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1

Biodiesel properties and alternative feedstocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Defined as the long-chain fatty acid monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats, or other lipids, biodiesel is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel h...

2

Thermodynamic properties for the alternative refrigerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models commonly used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of refrigerants are summarized. For pure refrigerants, the virial, cubic, Martin-Hou, Benedict-Webb-Rubin, and Helmholtz energy equations of state and the extended corresponding states model are discussed. High-accuracy formulations for 16 refrigerants are recommended. These models may be extended to mixtures through the use of mixing rules applied either to the parameters of

Mark O McLinden; Eric W Lemmon; Richard T Jacobsen

1998-01-01

3

Combustion Properties of Biologically Sourced Alternative Fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of pressure on various properties of ten different syngas fueled flames were analyzed using one and two dimensional simulations. One-dimensional premixed flames were modeled in CANTERA. Flame speed, adiabatic flame temperature and thermal diffusivity as functions of equivalence ratio and pressure were quantified for the fuels using four chemical kinetic mechanisms. Data from the different mechanisms displayed good agreement with data from previous experimental benchmarks. Two-dimensional axisymmetric co-flow flames were simulated in a state of the art computational framework for modeling laminar flames. Flame structure comparisons were made with past experimental and numerical results as well as with theoretical predictions. Good agreement in stoichiometric flame height was observed with past theoretical and numerical flame height measurements. Visible flame heights had little correlation with the stoichiometric flame heights. The flame radius was also noted to be proportional to p -0.35 at high pressures instead of p-0.5 as predicted by theory.

Barnwal, Abhishek

4

Physical properties of alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here are recommended values and correlations of selected physical properties of several alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorocarbons. The quality of the data used in this compilation varies widely, ranging from well-documented, high accuracy measurements from published sources to completely undocumented values listed on anonymous data sheets. That some of the properties for some fluids are available only from the latter type of source is clearly not the desired state of affairs. While some would reject all such data, the compilation given here is presented in the spirit of laying out the present state of knowledge and making available a set of data in a timely manner, even though its quality is sometimes uncertain. The correlations presented here are certain to change quickly as additional information becomes available.

Mclinden, Mark O.

1990-01-01

5

Size-dependent alternation of magnetoresistive properties in atomic chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin-polarized electronic and transport properties of carbon atomic chains are investigated when they are capped with transition-metal (TM) atoms like Cr or Co, using density functional theory. The magnetic ground state of the TM-Cn-TM chains alternates between the ferromagnetic (F) and antiferromagnetic (AF) spin configurations as a function of n. The desirable AF state is obtained for only even-n chains with Cr; conversely only odd-n chains with Co have AF ground states. We present a simple model that can successfully simulate these variations, and the induced magnetic moments on the carbon atoms. Depending on the relative strengths of the spin-dependent couplings and the on-site energies of the TM atoms there induces long-range spin polarizations on the carbon atoms which mediate the exchange interaction. When connected to appropriate electrodes these atomic chains display a strong spin-valve effect. Analysis of electronic and magnetic properties of these atomic chains, and the indirect exchange coupling of the TM atoms through carbon chain will be presented. ^1E. Durgun et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 121102 (2006). ^2E. Durgun et al., Phys. Rev. B 74 (in press).

Tugrul Senger, R.; Durgun, Engin; Sevincli, Haldun; Mehrez, Hatem; Ciraci, Salim

2007-03-01

6

Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

7

EVALUATION OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT ALTERNATIVES: PICILLO PROPERTY, COVENTRY, RHODE ISLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the second phase of a two-phase investigation undertaken by the MITRE Corp. to determine the nature and severity of ground and surface water contamination at the Picillo property in Coventry, Rhode Island and to make recommendations for permanent abatement o...

8

A synthetic alternative to natural lecithins with antimicrobial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two soft biocompatible cationic surfactants from the amino acid arginine, 1,2-dilauroyl-3-acetylarginyl-rac-glycerol (1212RAc) and 1,2-dimirystoyl-3-acetylarginyl-rac-glycerol (1414RAc), were prepared. Their physicochemical properties show that they can be classified as multifunctional surfactants with self-aggregation behaviour comparable to that of short-chain lecithins. The two surfactants can simultaneously stabilise water-in-oil (W\\/O) droplets and oil-in-water (O\\/W) droplets, forming multiple emulsions. They have antimicrobial activity similar to

L. Pérez; M. R. Infante; R. Pons; C. Morán; P. Vinardell; M. Mitjans; A. Pinazo

2004-01-01

9

Effect of elastic property of material on stress in solar panel under alternative temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of material's elastic property on the maximal stress in solar panel (SP) under alternative temperature was investigated using an analytical method. Results showed that the maximal tensile\\/press and the shear stress existed in polyimide and the silicone rubber between composite materials and polyimide film. Employing polyimide with lower elastic modulus or silicone rubber with lower shear modulus would

Xiaoyan Wang; Hongbin Geng; Shiyu He

2006-01-01

10

A survey of current worldwide research on the thermophysical properties of alternative refrigerants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The survey represents an exhaustive compilation of the research activities throughout the world concerned with either measurements or correlations of the thermophysical properties of alternative refrigerants. The properties covered include thermodynamic, transport, phase equilibria, and other properties such as dielectric constant and refractive index. The survey included a wide range of fluids (including R23, R32, R125, R143a, R22, R134a, R152a, R134, R124, R142b, R123, R123a, R141b) along with mixtures containing at least one of these fluids. Summary information is presented in tabular form about each research activity; the survey does not present raw data or correlating equations.

McLinden, M. O.; Haynes, W. M.; Watson, J. T. R.; Watanabe, K.

1991-06-01

11

Alternative representation of the Kubo formula for the optical conductivity: A shortcut to transport properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kubo formula for the electrical conductivity is expressed in terms of a weighted sum of Drude-like contributions associated to the exact eigenstates of the interacting system, each characterized by its own frequency-dependent relaxation time. This alternative formulation considerably simplifies the access to the static properties (dc conductivity) and resolves the long-standing difficulty to connect the Boltzmann transport theory and the Kubo formula. In particular, at the lowest order of the perturbation theory, the correct transport scattering lifetime depending on the momentum k, which appears in the Boltzmann theory, instead of the single-electron lifetime appearing in the Green function, can be recovered. This alternative formulation is applied to (i) the elastic scattering in metals, and (ii) the inelastic scattering in the Fröhlich polaron model to obtain the exact result of the mobility in the low-temperature weak-coupling limit.

De Filippis, G.; Cataudella, V.; de Candia, A.; Mishchenko, A. S.; Nagaosa, N.

2014-07-01

12

Consideration of Alternate Working Fluid Properties in Gas Lubricated Foil Journal Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program at the NASA Glenn Research center is committed to, revolutionary improvements in performance, efficiency and reliability of turbomachinery propulsion systems. One of the key breakthroughs by which this goal is being achieved is the maturation of air lubricated foil bearing technology. Through experimental testing, foil bearings have demonstrated a variety of exceptional qualities that show them to have an important role in the future of rotordynamic lubrication. Most of the work done with foil bearings thus far has considered ambient air at atmospheric pressure as the working fluid or lubricating fluid in the bearing. However, special applications of oil-free technology require the use of air at non- standard ambient conditions or completely different working fluids altogether. The NASA Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter program presents power generation needs far beyond that of any previous space exploration effort. The proposed spacecraft will require significant power generation to provide the propulsion necessary to reach the moons of Jupiter and navigate between them. Once there, extensive scientific research will be conducted that will also present significant power requirements. Such extreme needs require exploring a new method for power generation in space. A proposed solution involves a Brayton cycle nuclear fission reactor. The nature of this application requires reliable performance of all reactor components for many years of operation under demanding conditions. This includes the bearings which will be operating with an alternative working fluid that is a combination of Helium and Xenon gases commonly known as HeXe. This fluid has transport and thermal properties that vary significantly from that of air and the effect of these property differences on bearing performance must be considered. One of the most promising applications of oil-free technology is in aircraft turbine engines. Eliminating the oil supply systems from aircraft engines will lead to significant weight and maintenance reduction. In such applications, the lubricating fluid will be high altitude air. This air will be at much lower pressure than that at sea level. Again this property change will result in a change in bearing performance, and analysis is required to quantify this effect. The study of these alternate working fluid properties will be conducted in two ways: analytically and experimentally. Analytical research will include the use of a mathematical code that can predict film thickness profiles for various ambient conditions. Estimations of load capacity can be made based upon the film thickness trends. These values will then be compared to those obtained from classical rigid bearing analysis. Experimental Research will include testing a foil bearing at a variety of ambient air pressures. The analytical and experimental data will be compared to draw conclusions on bearing performance under alternate working fluid properties.

Smith, Matthew J.

2004-01-01

13

Regulation of TMEM16A Chloride Channel Properties by Alternative Splicing*  

PubMed Central

Expression of TMEM16A protein is associated with the activity of Ca2+-activated Cl? channels. TMEM16A primary transcript undergoes alternative splicing. thus resulting in the generation of multiple isoforms. We have determined the pattern of splicing and assessed the functional properties of the corresponding TMEM16A variants. We found three alternative exons, 6b, 13, and 15, coding for segments of 22, 4, and 26 amino acids, respectively, which are differently spliced in human organs. By patch clamp experiments on transfected cells, we found that skipping of exon 6b changes the Ca2+ sensitivity by nearly 4-fold, resulting in Cl? currents requiring lower Ca2+ concentrations to be activated. At the membrane potential of 80 mV, the apparent half-effective concentration decreases from 350 to 90 nm when the segment corresponding to exon 6b is excluded. Skipping of exon 13 instead strongly reduces the characteristic time-dependent activation observed for Ca2+-activated Cl? channels at positive membrane potentials. This effect was also obtained by deleting only the second pair of amino acids corresponding to exon 13. Alternative splicing appears as an important mechanism to regulate the voltage and Ca2+ dependence of the TMEM16A-dependent Cl? channels in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:19819874

Ferrera, Loretta; Caputo, Antonella; Ubby, Ifeoma; Bussani, Erica; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Pagani, Franco; Galietta, Luis J. V.

2009-01-01

14

Copper dynamics under alternating redox conditions is influenced by soil properties and contamination source.  

PubMed

Understanding the effect of soil redox conditions on contaminant dynamics is of significant importance for evaluating their lability, mobility and potential transfer to other environmental compartments. Under changing redox conditions, soil properties and constituents such as Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and organic matter (OM) may influence the behavior of associated metallic elements (MEs). In this work, the redox-driven release and redistribution of Cu between different soil pools was studied in three soils having different contamination sources. This was achieved by subjecting soil columns to a series of alternating reducing and oxidizing cycles under non-limiting C conditions, and assessing their influence on soil pore water, leachate and solid phase composition. Results showed that, in all soils, alternating redox conditions led to an increase in the distribution of Cu in the more labile fractions, consequently enhancing its susceptibility to loss. This was generally linked to the redox-driven cycling of Fe, Mn and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In fact, results suggested that the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and subsequent reprecipitation as poorly-ordered phases under oxic conditions contributed to the release and mobilization of Cu and/or Cu-containing organometallic complexes. However, the behavior of Cu, as well as the mechanisms controlling Cu release and loss with redox cycling, was influenced by both soil properties (e.g. pH, contents of easily reducible Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides) and source of Cu contamination. PMID:25561428

Balint, Ramona; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

2015-02-01

15

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Final report, 1 April 1994--31 October 1996  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of the project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for one pure refrigerant and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R-502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigerant applications.

Haynes, W.M.

1996-11-01

16

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W.M.

1995-07-01

17

Hygroscopic Properties of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Aerosol Produced From Traditional and Alternative Fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols constitute an important component of anthropogenic climate forcing, of which aerosol-cloud interactions remain poorly understood. It is currently thought that the ability of these aerosols to alter upper tropospheric cirrus cloud properties may produce radiative forcings many times larger than the impact of linear contrails alone and which may partially offset the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from aviation (Burkhardt and Karcher, Nature, 2011). Consequently, it is important to characterize the ability of these engine-emitted aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) to form clouds. While a number of studies in the literature have examined aerosol-cloud interactions for laboratory-generated soot or from aircraft engines burning traditional fuels, limited attention has been given to how switching to alternative jet fuels impacts the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to form clouds. The key to understanding these changes is the aerosol hygroscopicity. To address this need, the second NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-II) was conducted in 2011 to examine the aerosol emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different engine power and fuel type conditions. Five fuel types were considered including traditional JP-8 fuel, synthetic Fischer-Tropsh (FT) fuel , sulfur-doped FT fuel (FTS) , hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel, and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 with HRJ. Emissions were sampled from the DC-8 on the airport jetway at a distance of 145 meters downwind of the engine by a comprehensive suite of aerosol instrumentation that provided information on the aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and CCN activity. Concurrent measurements of carbon dioxide were used to account for plume dilution so that characteristic emissions indices could be determined. It is found that both engine power and fuel type significantly influence the hygroscopic properties of the emitted aerosol, with emissions from FT fuel being much less hygroscopic than those from the JP-8 or blended fuels. Doping the FT fuel with sulfur greatly increased the hygroscopicity of the emitted aerosol beyond that for the other fuels considered. In addition, it was observed that aerosol emitted during low engine power were smaller but more hygroscopic than those emitted during typical takeoff or cruise conditions. The implications of these property changes for contrail formation will be discussed.

Moore, R.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Chen, G.; Anderson, B. E.

2012-12-01

18

Alternatively spliced, truncated GCSF receptor promotes leukemogenic properties and sensitivity to JAK inhibition.  

PubMed

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) drives the production of myeloid progenitor and precursor cells toward neutrophils via the GCSF receptor (GCSFR, gene name CSF3R). Children with severe congenital neutropenia chronically receive pharmacologic doses of GCSF, and ?30% will develop myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with GCSFR truncation mutations. In addition to mutations, multiple isoforms of CSF3R have also been reported. We found elevated expression of the alternatively spliced isoform, class IV CSF3R in adult myelodysplastic syndrome/AML patients. Aside from its association with monosomy 7 and higher rates of relapse in pediatric AML patients, little is known about the biology of the class IV isoform. We found developmental regulation of CSF3R isoforms with the class IV expression more representative of a progenitor cell stage. Striking differences were found in phosphoprotein signaling involving Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and cell cycle gene expression. Enhanced proliferation by class IV GCSFR was associated with diminished STAT3 and STAT5 activation, yet showed sensitivity to JAK2 inhibitors. Alterations in the C-terminal domain of the GCSFR result in leukemic properties of enhanced growth, impaired differentiation and resistance to apoptosis, suggesting that they can behave as oncogenic drivers, sensitive to JAK2 inhibition. PMID:24170028

Mehta, H M; Futami, M; Glaubach, T; Lee, D W; Andolina, J R; Yang, Q; Whichard, Z; Quinn, M; Lu, H F; Kao, W M; Przychodzen, B; Sarkar, C A; Minella, A; Maciejewski, J P; Corey, S J

2014-05-01

19

Roles of alternative splicing in the functional properties of inner ear-specific KCNQ4 channels.  

PubMed

The function of the KCNQ4 channel in the auditory setting is crucial to hearing, underpinned by the finding that mutations of the channel result in an autosomal dominant form of nonsyndromic progressive high frequency hearing loss. The precise function of KCNQ4 in the inner ear has not been established. However, recently we demonstrated that there is differential expression among four splice variants of KCNQ4 (KCNQ4_v1-v4) along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea. Alternative splicing specifies the outcome of functional channels by modifying the amino acid sequences within the C terminus at a site designated as the membrane proximal region. We show that variations within the C terminus of splice variants produce profound differences in the voltage-dependent phenotype and functional expression of the channel. KCNQ4_v4 lacks exons 9-11, resulting in deletion of 54 amino acid residues adjacent to the S6 domain compared with KCNQ4_v1. Consequently, the voltage-dependent activation of KCNQ4_v4 is shifted leftward by approximately 20 mV, and the number of functional channels is increased severalfold compared with KCNQ4_v1. The properties of KCNQ4_v2 and KCNQ4_v3 fall between KCNQ4_v1 and KCNQ4_v4. Because of variations in the calmodulin binding domains of the splice variants, the channels are differentially modulated by calmodulin. Co-expression of these splice variants yielded current magnitudes suggesting that the channels are composed of heterotetramers. Indeed, a dominant negative mutant of KCNQ4_v1 cripples the currents of the entire KCNQ4 channel family. Furthermore, the dominant negative KCNQ4 mutant stifles the activity of KCNQ2-5, raising the possibility of a global disruption of KCNQ channel activity and the ensuing auditory phenotype. PMID:17561493

Xu, Tonghui; Nie, Liping; Zhang, Yi; Mo, Jiling; Feng, Weihong; Wei, Dongguang; Petrov, Evgueni; Calisto, Lilian E; Kachar, Bechara; Beisel, Kirk W; Vazquez, Ana E; Yamoah, Ebenezer N

2007-08-17

20

Asymptotic Power Properties of the Cramer-von Mises Test Under Contiguous Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The asymptotic power of the Cramer-von Mises test when parameters are estimated from the data is studied under certain local (contiguous) alternatives. Notion of (asymptotic) direction and distance from the null hypothesis of alternatives is introduced, and it is shown that there exist directions with maximum, minimum, and arbitrary intermediate…

Neuhaus, Georg

1976-01-01

21

Chiroptical properties of an alternatingly functionalized cellotriose bearing two porphyrin groups  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternatingly functionalized cellulose molecules have potential applications in optoelectronics and molecular receptors. For example, cellulose-based solar cells have been proposed. As a prototype for such molecules, the trisaccharide fragment of cellulose was modified by attachment of porphyrin gro...

22

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUORINATED PROPANE AND BUTANE DERIVATIVES AS ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Physical property measurements are presented for 24 fluorinated propane and butane derivatives and one fluorinated ether. These measurements include melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure below the boiling point, heat of vaporization at the boiling point, critical propertie...

23

IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL ON THE1 MECHANICAL AND TRANSFER PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE2  

E-print Network

-chemistry and microstructure of cement and concrete, supplementary cementitious1 materials, and sustainable development. He pathology and the development of alternative materials for cement and9 concrete.10 11 ABSTRACT12 An experimental program was carried out to characterize the risk of corrosion in reinforced13 concretes, designed

24

Theory of the magnetic properties of igneous rocks in alternating fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each magnetic grain in a rock contains ferromagnetic domains with a range of sizes, the small ones being magnetically harder and responding less readily to demagnetizing fields than the larger ones. By exposing a grain which has a thermoremanent magnetic moment to an alternating field, domains larger than a critical size are demagnetized, leaving the smaller domains unaffected. Domain size

F. D. Stacey

1961-01-01

25

Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester–diesel fuel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the

Duran Alt?parmak; Ali Keskin; Atilla Koca; Metin Gürü

2007-01-01

26

The electrical and physical properties of alternative material bipolar plate for PEM fuel cell system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) typically have been made of polymer resin-impregnated graphite. However, because of their expensive cost and for difficulties to design the gas flow field channels to machine, it should be considered to search out the alternative materials from graphite to carbon–carbon composite and carbon–polymer composites. Therefore, several kinds of composite plates

M. H. Oh; Y. S. Yoon; S. G. Park

2004-01-01

27

Properties of an alternating copolymer and its applications in LEDs and photovoltaic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a dual-functional polymeric semiconductor for efficient red-light emission and high-performance photovoltaic cells, an alternating copolymer containing triphenylamine (TPA; as donors) and cyano-substituted phenylene (as acceptors), TPA-CNPPV, was synthesized by Wittig reaction. The polymer was characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed that the polymer presented reversible oxidation and

Hongmin Huang; Qingguo He; Hongzhen Lin; Fenglian Bai; Yong Cao

2005-01-01

28

Time-dependent density functional theory study of electronic spectrum property for carbazolyl-pyridinyl alternating copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three A-B-type fluorescent copolymers comprised of alternating carbazolyl and pyridinyl units, poly[(2,7-(N-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazolyl)-alt-(3,5-pyridinyl))](PEHCP-35), poly[(2,7-(N-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazolyl)-alt-(2,6-pyridinyl))] (PEHCP-26) and poly[(2,7-(N-(2-ethyl-hexyl)carbazolyl)-alt-(2,5-pyridinyl))] (PEHCP-25), are studied by means of the density functional theory (DFT\\/B3LYP\\/6-31G). Based on the optimized geometries, the optical properties are calculated by employing time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The bandgaps and optical properties are saturated quickly in PEHCP-35 and PEHCP-26. It is known from

Hanlu Wang; Xueye Wang; Ling Wang; Hengliang Wang; Aihong Liu

2007-01-01

29

Phytoandrogenic properties of Eurycoma longifolia as natural alternative to testosterone replacement therapy.  

PubMed

The testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is characterised by numerous symptoms, including low libido, increased fat mass, fatigue, erectile dysfunction or osteoporosis, and up to 80% of men will experience some kind of ageing males' symptoms. This is caused by the age-depending decline in serum testosterone levels with concentrations being about 40-50% lower in men older than 60 years compared with young men. This significant decline in testosterone levels is further closely linked with medical conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes or hypertension. The conventional way of treating TDS is the testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), for which preparations are on the market. Apart from the beneficial effects of TRT, significant adverse side effects have been described, and prostate cancer (PCa) as absolute contraindication is debated. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) is natural alternative to TRT and has been shown to restore serum testosterone levels, thus significantly improving sexual health. This includes significant positive effects on bone health and physical condition of patients. In addition, a significant antihyperglycaemic effect and cytotoxicity against PCas cells has been shown. Thus far, at therapeutic concentrations, no significant side effects of the treatment were obvious. Therefore, TA might be a safe alternative to TRT. PMID:24386995

George, A; Henkel, R

2014-09-01

30

Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from

J. W. Frankenfeld; W. F. Taylor

1980-01-01

31

Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.  

PubMed

In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly. PMID:16524723

Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

2007-01-01

32

Annotation Enrichment Analysis: An Alternative Method for Evaluating the Functional Properties of Gene Sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gene annotation databases (compendiums maintained by the scientific community that describe the biological functions performed by individual genes) are commonly used to evaluate the functional properties of experimentally derived gene sets. Overlap statistics, such as Fishers Exact test (FET), are often employed to assess these associations, but don't account for non-uniformity in the number of genes annotated to individual functions or the number of functions associated with individual genes. We find FET is strongly biased toward over-estimating overlap significance if a gene set has an unusually high number of annotations. To correct for these biases, we develop Annotation Enrichment Analysis (AEA), which properly accounts for the non-uniformity of annotations. We show that AEA is able to identify biologically meaningful functional enrichments that are obscured by numerous false-positive enrichment scores in FET, and we therefore suggest it be used to more accurately assess the biological properties of gene sets.

Glass, Kimberly; Girvan, Michelle

2014-02-01

33

Environmentally benign alternatives: Plasma and enzymes to improve moisture management properties of knitted PET fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of enzymatic and atmospheric plasma treatments individually and their combinations on knitted PET fabrics were investigated\\u000a in terms of hydrophilicity, surface modification and moisture management properties. Cutinase from Humicola Insolens, lipase from Candida SP and atmospheric plasma with air and argon gases were applied to PET fabrics. To evaluate results, moisture management tester\\u000a (MMT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

B. Karaca; A. Demir; E. Özdo?an; Ö E. ??mal

2010-01-01

34

Selection and Properties of Alternative Forming Fluids for TRISO Fuel Kernel Production  

SciTech Connect

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Doug Marshall; M. Baker; J. King; B. Gorman

2013-01-01

35

Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

36

Improving the low-temperature properties of alternative diesel fuels: Vegetable oil-derived methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores near-term approaches for improving the low-temperature properties of triglyceride oil-derived fuels for\\u000a direct-injection compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Methyl esters from transesterified soybean oil were evaluated as a\\u000a neat fuel and in blends with petroleum middle distillates. Winterization showed that the cloud point (CP) of methyl soyate\\u000a may be reduced to ?16C. Twelve cold-flow additives marketed for distillates were

R. O. Dunn; M. W. Shockley; M. O. Bagby

1996-01-01

37

Absorption properties of alternative chromophores for use in laser tissue soldering applications.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using alternative chromophores in laser tissue soldering applications was explored. Two commonly used chromophores, indocyanine green (ICG), and methylene blue (MB) were investigated, as well as three different food colorings: red #40 (RFC), blue #1 (BFC), and green consisting of yellow #5 and blue #1 (GFC). Three experimental studies were conducted: (i) The absorption profiles of the five chromophores, when diluted in deionized water and when bound to protein, were recorded; (ii) the effect of accumulated thermal dosages on the absorption profile of the chromophores was evaluated; and (iii) the stability of the absorption profiles of the chromophore-doped solutions when exposed to ambient light for extended time periods was measured. The peak absorption wavelengths of ICG, MB, RFC, and BFC, were found to be 805 nm, 665 nm, 503 nm, and 630 nm respectively in protein solder. The GFC had two absorption peaks at 426 nm and 630 nm, corresponding to the two dye components comprising this color. The peak absorption wavelength of ICG and MB was dependent on the choice of solvent (deionized water or protein). In contrast, the peak absorption wavelengths of the three chromophores were not dependent on the choice of solvent. ICG and MB showed a significant decrease in absorbance units with increased time and temperature when heated to temperature up to 100 degrees C. A significant decrease in the absorption peak occurred in the ICG and MB samples when exposed to ambient light for a period of 7 days. Negligible change in absorption with accumulated thermal dose up to 100 degrees C or light dose (over a period of 84 days) was observed for any of the three food colorings investigated. PMID:12724860

Byrd, Brian D; Heintzelman, Douglas L; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M

2003-01-01

38

Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program  

SciTech Connect

The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from Occidental Shale Company was fractionated to give three liquids in the diesel fuel boiling range. The initial boiling point in each case was 325/sup 0/F (163/sup 0/C). The final boiling points were 640/sup 0/F (338/sup 0/C), 670/sup 0/F (354/sup 0/C) and 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/F). Each fraction was hydrotreated to three different severities (800, 1200 and 1500 psi total pressure) over a Shell 324 nickel molybdate on alumina catalyst at 710 to 750/sup 0/F to afford 9 different model fuels. A variety of commercial and experimental additives were evaluated as cold flow improvers in the model fuels at treat levels of 0.04 to 0.4 wt %. Both the standard pour point test (ASTM D97) and a more severe low temperature flow test (LTFT) were employed. Reductions in pour points of up to 70/sup 0/F and improvements in LTFT temperatures up to 16/sup 0/F were achieved. It is concluded that flow improver additives can play an important role in improving the cold flow properties of future synthetic fuels of the diesel type derived from oil shale.

Frankenfeld, J.W.; Taylor, W.F.

1980-11-01

39

Alternative chelating agents: evaluation of the ready biodegradability and complexation properties.  

PubMed

The ready biodegradability of four chelating agents, N,N'-(S,S)-bis[1-carboxy-2-(imidazol-4-yl)ethyl]ethylenediamine (BCIEE), N'-ethylenedi-L-cysteine (EC), N,N'-bis (4-imidazolymethyl)ethylenediamine (EMI) and 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (PDA), was tested according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals. PDA proved to be a readily biodegradable substance. However, none of the other three compounds were degraded during the 28 days of the test. Chemical simulations were performed for the four compounds in order to understand their ability to complex with some metal ions (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and discuss possible applications of these chelating agents. Two different conditions were simulated: (i) in the presence of the chelating agent and one metal ion, and (ii) in the simultaneous presence of the chelating agent and all metal ions with an excess of Ca. For those compounds that were revealed not to be readily biodegradable (BCIEE, EC and EMI), applications were evaluated where this property was not fundamental or even not required. Chemical simulations pointed out that possible applications for these chelating agents are: food fortification, food process, fertilizers, biocides, soil remediation and treatment of metal poisoning. Additionally, chemical simulations also predicted that PDA is an efficient chelating agent for Ca incrustations removal, detergents and for pulp metal ions removal process. PMID:24279626

Martins, João G; Neto, Isabel F F; Pinto, Isabel S S; Soares, Eduardo V; Barros, Maria Teresa; Soares, Helena M V M

2014-01-01

40

Charge trapping properties of alternative high-kappa dielectrics in MOS devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-kappa dielectrics are promising candidates to replace SiO 2 in advanced integrated circuits in future space systems. Studies of the effects of ionizing radiation and bias-temperature stress (BTS) on high-kappa dielectrics were performed. Trapped charge densities are evaluated as functions of temperature and stress time. Prior radiation exposure enhances BTS-induced degradation in these devices. Worst-case responses in combined effects are positive (or zero) bias irradiation followed by NBTS for HfO2-based devices. Degradation due to oxide or interface trap-charge changes in magnitude with the bias polarity during switched-bias annealing either after irradiation or constant voltage stress (CVS). This demonstrates that metastable electron trapping (dominant during post-rad annealing) and hydrogen transport and reactions (dominant during post-CVS annealing) in the near-interfacial dielectric layers play significant roles in the defect formation process. Additional defect growth with time was observed as a result of additional charge injection through the gate stacks during the annealing process. These results provide insights into fundamental trapping properties of high-kappa dielectrics and can be used to help predict long-term reliability of these devices.

Zhou, Xing

41

Crystal structure and magnetic properties of FeSeO(3)F--alternating antiferromagnetic S = 5/2 chains.  

PubMed

The new oxofluoride FeSeO3F, which is isostructural with FeTeO3F and GaTeO3F, was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and its structure was determined by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties of FeSeO3F were characterized by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, by evaluating its spin exchanges on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and by performing a quantum Monte Carlo simulation of the magnetic susceptibility. FeSeO3F crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n and has one unique Se(4+) ion and one unique Fe(3+) ion. The building blocks of FeSeO3F are [SeO3] trigonal pyramids and cis-[FeO4F2] distorted octahedra. The cis-[FeO4F2] octahedra are condensed by sharing the O-O and F-F edges alternatingly to form [FeO3F]? chains, which are interconnected via the [SeO3] pyramids by corner-sharing. The magnetic susceptibility of FeSeO3F is characterized by a broad maximum at 75(2) K and a long-range antiferromagnetic order below ?45 K. The latter is observed by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. DFT calculations show that the Fe-F-Fe spin exchange is stronger than the Fe-O-Fe exchange, so each [FeO3F]? chain is a Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain with alternating antiferromagnetic spin exchanges. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is well-reproduced by a quantum-Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:24684563

Hu, Shichao; Johnsson, Mats; Law, Joseph M; Bettis, Jerry L; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Kremer, Reinhard K

2014-04-21

42

Preparation and coercivity and saturation magnetization dependence of inductive heating property of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles in an alternating current magnetic field for localized hyperthermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with different magnetic properties were prepared by coprecipitation of Fe3+ and Fe2+ with an aqueous NaOH solution. The inductive heating property of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in an alternating current (ac) magnetic field was investigated. The potential of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was evaluated for localized hyperthermia treatment of cancers. The maximum saturation magnetization Ms of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was 65.53emug?1,

Dong-Lin Zhao; Xian-Wei Zeng; Qi-Sheng Xia; Jin-Tian Tang

2009-01-01

43

The influence of high thermal gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing and alternate heat treatment on the structure and properties of a single crystal nickel base superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A development program has been conducted to improve the cyclic properties of the PWA 1480 single-crystal superalloy by reducing or entirely eliminating casting porosity at fatigue-initiation sites, through the use of improved casting process parameters and HIPing; potential mechanical property improvements in a high-pressure hydrogen environment were also sought in alternatives to the standard coating and heat-treatment cycle. High thermal gradient casting was found to yield a reduction in overall casting porosity density and pore sizes. The most dramatic mechanical property improvement resulted from HIPing.

Fritzemeier, L. G.

1988-01-01

44

Alternate stresses and temperature variation as factors of influence of ultrasonic vibration on mechanical and functional properties of shape memory alloys.  

PubMed

It is known that the main factors in a variation in the shape memory alloy properties under insonation are heating of the material and alternate stresses action. In the present work the experimental study of the mechanical behaviour and functional properties of shape memory alloy under the action of alternate stresses and varying temperature was carried out. The data obtained had demonstrated that an increase in temperature of the sample resulted in a decrease or increase in deformation stress depending on the structural state of the TiNi sample. It was shown that in the case of the alloy in the martensitic state, a decrease in stress was observed, and on the other hand, in the austenitic state an increase in stress took place. It was found that action of alternate stresses led to appearance of strain jumps on the strain-temperature curves during cooling and heating the sample through the temperature range of martensitic transformation under the constant stress. The value of the strain jumps depended on the amplitude of alternate stresses and the completeness of martensitic transformation. It was shown that the heat action of ultrasonic vibration to the mechanical behaviour of shape memory alloys was due to the non-monotonic dependence of yield stress on the temperature. The force action of ultrasonic vibration to the functional properties was caused by formation of additional oriented martensite. PMID:23870387

Belyaev, Sergey; Volkov, Alexander; Resnina, Natalia

2014-01-01

45

Environmental investigation for property transfer, Fort Holabird Crime Records Center. Environmental investigation and alternatives assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An Environmental Investigation and Alternatives Assessment was conducted for the Crime Records Center at Fort Holabird in Baltimore, Maryland. Groundwater sampling, underground storage tank tightness testing, radon sampling, asbestos sampling, soil observations, and a review of previously collected data were used to develop remedial alternatives and recommendations. Removal and record keeping were recommended for asbestos. The recommendation for groundwater was no action.

Finger, F.J.; Todd, Q.R.

1992-03-01

46

Environmental investigation for property transfer, Fort Holabird Crime Records Center. Environmental investigation and alternatives assessment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Environmental Investigation and Alternatives Assessment was conducted for the Crime Records Center at Fort Holabird in Baltimore, Maryland. Groundwater sampling, underground storage tank tightness testing, radon sampling, asbestos sampling, soil observations, and a review of previously collected data were used to develop remedial alternatives and recommendations. Removal and record keeping were recommended for asbestos. The recommendation for groundwater was

F. J. Finger; Q. R. Todd

1992-01-01

47

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory operates the Alternative Fuels Data Center, a Web site with vast amounts of information on alternative fuels and the vehicles that use them. A general table of fuel properties gives a quick comparison of gasoline to several alternatives, while sections devoted to eight different fuels go into much greater depth. There are several documents that examine new alternative fuel vehicles, including performance tests, fact sheets, statistics, and case studies. The site also has common questions and answers about converting a gasoline vehicle to one that uses alternative fuels.

48

Alternating Donor-Acceptor Arrays from Hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene and Benzothiadiazole: Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Self-Assembly.  

PubMed

Donor-acceptor (D-A) structures were obtained by alternating arrays of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) and benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BTZ). Optoelectronic investigations revealed a charge transfer due to strong push-pull interactions. 2?D wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data indicated an arrangement in liquid-crystalline columnar assemblies, in which the ?-stacking distances and molecular orientation depend on the number of HBC units in the molecules. PMID:25410616

Hinkel, Felix; Cho, Don; Pisula, Wojciech; Baumgarten, Martin; Müllen, Klaus

2015-01-01

49

Thermodynamic and transport properties of some alternative ozone-safe refrigerants for industrial refrigeration equipment: Study in Belarus and Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of several hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and fluorocarbons (FC) and their binary mixtures that have no ozone-depleting ability is being carried Out in the framework of Belarus National Program. The fluids include HFCs R134a. R152a, R135, and R32, and FC R218. The following properties are being investigated: ( I ) phase equilibrium parameters including the boiling and condensing curve and critical point, thermophysical properties at these parameters, and heat of evaporation: (2) isobaric and isochoric heat capacity, ethalpy, and entropy in the gas and liquid state: (3) speed of sound, thermal conductivity. viscosity, and density in the gas and liquid state: (4) dielectric properties and surface tension: (5) behavior of combined construction materials inside the refrigerant medium: and (6) solubility in compressor oils and other technological characteristics. The series of results obtained by authors during the period 1990 1993 is presented.

Grebenkov, A. J.; Zhelezny, V. P.; Klepatsky, P. M.; Beljajeva, O. V.; Chernjak, Yu. A.; Kotelevsky, Yu. G.; Timofejev, B. D.

1996-05-01

50

Thermodynamic and transport properties of some alternative ozone-safe refrigerants for industrial refrigeration equipment: Study in Belarus and Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

The study of several hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and fluorocarbons (FC) and their binary mixtures that have no ozone-depleting ability is being carried out in the framework of Belarus National program. The fluids include HFCs R134a, R152a, R125, and R32, and FC R218. The following properties are being investigated: (1) phase equilibrium parameters including the boiling and condensing curve and critical point, thermophysical properties at these parameters, and heat of evaporation; (2) isobaric and isochoric heat capacity, ethalpy, and entropy in the gas and liquid state; (3) speed of sound, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and density in the gas and liquid state; (4) dielectric properties and surface tension; (5) behavior of combined construction materials inside the refrigerant medium; and (6) solubility in compressor oils and other technological characteristics. The series of results obtained by authors during the period 1990-1993 is presented.

Grebenkov, A.J.; Klepatsky, P.M.; Beljajeva, O.V. [Inst. of Power Engineering Problems, Minsk (Belgium)] [and others

1996-05-01

51

Impairment of alternative splice sites defining a novel gammaretroviral exon within gag modifies the oncogenic properties of Akv murine leukemia virus  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of an alternative splice donor site located within the gag region has previously been shown to broaden the pathogenic potential of the T-lymphomagenic gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus, while the equivalent mutations in the erythroleukemia inducing Friend murine leukemia virus seem to have no influence on the disease-inducing potential of this virus. In the present study we investigate the splice pattern as well as the possible effects of mutating the alternative splice sites on the oncogenic properties of the B-lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. Results By exon-trapping procedures we have identified a novel gammaretroviral exon, resulting from usage of alternative splice acceptor (SA') and splice donor (SD') sites located in the capsid region of gag of the B-cell lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. To analyze possible effects in vivo of this novel exon, three different alternative splice site mutant viruses, mutated in either the SA', in the SD', or in both sites, respectively, were constructed and injected into newborn inbred NMRI mice. Most of the infected mice (about 90%) developed hematopoietic neoplasms within 250 days, and histological examination of the tumors showed that the introduced synonymous gag mutations have a significant influence on the phenotype of the induced tumors, changing the distribution of the different types as well as generating tumors of additional specificities such as de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and histiocytic sarcoma. Interestingly, a broader spectrum of diagnoses was made from the two single splice-site mutants than from as well the wild-type as the double splice-site mutant. Both single- and double-spliced transcripts are produced in vivo using the SA' and/or the SD' sites, but the mechanisms underlying the observed effects on oncogenesis remain to be clarified. Likewise, analyses of provirus integration sites in tumor tissues, which identified 111 novel RISs (retroviral integration sites) and 35 novel CISs (common integration sites), did not clearly point to specific target genes or pathways to be associated with specific tumor diagnoses or individual viral mutants. Conclusion We present here the first example of a doubly spliced transcript within the group of gammaretroviruses, and we show that mutation of the alternative splice sites that define this novel RNA product change the oncogenic potential of Akv murine leukemia virus. PMID:17617899

Sørensen, Annette Balle; Lund, Anders H; Kunder, Sandra; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schmidt, Jörg; Wang, Bruce; Wabl, Matthias; Pedersen, Finn Skou

2007-01-01

52

Theory of magnetic fluid heating with an alternating magnetic field with temperature dependent materials properties for self-regulated heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) offer promise for local hyperthermia, thermoablative cancer therapy and microwave curing of polymers. Rosensweig's theory predicts that particle size dependence on RF magnetic heating of ferrofluids is chiefly determined by magnetic moment, magnetic anisotropy, and the viscosity of the fluid. Since relaxation times are thermally activated and material parameters can have strong T dependences, heating rates peak at a certain temperature. We extend the model to include the T dependence of the magnetization and anisotropy using mean field theory and literature reported T dependences of selected fluids considered for biomedical applications. We model materials with Curie temperatures near room temperature for which the magnetic properties are strongly T dependent to address the problem of self-regulated heating of ferrofluids.

Ondeck, C. L.; Habib, A. H.; Ohodnicki, P.; Miller, K.; Sawyer, C. A.; Chaudhary, P.; McHenry, M. E.

2009-04-01

53

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

2012-01-01

54

Dithienopyrrole as a Rigid Alternative to the Bithiophene ? Relay in Chromophores with Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties.  

PubMed

4H-Pyranylidene-containing push-pull chromophores built around a bithiophene (BT) ? relay or a rigidified thiophene-based unit, namely cyclopenta[1,2-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (CPDT) or dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP), have been synthesized and characterized. The effect of these different relays on the polarization and the second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties has been studied. For the sake of comparison, the corresponding reported dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]thiophene (DTT) derivatives have also been included in the discussion. Replacement of the BT core by a rigidified unit (CPDT, DTP) leads to more polarized systems. Calculated NBO charges and electrochemical measurements show that dithienopyrrole has a remarkable donor character that allows an important charge transfer between the donor and the acceptor. The influence of the rigidification of the BT relay on the NLO responses depends on the acceptor strength. For the weakest acceptor used (thiobarbituric acid), passing from the BT relay to the rigidified units always involves an increase in the ??0 figure of merit. Nevertheless, for the strongest acceptor (2-dicyanomethylene-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (TCF)), a slight increase in ??0 with respect to the BT chromophore is only observed for the DTP derivative. Thus, rigidification of the BT core is not enough to improve the second-order nonlinearity and the incorporation of a DTP moiety has proven to be the most efficient approach for this purpose. PMID:25293809

Marco, A Belén; Martínez de Baroja, Natalia; Franco, Santiago; Garín, Javier; Orduna, Jesús; Villacampa, Belén; Revuelto, Alejandro; Andreu, Raquel

2015-01-01

55

Ligand effects on the structure and magnetic properties of alternating copper(II) chains with 2,2'-bipyrimidine- and polymethyl-substituted pyrazolates as bridging ligands.  

PubMed

A novel series of heteroleptic copper(II) compounds of formulas {[Cu2(?-H2O)(?-pz)2(?-bpm)(ClO4)(H2O)]ClO4·2H2O}n (1), {[Cu2(?-H2O)(?-3-Mepz)2(?-bpm)](ClO4)2·2H2O}n (2), and {[Cu2(?-OH)(?-3,5-Me2pz)(?-bpm)(H-3,5-Me2pz)2](ClO4)2}n (3) [bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, Hpz = pyrazole, H-3-Mepz = 3-methylpyrazole, and H-3,5-Me2pz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole] have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction methods. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 consist of copper(II) chains with regular alternating bpm and bis(pyrazolate)(aqua) bridges, whereas that of 3 is made up of copper(II) chains with regular alternating bpm and (pyrazolate)(hydroxo) bridges. The copper centers are six- (1) or five-coordinate (2) in axially elongated, octahedral (1) or square-pyramidal (2) environments in 1 and 2, whereas they are five-coordinate in distorted trigonal-bipyramidal surroundings in 3. The values of the copper-copper separations across the bpm/pyrazolate bridges are 5.5442(7)/3.3131(6) (1), 5.538(1)/3.235(1) (2), and 5.7673(7)/3.3220(6) Å (3). The magnetic properties of 1-3 have been investigated in the temperature range of 25-300 K. The analysis of their magnetic susceptibility data through the isotropic Hamiltonian for an alternating antiferromagnetic copper(II) chain model [H = -J?i=1-n/2 (S2i·S2i-1 + ?S2i·S2i+1), with ? = J'/J and Si = SCu = 1/2] reveals the presence of a strong to moderate antiferromagnetic coupling through the bis(pyrazolate)(aqua) [-J = 217 (1) and 215 cm(-1) (2)] and (pyrazolate)(hydroxo) bridges [-J = 153 cm(-1) (3)], respectively, whereas a strong to weak antiferromagnetic coupling occurs through the bis-bidentate bpm [-J' = 211 (1), 213 (2), and 44 cm(-1) (3)]. A simple orbital analysis of the magnetic exchange interaction within the bpm- and pyrazolate-bridged dicopper(II) fragments of 1-3 visualizes the ?-type pathways involving the (dx(2)-y(2)) (1 and 2) or d(z(2)) (3) magnetic orbitals on each metal ion, which account for the variation of the magnetic properties in these three novel examples of one-dimensional copper(II) compounds with regular alternating intrachain antiferromagnetic interactions. PMID:24828822

Castro, Isabel; Calatayud, M Luisa; Barros, Wdeson P; Carranza, José; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Marino, Nadia; De Munno, Giovanni

2014-06-01

56

Low-lying excited states and low-temperature properties of an alternating spin-1-spin-1/2 chain: A density-matrix renormalization-group study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report spin wave and density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) studies of the ground and low-lying excited states of uniform and dimerized alternating spin chains. The DMRG procedure is also employed to obtain low-temperature thermodynamic properties of the system. The ground state of a 2N spin system with spin-1 and spin- alternating from site to site and interacting via an antiferromagnetic exchange is found to be ferrimagnetic with total spin sG=N/2 from both DMRG and spin wave analysis. Both the studies also show that there is a gapless excitation to a state with spin sG-1 and a gapped excitation to a state with spin sG+1. Surprisingly, the correlation length in the ground state is found to be very small from both the studies for this gapless system. For this very reason, we show that the ground state can be described by a variational ansatz of the product type. DMRG analysis shows that the chain is susceptible to a conditional spin-Peierls' instability. The DMRG studies of magnetization, magnetic susceptibility (?), and specific heat show strong magnetic-field dependence. The product ?T shows a minimum as a function of temperature (T) at low-magnetic fields and the minimum vanishes at high-magnetic fields. This low-field behavior is in agreement with earlier experimental observations. The specific heat shows a maximum as a function of temperature and the height of the maximum increases sharply at high-magnetic fields. It is hoped that these studies will motivate experimental studies at high-magnetic fields.

Pati, Swapan K.; Ramasesha, S.; Sen, Diptiman

1997-04-01

57

Alternative Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special double issue focuses on the issue of alternative assessment and its place in educational reform. "Alternative Assessment: A National Perspective" (T. Stefonek) emphasizes that the fundamental purposes of new assessment methods are grounded in educational goals, meaningful outcomes, and curricular and instructional programs promoting…

Stefonek, Tom; And Others

1991-01-01

58

Structural and thermoelectric properties of pure and La, Y doped HoMnO3 for their use as alternative energy materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HoMnO3 and its La and Y doped compounds Ho0.67La0.33MnO3 and Ho0.67Y 0.33MnO3 are investigated for their structural and thermoelectric transport properties. Small bandgaps of these compounds, as investigated by first principles calculations, make them suitable for application in thermoelectric devices. It is found that the bandgap of pure HoMnO3 increases with La and Y dopants. Thermoelectric parameters such as Seebeck coefficient, electric conductivity and thermal conductivity are calculated and their dependences on chemical potential are reported. Electrical conductivity is found to be of the order of 1020  1/m ? s, and thermal conductivity of the order of 1015  W/mKs for all these alloys. HoMnO3 in pure form and in the presence of La and Y dopants is very suitable for thermoelectric devices and as alternative energy materials.

Khan, Banaras; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.; Razghandi, N.; Maqbool, M.; Jalali Asadabadi, S.; Ahmad, Iftikhar

2015-02-01

59

The structure, function and properties of sirohaem decarboxylase - an enzyme with structural homology to a transcription factor family that is part of the alternative haem biosynthesis pathway  

PubMed Central

Some bacteria and archaea synthesize haem by an alternative pathway, which involves the sequestration of sirohaem as a metabolic intermediate rather than as a prosthetic group. Along this pathway the two acetic acid side-chains attached to C12 and C18 are decarboxylated by sirohaem decarboxylase, a heterodimeric enzyme composed of AhbA and AhbB, to give didecarboxysirohaem. Further modifications catalysed by two related radical SAM enzymes, AhbC and AhbD, transform didecarboxysirohaem into Fe-coproporphyrin III and haem respectively. The characterization of sirohaem decarboxylase is reported in molecular detail. Recombinant versions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri AhbA/B have been produced and their physical properties compared. The D. vulgaris and M. barkeri enzyme complexes both copurify with haem, whose redox state influences the activity of the latter. The kinetic parameters of the D. desulfuricans enzyme have been determined, the enzyme crystallized and its structure has been elucidated. The topology of the enzyme reveals that it shares a structural similarity to the AsnC/Lrp family of transcription factors. The active site is formed in the cavity between the two subunits and a AhbA/B-product complex with didecarboxysirohaem has been obtained. A mechanism for the decarboxylation of the kinetically stable carboxyl groups is proposed. PMID:24865947

Palmer, David J; Schroeder, Susanne; Lawrence, Andrew D; Deery, Evelyne; Lobo, Susana A; Saraiva, Ligia M; McLean, Kirsty J; Munro, Andrew W; Ferguson, Stuart J; Pickersgill, Richard W; Brown, David G; Warren, Martin J

2014-01-01

60

Alternating Hemiplegia  

MedlinePLUS

... have a poor prognosis because intellectual and mental capacities do not respond to drug therapy, and balance ... Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood Foundation (AHCF) 31250 Plymouth Road Livonia, MI 48150 sharon@ahckids.org http://www. ...

61

Alternative Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an alternative method of assessment, students create portfolios by submitting monthly entries that demonstrate and expand their understanding of science concepts. Teachers can also use the portfolios to assess the success of their teaching practices an

Valdez, Penelope S.

2001-11-01

62

Clearance of Human IgG1-Sensitised Red Blood Cells In Vivo in Humans Relates to the In Vitro Properties of Antibodies from Alternative Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC) were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human Fc?R, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the Fc?RI and Fc?RII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in Fc?RIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for Fc?RIIIa 158F, 20-fold for Fc?RIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for Fc?RIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with Fc?RIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where Fc?RI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only Fc?RIII binding and Fc?RIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of Fc?RIII in RBC clearance. PMID:25302805

Armour, Kathryn L.; Smith, Cheryl S.; Ip, Natasha C. Y.; Ellison, Cara J.; Kirton, Christopher M.; Wilkes, Anthony M.; Williamson, Lorna M.; Clark, Michael R.

2014-01-01

63

The inhibitor of differentiation isoform Id1b, generated by alternative splicing, maintains cell quiescence and confers self-renewal and cancer stem cell-like properties.  

PubMed

Id1 has been shown to play a critical role in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. Moreover, recent reports have involved Id1 in the maintenance of cancer stem cell features in some tumor types. The Id1 gene generates two isoforms through alternative splicing: Id1a and Id1b. We have investigated the role of each isoform in cancer development. Using lentiviral systems we modified the endogenous expression of each of these isoforms in cancer cells and analyzed their biological effect both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of Id1b in murine CT26 and 3LL cells caused a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and reduced proliferation, clonogenicity and phospho-ERK1/2 levels, while increasing p27 levels. High levels of Id1a had an opposite effect and the proportion of cells in the S phase increased significantly. In vivo models confirmed the inhibitory role of Id1b in primary tumor growth and metastasis. Through microarray analysis we found that the cancer stem cell (CSC) markers ALDH1A1 and Notch-1 were up-regulated specifically in Id1b-overexpressing cells. By using qPCR we also found overexpression of Sca-1, Tert, Sox-2 and Oct-4 in these cells. Increased levels of Id1b promoted self-renewal and CSC-like properties, as shown by their high capacity for developing secondary tumorspheres and retaining the PKH26 dye. The acquisition of CSC phenotype was confirmed in human PC-3 cells that overexpressed Id1b. Our results show that Id1b maintains cells in a quiescent state and promotes self-renewal and CSC-like features. On the contrary, Id1a promotes cell proliferation. PMID:25449776

Manrique, Irene; Nguewa, Paul; Bleau, Anne-Marie; Nistal-Villan, Estanislao; Lopez, Ines; Villalba, Maria; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; Calvo, Alfonso

2015-01-28

64

Modulation of functional properties of laforin phosphatase by alternative splicing reveals a novel mechanism for the EPM2A gene in Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy.  

PubMed

The EPM2A gene, encoding the dual-phosphatase laforin, is mutated in a fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy known as Lafora disease (LD). The EPM2A gene, by differential splicing of its transcripts, is known to encode two laforin isoforms having distinct carboxyl termini; a major isoform localized in the cytoplasm (laf331), and a minor isoform that is targeted to the nucleus as well (laf317). We show here that the two laforin isoforms interact with each other and form homo and heterodimers. The homodimer of laf331 display robust phosphatase activity, whereas the laf317 homodimer and the laf331-laf317 heterodimer lack phosphatase activity. Laf331 binds to glycogen only as a monomeric form. Laf317, on the other hand, was unable to bind to glycogen as a homodimer or as a heterodimer. Similar to laf331, laf317 interacts with and functions as a substrate for the malin ubiquitin ligase--a product of another gene defective in LD. Malin, however, shows higher affinity towards laf331 when compared with laf317. We have also tested the effect of LD-associated mutations, whose effects are restricted to the laf331 isoform, on laf331-laf317 interaction. Two such mutations are known and both abolish the interactions between laf317 and laf331 and their heterodimerization, but not the homodimerization property of laf331. Thus, laf317 could function as a dominant-negative regulator of laf331, and laf331-specific mutations might affect laf317 functions as well. Thus, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for the EPM2A gene function, regulated by alternative splicing, in normal as well as disease conditions. PMID:18617530

Dubey, Deepti; Ganesh, Subramaniam

2008-10-01

65

Alternative splicing in the fiddler crab cognate ecdysteroid receptor: variation in receptor isoform expression and DNA binding properties in response to hormone.  

PubMed

RXR cDNA cloning from three Uca species led to the identification of 4 conserved isoforms, indicative of alternative splicing in the hinge and ligand binding domains (LBD). Sequencing of overlapping clones from a Ucapugilator genomic library identified EcR isoforms matching previously identified cDNA variants; in addition, a cryptic exon in the LBD was detected and evidence for expression of this new isoform was obtained from next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq analysis also identified a new amino terminal EcR variant. EcR and RXR transcript abundance increases throughout ovarian maturation in U. pugilator, while cognate receptor transcript abundance remains constant in a related Indo-Pacific species with a different reproductive strategy. To examine if crab RXR LBD isoforms have different physical properties in vitro, electromobility shift assays were performed with different EcR isoforms. The cognate crab and fruit fly receptors differ in their responses to hormone. Ecdysteroids did not increase DNA binding for the crab heterodimers, while ecdysteroids stimulate binding for Drosophilamelanogaster EcR/USP heterodimers. In swapping experiments, UpEcR/USP heterodimers did not show ligand-responsive differences in DNA binding; both crab RXR LBD isoforms, however, conferred ligand-responsive increases in DNA binding with DmEcRs. These data indicate that both UpRXR LBD isoforms can heterodimerize with the heterologous DmEcR receptors and promote ligand and DNA binding. Unresponsiveness of the cognate receptors to ecdysteroid, however, suggest additional factors may be required to mediate endogenous, perhaps isoform-specific, differences in EcR conformation, consistent with previously reported effects of UpRXR isoforms on UpEcR ligand-binding affinities. PMID:25025945

Durica, David S; Das, Sunetra; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce; Phillips, Barret; Kappalli, Sudha; Anilkumar, Gopinathan

2014-09-15

66

Alternative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

Herman, Dan

1999-01-01

67

ALTERNATIVE OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study chloramines, chlorine dioxide and ozone as alternative oxidants/disinfectants to chlorine for the control of disinfection by-rpdocuts (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes and haloa...

68

Magnetostrictive Alternator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

69

Cogeneration alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cogeneration is one alternative energy source with a long history of useful application and a potential for contributing up to 10% of US electricity. The high efficiency provided by the four basic cogeneration cycles, with steam- and combustion-turbine topping cycles dominating, has environmental as well as economic benefits for users. Two case studies demonstrate the advantages of cogeneration to utilities.

Schnorr

1983-01-01

70

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this chapter on decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning school property it is noted that no new trends emerged during the year. Among the topics addressed are the extent of school board authority over property use and other property matters; the attachment and detachment of land from school district holdings; school…

Goldblatt, Steven M.

71

Alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

1977-01-01

72

Alternative approaches to plasma confinement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.

Roth, J. R.

1977-01-01

73

Alternative Fuel Implementation Toolkit  

E-print Network

......................................................................................................................................................3 Considering Alternative Transportation Fuels who already know which fuels are the best fit for them. Considering Alternative Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels ­ biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas

74

Alternate Rules of Association  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Weyl correspondence rule (107) is not unique: there are a host of alternate equivalent association rules which specify corresponding representations. All these representations with equivalent formalisms are typified by characteristic quasi-distribution functions and ?-products, all systematically inter-convertible among themselves. They have been surveyed comparatively and organized in [Lee95, BJ84], on the basis of seminal classification work by Cohen [Coh66, Coh76]. Like different coordinate transformations, they may be favored by virtue of their different characteristic properties in varying applications...

Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

2014-11-01

75

Post Flood Alternatives Mosquito Flats  

E-print Network

Post Flood Alternatives for Mosquito Flats (an amateur perspective, continued) Douglas Jones 816 for Mosquito Flats to the Iowa City City Council. This document presents a refined version of the preferred for a buyout of floodplain property in Mosquito Flats. Before presenting my recommendation, I will present

Jones, Douglas W.

76

Effect of alternative aging process on the fracture and interfacial properties of particulate Al2O3-reinforced Al (6061) metal matrix composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of different aging processes on ductility, fracture, and interfacial properties in particulate Al2O3-reinforced Al (6061) metal-matrix composite (MMCs) were studied. Tensile tests based on relevant ASTM standards were performed to investigate the mechanical responses of specimens under different heat-treatment conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission SEM (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out to correlate fracture mechanism(s) with microstructural features. Based on the experimental results, the overall effect of heat treatment on tensile properties is similar to that in the monolithic alloy, however, the rate of recovery in fracture-related properties, such as elongation to fracture, is lower in the overaged condition for the MMC samples. To explain this “low” recovery behavior of overaged MMCs, the following observations have been taken into account: (1) a shift of the materials’ behavior from particle fracture to interface (or near-interface) debonding fracture, when moving from the underaged to overaged regime, and (2) more frequent observations of interfacial reaction products (spinel) on the fracture surface of overaged specimens. The presence/formation of spinel phase at the interface was recognized as the main cause of this behavior. Although spinel products mainly form during material processing, they may continue to form in the solid state as well. As a result, the surface morphology of the spinel phase in the underaged specimens is different from that in the overaged specimens.

Shakeri, H. R.; Wang, Zhirui

2002-06-01

77

Remarkable proanthocyanidin adsorption properties of monastrell pomace cell wall material highlight its potential use as an alternative fining agent in red wine production.  

PubMed

The existence of interactions between the polysaccharides of vegetal cell walls and proanthocyanins makes this cell wall material an interesting option for its use as a fining agent to reduce the level of proanthocyanins in wines. Pomace wastes from the winery are widely available and a source of cell wall material, and the identification of varieties whose pomace cell walls present high proanthocyanin binding capacity and of processing methods that could enhance their adsorption properties could be of great interest. This study compared the proanthocyanin adsorption properties of pomace cell wall material from three different grape varieties (Monastrell, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Syrah), and the results were compared with those obtained using fresh grape cell walls. Also, the effect of the vinification method has been studied. Analysis of the proanthocyanidins in the solution after reaction with the cell wall material, using phloroglucinolysis and size exclusion chromatography, provided quantitative and qualitative information on the adsorbed and nonadsorbed compounds. A highlight of this study was the observation that Monastrell pomace cell wall material showed a strong affinity for proanthocyanidins, with values similar to that obtained for fresh grapes cell walls, and a preferential binding of high molecular mass proanthocyanidins, so these pomace cell walls could be used in wines to reduce astringency. The use of maceration enzymes during vinification had little effect on the retention capacity of the pomace cell walls obtained from this vinification, although an increase in the retention of low molecular mass proanthocyanidins was observed, and this might have implications for wine sensory properties. PMID:25529053

Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Marín, Fátima; Molero, Noelia; Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

2015-01-21

78

Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-x%BaTiO3 textured ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of alternating (ac) and direct current (dc) fields on the structural and dielectric properties of [001]PC textured Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-7%BaTiO3 (NBT-7%BT) ceramics has been investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the depolarization at temperature Td in poled samples resulted from a tetragonal ? pseudo-cubic transition on heating. Moderate ac drive and dc bias had opposite influences on Td: ac drive decreased the Td, whereas dc bias increased it. These investigations suggested an effective method to expand the working temperature range of NBT-x%BT textured ceramics to a high temperature.

Ge, Wenwei; Maurya, Deepam; Li, Jiefang; Priya, Shashank; Viehland, D.

2013-06-01

79

Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase 1 (Psd1) Promotes Mitochondrial Fusion by Regulating the Biophysical Properties of the Mitochondrial Membrane and Alternative Topogenesis of Mitochondrial Genome Maintenance Protein 1 (Mgm1)*  

PubMed Central

Non–bilayer-forming lipids such as cardiolipin, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) are proposed to generate negative membrane curvature, promoting membrane fusion. However, the mechanism by which lipids regulate mitochondrial fusion remains poorly understood. Here, we show that mitochondrial-localized Psd1, the key yeast enzyme that synthesizes PE, is required for proper mitochondrial morphology and fusion. Yeast cells lacking Psd1 exhibit fragmented and aggregated mitochondria with impaired mitochondrial fusion during mating. More importantly, we demonstrate that a reduction in PE reduces the rate of lipid mixing during fusion of liposomes with lipid compositions reflecting the mitochondrial membrane. This suggests that the mitochondrial fusion defect in the ?psd1 strain could be due to the altered biophysical properties of the mitochondrial membrane, resulting in reduced fusion kinetics. The ?psd1 strain also has impaired mitochondrial activity such as oxidative phosphorylation and reduced mitochondrial ATP levels which are due to a reduction in mitochondrial PE. The loss of Psd1 also impairs the biogenesis of s-Mgm1, a protein essential for mitochondrial fusion, further exacerbating the mitochondrial fusion defect of the ?psd1 strain. Increasing s-Mgm1 levels in ?psd1 cells markedly reduced mitochondrial aggregation. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial PE regulates mitochondrial fusion by regulating the biophysical properties of the mitochondrial membrane and by enhancing the biogenesis of s-Mgm1. While several proteins are required to orchestrate the intricate process of membrane fusion, we propose that specific phospholipids of the mitochondrial membrane promote fusion by enhancing lipid mixing kinetics and by regulating the action of profusion proteins. PMID:23045528

Chan, Eliana Y. L.; McQuibban, G. Angus

2012-01-01

80

Alternative aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

1978-01-01

81

Optical devices having flakes suspended in a host fluid to provide a flake/fluid system providing flakes with angularly dependent optical properties in response to an alternating current electric field due to the dielectric properties of the system  

DOEpatents

Optical devices utilizing flakes (also called platelets) suspended in a host fluid have optical characteristics, such as reflective properties, which are angular dependent in response to an AC field. The reflectivity may be Bragg-like, and the characteristics are obtained through the use of flakes of liquid crystal material, such as polymer liquid crystal (PLC) materials including polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) and polymer nematic liquid crystal (PNLC) material or birefringent polymers (BP). The host fluid may be propylene carbonate, poly(ethylene glycol) or other fluids or fluid mixtures having fluid conductivity to support conductivity in the flake/host system. AC field dependent rotation of 90.degree. can be obtained at rates and field intensities dependent upon the frequency and magnitude of the AC field. The devices are useful in providing displays, polarizers, filters, spatial light modulators and wherever switchable polarizing, reflecting, and transmission properties are desired.

Kosc, Tanya Z. (Rochester, NY); Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY); Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY)

2006-05-09

82

Center for Alternative Fuels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The success of the HEV programs under this grant prompted Macomb to launch this resource, the Center for Alternative Fuels. The center holds forums in which academic and industry experts discuss the technical and societal impact of alternative fuels.

2009-12-21

83

Centre for Alternative Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CAT is an environmental nonprofit that promotes sustainable living. Its key areas of work are renewable energy, environmental building, energy efficiency, organic growing and alternative sewage systems. The group offers workshops on alternative energy, including wind, solar, and microhydroelectric.

2007-06-28

84

November 2008 Alternative Energy  

E-print Network

November 2008 Alternative Energy Technologies for BC R.L. Evans CleaN eNergy researCh CeNtre, UNiversity of british ColUmbia PaCifiC iNstitUte for Climate solUtioNs AlternAtive energy #12;Pacific Ministry of the Environment. #12;3alternative energy ExECuTIvE SummAry British Columbia is well

Pedersen, Tom

85

Assessment "Honest Alternatives".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the challenge of finding or creating alternatives to tests and traditional grading systems. Reflects on and describes the experience of creating an assessment tool and cautions against choosing alternatives that merely camouflage the grades. Encourages educators to find authentic alternatives to describe children's growth. (BAC)

Mandel, Susan Glazer

1995-01-01

86

Current Alternative Engine Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, methyl and ethyl alcohols, hydrogen, biodiesel, boron, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, p-series, electricity, and solar fuels were concluded as alternative engine fuels. Alternative engine fuels are competitive fuels to petroleum. These fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. There are many benefits the environment, economy and consumers in using alternative fuels.

MUSTAFA BALAT

2005-01-01

87

Fuel properties of biodiesel from alternative feedstocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Defined as monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids prepared from plant oils, animal fats, or other lipids, advantages of biodiesel over conventional petroleum diesel fuel include derivation from renewable and domestic feedstocks, superior lubricity and biodegradability, higher cetane number and f...

88

Connections between Alternative Transcription and Alternative Splicing in Mammals  

E-print Network

The majority of mammalian genes produce multiple transcripts resulting from alternative splicing (AS) and/or alternative transcription initiation (ATI) and alternative transcription termination (ATT). Comparative analysis ...

Spiridonov, Alexey Nikolaevich

89

A new quenching alternative  

SciTech Connect

The quenching of ferrous alloys implies the controlled extraction of heat from a part at a rate sufficient to harden the part and still control the desired dimensional limitations. Quenchants in common use today are: molten metals, molten salts, petroleum oils, polymer solutions, water, and salt/water solutions. Each type of quenchant has its benefits and limitations. With current waste legislation and the trends toward environmentally friendlier industrial working fluids, many of these quenching products are coming under close scrutiny by the users and legislators. The most widely used quenchant is petroleum oil due to its favorable heat extraction characteristics. The dependence upon imports, price vulnerability, and contamination potential have caused suppliers and users to look into alternative products. Research into renewable resource, non-petroleum, vegetable oils has been going on globally for several years. The drawbacks encountered with many vegetable oils were widely known and only years of research enabled them to be overcome. The presently formulated product not only performs as well as petroleum oil but shows some characteristics better than those of the petroleum products, especially in the biodegradability and ecological aspects of the products. Stability and reproducible quenching properties have been proven with over two and one half years of field testing.

Brennan, R.J.; Faulkner, C.H. [Houghton International, Valley Forge, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

90

REACT: Alternatives to Critical Materials in Magnets  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s REACT Project, short for “Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies”, are developing cost-effective alternatives to rare earths, the naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. The REACT projects will identify low-cost and abundant replacement materials for rare earths while encouraging existing technologies to use them more efficiently. These alternatives would facilitate the widespread use of EVs and wind power, drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

None

2012-01-01

91

Alternator insulation evaluation tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

1972-01-01

92

ALTERNATIVE DEER MANAGEMENT PLAN  

E-print Network

, and White-tailed Deer Units Arizona Game and Fish Department April 4, 2006 #12;Alternative Deer Management, 13A, 13B, 16A, 45A, 45B, 45C, and white-tailed deer units. This operational plan describes how-only muzzleloader and late white-tailed deer hunts are included since they come under the direction of alternative

Theimer, Tad

93

Alternatives to Cosmological Inflation  

E-print Network

The inflationary paradigm, although very successful phenomenologically, suffers from several conceptual problems which motivate the search for alternative scenarios of early universe cosmology. Here, two possible alternatives will be reviewed. - "string gas cosmology" and the "matter bounce". Their successes and problems will be pointed out.

Brandenberger, Robert H

2009-01-01

94

Heterosexual alternatives to marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to test perceptions regarding the sexuality of older persons and the appropriateness of alternatives to marriage for intimacy. Using data gathered from a random sample of 211 adult residents of a Southern city, we find that older persons are judged to be sexual beings and that some support exists for alternative outlets for sexual

David L. Klemmack; Lucinda Lee Roff

1980-01-01

95

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

2013-01-01

96

Alternative Work Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and…

Kuehn, Kerri L.

2004-01-01

97

ALTERNATIVE DEER FENCES  

E-print Network

ALTERNATIVE DEER FENCES IN CORE CAPERCAILLIE and BLACK GROUSE HABITATS AN INTERIM BEST GUIDANCE and black grouse in the short term, whilst research seeks alternative solutions. Summary Research has highlighted fence collisions as a major source of mortality to black grouse and capercaillie but particularly

98

Alternating pushdown automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1 Summary or Results Alternating Turing machines were introduced by Chandra and Stockmeyer [2] and by Kozen [12] as an interesting generali­ zation of nondeterministic Turing machines. In this paper we investigate the effect of adding alternation to the power of auxilia­ ry pushdown automata, first investigated by Cook [3], and to auxiliary stack automata, first investigated by Ibarra [9].

Richard E. Ladner; Richard J. Lipton; Larry J. Stockmeyer

1978-01-01

99

Alternative Automobile Engines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

Wilson, David Gordon

1978-01-01

100

Alternative Press Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alternative Press Center (APC), a non-profit collective, is devoted to "providing access to and increasing public awareness of the alternative press." The APC publishes the Alternative Press Index (API), a comprehensive quarterly subject index to more than 260 alternative periodicals in the social sciences and the humanities. The APC Website provides organizational information as well as information about the content and function of the API. The site also includes an online directory of periodicals in the API, listing subscription information, email addresses, and URLs. In addition, the APC compiles annotated links in a section entitled Alternative Viewpoints on the Internet. The compilation, comprised of over 330 sites, may be browsed by name or subject.

101

Alternative fuel transit buses  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K. [and others

1996-10-01

102

Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Mg(x) Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites prepared by polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods: a low-toxicity alternative to Ni(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis and properties of Mg(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 spinel ferrites as a low-toxicity alternative to the technologically significant Ni(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites are reported. Ferrite nanoparticles have been formed through both the polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods that can be readily adapted to industrial scale synthesis to satisfy the demand of a variety of commercial applications. The structure, morphology and

A. Daigle; J. Modest; A. L. Geiler; S. Gillette; Y. Chen; M. Geiler; B. Hu; S. Kim; K. Stopher; C. Vittoria; V. G. Harris

2011-01-01

103

Hydrofluoropolyethers: Another alternative to CFCs  

SciTech Connect

Fluorinated fluids are widely used because of their unique properties: They are chemically and biologically inert, nontoxic, stable, nonflammable, and miscible in most solvents. However, because many of these fluids cause ozone-depleting and global-warming effects, one must search for viable alternatives. A recent CHEMTECH article described the properties of perfluorinated ethers as alternative refrigerants. Here the authors describe hydrofluoropolyethers (HFPEs), a new family of fluoropolyethers they have synthesized, which show promise as fire-extinguishing agents and heat exchange fluids. The molecules they discuss have terminal hydrogen atoms in the difluoromethoxy groups at the end of a linear perfluorinated polyether backbone that contains only CF{sub 2}O and CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}O units. These products maintain the chemical and thermooxidative inertness of perfluorinated fluids. However, their solubility parameters are significantly modified, allowing higher compatibility with organic polar solvents. The reactivity toward radical reactions involving the terminal C{single_bond}H bonds limits the atmospheric lifetime of these molecules. Furthermore, no long-lived secondary decomposition products are formed; atmospheric decomposition results in the complete mineralization of the molecule.

Visca, M.; Silvani, R.; Marchionni, G.

1997-02-01

104

Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

105

Making a Non-animal Alternative Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the author's decision to help a student find alternatives to performing several terminal experiments on animals in a college physiology class. Replacement exercises used for studying the properties of muscle types are described. Details about the difficulties and successes of the entire experience are reported. (KR)

Zawistowski, Stephen

1990-01-01

106

Small world graphs: characterization and alternative constructions  

E-print Network

Small world graphs: characterization and alternative constructions Rama CONT1 and Emily TANIMURA2 Sociales. Advances in Applied Probability, Volume 40, no 4 (December 2008). Abstract Small world graphs- trinsic definition of small world graphs, based on a probabilistic for- mulation of scaling properties

Cont, Rama

107

Alternative Linear Chiral Models for Nuclear Matter  

E-print Network

The equation of state of a family of alternative linear chiral models in the mean field approximation is discussed. We investigate the analogy between some of these models with current models in the literature, and we show that it is possible to reproduce very well the saturation properties of nuclear matter.

A. Delfino; F. S. Navarra; M. Nielsen; R. B. Prandini; M. Chiapparini

1998-06-05

108

Alternative energy design toolkit  

E-print Network

This thesis concerns the concepts, structure, and applications of the Alternative Energy Design Toolkit. The toolkit is aimed to provide a widely accessible, easy to use, flexible, yet powerful modeling environment for ...

Sukkasi, Sittha

2004-01-01

109

From Bidirectionality to Alternation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an explicit simulation of 2-way nondeterministic automata by 1-way alternating automata with quadratic blow-up. We first describe the con- struction for automata on finite words, and extend it to automata on infinite words.

Nir Piterman; Moshe Y. Vardi

2001-01-01

110

Alternative and Integrative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is based on ... organization does he/she represent? (A business? A college or university? A nonprofit organization?) What is his/ ...

111

Alternatives to Nursing Homes  

MedlinePLUS

... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

112

Alternative Cancer Cures: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncology has always coexisted with therapies offered outside of conventional cancer treatment centers and based on theories not found in biomedicine. These alternative cancer cures have often been described as \\

Andrew Vickers

113

Alternative fuel information sources  

SciTech Connect

This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

Not Available

1994-06-01

114

Alternative and Complementary Therapies  

MedlinePLUS

... practices such as ayurveda (Fact Sheet 702) , Chinese acupuncture (Fact Sheet 703) , and Native American healing (Fact ... plans pay for therapies such as chiropractic or acupuncture. ARE THEY SAFE? Alternative therapies can have dangerous ...

115

Marketing alternative fueled automobiles  

E-print Network

Marketing alternative fueled vehicles is a difficult challenge for automakers. The foundation of the market, the terms of competition, and the customer segments involved are still being defined. But automakers can draw ...

Zheng, Alex (Yi Alexis)

2011-01-01

116

Seal design alternatives study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

1993-06-01

117

Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... of artificial lenses. Following are some of the alternative refractive surgery procedures to LASIK . Wavefront-Guided LASIK ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

118

Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development  

SciTech Connect

This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels. Thailand is of particular interest since it introduced E20 to its commercial market in 2007 and the US is now considering introducing E20 into the US market.

Bloyd, Cary N.

2010-06-30

119

Alternative pathway evaluation.  

PubMed

The alternative pathway of complement shares its terminal components (C3 and C5 through 9) with the classical pathway, but has several unique components, including factors D, B, and P (properdin). This unit presents methods for assaying total alternative pathway activity and the activity of factors B and D. Radial immunodiffusion (RID) can also be used to measure factor D, B, and P concentrations. PMID:18432715

Giclas, P C

2001-05-01

120

Alternative Addition Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores recall of multiple alternative addition strategies of two-digit numbers. The lesson focus is to encourage students to use more than one strategy to solve addition problems. By reinforcing the multiple alternative addition strategies students will develop a strong understanding of addition structures and mechanics before moving on to three-digit addition. The lesson includes making an Addition Strategies Mini Booklet, which students can keep and use as a reference tool.

Judith Scapecchi

2012-07-31

121

Alternative Energy Evaluation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from Misty Scevola serves as an assessment of student knowledge of alternative energy technologies. This document would be useful for instructors looking to expand their students' knowledge of alternative energy and sustainability. The document is intended to be used twice: once before learning about the concepts outlined, and once after the class has been completed. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Scevola, Misty

2012-04-18

122

Normetex Pump Alternatives Study  

SciTech Connect

A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying resistances to ionizing radiation - aromatic polymers such as polyimide Vespel (TM) and the elastomer EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) have been found to be more resistant to degradation in tritium than other polymers. This report presents information to help select replacement pumps for Normetex pumps in tritium systems. Several pumps being considered as Normetex replacement pumps are discussed.

Clark, E.

2013-04-25

123

REGULATION SCOPING Alternative and Renewable  

E-print Network

REGULATION SCOPING PAPER Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program, Statutes of 2007) created the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (Program California's fuel and vehicle types. The Program will help meet the state's alternative fuel use

124

Using Versions of the Trail Making Test as Alternate Forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternate forms of neuropsychological instruments are often made parallel by developing tests with similar numbers of items, formats, and psychometric properties. The present study offers an alternative approach by examining three different trail-making tests that could potentially be used as alternate forms. Over a 3-week period, the Trail Making Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DK-TMT), Comprehensive Trail Making

Thomas M. Atkinson; Jeanne P. Ryan; Maria Kryza; Laci M. Charette

2011-01-01

125

Verb Classes and Alternations in Bangla, German, English, and Korean  

E-print Network

In this report, we investigate the relationship between the semantic and syntactic properties of verbs. Our work is based on the English Verb Classes and Alternations of (Levin, 1993). We explore how these classes are ...

Jones, Douglas A.

1996-05-06

126

MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATING IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. his study was ini...

127

MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

128

Reliability of Radioisotope Stirling Convertor Linear Alternator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Onboard radioisotope power systems being developed and planned for NASA s deep-space missions would require reliable design lifetimes of up to 14 years. Critical components and materials of Stirling convertors have been undergoing extensive testing and evaluation in support of a reliable performance for the specified life span. Of significant importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor is the design of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. Alternator performance could vary due to small deviations in the permanent magnet properties, operating temperature, and component geometries. Durability prediction and reliability of the alternator may be affected by these deviations from nominal design conditions. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of these uncertainties in predicting the reliability of the linear alternator performance. This paper presents a study in which a reliability-based methodology is used to assess alternator performance. The response surface characterizing the induced open-circuit voltage performance is constructed using 3-D finite element magnetic analysis. Fast probability integration method is used to determine the probability of the desired performance and its sensitivity to the alternator design parameters.

Shah, Ashwin; Korovaichuk, Igor; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

2006-01-01

129

Alternative Green Solvents Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

Maloney, Phillip R.

2012-01-01

130

35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION  

E-print Network

35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California Chapter 4 ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION FUELS IN CALIFORNIA INTRODUCTION The introduction of alternative fuels into California's transportation market has supply at low prices. But, with an uncertain long-term future for oil supplies and prices, alternative

131

Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development  

SciTech Connect

This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. Thailand has continued to work to promote increased consumption of gasohol especially for highethanol content fuels like E85. The government has confirmed its effort to draw up incentives for auto makers to invest in manufacturing E85-compatible vehicles in the country. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels.

Bloyd, Cary N.; Stork, Kevin

2011-02-01

132

Alternative congestion pricing schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important that alternative congestion pricing schedules are compared with respect to a broad spectrum of their effects. This paper uses an equilibrium simulation model of peak-period commuting along an urban highway to compare quantitatively both positive and normative effects of six congestion pricing schedules. Three of these schedules have been investigated qualitatively in the literature; the others are

Xuehao Chu

1999-01-01

133

Compensated pulsed alternator  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX); Driga, Mircea D. (Austin, TX); Woodson, Herbert H. (Austin, TX)

1980-01-01

134

A Better Alternative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mandated as an option for students who have not been successful in traditional programs, continuation education provides as alternative setting that helps students meet graduation requirements and earn their high school diplomas. Continuation high schools are quite successful in helping their students. This is due to their small size (usually 20:1…

Knoeppel, Janet

2007-01-01

135

Alternative Approaches to Negotiating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wait-and-react and laundry-list approaches to combating teachers' collective-bargaining demands are ineffective. An alternative goals-setting approach requires management and the district negotiations team to identify important needs and objectives. West Seneca Central School District ended contentious negotiations by presenting unions with…

Ramming, Thomas M.

1997-01-01

136

Alternative energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and

R. W. Todd

1982-01-01

137

Alternatives in solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

Schueler, D. G.

1978-01-01

138

Alternatives in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper on alternatives in teacher education begins by analyzing the current emphasis on the scientific approach in education. The author finds the promise of the scientific approach to be illusory. He defines it as education that promotes behavior change in some desirable direction. However, this definition, which the author finds equally…

Clements, Millard

139

Alternatives to Traditional Notation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a introduction and overview to alternative music notation systems. Describes guitar tablature, accordion tablature, klavarskribo (a keyboard notational system developed by Cornelius Pot, a Dutch engineer), and the digital piano roll. Briefly discusses the history of notation reform and current efforts. Includes examples from scores. (MJP)

Gaare, Mark

1997-01-01

140

ALTERNATIVE FUELS RESEARCH STRATEGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this document was to lay a foundation for developing the scientific information needed to compare the benefits and risks of various motor vehicle fuels, especially alternative and reformulated fuels in relation to conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. Among the f...

141

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative

Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

2006-01-01

142

Alternative Energy Busing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

LaFee, Scott

2012-01-01

143

Augmentative & Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

Murphy, Patti

2007-01-01

144

Alternatives to GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy is currently pursuing several approaches to improving the reliability of precision navigation systems, including those that would still permit precision navigation in the event that the Global Positioning System (GPS) is denied or unavailable. This paper examines two alternatives to GPS: bathymetric and celestial navigation. Bathymetric navigation, a non-deniable source of position, determines a position by correlating

F. Pappalardi; S. J. Dunham; M. E. LeBlang; T. E. Jones; J. Bangert; G. Kaplan

2001-01-01

145

Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

Baltzer, Jan A.

146

Alternative Education Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide deals with various areas of alternative education programs, including current practices and different options available to school and community personnel. Steps are outlined to assess present educational settings, design new programs, select the participants, and implement and evaluate the new program. The first appendix contains…

Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

147

Spent fuel storage alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares a small onsite wet storage pool to a dry cask storage facility in order to determine what type of spent fuel storage alternatives would best serve the utilities in consideration of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The Act allows the DOE to provide a total of 1900 metric tons (MT) of additional spent fuel storage

R. H. OConnell; M. A. Bowidowicz

1983-01-01

148

Archive Storage Media Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews requirements for a data archive system and describes storage media alternatives that are currently available. Topics discussed include data storage; data distribution; hierarchical storage architecture, including inline storage, online storage, nearline storage, and offline storage; magnetic disks; optical disks; conventional magnetic…

Ranade, Sanjay

1990-01-01

149

Alternative energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising.

M. S. Dresselhaus; I. L. Thomas

2001-01-01

150

Energy conversion alternatives study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

Shure, L. T.

1979-01-01

151

Alternatives to Evolutionism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses alternative theories to evolutionism. Five theories are mentioned, but most attention is given to the steady state theory of species which the author considers the most suitable partner for Darwinism in O- and A-level biology courses in the United Kingdom. (HM)

Harper, G. H.

1979-01-01

152

ALTERNATIVE SEWER STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of design and operational aspects for two popular alternative sewering techniques, i.e., pressure and small-diameter gravity sewers, was performed. The results provided insights useful to designers of these systems with regard to sulfide concentrations in these sewe...

153

Alternative Media as Critical Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the category of alternative media from a theoretical perspective. It aims to develop a definition and to distinguish different dimensions of alternative media. The article is a contribution to theoretical foundations of alternative media studies. The notion of alternative media as critical media is introduced. Critical media product content shows the suppressed possibilities of existence, antagonisms

Christian Fuchs

2010-01-01

154

Alternative Energy COLLEGE of ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

Alternative Energy technology COLLEGE of ENGINEERING AlternativeEnergyTechnologyProgram Collegeof program and alternative energy technology master's degree program t One of 23 U.S. PACE institutions to a alternative energy technology degree. The EDGE program trains engineering students in the entrepreneurial

Berdichevsky, Victor

155

Alternative Energy Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website has 23 lesson plans in alternative energy developed by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The lesson plans include the following topics: the photoelectric effect, efficiency of energy conversion, the photoelectric effect in photocells, chemical consequences of burning fossil fuels, The Geology of Oil and Coal, environmental pollution, Where Do Plants Get Their Food?, considerations in heating a house, and many more valuable and useful classroom lessons.

2008-11-12

156

Complementary and Alternative Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a More and more people are employing complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to treat their illnesses. A survey of English-speaking\\u000a patients found that 42.1% used at least 1 of 16 specific CAM therapies during a 12-month period (1). In this study population,\\u000a visits to CAM practitioners exceeded total visits to primary care physicians, and more than 50% of the patients had

Erin L. Arnold; William J. Arnold

157

Alternative futures lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternative futures studies are a valuable yet resource-intensive way in which environmental scientists try to conduct informed debates about policies for specific geographic regions. These studies require modeling what the future would look like if different stakeholder groups had their way. The modeling is carried out by applying historical trend data to future projections that are rooted in the preferences of the different groups. Alternative future studies can be controversial due to the limitations of modeling and to the extent to which the models represent fully the different possible scenarios. Yet, they can be especially valuable for decision making about which areas in the region would be most appropriate and most acceptable for the applications of different policies such as development and restoration. Through a series of hands-on classroom activities that are the culmination of a variety of field trips, case studies, and analyses of GIS data about river systems and river restoration options, the students build deep understanding about what alternative futures studies entail and what are the applications of such studies to specific rivers in the Puget Sound area.

Zalles, Dan

158

Is garlic alternative medicine?  

PubMed

Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:16484549

Rivlin, Richard S

2006-03-01

159

State alternative route designations  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

Not Available

1989-07-01

160

State alternative route designations  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

Not Available

1989-07-01

161

MANOVA versus alternative methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a powerful tool in analysing multivariate data of multi-factorial experiments. However one of the assumptions in MANOVA requires the data to be normally distributed. This study concerned with the violation of this assumption, particularly when the data are either moderately non-normal or extremely non-normal. Possible alternative methods of handling such data are (i) permutational MANOVA (PMANOVA) or (ii) analysis of distance (AoD). Both of these alternative methods were compared with MANOVA via Monte Carlo experiments using the power of tests. The experiments focussed on testing interaction effects by incorporating different data types (i.e. having multivariate normal distribution, moderately non-normal and extremely non-normal), three level of inter-variable correlations (low: 0.25, medium: 0.5 and high: 0.75), two designs (small: 3×3 and large: 7×7) and two sample sizes (2 and 5 replicates). Overall, the results revealed that irrespective of the data types and the level of inter-variable correlations MANOVA performed satisfactorily in situations having larger sample size (5 replicates). In these situations, no alternative method is necessary. However, in small design with high inter-variable correlations PMANOVA performed slightly better. In small samples (2 replicates), AoD outperformed both MANOVA and PMANOVA. This is especially true in situation having small sample (2 replicates), large design and highly correlated inter-variables.

Yatim, Bidin; Ismail, Suzilah

2014-12-01

162

Augmented and alternative NLP techniques for augmentative and alternative communication  

E-print Network

Augmented and alternative NLP techniques for augmentative and alternative communication Ann. Techniques which have been used in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) often involve the use 94305, USA aac@csli.stanford.edu Abstract Current communication devices designed for non­speaking users

Copestake, Ann

163

Thermophysical properties  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the fourth quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

Kayser, R.F.

1993-01-01

164

Thermophysical properties  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment, and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. Objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the third quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

Kayser, R.F.

1992-10-01

165

Extending the Alternating Series Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

Katsuura, Hidefumi

2012-01-01

166

Segmental alternations and metrical theory  

E-print Network

This dissertation focuses on phonological alternations that are influenced or constrained by word-internal prosody, i.e. prominence and foot structure, and what these alternations can tell us about metrical theory. Detailed ...

Vaysman, Olga

2009-01-01

167

Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators  

E-print Network

Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

Tang, Sai Chun

168

Rational Formulation of Alternative Fuels using QSPR Methods: Application to Jet Fuels  

E-print Network

Rational Formulation of Alternative Fuels using QSPR Methods: Application to Jet Fuels D.A. Saldana intéressant. Abstract -- Rational Formulation of Alternative Fuels using QSPR (Quantitative Structure Properties Relationship) Methods: Application to Jet Fuels -- Alternative fuels are a promising solution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Complementary and Alternative Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Complementary and alternative medicine encompasses a wide array of interventions, including diets, dietary supplements,\\u000a and herbal products.\\u000a \\u000a • Scientific evidence does not support a substantial role of special diets in the treatment of the majority of patients with\\u000a rheumatic disease, but various dietary manipulations may be beneficial when combined with standard medical therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • Long-term safety of dietary and

Kevin Khaw; Sharon L. Kolasinski

170

An atmospheric alternative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common goal of world governments is to reduce the anthropogenic effect on the global atmosphere within the next 100 to 200 years. But there may be more than one path to that goal, according to three scientists who offered an alternative to the current timetable recommendations of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and other United Nations panels.Current proposals from the IPCC recommend immediate and sizable reductions in carbon-dioxide emissions and a relatively rapid transition away from fossil fuels in order to gradually stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations by 2150.

171

Complementary and Alternative Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a Complementary and alternative therapies are popular and widely used among patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a Marketing and word of mouth, ready availability, and interest in “natural” treatments contribute to their popularity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a ? Scientific basis and clinical trails of most therapies is limited or lacking.

Erin L. Arnold; William J. Arnold

172

Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Mg(x) Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites prepared by polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods: a low-toxicity alternative to Ni(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis and properties of Mg(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 spinel ferrites as a low-toxicity alternative to the technologically significant Ni(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites are reported. Ferrite nanoparticles have been formed through both the polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods that can be readily adapted to industrial scale synthesis to satisfy the demand of a variety of commercial applications. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Mg(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 were studied as a function of composition and particle size. Scanning electron microscopy images show particles synthesised by the aqueous co-precipitation method possess a broad size distribution (i.e. ~ 80-120 nm) with an average diameter of the order of 100 nm ± 20 nm and could be produced in high process yields of up to 25 g l - 1. In contrast, particles synthesised by the polyol-based co-precipitation method possess a narrower size distribution with an average diameter in the 30 nm ± 5 nm range but are limited to smaller yields of ~ 6 g l - 1. Furthermore, the polyol synthesis method was shown to control average particle size by varying the length of the glycol surfactant chain. Particles prepared by both methods are compared with respect to their phase purity, crystal structure, morphology, magnetic properties and microwave properties.

Daigle, A.; Modest, J.; Geiler, A. L.; Gillette, S.; Chen, Y.; Geiler, M.; Hu, B.; Kim, S.; Stopher, K.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.

2011-07-01

173

Asynchronous games: innocence without alternation  

E-print Network

of innocence in non-alternating games. The task is interesting, and far from easy. It requires the combination it contains only alternating plays. The category of alternating strategies introduced by Joyal was later be distinguished from its dual, noted `, by enforcing a switching policy on plays ­ ensuring for instance

Melliès, Paul-André - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et Systèmes, Université Paris 7

174

CALIFORNIA ALTERNATIVE FUELS MARKET ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ALTERNATIVE FUELS MARKET ASSESSMENT 2006 Prepared For: California Energy Commission Yee #12;#12;v ABSTRACT Since 2001, the California Alternative Fuels Market Assessment (formerly's alternative fuels programs. It has been designed to provide a dynamic process for periodic reviews and updates

175

5, 1206712102, 2005 Alternative fuel  

E-print Network

ACPD 5, 12067­12102, 2005 Alternative fuel blends and regional air quality J.-F. Vinuesa et al License. 12067 #12;ACPD 5, 12067­12102, 2005 Alternative fuel blends and regional air quality J to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gaso- line passenger cars (from 50% to 100%) using the three fuel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY College of Engineering  

E-print Network

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY College of Engineering eng.wayne.edu STEERING YOUR WAY INTO A HIGH or registration questions, call (313) 577-3716 or e-mail aet@wayne.edu. Alternative Energy Technology College Energy Technology (AET) curriculum is designed to be a premier program in alternative energy research

Berdichevsky, Victor

177

Insects: A nutritional alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

Dufour, P. A.

1981-01-01

178

Remediation alternatives for low-level herbicide contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

In early 1995, an evaluation of alternatives for remediation of a shallow groundwater plume containing low-levels of an organic herbicide was conducted at BASF Corporation, a petrochemical facility located in Ascension Parish, Louisiana. The contaminated site is located on an undeveloped portion of property within 1/4 mile of the east bank of the Mississippi River near the community of Geismar. Environmental assessment data indicated that about two acres of the thirty acre site had been contaminated from past waste management practices with the herbicide bentazon. Shallow soils and groundwater between 5 to 15 feet in depth were affected. Maximum concentrations of bentazon in groundwater were less than seven parts per million. To identify potentially feasible remediation alternatives, the environmental assessment data, available research, and cost effectiveness were reviewed. After consideration of a preliminary list of alternatives, only two potentially feasible alternatives could be identified. Groundwater pumping, the most commonly used remediation alternative, followed by carbon adsorption treatment was identified as was a new innovative alternative known as vegetative transpiration. This alternative relies on the natural transpiration processes of vegetation to bioremediate organic contaminants. Advantages identified during screening suggest that the transpiration method could be the best remediation alternative to address both economic and environmental factors. An experiment to test critical factors of the vegetatived transpiration alternative with bentazon was recommended before a final decision on feasibility can be made.

Conger, R.M. [BASF Corp., Geismar, LA (United States)

1995-10-01

179

Experimental performance of ozone-safe alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

Several compounds proposed as near-term or longer range substitutes for the regulated chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants were tested in a breadboard vapor-compression circuit, and their performance was evaluated relative to more commonly used refrigerants. The limited physical property information available in the literature for these alternative compounds was used to fit an equation of state so coefficients of performance (COP) and capacities calculated from refrigerant property subroutines could be compared to those obtained experimentally. Comparisons of measured and modeled performance are given for 11 alternatives and for R22, R12, ad R11 Estimates of compressor efficiency with each refrigerant are provided. Several of the alternatives exhibited better performance than the more widely used refrigerants at some or all of the conditions tested. Ozone-safe, alternative refrigerants that performed better than CFC counterparts-at selected conditions are R152a, R143a, R134a, and R142b.

Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Nowak, R.J. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (US))

1990-01-01

180

Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-3 Natrona County, Wyoming. Addendum to 22 August 1996 study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-3  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Natrona County, Wyoming. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and surface rights in 9,321-acre NPR-3. This property comprises the Teapot Dome oil field and related production, processing and other facilities. Discovered in 1914, this field has 632 wells producing 1,807 barrels of oil per day. Production revenues are about $9.5 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 1.3 million barrels of oil. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present.

NONE

1997-05-01

181

Contact alternatives to nickel.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel is a continued health concern internationally. Nickel has been found to be the most prevalent and relevant allergen in tested populations for the last 3 decades. Furthermore, recent data from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group demonstrate positive patch-test reactions to nickel at approximately 19.5% of their tested population and a significant increase in the positivity rates for the last decade (Dermatitis. 2013;24:10-21. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:911-918). Because of the rise in allergic contact dermatitis rates to nickel, the American Contact Dermatitis Society recognized nickel to be the 2008 Allergen of the Year (J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:1067-1069; Dermatitis. 2008;19:3-8). This article recognizes the importance of nickel avoidance and highlights potential alternatives. PMID:24030370

Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Jacob, Sharon E

2013-01-01

182

Electrically conductive alternating copolymers  

DOEpatents

Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

1987-08-31

183

Neuronal Signaling through Alternative Splicing: Some Exons CaRRE...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternative splicing represents a mechanism by which a single gene can be used to create proteins with different functions. Neurons use alternative splicing to produce channels with different sequences and biophysical or regulatory properties. O'Donovan and Darnell discuss a mechanism by which neurons can alter channel splicing in response to neuronal activity through a signal generated by calcium and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase activity.

Kevin J. O'Donovan (The Rockefeller University;Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV); Robert B. Darnell (The Rockefeller University;Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV)

2001-08-07

184

Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

Kobeti?ová, Hana; Galbi?ková, Blanka; Šev?íková, Janka; Soldán, Maroš

2014-12-01

185

Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

1979-01-01

186

Alternative coinitiators applicable to photocurable resin composites.  

PubMed

This review aimed to examine the evolution of the composite resins`s photoinitiator system, with emphasis on those developed in recent years. This review covered literature from 1990 to 2013 and only papers with the key words of interest were included: "coinitiators", "amines", "composite resins", "photopolymerization". The search used full-text papers from PubMed and Science Direct databasis. It was included only English papers, and meeting abstracts and short communications were excluded. Hand search of the references completed the review. A total of 29 articles were studied. Many coinitiators are being researched as an alternative to traditional tertiary amines, particularly in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the final polymer and its biocompatibility with oral tissues. Polymerizable amines, natural compounds, and coinitiators with low toxicity and antiseptic properties were studied, and the results found they would be promising substitutes. These materials must present appropriate concentration and reactivity to obtain adequate physical and mechanical properties and high biocompatibility. However, further in vivo studies are required to verify the performance of these alternative coinitiators in the composite materials, mainly when in contact with oral tissues and the stomatognathic system. PMID:25284513

Bittencourt, Bruna Fortes; Dominguez, John Alexis; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Pinheiro, Luis Antonio; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel

2014-09-01

187

Alternative display and interaction devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While virtual environment systems are typically thought to consist of a head mounted display and a flex-sensing glove, alternative peripheral devices are beginning to be developed in response to application requirements. Three such alternatives are discussed: fingertip sensing gloves, fixed stereoscopic viewers, and counterbalanced head mounted displays. A subset of commercial examples that highlight each alternative is presented as well as a brief discussion of interesting engineering and implementation issues.

Bolas, M. T.; McDowall, I. E.; Mead, R. X.; Lorimer, E. R.; Hackbush, J. E.; Greuel, C.

1995-01-01

188

Alternative fuels and intercity trucking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This assessment of alternative fuels and the intercity trucking sector was jointly sponsored by two groups. Work related to near- and mid-term alternative fuels and general energy-conservation options was done under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its Transportation Energy Conservation activities. Work on far-term alternative fuels was sponsored by the Ryder Program in Transportation of

1978-01-01

189

Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration  

E-print Network

, but commercial and residential sales as well. ALTERNATIVES Faced with the downturn in the economy, a general downturn in the sales of electricity and severe financial duress caused by a large construction program. several alternatives appeared possible..."ELECTRIC RATE ALTERNATIVES TO COGENERATION" K. R. SANDBERG, JR. INDUSTRIAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER - TEXAS GULF STATES UTILITIES COMPANY BEAUMONT, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper discusses electric rate slternatives to cogeneration for the industrisl...

Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

190

Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory of Michigan State University is on the cutting edge of pest control in the Upper Midwest, whether on agricultural or non-agricultural lands, public or private. Visitors interested in seeing the pesky adversaries of the lab, should click on "Bugs of The Lab", on the left hand side of the page, then click on the subcategory "Research Subjects". Along with photos of a dozen pests, including the "Plum Curculio", "Mites", and the "Oblique-Banded Leaf Roller", visitors can read a description of the pest, learn about and see images of the damage they do to specific crops, and discover where they are found on the plant. The Resistant Pest management Newsletter section on the left-hand side of the page has numerous subsections that should be of interest to visitors. Visitors can "Subscribe to the Newsletter" and peruse "Archives of Past Issues". Also interesting is the "Ask an Expert About Resistance Issues" section, which lists ten regions of the earth, and when one of the regions is clicked on, several experts' names pop up with their area of expertise, e-mail, and location. Additionally, anyone who is an expert and qualified, but is not on the list, may have their name added after filling out the "Expert Application", available on the "Ask an Expert..." homepage. All of the experts are volunteers.

191

Diesel Engine Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

Ryan, T

2003-08-24

192

Alternative HTS coated conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of Bi-2223 high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, with acceptable performance for long lengths, has provided the ability to construct a wide range of HTS electric power components. As a result, there are major worldwide projects in developing HTS electric power components for demonstration in a utility environment. Utility acceptance for superconducting power equipment will depend on several key factors: improved system performance, lower life-cycle costs, higher efficiency versus conventional technology, reliability and maintenance comparable to conventional power equipment, and a competitive installed cost. The latter is impacted by the current high cost of HTS conductors, which must be lowered to costs comparable to conventional Nb-Ti wire, i.e., $2-5/kAm. The present performance and cost of state-of-the-art Bi-2223 HTS tape, although acceptable for prototype construction, is viewed as a major deterrent that may compromise eventual commercialization for most of these electric power devices. The so-called second-generation coated conductor development, with emphasis on conductors employing HTS YBCO films, is viewed as the solution to this performance and cost issue. The potential for the Tl, Hg, and Bi-oxide superconductors for producing an HTS tape as alternatives to Bi-2223 PIT (and YBCO) will be discussed with some recent results on Bi-2212 “coated conductor” development.

Blaugher, R. D.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Chen, J.; Padmanabhan, R.

2002-10-01

193

The Alternative Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1975, the Alternative Museum existed in analog form for 25 years, occupying space in New York City, presenting four to six major exhibitions per year. While I was unable to find a definitive statement to this effect at the site, it appears that the Museum has decided to move all current exhibitions to the Web, to expand its reach to millions more art patrons while still remaining true to its original mission: "providing a professional showcase for artists." At the moment, there are five current exhibitions at the site, including Tools as Art: The Hechinger Collection, presenting 25 works that use tools as either subject matter, for example Bernice Abbot's photograph "Spinning Wrench," or as medium, for example, Mark Blumenstein's "Saw Bird." Other current exhibitions are Tourists on the Moon, by Yoshio Itagaki, a collection of photographs that resemble 19th-century, hand-colored tourist photographs, but that are given a 20th-century slant; I-Section: Do-It-Yourself Human Dissection, a Website by Friederike Paetzold; Between the Real and the Unreal, photographs by Simen Johan; and GenoChoice: Create Your Own Genetically Healthy Child Online! by Virgil Wong. Also available is an archive of selected past exhibitions and art depot, the online museum shop.

194

Alternative Compression Garments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

2011-01-01

195

Alternative Certification: Aspirations and Realities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the number of alternative programs is ever increasing, shortages in the number of qualified science teachers continue. These programs have not solved the teacher shortage problem alone, but they should not bear full responsibility. Numerous societal and financial reasons make teaching a less desirable profession. The more contentious issue is whether alternative programs prepare qualified teachers or, in terms of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), "highly qualified" teachers. Initially, the authors believed that alternative programs did not produce competent teachers when they started their review. However, the limited research appears to indicate otherwise. This chapter discusses the aspirations and realities of alternative certification.

Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.

2006-01-01

196

Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin  

MedlinePLUS

... common alternative ways to deliver insulin are insulin pens and insulin pumps. Injection ports, injection aids, and insulin jet injectors are also available. Researchers are developing an artificial ...

197

Introduction to Alternative and Renewable Energy: Alternative Energy- New Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended for use in a college-level introductory course in alternative and renewable energy. The document covers new directions for alternative energy such as thermoacoustics, thermoelectrics, magnetocalorics, sun heat thermochemical storage, liquid metal batteris and fusion. Each technology is described in depth and useful graphics are included to illustrate the material. This module may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2013-07-23

198

Effect of Alternative Distal Residues on the Reactivity of Cytochrome c Peroxidase: Properties of CcP Mutants H52D, H52E, H52N, and H52Q  

PubMed Central

To test the effect of alternative bases at the distal histidine position, four CcP variants have been constructed that substitute the two basic residues, aspartate and glutamate, and their amides, asparagine and glutamine, for histidine-52, i.e., CcP(H52D), CcP(H52E), CcP(H52N), and CcP(H52Q). All four mutants catalyze oxidation of ferrocytochrome c by H2O2 with steady-state activities that are between 250 and 7,700 times slower than wild-type CcP at pH 6.0, 0.10 M ionic strength, 25 °C. The rate of Compound I formation is decreased between 3.5 and 5.4 orders of magnitude for the mutants compared to wild-type CcP, with the rate of the reaction between CcP(H52Q) and H2O2 the slowest yet observed for any CcP mutant. A correlation between the rate of Compound I formation and the rate of HCN binding for CcP and various CcP distal pocket mutants provides strong evidence that the rate-limiting step in CcP Compound I formation is deprotonation of H2O2 within the distal heme pocket under the experimental conditions employed in this study. While CcP(H52E) reacts stoichiometrically with H2O2 to form Compound I, only ~36% of CcP(H52D), ~21% of CcP(H52Q) and ~8% of CcP(H52N) appear to be converted to Compound I during their respective reactions with H2O2. This is partially due to the slow rate of Compound I formation and the rapid endogenous decay of Compound I for these mutants. The pathways for the endogenous decay of Compound I for the four mutants used in this study are distinct from that of wild-type CcP Compound I. PMID:21354339

Foshay, Miriam C.; Vitello, Lidia B.; Erman, James E.

2011-01-01

199

An Alternative in Engineering Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To meet increased technical demands, alternative engineering and technical degree programs are needed, such as four-year programs in engineering technology. A technical college and university in Florence, SC, are collaborating on such a 1+2+1 alternative degree program. (SK)

Garrett, Rick L.

1996-01-01

200

Alternative fuels for road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite nature of global fossil fuel resources underscores the need to develop alternative vehicular fuels. Increased use of renewable and alternative fuels can extend fossil fuel supplies and help resolve air pollution problems inherent in automotive use of conventional fuels. Fuel characteristics, safety implications, feedstocks, infrastructure, fuel production costs, emissions performance, required vehicle modifications, and outlook are described for

Poulton

1994-01-01

201

1987: Alternative energy's watershed year  

Microsoft Academic Search

1987 is a watershed year in shaping the near and long-term future for alternative energy. Major events are taking place that will determine how power will be sold through the end of the 20th century and perhaps beyond. These events may, upon reflection, prove to be history in the making for the alternative energy industry. Some of the changes that

Ganotis

1988-01-01

202

Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical  

E-print Network

Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated Edison.www.gastechnology.org 2 #12;Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated-Battelle for the Department of Energy Subcontract Number: 4000052360 GTI Project Number: 20441 New York State Energy Research

Pennycook, Steve

203

Alternative aircraft fuels technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

Grobman, J.

1976-01-01

204

Our favourite alternative splice site.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is a widespread mechanism in mammals that generates several mRNAs from one gene, thereby creating genetic diversity of the genome. Variant splice patterns are often specific to different stages of development or particular tissues, and alternative splicing defects are being more frequently detected in genetic diseases and cancers. The increasingly important role of alternative splicing in the function and the regulation of cellular process makes it critical to have an easy-to-use data repository for the biological and medical research communities. We have compared web resources that give access to information on alternatively spliced genes, and the FAST DB (Friendly Alternative Splicing and Transcripts DataBase) site came out as our favourite. PMID:16611169

Lerivray, Hubert; Méreau, Agnès; Osborne, H Beverley

2006-05-01

205

Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

1983-01-01

206

Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

Mezey, Paul G.

2015-01-01

207

Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties. A second objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication methods for these materials whereby they can be processed in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions. This paper summarizes a comprehensive study that assessed the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on the stability of air-sinterable chromites and the sintering behavior of doped lanthanum manganites.

Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.

1994-08-01

208

Alternative Reflections on Gravitation  

E-print Network

It is assumed that the primary interaction between two masses m1 and m2 is not attractive as postulated by Newton's law of gravitation, but repulsive. Both m1 and m2 emit and absorb gravitational radiation. Corresponding to the laws of optics the absorption is connected with an impulse transfer that produces the repulsive force. If, however, m1 and m2 are embedded in the gravitational radiation produced by all the masses of the universe the absorption by m1 and m2 leads to a reduction of the intensity of the gravitational radiation between them, thus creating an attractive force exactly as described by Newton's law. The so called universal gravitational constant is no constant. It locally depends on the arrangement of the masses in the universe. It can accept high values which are usually explained by the existence of dark matter. Due to the primary forces of repulsive nature between all masses the expansion of the universe is an intrinsic property. The balance between primary, repulsive and secondary, attractive gravitational forces can stabilize highly concentrated mass accumulations as they are observed in globular clusters and the bulges of galaxies.

Johann Albers

1997-05-31

209

Demagnetization Tests Performed on a Linear Alternator for a Stirling Power Convertor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Demagnetization temperature of a linear alternator (LA) can be accurately predicted through an analytical Maxwell model. The M-H characteristics of the alternator magnets must be known. Vendor data are given for cube-shaped magnets, and the shape of a LA magnet may affect its magnetic properties. At GRC, M-H data are directly measured for each LA magnet. This method was validated using TDC alternator tests on the Alternator Test Rig. The analytical Maxwell modeling was utilized on a different style linear alternator to predict demagnetization temperatures for the Advanced Stirling Convertor.

Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

2011-01-01

210

Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene  

SciTech Connect

In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

2008-11-07

211

NEW CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVES FOR THE PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study that focused on the investigation of fluorinated derivatives of propane and butane to determine if synthesis routes of such compounds were feasible and economical and to measure the physical properties needed to evaluate the compounds as altern...

212

Compost Teas: Alternatives to Traditional Biological Control Agents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many areas of plant production, practitioners are looking for alternatives to synthetic pesticides and commercial biocontrol agents. Compost teas are being extensively used in urban, horticultural and agricultural settings for their fertility and disease control properties. The majority of the ...

213

Making Room for Alternative Routes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several models for fast-track alternative training programs for new and second-career teachers and principals, especially for teaching positions in disadvantaged urban schools. Teach for American program is highlighted. (PKP)

Tell, Carol

2001-01-01

214

Alternative food safety intervention technologies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

215

SAGE--SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE does not recommend any ozone depleting chemicals. SAGE was developed by the Surface Cleaning Program at Research Triang...

216

42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Termination of Medicare Coverage and Alternative Sanctions for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Facilities § 488.606 Alternative sanctions. (a) Basis for application of alternative...

2014-10-01

217

Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering  

E-print Network

Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Handbook 2014-2015 Victoria Heberling, Graduate Program Coordinator Professor Matthew Yates, Director of Alternative Energy #12;University of Rochester Graduate Handbook Alternative Energy updated August, 2013 Department of Chemical

Cantlon, Jessica F.

218

Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering  

E-print Network

Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Handbook 2013-2014 Gina Eagan, Graduate Program Coordinator Professor Matthew Yates, Director of Alternative Energy #12;University of Rochester Graduate Handbook Alternative Energy updated August, 2013 Department of Chemical Engineering Page

Mahon, Bradford Z.

219

State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State  

DOE Data Explorer

This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

220

Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... and Alternative Therapies (PDQ®) Overview Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes a wide variety of therapies, botanicals, nutritional products, and practices. These forms of treatment ...

221

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2012-01-01

222

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2011-01-01

223

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2010-01-01

224

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2013-01-01

225

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2014-01-01

226

7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a...

2012-01-01

227

7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a...

2014-01-01

228

7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a...

2013-01-01

229

7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a...

2011-01-01

230

7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a...

2010-01-01

231

Crashworthiness analysis on alternative square honeycomb structure under axial loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexagonal metal honeycomb is widely used in energy absorption field for its special construction. However, many other metal honeycomb structures also show good energy absorption characteristics. Currently, most of the researches focus on hexagonal honeycomb, while few are performed into different honeycomb structures. Therefore, a new alternative square honeycomb is developed to expand the non-hexagonal metal honeycomb applications in the energy absorption fields with the aim of designing low mass and low volume energy absorbers. The finite element model of alternative square honeycomb is built to analyze its specific energy absorption property. As the diversity of honeycomb structure, the parameterized metal honeycomb finite element analysis program is conducted based on PCL language. That program can automatically create finite element model. Numerical results show that with the same foil thickness and cell length of metal honeycomb, the alternative square has better specific energy absorption than hexagonal honeycomb. Using response surface method, the mathematical formulas of honeycomb crashworthiness properties are obtained and optimization is done to get the maximum specific energy absorption property honeycomb. Optimal results demonstrate that to absorb same energy, alternative square honeycomb can save 10% volume of buffer structure than hexagonal honeycomb can do. This research is significant in providing technical support in the extended application of different honeycomb used as crashworthiness structures, and is absolutely essential in low volume and low mass energy absorber design.

Li, Meng; Deng, Zongquan; Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Rongqiang; Ding, Beichen

2013-07-01

232

Preliminary studies of combustor sensitivity to alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustion problems associated with using alternative fuels ground power and aeropropulsion applications were studied. Rectangular sections designed to simulate large annular combustor test conditions were examined. The effects of using alternative fuels with reduced hydrogen content, increased aromatic content, and a broad variation in fuel property characteristics were also studied. Data of special interest were collected which include: flame radiation characteristics in the various combustor zones; the correponding increase in liner temperature from increased radiant heat flux; the effect of fuel bound nitrogen on oxides of nitrogen (NO sub x) emissions; and the overall total effect of fuel variations on exhaust emissions.

Humenik, F. M.

1980-01-01

233

Advances in alternative cementitious binders  

SciTech Connect

There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

Juenger, M.C.G., E-mail: mjuenger@mail.utexas.edu [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C 1748, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Winnefeld, F. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Provis, J.L. [University of Melbourne, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ideker, J.H. [Oregon State University, School of Civil and Construction Engineering, 220 Owen Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

2011-12-15

234

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With much of the United States becoming interested in the world of organic farming, sustainable agriculture, and related pursuits, it is nice to know that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has a very nice online presence dedicated to alternative farming systems here at the Alternate Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC). The site has been recently redesigned, and visitors can jump right in by looking over the "I Want To" area, where they can locate funding resources, explore the world of aquaculture, and even explore alternative farming methods. After taking a look there, visitors can also browse the site's contents by subject area, including organic production, ecological pest management, and farm energy options.

235

Squaring the Circle: A New Alternative to Alternative-Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many quality assurance systems rely on high-stakes assessment for course certification. Such methods are not as objective as they might appear; they can have detrimental effects on student motivation and may lack relevance to the needs of degree courses increasingly oriented to vocational utility. "Alternative assessment" methods can…

Williams, Peter

2014-01-01

236

Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soil water flux will result in larger increases in soil- adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distribution of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading.

Huntington, T.G.

1996-01-01

237

Two alternative versions of strangeness  

PubMed Central

The concept of strangeness emerged from the low energy phenomenology before the entry of quarks in particle physics. The connection between strangeness and isospin is rather accidental and loose and we recognize later that the definition of strangeness is model-dependent. Indeed, in Gell-Mann’s triplet quark model we realize that there is a simple alternative representation of strangeness. When the concept of generations is incorporated into the quark model we find that only the second alternative version of strangeness remains meaningful, whereas the original one does no longer keep its significance. PMID:18997448

Nishijima, Kazuhikoa

2008-01-01

238

Spent-fuel-storage alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

Not Available

1980-01-01

239

Alternative general-aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

Tomazic, W. A.

1976-01-01

240

Alternative refined Gribov-Zwanziger Lagrangian  

SciTech Connect

We consider the implications of the condensation of a general local Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariant dimension two operator built out of the localizing ghost fields of the Gribov-Zwanziger Lagrangian which is a localized Lagrangian incorporating the Gribov problem in the Landau gauge. For different color tensor projections of the general operator, the properties of a frozen gluon propagator and unenhanced Faddeev-Popov ghost propagator, which are observed in lattice computations, can be reproduced. The alternative possibilities are distinguished by the infrared structure of the propagators of the spin-1 fields, other than those of the gluon and Faddeev-Popov ghost, for which there is no numerical simulation data to compare with yet.

Gracey, J. A. [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, L69 3BX (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

241

Pupils' Alternative Frameworks in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishThe work of Jean Piaget and others on the development of children's thinking, has indicated that far from being the ‘tabula rasa’ of repute, pupils bring to their school learning in science ideas, expectations and beliefs concerning natural phenomena which they have developed to make sense of their own past experiences. These alternate frameworks, in some cases strongly held and

Rosalind Driver

1981-01-01

242

Alternative Careers in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several alternate definitions of "physical education" can be presented to illustrate the fact that changes in name or definition open the way to new opportunities and new ways of thinking of career options. Traditional definitions of physical education have limited it to a profession of teaching in the traditional school system normal children…

Lambert, Charlotte

243

Alternate Energy from the Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to rapid growth of the world's population and more demands for energy, and due to limited amount of fossil fuels (which provide 95 % of the world's energy needs), harnessing of alternate energy sources such as solar and wind power should be considered. In addition to the mountain passes with usually high wind, vast and flat desert areas could

E. Malek

2003-01-01

244

Looking for alternative energy sources.  

PubMed

With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn. PMID:22468274

Gross, Michael

2012-02-21

245

Alternatives for jet engine control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical progress of researches Alternatives for Jet Engine Control is reported. A numerical study employing feedback tensors for optimal control of nonlinear systems was completed. It is believed that these studies are the first of their kind. State regulation, with a decrease in control power is demonstrated. A detailed treatment follows.

Sain, M. K.

1984-01-01

246

Alternatives to Suspension. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suspension from school is directly related to student learning. When students are suspended from school they are deprived of instructional time. Often the students that are suspended most frequently are those behind academically. Principals have worked with their staff to identify several alternatives to school suspension. First and foremost, is…

Walker, Karen

2009-01-01

247

Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

248

Alternatives for jet engine control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control is reported. Extensive numerical testing is included. It is indicated that optimal inputs contribute significantly to the process of calculating tensor approximations for nonlinear systems, and that the resulting approximations may be order-reduced in a systematic way.

Sain, M. K.

1984-01-01

249

The Centre for Alternative Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes operation and activities of The National Center for Alternative Technology (NCAT), built on the site of a former quarry. A major center function involves encouraging and assisting students toward a holistic approach to their environment. Also describes and includes a map of major center exhibits. (JN)

Randle, Joan; Randle, Damian

1983-01-01

250

Alternative Models for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is beset from all sides by criticism, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and prophecies of doom. While the young call for change, the faculty often resist anything that might reduce their privileges and prerogatives. Before alternative models to the present system of higher education can be considered, it is useful to question present…

Caffrey, John G.

251

A Simple Alternative to Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

Potts, Glenda

2010-01-01

252

Some Alternatives to Traditional Shorthand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Salient features and claims of five pen/pencil ABC shorthand systems and one machine system--Landmark (Speedwriting), Stenograph, Quickhand, Stenospeed, Forkner Shorthand, and Stenoscript-- are presented for teachers who wish to consider them as alternatives to symbol systems in order to build larger shorthand enrollments. (TA)

Harwood, Frank

1977-01-01

253

An Alternative to Thought Suppression?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

Boice, Robert

2012-01-01

254

Alternate Theory Formation by Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video tapes of student teachers micro-teaching in a high school biology class were analyzed. Attention was focussed on students' interpretations of data and the teacher's responses to these interpretations. Examples are given of student explanations which teachers find unsatisfactory but which are valid alternatives based on the data available to…

Hanson, R. Keith

255

Alternating projections and coupling slope  

E-print Network

Jan 28, 2014 ... [11,12], pole placement [32], information theory [29], control design [15,16,27], and ..... concrete optimization problems; see [22] for their role in nonsmooth optimization. We mention .... On gradients of functions definable in o-minimal structures. Ann. ... tured tight frames via an alternating projection method.

2014-01-28

256

Alternative energy sources for agriculture  

SciTech Connect

The following energy systems are discussed as alternative sources of energy for agriculture and potential demonstration projects in vocational agriculture programs: solar water heating, solar greenhouse heating, solar crop drying, gasification of wood or crop residues, and methane generation from livestock wastes. 13 references.

Baird, D.

1981-05-01

257

Perspectives on Alternative Assessment Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored classroom assessment reform from four perspectives: technological, cultural, political, and postmodern. Interviewed teachers about their understandings of alternative assessment. Responses of 29 teachers in Ontario, Canada, show how teachers integrated changes into their practices and the successes and obstacles they encountered during…

Hargreaves, Andy; Earl, Lorna; Schmidt, Michele

2002-01-01

258

Alternative Sources of Student Financing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Financial barriers to college attendance that affect women, minorities, low-income, and other nontraditional students are identified, along with alternative sources of student financial aid. Research has suggested that financially-independent students are most vulnerable to fluctuations in aid, and tend to have low incomes, be minority members or…

Cross, Dolores E.

259

Assessment of Alternative Energy Resources  

E-print Network

Assessment of Alternative Energy Resources Rangan Banerjee Energy Systems Engineering IIT Bombay;Ocean thermal energy conversion Temperature gradients between oceans layers Warm surface and cold deep Talk presented at TIFAC 24th January 2005 #12;India- Primary Commercial Energy Hydro 3% Nuclear 1% Oil

Banerjee, Rangan

260

Improving alternatives for environmental impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impact assessment (EIA), in the US, requires an objective and rigorous analysis of alternatives. Yet the choice of alternatives for that analysis can be subjective and arbitrary. Alternatives often reflect narrow project objectives, agency agendas, and predilection toward a proposed action. More environmentally sound alternatives can be overlooked or informally eliminated before the formal analyses in EIA. Public participation

Anne Steinemann

2001-01-01

261

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-05-01

262

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-01-01

263

On the Lower Alternating Integral of Pontryagin in Linear Differential Games of Pursuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article the concept of the lower alternating integral of Pontryagin, which differs from the analogous concept of A. Azamov (MR 83k: 90142), is introduced. The properties of this object are studied in comparison with those of the alternating integral of Pontryagin. A procedure is given for application of the lower alternating integral of Pontryagin to linear differential games of pursuit, with special consideration for the question of using the lower alternating integral of Pontryagin when there are countably many measurements of the phase vector. The results are illustrated in two known differential games: "the boy and the crocodile" and the "control example of Pontryagin."Bibliography: 18 titles.

Nikol'ski?, M. S.

1987-02-01

264

Fracture toughness and impact properties of laminated metal composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminated metal composites consist of alternating metal (or metal matrix composite) layers bonded together. These materials can provide fracture toughness and impact properties superior to those of the component materials. These properties are a function of component material properties, laminate architecture (volume fraction, thickness) and interface properties. Properties are compared for seven lightweight materials.

D. R. Lesuer; R. A. Riddle; R. P. Gogolewski; C. K. Syn; B. J. Cunningham

1996-01-01

265

Fracture toughness and impact properties of laminated metal composites  

SciTech Connect

Laminated metal composites consist of alternating metal (or metal matrix composite) layers bonded together. These materials can provide fracture toughness and impact properties superior to those of the component materials. These properties are a function of component material properties, laminate architecture (volume fraction, thickness) and interface properties. Properties are compared for seven lightweight materials.

Lesuer, D.R.; Riddle, R.A.; Gogolewski, R.P.; Syn, C.K.; Cunningham, B.J.

1996-03-04

266

Fuel properties of cottonseed oil  

SciTech Connect

The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E. [Sakarya Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-11-01

267

Alternative Splicing in Plant Immunity  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) occurs widely in plants and can provide the main source of transcriptome and proteome diversity in an organism. AS functions in a range of physiological processes, including plant disease resistance, but its biological roles and functional mechanisms remain poorly understood. Many plant disease resistance (R) genes undergo AS, and several R genes require alternatively spliced transcripts to produce R proteins that can specifically recognize pathogen invasion. In the finely-tuned process of R protein activation, the truncated isoforms generated by AS may participate in plant disease resistance either by suppressing the negative regulation of initiation of immunity, or by directly engaging in effector-triggered signaling. Although emerging research has shown the functional significance of AS in plant biotic stress responses, many aspects of this topic remain to be understood. Several interesting issues surrounding the AS of R genes, especially regarding its functional roles and regulation, will require innovative techniques and additional research to unravel. PMID:24918296

Yang, Shengming; Tang, Fang; Zhu, Hongyan

2014-01-01

268

The Project on Defense Alternatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Commonwealth Institute's Project on Defense Alternatives (PDA) "offers critical analysis of US [military] policy," promoting the "consideration of the broadest range of defense options" to devise and adapt national and international security policies in the post-Cold War era. The PDA's research and development activities include policy analysis and alternative policy development, as well as technical, historical, and methodological research. This Website provides access to the full text and abstracts of PDA briefing memos, reports, and monographs. The online publications are organized into four sections: US Defense Posture, Global & Regional Issues, Confidence Building Defense, and Opinion & Commentary. In addition, this searchable site provides organizational information, links to related military and defense Websites, and background and commentaries on the first US Quadrennial Defense Review issued by the US Department of Defense.

269

Low-cost stator material for M734 alternators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon steels costing only $0.50 per pound were studied as substitutes for Permalloy used to fabricate two-piece stators for air driven alternators used to power the fuze electronics and to furnish a mechanical arming signature. Nickel-coated M-36 silicon electrical steel is a suitable substitute for the Permalloy which costs $6.00 per pound. However, differences in stamping and drawing properties from

J. E. Fine

1983-01-01

270

Thermal analysis of alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively poor cold-flow properties of monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats (biodiesel) present a major\\u000a obstacle to their development as alternative fuels and extenders for combustion in direct injection compressionignition (diesel)\\u000a engines. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating and cooling curves of methyl soyate (SME), methyl tallowate\\u000a (TME), SME\\/TME admixtures, and winterized SME were analyzed.

Robert O. Dunn

1999-01-01

271

Alternative energy sources. Part A  

SciTech Connect

Proceedings of the 'Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences' held in February 1980, are presented. Papers discuss enhanced oil recovery, tar sands technology,synthetic fuels from coal, production of synthetic fuels from biomass, ethanol from biomass, prospects for photovoltic conversion of solar energy, and the wind energy programme in the USA. One paper has been abstracted separately.

Manassah, J.T. (ed.)

1981-01-01

272

Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

1992-01-01

273

Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents in-depth articles on the main issues affecting the use and usefulness of nuclear energy for peaceful domestic purposes. Topics considered include energy futures (a world study), energy demand-energy supplies, an energy-deficient society, energy shortages, the economics of light water reactors (LWRs), fast breeder reactor economics, international cooperation in the nuclear field, nuclear recycling (costs, savings, safeguards), alternative

K. O. Ott; B. I. Spinrad

1985-01-01

274

Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable

K. O. Ott; B. I. Spinrad

1985-01-01

275

Alternate multiwavelength modelocked fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate alternate mode-locking of three 30-ps pulse trains at three different wavelengths, each at a repetition rate of 3.8 GHz. The successive multiwavelength pulsed operation is reached in an actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser in which an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been introduced. This component plays both the role of intensity modulator and tunable filter.

Jérôme Vasseur; Marc Hanna; John Dudley; Jean-Pierre Goedgebuer

2004-01-01

276

Alternative Financing for Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

Alternative Financing for Energy Efficiency • Eddy Trevino • Matt Golden – – Investor Confidence Project • Josh Briggs – QECBs • Michael Flores – High Performance New Construction • Denise Malloy – Performance Contracting for Public Sector... Improvement Projects ESL-KT-13-12-37 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Texas LoanSTAR Program 12/18/13 Maximizing Energy Efficiency while Protecting the Environment ESL-KT-13-12-37 CATEE 2013: Clean Air...

Trevino, E.

2013-01-01

277

ALTERNATIVE FEED INGREDIENTS FOR PIGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largely due to the demand for grains for the bio-fuel industry, the cost of feed energy will increase worldwide. Therefore, alternative energy supplying pig feed ingredients should be explored, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), field peas, wheat shorts and liquid co-products from the bio-fuel and food industry. The inclusion of DDGS in diets is limited by the fiber

Hans Stein; Kees de Lange

278

Low-cost stator material for M734 alternators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon steels costing only $0.50 per pound were studied as substitutes for Permalloy used to fabricate two-piece stators for air driven alternators used to power the fuze electronics and to furnish a mechanical arming signature. Nickel-coated M-36 silicon electrical steel is a suitable substitute for the Permalloy which costs $6.00 per pound. However, differences in stamping and drawing properties from those of Permalloy affect the end-plate and housing contact surface and the ability to draw the cup that contains the bearing. Production dies must be developed that allow for the stamping and drawing properties of the electrical steel.

Fine, J. E.

1983-03-01

279

Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. The areas covered were: (1) development of a theoretical expression for the rotating ring disk electrode technique; (2) determination of the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; (3) determination of oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoreomethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) which was considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and (4) the measurement of transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures.

Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

1984-01-01

280

Tannin and tannate from the quebracho tree: an eco-friendly alternative for controlling marine biofouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current antifouling coatings are based on toxic compounds that can be harmful to the natural environment. A promising alternative to these compounds is the use of natural products that are non-toxic, but have antifouling properties. Tannins are natural, water-soluble, complex polyphenolic substances, which precipitate proteins and have anticorrosive and antimicrobial properties. In this study, the effect of quebracho tannin as

Miriam Pérez; Mónica García; Guillermo Blustein; Mirta Stupak

2007-01-01

281

76 FR 21673 - Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1904-AC46 Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...related to the use of computer simulations, mathematical methods, and other alternative methods of...

2011-04-18

282

77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination...authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy...authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or...

2012-05-30

283

[Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].  

PubMed

Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension. PMID:10907162

Happle, R

2000-06-01

284

Are There Feasible Alternatives to Laboratory Animals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses several alternatives to the use of laboratory animals in investigating biomedical problems. Alternatives include tissue culture, use of plant and bacterial material, redesigning experiments, and construction of mathematical and computer models. (CS)

Rowan, A. N.

1976-01-01

285

Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...

286

Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Vaginal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Alternative treatments: Alternative treatments may be offered as cancer cures. These treatments have not been proven safe and ... that suggest fraud. Does the method promise to cure all or most cancers? Are you told not to have regular medical ...

287

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

288

7 CFR 959.31 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 959.31 Alternate members. An alternate member of the...

2012-01-01

289

42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...area; and (2) This failure does not jeopardize patient health and safety. (b) Alternative sanctions. The alternative...1) Denial of payment for services furnished to patients first accepted for care after the effective...

2010-10-01

290

7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

2010-01-01

291

42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...area; and (2) This failure does not jeopardize patient health and safety. (b) Alternative sanctions. The alternative...1) Denial of payment for services furnished to patients first accepted for care after the effective...

2011-10-01

292

7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

2011-01-01

293

7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

2014-01-01

294

7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

2013-01-01

295

7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

2012-01-01

296

Alternative fuels for medium-speed diesel engines (AFFMSED) project: slurries, emulsions and blended-fuel extenders; cylinder wear measurements, staged injection. Third research phase final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third year of research activity on an ongoing research, development and demonstration effort to investigate the use of alternative fuels for medium-speed engines is described. Tests were performed using laboratory medium-speed diesel engines to define the ability of these engines to operate on alternative fuels, the fuel property limits that the engines can tolerate, the problems associated with alternative

Q. A. Jr. Baker; J. F. Wakenell; S. Ariga

1983-01-01

297

Towards an Alternative Gravitational Theory  

E-print Network

In 1680 Cassini proposed oval curves as alternative trajectories for the visible planets around the sun. The Cassini ovals were of course overshadow by the Kepler's first law (1609), namely the planets move around the sun describing conic orbits. Here we describe the possibility that the Cassini's idea works at larger or smaller scales. Indeed, we consider the Spiric curves (which are a generalization of the Cassini oval) and present the first steps towards a Spiric gravitational theory. We show that from our formalism an ellipse associated with a planet can be obtained as a particular case.

J. A. Nieto; L. A. Beltrán

2014-05-14

298

Factory Farms and Organic Alternatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Modern farming has helped feed the world, but along the way, the land has suffered, according to this video adapted from the series Race to Save the Planet. When farmers grow too much too fast, topsoil is depleted. Farmers can work around this problem with fertilizers, irrigation, and pesticides, but these create new problems. Pesticides can harm wildlife, linger on fruits and vegetables, or wash into water supplies. Farmers are now finding new approaches to raising food, like diversifying crops, applying organic fertilizers, and finding alternatives to pesticides. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

2010-08-31

299

New Technology and Energy Alternatives  

E-print Network

, which is equal to 1000 watts consumed for one hour. It represents the fuel the uti I ity burns to produce the energy consumed. Peak demand charges are usually based on the highest 30 minute peak demand in kilowatts experienced during a given month... of hours that customer can be interrupted. Knowing your facil ity's type of rate is the basis for finding alternative and energy reducing schemes. This information is available from your uti I ity company. With this brief background, we can discuss...

Lamphere, F. J.

300

Machine translation project alternatives analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

1993-01-01

301

Towards an Alternative Gravitational Theory  

E-print Network

In 1680 Cassini proposed oval curves as alternative trajectories for the visible planets around the sun. The Cassini ovals were of course overshadow by the Kepler's first law (1609), namely the planets move around the sun describing conic orbits. Here we describe the possibility that the Cassini's idea works at larger or smaller scales. Indeed, we consider the Spiric curves (which are a generalization of the Cassini oval) and present the first steps towards a Spiric gravitational theory. We show that from our formalism an ellipse associated with a planet can be obtained as a particular case.

Nieto, J A

2014-01-01

302

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane conversions. This guide may be particularly helpful for organizations that are already using alternative fuels in their vehicles and have an alternative fuel supply or electric charging in place (e.g., golf cart charging stations at most golf courses). On the flip side, experiencing the benefits of using alternative fuels in mowing equipment may encourage organizations to try them in on-road vehicles as well. Whatever the case, alternative fuel commercial lawnmowers are a powerful and cost-effective way to reduce U.S. petroleum dependence and help protect the environment.

Not Available

2011-10-01

303

Alternative future scenarios for marine ecosystems  

E-print Network

Alternative future scenarios for marine ecosystems Summary report C R U #12;#12;1 Alternative Futures for Marine Ecosystems contents Introduction to the AFMEC project 4 Outline of the scenarios 6 How. In this report a set of four distinct Alternative Future Scenarios for Marine Ecosystems (AFMEC) `futures' detail

304

Amending pine bark with alternative substrates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to a number of factors, pine bark supplies have significantly decreased over the past few years. While alternative substrates are being evaluated, many growers are asking if these alternative substrates can be used to stretch existing PB supplies. In this study, two alternative substrates, “Cl...

305

an educational alternative futures wildland planning game  

E-print Network

an educational alternative futures wildland planning game Edward C. Thor James L. Creighton PACIFIC. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Mystic Mountain Game was initially developed for a workshop on alternative futures planning alternative futures wildland planning game. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-30, 8 p., illus. Pacific South- west Forest

Standiford, Richard B.

306

January 31, 2011 Alternative and Renewable Fuel  

E-print Network

the Alternative and Renewable Fuels and Vehicle Technology Program at the Energy Commission to develop and deploy alternative and renewable fuels and advanced transportation technologies. The statute requires the Energy-2012 Investment Plan for the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program can be found at \\http://www.energy

307

Winter Skate Alternative name: Big Skate  

E-print Network

of spines (vent) General Diagram of Skate Anatomy Rosette Skate Alternative name: Leopard Skate Freckled on bottom Three rows of spines on tail Smooth Skate-PROHIBITED Alternative name: Prickly Skate Smooth Tailed disk and tail Tail shorter than body Large thorns on shoulders Clearnose Skate Alternative name: Brier

308

Alternate Keyboards: Technology User in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides information about access to computers through alternate keyboards used by students who have physical impairments. Part 1 describes a typical technology team and the alternate keyboard selection process. Part 2 discusses the practical aspects of everyday teaching and living with an alternate keyboard user and includes…

Heiner, Donna

309

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine  

E-print Network

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz Neve Shalom, October, 2013 Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A for the elementary particle masses. Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;Higgs Discovery; LHC

California at Santa Cruz, University of

310

Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans  

E-print Network

Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans PON-13-603 September 3, 2013 Eligibility Q1 to readiness plans? A1 This solicitation is limited to readiness planning only for alternative fuels. Q2 In regards to PON-13-603 - Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans, is electricity used for transportation

311

Designing Alternatives to State Motor Fuel Taxes  

E-print Network

Designing Alternatives to State Motor Fuel Taxes All states rely on gasoline taxes as one source efficiency and alternative fuel vehicles reduce both the equity of the revenue source and its growth over, leading to higher fuel efficiency, wide variations in fuel efficiency, and alternative- fuel vehicles

Bertini, Robert L.

312

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative 2009 Prof. David Cahen Scientific Director #12;Alternative and Sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI) Weizmann Institute of Science 1 thousands of strains of algae, analyzing their Alternative and Sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI

Maoz, Shahar

313

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative 2010 Prof. David Cahen Scientific Director #12;Alternative and sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI) Weizmann Institute of Science Designer Cellulosomes 28 SSC2010: Solar Student Conference 2010 30 #12;Alternative and sustainable Energy

Maoz, Shahar

314

Alternative Energy Leadership Study Measuring Performance  

E-print Network

Alternative Energy Leadership Study Measuring Performance Through a Multidisciplinary Lens February and a major cause of pollution, scientists and engineers have sought for decades to develop alternative energy to alternative energy-related research is critical for understanding the potential solutions emerging from

Franssen, Michael

315

Syllabus for Chem. 3700 Alternative Energy  

E-print Network

Syllabus for Chem. 3700 Alternative Energy Class Meetings: Tuesdays and Thursdays popular alternative energy sources which are currently being used or developed to help relieve with the most popular alternate energy options. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the topic, the course

Houston, Paul L.

316

Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.  

PubMed

The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical properties. PMID:23925042

de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

2013-08-01

317

Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition  

PubMed Central

The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical properties. PMID:23925042

de Godoy, Maria R. C.; Kerr, Katherine R.; Fahey, George C.

2013-01-01

318

Alternative forms for genomic clines  

PubMed Central

Understanding factors regulating hybrid fitness and gene exchange is a major research challenge for evolutionary biology. Genomic cline analysis has been used to evaluate alternative patterns of introgression, but only two models have been used widely and the approach has generally lacked a hypothesis testing framework for distinguishing effects of selection and drift. I propose two alternative cline models, implement multivariate outlier detection to identify markers associated with hybrid fitness, and simulate hybrid zone dynamics to evaluate the signatures of different modes of selection. Analysis of simulated data shows that previous approaches are prone to false positives (multinomial regression) or relatively insensitive to outlier loci affected by selection (Barton's concordance). The new, theory-based logit-logistic cline model is generally best at detecting loci affecting hybrid fitness. Although some generalizations can be made about different modes of selection, there is no one-to-one correspondence between pattern and process. These new methods will enhance our ability to extract important information about the genetics of reproductive isolation and hybrid fitness. However, much remains to be done to relate statistical patterns to particular evolutionary processes. The methods described here are implemented in a freely available package “HIest” for the R statistical software (CRAN; http://cran.r-project.org/). PMID:23919142

Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

2013-01-01

319

Alternative splicing and retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is highly regulated in tissue-specific and development-specific patterns, and it has been estimated that 15% of disease-causing point mutations affect pre-mRNA splicing. In this review, we consider the cis-acting splice site and trans-acting splicing factor mutations that affect pre-mRNA splicing and contribute to retinal degeneration. Numerous splice site mutations have been identified in retinitis pigmentosa and various cone-rod dystrophies. For example, mutations in alternatively spliced retina-specific exons of the widely expressed RPGR and COL2A1 genes lead primarily to X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and ocular variants of Stickler Syndrome, respectively. Furthermore, mutations in general pre-mRNA splicing factors, such as PRPF31, PRPF8, and PRPF3, predominantly cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. These findings suggest an important role for pre-mRNA splicing in retinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. The development of novel therapeutic strategies to modulate aberrant splicing, including small molecule based therapies, has the potential to lead to the development of new treatments for retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23647439

Liu, Melissa M.; Zack, Donald J.

2014-01-01

320

Alternative cosmology from cusp geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study an alternative geometrical approach on the problem of classical cosmological singularity. It is based on a generalized function f(x,y)=x(2+y^2=(1-z)z^n) which consists of a cusped projected coupled isosurface. Such a projected geometry is computed and analized into the context of Friedmann singularity-free cosmology where a pre-big bang scenario is considered. Assuming that the mechanism of cusp formation is described by non-linear oscillations of a pre- big bang extended very high energy density field (>3x10^{94} kg/m^3$), we show that the action under the gravitational field follows a tautochrone of revolution, understood here as the primary projected geometry that alternatively replaces the Friedmann singularity in the standard big bang theory. As shown here this new approach allows us to interpret the nature of both matter and dark energy from first geometric principles [1]. [1] Rosa et al. DOI: 10.1063/1.4756991

Rosa, Reinaldo; Herbin Stalder Díaz, Diego

321

Alternate Work Location Policy, Page 1 (revised 5/09) Alternate Work Location Agreement  

E-print Network

the employee's current position description and classification. Working at an approved alternate location, and the University of Florida has the right to refuse to assign an alternate location to any employee and by the Alternate Work Location Policy. Conversely, employees have the right to refuse to work at an alternate

Wu, Dapeng Oliver

322

Alternative splicing in regulation of cholesterol homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review With the advent of whole-transcriptome sequencing, or RNA-seq, we now know that alternative splicing is a generalized phenomenon, with nearly all multi-exonic genes subject to alternative splicing. In this review we highlight recent studies examining alternative splicing as a modulator of cellular cholesterol homeostasis, and as an underlying mechanism of dyslipidemia. Recent findings A number of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism are known to undergo functionally relevant alternative splicing. Recently, we have identified coordinated changes in alternative splicing in multiple genes in response to alteration in cellular sterol content. We and others have implicated several splicing factors as regulators of lipid metabolism. Furthermore, a number of cis-acting human gene variants that modulate alternative splicing have been implicated in a variety of human metabolic diseases. Summary Alternative splicing is of importance in various types of genetically influenced dyslipidemias, and in the regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism. PMID:23314925

Medina, Marisa W.; Krauss, Ronald M.

2013-01-01

323

Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato  

SciTech Connect

Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-05-01

324

Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex and interesting electromagnetic behavior can be found in spaces with non-flat topology. When considering the properties of an electromagnetic medium under an arbitrary coordinate transformation an alternative interpretation presents itself. The transformed material property tensors may be interpreted as a different set of material properties in a flat, Cartesian space. We describe the calculation of these material properties for

D. Schurig; J. B. Pendry; D. R. Smith

2006-01-01

325

Aqueous alternatives for metal and composite cleaning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For many years the metalworking industry has cleaned metal and composite substrates with chlorinated solvents. Recently, however, health and disposal related environmental concerns have increased regarding chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, or Freon'. World leaders have instituted a production ban of certain ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) by 1996. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has instituted worker vapor exposure limitations for virtually all of the solvents used in solvent-based cleaners. In addition, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has defined nearly all solvent-based cleaners as 'hazardous'. Cradle to grave waste responsibility is another reason manufacturers are trying to replace chlorinated solvents in their cleaning processes. Because of these factors, there now is a world wide effort to reduce and/or eliminate the use of chlorinated solvents for industrial cleaning. Waterbased cleaners are among the alternatives being offered to the industry. New technology alkaline cleaners are now available that can be used instead of chlorinated solvents in many cleaning processes. These waterbased cleaners reduce the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) by as much as 99 percent. (The definition and method of calculation of VOC's now varies from region to region.) Hazardous waste generation can also be significantly reduced or eliminated with new aqueous technology. This in turn can ease worker exposure restrictions and positively impact the environment. This paper compares the chemical and physical properties of this aqueous cleaners versus chlorinated solvents.

Quitmeyer, Joann

1994-01-01

326

An alternative approach to infrared optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MONTAGE program sponsored by the Microsystems Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) resulted in the demonstration of a novel approach to designing compact imaging systems. This approach was enabled by an unusual four-fold annular lens originally designed and demonstrated for operation exclusively in the visible spectral band. To accomplish DARPA's goal of an ultra-thin imaging system, the folded optic was fabricated by diamond-turning concentric aspheric annular zones on both sides of a CaF2 core. The optical properties of the core material ultimately limit the operating bandwidth of such a design. We present the latest results of an effort to re-engineer and demonstrate the MONTAGE folded optics for imaging across a broad spectral band. The broadband capability is achieved by taking advantage of a new design that substitutes a hollow core configuration for the solid core. Along with enabling additional applications for the folded optics, the hollow-core design offers the potential of reducing weight and cost in comparison to an alternative solid-core design. We present new results characterizing the performance of a lens based on the new design and applied to long-wave infrared imaging.

Morrison, Rick; Stack, Ronald; Euliss, Gary; Athale, Ravindra; Reese, Colin; Vizgaitis, Jay; Stevens, James; Tremblay, Eric; Ford, Joseph

2010-04-01

327

Indigofera suffruticosa: An Alternative Anticancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabeceae) occurs in the Northeast countryside and has intensive popular use in the treatment of infectious, inflammatory and other processes. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion and maceration as well as to evaluate the toxicological properties. Aqueous extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity against HEp-2 (human epidermoid cancer cell) cell lines by MTT method. From the aqueous extract by infusion, the toxicological assay showed low order of toxicity. The antitumor effect of aqueous extracts by infusion (64.53%) and maceration (62.62%) against sarcoma 180 in mice at a dose of 50 mg kg?1 (intraperitoneally), based on low order of toxicity was comparable to the control group, which showed 100% development. Considering the low order of toxicity and that it is highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumors, the aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa may be used as an alternative anticancer agent. PMID:17965767

Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; de Souza, Ivone Antônia; do Nascimento, Silene Carneiro

2007-01-01

328

Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

1985-01-01

329

Alternative approaches to antifungal therapies  

PubMed Central

The expansive use of immunosuppressive medications in fields such as transplantational medicine and oncology, the higher frequency of invasive procedures in an aging population and the HIV/AIDS pandemic have increased the frequency of systemic fungal infections. At the same time, increased resistance of pathogenic fungi to classical antifungal agents has led to sustained research efforts targeting alternative antifungal strategies. In this review, we focus on two promising approaches: cationic peptides and the targeting of fungal virulence factors. Cationic peptides are small, predominantly positively charged protein fragments which exert direct and indirect antifungal activities, one mechanism of action being the permeabilization of the fungal membrane. They include lysozyme, defensins, and cathelicidins, as well as novel synthetic peptides. Amongst fungal virulence factors, the targeting of candidal secreted aspartic proteinases seems to be a particularly promising approach. PMID:23078400

Mehra, T; Köberle, M; Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sanchez, D; Borelli, C; Schaller, M

2012-01-01

330

BASS, an alternative to ETAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The epidemic type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model has been widely used to model the statistics of seismicity. An essential feature of the ETAS model is the concept of generations of aftershocks. A mainshock has primary aftershocks, the primary aftershocks have secondary aftershocks, and so forth. In this paper, we introduce the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model as an alternative to ETAS. The BASS model is fully self-similar whereas the ETAS model is not. Furthermore, the ETAS model requires the specification of branching (parent-daughter) ratios, while the BASS model instead utilizes Båth's law. We also show that the branching statistics in the BASS model are identical to the self-similar Tokunaga statistics of drainage networks.

Turcotte, D. L.; Holliday, J. R.; Rundle, J. B.

2007-06-01

331

Alternative calcination development status report  

SciTech Connect

The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

Boardman, R.D.

1997-12-01

332

Development of alternate silicone potting compounds. Vol. 2. Development of the primary alternate for Dow Corning's Aerospace Sealant, DC 93-119  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substitute for Dow Corning DC 93-119 silicone potting compound can be formulated from Sylgard 184, Dielectric Gel Q3-6527, and accelerator XCF3-6559 to meet goals. Variations in the properties of the minor components, Q3 and accelerator, do not affect the properties of the substitute. Alternate formulations should be evaluated to eliminate the problem of bubble entrapment on assembly.

W. E. Cady; A. T. Buckner

1978-01-01

333

Optimizing biodiesel composition and properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel prepared from vegetable oils, animal fats or other oil-containing materials. While it is technically competitive with conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum, some of its fuel properties still require improvement. This article briefly summarizes the t...

334

Nominalization and Alternations in Biomedical Language  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents data on alternations in the argument structure of common domain-specific verbs and their associated verbal nominalizations in the PennBioIE corpus. Alternation is the term in theoretical linguistics for variations in the surface syntactic form of verbs, e.g. the different forms of stimulate in FSH stimulates follicular development and follicular development is stimulated by FSH. The data is used to assess the implications of alternations for biomedical text mining systems and to test the fit of the sublanguage model to biomedical texts. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined 1,872 tokens of the ten most common domain-specific verbs or their zero-related nouns in the PennBioIE corpus and labelled them for the presence or absence of three alternations. We then annotated the arguments of 746 tokens of the nominalizations related to these verbs and counted alternations related to the presence or absence of arguments and to the syntactic position of non-absent arguments. We found that alternations are quite common both for verbs and for nominalizations. We also found a previously undescribed alternation involving an adjectival present participle. Conclusions/Significance We found that even in this semantically restricted domain, alternations are quite common, and alternations involving nominalizations are exceptionally diverse. Nonetheless, the sublanguage model applies to biomedical language. We also report on a previously undescribed alternation involving an adjectival present participle. PMID:18779866

Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Palmer, Martha; Hunter, Lawrence

2008-01-01

335

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

Not Available

1994-06-01

336

Threshold of SIS Epidemics in Alternate Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the alternate social networks (ASN) model to study the epidemic threshold of SIS epidemic. The alternate social networks consist of a family network and a public network, mimicking the human contacts during some time (nighttime) and other time (daytime) respectively. Both the family network and the public network are constructed by a set of sub networks which can exhibit small-world properties, scale-free degree distribution or the household structure, representing various types of local interactions among social groups in modern society. Simulations show that the ASN has the essential characteristics of social networks, and the local fully connected structures (households) as well as the existence of local structures (publics) in the public network are two dominating ingredients for the epidemic threshold. Moreover, results show that the epidemic threshold in ASN is independent of the initial condition and the system size.

Ni, Shunjiang; Weng, Wenguo; Fan, Weicheng

2008-03-01

337

Regulated functional alternative splicing in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing expands the coding capacity of metazoan genes, and it was largely genetic studies in the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster that established the principle that regulated alternative splicing results in tissue- and stage-specific protein isoforms with different functions in development. Alternative splicing is particularly prominent in germ cells, muscle and the central nervous system where it modulates the expression of various proteins including cell-surface molecules and transcription factors. Studies in flies have given us numerous insights into alternative splicing in terms of upstream regulation, the exquisite diversity of their forms and the key differential cellular functions of alternatively spliced gene products. The current inundation of transcriptome sequencing data from Drosophila provides an unprecedented opportunity to gain a comprehensive view of alternative splicing. PMID:21908400

Venables, Julian P.; Tazi, Jamal; Juge, François

2012-01-01

338

Alternative medicine and the family physician.  

PubMed

The seven categories of alternative medicine, as established by the National Institutes of Health Office of Alternative Medicine, are mind-body interventions, bioelectromagnetic therapies, alternative systems of medical practice, manual healing methods, pharmacologic and biologic treatments, herbal medicine, and diet and nutrition. Mind-body approaches have been shown to be effective in a variety of conditions. Acupuncture and homeopathy are alternative systems of medical practice that may be beneficial. Chiropractic manipulation for low back pain and infant message for enhancing growth are two methods of manual healing. While the literature on herbal medicine is vast, most of it focuses on a single approach for a specific condition. Traditional herbalists use a combination of herbs individualized for the specific person. As more and more people turn to alternative therapies, it is important for family physicians to be open to their patients' interest in alternative approaches. PMID:8940955

Gordon, J S

1996-11-15

339

Comparison of translation loads for standard and alternative genetic codes  

PubMed Central

Background The (almost) universality of the genetic code is one of the most intriguing properties of cellular life. Nevertheless, several variants of the standard genetic code have been observed, which differ in one or several of 64 codon assignments and occur mainly in mitochondrial genomes and in nuclear genomes of some bacterial and eukaryotic parasites. These variants are usually considered to be the result of non-adaptive evolution. It has been shown that the standard genetic code is preferential to randomly assembled codes for its ability to reduce the effects of errors in protein translation. Results Using a genotype-to-phenotype mapping based on a quantitative model of protein folding, we compare the standard genetic code to seven of its naturally occurring variants with respect to the fitness loss associated to mistranslation and mutation. These fitness losses are computed through computer simulations of protein evolution with mutations that are either neutral or lethal, and different mutation biases, which influence the balance between unfolding and misfolding stability. We show that the alternative codes may produce significantly different mutation and translation loads, particularly for genomes evolving with a rather large mutation bias. Most of the alternative genetic codes are found to be disadvantageous to the standard code, in agreement with the view that the change of genetic code is a mutationally driven event. Nevertheless, one of the studied alternative genetic codes is predicted to be preferable to the standard code for a broad range of mutation biases. Conclusions Our results show that, with one exception, the standard genetic code is generally better able to reduce the translation load than the naturally occurring variants studied here. Besides this exception, some of the other alternative genetic codes are predicted to be better adapted for extreme mutation biases. Hence, the fixation of alternative genetic codes might be a neutral or nearly-neutral event in the majority of the cases, but adaptation cannot be excluded for some of the studied cases. PMID:20546599

2010-01-01

340

Alternative therapies for stroke treatment in Asia.  

PubMed

Patients seek alternative therapies for stroke in Asia due to dissatisfaction with poststroke recovery. Most alternative therapies are of unproven benefit in rehabilitation. Well-conducted trials are needed to better define the role of alternative therapies in the process of poststroke recovery; the CHInese Medicine Neuroaid Efficacy on Stroke recovery is ongoing. However, further studies, better health education and rehabilitation services and centers are also required. PMID:22111799

Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Liu, Ming; Misbach, Jusuf; Venketasubramanian, N

2011-12-01

341

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01

342

Design alternatives for barrel shifters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrel shifters are often utilized by embedded digital signal processors and general-purpose processors to manipulate data. This paper examines design alternatives for barrel shifters that perform the following functions: shift right logical, shift right arithmetic, rotate right, shift left logical, shift left arithmetic, and rotate left. Four different barrel shifter designs are presented and compared in terms of area and delay for a variety of operand sizes. This paper also examines techniques for detecting results that overflow and results of zero in parallel with the shift or rotate operation. Several Java programs are developed to generate structural VHDL models for each of the barrel shifters. Synthesis results show that data-reversal barrel shifters have less area and mask-based data-reversal barrel shifters have less delay than other designs. Mask-based data-reversal barrel shifters are especially attractive when overflow and zero detection is also required, since the detection is performed in parallel with the shift or rotate operation.

Pillmeier, Matthew R.; Schulte, Michael J.; Walters, Eugene G., III

2002-12-01

343

3. Sources of Alternative Ontogenies  

E-print Network

Abstract. In the last 25 years, criticism of most theories advanced by Darwin and the neo-Darwinians has increased considerably, and so did their defense. Darwinism has become an ideology, while the most significant theories of Darwin were proven unsupportable. The critics advanced other theories instead of ‘natural selection ’ and the ‘survival of the fittest’. ‘Saltatory ontogeny ’ and ‘epigenesis ’ are such new theories proposed to explain how variations in ontogeny and novelties in evolution are created. They are reviewed again in the present essay that also tries to explain how Darwinians, artificially kept dominant in academia and in granting agencies, are preventing their acceptance. Epigenesis, the mechanism of ontogenies, creates in every generation alternative variations in a saltatory way that enable the organisms to survive in the changing environments as either altricial or precocial forms. The constant production of two such forms and their survival in different environments makes it possible, over a sequence of generations, to introduce changes and establish novelties – the true phenomena of evolution. The saltatory units of evolution remain far-from-stable structures capable of self-organization and self-maintenance (autopoiesis).

Key Words Saltatory Ontogenies; Life Histories; Alternative Forms; Eugene K. Balon

344

Alternative Water Processor Test Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

2013-01-01

345

Alternative Water Processor Test Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

2012-01-01

346

Phytoremediation -- a practical capping alternative  

SciTech Connect

Much literature has been devoted recently to the use of various plant species for the uptake of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Other uses for plants as part of the remediation process are growing in perceived effectiveness. Consequently, this paper deals with two other equally important potential uses of plants to address environmental problems that are just now evolving to the field trial stage: the use of plants to remediate organic pollutants; and the use of plants to control the rainfall-driven leaching of contaminants and the subsequent delivery to underlying groundwater. The traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) approach to capping landfills will be contrasted with the potential benefits of using plants that can balance incoming rainfall with evapotranspiration, as well as plants which can act on organic constituents in soil or sludge by either uptake or by promoting microbial activity in soil. This paper compares traditional RCRA capping costs to those for a phytoremediation capping alternative, whose benefits include significantly lower implementation cost and continued remediation. This paper discusses important elements of a successful approach to phytoremediation including: species selection, implementation techniques, cost-efficient monitoring, regulatory aspects, project timing, and realistic expectations.

Beath, J.M.; Peak, M.J. [ERM-Southwest, Inc., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

347

HFIR spent fuel management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems` Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

1992-10-15

348

Polyandry and alternative mating tactics  

PubMed Central

Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research. PMID:23339236

Neff, Bryan D.; Svensson, Erik I.

2013-01-01

349

Reproductive effects of alternative disinfectants  

SciTech Connect

Organohalides formed through the reaction of chlorine and organic compounds in natural and waste waters pose potential health hazards. For this reason, alternative water disinfectants that do not form organohalides are being investigated with great interest. In this laboratory, the authors have examined the reproductive effects of chloramine and chlorine administered by gavage in Long-Evans rats. Animals were treated for a total of 66 to 76 days. Males were treated for 56 days and females for 14 days prior to breeding and throughout the 10-day breeding period. Females were treated throughout gestation and lactation. Following breeding, the males were necropsied and evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology. Adult females and some pups were necropsied at weaning on postnatal day 21. Other pups were treated postweaning until 28 or 40 days of age. These pups were evaluated for the day of vaginal patency and thyroid hormone levels. No differences were observed between control rats and those rats exposed to up to 5 mg/kg/day chlorine or 10 mg/kg/day chloramine when fertility, viability, litter size, day of eye opening, or day of vaginal patency were evaluated. No alterations in sperm count, sperm direct progressive movement percent motility, or sperm morphology were observed among adult male rats. In addition, male and female reproductive organ weights were comparable to their respective control groups, and no significant histopathologic changes were observed among chlorine- or chloramine-treated male and female rats.

Carlton, B.D.; Barlett, P.; Basaran, A.; Colling, K.; Osis, I.; Smith, M.K.

1986-11-01

350

7 CFR 1218.44 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.44 Alternate...

2010-01-01

351

Alternative large Nc baryons and holography  

E-print Network

In gauge theories in the limit of a large number Nc of colors, baryons are usually described as heavy solitonic objects with mass of order Nc. We discuss an alternative large Nc description both directly in the field theory as well as using holography. In this alternative large Nc limit at least some of the baryons behave like mesons, that is they stay light even at large Nc and their interactions vanish in that limit. For Nc=3 these alternative large Nc baryons are equivalent to the standard baryons. In the holographic description it is manifest that the Regge slopes of mesons and alternative baryons are degenerate.

Carlos Hoyos-Badajoz; Andreas Karch

2009-03-31

352

Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief*  

PubMed Central

This chapter concludes the survey of experimental and clinical data on the analgesic and antitussive properties of codeine and its potential therapeutic alternates. From an evaluation of their effectiveness on the one hand and the side-effects, including tolerance, dependence and abuse liability on the other, it would appear that the therapeutic goals of codeine could be achieved by other substances, except perhaps where analgesia, cough relief, and sedation are required simultaneously. The use of these other substances would, however, result in no particular gain and probably no particular loss. PMID:4898386

Eddy, Nathan B.; Friebel, Hans; Hahn, Klaus-Jürgen; Halbach, Hans

1969-01-01

353

Utiization of alternate fuels in diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments during three years entitled The Utilization of Alternate Fuels in Diesel Engines are summarized. Experiments were designed and test equipment set-up for the purpose of evaluating the use of methanol as a fumigant for light-duty Diesel engine service. The major experimental results were obtained from a multicylinder automotive Diesel engine. However, fundamental studies employing a GC/micro-reactor and a constant volume combustion bomb were also started. The purpose of this work was to measure some of the chemical and physical properties of methanol and methanol-air mixtures. The laminar flame velocity for various mixtures has been measured in the combustion bomb and thermal degradation studies have begun in the GC/micro-reactor. An Oldsmobile 5.7 liter V/8 Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 40% of the fuel energy. The primary objectives of the study were to determine the effect of methanol fumigation on fuel efficiency, smoke, nitric oxide emission, and the occurrence of severe knock. An assessment of the biological activity for samples of the raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract was also made using boh the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test and the B. subtilis Comptest. Generally, methanol fumigation was found to decrease NO emission for all conditions, to have a slight effect on smoke opacity, and to have a beneficial effect on fuel efficiency at higher loads. Also at higher loads, the methanol was found to induce what was defined as knock limited operation. The biological activity of the raw particulate matter was fond to be less than that of its soluble organic extract. However, for both the fumigation of methanol did enhance the biological activity.

Lestz, S.S.

1980-09-01

354

Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

Brown, Michael A.

2010-01-01

355

Alternative to particle dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an alternative to particle dark matter that borrows ingredients of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) while adding new key components. The first new feature is a dark matter fluid, in the form of a scalar field with small equation of state and sound speed. This component is critical in reproducing the success of cold dark matter for the expansion history and the growth of linear perturbations, but does not cluster significantly on nonlinear scales. Instead, the missing mass problem on nonlinear scales is addressed by a modification of the gravitational force law. The force law approximates MOND at large and intermediate accelerations, and therefore reproduces the empirical success of MOND at fitting galactic rotation curves. At ultralow accelerations, the force law reverts to an inverse-square law, albeit with a larger Newton's constant. This latter regime is important in galaxy clusters and is consistent with their observed isothermal profiles, provided the characteristic acceleration scale of MOND is mildly varying with scale or mass, such that it is 12 times higher in clusters than in galaxies. We present an explicit relativistic theory in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field is governed by a Dirac-Born-Infeld action and behaves as a dark matter fluid on large scales. The second scalar field also has single-derivative interactions and mediates a fifth force that modifies gravity on nonlinear scales. Both scalars are coupled to matter via an effective metric that depends locally on the fields. The form of this effective metric implies the equality of the two scalar gravitational potentials, which ensures that lensing and dynamical mass estimates agree. Further work is needed in order to make both the acceleration scale of MOND and the fraction at which gravity reverts to an inverse-square law explicitly dynamical quantities, varying with scale or mass.

Khoury, Justin

2015-01-01

356

Alternating sequential operators from center-surround top-hat transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructing alternating sequential operators is the important way of improving the efficiency of morphological operations for image processing. And, the alternating sequential filters (ASFs), which are constructed by using the morphological opening and closing, have been the important alternating sequential operators of mathematical morphology. However, because the morphological opening and closing operations have the defect of image detail smoothing, ASFs could not perform very well for some detail preserving image processing applications. Center-surround top-hat transform has been proposed through reconstructing the used structuring elements following the properties of image regions, which ensures that the main operations in center-surround top-hat transform could protect some image details; and, the main operations in center-surround top-hat transform achieve the similar function as opening and closing for bright and black feature extraction. Therefore, based on center-surround top-hat transform, some new and effective alternating sequential operators may be constructed. In light of this, a new class of alternating sequential operators with improved performance based on the center-surround top-hat transform is proposed in this paper. The definition and properties of the new alternating sequential operators are given and analyzed. Also, an application of impulsive noise suppression is used to show the improved performance of the new alternating sequential operators comparing with ASFs. Moreover, because the new alternating sequential operators constructed in this paper have some superiorities over ASFs, they could be also widely used in different applications in which the ASFs perform well, which indicates that the new alternating sequential operators may be also a class of useful morphological operators for image analysis.

Bai, Xiangzhi

2013-06-01

357

78 FR 23832 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...discloses the vehicle's alternative fuel and gasoline driving ranges.\\13...that the absence of an alternative fuel range estimate decreases confidence...potential ``upstream emissions'' from fossil-fuel electric plants. Although EPA...

2013-04-23

358

Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn about the properties that will help you identify minerals. If you closed your eyes and tasted different foods, you could probably determine what the foods are by noting properties such as saltiness or sweetness. You can also determine the identity of a mineral by noting different properties. Some properties that help us determine the identy of a mineral are: COLOR, ...

Wood, Mr.

2010-11-14

359

Tonal Alternations and Prosodic Structure in Somali  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the prosody of focalisation in Somali, a cushitic tonal accent language. The Somali nouns undergo many tonal accent alternations according to the discursive contexts. A primary aim of the study is to explain these alternations by assuming that they are triggered by intonative tones. However, very little attention has been devoted to the intonation of Somali. As

David Le Gac

2002-01-01

360

Introduction to complementary, alternative, and traditional therapies.  

PubMed

The use of complementary, alternative, and traditional therapies is increasing in the United States, and patients and their families are bringing these practices into the acute care setting. Acute and critical care nurses are in a unique and trusted position to advocate for their patients and to promote safe incorporation of complementary, alternative, and traditional therapies into the plan of care. PMID:25452409

Kramlich, Debra

2014-12-01

361

The Unmet Promise of Alternatives to Incarceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A careful review of the research literature on alternatives to incarcera tion suggests that their promise of reducing the prison population has remained largely unmet. For each of the reform strategies reviewed, the nonincarcerative options were transformed, serving criminal jus tice system values and goals other than reducing imprisonment. Sen tencing alternatives, such as restitution and community service, were found

James Austin; Barry Krisberg

1982-01-01

362

Alternative automotive engines and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential ability of alternatives to the internal combustion engine (ICE) to contribute towards the dual goals of reduction in the power consumed by the United States passenger car fleet and reduction in air pollutant emissions is assessed. The principal advantages and limitations of a variety of alternative engines are identified, including the Wankel spark-ignition engine, the carbureted prechamber stratified

J. B. Heywood; L. H. Linden

1976-01-01

363

Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

364

Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources,  

E-print Network

Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios #12;#12;TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Alternative FuelFUELS Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 2013

365

Requirements, possible alternatives & international NEUTRON SCATTERING  

E-print Network

Requirements, possible alternatives & international NEUTRON SCATTERING DETECTORS for Rob Dimeo NIST neutron scattering instruments are the most demanding require background low #12;#12;The Helium-3 Supply Crisis ­ Alternative Techniques to Helium-3 based Detectors for Neutron Scattering Applications

Dimeo, Robert M.

366

Alternative Fuels Data Center (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

Not Available

2013-07-01

367

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS  

E-print Network

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS MARC LACKENBY with an appendix by Ian Agol volume ­ can be estimated directly from its alternating diagram. A bigon region in a link diagram is the following rather surprising result, which asserts that the link complement's hyperbolic volume is, up

Lackenby, Marc

368

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS  

E-print Network

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS MARC LACKENBY with an appendix by Ian Agol volume - can be estimated directly from its alternating diagram. A bigon region in a link diagram is the following rather surprising result, which asserts that the link complement's hyperbolic volume is, up

Lackenby, Marc

369

Alternative Setting-Wide Positive Behavior Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has an established evidence base in general education settings, and emerging evidence suggests that SWPBS may be effective in alternative settings (e.g., alternative, residential, or hospital schools; psychiatric hospitals). Given the intense educational and behavioral needs of students typically…

Simonsen, Brandi; Jeffrey-Pearsall, Jennifer; Sugai, George; McCurdy, Barry

2011-01-01

370

Optimization methods for alternative energy system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal

Michael Henry Reinhardt

2000-01-01

371

UNM Alternative Spring Break Participant Application  

E-print Network

Break program. In order to be eligible, applicants must be full time students for the 2012 by Money Order or Cashier's Check. Your payment will cover the cost of air fare, meals, and lodging. Ground payments made to Alternative Spring Break are non-refundable. ALCOHOL AND ILLEGAL DRUGS POLICY Alternative

New Mexico, University of

372

UNM Alternative Spring Break Participant Application  

E-print Network

in the Alternative Spring Break program. In order to be eligible, applicants must be full time students be paid by Money Order or Cashier's Check. Your payment will cover the cost of air fare, meals AND ILLEGAL DRUGS POLICY Alternative Spring Break is a unique experience that allows participants to immerse

New Mexico, University of

373

Alternative Learning Environments in the Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines a program utilized in the Countryside School which offers alternative learning environments in the elementary school. The program includes (1) semi-departmentalization; (2) team teaching; and (3) an open-alternatives program. Each of these areas is outlined and fully discussed in terms of student and parent needs. (YRJ)

Davis, Eugene D.

374

Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the recent interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), some patients may seek such treatments to supplement their traditional glaucoma management. The prevalence of CAM use for glaucoma is approximately 5%. We reviewed the literature to determine the potential benefit of various alternative treatments. Aside from a temporary osmotic effect from high dose intravenous ascorbic acid, there is no

Douglas J Rhee; L. Jay Katz; George L Spaeth; Jonathan S Myers

2001-01-01

375

Effect of alternative fuels on aftertreatment device  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that globally, alternative fuels have attained the center of attention in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. A lot of research has been conducted on the alternative fuels in the automotive industry pertaining to the sustainability, engine performance and the emission characteristics. ^ The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of

Bunpreet Singh

2010-01-01

376

30 CFR 75.1506 - Refuge alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...event in a secure space and an isolated atmosphere that states have approved and those...deploy in a secure space with an isolated atmosphere that MSHA has accepted in approved...use of the refuge alternative, the atmosphere within the refuge alternative...

2011-07-01

377

30 CFR 75.1506 - Refuge alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...event in a secure space and an isolated atmosphere that states have approved and those...deploy in a secure space with an isolated atmosphere that MSHA has accepted in approved...use of the refuge alternative, the atmosphere within the refuge alternative...

2014-07-01

378

Responding to Alternative Conceptions in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how students' alternative conceptions about curriculum topics interfere with classroom learning. Describes the Royal Society of Chemistry's Teacher Fellowship Project entitled "Challenging Misconceptions in the Classroom," which develops classroom materials to diagnose and challenge specific alternative conceptions. Uses key ideas of how…

Taber, Keith S.

2003-01-01

379

Realistic ocean energy alternatives to fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Commission on Ocean Policy endorsed the Administrations complete dependence on fossil fuels as the primary energy source for the nation. Two very significant alternatives were rejected or neglected. The first alternative was sea based semi submerged nuclear power plant ships deployed in a line paralleling the coastline of the United States. The US has developed and deployed hundreds

John Piña Craven

2005-01-01

380

Alternatives in intimacy, marriage, and family lifestyles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated a sample of southern Black students' willingness to engage in 16 alternative intimacy, marriage, and family forms and examined the relation between demographic, familial, and social psychological variables and alternative lifestyles chosen. Data were obtained from a random sample of 230 Black students of marriageable age. In general, the subjects expressed relatively less willingness to experiment with

V. V. Prakasa Rao; V. Nandini Rao

1980-01-01

381

Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy  

E-print Network

Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy storage technologies and what the future may hold for multi-scale storage applications Presented by: Dave Lucero, Director Alternative Energy · Industry initiatives · Technology · Energy Storage Market · EaglePicher initiatives · Summary #12

382

Alternative drive solutions for the cement industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cement industry many critical applications like kiln drives, apron and belt feeders drives, feeder breaker drives, reclaimers and excavators drives, inching drives, grinder drives etc. have seen an increased popularity of a direct hydraulic drive as an alternative to electromechanical drives. This paper explains advantages and comparison between various alternative drives based on performance, efficiency, reliability, and flexibility

A. B. Amin

2002-01-01

383

Alternatives to Suspension: A Government Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student discipline and the ineffectiveness of out-of-school suspension is examined in light of the Ontario (Canada) legislative reform that supported a greater emphasis on progressive discipline alternatives to out-of-school suspension. Alternative discipline herein is explored via the behavior education plan, the school survival group, and…

Ryan, Thomas G.; Zoldy, Scott

2011-01-01

384

Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

Roizen, Nancy J.

2005-01-01

385

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine  

E-print Network

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A tension between naturalness and simplicity The decades prior the appearance of a single Higgs particle, with a mass not much above the LEP exclusions. In high energy physics

California at Santa Cruz, University of

386

ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING SOLVENT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

There are economic and regulatory incentives for considering alternatives to the direct land disposal of solvent-bearing hazardous waste streams (EPA Hazardous Waste Codes: F001, F002, F003, F004, and F005). These alternatives include recycle/reuse (including use as a fuel substi...

387

Simultaneous Simulation of Alternative System Configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulationto obtainreliabilityandavailabilityestimates has been widely used by system designers to evaluate and compare alternative choices before making design deci- sions. However, traditionally that approach worked only if significant computer resources were available or designers accepted a significant time delay between design iterations. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to com- pute measures of interest for a family of

Shravan Gaonkar; William H. Sanders

2005-01-01

388

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996  

SciTech Connect

Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

NONE

1997-12-01

389

Alternatives for Financing Higher Education Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How state governments should finance public college and university facilities is discussed. A framework for analyzing the capital financing alternatives available to state governments is described. Several alternatives in Arizona--including state appropriations, leasing, and revenue bonding--are considered as an illustration. (Author/MLW)

Leslie, Larry L.; Felix, Frank J.

1980-01-01

390

Twosided and Alternating Jacobi--Davidson  

E-print Network

Two­sided and Alternating Jacobi--Davidson by Michiel E. Hochstenbach and Gerard L. G. Sleijpen­SIDED AND ALTERNATING JACOBI--DAVIDSON MICHIEL E. HOCHSTENBACH # AND GERARD L. G. SLEIJPEN # Abstract. We discuss two variants of a two­sided Jacobi--Davidson method, which have asymp­ totically cubic convergence

Sleijpen, Gerard

391

Emptiness of Linear Weak Alternating Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automata-theoretic approach to model checking requires two basic ingre- dients: a translation from logic to automata, and an algorithm for checking lan- guage emptiness. LTL model checking has traditionally been based on (general- ized) B¨ uchi automata. Weak alternating automata provide an attractive alternative because there is an elegant and linear-time translation from LTL. However, due to their intricate

Stephan Merz; Ali Sezgin

392

School Counseling in Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disciplinary alternative education programs (DAEP) service many students; however, limited literature is published for school counselors working in these schools. Therefore, this manuscript provides a conceptual foundation for counselors working with students attending DAEPs. Specifically, the manuscript (a) reviews the types of alternative

Mullen, Patrick R.; Lambie, Glenn W.

2013-01-01

393

Potential demand for alternative fuel vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the potential demand for alternative fuel vehicles. The alternative fuel vehicles we consider are liquid propane gas and electric powered vehicles in addition to dual-fuel vehicles. The data were obtained from a stated preference survey in which each respondent, in a randomly selected sample, was exposed to 15 experiments. In each experiment the respondents were asked to

John K. Dagsvik; Tom Wennemo; Dag G. Wetterwald; Rolf Aaberge

2002-01-01

394

Promoting Excellence: Some Classroom Evaluation Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a brief overview of literature on excellence in the classroom, the shortcomings of objective tests as means for evaluating classroom excellence are discussed as well as the need for evaluation alternatives. Descriptions are given of evaluation alternatives, some of which focus upon reading and writing achievement: (1) observation of…

Sia, Archibald P.; Sydnor, Darlean

395

Methyl bromide alternatives being identified in Georgia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has become clear that the price and availability of methyl bromide (MB) will soon limit its use on Georgia farms. MB alternatives for many diseases and nematodes do exist. Recent research has focused on nutsedge response to MB alternatives in conjunction with various types of mulch. A study was c...

396

Alternative Energy Options for Antarctic Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique problems of designing an alternative energy system for the Australian and French Antarctic research stations and the possible options that can be pursued to obtain a clean, efficient, safe and reliable energy system. The adoption of the alternative systems will rely on the further technological and commercial development of equipment

John Steel; Antoine Guichard

397

Alternative Energy and Remote Power Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Alaska, ABS Alaskan provides batteries, alternative energy and remote and power products. The site contains a Library link, where users can explore a basic power system diagram, visit the document download center, and find information explaining alternative energy and power systems.

2008-09-30

398

ALTERNATIVE SEWER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The problem of sewering small communities is generally one of prohibitive economics. In response to this problem alternative sewering methods which are lower in cost than conventional gravity sewers have been developed over the past two decades. The major alternative sewering met...

399

Economic Analysis of Alternative Fuel School Buses  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Cities final report provides a general idea of the potential economic impacts of choosing alternative fuels for school bus fleets. It provides information on different school bus types, as well as analysis of the three main types of alternative fuel used in school bus fleets today (natural gas, propane, and biodiesel).

Laughlin, M.

2004-04-01

400

Alternative Strategies for Pricing Home Work Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses techniques for measuring the value of home work time. Estimates obtained using the reservation wage technique are contrasted with market alternative estimates derived with the same data set. Findings suggest that the market alternative cost method understates the true value of a woman's home time to the household. (JOW)

Zick, Cathleen D.; Bryant, W. Keith

1983-01-01

401

Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands  

SciTech Connect

All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

Pytlinski, J.T. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico))

1992-01-01

402

Larsen's Alternative-1 Larsen's Alternative, Moments, and the Monodromy of Lefschetz  

E-print Network

Larsen's Alternative-1 Larsen's Alternative, Moments, and the Monodromy of Lefschetz Pencils between SL(V) and GL(V), or that G is one of SO(V) or O(V) or (if dim(V) is even) Sp(V). Larsen hypersurface sections of degree d. By its monodromy group Gd, we mean the #12;Larsen's Alternative-2 Zariski

Katz, Nicholas M.

403

Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

Not Available

1980-06-01

404

Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.  

PubMed

The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis. PMID:20033403

Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2010-02-01

405

The Alternative Low Noise Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 106 bladed fan with a design takeoff tip speed of 1100 ft/sec was hypothesized as reducing perceived noise because of the shift of the blade passing harmonics to frequencies beyond the perceived noise rating range. A 22 in. model of this Alternative Low Noise Fan, ALNF, was tested in the NASA Glenn 9x 15 Wind Tunnel. 'Me fan was tested with a 7 vane long chord stator assembly and a 70 vane conventional stator assembly in both hard and acoustically treated configurations. In addition a partially treated 7 vane configuration was tested wherein the acoustic material between the 7 long chord stators was made inactive. The noise data from the 106 bladed fan with 7 long chord stators in a hard configuration was shown to be around 4 EPNdB quieter than a low tip speed Allison fan at takeoff and around 5 EPNdB quieter at approach. Although the tone noise behaved as hypothesized, the majority of this noise reduction was from reduced broadband noise related to the large number of rotor blades. This 106 bladed ALNF is a research fan designed to push the technology limits and as such is probably not a practical device with present materials technology. However, a low tip speed fan with around 50 blades would be a practical device and calculations indicate that it could be 2 to 3 EPNdB quieter at takeoff and 3 to 4 EPNdB quieter at approach than the Allison fan. 7 vane data compared with 70 vane data indicated that the tone noise was controlled by rotor wake-stator interaction but that the broadband noise is probably controlled by the interaction of the rotor with incoming flows. A possible multiple pure tone noise reduction technique for a fan/acoustic treatment system was identified. The data from the fully treated configuration showed significant noise reductions over a large frequency range thereby providing a real tribute to this bulk absorber treatment design. The tone noise data with the partially treated 7 vane configuration indicated that acoustic material in the source noise generation region may be more effective than similar material outside of the generation region.

Dittmar, James H.; Elliott, David M.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Moore, Royce D.; Parrott, Tony L.

2000-01-01

406

Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis used to evaluate the energy and emission impact of two pathways of alternative energy development. The results show that China can only meets its 2015 and 2020 targets for non-fossil penetration if it successfully achieves all of its capacity targets for 2020 with continued expansion through 2030. To achieve this level of alternative generation, significant amounts of raw materials including 235 Mt of concrete, 54 Mt of steel, 5 Mt of copper along with 3 billion tons of water and 64 thousand square kilometers of land are needed. China’s alternative energy supply will likely have relatively high average energy output to fossil fuel input ratio of 42 declining to 26 over time, but this ratio is largely skewed by nuclear and hydropower capacity. With successful alternative energy development, 32% of China’s electricity and 21% of its total primary energy will be supplied by alternative energy by 2030. Compared to the counterfactual baseline in which alternative energy development stumbles and China does not meet its capacity targets until 2030, alternative energy development can displace 175 Mtce of coal inputs per year and 2080 Mtce cumulatively from power generation by 2030. In carbon terms, this translates into 5520 Mt of displaced CO{sub 2} emissions over the twenty year period, with more than half coming from expanded nuclear and wind power generation. These results illustrate the critical role that alternative energy development can play alongside energy efficiency in reducing China’s energy-related carbon emissions.

Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

2011-06-15

407

Effect Of Alternative Fuels On Aftertreatment Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

EFFECT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS ON THE AFTERTREATMENT DEVICE.\\u000aby\\u000aBUNPREET SINGH\\u000aDec 2010\\u000aAdvisor: \\u0009Dr. Dinu Taraza\\u000aMajor:\\u0009\\u0009Mechanical Engineering\\u000aDegree:\\u0009Master of Science\\u000aThere is no doubt that globally, alternative fuels have attained the center of attention in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. A lot of research has been conducted on the alternative fuels in the

Bunpreet Singh

2010-01-01

408

Can scientific medicine incorporate alternative medicine?  

PubMed

The authors examine the problem of defining alternative medicine, and after a brief analysis conclude that a satisfactory unifying definition of the different practices is not possible. Scientific knowledge is a function of scientific method. In turn the principle of falsifiability proposed by Karl Popper is used as a demarcation line between science and pseudoscience. They assert that the various alternative modalities do not represent authentic scientific disciplines, as they lack many of the minimum requirements of scientific discourse and, above all, because they violate the principle of falsifiability. Until they overcome these methodological shortcomings, alternative medical practices cannot become authentic scientific disciplines. PMID:10890333

Federspil, G; Vettor, R

2000-06-01

409

Alternative Dispute Resolution: A Resource Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the US Department of Personnel Management, Alternative Dispute Resolution: A Resource Guide is a seven-chapter comprehensive manual that considers the ways in which various government agencies resolve disputes. Chapter one, organized alphabetically by agency name, examines the dispute tactics used by these agencies. The second chapter looks at the alternative dispute resolution practices within these agencies. Other sections include "Shared Neutrals Program" and "Administrative Appeals Agencies." The site also features Alternative Dispute Resolutions training and assistance sources and Websites, as well as an annotated bibliography.

2007-05-22

410

Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

2009-01-01

411

Microbial Populations And Enzyme Activities in Soils Fumigated With Methyl Bromide Alternatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Except for approved critical uses, methyl bromide (MeBr) use for soil fumigation will be banned in 2005 due to its ozone depleting properties. Potential alternative chemicals to replace methyl bromide include chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), iodomethane (IM), and propargyl bromide (Pr...

412

An empirical correlation and rating charts for the performance of adiabatic capillary tubes with alternative refrigerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the phaseout of conventional refrigerants, refrigeration and air conditioning systems must be redesigned to improve system performance and reliability with alternative refrigerants. In this study, a generalized correlation for the prediction of refrigerant flow rate through adiabatic capillary tubes is developed by generating dimensionless parameters for operating conditions, capillary tube geometry, and refrigerant properties using the Buckingham Pi theorem.

Jongmin Choi; Yongchan Kim; Jin Taek Chung

2004-01-01

413

Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and\\/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor

Ricky James; Declan P Naughton; Andrea Petróczi

2010-01-01

414

Review of methanol and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as alternative for transportation fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern over the environment and a potential oil shortage has resulted in an intensified research for alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Two fuels given strong consideration are methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper is a comprehensive comparative study of methanol and CNG as transportation fuels. The physical properties of methanol and CNG are discussed. The various concerns,

P. Gandhidasan; A. Ertas; E. E. Anderson

1991-01-01

415

Alternating Minimization Algorithm for Quantitative Differential-Interference Contrast (DIC) Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new iterative algorithm for quantitative image reconstruction for differential-interference contrast (DIC) mi- croscopy is presented, along with simulations demonstrating key properties of the algorithm. The algorithm is an alternating minimization (AM) algorithm based on a diffraction imaging model for DIC images. The algorithm computes a specimen's complex transmittance function (magnitude and phase) from the DIC images. This new method

Joseph A. O'Sullivan; Chrysanthe Preza

416

Rheumatoid Arthritis and Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... et al. Biological basis for the use of botanicals in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: e-CAM . 2005;2(3):301–308. Cameron ...

417

20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...General. If you reach age 62 after 1978 but before...insurance amount under the old-start method...alternative method applies only to old-age insurance benefits...

2010-04-01

418

20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...General. If you reach age 62 after 1978 but before...insurance amount under the old-start method...alternative method applies only to old-age insurance benefits...

2014-04-01

419

20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...General. If you reach age 62 after 1978 but before...insurance amount under the old-start method...alternative method applies only to old-age insurance benefits...

2011-04-01

420

20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...General. If you reach age 62 after 1978 but before...insurance amount under the old-start method...alternative method applies only to old-age insurance benefits...

2012-04-01

421

20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...General. If you reach age 62 after 1978 but before...insurance amount under the old-start method...alternative method applies only to old-age insurance benefits...

2013-04-01

422

ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION FOR SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) developed by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc., was evaluated for a 2-year period. CE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous...

423

46 CFR 107.205 - Alternate compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...107.205 Section 107.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.205 Alternate...

2010-10-01

424

World futures: A critical analysis of alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews and analyzes the future studies on multiple issues (food, population, economics, resources, values and political structures). It shows how differences arise from alternative world views, competing methodologies and theories, and contradictory evidence.

Hughes, B.B.

1985-01-01

425

An alternative to the Schwarzschild Christian Corda  

E-print Network

Research, P. O. Box 1577, Palm Harbor, FL 34682, USA and Associazione Galileo Galilei, Via Buozzi 47, 59100 PRATO, Italy E­mail addresses: cordac.galilei@gmail.com Abstract We propose an alternative to the famous

426

Using Cooperative Learning To Facilitate Alternative Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses alternative assessment in the language classroom, provides examples of seven cooperative assessment activities: correcting individual quizzes and homework, observing students at work, interviews, peer composition, oral presentations, group projects, and group processing. (Author/VWL)

Ghaith, Ghazi

2002-01-01

427

7 CFR 945.29 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 945.29 Alternate members....

2013-01-01

428

7 CFR 945.29 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 945.29 Alternate members....

2011-01-01

429

Wind Power Integration: Exploring Impacts and Alternatives  

E-print Network

Wind Power Integration: Exploring Impacts and Alternatives Assist. Prof. C sustainable sources of energy. The idea of harnessing wind energy has been and also for destabilizing the existing power system. Over the past decade

Walter, M.Todd

430

30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43...

2013-07-01

431

30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43...

2010-07-01

432

30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43...

2011-07-01

433

30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43...

2014-07-01

434

30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43...

2012-07-01

435

Alternating Current Jee-Hwan Ryu  

E-print Network

and Education MEC240 Korea University of Technology and Education (Direct Current) #12;Korea University of Technology and Education (Alternating Current) Korea University of Technology and Education Why AC ? , , , #12;Korea University of Technology and Education

Ryu, Jee-Hwan

436

Alternating Current Circuit Jee-Hwan Ryu  

E-print Network

of Technology and Education EFS161 Korea University of Technology and Education (Direct Current) #12;Korea University of Technology and Education (Alternating Current) Korea University of Technology and Education Why AC ? , , , #12;Korea University of Technology and Education

Ryu, Jee-Hwan

437

Alternative fulfillment operations and vendor analysis  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of quantitative methods to strategically plan the SKU make-up and operational aspects of Amazon's Alternative Fulfillment Sites (AFS). AFSs are smaller Fulfillment Centers (FCs) that ...

Ogundele, Tope (Temitope)

2013-01-01

438

Alternative Programs and Desegregation in Flint, Michigan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the results of the Flint, Michigan Board of Education's decision to include extensive development of alternative programs as part of the Quality Education/Desegregation Plan developed for the Flint schools. (Author/RK)

Kugler, Marianne Russell

1978-01-01

439

INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

440

Private Education Alternatives and State Regulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses rapid growth of underground educational movements, particularly of unapproved home schooling and fundamentalist Christian schools. Reviews existing state regulation of private education, its constitutional and policy implications, and offers alternative recommendations concerning compulsory attendance laws. An appendix lists basic…

Lines, Patricia M.

1983-01-01

441

DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVES TO PLASTIC MULCH  

EPA Science Inventory

We propose a project to raise awareness of pollution associated with the production, use and disposal of plastic films/ sheeting used as mulch, and to work with farmers and industry partners to develop a biodegradable, sustainable alternative to plastic mulch. ...

442

7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 930.28 Alternate members....

2010-01-01

443

27 CFR 19.930 - Alternating proprietorship.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Name or trade name; (2) Alcohol fuel plant permit number...alternation journal. Fuel alcohol may be either transferred...5000.18) to continue in effect the operations bond covering...quantity of spirits and fuel alcohol transferred will be...

2010-04-01

444

40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.26 Alternative provisions. The Administrator may, by rule, substitute for any of the...

2012-07-01

445

40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.26 Alternative provisions. The Administrator may, by rule, substitute for any of the...

2010-07-01

446

40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.26 Alternative provisions. The Administrator may, by rule, substitute for any of the...

2011-07-01

447

40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.26 Alternative provisions. The Administrator may, by rule, substitute for any of the...

2013-07-01

448

40 CFR 191.26 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.26 Alternative provisions. The Administrator may, by rule, substitute for any of the...

2014-07-01

449

Choosing transportation alternatives for highly perishable goods  

E-print Network

The selection of a transportation alternative to ship perishable goods is dependent on several interconnected factors, the most important usually being speed of delivery. This study focuses on the distribution operation ...

Bourassa, P. Louis (Pierre Louis)

2006-01-01

450

Partnership in Urban Education: An Alternative School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article considered a book which is, in a measure, a case study of a large Philadelphia high school spinning off some alternative units in an attempt to humanize learning for its predominantly black student population. (Author/RK)

Oliver, Albert I.

1975-01-01

451

Alternative profit scorecards for revolving credit   

E-print Network

The aim of this PhD project is to design profit scorecards for a revolving credit using alternative measures of profit that have not been considered in previous research. The data set consists of customers from a lending ...

Sanchez Barrios, Luis Javier; Sanchez, Luis Javier; Barrios, Luis Javier Barrios

2013-07-03

452

DISTRIBUTION REQUEST FORM FICA ALTERNATIVE PLAN FOR  

E-print Network

DISTRIBUTION REQUEST FORM FICA ALTERNATIVE PLAN FOR UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA INSTRUCTIONS for tax purposes in January of the year after your distribution. 1) PARTICIPANT INFORMATION NAME FOR DISTRIBUTION (Mark one) _____Termination _____Retirement _____Disability _____Death* *Note: In the event

Meyers, Steven D.

453

OZONE PRECURSOR EMISSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVELY FUELED VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Smog chamber tests were conducted using automobile exhaust gas generated during emission tests with a group of alternatively fueled vehicles. he tests were designed to evaluate the photochemical characteristics of organic emissions from vehicles operating on compressed natural ga...

454

Analysis of four alternative energy mutual funds.  

E-print Network

??We analyze four alternative energy mutual funds using a multi-factor capital asset pricing model with generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic errors (CAPM-GARCH). Our findings will help… (more)

Selik, Michael Andrew

2010-01-01

455

INTERACTIVE PROOF SYSTEMS AND ALTERNATING TIMESPACE  

E-print Network

and Stockmeyer [4] introduced alternating Tur­ ing machines, an extension of nondeterministic computation where the class of languages accepted in deterministic polynomial space. Since Chandra, Kozen and Stockmeyer [4

Fortnow, Lance

456

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

457

Handling alternative dietary requests from pet owners.  

PubMed

The goal of this article was to provide veterinary practitioners with an overview of the types of alternative dietary options available to pet owners and a practical method by which to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of these various options. Our approach to categorizing the alternative dietary options is based on the nutritional adequacy of these dietary options, because patients will be at risk for nutrition-related diseases if fed a nutritionally incomplete or improperly balanced diet long term. PMID:24951340

Parr, Jacqueline M; Remillard, Rebecca L

2014-07-01

458

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-08-01

459

Activity Based Physics Alternative Homework Assignments: Tailgating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains an alternative homework problem related to tailgating and the related physics. Users will be prompted to make calculations about stopping distance in a vehicle traveling at high speed behind another. The problem is designed to allow students to independently explore inertia in motion and the relationship between mass and inertia. This item is part of a larger collection of alternative problems based on physics education research.

Vick, K.; Redish, Edward F.; Cooney, Patrick

2009-01-06

460

Alternative Scaffolds as Bispecific Antibody Mimetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The use of non-immunoglobulin-based protein scaffolds for engineering of specific recognition was first described some 15\\u000a years ago and has matured as a discipline in parallel with the rapidly expanding monoclonal antibody field. As bispecific\\u000a antibodies and antibody fragments have come into focus lately, the corresponding development of bispecific alternative scaffolds\\u000a is also emerging. Here, the concept of alternative scaffold

John Löfblom; Fredrik Y. Frejd

461

Patients With Diabetes Using Alternative Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians need for valid information on herbal medicinal products is considerable. In the United States, the popularity of\\u000a complementary and alternative medicine is growing at a remarkable, and possibly concerning, rate (1). In particular, herbal medicine has grown faster than any other complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatment method\\u000a in the United States (1,2). The top-selling herbal medicinal products in

Dugald Seely; Edward Mills; Beth Rachlis

462

Developing Alternative Assessments using the Benchmarks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written from the perspective of a classroom teacher, this article describes a process for developing alternative assessments, provides examples of alternative assessment tasks and student responses, amd illustrates the use of scoring rubrics. The examples use the AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the National Science Education Standards to identify learning goals. This resource is intended for use in the classroom by K-12 teachers.

1997-01-01

463

Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important findings for a 41-month research grant entitled The Utilization of Alternate Fuels in Diesel Engines are summarized. The procedure followed was to collect performance and emission data for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum-based number two Diesel fuel oil. The method of test-fuel introduction was either via fumigation or to

Lestz

1984-01-01

464

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-01-01

465

Alternatives to Twelve-Step Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article highlights the importance of alternatives to the 12-step models of alcoholism (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous). The disease model of alcoholism, abstinence-only programs, and the role of spirituality in 12-step programs are discussed. Alternative clinical treatments (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational enhancement therapy) and non-12-step self-help groups (e.g., SMART Recovery, Moderation Management) are presented. It is concluded that a “one-size-fits-all”

Amy M. Buddie

2004-01-01

466

Alternative pain medicine: Current modalities and principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional pain medicine does not solve all the problems of chronic pain patients. In this technological era, patients are\\u000a more demanding and in their frustration may seek alternative modalities for managing their chronic pain. Recent studies have\\u000a shown that this tendency may in fact expose patients not only to useless therapies but occasionally harmful ones. Many alternative\\u000a modalities have been

Winston C. V. Parris

1997-01-01

467

Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel

Troy A. Semelsberger; Rodney L. Borup; Howard L. Greene

2006-01-01

468

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

none

1998-07-01

469

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-01-01

470

Space Power Demonstration Engine linear alternator dynamometer test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify the alternator bench test and finite element code results, it was decided to test the Space Power Demonstration Engine (SPDE) alternator on a linear dynamometer. The dynamometer tests confirmed that the primary source of losses in the SPDE alternator assembly was the adjacent magnetic structure and not the alternator proper. Alternator efficiency above 90% was demonstrated by substitution

M. Dhar; J. Rauch; S. Huang; R. Bolton

1989-01-01

471

Alternative adaptations, speciation, and phylogeny (A Review)  

PubMed Central

Alternative adaptations—different adaptive phenotypes maintained in the same life stage and the same population but not necessarily simultaneously expressed in the same individual—represent contrasting character sets produced by the same genome, in effect allowing a single species to occupy more than one sympatric niche. Such alternatives are particularly likely to give rise to novel adaptations because of selection for extreme dissimilarity between them and because established traits buffer populations against extinction while independently expressed alternatives evolve in new directions. Particular alternatives can be suddenly fixed in populations with little or no genetic change, leading to a period of rapid evolution (especially, of morphology) exaggerating the characteristics of the newly fixed form. This burst of change would facilitate rapid speciation and could produce “punctuated” patterns of evolution. Evidence from a wide variety of organisms shows that alternative phenotypes are exceedingly common in nature and that they are probably important in speciation and macroevolution. Although many of these ideas and observations have been noted piecemeal by previous authors, bringing them together demonstrates the probable importance of alternative adaptations in the origin of major evolutionary novelties and calls for a revision of current and traditional ideas about the role of behavior and ontogeny in the genesis of organic diversity. PMID:16578790

West-Eberhard, Mary Jane

1986-01-01

472

45 CFR 153.330 - State alternate risk adjustment methodology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false State alternate risk adjustment methodology. 153.330 Section 153.330 Public...330 State alternate risk adjustment methodology. (a) State request for alternate methodology certification. (1) A State...

2014-10-01

473

34 CFR 300.115 - Continuum of alternative placements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuum of alternative placements. 300...Environment (lre) § 300.115 Continuum of alternative placements. ...public agency must ensure that a continuum of alternative placements is...

2011-07-01

474

34 CFR 300.115 - Continuum of alternative placements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuum of alternative placements. 300...Environment (lre) § 300.115 Continuum of alternative placements. ...public agency must ensure that a continuum of alternative placements is...

2010-07-01

475

12 CFR 702.107 - Alternative components for standard calculation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...702.107 Alternative components for standard calculation...one or more alternative components below, in place of the corresponding standard components in § 702.106 above, when any alternative component amount, expressed...

2014-01-01

476

12 CFR 702.107 - Alternative components for standard calculation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...702.107 Alternative components for standard calculation...one or more alternative components below, in place of the corresponding standard components in § 702.106 above, when any alternative component amount, expressed...

2010-01-01

477

12 CFR 702.107 - Alternative components for standard calculation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...702.107 Alternative components for standard calculation...one or more alternative components below, in place of the corresponding standard components in § 702.106 above, when any alternative component amount, expressed...

2012-01-01

478

12 CFR 702.107 - Alternative components for standard calculation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...702.107 Alternative components for standard calculation...one or more alternative components below, in place of the corresponding standard components in § 702.106 above, when any alternative component amount, expressed...

2011-01-01

479

Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

Not Available

1993-10-01

480

IMPROVING ALTERNATIVES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental impact assessment (EIA), in the US, requires an objective and rigorous analysis of alternatives. Yet the choice of alternatives for that analysis can be subjective and arbitrary. Alternatives often reflect narrow project objectives, agency agendas, and predilecti...

481

40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Innovative and alternative technologies. 35.908 Section 35.908 ...908 Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Policy. EPA's policy...development of innovative and alternative technologies for the construction of waste...

2010-07-01

482

21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880.5550 Section 880.5550...Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical...

2010-04-01

483

21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880.5550 Section 880.5550...Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical...

2014-04-01

484

21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880.5550 Section 880.5550...Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical...

2012-04-01

485

21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880.5550 Section 880.5550...Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical...

2013-04-01

486

21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880.5550 Section 880.5550...Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification. An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical...

2011-04-01

487

An Adaptive and Predictive Environment to Support Augmentative and Alternative  

E-print Network

An Adaptive and Predictive Environment to Support Augmentative and Alternative Communication Nicola for verbal impaired people sup- porting the use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) languages- veloped by the International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Com- munication (ISAAC) established

Gatti, Nicola

488

49 CFR 1147.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1147.1 Section 1147.1 Transportation...INADEQUACIES § 1147.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2014-10-01

489

49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1 Section 1146.1 Transportation...EMERGENCIES § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2011-10-01

490

49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1 Section 1146.1 Transportation...EMERGENCIES § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2010-10-01

491

49 CFR 1147.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1147.1 Section 1147.1 Transportation...INADEQUACIES § 1147.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2013-10-01

492

49 CFR 1147.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1147.1 Section 1147.1 Transportation...INADEQUACIES § 1147.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2011-10-01

493

49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1 Section 1146.1 Transportation...EMERGENCIES § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2014-10-01

494

49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1 Section 1146.1 Transportation...EMERGENCIES § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2012-10-01

495

49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1 Section 1146.1 Transportation...EMERGENCIES § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2013-10-01

496

49 CFR 1147.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1147.1 Section 1147.1 Transportation...INADEQUACIES § 1147.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2012-10-01

497

49 CFR 1147.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1147.1 Section 1147.1 Transportation...INADEQUACIES § 1147.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49...

2010-10-01

498

48 CFR 1852.239-70 - Alternate delivery points.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contracting activity). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, an equitable...costs associated with delivery to that alternate location. (End of clause...lading (GBL). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, the...

2013-10-01

499

48 CFR 1852.239-70 - Alternate delivery points.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contracting activity). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, an equitable...costs associated with delivery to that alternate location. (End of clause...lading (GBL). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, the...

2010-10-01

500

48 CFR 1852.239-70 - Alternate delivery points.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...contracting activity). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, an equitable...costs associated with delivery to that alternate location. (End of clause...lading (GBL). If delivery to an alternate location is ordered, the...

2014-10-01