios. Yet, they can be especially valuable for decision making about which areas in the region would be most appropriate and most acceptable for the applications of different policies such as development and restoration. Through a series of hands-on classroom activities that are the culmination of a variety of field trips, case studies, and analyses of GIS data about river systems and river restoration options, the students build deep understanding about what alternative futures studies entail and what are the applications of such studies to specific rivers in the Puget Sound area.

Zalles, Dan

144

The Market Alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water generally has been regarded as a ‘free good’, available for use by anyone with access to it. Because the water can be\\u000a used multiple times, water traditionally has been a ‘public good’, held by the community, either as common property or as\\u000a public property, although rights to make particular uses of water might be assigned to particular persons to

Joseph W. Dellapenna

145

Knot Properties of Alternating Sliding Knots with Different Patterns in Comparison to Alternating and Simple Sliding Knots 1 1 This work is done in the Biomedical Engineering Institute in collaboration with the Polymer Research Center at Bo?aziçi University. It is supported by the Bo?aziçi University Research fund under project no. 95HX0009. Surgical sutures were provided by Do?san Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to compare the alternating sliding knots with different patterns with the alternating and simple sliding knots. Silk and nylon sutures of 2–0 and 4–0 United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sizes were mechanically tested. The values of knot holding capacities (KHCs) varied depending on knot configuration, suture material, and size. The parallel alternating knot with different patterns showed a

Zeina Babetty; Aykut Sümer; Sabri Alt?nta?

1998-01-01

146

Branch-and-bound Formulations alternatives Sujet 4 : Formulations alternatives  

E-print Network

: Planification de production et gestion des op´erations Andrew J. Miller Derni`ere mise `a jour: November 14-and-bound Formulations alternatives Application Ajax #12;Branch-and-bound Formulations alternatives Autres applications

Miller, Andrew J.

147

Assessment of the eye irritating properties of chemicals by applying alternatives to the Draize rabbit eye test: the use of QSARs and in vitro tests for the classification of eye irritation.  

PubMed

Huggins has reported on the current situation relating to the development of alternatives to the Draize eye irritation test with rabbits, and an ECVAM Working Group have reviewed the efforts needed in order to replace this animal test within the next 10 years by using the results of non-animal assessment methods. Our report reviews regulatory experience gained over the last 20 years with the EU chemicals notification procedure with respect to the assessment of eye lesions observed in Draize tests. The nature of eye lesions and their importance for classification and labelling of possible hazards to human eyes are evaluated and discussed, with a view to promoting the development of specific in vitro assays which are able to discriminate between eye damage, moderate eye irritation, and minor irritation effects which are completely reversible within a few days. Structural alerts for the prediction of eye irritation/corrosion hazards to be classified and labelled according to international classification criteria, are presented, which should be validated in accordance with internationally agreed (OECD) principles for (Q)SAR system validation. Physicochemical limit values for prediction of the absence of any eye irritation potential relevant for human health can make available a definition of the applicability domains of alternative methods developed for the replacement of the Draize eye irritation test. PMID:16180977

Gerner, Ingrid; Liebsch, Manfred; Spielmann, Horst

2005-06-01

148

Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Mg(x) Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites prepared by polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods: a low-toxicity alternative to Ni(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis and properties of Mg(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 spinel ferrites as a low-toxicity alternative to the technologically significant Ni(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites are reported. Ferrite nanoparticles have been formed through both the polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods that can be readily adapted to industrial scale synthesis to satisfy the demand of a variety of commercial applications. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Mg(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 were studied as a function of composition and particle size. Scanning electron microscopy images show particles synthesised by the aqueous co-precipitation method possess a broad size distribution (i.e. ~ 80-120 nm) with an average diameter of the order of 100 nm ± 20 nm and could be produced in high process yields of up to 25 g l - 1. In contrast, particles synthesised by the polyol-based co-precipitation method possess a narrower size distribution with an average diameter in the 30 nm ± 5 nm range but are limited to smaller yields of ~ 6 g l - 1. Furthermore, the polyol synthesis method was shown to control average particle size by varying the length of the glycol surfactant chain. Particles prepared by both methods are compared with respect to their phase purity, crystal structure, morphology, magnetic properties and microwave properties.

Daigle, A.; Modest, J.; Geiler, A. L.; Gillette, S.; Chen, Y.; Geiler, M.; Hu, B.; Kim, S.; Stopher, K.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.

2011-07-01

149

26 CFR 1.1254-1 - Treatment of gain from disposition of natural resource recapture property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the natural resource recapture property...remaining after allocation to the...alternative allocation rule. (ii) Natural resource recapture property...the natural resource recapture property...alternative allocation rule...

2010-04-01

150

An atmospheric alternative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common goal of world governments is to reduce the anthropogenic effect on the global atmosphere within the next 100 to 200 years. But there may be more than one path to that goal, according to three scientists who offered an alternative to the current timetable recommendations of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and other United Nations panels.Current proposals from the IPCC recommend immediate and sizable reductions in carbon-dioxide emissions and a relatively rapid transition away from fossil fuels in order to gradually stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations by 2150.

151

Alternatives to Seesaw  

SciTech Connect

The seesaw mechanism is attractive not only because it"explains'' small neutrino mass, but also because of its packaging with the SUSY-GUT, leptogenesis, Dark Matter, and electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this package has the flavor, CP, and gravitino problems. I discuss two alternatives to the seesaw mechanism. In one of them, the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking solves these problems, while predicts naturally light Dirac neutrinos. In the other, the light Majorana neutrinos arise from supersymmetry breaking with right-handed neutrinos below TeV, and the Dark Matter and collider phenomenology are significantly different.

Murayama, Hitoshi

2004-10-10

152

Potential alternate life biochemistries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

Konesky, Gregory

2013-09-01

153

Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators  

E-print Network

Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

Tang, Sai Chun

154

Segmental alternations and metrical theory  

E-print Network

This dissertation focuses on phonological alternations that are influenced or constrained by word-internal prosody, i.e. prominence and foot structure, and what these alternations can tell us about metrical theory. Detailed ...

Vaysman, Olga

2009-01-01

155

Alternative Teacher Certification in Texas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes alternative teacher certification programs in Texas that train interns who are generally mature, mid-career individuals. The document is organized into seven sections: (1) "Alternative Certification in Texas" discusses the history and background of the programs including legislation, the first alternative teacher…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

156

Fuzzy Weighted Average: Alternative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an alternative definition of the fuzzy weighted average, in which Zadeh's extension principle is applied to the definition of the non-fuzzy weighted average where weights are required to be normalised. It is argued that the alternative approach should be preferred above the traditional approach. An algorithm for the computation of the fuzzy weighted average for the alternative approach

Broek van den Pim; Joost Noppen; K. Demirli; A. Akgunduz

2006-01-01

157

Insects: A nutritional alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

Dufour, P. A.

1981-01-01

158

Alternative Mathematics without Actual Infinity  

E-print Network

An alternative mathematics based on qualitative plurality of finiteness is developed to make non-standard mathematics independent of infinite set theory. The vague concept "accessibility" is used coherently within finite set theory whose separation axiom is restricted to definite objective conditions. The weak equivalence relations are defined as binary relations with sorites phenomena. Continua are collection with weak equivalence relations called indistinguishability. The points of continua are the proper classes of mutually indistinguishable elements and have identities with sorites paradox. Four continua formed by huge binary words are examined as a new type of continua. Ascoli-Arzela type theorem is given as an example indicating the feasibility of treating function spaces. The real numbers are defined to be the points on the linear continuum and have indefiniteness. Exponentiation is introduced by the Eulerian style and basic properties are established. Basic calculus is developed and the differentiability is captured by the behavior on a point. Main tools of Lebesgue measure theory is obtained in a similar way as Loeb measure. Differences from the current mathematics are examined, such as the indefiniteness of natural numbers, qualitative plurality of finiteness, mathematical usage of vague concepts, the continuum as a primary inexhaustible entity and the hitherto disregarded aspect of "internal measurement" in mathematics.

Toru Tsujishita

2012-04-09

159

Alternative energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

Todd, R. W.

1982-04-01

160

Contact alternatives to nickel.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel is a continued health concern internationally. Nickel has been found to be the most prevalent and relevant allergen in tested populations for the last 3 decades. Furthermore, recent data from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group demonstrate positive patch-test reactions to nickel at approximately 19.5% of their tested population and a significant increase in the positivity rates for the last decade (Dermatitis. 2013;24:10-21. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:911-918). Because of the rise in allergic contact dermatitis rates to nickel, the American Contact Dermatitis Society recognized nickel to be the 2008 Allergen of the Year (J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:1067-1069; Dermatitis. 2008;19:3-8). This article recognizes the importance of nickel avoidance and highlights potential alternatives. PMID:24030370

Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Jacob, Sharon E

2013-01-01

161

Electrically conductive alternating copolymers  

DOEpatents

Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

1987-08-31

162

Alternative Fuels Research Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn has invested over $1.5 million in engineering, and infrastructure upgrades to renovate an existing test facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), which is now being used as an Alternative Fuels Laboratory. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and thermal stability testing. This effort is supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing project. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale F-T catalyst screening experiments. These experiments require the use of a synthesis gas feedstock, which will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics, product yields and hydrocarbon distributions. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor for catalyst activation studies. Product gas composition and performance data can be continuously obtained with an automated gas sampling system, which directly connects the reactors to a micro-gas chromatograph (micro GC). Liquid and molten product samples are collected intermittently and are analyzed by injecting as a diluted sample into designated gas chromatograph units. The test facility also has the capability of performing thermal stability experiments of alternative aviation fuels with the use of a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) (Ref. 1) in accordance to ASTM D 3241 "Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels" (JFTOT method) (Ref. 2). An Ellipsometer will be used to study fuel fouling thicknesses on heated tubes from the HLPS experiments. A detailed overview of the test facility systems and capabilities are described in this paper.

Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Nakley, Leah M.; Yen, Chia H.

2012-01-01

163

Remediation alternatives for low-level herbicide contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

In early 1995, an evaluation of alternatives for remediation of a shallow groundwater plume containing low-levels of an organic herbicide was conducted at BASF Corporation, a petrochemical facility located in Ascension Parish, Louisiana. The contaminated site is located on an undeveloped portion of property within 1/4 mile of the east bank of the Mississippi River near the community of Geismar. Environmental assessment data indicated that about two acres of the thirty acre site had been contaminated from past waste management practices with the herbicide bentazon. Shallow soils and groundwater between 5 to 15 feet in depth were affected. Maximum concentrations of bentazon in groundwater were less than seven parts per million. To identify potentially feasible remediation alternatives, the environmental assessment data, available research, and cost effectiveness were reviewed. After consideration of a preliminary list of alternatives, only two potentially feasible alternatives could be identified. Groundwater pumping, the most commonly used remediation alternative, followed by carbon adsorption treatment was identified as was a new innovative alternative known as vegetative transpiration. This alternative relies on the natural transpiration processes of vegetation to bioremediate organic contaminants. Advantages identified during screening suggest that the transpiration method could be the best remediation alternative to address both economic and environmental factors. An experiment to test critical factors of the vegetatived transpiration alternative with bentazon was recommended before a final decision on feasibility can be made.

Conger, R.M. [BASF Corp., Geismar, LA (United States)

1995-10-01

164

Pyroelectricity in alternating ultrathin organized molecular films incorporating barium ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyroelectric properties in alternating DAEP/NC Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films and effects of incorporating the barium cations on pyroelectric behaviors have been investigated. Its pyroelectric coefficient measured is found to be 58?C m-2 K-1at 300K. The dielectric properties have been measured and used to determine the figures of merit in thermal devices. Relative permittivity ?r and dielectric loss values tan? of pyroelectric films (in the range of 1KHz - 100KHz) are 2.34~1.96 and 0.08~0.04, respectively. These data give a maximum pyroelectric figure of merit of 150?C m-2 K-1 in the alternating LB films incorporating barium ions. The effects of different deposition on pyroelectric properties are also discussed in this paper. It is indicated that the alternating LB films is promising in the field of pyroelectricity and pyroelectric infrared detector.

Ma, Shihong; Li, Shuhong; Lu, Xingze; Wang, Wencheng; Wang, Genshui; Liu, Pulin; Guo, Shaoling; Chu, Junhao

2002-12-01

165

Transport properties of CF3I thermal plasmas mixed with CO2, air or N2 as an alternative to SF6 plasmas in high-voltage circuit breakers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to the calculation of equilibrium compositions, thermodynamic properties (mass density, enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure) and transport coefficients (viscosity, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity) of air/CO2/N2-CF3I mixtures. These data are computed in the temperature range 300 K-50 kK and pressure between 1 and 32 bar. Results obtained for pure gases (CF3I, CO2, air and N2) are systematically compared with SF6. Transport coefficients for N2, CO2, CF3I and mixtures of CO2, N2 or air with CF3I are also confronted with previous published values. Particular attention is paid to the collision integral database by the use of the most accurate and recent cross-sections or interaction potentials available in the literature.

Cressault, Y.; Connord, V.; Hingana, H.; Teulet, Ph; Gleizes, A.

2011-12-01

166

Alternative coinitiators applicable to photocurable resin composites.  

PubMed

This review aimed to examine the evolution of the composite resins`s photoinitiator system, with emphasis on those developed in recent years. This review covered literature from 1990 to 2013 and only papers with the key words of interest were included: "coinitiators", "amines", "composite resins", "photopolymerization". The search used full-text papers from PubMed and Science Direct databasis. It was included only English papers, and meeting abstracts and short communications were excluded. Hand search of the references completed the review. A total of 29 articles were studied. Many coinitiators are being researched as an alternative to traditional tertiary amines, particularly in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the final polymer and its biocompatibility with oral tissues. Polymerizable amines, natural compounds, and coinitiators with low toxicity and antiseptic properties were studied, and the results found they would be promising substitutes. These materials must present appropriate concentration and reactivity to obtain adequate physical and mechanical properties and high biocompatibility. However, further in vivo studies are required to verify the performance of these alternative coinitiators in the composite materials, mainly when in contact with oral tissues and the stomatognathic system. PMID:25284513

Bittencourt, Bruna Fortes; Dominguez, John Alexis; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Pinheiro, Luis Antonio; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel

2014-09-01

167

Alternative nuclear technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization are compared. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. A conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems were used in estimates of the steps required and the times involved in developing each technology. The impact of the inevitable exhaustion of the low- or reasonable-cost uranium reserves in the United States on the desirability of completing the breeder reactor program, with its favorable long-term result on fission fuel supplies, is discussed. The long times projected to bring the most advanced alternative converter reactor technologies the heavy water reactor and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor into commercial deployment when compared to the time projected to bring the breeder reactor into equivalent status suggest that the country's best choice is to develop the breeder. The perceived diversion-proliferation problems with the uranium plutonium fuel cycle have workable solutions that can be developed which will enable the use of those materials at substantially reduced levels of diversion risk.

Schubert, E.

1981-10-01

168

Diesel Engine Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

Ryan, T

2003-08-24

169

The Alternative Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1975, the Alternative Museum existed in analog form for 25 years, occupying space in New York City, presenting four to six major exhibitions per year. While I was unable to find a definitive statement to this effect at the site, it appears that the Museum has decided to move all current exhibitions to the Web, to expand its reach to millions more art patrons while still remaining true to its original mission: "providing a professional showcase for artists." At the moment, there are five current exhibitions at the site, including Tools as Art: The Hechinger Collection, presenting 25 works that use tools as either subject matter, for example Bernice Abbot's photograph "Spinning Wrench," or as medium, for example, Mark Blumenstein's "Saw Bird." Other current exhibitions are Tourists on the Moon, by Yoshio Itagaki, a collection of photographs that resemble 19th-century, hand-colored tourist photographs, but that are given a 20th-century slant; I-Section: Do-It-Yourself Human Dissection, a Website by Friederike Paetzold; Between the Real and the Unreal, photographs by Simen Johan; and GenoChoice: Create Your Own Genetically Healthy Child Online! by Virgil Wong. Also available is an archive of selected past exhibitions and art depot, the online museum shop.

170

Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory of Michigan State University is on the cutting edge of pest control in the Upper Midwest, whether on agricultural or non-agricultural lands, public or private. Visitors interested in seeing the pesky adversaries of the lab, should click on "Bugs of The Lab", on the left hand side of the page, then click on the subcategory "Research Subjects". Along with photos of a dozen pests, including the "Plum Curculio", "Mites", and the "Oblique-Banded Leaf Roller", visitors can read a description of the pest, learn about and see images of the damage they do to specific crops, and discover where they are found on the plant. The Resistant Pest management Newsletter section on the left-hand side of the page has numerous subsections that should be of interest to visitors. Visitors can "Subscribe to the Newsletter" and peruse "Archives of Past Issues". Also interesting is the "Ask an Expert About Resistance Issues" section, which lists ten regions of the earth, and when one of the regions is clicked on, several experts' names pop up with their area of expertise, e-mail, and location. Additionally, anyone who is an expert and qualified, but is not on the list, may have their name added after filling out the "Expert Application", available on the "Ask an Expert..." homepage. All of the experts are volunteers.

171

Alternative Agriculture--Growing Concerns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video explores low input, sustainable agriculture, LISA. Farmers, researchers, and government leaders discuss this alternative to farming practices involving large amounts of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

1994-01-01

172

Alternatives to traditional complete dentures.  

PubMed

Specific alternatives to traditional complete denture therapy have been controversial because of the uncertainties surrounding effectiveness of retention. This article addresses the importance of retention, border molding, diagnosis, and treatment planning, and the meticulous attention to detail required throughout the treatment course of these alternative modalities. Indications, advantages, and limitations are also presented. Although these alternatives are not routinely used in making complete dentures, they have been successfully used for the treatment of the edentulous patient. Alternatives serve as valuable prosthodontic treatment options that greatly enhance denture aesthetics, and should be considered for edentulous patients. PMID:24286647

Olvera, Norma; Jones, John D

2014-01-01

173

Alternative fuelds in urban fleets  

SciTech Connect

In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

Lindsay, T.

1994-12-31

174

Branch-and-bound Formulations alternatives Sujet 4: Formulations alternatives  

E-print Network

: Planification de production et gestion des op´erations Andrew J. Miller Derni`ere mise `a jour: November 8, 2010 alternatives Proposition g´en´erale #12;Branch-and-bound Formulations alternatives Application Ajax #12;Branch

Miller, Andrew J.

175

Alternative carriers in dry powder inhaler formulations.  

PubMed

The aerosolization efficiency of a powder is highly dependent on carrier characteristics, such as particle size distribution, shape and surface properties. The main objective in the inhalation field is to achieve a high and reproducible pulmonary deposition. This can be provided by successful carrier selection and careful process optimization for carrier modification. Lactose is the most common and frequently used carrier in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. But lactose shows some limitations in formulation with certain drugs and peptides that prohibit its usage as a carrier in DPI formulations. Here, we criticality review the most important alternative carriers to lactose with merits, demerits and applications in DPI formulations. PMID:24269834

Rahimpour, Yahya; Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Hamishehkar, Hamed

2014-05-01

176

Alternative aircraft fuels technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

Grobman, J.

1976-01-01

177

Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

2012-01-01

178

Alternate approaches to cryogenic cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic cooling techniques for spaceborne infrared detectors are surveyed, and reason found to explore alternatives. An alternative class of cooling cycles is defined, and four practical cycles described. A general overview of operating efficiency for the whole class is developed. One of these cycles, the isobaric absorption cycle (Servel cycle), is explored in some detail.

Atkinson, W.; Devilliers, A.; Kappesser, R.

179

Bioalcohols as Alternatives to Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The four major constituent groups of gasoline are olefins, aromatics, paraffins, and napthenes. The main alternative fuels include alcohol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity for operation gasoline-type vehicles. Ethanol and methanol are biofuels that provide alternatives to gasoline. Bioethanol is

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

180

TEFF GRASS: A NEW ALTERNATIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teff is fast becoming a new warm season annual grass alternative for forage producers across the U.S. Originating in Africa, its introduction into the U.S. initially was as an alternative grain source and also as a gluten free flour source for segments of the population suffering from Celiac's Disease (Gluten Intolerance). The recent popularity of Teff however is not as

Don Miller

181

Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

2009-01-01

182

Alternatives Teaching and Related Professions  

E-print Network

Chapter 25 Sports, leisure and outdoor education p35 Chapter 26 Therapy roles p37 Chapter 27 Visual1 Education Alternatives Teaching and Related Professions Task Group January 2013 #12;2 Contents Introduction p3 Section A Teaching in alternative settings p4 Chapter 1 Adult and community education p4

183

1987: Alternative energy's watershed year  

Microsoft Academic Search

1987 is a watershed year in shaping the near and long-term future for alternative energy. Major events are taking place that will determine how power will be sold through the end of the 20th century and perhaps beyond. These events may, upon reflection, prove to be history in the making for the alternative energy industry. Some of the changes that

Ganotis

1988-01-01

184

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY College of Engineering  

E-print Network

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY College of Engineering eng.wayne.edu STEERING YOUR WAY INTO A HIGH the development of new energy sources as a national priority, Wayne State has been a key player. In fact, WSU or registration questions, call (313) 577-3716 or e-mail aet@wayne.edu. Alternative Energy Technology College

Berdichevsky, Victor

185

The Alternative Guide to Postgraduate  

E-print Network

The Alternative Guide to Postgraduate over 200,000 copies sold! Details of over 300 sources to the University of Southampton #12;The Alternative Guide to Postgraduate Funding by Luke Blaxill and Shuzhi Zhou.gradfunding.co.uk enquiries@gradfunding.co.uk The authors are Luke Blaxill and Shuzhi Zhou, PhD students at King's College

Anderson, Jim

186

Alternative Financing Methods for College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how changes in government policies have caused college students to seek alternative ways to finance college. Explores strategies used by students to pay for college, and the impact work has on their success. Looks at some alternative ways to pay for college, such as employee supported educational programs, savings incentives, and the…

DeBard, Robert

2000-01-01

187

Wetting behavior of alternative solder alloys  

SciTech Connect

Recent economic and environmental issues have stimulated interest in solder alloys other than the traditional Sn-Pb eutectic or near eutectic composition. Preliminary evaluations suggest that several of these alloys approach the baseline properties (wetting, mechanical, thermal, and electrical) of the Sn-Pb solders. Final alloy acceptance will require major revisions to existing industrial and military soldering specifications. Bulk alloy and solder joint properties are consequently being investigated to validate their producibility and reliability. The work reported in this paper examines the wetting behavior of several of the more promising commercial alloys on copper substrates. Solder wettability was determined by the meniscometer and wetting balance techniques. The wetting results suggest that several of the alternative solders would satisfy pretinning and surface mount soldering applications. Their use on plated through hole technology might be more difficult since the alloys generally did not spread or flow as well as the 60Sn-40Pb solder.

Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

1993-07-01

188

Transitivity Alternations in Sorani Kurdish  

E-print Network

.9.1.2 The inchoative alternation 93 3.9.1.3 The middle alternation 94 3.9.1.4 The passive 94 3.9.2 The semantics of the verb halbre ‘lift’ 95 3.10 The verb dashka ‘break by force’ 96 3.10.1 The syntax of the verb dashka 97 3.10.1.1 The causative alternation 97... ix 3.10.1.2 The inchoative alternation 97 3.10.1.3 The middle alternation 98 3.10.1.4 The passive 98 3.10.2 The semantics of the verb dashka ‘break downward’ 99 3.11 *The verb Halshkan 100 3.12 The verb kirdinawa ‘open’ 100 3.12.1 The syntax...

Gharib, Hiba Esmail

2011-05-31

189

Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

1983-01-01

190

Alternative group V precursors for CVD applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques used to grow III/V semiconductors films, such as metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), hydride VPE, chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) and gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GS-MBE), all use hydrides (AsH 3 and PH 3) as the Group V source. However, the hydrides are extremely toxic gases which are stored under high pressure (200-2000 psi). To reduce the safety hazards associated with these gases, alternative Group V precursors have been investigated. Organoarsenic and phosphorous compounds have received the most attention as replacements for AsH 3 and PH 3 because they are typically low vapor pressure liquids, and thus present significantly lower exposure risks than the hydrides. For AsH 3 these have included the methyl, ethyl and butyl-based derivatives RnAsH 3- n, with varying degrees ( n = 1-3) of hydrogen atom substitution. In this paper the growth properties, thermochemistry and toxicity of the various alkylarsine precursors are compared with arsine. Data are presented on the impact of the thermochemistry of these compounds on film electrical properties, and on the effects of precursor composition and purity on overall film quality. The suitability of alternative As-precursors for device applications is demonstrated, and selection criteria are presented for the most effective alkylarsine compound for a particular CVD growth process.

Lum, R. M.; Klingert, J. K.

1991-01-01

191

Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties. A second objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication methods for these materials whereby they can be processed in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions. This paper summarizes a comprehensive study that assessed the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on the stability of air-sinterable chromites and the sintering behavior of doped lanthanum manganites.

Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.

1994-08-01

192

Encapsulation as a passive soil remediation alternative  

SciTech Connect

By implementing institutional and engineering controls, a passive, cost-effective, remedial alternative has allowed redevelopment of an abandoned, industrial, site located in Newark, New Jersey. Soil and groundwater contaminants at the site include volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and metals. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) recognized the impracticality of requiring an aggressive, localized, remedial action to clean up contaminated soil and groundwater in a region that has historically used fill to create land along the state`s waterways. By placing an institutional control, known as a Declaration of Environmental Restriction (DER), on the property, the NJDEP allowed contaminated fill to remain on site and approved encapsulation as the remedial action for the soil. The approved engineering control, encapsulation, consisted of the design and placement of an asphalt pavement cap that covered the affected areas of concern. The asphalt pavement cap prevents direct human contact to contaminated soil and leaching of contaminants in the soil into the groundwater by surface water infiltration. This paper focuses on the subsurface soil investigation and establishment of the DER. The benefits of this remedial alternative are: (1) the urban redevelopment of contaminated land while simultaneously ensuring protection to human health and the environment; (2) costs savings of not having to clean up a regional problem as if it were local; and (3) the facilitation of a property transfer transaction without the risk of future liability for an historical problem.

Mario, B.R. De [Matrix Environmental and Geotechnical Services, Florham Park, NJ (United States)

1996-12-31

193

Alternative Wnt Pathways and Receptors  

PubMed Central

In addition to activating ?-catenin/TCF transcriptional complexes, Wnt proteins can elicit a variety of other responses. These are often lumped together under the denominator “alternative” or “non-canonical” Wnt signaling, but they likely comprise distinct signaling events. In this article, I discuss how the use of different ligand and receptor combinations is thought to give rise to these alternative Wnt-signaling responses. Although many of the biochemical details remain to be resolved, it is evident that alternative Wnt signaling plays important roles in regulating tissue morphogenesis during embryonic development. PMID:22935904

van Amerongen, Renee

2012-01-01

194

Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene  

SciTech Connect

In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

2008-11-07

195

NEW CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVES FOR THE PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study that focused on the investigation of fluorinated derivatives of propane and butane to determine if synthesis routes of such compounds were feasible and economical and to measure the physical properties needed to evaluate the compounds as altern...

196

Biased learning of phonological alternations  

E-print Network

What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...

Do, Young Ah

2013-01-01

197

Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

198

Peat as an energy alternative  

SciTech Connect

The importance of developing alternative energy sources to augment supplies of fossil fuels is growing all over the world. Coal, oil shale, tar sands, biomass, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power have received considerable attention as alternative energy sources. One large energy resource, however, has received little attention until recently. That resource is peat. Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries including the United States. This paper provides an understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization.

Punwani, D.V.

1980-07-01

199

Alternative fuel use in Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The use of alternative fuels hold the promise of promoting energy diversity and reducing motor vehicle emissions. With the passage of the federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, and state initiatives such as from California, these fuels will have a far reaching influence on the fuels motor vehicle fleets operate on in the next century. Many of the emission benefits of alternative fuels are dependent on the quality of the alternative fuel implementation, as well as the fuels themselves. To prevent degradation of motor vehicle emissions, the Colorado Department of Health has implemented alternative fuel retrofit system certification procedures. These, as well as EPA and California certification standards will allow present vehicles to have acceptable emissions, as well as future vehicles to meet required low emission standards.

Livo, K.B.; Gallagher, J.; Boyd, M.W. [Colorado Department of health, Denver, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

200

The Generation of Alternate Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Terry L.M. Bartelt of Wisconsin Online Resource Center is a learning object lesson of the generation of alternate current. This is a nice brief introduction for those interested in basic electronic theories.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2010-09-24

201

Alternating period-doubling cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider period-doubling cascades in two-dimensional iterated maps. We define forward and backward period-doubling bifurcations, and use these concepts to describe an alternating period-doubling cascade in which forward and backward period-doubling bifurcations alternate. By tracking the eigenvalues of a typical map throughout such cascades we show that two-dimensional maps may give rise to two qualitatively different alternating period-doubling cascades. We apply renormalization theory to one class of alternating period-doubling cascades, and derive universal spatial scalings for such cascades from fixed points of the appropriate renormalization operator. We also derive universal parameter scalings for these cascades from the eigenvalues of the linearization of the renormalization operator, and provide the corresponding eigenfunctions. The theory is illustrated by an example.

Aston, Philip J.; Bristow, Neil

2013-09-01

202

OVERVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE SEWER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Each of the various types of alternative wastewater collection systems is described in terms of its component parts, design features, operation and maintenance requirements and optimum application site conditions. The relative popularity of these systems during the past ten years...

203

Alternator power conditioning for launchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-energy pulse-discharge is needed to drive an electromagnetic (EM) or an electrothermal-chemical (ETC) launcher. Various pulse power generators have been examined and used. Capacitor-based power supplies are convenient for laboratory launchers, but supplies based on rotating machines-alternators and homopolar generators-are generally more weight efficient and practical for storing, generating and shaping pulses for multi-shot, fieldable launchers. Alternators are the

H. Singh; D. Eccleshall; I. McNab; J. Pappas

1998-01-01

204

Correlated Knowledge Gradients: Example alternatives  

E-print Network

Correlated Knowledge Gradients: Example -4 -2 0 2 4 alternatives value 0 10 20 30 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0;Correlated Knowledge Gradients: Example -4 -2 0 2 4 alternatives value 0 10 20 30 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 num measurements log(KGfactor) 0 10 20 30 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 num measurements opportunitycost #12;Correlated Knowledge

Keinan, Alon

205

The Alternative Fuels Data Center  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) became Public Law 100-494. The AMFA encourages the production and use of motor vehicles designed to operate on alternative fuels. The alternative fuels specified in the law are methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. The Department of Energy (DOE), along with several other federal, state, and local agencies, has undertaken numerous activities aimed at fulfilling the AMFA directives. Among these activities is the establishment of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC), operated and managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in Golden Colorado. The AMFA targets activities for three vehicle types using alternative fuels: (1) light-duty vehicles such as automobiles, mini-vans, and light-duty; (2) heavy-duty vehicles such as tractor trailers and garbage trucks; and (3) urban transit buses. The primary purpose of the AFDC is to gather and analyze information on the fuel consumption, emissions, operation, and durability of these vehicles types. The AFDC staff work with an Oracle Relational Database Management System and statistical software to provide information to users.

Not Available

1991-08-01

206

Coupling transcription and alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing regulation not only depends on the interaction of splicing factors with splicing enhancers and silencers in the pre-mRNA, but also on the coupling between transcription and splicing. This coupling is possible because splicing is often cotranscriptional and promoter identity and occupation may affect alternative splicing. We discuss here the different mechanisms by which transcription regulates alternative splicing. These include the recruitment of splicing factors to the transcribing polymerase and "kinetic coupling", which involves changes in the rate of transcriptional elongation that in turn affect the timing in which splice sites are presented to the splicing machinery. The recruitment mechanism may depend on the particular features of the carboxyl terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, whereas kinetic coupling seems to be linked to how changes in chromatin structure and other factors affect transcription elongation. PMID:18380347

Kornblihtt, Alberto R

2007-01-01

207

Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

1980-11-01

208

Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

Cabraal, A.

1997-12-01

209

Advances in alternative cementitious binders  

SciTech Connect

There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

Juenger, M.C.G., E-mail: mjuenger@mail.utexas.edu [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C 1748, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Winnefeld, F. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Provis, J.L. [University of Melbourne, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ideker, J.H. [Oregon State University, School of Civil and Construction Engineering, 220 Owen Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

2011-12-15

210

FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative  

SciTech Connect

Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

NONE

1996-09-01

211

Augmented and alternative NLP techniques for augmentative and alternative communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current communication devices designed for non-speaking users are inadequate to support conversation because the speed with which a user can input information is typically very limited. We describe some practical work on word prediction, and discuss its limitations as a technique for speeding up free text entry. We then out- line an alternative approach, currently un- der development, which combines

Ann Copestake

1997-01-01

212

Preliminary studies of combustor sensitivity to alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustion problems associated with using alternative fuels ground power and aeropropulsion applications were studied. Rectangular sections designed to simulate large annular combustor test conditions were examined. The effects of using alternative fuels with reduced hydrogen content, increased aromatic content, and a broad variation in fuel property characteristics were also studied. Data of special interest were collected which include: flame radiation characteristics in the various combustor zones; the correponding increase in liner temperature from increased radiant heat flux; the effect of fuel bound nitrogen on oxides of nitrogen (NO sub x) emissions; and the overall total effect of fuel variations on exhaust emissions.

Humenik, F. M.

1980-01-01

213

Alternative refined Gribov-Zwanziger Lagrangian  

SciTech Connect

We consider the implications of the condensation of a general local Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariant dimension two operator built out of the localizing ghost fields of the Gribov-Zwanziger Lagrangian which is a localized Lagrangian incorporating the Gribov problem in the Landau gauge. For different color tensor projections of the general operator, the properties of a frozen gluon propagator and unenhanced Faddeev-Popov ghost propagator, which are observed in lattice computations, can be reproduced. The alternative possibilities are distinguished by the infrared structure of the propagators of the spin-1 fields, other than those of the gluon and Faddeev-Popov ghost, for which there is no numerical simulation data to compare with yet.

Gracey, J. A. [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, L69 3BX (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

214

Spent-fuel-storage alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

Not Available

1980-01-01

215

Two alternative versions of strangeness  

PubMed Central

The concept of strangeness emerged from the low energy phenomenology before the entry of quarks in particle physics. The connection between strangeness and isospin is rather accidental and loose and we recognize later that the definition of strangeness is model-dependent. Indeed, in Gell-Mann’s triplet quark model we realize that there is a simple alternative representation of strangeness. When the concept of generations is incorporated into the quark model we find that only the second alternative version of strangeness remains meaningful, whereas the original one does no longer keep its significance. PMID:18997448

Nishijima, Kazuhikoa

2008-01-01

216

Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soil water flux will result in larger increases in soil- adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distribution of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading.

Huntington, T.G.

1996-01-01

217

Alternative techniques for tracheal intubation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative rigid blade intubation devices have become available in recent years including Glidescope, Airtraq and Bonfils laryngoscopes. The Macintosh curved blade works by displacing the tongue to one side and also into the submandibular space. This allows the device to get into the valleculum and hence lift the hyoid and epiglottis forward to reveal the laryngeal inlet. Under less favourable

Seema Charters; Peter Charters

2011-01-01

218

Socioeconomic impacts of alternative strategies  

SciTech Connect

This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the socioeconomic impacts of the alternative strategies listed in the previous section and describes the methodology used to calculate how these strategies affect economic development. The results of the analysis for each strategy are presented in terms of changes in income and employment compared with a base case reference or `no action` strategy.

NONE

1995-10-01

219

The Commons Problem: Alternative Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews four contrasting theories bearing on the concept of the commons dilemma, which deals with conflicts of individual v group interests over time. Focuses on the threats that commons problems pose to democratic principles in community structure. Discusses alternative directions for the resolution of resource crises. (Author/GC)

Edney, Julian J.

1980-01-01

220

Alternative options in forage fertilization  

E-print Network

Alternative options in forage fertilization Tom Obreza #12;Topics Fertilizer prices Biosolids construction. #12;#12;#12;0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200Dollarsperton Date Amm Nit Potash DAP #12;Biosolids #12;Rule changes on the horizon "Domestic wastewater residuals" replaced by "biosolids." Biosolids site

Watson, Craig A.

221

Alternatives for jet engine control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical progress of researches Alternatives for Jet Engine Control is reported. A numerical study employing feedback tensors for optimal control of nonlinear systems was completed. It is believed that these studies are the first of their kind. State regulation, with a decrease in control power is demonstrated. A detailed treatment follows.

Sain, M. K.

1984-01-01

222

ARTEC: An Alternative to Institutionalization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, social agencies and mental health professionals have been frustrated in their attempts to treat acting-out or delinquent youth. Proposed alternatives have usually resulted in minimal parental involvement in therapy and have also required that the adolescents leave their respective communities in order to be treated. The Adolescent…

Adams, David B.

223

Home Schooling: A Controversial Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Home schooling, an alternative involving about 1 million students annually, walks a fine line in an educational reform era. Home-schooling families have succeeded in establishing their constitutional right to educate their children and have proven their educational programs' legitimacy with achievement test results and with successful "graduates."…

Duffey, Jane

1998-01-01

224

Alternative energy technologies in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is imperative that Brazil consider alternative energy production and conservation techniques in order to cope with the energy crisis. Brazil imports about 650,000 bbl.\\/day of petroleum, which accounts for more than 78 percent of total consumption. Oil amounts to 50 percent of the total energy utilized in Brazil. After a brief review of the energy resources in Brazil (water

Miccolis

1977-01-01

225

CAGE--COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

CAGE provides information on low-emitting alternative coating technologies to coatings users and technical assistance program representatives. The Coatings GuideTM, a pollution prevention tool for paints and coatings users, contains several tools to help users identify low-volati...

226

Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,  

E-print Network

FOR FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGIES MICHAEL P. RAMAGE, NAE,[1] Chair, ExxonMobil Research number of vehicles that can be fueled by hydrogen by 2020 and potential fuel and CO2 savings � Determine11 Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug

227

Alternative Careers in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several alternate definitions of "physical education" can be presented to illustrate the fact that changes in name or definition open the way to new opportunities and new ways of thinking of career options. Traditional definitions of physical education have limited it to a profession of teaching in the traditional school system normal children…

Lambert, Charlotte

228

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA's National Agricultual Library provides access to a wide array of resources pertaining to alternative farming methods, including organic food production, sustainable agriculture, and community supported agriculture. Users can browse the site by subject or the spotlights areas that are changed regularly. Examples of spotlights include a background explanation of sustainable agriculture, community supported agriculture and grant research assistance.

2007-05-20

229

Looking for alternative energy sources.  

PubMed

With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn. PMID:22468274

Gross, Michael

2012-02-21

230

Imaging Alternative Future School Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents the proceedings of the University of Minnesota UCEA Career Development Seminar on alternative school organization for the future. Participants addressed themselves to how both universities and public school systems must adapt to changing social aspirations if they are to remain effective. This entails education…

Popper, Samuel H., Ed.

231

Post Flood Alternatives Mosquito Flats  

E-print Network

Post Flood Alternatives for Mosquito Flats (an entirely amateur perspective) Douglas Jones 816 Park of problems in Mosquito Flats: ! As developed, this is a single-exit neighborhood. This never should have been the Normandy ­ Park Road intersection approached gridlock. ! The storm drains serving Mosquito flats are very

Jones, Douglas W.

232

Alternative Locations for School Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School systems in urbanized or built-up areas have difficulties locating suitable sites for new buildings. Examples of the use of space in alternative locations include the Parkway Program in Philadelphia; the Work Place School in Alberta, Canada; the Metropolitan Learning Alliance in Minnesota; and the Schoolhouse Boat in Vienna, Austria. (MLF)

Earthman, Glen I.

1999-01-01

233

Alternatives to Grading Student Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The result of an investigation into the grading writing by the National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Alternatives to Grading Student Writing, this collection of essays offers the writing teacher several innovative and interesting options. Following an introduction by the editor (chair of the Committee), in which he delineates the…

Tchudi, Stephen, Ed.

234

Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

Not Available

2009-04-01

235

ALTERNATIVE BREAK UNIVERSITY OF UTAH  

E-print Network

in such as LGBTQ Human Rights, Homelessness, or Addiction Recruit students to your program or college POSITION policies and guidelines set by the Alternative Breaks Program Occasional social activities such as BBQs or post trip social are expected. Mandatory attendance at the Reorientation event for Fall Break (Friday

van den Berg, Jur

236

Alternative energy sources. Part B  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text has been assembled from the proceedings of the Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) that was held in Kuwait in February 1980. The focus of this symposium was to review and assess those technologies that presently complement and will most likely substitute in the future

Manassah

1981-01-01

237

Alternative energy sources. Part A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceedings of the 'Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences' held in February 1980, are presented. Papers discuss enhanced oil recovery, tar sands technology,synthetic fuels from coal, production of synthetic fuels from biomass, ethanol from biomass, prospects for photovoltic conversion of solar energy, and the wind energy programme in

Manassah

1981-01-01

238

Strategies for alternative energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies for alternative energy sources are developed out of an understanding of the historical evolution and possible future options for energy consumption. Work is presented that attempts to develop a fundamental and intuitive understanding of energy substitution and utilization patterns for a complex energy economy. A simple market penetration model is used to characterize the historical evolution and to assess

G. C. Ferrell

1978-01-01

239

Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

240

Social Skills: Alternatives to Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this unit is to assist students in understanding and practicing pro-social skills as alternatives to aggressive behavior. Intended for grades four to seven, the unit contains seven modules: (1) "Self-Appraisal"; (2) "Relaxation"; (3) "How to Listen"; (4) "Communicating Your Wants to Others"; (5) "Controlling Your Anger"; (6)…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

241

Alternative energy sources for the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents forecasts concerning alternative energy sources in the United Kingdom. These are alternative sources of heat - solar and geothermal energy, and alternative sources of electricity - wind, tides, and waves. A tentative judgment of the potential contribution of alternative sources to UK energy supplies in the year 2000 is presented.

J. K. Dawson

1976-01-01

242

"Alternate-2" Disjunction Does Not Exist  

PubMed Central

John and Lewis (1965) proposed a model of disjunction of translocation heterozygotes that defined two types of alternate disjunction, alternate-1 and alternate-2, differing from the classic view of only one type. Endrizzi (1974), and subsequent workers citing him, claim to have observed two distinct alternate disjunction configurations, corresponding to John and Lewis's alternate–1 and alternate–2 types, in meiotic preparations of several species. These observations are based on a two-dimensional interpretation of the three-dimensional phenomenon of disjunction, and are erroneous. In each case the two supposed types are topologically identical. There is only one possible alternate disjunction configuration. PMID:17246068

Boussy, Ian A.

1982-01-01

243

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-01-01

244

Alternatives to the mercury sphygmomanometer.  

PubMed

The mercury sphygmomanometer was introduced over 100 years ago. Mercury, however, is a potent human neurotoxin. An international effort has developed to eliminate health-care sources of mercury--the thermometer and sphygmomanometer--and replace them with less toxic alternatives. There is concern regarding the accuracy of these alternative devices. We conducted a literature review of articles published between 1995 and 2009 evaluating the accuracy of mercury, aneroid, and oscillometric blood pressure devices. Mercury sphygmomanometers fared the best although they do not always perform as expected, failing calibration tests between 1 and 28 per cent of the time. Up to 61 per cent of aneroid sphygmomanometers failed. Recently calibrated aneroid devices performed well. Oscillometric devices were less studied and their performance was variable. All three devices showed variable performance. They should be validated before purchase and calibrated on a regular basis. PMID:21109765

Buchanan, Susan; Orris, Peter; Karliner, Joshua

2011-02-01

245

Waste pyrolysis - Alternative fuel source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four means for producing alternative fuel sources via waste pyrolysis are considered. In the first, low-Btu gas is produced by waste pyrolysis in a refractory-lined rotary kiln. The second is based on solid waste passing through a gasifier, and then through stages of drying, pyrolysis, and combustion. This also yields a low-Btu gas. The third method produces a medium-Btu gas

L. M. Pruce

1978-01-01

246

Open Access: An Evolving Alternative  

E-print Network

Authors’ accepted manuscript version (post review): Haricombe, LJ; Emmett, A; Alexander, P. (August, 2012) Open Access: An evolving alternative. Computer. 45:8; 70?72. Published version available: doi 10.1109/MC.2012.274 Open Access: An Evolving... Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003), and the Bethesda Statement (2003)—were launched to advance the national and international conversation on the topic of open access. The Budapest Open Access Initiative is considered...

Haricombe, Lorraine J.; Emmett, Ada; Alexander, Perry

2012-08-01

247

Nonproliferation and alternative nuclear technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluations (I.N.F.C.E.) has undertaken a study of changes that could be made in the nuclear fuel cycle to conserve uranium and minimize proliferation risks. Alternative nuclear technologies will be evaluated in terms of their technical and economic feasibility, resource utilization, and their closeness to commercialization. Light water reactors (LWR's) could be redesigned to improve fuel

Hafemeister

1979-01-01

248

Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents in-depth articles on the main issues affecting the use and usefulness of nuclear energy for peaceful domestic purposes. Topics considered include energy futures (a world study), energy demand-energy supplies, an energy-deficient society, energy shortages, the economics of light water reactors (LWRs), fast breeder reactor economics, international cooperation in the nuclear field, nuclear recycling (costs, savings, safeguards), alternative

K. O. Ott; B. I. Spinrad

1985-01-01

249

Alternate-fuel reactor studies  

SciTech Connect

A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a /sup 3/He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding.

Evans, K. Jr.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.R.

1983-02-01

250

Ambitious Philippine alternative energy plans  

SciTech Connect

The Philippines is to spend $5.4 billion over the next ten years for the development of alternative sources of energy. These would include the development of fuel woods and other biomass, and the commercialization of a coconut/diesel-oil fuel. It is hoped that the Philippines' dependence on imported oil will be reduced from about 80% today to around 50% by the end of the decade.

Not Available

1981-09-07

251

Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts Basic Plasma Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report for contract DE-FG03-99ER54528, ''Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts''. Progress was made in the following areas of investigation: (1) Extensive studies of the confinement properties of conventional Reversed-field Pinch (RFP) configurations (i.e., without current profile control) were performed in collaboration with the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden. These studies were carried out

Dalton D. Schnack

2002-01-01

252

High efficiency electrical alternator system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an alternator employed in an engine having a drive shaft. It comprises: a flywheel connected to the drive shaft forming a rotor of the alternator, and the rotor having an interior cupshaped portion receiving a plurality of ceramic magnets; a stator constructed of silicon steel laminations positioned within the cup-shaped portion of the rotor and having at least one alternator coil on a stator pole positioned relative to the magnets on the rotor such that the magnets are directly adjacent and move past a pole face of the pole as the rotor rotates; the rotor cup-shaped portion being circumferentially defined by an outer circular wall surrounding the stator and having the ceramic magnets mounted directly on an inside surface thereof facing the at least one stator pole face; a ring-shaped starter motor ring gear surrounding the rotor and mounted on an outside surface of the outer circular wall; the outer circular wall having a thickness at a location where the magnets are mounted of equal to or less than 0.3 inches. The thickness of the outer circular wall expressed as a percentage of radius of the rotor from a central axis thereof to the outer surface of the outer circular wall being equal to or less than 7%. The rotor being of one-piece construction and comprising a ductile iron casting.

Safranek, E.J.

1989-10-17

253

Check List for an Alternative Loan *Quick Alternative/Private Loan Info  

E-print Network

if the Alternative Loan School Certification has been completed. Then, confirm with your lender that they haveCheck List for an Alternative Loan *Quick Alternative/Private Loan Info: What is an alternative/private loan? Alternative/Private student loans are educational loans that students can apply

John, Lizy Kurian

254

FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative  

SciTech Connect

Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

1996-10-07

255

Towards an Alternative Gravitational Theory  

E-print Network

In 1680 Cassini proposed oval curves as alternative trajectories for the visible planets around the sun. The Cassini ovals were of course overshadow by the Kepler's first law (1609), namely the planets move around the sun describing conic orbits. Here we describe the possibility that the Cassini's idea works at larger or smaller scales. Indeed, we consider the Spiric curves (which are a generalization of the Cassini oval) and present the first steps towards a Spiric gravitational theory. We show that from our formalism an ellipse associated with a planet can be obtained as a particular case.

J. A. Nieto; L. A. Beltrán

2014-05-14

256

Indications and alternatives to hysterectomy.  

PubMed

Hysterectomy remains one the most common procedures performed in North America. Because of a better understanding of a wide array of disease states and with emerging, more focused minimally invasive treatment options, a relative decline has been documented in the last several years. Although hysterectomy will ultimately eliminate all potential sources of abnormal uterine bleeding, various pharmacologic and surgical alternatives exist that may provide comparable benefit to the majority of women, especially if older than 40 years. Women experiencing chronic pelvic pain; however, should be counseled against hysterectomy until a more clear etiology has been identified. PMID:24488051

Solnik, M Jonathan; Munro, Malcolm G

2014-03-01

257

New Technology and Energy Alternatives  

E-print Network

, which is equal to 1000 watts consumed for one hour. It represents the fuel the uti I ity burns to produce the energy consumed. Peak demand charges are usually based on the highest 30 minute peak demand in kilowatts experienced during a given month... of hours that customer can be interrupted. Knowing your facil ity's type of rate is the basis for finding alternative and energy reducing schemes. This information is available from your uti I ity company. With this brief background, we can discuss...

Lamphere, F. J.

258

Alternatives for Rebuilding Curricula (ARC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternatives for Rebuilding Curricula (ARC) is a collaboration of the Consortium for Mathematics and Its Applications (COMAP) and the three elementary mathematics curriculum projects (Investigations in Number, Data, and Space; Everyday Mathematics; and Math Trailblazers). The curriculum projects are funded by the National Science Foundation and reflective of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards. The website includes curriculum summaries and descriptions of sample activities. Also posted are at least three "implementation stories from the field" for each curricula. Information on ARC's consultation and professional development services is also provided.

259

Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

Tuttle

2001-01-01

260

29 CFR 1960.17 - Alternate standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Alternate standards. 1960.17 Section 1960.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.17 Alternate standards. An agency...

2011-07-01

261

29 CFR 1960.17 - Alternate standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Alternate standards. 1960.17 Section 1960.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.17 Alternate standards. An agency...

2012-07-01

262

29 CFR 1960.17 - Alternate standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Alternate standards. 1960.17 Section 1960.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.17 Alternate standards. An agency...

2010-07-01

263

Understanding Conic Sections Using Alternate Graph Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes two alternative coordinate systems and their use in graphing conic sections. This alternative graph paper helps students explore the idea of eccentricity using the definitions of the conic sections.

Brown, Elizabeth M.; Jones, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

264

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

265

Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to influence uniform rates. The welfare results of these exercises indicate that popular conceptions about increasing block rates may be incorrect insofar as the scarcity-endogenous uniform rate favors low-income households. That is, under scarcity conditions a switch from increasing block rates to full price uniform rates redistributes welfare so as to place more of the welfare burden of conservation on high-income households. Similarly, any household characteristic that tends to accompany low water use (e.g. low property value) generates a the same rate structure preference. These results are an intriguing addition to existing knowledge pertaining to the properties of increasing block rates and uniform rates with respect to criteria such as efficiency, simplicity, effectiveness, and (now) equity.

Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

2011-12-01

266

Bond Alternation, Polarizability and Resonance Detuning in Methine Dyes  

E-print Network

We derive structure-property relationships for methine ("Brooker") dyes relating the color of the dye and its symmetric parents to its bond alternation in the ground state and also to the dipole properties associated with its low-lying charge-resonance (or charge-transfer) transition. We calibrate and test these relationships on an array of different protonation states of the green fluorescent protein chromophore motif (an asymmetric halochromic methine dye) and its symmetric parent dyes. The relationships rely on the assumption that the diabatic states that define the Platt model for methine dye color [J.R. Platt, J. Chem. Phys. 25 80 (1956)] can also be distinguished by their single-double bond alternation and by their charge localization character. These assumptions are independent of the primary constraint that defines the diabatic states in the Platt model - specifically, the Brooker deviation rule for methine dyes [L.G.S. Brooker, Rev. Mod. Phys. 14 275 (1942)]. Taking these assumptions, we show that the Platt model offers an alternate route to known structure-property relationships between the bond length alternation and the quadratic nonlinear polarizability {\\beta}. We show also that the Platt model can be parameterized without the need for synthesis of the symmetric parents of a given dye, using dipole data obtained through spectroscopic measurements. This suggests that the Platt model parameters may be used as independent variables in free-energy relationships for chromophores whose symmetric parents cannot be synthesized or chromophores strongly bound to biomolecular environments. The latter category includes several recently characterized biomolecular probe constructs. We illustrate these concepts by an analysis of previously reported electroabsorption and second-harmonic generation experiments on green fluorescent proteins.

Seth Olsen; Ross H. McKenzie

2010-08-30

267

Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.  

PubMed

The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical properties. PMID:23925042

de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

2013-08-01

268

Alternative healing and health education.  

PubMed

As new and unorthodox methods of health care become increasingly popular, more and more stories appear in magazines, television, and even professional journals. Advocates of alternative healing appear as conference speakers for lay and professional groups alike-including health educators. Such therapies appeal to a public eager to take control of their own health and bodies. Via the Internet, new ideas and treatments can spread through the population incredibly fast. The abundance of new healing techniques coupled with an interested audience and the wonders of mass communication present a challenge to the health educator. The author believes health educators need to be aware of trends in popular culture and new forms of alternative health care. Health educators should have the insight, by virtue of their training, to distinguish real from fantasy, science from pseudoscience. They need to become health information specialists and competent in operating the latest technology. Most importantly, health educators need to remain objective and keep an open mind coupled with a healthy degree of skepticism. PMID:20841077

Pahz, J A

1997-01-01

269

Alternative cosmology from cusp geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study an alternative geometrical approach on the problem of classical cosmological singularity. It is based on a generalized function f(x,y)=x(2+y^2=(1-z)z^n) which consists of a cusped projected coupled isosurface. Such a projected geometry is computed and analized into the context of Friedmann singularity-free cosmology where a pre-big bang scenario is considered. Assuming that the mechanism of cusp formation is described by non-linear oscillations of a pre- big bang extended very high energy density field (>3x10^{94} kg/m^3$), we show that the action under the gravitational field follows a tautochrone of revolution, understood here as the primary projected geometry that alternatively replaces the Friedmann singularity in the standard big bang theory. As shown here this new approach allows us to interpret the nature of both matter and dark energy from first geometric principles [1]. [1] Rosa et al. DOI: 10.1063/1.4756991

Rosa, Reinaldo; Herbin Stalder Díaz, Diego

270

Alternative splicing and retinal degeneration.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is highly regulated in tissue-specific and development-specific patterns, and it has been estimated that 15% of disease-causing point mutations affect pre-mRNA splicing. In this review, we consider the cis-acting splice site and trans-acting splicing factor mutations that affect pre-mRNA splicing and contribute to retinal degeneration. Numerous splice site mutations have been identified in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and various cone-rod dystrophies. Mutations in alternatively spliced retina-specific exons of the widely expressed RPGR and COL2A1 genes lead primarily to X-linked RP and ocular variants of Stickler syndrome, respectively. Furthermore, mutations in general pre-mRNA splicing factors, such as PRPF31, PRPF8, and PRPF3, predominantly cause autosomal dominant RP. These findings suggest an important role for pre-mRNA splicing in retinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. The development of novel therapeutic strategies to modulate aberrant splicing, including small molecule-based therapies, has the potential to lead to new treatments for retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23647439

Liu, M M; Zack, D J

2013-08-01

271

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine  

E-print Network

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz Neve Shalom, October, 2013 Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A for the elementary particle masses. Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;Higgs Discovery; LHC

California at Santa Cruz, University of

272

ALTERNATIVES TO INCARCERATION. STUDIES IN DELINQUENCY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS EXTENSIVE REPORT DISCUSSES VARIOUS CORRECTIONAL PRACTICES FOR ADULT AND JUVENILE OFFENDERS, AND DESCRIBES POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES. ALTERNATIVES TO PRETRIAL INCARCERATION OF ADULT OFFENDERS ARE SUPERVISED RELEASE, DAYTIME RELEASE, RELEASE IN THE CUSTODY OF A THIRD PARTY, SUMMONS INSTEAD OF ARREST, AND REVISED BAIL PROCEDURES. ALTERNATIVES TO…

EMPEY, LAMAR T.

273

Pichia pastoris 'just in time' alternative respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative oxidases (Aox or Aod) are present in the mitochondria of plants, fungi and many types of yeast. These enzymes transfer electrons from the ubiquinol pool directly to oxygen without contributing to the proton transfer across the mitochondrial membrane. Alternative oxidases are involved in stress responses, programmed cell death and maintenance of the cellular redox balance. The alternative oxidase gene

Alexander Kern; Franz S. Hartner; Maria Freigassner; Julia Spielhofer; Cornelia Rumpf; Laura Leitner; Kai-Uwe Frohlich; Anton Glieder

2007-01-01

274

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

. It has become the primary vehicle for accelerating, coordinating and sharing alternative energy researchReport of the Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative 2010 Prof. David Cahen Scientific Director #12;Alternative and sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI) Weizmann Institute of Science

Maoz, Shahar

275

Alternative Education in Japan: A Brief Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Japan, not attending public school is stigmatized, and alternative education is in its infancy. Reviews free spaces, which are not schools, but places for traumatized students to recover; home schooling networks; government-approved independent alternative schools; alternative after-school programs; and innovative programs within the system.…

Needle, Nat

2000-01-01

276

Communication and alternative school student socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because alternative schools affect more potential dropouts than any other program, it is imperative to understand how students are making sense of their alternative school experience. The sense these students make of their role as an alternative school student is important considering it can affect their decision to stay in school. Sense?making, or socialization, is a communication process of acquiring

Tasha J. Souza

1999-01-01

277

Reflections of an Alternative School Administrator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An administrator of an Indiana alternative high school constantly battles negative public attitudes toward alternative schools. Schools or programs seeking to serve the variety of youths and families in today's society should not be separated out as "alternatives." Ensuring that all individuals have opportunities to succeed is a necessity, not an…

McGee, Jay

2001-01-01

278

Syllabus for Chem. 3700 Alternative Energy  

E-print Network

popular alternative energy sources which are currently being used or developed to help relieveSyllabus for Chem. 3700 Alternative Energy Class Meetings: Tuesdays and Thursdays with the most popular alternate energy options. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the topic, the course

Houston, Paul L.

279

Alternative Schools: A Practical Manual. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is a practical guide based on school experiences and legal requirements in Massachusetts. It is intended to help alternative schools get off the ground and to stay out of trouble with State and local authorities. Some brief sketches of four alternative schools are presented to indicate alternatives that already exist. Sections…

Ascheim, Skip; And Others

280

IT Operational Oversight Committee MS Office Alternatives  

E-print Network

IT Operational Oversight Committee MS Office Alternatives January 15, 2014 Page 1 OOC Report Alternatives to MS Office Final Report Document Rev. Date: 1/15/2014 Project Title ­ MS Office Alternatives Project Team ­ Mona Holdcraft, Director of Financial Affairs, College of Health and Human Sciences George

281

an educational alternative futures wildland planning game  

E-print Network

an educational alternative futures wildland planning game Edward C. Thor James L. Creighton PACIFIC. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Mystic Mountain Game was initially developed for a workshop on alternative futures planning alternative futures wildland planning game. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-30, 8 p., illus. Pacific South- west Forest

Standiford, Richard B.

282

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane conversions. This guide may be particularly helpful for organizations that are already using alternative fuels in their vehicles and have an alternative fuel supply or electric charging in place (e.g., golf cart charging stations at most golf courses). On the flip side, experiencing the benefits of using alternative fuels in mowing equipment may encourage organizations to try them in on-road vehicles as well. Whatever the case, alternative fuel commercial lawnmowers are a powerful and cost-effective way to reduce U.S. petroleum dependence and help protect the environment.

Not Available

2011-10-01

283

Post Flood Alternatives Mosquito Flats  

E-print Network

the recent flood, few people are likely to purchase houses as primary residences, but short-term renters face little risk. We will end up with a neighborhood that is a mixture of unoccupied ruins and houses that have been minimally repaired to accommodate short term renters. Property values in such a neighborhood

Jones, Douglas W.

284

Alternatives in California School Finance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are major disparities in spending and taxation among California school districts. Available resources per pupil bear little relationship to the willingness of local communities to support education or the educational task to be performed. In addition, the State school finance system forces districts to rely on local property tax bases for…

Barro, Stephen M.

285

Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

1985-01-01

286

An alternative approach to infrared optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MONTAGE program sponsored by the Microsystems Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) resulted in the demonstration of a novel approach to designing compact imaging systems. This approach was enabled by an unusual four-fold annular lens originally designed and demonstrated for operation exclusively in the visible spectral band. To accomplish DARPA's goal of an ultra-thin imaging system, the folded optic was fabricated by diamond-turning concentric aspheric annular zones on both sides of a CaF2 core. The optical properties of the core material ultimately limit the operating bandwidth of such a design. We present the latest results of an effort to re-engineer and demonstrate the MONTAGE folded optics for imaging across a broad spectral band. The broadband capability is achieved by taking advantage of a new design that substitutes a hollow core configuration for the solid core. Along with enabling additional applications for the folded optics, the hollow-core design offers the potential of reducing weight and cost in comparison to an alternative solid-core design. We present new results characterizing the performance of a lens based on the new design and applied to long-wave infrared imaging.

Morrison, Rick; Stack, Ronald; Euliss, Gary; Athale, Ravindra; Reese, Colin; Vizgaitis, Jay; Stevens, James; Tremblay, Eric; Ford, Joseph

2010-04-01

287

Alternative designs for nanocrystalline silicon solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline silicon is an attractive material for solar cells. It has very small grains, about 20 nm, and yet its electronic properties are very similar to those of crystalline silicon. The material exhibits smaller mobilities than crystalline Silicon, but the minority carrier lifetimes are reasonable. It is known that the properties of the material depend critically upon deposition parameters, in particular, the degree of grain boundary passivation achieved during growth and grain size. Previous work has shown that as the material grows, the grains tend to agglomerate into a cluster, and the development of this cluster leads to poorer electronic properties. The traditional method for overcoming such clustering has been to change the hydrogen to silane dilution ratio as the material grows, keeping the material near its crystalline to amorphous transition zone. However, this method is dependent upon the precise growth chemistry and is not suitable for mass production. In this project, we develop a new device design, a superlattice comprising alternating layers of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon, which allows one to precisely control the agglomeration of grains without having to resort to hydrogen profiling techniques. We study structural properties such as grain size and the degree of crystallnity, and electronic properties such as carrier diffusion lengths and defect densities. We show that an appropriate design of the superlattice allows one to minimize defect densities and maximize carrier diffusion lengths. We also study how to reduce series resistance in solar cells, and show that an appropriate combination of superlattice and contacts can lead to devices with high fill factors and good solar cell efficiencies. We also report on a new discovery, namely that the optical absorption itself depends critically upon grain size. Larger grain sizes, up to 50 nm, lead to increased optical absorption, a totally unexpected and very useful discovery for devices, since higher absorption translates into larger current densities. We show that such grain sizes can be achieved using deposition at higher temperatures. We develop a new technique, post-deposition annealing, to help passivate the grain boundaries in devices prepared at higher temperatures. Without such annealing, the device properties for devices grown at higher temperatures with larger grains are very poor. We show that when the devices are grown with larger grains, and then passivated using this new annealing technique, the current and efficiencies increase by 40% compared to similar devices prepared at lower temperatures. We also propose the concept of a Multiphase cell by alloying germanium with silicon in the back layer of the device. Since germanium has a stronger absorption co-efficient than silicon, we show that we can enhance the infrared spectral response and also achieve good IV curves by optimally grading the germane flow. Finally, we implement these concepts on textured backreflectors to further enhance the efficiencies by light trapping.

Madhavan, Atul

288

Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of research institutes are concerned with issues of social and economic justice, and the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) is perhaps one of the best known institutes working in these fields of endeavor. Founded in 1980, the Centre works "to enrich democratic dialogue and ensure Canadians know there are workable solutions to the issues we face." A good place to start exploring the site's contents is at the "New from the CCPA" area on the homepage. Here, visitors will find recent policy statements and reports on everything from Canada's health care system to the regulation of chemical emissions into the environment. Visitors may also wish to look through the "Research & Publications" area, as it contains editorials, news releases, and selected articles from their monthly magazine, "The Monitor".

289

An alternative to mode fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space mission CoRoT provides us with a large amount of high-duty cycle long-duration observations. Mode fitting has proven to be efficient for the complete and detailed analysis of the oscillation pattern, but remains time consuming. Furthermore, the photometric background due to granulation severely complicates the analysis. Therefore, we attempt to provide an alternative to mode fitting, for the determination of large separations. With the envelope autocorrelation function and a dedicated filter, it is possible to measure the variation of the large separation independently for the ridges with even and odd degrees. The method appears to be as accurate as the mode fitting. It can be very easily implemented and is very rapid.

Mosser, B.

2010-12-01

290

Promoter usage and alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Recent findings justify a renewed interest in alternative splicing (AS): the process is more a rule than an exception as it affects the expression of 60% of human genes; it explains how a vast mammalian proteomic complexity is achieved with a limited number of genes; and mutations in AS regulatory sequences are a widespread source of human disease. AS regulation not only depends on the interaction of splicing factors with their target sequences in the pre-mRNA but is coupled to transcription. A clearer picture is emerging of the mechanisms by which transcription affects AS through promoter identity and occupation. These mechanisms involve the recruitment of factors with dual functions in transcription and splicing (i.e. that contain both functional domains and hence link the two processes) and the control of RNA polymerase II elongation. PMID:15901495

Kornblihtt, Alberto R

2005-06-01

291

Surface Tension of Alternative Refrigerants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, current researches for surface tension of alternative refrigerants are reviewed. The refrigerants of interests are seven HCFCs: namely R-123, R-123a, R-124, R -141b, R-142b, R-225ca and R-225cb, and six HFCs; namely R-23, R-32, R-125, R-134, R- 134a and R-152a. The available data and correlations of experimental surface tension for HCFCs and HFCs are summarized. Most of experimental data were obtained by using capillary rise method. With regard to R-123 and R-134a, new surface tension correlations have been developed and are accepted as the international standard. For other refrigerants, the author selected one correlation for each refrigerant as a recommended correlation. In addition, graphical estimation method of surface tension for binary mixture is introduced. In particular, more research is expected on the surface tension of mixture in the future.

Okada, Masaaki

292

First passage failure: Analysis alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Most mechanical and structural failures can be formulated as first passage problems. The traditional approach to first passage analysis models barrier crossings as Poisson events. The crossing rate is established and used in the Poisson framework to approximate the no-crossing probability. While this approach is accurate in a number of situations, it is desirable to develop analysis alternatives for those situations where traditional analysis is less accurate and situations where it is difficult to estimate parameters of the traditional approach. This paper develops an efficient simulation approach to first passage failure analysis. It is based on simulation of segments of complex random processes with the Karhunen-Loeve expansion, use of these simulations to estimate the parameters of a Markov chain, and use of the Markov chain to estimate the probability of first passage failure. Some numerical examples are presented.

PAEZ,THOMAS L.; NGUYEN,H.P.; WIRSCHING,PAUL H.

2000-04-17

293

Alternative approaches to antifungal therapies  

PubMed Central

The expansive use of immunosuppressive medications in fields such as transplantational medicine and oncology, the higher frequency of invasive procedures in an aging population and the HIV/AIDS pandemic have increased the frequency of systemic fungal infections. At the same time, increased resistance of pathogenic fungi to classical antifungal agents has led to sustained research efforts targeting alternative antifungal strategies. In this review, we focus on two promising approaches: cationic peptides and the targeting of fungal virulence factors. Cationic peptides are small, predominantly positively charged protein fragments which exert direct and indirect antifungal activities, one mechanism of action being the permeabilization of the fungal membrane. They include lysozyme, defensins, and cathelicidins, as well as novel synthetic peptides. Amongst fungal virulence factors, the targeting of candidal secreted aspartic proteinases seems to be a particularly promising approach. PMID:23078400

Mehra, T; Köberle, M; Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sanchez, D; Borelli, C; Schaller, M

2012-01-01

294

Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative  

SciTech Connect

This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners.

Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

1985-01-01

295

Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato  

SciTech Connect

Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-05-01

296

Hydrogeology, Water Quality, and Ground-Water-Development Alternatives in the Upper Wood River Ground-Water Reservoir, Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island. The report includes discussion of (1) recharge to and hydraulic properties of the stratified-dri...

D. C. Dickerman, R. W. Bell

1993-01-01

297

‘Alternative foods’ and community-based development: Rooibos tea production in South Africa's West Coast Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooibos tee (red bush tea) (Aspalathus linearis, Fabaceae), which is indigenous only to the Cedarberg and neighbouring mountains of South Africa, has become popular internationally as a result of its apparent health-giving properties. Situated within the broader contexts of alternative food networks, alternate economic spaces and local\\/community-based development, this paper examines how two marginalised communities have successfully penetrated international markets

Etienne Nel; Tony Binns; David Bek

2007-01-01

298

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

Not Available

1994-06-01

299

Inter-esterified palm products as alternatives to hydrogenation.  

PubMed

Inter-esterification is one of the processes used to modify the physico-chemical characteristics of oils and fats. Inter-esterification is an acyl-rearrangement reaction on the glycerol molecule. On the other hand, hydrogenation involves addition of hydrogen to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to health implications of trans fatty acids, which are formed during hydrogenation, the industry needs to find alternatives to hydrogenated fats. This paper discusses some applications of inter-esterified fats, with particular reference to inter-esterified palm products, as alternatives to hydrogenation. Some physico-chemical properties of inter-esterified fats used in shortenings are discussed. With inter-esterification, more palm stearin can be incorporated in vanaspati. For confectionary fats and infant formulations, enzymatic inter-esterification has been employed. PMID:16326647

Idris, Nor Aini; Dian, Noor Lida Habi Mat

2005-01-01

300

Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn about the properties that will help you identify minerals. If you closed your eyes and tasted different foods, you could probably determine what the foods are by noting properties such as saltiness or sweetness. You can also determine the identity of a mineral by noting different properties. Some properties that help us determine the identy of a mineral are: COLOR, ...

Wood, Mr.

2010-11-14

301

Intellectual Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

Swinson, John V.

2000-01-01

302

Resistance to alternatives to hospitalization.  

PubMed

Hospitalization has endured as the predominant form of psychiatric treatment for serious mental illness, despite accumulated evidence that outpatient treatment, ranging from halfway houses to day programs to traditional clinics, is equal or superior to inpatient treatment. Reasons for the apparent reluctance to use alternatives to the hospital include social prejudice against community treatment, economic disincentives, administrative chaos, training, professional sociology, and the countertransference meanings of hospitalization. The foregoing is not an argument against hospitalization, but rather an argument for being very clear about policy objectives and treatment goals. If these objectives and goals are made explicit, proposals can be evaluated for their efficacy. If community tenure, the assumption of responsibility for him or herself, and relinquishment of the patient role are goals, then hospitalization must be examined more skeptically. For society, this means the assumption of more responsibility for the establishment of a system of mental health care, for enunciating national policy goals and implementing them consistently, and for committing the necessary funds and manpower to this endeavor. For the clinician, it means examining the clinical efficacy of his or her treatment recommendations and distinguishing between responsibility for the patient's treatment and responsibility for the patient's life. The abdication of social responsibility for the patient and the assumption of omnipotent clinical responsibility for him or her lead inexorably to more institutional and more restrictive treatment, even in the absence of evidence that such measures are therapeutically effective. PMID:3932981

Friedman, R S

1985-09-01

303

[Macrocampaigns: alternatives to health promotion].  

PubMed

To reflect about teaching and practicing nursing in public and collective health, helps to direct the teaching/learning nursing process to a health promotion alternative, involving nursing students of UFRGS with Lions Clubs, Health State Secretaries and, specially, with the population and the media, so that early detection of high blood pressure and diabetes and also health promotion could be focus on Macro-campaigns Project. The aim is to early detect high blood pressure, diabetes and to promote health, individually and collectively, in a short period of time, at places of major concentration of persons, using academic work power, clubs of service, participation of the population and the media. The method used on this investigation was of interviews, blood pressure measurement, blood sugar checking, and filling forms from spontaneous demand in shoppings malls and other sites, by two professors and 58 nursing students of UFRGS. The main aspects of the results are that 15% of the demand have high blood pressure and 9% have high level of blood sugar. PMID:10948940

Vanzin, A S; da Silva Nery, M E

1999-01-01

304

HFIR spent fuel management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

1992-10-15

305

HFIR spent fuel management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems` Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

1992-10-15

306

Alternative Energy for Higher Education  

SciTech Connect

This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time â??dashboardâ? and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

Michael Cherney, PhD

2012-02-22

307

[Alternatives to allogenous blood transfusion].  

PubMed

Blood transfusion is usually meant to lower morbidity and mortality rates. Allogenous blood transfusion implies certain risks that can be avoided by autologous blood transfusions techniques including: preoperatory autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage. Preoperatory blood donation and acute normovolemic hemodilution are used for planned interventions with an estimated blood loss higher than 20% of blood volume. These methods imply Erythropoietin and iron treatment. Intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage is performed by personnel trained in blood donation, handling and storage. Autologous blood transfusions are used for certain surgical procedures that commonly require transfusions: orthopedic surgery, radical prostatectomy, cardiovascular surgery, organ transplantation. An alternative to allogenous blood transfusion is the use of artificial oxygen transporters: human or animal hemoglobin solutions or pefluorocarbonate solutions. These solutions do not require cross reactions, do not carry diseases and are generally well tolerated and easily stored in the operating room, ambulance and other transport means. They have however a slight degree of toxicity. PMID:21495338

Cernea, Daniela; Vl?doianu, Alice; Stoica, Maria; Novac, M; Berteanu, Cristina

2009-01-01

308

Phytoremediation -- a practical capping alternative  

SciTech Connect

Much literature has been devoted recently to the use of various plant species for the uptake of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Other uses for plants as part of the remediation process are growing in perceived effectiveness. Consequently, this paper deals with two other equally important potential uses of plants to address environmental problems that are just now evolving to the field trial stage: the use of plants to remediate organic pollutants; and the use of plants to control the rainfall-driven leaching of contaminants and the subsequent delivery to underlying groundwater. The traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) approach to capping landfills will be contrasted with the potential benefits of using plants that can balance incoming rainfall with evapotranspiration, as well as plants which can act on organic constituents in soil or sludge by either uptake or by promoting microbial activity in soil. This paper compares traditional RCRA capping costs to those for a phytoremediation capping alternative, whose benefits include significantly lower implementation cost and continued remediation. This paper discusses important elements of a successful approach to phytoremediation including: species selection, implementation techniques, cost-efficient monitoring, regulatory aspects, project timing, and realistic expectations.

Beath, J.M.; Peak, M.J. [ERM-Southwest, Inc., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

309

[Pollution and alternative energy sources].  

PubMed

In order to reach higher standards of living, man has always been interested in searching new energy sources. Natural energy from sun, wind and water has been overcame by more sophisticated resources such as coal, vapour, hydroelectricity, natural gas, petroleum, and, at least, nuclear energy. However all these resources present unwanted effects, namely various hazards to man and environment. On this matter society is quering the risk-benefit balance of some energy choices and optimum performance with new safety means to limit dangerousness are being pursued and developed. It is necessary to evaluate carefully every aspect of safety without under-estimating or over-evaluating problems. For each energy source a "real price" has to be paired, even more in the future, since more energy will be required to guarantee the necessary technological progress linked to a better quality of life. In the present review all risks related to different energy sources are described and discussed aiming at defining: 1) specific risks for different sources 2) benefit from their utilization 3) means of defence guaranteeing security for man and environment. Italy is strictly dependent for energy production, which comes for 80% from abroad. An appropriate balance is required considering economical and social factors and real availability of energy. This balance needs therefore to be clearly evaluated hoping in a better future for an alternative energy, less dangerous and more clear, such as that from nuclear fusion. PMID:2483087

Melino, C

1989-01-01

310

Economics of alternative energy sources.  

PubMed

An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. PMID:16073407

Ryle, M

1977-05-12

311

Polyandry and alternative mating tactics  

PubMed Central

Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research. PMID:23339236

Neff, Bryan D.; Svensson, Erik I.

2013-01-01

312

ASD: a bioinformatics resource on alternative splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism of mammalian gene expression. The alternative splicing database (ASD) consortium is systematically collecting and annotating data on alternative splicing. We present the continuation and upgrade of the ASD (T. A. Thanaraj, S. Stamm, F. Clark, J. J. Riethoven, V. Le Texier, J. Muilu (2004) NucleicAcidsRes.32,D64-D69)thatconsistsofcom- putationally and manually generated data. Its largest parts

Stefan Stamm; Jean-jack M. Riethoven; Vincent Le Texier; Chellappa Gopalakrishnan; Vasudev Kumanduri; Yesheng Tang; Nuno L. Barbosa-morais; Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj

2006-01-01

313

Mineral minimization in nature's alternative teeth  

E-print Network

REVIEW Mineral minimization in nature's alternative teeth Christopher C. Broomell1, , Rashda K, particularly teeth, have been extensively studied in structural, chemical, mechanical and clinical detail

Zok, Frank

314

7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

2010-01-01

315

7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

2011-01-01

316

7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

2012-01-01

317

7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.  

...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

2014-01-01

318

7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

2013-01-01

319

Computer Simulations of Charged Colloids in Alternating Electric Fields  

E-print Network

We briefly review recent theoretical and simulation studies of charged colloidal dispersions in alternating electric fields (AC fields). The response of single colloid to an external field can be characterized by a complex polarizability, which describes the dielectric properties of the colloid and its surrounding electrical double layer. We present computer simulation studies of single spherical colloid, using a coarse-grained mesoscale approach that accounts in full for hydrodynamic and electrostatic interactions as well as for thermal fluctuations. We investigate systematically a number of controlling parameters, such as the amplitude and frequency of the AC-fields. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions.

Jiajia Zhou; Friederike Schmid

2014-01-05

320

23 CFR 645.119 - Alternate procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in paragraph (b) of this section, the STD is to act in the relative position of...complete the work. (b) The scope of the STD's approval authority under the alternate...To adopt the alternate procedure, the STD must file a formal application for...

2010-04-01

321

23 CFR 645.119 - Alternate procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in paragraph (b) of this section, the STD is to act in the relative position of...complete the work. (b) The scope of the STD's approval authority under the alternate...To adopt the alternate procedure, the STD must file a formal application for...

2013-04-01

322

23 CFR 645.119 - Alternate procedure.  

...in paragraph (b) of this section, the STD is to act in the relative position of...complete the work. (b) The scope of the STD's approval authority under the alternate...To adopt the alternate procedure, the STD must file a formal application for...

2014-04-01

323

23 CFR 645.119 - Alternate procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in paragraph (b) of this section, the STD is to act in the relative position of...complete the work. (b) The scope of the STD's approval authority under the alternate...To adopt the alternate procedure, the STD must file a formal application for...

2012-04-01

324

23 CFR 645.119 - Alternate procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in paragraph (b) of this section, the STD is to act in the relative position of...complete the work. (b) The scope of the STD's approval authority under the alternate...To adopt the alternate procedure, the STD must file a formal application for...

2011-04-01

325

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine  

E-print Network

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A tension between naturalness and simplicity The decades prior Futures for Particle Physics #12;A Moment to Celebrate: The Higgs Discovery The past year has been

California at Santa Cruz, University of

326

Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided.

Murphy, James Anthony; Palmer, Brent J; Perry, Keith Joseph

2003-12-01

327

SKOLE: The Journal of Alternative Education, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four issues of "SKOLE" published in 1996 include articles about alternatives to public education, the value of free schools and home-schooling, and children's learning experiences. Feature articles include profiles of alternative schools and educational programs; descriptions of learning experiences and teaching practices; a study of full…

Leue, Mary, Ed.

1996-01-01

328

Analytical services contract reform alternatives project  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) was directed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to examine the feasibility of outsourcing all or part of its laboratory and analytical functions as part of a contract reform effort. The analytical services provided by WHC were found to be significantly greater than that of a typical environmental laboratory which provides sample analysis based on a simple sample in-report out model. In addition to high-volume production analysis, the work scope includes special analytical services, technical consulting, sample handling and disposition, and special material preparations. Numerous broad ranging potential contract reform alternatives were identified and categorized into seven main alternatives with associated sub-alternatives. Issues associated with each alternative varied significantly depending on the alternative. Fifteen issues were identified and described including human resources, contract, and procurement areas. Readers of this report will perhaps identify additional alternatives and/or issues. In addressing the issues, it was determined that those issues pertaining to labor relations and procurement require major policy resolutions by WHC/DOE senior management prior to being able to establish meaningful assumptions for cost/benefit analyses of the seven alternatives. Further review was therefore stopped without economic analyses or recommendation for any specific alternative. Accordingly, this report is intended to fulfill the requirements of RL Milestone AS-95-016.

Hunt, J.W.; Fox, M.R.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Minette, M.J.

1995-03-23

329

Tonal Alternations and Prosodic Structure in Somali  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the prosody of focalisation in Somali, a cushitic tonal accent language. The Somali nouns undergo many tonal accent alternations according to the discursive contexts. A primary aim of the study is to explain these alternations by assuming that they are triggered by intonative tones. However, very little attention has been devoted to the intonation of Somali. As

David Le Gac

2002-01-01

330

Young doctors' views on alternative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was undertaken to explore attitudes to alternative medicine among 100 general practitioner trainees. A positive attitude emerged from the 86 respondents, with 18 doctors using at least one alternative method themselves and 70 wanting to train in one or more. A total of 31 trainees had referred patients for such treatments; 12 of these doctors made referrals to

D T Reilly

1983-01-01

331

Requirements, possible alternatives & international NEUTRON SCATTERING  

E-print Network

Requirements, possible alternatives & international NEUTRON SCATTERING DETECTORS for Rob Dimeo NIST neutron scattering instruments are the most demanding require background low #12;#12;The Helium-3 Supply Crisis ­ Alternative Techniques to Helium-3 based Detectors for Neutron Scattering Applications

Dimeo, Robert M.

332

Evaluating art as an alternative investment aset  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper constitutes a discussion of the trend around the proposition that art can be considered an alternative means of generating a return using structured funds as vehicles for investment. With financial markets in turmoil, art as an alternative asset class is being incorporated into portfolios in the interest of diversification. However, the volatility and illiquidity of the art market

Raya Mamarbachi; Marc Day; Giampiero Favato

2008-01-01

333

Alternatives to Suspension: A Government Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student discipline and the ineffectiveness of out-of-school suspension is examined in light of the Ontario (Canada) legislative reform that supported a greater emphasis on progressive discipline alternatives to out-of-school suspension. Alternative discipline herein is explored via the behavior education plan, the school survival group, and…

Ryan, Thomas G.; Zoldy, Scott

2011-01-01

334

School Counseling in Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disciplinary alternative education programs (DAEP) service many students; however, limited literature is published for school counselors working in these schools. Therefore, this manuscript provides a conceptual foundation for counselors working with students attending DAEPs. Specifically, the manuscript (a) reviews the types of alternative…

Mullen, Patrick R.; Lambie, Glenn W.

2013-01-01

335

Expansion of an Alternative School Typology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The alternative education program remains a viable response for engaging students who would otherwise be dropouts. Raywid (1994) synthesized and advanced an alternative school typology describing organizational characteristics with related effectiveness that appeared useful for considering and improving program practices. A Unique opportunity…

Henrich, Randy S.

2005-01-01

336

Optimization methods for alternative energy system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal

Michael Henry Reinhardt

2000-01-01

337

Realistic ocean energy alternatives to fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Commission on Ocean Policy endorsed the Administrations complete dependence on fossil fuels as the primary energy source for the nation. Two very significant alternatives were rejected or neglected. The first alternative was sea based semi submerged nuclear power plant ships deployed in a line paralleling the coastline of the United States. The US has developed and deployed hundreds

John Piña Craven

2005-01-01

338

Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to

Bernward Garthoff; Bernward

2005-01-01

339

Effect of alternative fuels on aftertreatment device  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that globally, alternative fuels have attained the center of attention in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. A lot of research has been conducted on the alternative fuels in the automotive industry pertaining to the sustainability, engine performance and the emission characteristics. ^ The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of

Bunpreet Singh

2010-01-01

340

Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the recent interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), some patients may seek such treatments to supplement their traditional glaucoma management. The prevalence of CAM use for glaucoma is approximately 5%. We reviewed the literature to determine the potential benefit of various alternative treatments. Aside from a temporary osmotic effect from high dose intravenous ascorbic acid, there is no

Douglas J Rhee; L. Jay Katz; George L Spaeth; Jonathan S Myers

2001-01-01

341

Evaluating Teachers by Alternative Distribution Criterion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and applies several alternative distribution criterion to secondary analysis of pre- and post-achievement scores from 15 sixth-grade classrooms. Illustrates examples where a teacher could be considered "effective" under one criterion, but "ineffective" under another. Also addresses policy implications concerning use of alternative…

Waxman, Hersholt C.

1984-01-01

342

Alternative Models on the Drawing Ball.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with an experiment in teaching elements of spherical geometry, contrasted with concepts of plane geometry, for students aged 10-15. Four sections list advantages of applying alternative models in education, describe the experiment, outline the theoretical background of alternative models, and offer conclusions about areas of application.…

Lenart, Istvan

1993-01-01

343

Alternative Energy Leadership Study Measuring Performance  

E-print Network

Alternative Energy Leadership Study Measuring Performance Through a Multidisciplinary Lens February sources such as oil, gas, and coal to meet its energy needs. Given that these resources are finite and a major cause of pollution, scientists and engineers have sought for decades to develop alternative energy

Franssen, Michael

344

Alternative Setting-Wide Positive Behavior Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has an established evidence base in general education settings, and emerging evidence suggests that SWPBS may be effective in alternative settings (e.g., alternative, residential, or hospital schools; psychiatric hospitals). Given the intense educational and behavioral needs of students typically…

Simonsen, Brandi; Jeffrey-Pearsall, Jennifer; Sugai, George; McCurdy, Barry

2011-01-01

345

Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

346

Grants for Alternative Programs. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There seem to be no grants directly geared toward alternative programs (although the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has an interest in funding projects focusing on reforming high schools). This should not be a deterrent, however, as there are plenty of funding sources interested in projects and activities which would support an alternative…

Muir, Mike

2004-01-01

347

76 FR 31513 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Definition of Alternative Fueled Vehicles The National...EPAct 92 to hydrogen fuel cell motor vehicles...address these vehicles. Because the Alternative Fuels Rule already covers hydrogen fuel cell vehicles,...

2011-06-01

348

78 FR 23832 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...discloses the vehicle's alternative fuel and gasoline driving ranges.\\13...that the absence of an alternative fuel range estimate decreases confidence...potential ``upstream emissions'' from fossil-fuel electric plants. Although EPA...

2013-04-23

349

The Alternative Low Noise Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 106 bladed fan with a design takeoff tip speed of 1100 ft/sec was hypothesized as reducing perceived noise because of the shift of the blade passing harmonics to frequencies beyond the perceived noise rating range. A 22 in. model of this Alternative Low Noise Fan, ALNF, was tested in the NASA Glenn 9x 15 Wind Tunnel. 'Me fan was tested with a 7 vane long chord stator assembly and a 70 vane conventional stator assembly in both hard and acoustically treated configurations. In addition a partially treated 7 vane configuration was tested wherein the acoustic material between the 7 long chord stators was made inactive. The noise data from the 106 bladed fan with 7 long chord stators in a hard configuration was shown to be around 4 EPNdB quieter than a low tip speed Allison fan at takeoff and around 5 EPNdB quieter at approach. Although the tone noise behaved as hypothesized, the majority of this noise reduction was from reduced broadband noise related to the large number of rotor blades. This 106 bladed ALNF is a research fan designed to push the technology limits and as such is probably not a practical device with present materials technology. However, a low tip speed fan with around 50 blades would be a practical device and calculations indicate that it could be 2 to 3 EPNdB quieter at takeoff and 3 to 4 EPNdB quieter at approach than the Allison fan. 7 vane data compared with 70 vane data indicated that the tone noise was controlled by rotor wake-stator interaction but that the broadband noise is probably controlled by the interaction of the rotor with incoming flows. A possible multiple pure tone noise reduction technique for a fan/acoustic treatment system was identified. The data from the fully treated configuration showed significant noise reductions over a large frequency range thereby providing a real tribute to this bulk absorber treatment design. The tone noise data with the partially treated 7 vane configuration indicated that acoustic material in the source noise generation region may be more effective than similar material outside of the generation region.

Dittmar, James H.; Elliott, David M.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Moore, Royce D.; Parrott, Tony L.

2000-01-01

350

Pregnancy and labor alternative therapy research.  

PubMed

This review covers research from the last 5 years on the most popular complementary and alternative therapies used during pregnancy and labor and potential underlying biological bases for their effects. MEDLINE was searched and papers were reviewed for the most popular complementary and alternative therapies used during pregnancy and labor, including massage therapy, acupuncture, relaxation, yoga, and exercise. The pregnancy research generally suggests that alternative therapies have been effective for reducing pregnancy-related back and leg pain and nausea and for reducing depression and cortisol levels and the associated prematurity rate. The labor research generally shows that alternative therapies reduce pain and thereby the need for medication. Although the literature suggests positive effects of alternative therapies for pregnancy and labor and some potential biological mechanisms, the research has several methodological limitations. PMID:18780582

Field, Tiffany

2008-01-01

351

Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

Not Available

1980-06-01

352

Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis used to evaluate the energy and emission impact of two pathways of alternative energy development. The results show that China can only meets its 2015 and 2020 targets for non-fossil penetration if it successfully achieves all of its capacity targets for 2020 with continued expansion through 2030. To achieve this level of alternative generation, significant amounts of raw materials including 235 Mt of concrete, 54 Mt of steel, 5 Mt of copper along with 3 billion tons of water and 64 thousand square kilometers of land are needed. China’s alternative energy supply will likely have relatively high average energy output to fossil fuel input ratio of 42 declining to 26 over time, but this ratio is largely skewed by nuclear and hydropower capacity. With successful alternative energy development, 32% of China’s electricity and 21% of its total primary energy will be supplied by alternative energy by 2030. Compared to the counterfactual baseline in which alternative energy development stumbles and China does not meet its capacity targets until 2030, alternative energy development can displace 175 Mtce of coal inputs per year and 2080 Mtce cumulatively from power generation by 2030. In carbon terms, this translates into 5520 Mt of displaced CO{sub 2} emissions over the twenty year period, with more than half coming from expanded nuclear and wind power generation. These results illustrate the critical role that alternative energy development can play alongside energy efficiency in reducing China’s energy-related carbon emissions.

Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

2011-06-15

353

Are all of the human exons alternatively spliced?  

PubMed

Alternative mRNA splicing (AS) is a major mechanism for increasing regulatory complexity. A key concept in AS is the distinction between alternatively and constitutively spliced exons (ASEs and CSEs, respectively). ASEs and CSEs have been reported to be differentially regulated, and to have distinct biological properties. However, the recent flood of RNA-sequencing data has obscured the boundary between ASEs and CSEs. Researchers are beginning to question whether ‘authentic CSEs’ do exist, and whether the ASE/CSE distinction is biologically invalid. Here, I examine the influences of increasing transcriptome data on the human ASE/CSE classification and our past understanding of the properties of these two types of exons. Interestingly, although the percentage of human ASEs has increased dramatically in recent years, the overall distinction between ASEs and CSEs remain valid. For example, CSEs are longer, evolve more slowly, and less frequently correspond to intrinsically disordered protein regions than ASEs. In addition, only a relatively small number of human genes have their transcripts composed entirely of ASEs despite the large amount of high-throughput transcriptome information. Therefore, the ‘backbone’ concept of AS, in which CSEs constitute the invariant part and ASEs the flexible part of the transcript, appears to be generally true despite the increasing percentage of ASEs in the human exome. PMID:23640569

Chen, Feng-Chi

2014-07-01

354

Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various energy usages will determine the demand, forecast future need and identify the differences in energy costs, narrowing the focus of the work and defining its scope. The Tribe's peak demand periods will help determine the scope of need for alternative energy sources. The Tribe's Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis report included several system investigations which include fuel cells, wind turbines, solar panels, hydro electric, ground source heat pumps, bio mass, cogeneration & energy conservation and implementation for the existing properties. The energy analysis included site visits to collect and analyze historical energy usage and cost. The analysis also included the study of the building systems for the Elk Valley Casino, Elk Valley Rancheria administration complex, United Indian Health Service/Small Community Center complex and the Tribal Gaming Commission Offices. The analysis involved identifying modifications, performing an engineering economic analysis, preparation of a rank ordered list of modifications and preparation of a report to provide recommendations and actions for the Tribe to implement.

Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

2011-11-30

355

Complementary and alternative medicine for multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

We analyzed characteristics, motivation, and effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in a large sample of people with multiple sclerosis. A 53-item survey was mailed to the members of the German Multiple Sclerosis Society, chapter of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Surveys of 1573 patients (48.5 +/- 11.7 years, 74% women, duration of illness 18.1 +/- 10.5 years) were analyzed. In comparison with conventional medicine, more patients displayed a positive attitude toward complementary and alternative medicine (44% vs 38%, P < 0.05), with 70% reporting lifetime use of at least one method. Among a wide variety of complementary and alternative medicine, diet modification (41%), Omega-3 fatty acids (37%), removal of amalgam fillings (28%), vitamins E (28%), B (36%), and C (28%), homeopathy (26%), and selenium (24%) were cited most frequently. Most respondents (69%) were satisfied with the effects of complementary and alternative medicine. Use of complementary and alternative medicine was associated with religiosity, functional independence, female sex, white-collar job, and higher education (P < 0.05). Compared with conventional therapies, complementary and alternative medicine rarely showed unwanted side effects (9% vs 59%, P < 0.00001). A total of 52% stated that the initial consultation with their physician lasted less than 15 min. To conclude, main reasons for the use of complementary and alternative medicine include the high rate of side effects and low levels of satisfaction with conventional treatments and brief patients/physicians contacts. PMID:18632773

Schwarz, S; Knorr, C; Geiger, H; Flachenecker, P

2008-09-01

356

Boosted Fast Flux Loop Alternative Cooling Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project was instituted to develop the means for conducting fast neutron irradiation tests in a domestic radiation facility. It made use of booster fuel to achieve the high neutron flux, a hafnium thermal neutron absorber to attain the high fast-to-thermal flux ratio, a mixed gas temperature control system for maintaining experiment temperatures, and a compressed gas cooling system to remove heat from the experiment capsules and the hafnium thermal neutron absorber. This GTL system was determined to provide a fast (E > 0.1 MeV) flux greater than 1.0E+15 n/cm2-s with a fast-to-thermal flux ratio in the vicinity of 40. However, the estimated system acquisition cost from earlier studies was deemed to be high. That cost was strongly influenced by the compressed gas cooling system for experiment heat removal. Designers were challenged to find a less expensive way to achieve the required cooling. This report documents the results of the investigation leading to an alternatively cooled configuration, referred to now as the Boosted Fast Flux Loop (BFFL). This configuration relies on a composite material comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) in an aluminum matrix to transfer heat from the experiment to pressurized water cooling channels while at the same time providing absorption of thermal neutrons. Investigations into the performance this configuration might achieve showed that it should perform at least as well as its gas-cooled predecessor. Physics calculations indicated that the fast neutron flux averaged over the central 40 cm (16 inches) relative to ATR core mid-plane in irradiation spaces would be about 1.04E+15 n/cm2-s. The fast-to-thermal flux ratio would be in excess of 40. Further, the particular configuration of cooling channels was relatively unimportant compared with the total amount of water in the apparatus in determining performance. Thermal analyses conducted on a candidate configuration showed the design of the water coolant and Al-Hf alloy heat sink system is capable of maintaining all system components below their maximum temperature limits. The maximum temperature of this conduction cooling system, 224.2°C (435.6 °F) occurs in a small, localized region in the heat sink structure near the core mid-plane. The total coolant flow rate requirement for this configuration is 207 L/min (54.7 gpm). The calculated Flow Instability Ratio and Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio for this configuration under nominal conditions are 6.5 and 8.0, respectively, which safely exceed the minimum values of 2.0. Materials and fabrication issues inspection revealed that the neutron absorber would probably best be made from powdered Al3Hf mixed with aluminum powder and extruded or hot isostatically pressed. Although Al3Hf has not been specifically studied extensively, its mechanical and chemical properties should be very much like Al3Zr, which has been studied. Its behavior under irradiation should be very satisfactory, and resistance to corrosion will be investigated to a limited extent in planned miniplate irradiation tests in ATR. Pressurized water systems needed to effect heat removal are already available in the ATR complex, and mixed gas temperature control systems needed to trim experiment temperatures have been engineered and need only be fabricated and installed. In sum, it appears the alternately cooled configuration arrived at can be very successful. The cost estimate for this configuration indicates to

Glen R. Longhurst; Donna Post Guillen; James R. Parry; Douglas L. Porter; Bruce W. Wallace

2007-08-01

357

Can scientific medicine incorporate alternative medicine?  

PubMed

The authors examine the problem of defining alternative medicine, and after a brief analysis conclude that a satisfactory unifying definition of the different practices is not possible. Scientific knowledge is a function of scientific method. In turn the principle of falsifiability proposed by Karl Popper is used as a demarcation line between science and pseudoscience. They assert that the various alternative modalities do not represent authentic scientific disciplines, as they lack many of the minimum requirements of scientific discourse and, above all, because they violate the principle of falsifiability. Until they overcome these methodological shortcomings, alternative medical practices cannot become authentic scientific disciplines. PMID:10890333

Federspil, G; Vettor, R

2000-06-01

358

Alternative poloidal field configurations for ITER  

SciTech Connect

The US Home Team has investigated the physics and engineering issues for two alternate poloidal field coil configurations for ITER. The first is called the Segmented CS configuration, where all of the solenoid modules are pancake-wound. The second option, termed the Hybrid CS configuration, utilizes a layer-wound central module and pancake-wound end modules. Performance comparisons are presented for the baseline design and the two alternate PF configurations, characterizing the 21 MA reference scenario. Alternate operating modes such as reverse-shear operation and a 17 MA driven mode were evaluated, but are not reported here.

Bulmer, R.H.; Neilson, G.H.

1997-09-02

359

Effect Of Alternative Fuels On Aftertreatment Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

EFFECT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS ON THE AFTERTREATMENT DEVICE.\\u000aby\\u000aBUNPREET SINGH\\u000aDec 2010\\u000aAdvisor: \\u0009Dr. Dinu Taraza\\u000aMajor:\\u0009\\u0009Mechanical Engineering\\u000aDegree:\\u0009Master of Science\\u000aThere is no doubt that globally, alternative fuels have attained the center of attention in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. A lot of research has been conducted on the alternative fuels in the

Bunpreet Singh

2010-01-01

360

Alternative Medicine: All in Your Mind?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest addition to the University of Wisconsin-Madison graduate school's Why Files (first mentioned in the August 9. 1996 Scout Report) is about alternative medicine and the actual biological effects that alternative medicine has on the human body. For many years, alternative medicine was considered "quackery", but this Web site presents some of the science behind the placebo effect and hypnosis. There is also a page on some of the effects of and concerns about St. John's Wort. A bibliography and links to related Why Files provide additional resources for those users who are not satisfied by this brief glance at the topic.

2001-01-01

361

Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator  

DOEpatents

A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

Brandenburg, Larry Raymond (Plymouth, MI); Miller, John Michael (Saline, MI)

2000-06-13

362

Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual  

SciTech Connect

This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

None

1980-02-01

363

Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

2009-01-01

364

Review of methanol and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as alternative for transportation fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern over the environment and a potential oil shortage has resulted in an intensified research for alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Two fuels given strong consideration are methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper is a comprehensive comparative study of methanol and CNG as transportation fuels. The physical properties of methanol and CNG are discussed. The various concerns,

P. Gandhidasan; A. Ertas; E. E. Anderson

1991-01-01

365

Time averaged temperature distribution in a cylindrical resistor with alternating current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-uniform heat generation in a cylindrical resistor crossed by an alternating electric current is considered. The time averaged and dimensionless temperature distribution in the resistor is analytically evaluated. Two dimensionless functions are reported in tables which allow one to determine the time averaged temperature field for arbitrarily chosen values of the physical properties and of the radius of the

A. Barletta; E. Zanchini

1994-01-01

366

Alternative methods for determination of composition and porosity in abradable materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials properties and performance are governed by their composition and structure. These are commonly characterized using materialography and image analysis. However, in abradable materials, obtaining a reliable and representative sample (polished section) for this widespread technique is complicated by their abradable nature and heterogeneity. Therefore, alternative methods are also considered in this paper. They are namely X-ray diffraction and electron

Ji?í Mat?jí?ek; Blahoslav Kolman; Ji?í Dubský; Karel Neufuss; Noel Hopkins; Jochen Zwick

2006-01-01

367

Congruences for a Class of Alternating Lacunary Sums of Binomial Coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 1876 theorem of Hermite, later extended by Bachmann, gives congruences modulo primes for lacunary sums over the rows of Pascal's triangle. This paper gives an analogous result for alternating sums over a certain class of rows. The proof makes use of properties of certain linear recurrences.

Dilcher, Karl

2007-10-01

368

Organic solid waste originating from the meat processing industry as an alternative energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosolids originating from the wastewater treatment process of two meat processing plants (LFP and LFG) were characterized as a fuel and their potential for utilization as alternative energy sources was assessed through the combustion of LFP in a pilot scale cyclone combustor. A comparative evaluation of the LFP, LFG and SD (sawdust) properties as well as the emissions during

Elaine Virmond; Robson L. Schacker; Waldir Albrecht; Chtistine A. Althoff; Maurício de Souza; Regina F. P. M. Moreira; Humberto J. José

2011-01-01

369

The potential economic impacts of alternative state taxes on different size Texas farms  

E-print Network

As school property tax rates rise to meet the increasing costs of education, so do lawmaker's concerns that this stagnant tax base may need to be replaced by a more dynamic tax alternative. Prior to the Seventy-Fifth Legislature, a staff work group...

Marburger, Darla Ann

2012-06-07

370

Kinesin Steps Do Not Alternate in Size?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Kinesin is a two-headed motor protein that transports cargo inside cells by moving stepwise on microtubules. Its exact trajectory along the microtubule is unknown: alternative pathway models predict either uniform 8-nm steps or alternating 7- and 9-nm steps. By analyzing single-molecule stepping traces from “limping” kinesin molecules, we were able to distinguish alternate fast- and slow-phase steps and thereby to calculate the step sizes associated with the motions of each of the two heads. We also compiled step distances from nonlimping kinesin molecules and compared these distributions against models predicting uniform or alternating step sizes. In both cases, we find that kinesin takes uniform 8-nm steps, a result that strongly constrains the allowed models. PMID:18083906

Fehr, Adrian N.; Asbury, Charles L.; Block, Steven M.

2008-01-01

371

Genetics Home Reference: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood  

MedlinePLUS

... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding alternating hemiplegia of childhood? autosomal ; ... pallor ; protein ; stress ; subunit ; syndrome You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the ...

372

Beating the traffic with commuting alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This pamphlet describes how, by encouraging commuting options, local governments can help reduce air pollution, fuel consumption, and traffic congestion. Minimizing these problems makes the community more appealing to businesses, residents, and visitors and boosts the local economy. Approaches to alternative transportation are as varied as the communities devising and using them. But the critical factor is initiative from local governments, often one of communities largest employers. They can use and promote commuting alternatives among their employees. Local governments can also promote alternative transportation among other employers and the general public. They can provide information on commuting options, improve the infrastructure, and use local authority to require and reward those changes necessary to make alternative transportation a widely accepted part of community life. Best of all, local governments can lead by example and establish a template for other employers to follow.

NONE

1995-05-01

373

INVESTMENT PLAN for the Alternative and  

E-print Network

and renewable fuel infrastructure development connected with existing fleets, public transit, and existing and renewable fuel's lifecycle carbon footprint and increase sustainability; · Install alternative vehicle technologies to provide for better fuel efficiency and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

374

Alternative Technologies for Processing Raw Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is need for diversification and concerned efforts to simply find efficient conventional material technologies to process a broader spectrum of local conventional materials in order to add value to them. The study presents a concept of alternative te...

1991-01-01

375

40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.  

...RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC...Register together with information describing the costs, risks, and benefits of disposal in accordance with the alternative...

2014-07-01

376

Wind Power Integration: Exploring Impacts and Alternatives  

E-print Network

Wind Power Integration: Exploring Impacts and Alternatives Assist. Prof. C sustainable sources of energy. The idea of harnessing wind energy has been and also for destabilizing the existing power system. Over the past decade

Walter, M.Todd

377

DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVES TO PLASTIC MULCH  

EPA Science Inventory

We propose a project to raise awareness of pollution associated with the production, use and disposal of plastic films/ sheeting used as mulch, and to work with farmers and industry partners to develop a biodegradable, sustainable alternative to plastic mulch. ...

378

World futures: A critical analysis of alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews and analyzes the future studies on multiple issues (food, population, economics, resources, values and political structures). It shows how differences arise from alternative world views, competing methodologies and theories, and contradictory evidence.

Hughes, B.B.

1985-01-01

379

An alternative to the Schwarzschild Christian Corda  

E-print Network

Research, P. O. Box 1577, Palm Harbor, FL 34682, USA and Associazione Galileo Galilei, Via Buozzi 47, 59100 PRATO, Italy E­mail addresses: cordac.galilei@gmail.com Abstract We propose an alternative to the famous

380

Alternative Programs and Desegregation in Flint, Michigan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the results of the Flint, Michigan Board of Education's decision to include extensive development of alternative programs as part of the Quality Education/Desegregation Plan developed for the Flint schools. (Author/RK)

Kugler, Marianne Russell

1978-01-01

381

7 CFR 917.27 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.27 Alternates. There shall be an...

2010-01-01

382

7 CFR 917.27 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.27 Alternates. There shall be an...

2011-01-01

383

An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)

Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

1997-01-01

384

Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Vaginal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... can we help you? Search Live Chat 800-227-2345 Home Learn About Cancer Stay Healthy Find ... thinking about using. Contact us at 1-800-227-2345 to learn more about complementary and alternative ...

385

January 31, 2011 Alternative and Renewable Fuel  

E-print Network

that will directly benefit California's economy and the environment by expanding the use of domestically produced non- petroleum fuels that are lower-cost alternatives to gasoline and diesel and have lower carbon emission

386

7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 985.25 Alternate members....

2011-01-01

387

7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 985.25 Alternate members....

2010-01-01

388

7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 985.25 Alternate members....

2012-01-01

389

7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.  

...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 985.25 Alternate members....

2014-01-01

390

7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 985.25 Alternate members....

2013-01-01

391

ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION FOR SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) developed by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc., was evaluated for a 2-year period. CE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous...

392

7 CFR 906.27 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...designate another alternate of the same classification (handler or producer, and to the extent practical, independent, or co-op) to serve in such member's place and stead. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or...

2010-01-01

393

Treatment Alternatives Following Mild Head Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses treatment alternatives which may alleviate problems in recovery following mild head injury, including providing education, cognitive stimulation, stress management training, individual counseling, group discussion, and physical activity in a day treatment setting. (Author/ABL)

Novack, Thomas A.; And Others

1988-01-01

394

46 CFR 183.130 - Alternative standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with the requirements of this part in their entirety: (1) Section 183.420; and (2) The following American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) Projects where applicable: (i) E-8, “Alternating Current (AC) Electrical Systems on Boats;”...

2010-10-01

395

46 CFR 183.130 - Alternative standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with the requirements of this part in their entirety: (1) Section 183.420; and (2) The following American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) Projects where applicable: (i) E-8, “Alternating Current (AC) Electrical Systems on Boats;”...

2013-10-01

396

46 CFR 183.130 - Alternative standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...with the requirements of this part in their entirety: (1) Section 183.420; and (2) The following American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) Projects where applicable: (i) E-8, “Alternating Current (AC) Electrical Systems on Boats;”...

2011-10-01

397

[Alternatives to lid reconstruction. Systematic presentation].  

PubMed

Eyelid reconstruction cannot be planned only by following current concepts. A systematic analysis of the defect considering the concentric zones, function, esthetics, and surgical trauma can help to select the appropriate technique among the possible alternatives. PMID:15014965

Pfeiffer, M J

2004-05-01

398

Alternative heat sources for heat pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar assisted, water source, and ground source heat pumps are described as alternatives to air to air heat pumps for use in a broader range of climates. Publications for further information on these systems are listed.

1984-09-01

399

7 CFR 948.52 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.52 Alternates...potatoes and to specify the particular crop for which each group shall be...

2010-01-01

400

29 CFR 102.93 - Alternative procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...93 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure To Hear and Determine Disputes Under Section 10(k) of the Act § 102.93 Alternative procedure. If, either...

2010-07-01

401

20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...404.230 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984...

2012-04-01

402

Choosing transportation alternatives for highly perishable goods  

E-print Network

The selection of a transportation alternative to ship perishable goods is dependent on several interconnected factors, the most important usually being speed of delivery. This study focuses on the distribution operation ...

Bourassa, P. Louis (Pierre Louis)

2006-01-01

403

Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 7, No. 3  

SciTech Connect

Quarterly magazine with articles on recent additions to the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Station Locator database, biodiesel buying co-ops, and developing the CNG infrastructure in Bangladesh. Also a memo from CIVITAS 2003.

Not Available

2003-11-01

404

PILOT INVESTIGATION OF SECONDARY SLUDGE DEWATERING ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot investigation of biological sludge thickening and dewatering alternatives, including pressure filtration, precoat vacuum filtration, filter belt pressing, capillary suction, dewatering, gravity filtration, centrifugation, and ultrafiltration has been conducted on waste ac...

405

Evaluation of alternative leachate liner materials  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to evaluate alternative landfill liner materials that could be utilized in conjunction with current liners in order to improve the liner's performance by preventing the release of hazardous chemicals into the subsurface...

Biles, Daniel Franklin

2012-06-07

406

Ultrasound : an alternative solution for removing tattoos  

E-print Network

The recent influx of tattoos has been accompanied by a rise in demand for tattoo removals. Due to the recent success of ultrasound as a noninvasive alternative for multiple medical therapies, the feasibility of ultrasound-mediated ...

Teng, Jennifer

2005-01-01

407

Habitable piers : an alternative for urban expansion  

E-print Network

This thesis is an investigation into an alternative way of urban expansion for a seaside community. This thesis proposes a habitable urban environment on the water by creating for an exchange between the built urban landscape ...

Lin, Chin Yuan, M. Arch. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1990-01-01

408

Developing Alternative Assessments using the Benchmarks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written from the perspective of a classroom teacher, this article describes a process for developing alternative assessments, provides examples of alternative assessment tasks and student responses, and illustrates the use of scoring rubrics. The examples use the AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the National Science Education Standards to identify learning goals. This resource is intended for use in the classroom by K-12 teachers.

Shepardson, Daniel

1997-10-01

409

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

none

1998-07-01

410

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-01-01

411

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-01-01

412

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter J. Tijrn

2000-06-30

413

Activity Based Physics Alternative Homework Assignments: Tailgating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains an alternative homework problem related to tailgating and the related physics. Users will be prompted to make calculations about stopping distance in a vehicle traveling at high speed behind another. The problem is designed to allow students to independently explore inertia in motion and the relationship between mass and inertia. This item is part of a larger collection of alternative problems based on physics education research.

Vick, K.; Redish, Edward F.; Cooney, Patrick

2009-01-06

414

Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background  

SciTech Connect

The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political worldto feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry.

Garthoff, Bernward [Bayer CropScience AG, Alfred-Nobel-Strasse 50, D 40789 Monheim (Germany)]. E-mail: bernward.garthoff@bayercropscience.com

2005-09-01

415

An Alternate Wire Database for Xilinx FPGAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ADB, an Alternate Wire Database, suitable for routing, tracing, and browsing in Xilinx Virtex, Virtex-E, Virtex-II, and Virtex-IIPro FPGAs. While mainstream design flows and place- and-route tools make good use of available routing re- sources, they often do so at the cost of comparatively large processing times. An alternative scheme is to modify or generate configuration bitstreams

Neil Steiner; Peter M. Athanas

2004-01-01

416

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-04-01

417

Safe alternative cancer therapy using electromagnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights recent research on the beneficial use of selected low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) as a\\u000a safe alternative therapy for treatment of cancer and other health problems. It is shown that EMF therapy provides a safe alternative\\u000a and adjunct modality for the treatment of cancer and other health problems, and therefore, research in this field deserves\\u000a more support.

Ivan L. Cameron; Nicholas J. Short; Marko S. Markov

2007-01-01

418

Kinetic hydrate inhibitor provides treatment alternative  

SciTech Connect

An inherent problem with natural gas production or transmission is the formation of gas hydrates. Historically, methanol has been injected into the gas stream to combat hydrate formation. Unichem, a division of B.J. Services Co., has developed a hydrate inhibitor that is a safe, effective, competitively priced alternative method of preventing hydrate formation. The paper briefly describes hydrate formation, the alternative inhibitor, and a successful trial.

NONE

1996-12-01

419

Status of standards for alternative test sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest status of alternative test sites for radiated emission and susceptibility is to be discussed, for emission measurements mainly the existing and well proven standards EN 50147-2, CISPR 16, ANSI C63.4 2001 and VCCI. Testing is performed at present mainly in the frequency range from 30... 1000 MHz. The above mentioned standards describe the qualification of alternative test sites

F.-W. Trautnitz; J. Riedelsheimer

2003-01-01

420

Industrial Interruptible Power: An Economical Alternative  

E-print Network

INDUSTRIAL INTERRUPTIBLE POWER: AN ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE Sidney D. Reynolds John R. Gardner Tennessee Valley Authority Chattanooga, Tennessee ABSTRACT Prevailing utility cost forecasts project that long-term energy costs will rise in real...INDUSTRIAL INTERRUPTIBLE POWER: AN ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE Sidney D. Reynolds John R. Gardner Tennessee Valley Authority Chattanooga, Tennessee ABSTRACT Prevailing utility cost forecasts project that long-term energy costs will rise in real...

Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

1984-01-01

421

Patients With Diabetes Using Alternative Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians need for valid information on herbal medicinal products is considerable. In the United States, the popularity of\\u000a complementary and alternative medicine is growing at a remarkable, and possibly concerning, rate (1). In particular, herbal medicine has grown faster than any other complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatment method\\u000a in the United States (1,2). The top-selling herbal medicinal products in

Dugald Seely; Edward Mills; Beth Rachlis

422

Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary medicine, also known as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), alternative medicine, functional medicine,\\u000a and integrative medicine, is reemerging as one of the fastest growing fields in medicine today. A 1997–1998 national survey\\u000a showed that 57% of individuals with diabetes reported using CAM therapies during that year; 35% used CAM specifi- cally for\\u000a their diabetes (Yeh et al., 2002). Individuals

Karen D'Huyvetter

423

Alternative splicing in disease and therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is the major source of proteome diversity in humans and thus is highly relevant to disease and therapy. For example, recent work suggests that the long-sought-after target of the analgesic acetaminophen is a neural-specific, alternatively spliced isoform of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1). Several important diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, have been linked with mutations or variations in either cis-acting

Andrew P Baraniak; Erika L Lasda; Mariano A Garcia-Blanco

2004-01-01

424

Alternative pain medicine: Current modalities and principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional pain medicine does not solve all the problems of chronic pain patients. In this technological era, patients are\\u000a more demanding and in their frustration may seek alternative modalities for managing their chronic pain. Recent studies have\\u000a shown that this tendency may in fact expose patients not only to useless therapies but occasionally harmful ones. Many alternative\\u000a modalities have been

Winston C. V. Parris

1997-01-01

425

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-08-01

426

Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

1992-09-01

427

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

Not Available

1995-01-01

428

Biodiesel: Current Trends and Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel, an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel, is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal\\u000a fats. Several current issues affecting biodiesel that are briefly discussed include the role of new feedstocks in meeting\\u000a increased demand for biodiesel and circumventing the food versus fuel issue, biodiesel production, as well as fuel properties\\u000a and their improvement.

Gerhard Knothe

2010-01-01

429

Distributive Property  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Standard 1 Objective 2: Students will recognize and use the identity properties of addition and multiplication, the multiplicative property of zero, the commutative and associative properties of addition and multiplication, and the distributive property of multiplication over addition. This lesson is self-paced so here are some guidelines to insure that you have learned everything you need to know by the end of the lesson: 1. What does it mean to distribute? 2. How to simplify an expression. 3. How to combine like terms once you distribute. Today you will be learning about ...

Lhalls

2009-09-22

430

Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

2012-01-01

431

Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Mineralogical Society of America describes the physical properties of minerals in terms that kids will understand. The site also includes the definition of a mineral, an identification chart, and links to descriptions of the physical properties used to identify minerals.

Mineralogy 4 Kids; America, Mineralogical S.

432

Alternative C-Terminal Helix Orientation Alters Chemokine Function  

PubMed Central

Chemokines, a subfamily of cytokines, are small, secreted proteins that mediate a variety of biological processes. Various chemokines adopt remarkable conserved tertiary structure comprising an anti-parallel ?-sheet core domain followed by a C-terminal helix that packs onto the ?-sheet. The conserved structural feature has been considered critical for chemokine function, including binding to cell surface receptor. The recently isolated variant, CXCL4L1, is a homologue of CXCL4 chemokine (or platelet factor 4) with potent anti-angiogenic activity and differed only in three amino acid residues of P58L, K66E, and L67H. In this study we show by x-ray structural determination that CXCL4L1 adopts a previously unrecognized structure at its C terminus. The orientation of the C-terminal helix protrudes into the aqueous space to expose the entire helix. The alternative helix orientation modifies the overall chemokine shape and surface properties. The L67H mutation is mainly responsible for the swing-out effect of the helix, whereas mutations of P58L and K66E only act secondarily. This is the first observation that reports an open conformation of the C-terminal helix in a chemokine. This change leads to a decrease of its glycosaminoglycan binding properties and to an enhancement of its anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects. This unique structure is recent in evolution and has allowed CXCL4L1 to gain novel functional properties. PMID:23536183

Kuo, Je-Hung; Chen, Ya-Ping; Liu, Jai-Shin; Dubrac, Alexandre; Quemener, Cathy; Prats, Herve; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Wu, Wen-guey; Sue, Shih-Che

2013-01-01

433

17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.  

... Requirements for alternative trading systems. 242.301 Section 242.301 Commodity... Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.301 Requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) Scope of section. An...

2014-04-01

434

17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Requirements for alternative trading systems. 242.301 Section 242.301 Commodity... Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.301 Requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) Scope of section. An...

2013-04-01

435

17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Requirements for alternative trading systems. 242.301 Section 242.301 Commodity... Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.301 Requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) Scope of section. An...

2012-04-01

436

10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490...represents a vehicle that operates solely on alternative fuel. (b) Proof of credit transfer...

2010-01-01

437

77 FR 14583 - Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans AGENCY: Federal Aviation...Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans...to foreign manufacturers of alternative fuel vans. This notice...

2012-03-12

438

10 CFR 490.802 - Eligibility for alternative compliance waiver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for alternative compliance waiver. 490.802 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.802 Eligibility...

2010-01-01

439

18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Computation of alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section...NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General...

2010-04-01

440

27 CFR 19.693 - Operating requirements for alternating proprietorships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...proprietorships. (a) Alternation journal. Once the applications submitted...proprietor must make entries in an alternation journal when the alcohol fuel plant, or parts...following information in the alternation journal: (1) Name or trade name of the...

2012-04-01

441

27 CFR 19.693 - Operating requirements for alternating proprietorships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...proprietorships. (a) Alternation journal. Once the applications submitted...proprietor must make entries in an alternation journal when the alcohol fuel plant, or parts...following information in the alternation journal: (1) Name or trade name of the...

2013-04-01

442

40 CFR 52.239 - Alternate compliance plans.  

...Alternate compliance plans. (a) Alternative compliance plans (bubble plans) developed under the District rules listed below...on February 7, 1980. (b) Alternative compliance plans (bubble plans) developed under the District rules listed...

2014-07-01

443

Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

Not Available

1993-10-01

444

34 CFR 300.115 - Continuum of alternative placements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...300.115 Continuum of alternative placements. (a) Each...ensure that a continuum of alternative placements is available...must— (1) Include the alternative placements listed in the...special classes, special schools, home instruction,...

2012-07-01

445

34 CFR 300.115 - Continuum of alternative placements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...300.115 Continuum of alternative placements. (a) Each...ensure that a continuum of alternative placements is available...must— (1) Include the alternative placements listed in the...special classes, special schools, home instruction,...

2013-07-01

446

AEA CLASH.docx Page 1 ALTERNATIVE EXAMINATION ARRANGEMENTS  

E-print Network

your School or Faculty to discuss alternative assessment. Cross-Institutional Students Where studentsAEA CLASH.docx Page 1 ALTERNATIVE EXAMINATION ARRANGEMENTS Scheduling Conflict Section 4 an Alternative Examination Arrangements (Scheduling Conflict) application form, together with supporting

447

34 CFR 300.115 - Continuum of alternative placements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...300.115 Continuum of alternative placements. (a) Each...ensure that a continuum of alternative placements is available...must— (1) Include the alternative placements listed in the...special classes, special schools, home instruction,...

2010-07-01

448

34 CFR 300.115 - Continuum of alternative placements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...300.115 Continuum of alternative placements. (a) Each...ensure that a continuum of alternative placements is available...must— (1) Include the alternative placements listed in the...special classes, special schools, home instruction,...

2011-07-01

449

34 CFR 300.115 - Continuum of alternative placements.  

...300.115 Continuum of alternative placements. (a) Each...ensure that a continuum of alternative placements is available...must— (1) Include the alternative placements listed in the...special classes, special schools, home instruction,...

2014-07-01

450

ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS: A FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY DECISION-MAKING  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions about land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in Oregon's Willamette River Basin. Three alternative future landscapes for the year 2050 were depicted and compare...

451

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2013-07-01

452

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2012-07-01

453

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2011-07-01

454

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2010-07-01

455

40 CFR 63.447 - Clean condensate alternative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...achieved by this clean condensate alternative technology are equal to or...install and operate a clean condensate alternative technology with a continuous...complying with the clean condensate alternative technology. (f) For...

2010-07-01

456

49 CFR 1147.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1147.1 Section 1147.1 Transportation...INADEQUACIES § 1147.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2011-10-01

457

49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1 Section 1146.1 Transportation...EMERGENCIES § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2010-10-01

458

49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1 Section 1146.1 Transportation...EMERGENCIES § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2013-10-01

459

49 CFR 1147.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1147.1 Section 1147.1 Transportation...INADEQUACIES § 1147.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2013-10-01

460

49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1 Section 1146.1 Transportation...EMERGENCIES § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2012-10-01

461

49 CFR 1147.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1147.1 Section 1147.1 Transportation...INADEQUACIES § 1147.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2012-10-01

462

49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1 Section 1146.1 Transportation...EMERGENCIES § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2011-10-01

463

49 CFR 1147.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1147.1 Section 1147.1 Transportation...INADEQUACIES § 1147.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2010-10-01

464

Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.

Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

1994-10-01

465

Lower Growth Temperature Increases Alternative Pathway Capacity and Alternative Oxidase Protein in Tobacco 1  

PubMed Central

Suspension cells of NT1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv bright yellow) have been used to study the effect of growth temperature on the CN-resistant, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive alternative pathway of respiration. Mitochondria isolated from cells maintained at 30°C had a low capacity to oxidize succinate via the alternative pathway, whereas mitochondria isolated from cells 24 h after transfer to 18°C displayed, on average, a 5-fold increase in this capacity (from 7 to 32 nanoatoms oxygen per milligram protein per minute). This represented an increase in alternative pathway capacity from 18 to 45% of the total capacity of electron transport. This increased capacity was lost upon transfer of cells back to 30°C. A monoclonal antibody to the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway (the alternative oxidase) from Sauromatum guttatum (T.E. Elthon, R.L. Nickels, L. McIntosh [1989] Plant Physiology 89: 1311-1317) recognized a 35-kilodalton mitochondrial protein in tobacco. There was an excellent correlation between the capacity of the alternative path in isolated tobacco mitochondria and the levels of this 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein. Cycloheximide could inhibit both the increased level of the 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein and the increased alternative pathway capacity normally seen upon transfer to 18°C. We conclude that transfer of tobacco cells to the lower temperature increases the capacity of the alternative pathway due, at least in part, to de novo synthesis of the 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16652932

Vanlerberghe, Greg C.; McIntosh, Lee

1992-01-01

466

41 CFR 301-70.505 - May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical treatment...Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY...

2012-07-01

467

41 CFR 301-70.505 - May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical treatment...Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY...

2013-07-01

468

41 CFR 301-70.505 - May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical treatment...Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY...

2011-07-01

469

41 CFR 301-70.505 - May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical treatment...Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY...

2010-07-01

470

An Alternative to Maxwell's Displacement Current  

E-print Network

Though sufficient for local conservation of charge, we show that Maxwells displacement current is not necessary. An alternative to the Ampere Maxwell equation is exhibited and the alternative s electric and magnetic fields and scalar and vector potentials are expressed in terms of the charge and current densities. The alternative describes a theory in which action is instantaneous and so may provide a good approximation to Maxwells equations where and when the finite speed of light can be neglected. The result is reminiscent of the Darwin approximation which arose from the study classical charged point particles to order (v/c)2 in the Lagrangian. Unlike Darwin, this approach does not depend on the constitution of the electric current. Instead, this approach grows from a straightforward revision of the Ampere Equation which revision enforces the local conservation of charge.

Wolsky, Alan M

2014-01-01

471

An alternate binding site for PPAR? ligands  

PubMed Central

PPAR? is a target for insulin sensitizing drugs such as glitazones, which improve plasma glucose maintenance in patients with diabetes. Synthetic ligands have been designed to mimic endogenous ligand binding to a canonical ligand-binding pocket to hyperactivate PPAR?. Here we reveal that synthetic PPAR? ligands also bind to an alternate site, leading to unique receptor conformational changes that impact coregulator binding, transactivation and target gene expression. Using structure-function studies we show that alternate site binding occurs at pharmacologically relevant ligand concentrations, and is neither blocked by covalently bound synthetic antagonists nor by endogenous ligands indicating non-overlapping binding with the canonical pocket. Alternate site binding likely contributes to PPAR? hyperactivation in vivo, perhaps explaining why PPAR? full and partial or weak agonists display similar adverse effects. These findings expand our understanding of PPAR? activation by ligands and suggest that allosteric modulators could be designed to fine tune PPAR? activity without competing with endogenous ligands. PMID:24705063

Hughes, Travis S.; Giri, Pankaj Kumar; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Marciano, David P.; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Shin, Youseung; Blayo, Anne-Laure; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Burris, Thomas P.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Kojetin, Douglas J.

2014-01-01

472

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Johns Hopkins School for Public Health established the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) in 1981. Although the concept of devising alternatives to animal testing is controversial, the CAAT website dispels the myths about the efficacy of using animals in testing everything from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics to medical procedures. Visitors interested in listening to or watching presentations about alternatives to animal testing should check out the "Media Center" for the link to the "CAAT Youtube Channel". Visitors interested in taking a free online course offered by CAAT entitled "Humane Science Course", should check out the "Resources" tab. The course consists of 12 audio lectures, slides, resource lists, and study questions presented by Johns Hopkins School for Public Health faculty. The course addresses experimental design, pain management, post-surgical care, environmental enrichment, and the impact of animals' stress levels on the quality of data.

473

World Bank: Asia Alternative Energy Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of private and public concerns continue to search for alternative energy sources, and some of them have contributed mightily to the wide array of emerging technologies in this important area. The Asia Alternative Energy Program (ASTAE) was created in 1992 by the World Bank in order to maintain support for a broad range of alternative energy projects and related activities throughout Asia. ASTAE partners and staff members work with a portfolio valued at over $1.3 billion in order to identify such projects, and those interested in such projects would do well to take a closer look through this site. Some of the resources on the site include a number of reports, informational tables about their lending operations, and a selection of additional Web-based resources. The site concludes with a short video that describes recent achievements in increasing access to modern energy services in several client countries served by such endeavors.

2006-01-10

474

World Bank: Asia Alternative Energy Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of private and public concerns continue to search for alternative energy sources, and some of them have contributed mightily to the wide array of emerging technologies in this important area. The Asia Alternative Energy Program (ASTAE) was created in 1992 by the World Bank in order to maintain support for a broad range of alternative energy projects and related activities throughout Asia. ASTAE partners and staff members work with a portfolio valued at over $1.3 billion in order to identify such projects, and those interested in such projects would do well to take a closer look through this site. Some of the resources on the site include a number of reports, informational tables about their lending operations, and a selection of additional Web-based resources. The site concludes with a short video that describes recent achievements in increasing access to modern energy services in several client countries served by such endeavors.

2005-01-01

475

Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field  

DOEpatents

One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

Eissenberg, D.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Casada, D.A.

1993-03-16

476

Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field  

DOEpatents

One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01

477

Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

Williams, L. J.

1976-01-01

478

CoNi Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Prepared by Alternate Monoatomic Layer Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the magnetic properties of CoNi and CoPt films prepared by an alternate monoatomic layer deposition and discuss the possible existence of a metastable superlattice structure. We find that, as has been reported for the CoPt and CoPd films, the CoNi film also exhibits a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy when the monoatomic Co and Ni layers are stacked alternately, suggesting the possible formation of superlattice structure. Since the CoNi film contains neither noble nor rare-earth metals, it should be an attractive material system for applications.

Fukami, Shunsuke; Sato, Hideo; Yamanouchi, Michihiko; Ikeda, Shoji; Ohno, Hideo

2013-07-01

479

Chemical alternatives assessment: the case of flame retardants.  

PubMed

Decisions on chemical substitution are made rapidly and by many stakeholders; these decisions may have a direct impact on consumer exposures, and, when a hazard exists, to consumer risks. Flame retardants (FRs) represent particular challenges, including very high production volumes, designed-in persistence, and often direct consumer exposure. Newer FR products, as with other industrial chemicals, typically lack data on hazard and exposure, and in many cases even basic information on structure and use in products is unknown. Chemical alternatives assessment (CAA) provides a hazard-focused approach to distinguishing between possible substitutions; variations on this process are used by several government and numerous corporate entities. By grouping chemicals according to functional use, some information on exposure potential can be inferred, allowing for decisions based on those hazard properties that are most distinguishing. This approach can help prevent the "regrettable substitution" of one chemical with another of equal, or even higher, risk. PMID:24703012

Howard, Gregory J

2014-12-01

480

New lightweight x-ray optics: alternative materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future space X-ray astronomy and astrophysics projects require accurate but light and high throughput multiple nested X-ray optics. The Czech Republic started being the full member of ESA in November, 2008 and the participant in the innovative technology developments for the new space mission represents the natural continuation of the efforts of the Czech team in development of innovative X-ray telescopes, focusing on particular demands and requirements of a concrete project, with emphasis on fully new and light-weight technologies. We will report not only on silicon or glass but also on other alternative materials such as SiC or glossy carbon, which could be considered as suitable materials for the producing of precise light weight X-ray optics due to their physical and chemical properties.

Skulinova, M.; Hudec, R.; Sik, J.; Lorenc, M.; Pina, L.; Semencova, V.

2009-05-01

481

Activity Based Physics Alternative Homework Assignments: Bicycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains an introductory physics homework assignment relating to the motion of a cyclist riding a 12-speed bicycle, developed as an alternative to traditional textbook homework. Students use observational skills and mathematical modeling, combined with basic physics, to solve problems related to the use of a racing bicycle. The problem integrates concepts of torque, friction, force, and acceleration. This item is part of a larger collection of alternative homework assignments designed for introductory physics students. Each assignment poses a series of questions about a single context. To successfully complete assignments, students must think critically about how the physical situation is represented by mathematics.

Vick, K.; Redish, Edward F.; Cooney, Patrick

2008-11-21

482

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE?s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

None

1998-12-02

483

Taxonomies of SOFC material and manufacturing alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Material and manufacturing alternatives for solid oxide fuel cells are listed and analyzed. Specifically, four categories of anode materials, five categories of cathode materials, four categories of electrolytes, and three categories of interconnect materials are presented. Design considerations including operating temperatures and compatibilities among stack materials are also highlighted. Similarly, stack manufacturing options are separated into seven categories and developed into process sequences based on the number and type of firing steps. This work is intended to facilitate material and manufacturing assessments through the consideration of the variety of alternatives prior to capital investment for wide-scale production.

Wincewicz, Keegan C.; Cooper, Joyce S.

484

FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

Greene, S.R.; Spellman, D.J.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

1996-09-01

485

FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

Greene, S.R.; Fisher, S.E.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

1996-09-01

486

On the road to an alternative-fueled future: The Alternative Motor Fuels Act in brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

With polluted air casting a pall over many of our cities and the conflict in the Persian Gulf raging on, the time has never been better to pursue alternatives to fossil fuel for powering our vehicles. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA), signed into law in October 1988, spurs the nation toward widespread use of alcohol and natural gas as

Reece

2009-01-01

487

An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…

Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

2008-01-01

488

Nov/15/2006 Power Alternatives for the OTG Power Alternatives for the  

E-print Network

junction absorbs a wavelength · 3rd Generation ­ Different structure, enhance absorption #12;Nov/15Nov/15/2006 Power Alternatives for the OTG Power Alternatives for the Off-The-Grid Radar Dr. Lionel radar (OTG) important part of DCAS · Will be deploy by end user needs · Power generated on site · Should

Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

489

Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards: Policy, Practice, and Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What really works in alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards? Every state is working to know the answer--both to comply with federal requirements for evaluating students with severe cognitive disabilities, and to ensure that all students reach their full potential. This comprehensive book is the first to gather today's best…

Schafer, William D., Ed.; Lissitz, Robert W., Ed.

2009-01-01

490

Characteristics of and Implications for Students Participating in Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Academic Achievement Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has precisely defined the population of students participating in alternate assessments based on alternate academic achievement standards (AA-AAAS). Therefore, the purpose of this article is twofold: (a) explicate the findings of a multistate study examining the characteristics of the population of students participating in…

Kearns, Jacqueline Farmer; Towles-Reeves, Elizabeth; Kleinert, Harold L.; Kleinert, Jane O'Regan; Thomas, Megan Kleine-Kracht

2011-01-01

491

Molecular Trajectories Leading to the Alternative Fates of Duplicate Genes  

PubMed Central

Gene duplication generates extra gene copies in which mutations can accumulate without risking the function of pre-existing genes. Such mutations modify duplicates and contribute to evolutionary novelties. However, the vast majority of duplicates appear to be short-lived and experience duplicate silencing within a few million years. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms leading to these alternative fates. Here we delineate differing molecular trajectories of a relatively recent duplication event between humans and chimpanzees by investigating molecular properties of a single duplicate: DNA sequences, gene expression and promoter activities. The inverted duplication of the Glutathione S-transferase Theta 2 (GSTT2) gene had occurred at least 7 million years ago in the common ancestor of African great apes and is preserved in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), whereas a deletion polymorphism is prevalent in humans. The alternative fates are associated with expression divergence between these species, and reduced expression in humans is regulated by silencing mutations that have been propagated between duplicates by gene conversion. In contrast, selective constraint preserved duplicate divergence in chimpanzees. The difference in evolutionary processes left a unique DNA footprint in which dying duplicates are significantly more similar to each other (99.4%) than preserved ones. Such molecular trajectories could provide insights for the mechanisms underlying duplicate life and death in extant genomes. PMID:22720000

Marotta, Michael; Piontkivska, Helen; Tanaka, Hisashi

2012-01-01

492

Investigations of the environmental acceptability of fluorocarbon alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons.  

PubMed

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are currently used in systems for preservation of perishable foods and medical supplies, increasing worker productivity and consumer comfort, conserving energy and increasing product reliability. As use of CFCs is phased out due to concerns of ozone depletion, a variety of new chemicals and technologies will be needed to serve these needs. In choosing alternatives, industry must balance concerns over safety and environmental acceptability and still meet the preformance characteristics of the current technology, the only viable alternatives meeting the safety, performance, and environmental requirements for the remaining 40% of demand are fluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HCFCs and HFCs possess many of the desirable properties of the CFCs, but because of the, hydrogen, they results in shorter atmospheric lifetimes compared to CFCs and reduces their potential to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion or global warming; HFCs do not contain chlorine and have no potential to destroy ozone. This paper provides an overview of challenges faced by industry, regulators, and society in general in continuing to meet societal needs and consumer demands while reducing risk to the enviroment without compromising consumer or worker safety. PMID:11607257

McFarland, M

1992-02-01

493

Investigations of the environmental acceptability of fluorocarbon alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons.  

PubMed Central

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are currently used in systems for preservation of perishable foods and medical supplies, increasing worker productivity and consumer comfort, conserving energy and increasing product reliability. As use of CFCs is phased out due to concerns of ozone depletion, a variety of new chemicals and technologies will be needed to serve these needs. In choosing alternatives, industry must balance concerns over safety and environmental acceptability and still meet the preformance characteristics of the current technology, the only viable alternatives meeting the safety, performance, and environmental requirements for the remaining 40% of demand are fluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HCFCs and HFCs possess many of the desirable properties of the CFCs, but because of the, hydrogen, they results in shorter atmospheric lifetimes compared to CFCs and reduces their potential to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion or global warming; HFCs do not contain chlorine and have no potential to destroy ozone. This paper provides an overview of challenges faced by industry, regulators, and society in general in continuing to meet societal needs and consumer demands while reducing risk to the enviroment without compromising consumer or worker safety. PMID:11607257

McFarland, M

1992-01-01

494

REVIEW Alternative mechanisms of nonindependent mate choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of the environment, including the social environment, can contribute to intrapopulation variation in mating preferences. One example of the effect of social environment on mate preferences is mate choice copying; however, other types of socially influenced (nonindependent) choice might exist. We develop a list of such alternatives based on possible physiological or psychological mechanisms, evaluate the evidence distinguishing one

DAVID F. WESTNEAT; ALENA WALTERS; THOMAS M. MCCARTHY; MARGRET I. HATCH; WENDY K. HEIN

495

Governor's Schools: An Alternative for Gifted Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss Governor's Schools as an alternative for gifted students. When the word school is used, people typically think about traditional schooling. But Governor's Schools are different in the type of schooling provided and the type of students served--they educate predominantly gifted children, teach a wide array of…

Winkler, Daniel L.; Stephenson, Scott; Jolly, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

496

Alternative Therapies and Methods of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When her daughter was almost two years old, the author realized that she had never crawled. Reluctant to depend on someone else to lead her daughter's therapies and learning, she began to search for alternative developmental therapy approaches and learning methods that would allow her to become more informed and take a more active role. She found…

Warren, Jennifer

2008-01-01

497

Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

Stefanakos, E. K. (editor)

1978-01-01

498

Alternative Approaches to Traditional Topics in Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who otherwise seem unreachable through traditional approaches to algebra require some alternative teaching methods. So do teachers who seek to add elements of freshness and innovation to their classrooms or who simply appreciate variety. This article offers some unconventional techniques for teaching a few conventional algebra topics.…

Coburn, John W.

2010-01-01

499

ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol,

JR. R. MORENO; D. G. FALLEN BAILEY

1989-01-01

500

Developing Alternatives to Residential Care in Romania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the aims and achievements of the Romanian Orphanage Trust. Describes the trust's attempts to develop alternatives to residential care, including moving away from directly providing and managing services for children and families toward stimulating and helping the growth of Romanian-led and managed institutions. Concludes that adoption…

Dickens, Jonathan; Watts, Julia

1996-01-01