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1

Biodiesel properties and alternative feedstocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Defined as the long-chain fatty acid monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats, or other lipids, biodiesel is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel h...

2

Thermodynamic properties for the alternative refrigerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models commonly used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of refrigerants are summarized. For pure refrigerants, the virial, cubic, Martin-Hou, Benedict-Webb-Rubin, and Helmholtz energy equations of state and the extended corresponding states model are discussed. High-accuracy formulations for 16 refrigerants are recommended. These models may be extended to mixtures through the use of mixing rules applied either to the parameters of

Mark O McLinden; Eric W Lemmon; Richard T Jacobsen

1998-01-01

3

Finite-Sample Properties of Some Alternative GMM Estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the small-sample properties of three alternative generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators of asset-pricing models. The estimators that we consider include ones in which the weighting matrix is iterated to convergence and ones in which the weighting matrix is changed with each choice of the parameters. Particular attention is devoted to assessing the performance of the asymptotic theory

Lars Peter Hansen; John C. Heaton; Amir Yaron

1996-01-01

4

Physical properties of alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here are recommended values and correlations of selected physical properties of several alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorocarbons. The quality of the data used in this compilation varies widely, ranging from well-documented, high accuracy measurements from published sources to completely undocumented values listed on anonymous data sheets. That some of the properties for some fluids are available only from the latter type of source is clearly not the desired state of affairs. While some would reject all such data, the compilation given here is presented in the spirit of laying out the present state of knowledge and making available a set of data in a timely manner, even though its quality is sometimes uncertain. The correlations presented here are certain to change quickly as additional information becomes available.

Mclinden, Mark O.

1990-01-01

5

Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

6

EVALUATION OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT ALTERNATIVES: PICILLO PROPERTY, COVENTRY, RHODE ISLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the second phase of a two-phase investigation undertaken by the MITRE Corp. to determine the nature and severity of ground and surface water contamination at the Picillo property in Coventry, Rhode Island and to make recommendations for permanent abatement o...

7

An alternative ultrasonic method for measuring the elastic properties of cortical bone  

E-print Network

An alternative ultrasonic method for measuring the elastic properties of cortical bone Pithioux M Keywords: Compact bone, Ultrasonic methods, Elastic properties, Longitudinal and transversal velocities ultrasonic method for measuring the elastic properties of cortical bone Pithioux M., Lasaygues P., Chabrand P

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

Tumorigenic properties of alternative osteopontin isoforms in mesothelioma  

SciTech Connect

Osteopontin (SPP1) is an inflammatory cytokine that we previously characterized as a diagnostic marker in patients with asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma (MM). While SPP1 shows both pro- and anti-tumorigenic biological effects, little is known about the molecular basis of these activities. In this study, we demonstrate that while healthy pleura possesses all three differentially spliced SPP1 isoforms (A-C), in clinical MM specimens isoform A is markedly up-regulated and predominant. To provide a clue to possible functions of the SPP1 isoforms we next performed their functional evaluation via transient expression in MM cell lines. As a result, we report that isoforms A-C demonstrate different activities in cell proliferation, wound closure, and invasion assays. These findings suggest different functions for SPP1 isoforms and underline pro-tumorigenic properties of isoforms A and B.

Ivanov, Sergey V., E-mail: Sergey.Ivanov@med.nyu.edu [Thoracic Surgery Laboratory, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, NYU Langone Medical Center, 462 First Ave., Bellevue Hospital, Room 15N20, NY 10016 (United States); Ivanova, Alla V.; Goparaju, Chandra M.V.; Chen, Yuanbin; Beck, Amanda; Pass, Harvey I. [Thoracic Surgery Laboratory, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, NYU Langone Medical Center, 462 First Ave., Bellevue Hospital, Room 15N20, NY 10016 (United States)] [Thoracic Surgery Laboratory, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, NYU Langone Medical Center, 462 First Ave., Bellevue Hospital, Room 15N20, NY 10016 (United States)

2009-05-08

9

PHYSICAL PROPERTY DATA ON FLUORINATED PROPANES AND BUTANES AS CFC AND HCFC ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses results of the measurement and estimation of the physical properties of fluorinated propane derivatives as second generation alternatives for currently used CFC and HCFC chemicals. ne fluorinated ether was also studied. NOTE: lthough synthesis of the derivativ...

10

Effect of elastic property of material on stress in solar panel under alternative temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of material's elastic property on the maximal stress in solar panel (SP) under alternative temperature was investigated using an analytical method. Results showed that the maximal tensile\\/press and the shear stress existed in polyimide and the silicone rubber between composite materials and polyimide film. Employing polyimide with lower elastic modulus or silicone rubber with lower shear modulus would

Xiaoyan Wang; Hongbin Geng; Shiyu He

2006-01-01

11

Phase diagrams and magnetic properties of a superlattice with alternate layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase diagrams and magnetic properties of an Ising superlattice are investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation based on Metropolis algorithm. The system is formed by alternate layers of spins S = 1 and ? = 3 / 2. The effects of the exchange coupling interactions and the crystal field on the phase diagrams and magnetic properties of the system are examined. A number of characteristic behaviors have been found. In particular, tricritical point, critical end point, and isolated critical point may occur in the present system.

Feraoun, A.; Zaim, A.; Kerouad, M.

2015-03-01

12

Three-dimensional Magnetostriction and Vector Magnetic Properties under Alternating Magnetic Flux Conditions in Arbitrary Direction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents measured magnetostriction of electrical steel sheets under alternating magnetic flux conditions. In the measurements, we used a two-dimensional vector magnetic property measurement system, and a three-axial strain gauge. In order to know magnetostrictions in arbitrary direction, the strain tensor was evaluated. In addition, we try to evaluate the magnetostrictions in thickness direction. In this paper, the three-dimensional magnetostriction in non-oriented and grain-oriented silicon steel sheets are compared.

Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Todaka, Takashi; Enokizono, Masato

13

Alternative representation of the Kubo formula for the optical conductivity: A shortcut to transport properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kubo formula for the electrical conductivity is expressed in terms of a weighted sum of Drude-like contributions associated to the exact eigenstates of the interacting system, each characterized by its own frequency-dependent relaxation time. This alternative formulation considerably simplifies the access to the static properties (dc conductivity) and resolves the long-standing difficulty to connect the Boltzmann transport theory and the Kubo formula. In particular, at the lowest order of the perturbation theory, the correct transport scattering lifetime depending on the momentum k, which appears in the Boltzmann theory, instead of the single-electron lifetime appearing in the Green function, can be recovered. This alternative formulation is applied to (i) the elastic scattering in metals, and (ii) the inelastic scattering in the Fröhlich polaron model to obtain the exact result of the mobility in the low-temperature weak-coupling limit.

De Filippis, G.; Cataudella, V.; de Candia, A.; Mishchenko, A. S.; Nagaosa, N.

2014-07-01

14

Physical properties of fluorinated propane and butane derivatives as alternative refrigerants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents physical property measurements for 24 fluorinated propane and butane derivatives and one fluorinated ether which include melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure below the boiling point, heat of vaporization at the boiling point, critical properties (temperature and density), and liquid-phase heat capacities at 40 C. Measured vapor pressures are reported to the critical temperature for four of the compounds: HFC-227ea, HFC-245cb, HFC-236ea, and HFE-125a. These measured data, combined with estimated vapor-phase densities, heat capacities, and vapor pressures, may be used to evaluate the potentials of these chemicals as alternative refrigerants. Modified corresponding states methods, using HFC-134a as a reference fluid, are presented as a way to obtain the needed estimated data, and the accuracy of these methods is judged by comparisons with measured data.

Beyerlein, A.; Desmarteau, D.; Hwang, S.; Smith, N.; Joyner, P.

15

Consideration of Alternate Working Fluid Properties in Gas Lubricated Foil Journal Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program at the NASA Glenn Research center is committed to, revolutionary improvements in performance, efficiency and reliability of turbomachinery propulsion systems. One of the key breakthroughs by which this goal is being achieved is the maturation of air lubricated foil bearing technology. Through experimental testing, foil bearings have demonstrated a variety of exceptional qualities that show them to have an important role in the future of rotordynamic lubrication. Most of the work done with foil bearings thus far has considered ambient air at atmospheric pressure as the working fluid or lubricating fluid in the bearing. However, special applications of oil-free technology require the use of air at non- standard ambient conditions or completely different working fluids altogether. The NASA Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter program presents power generation needs far beyond that of any previous space exploration effort. The proposed spacecraft will require significant power generation to provide the propulsion necessary to reach the moons of Jupiter and navigate between them. Once there, extensive scientific research will be conducted that will also present significant power requirements. Such extreme needs require exploring a new method for power generation in space. A proposed solution involves a Brayton cycle nuclear fission reactor. The nature of this application requires reliable performance of all reactor components for many years of operation under demanding conditions. This includes the bearings which will be operating with an alternative working fluid that is a combination of Helium and Xenon gases commonly known as HeXe. This fluid has transport and thermal properties that vary significantly from that of air and the effect of these property differences on bearing performance must be considered. One of the most promising applications of oil-free technology is in aircraft turbine engines. Eliminating the oil supply systems from aircraft engines will lead to significant weight and maintenance reduction. In such applications, the lubricating fluid will be high altitude air. This air will be at much lower pressure than that at sea level. Again this property change will result in a change in bearing performance, and analysis is required to quantify this effect. The study of these alternate working fluid properties will be conducted in two ways: analytically and experimentally. Analytical research will include the use of a mathematical code that can predict film thickness profiles for various ambient conditions. Estimations of load capacity can be made based upon the film thickness trends. These values will then be compared to those obtained from classical rigid bearing analysis. Experimental Research will include testing a foil bearing at a variety of ambient air pressures. The analytical and experimental data will be compared to draw conclusions on bearing performance under alternate working fluid properties.

Smith, Matthew J.

2004-01-01

16

Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids and fluid mixtures have been identified as promising alternatives to the HCFC refrigerants, but, for many of them, reliable thermodynamic data do not exist. In particular, reliable thermodynamic properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to measure, with high accuracy, selected thermodynamic properties data for two pure refrigerants and nine refrigerant blends; these data will be used to fit equations of state and other property models which can be used in equipment design. The new data will fill in gaps in the existing data and resolve problems and differences that exist in and between existing data sets. Most of the studied fluids and blends are potential replacements for HCFC-22 and/or R502; in addition, one pure fluid and one blend are potential replacements for CFC-13 in low temperature refrigeration applications.

Haynes, W.M.

1995-07-01

17

Alternatively spliced, truncated GCSF receptor promotes leukemogenic properties and sensitivity to JAK inhibition.  

PubMed

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) drives the production of myeloid progenitor and precursor cells toward neutrophils via the GCSF receptor (GCSFR, gene name CSF3R). Children with severe congenital neutropenia chronically receive pharmacologic doses of GCSF, and ?30% will develop myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with GCSFR truncation mutations. In addition to mutations, multiple isoforms of CSF3R have also been reported. We found elevated expression of the alternatively spliced isoform, class IV CSF3R in adult myelodysplastic syndrome/AML patients. Aside from its association with monosomy 7 and higher rates of relapse in pediatric AML patients, little is known about the biology of the class IV isoform. We found developmental regulation of CSF3R isoforms with the class IV expression more representative of a progenitor cell stage. Striking differences were found in phosphoprotein signaling involving Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and cell cycle gene expression. Enhanced proliferation by class IV GCSFR was associated with diminished STAT3 and STAT5 activation, yet showed sensitivity to JAK2 inhibitors. Alterations in the C-terminal domain of the GCSFR result in leukemic properties of enhanced growth, impaired differentiation and resistance to apoptosis, suggesting that they can behave as oncogenic drivers, sensitive to JAK2 inhibition. PMID:24170028

Mehta, H M; Futami, M; Glaubach, T; Lee, D W; Andolina, J R; Yang, Q; Whichard, Z; Quinn, M; Lu, H F; Kao, W M; Przychodzen, B; Sarkar, C A; Minella, A; Maciejewski, J P; Corey, S J

2014-05-01

18

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUORINATED PROPANE AND BUTANE DERIVATIVES AS ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Physical property measurements are presented for 24 fluorinated propane and butane derivatives and one fluorinated ether. These measurements include melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure below the boiling point, heat of vaporization at the boiling point, critical propertie...

19

Theory of magnetic fluid heating with an alternating magnetic field with temperature dependent materials properties for self-regulated heating  

E-print Network

limits of inductive heating of tissues limit the safe range of magnetic field amplitudes and fre- quencyTheory of magnetic fluid heating with an alternating magnetic field with temperature dependent materials properties for self-regulated heating C. L. Ondeck,1,2 A. H. Habib,1 P. Ohodnicki,1 K. Miller,1 C

McHenry, Michael E.

20

A New Simulation-Based Property Checking Algorithm Based on Partitioned Alternative Search Space Traversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new logic-simulation-based algorithm on verifying safety properties of large sequential hardware designs. This algorithm explores the search space defined by partitioned internal circuit nodes. Two powerful features are proposed to increase the effectiveness during search space exploration and counterexample generation for verifying safety properties. These include 1) new search space constituted by internal nodes instead of state

Qingwei Wu; Michael S. Hsiao

2006-01-01

21

Chiroptical properties of an alternatingly functionalized cellotriose bearing two porphyrin groups  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternatingly functionalized cellulose molecules have potential applications in optoelectronics and molecular receptors. For example, cellulose-based solar cells have been proposed. As a prototype for such molecules, the trisaccharide fragment of cellulose was modified by attachment of porphyrin gro...

22

Orientational order and mechanical properties of poly(amide- block-aramid) alternating block copolymer films and fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical properties and orientational order of a series of uniaxially oriented block copolymer films and fibers comprised of alternating rigid aramid blocks of poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) and flexible blocks of polyamide 6,6 (PA 6,6) have been investigated. The prepared block copolymer films differ in aramid content and average block length. The films were prepared by shearing the polymer solutions (in

Christiaan de Ruijter; Eduardo Mendes; Hanneke Boerstoel; Stephen J. Picken

2006-01-01

23

Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of an alternating manganese chain  

SciTech Connect

A new 1D complex has been prepared and characterized. X-ray single crystal structure confirms that the Mn(II) ions assemble in alternating chains with Mn-Mn distances of 3.8432(13) and 4.4428(14) A. A 3D network of hydrogen bonds links the chains together. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility reveals that this compound undergoes a magnetic transition and exhibits an antiferromagnetic interaction in the low-temperature phase with two alternating exchange interactions of -2.32(1) and -5.55(1) cm{sup -1}. - Graphical abstract: Portion of the dimeric manganese chain showing the two alternating exchange interactions paths.

Ramos Silva, Manuela [CEMDRX, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 COIMBRA (Portugal)]. E-mail: manuela@pollux.fis.uc.pt; Matos Beja, Ana [CEMDRX, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 COIMBRA (Portugal); Antonio Paixao, Jose [CEMDRX, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 COIMBRA (Portugal); Martin-Gil, Jesus [ETSIA, Universidad de Vallodolid, Avda Madrid 57, 34004 Palencia (Spain)

2006-07-15

24

Integrated food, energy and environmental services production as an alternative for small rural properties in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy from sources alternative to fossil fuels is being studied and interest in energy derived from vegetal biomass is increasing. In Brazil - mainly at Sao Paulo State -, sugarcane ethanol is being intensively produced on large-scales, giving rise to social and environmental concerns about its production. If ethanol production systems are to maintain a balance between economic, social and

Feni Agostinho; Enrique Ortega

25

Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester–diesel fuel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester–diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the

Duran Alt?parmak; Ali Keskin; Atilla Koca; Metin Gürü

2007-01-01

26

IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL ON THE1 MECHANICAL AND TRANSFER PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE2  

E-print Network

OF CONCRETE2 3 Alexandre Pavoine, David Harbec, Thierry Chaussadent, Arezki Tagnit-Hamou and LoĂŻc4 Divet5. The subject of his PhD thesis was the risk of development of Delayed9 Ettringite Formation in concretes. His research interests include durability of concrete and the10 development of alternative materials

27

Theory of the magnetic properties of igneous rocks in alternating fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each magnetic grain in a rock contains ferromagnetic domains with a range of sizes, the small ones being magnetically harder and responding less readily to demagnetizing fields than the larger ones. By exposing a grain which has a thermoremanent magnetic moment to an alternating field, domains larger than a critical size are demagnetized, leaving the smaller domains unaffected. Domain size

F. D. Stacey

1961-01-01

28

Annotation Enrichment Analysis: An Alternative Method for Evaluating the Functional Properties of Gene Sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gene annotation databases (compendiums maintained by the scientific community that describe the biological functions performed by individual genes) are commonly used to evaluate the functional properties of experimentally derived gene sets. Overlap statistics, such as Fishers Exact test (FET), are often employed to assess these associations, but don't account for non-uniformity in the number of genes annotated to individual functions or the number of functions associated with individual genes. We find FET is strongly biased toward over-estimating overlap significance if a gene set has an unusually high number of annotations. To correct for these biases, we develop Annotation Enrichment Analysis (AEA), which properly accounts for the non-uniformity of annotations. We show that AEA is able to identify biologically meaningful functional enrichments that are obscured by numerous false-positive enrichment scores in FET, and we therefore suggest it be used to more accurately assess the biological properties of gene sets.

Glass, Kimberly; Girvan, Michelle

2014-02-01

29

The Electrical Properties of Flames Containing Salt Vapors for High Frequency Alternating Currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric properties of salted flames for high frequencies.-The capacity C1 and equivalent series resistance R1 of a condenser consisting of two concentric platinum cylinders, 0.5 cm apart, in a flame containing K2CO3 vapor, are measured using a modification of the method of resistance variation. Values of C1 and R1 are obtained for voltages between 11.4 and 82.2 volts, for frequencies

A. B. Bryan

1924-01-01

30

Phytoandrogenic properties of Eurycoma longifolia as natural alternative to testosterone replacement therapy.  

PubMed

The testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is characterised by numerous symptoms, including low libido, increased fat mass, fatigue, erectile dysfunction or osteoporosis, and up to 80% of men will experience some kind of ageing males' symptoms. This is caused by the age-depending decline in serum testosterone levels with concentrations being about 40-50% lower in men older than 60 years compared with young men. This significant decline in testosterone levels is further closely linked with medical conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes or hypertension. The conventional way of treating TDS is the testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), for which preparations are on the market. Apart from the beneficial effects of TRT, significant adverse side effects have been described, and prostate cancer (PCa) as absolute contraindication is debated. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) is natural alternative to TRT and has been shown to restore serum testosterone levels, thus significantly improving sexual health. This includes significant positive effects on bone health and physical condition of patients. In addition, a significant antihyperglycaemic effect and cytotoxicity against PCas cells has been shown. Thus far, at therapeutic concentrations, no significant side effects of the treatment were obvious. Therefore, TA might be a safe alternative to TRT. PMID:24386995

George, A; Henkel, R

2014-09-01

31

Improving the low-temperature properties of alternative diesel fuels: Vegetable oil-derived methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores near-term approaches for improving the low-temperature properties of triglyceride oil-derived fuels for\\u000a direct-injection compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Methyl esters from transesterified soybean oil were evaluated as a\\u000a neat fuel and in blends with petroleum middle distillates. Winterization showed that the cloud point (CP) of methyl soyate\\u000a may be reduced to ?16C. Twelve cold-flow additives marketed for distillates were

R. O. Dunn; M. W. Shockley; M. O. Bagby

1996-01-01

32

Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

33

An alternative ultrasonic method for measuring the elastic properties of cortical bone.  

PubMed

We studied the elastic properties of bone to analyze its mechanical behavior. The basic principles of ultrasonic methods are now well established for varying isotropic media, particularly in the field of biomedical engineering. However, little progress has been made in its application to anisotropic materials. This is largely due to the complex nature of wave propagation in these media. In the present study, the theory of elastic waves is essential because it relates the elastic moduli of a material to the velocity of propagation of these waves along arbitrary directions in a solid. Transducers are generally placed in contact with the samples which are often cubes with parallel faces that are difficult to prepare. The ultrasonic method used here is original, a rough preparation of the bone is sufficient and the sample is rotated. Moreover, to analyze heterogeneity of the structure we measure velocities in different points on the sample. The aim of the present study was to determine in vitro the anisotropic elastic properties of cortical bones. For this purpose, our method allowed measurement of longitudinal and transverse velocities (C(L) and C(T)) in longitudinal (fiber direction) and the radial directions (orthogonal to the fiber direction) of compact bones. Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio nu, were then deduced from the velocities measured considering the compact bone as transversely isotropic or orthotropic. The results are in line with those of other methods. PMID:12052398

Pithioux, M; Lasaygues, P; Chabrand, P

2002-07-01

34

Selection and Properties of Alternative Forming Fluids for TRISO Fuel Kernel Production  

SciTech Connect

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Doug Marshall; M. Baker; J. King; B. Gorman

2013-01-01

35

Flexural properties of a light-cure and a self-cure denture base materials compared to conventional alternatives  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE A new light curing urethane dimethacrylate and a cold curing resin with simpler and faster laboratory procedures may have even improved flexural properties. This study investigated the 3-point flexural strengths and flexural moduli of two alternate base materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cold curing resin (Weropress) and a light curing urethane dimethacrylate base material (Eclipse). Along with Eclipse and Weropress, a high impact resin (Lucitone199) and three conventional base materials (QC 20, Meliodent and Paladent 20) were tested. A 3-point bending test was used to determine the flexural strengths and flexural moduli. The mean displacement, maximum load, flexural modulus and flexural strength values and standard deviations for each group were analyzed by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (with mean difference significant at the 0.05 level). Post hoc analyses (Scheffe test) were carried out to determine the differences between the groups at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS Flexural strength, displacement and force maximum load values of Eclipse were significantly different from other base materials. Displacement values of QC 20 were significantly different from Lucitone 199 and Weropress. CONCLUSION The flexural properties and simpler processing technique of Eclipse system presents an advantageous alternative to conventional base resins and Weropress offers another simple laboratory technique. PMID:22053244

Cilingir, Altug; Gencel, Burc; Sülün, Tonguc

2011-01-01

36

Bio-based alternative to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol a with controlled materials properties.  

PubMed

A series of biobased epoxy monomers were prepared from diphenolic acid (DPA) by transforming the free acid into n-alkyl esters and the phenolic hydroxyl groups into diglycidyl ethers. NMR experiments confirmed that the diglycidyl ethers of diphenolates (DGEDP) with methyl and ethyl esters have 6 and 3 mol % of glycidyl ester. Increasing the chain length of DGEDP n-alkyl esters from methyl to n-pentyl resulted in large decreases in epoxy resin viscosity (700-to-11 Pa·s). Storage modulus of DPA epoxy resins, cured with isophorone diamine, also varied with n-alkyl ester chain length (e.g., 3300 and 2100 MPa for the methyl and n-pentyl esters). The alpha transition temperature of the cured materials showed a linear decrease from 158 to 86 °C as the ester length increases. The Young's modulus and tensile strengths were about 1150 and 40 MPa, respectively, for all the cured resins tested (including DGEBA) and varied little as a function of ester length. Degree of cure for the different epoxy resins, determined by FTIR and DSC, closely approached the theoretical maximum. The result of this work demonstrates that diglycidyl ethers of n-alkyl diphenolates represent a new family of biobased liquid epoxy resins that, when cured, have similar properties to those from DGEBA. PMID:25633466

Maiorana, Anthony; Spinella, Stephen; Gross, Richard A

2015-03-01

37

Physical-property data on fluorinated propanes and butanes as CFC and HCFc alternatives. Rept. for Aug 88-Jun 91  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses results of the measurement and estimation of the physical properties of fluorinated propane derivatives as second generation alternatives for currently used CFC and HCFC chemicals. One fluorinated ether was also studied. A total of 22 compounds were investigated with boiling points of -34.6 to 76.7 C. The measured properties presented for these compounds are: melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure below the boiling point, heat of vaporization, critical properties (temperature, density, and pressure), liquid densities, and liquid-phase heat capacities. Measured vapor pressures are reported from below the boiling point to the critical point for two of these compounds: CF3OCF2H (b.p. = 34.6 C and Tc = 80.7 C) and CF3CHFCF2H (b.p. = 6.5 C and Tc = 141.1 C). Vapor pressures and liquid-phase densities were also measured for CFC-12 in order to judge the accuracy of the experimental methods used. The measured vapor pressures were also compared with vapor pressures estimated using modified corresponding states methods to evaluate the accuracy of the estimation methods.

Beyerlein, A.L.; DesMarteau, D.D.; Hwang, S.L.; Smith, N.D.; Joyner, P.

1992-01-01

38

Spectral properties of alternating antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic spin-half chains and the emergence of composite spin-one behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectral properties of the alternating antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic spin-half Heisenberg chain with exchange couplings J and -???J . The crossover from the gapped dimerized spectra at small ??? to the spin-one chain behavior at large ??? is signaled by the merging of the one-particle state with the bottom of the continuum, and its vanishing spectral weight, near k=0 . At large ??? , the model represents a class of spin-one chains with varying degrees of spatial and temporal compositeness and provides an excellent quantitative description of the neutron scattering spectra for such materials as (CD3)2ND2CuCl3 and IPA-CuCl3 .

Zheng, Weihong; Hamer, Chris J.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.

2006-11-01

39

Crystal structure and magnetic properties of FeSeO(3)F--alternating antiferromagnetic S = 5/2 chains.  

PubMed

The new oxofluoride FeSeO3F, which is isostructural with FeTeO3F and GaTeO3F, was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and its structure was determined by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties of FeSeO3F were characterized by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, by evaluating its spin exchanges on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and by performing a quantum Monte Carlo simulation of the magnetic susceptibility. FeSeO3F crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n and has one unique Se(4+) ion and one unique Fe(3+) ion. The building blocks of FeSeO3F are [SeO3] trigonal pyramids and cis-[FeO4F2] distorted octahedra. The cis-[FeO4F2] octahedra are condensed by sharing the O-O and F-F edges alternatingly to form [FeO3F]? chains, which are interconnected via the [SeO3] pyramids by corner-sharing. The magnetic susceptibility of FeSeO3F is characterized by a broad maximum at 75(2) K and a long-range antiferromagnetic order below ?45 K. The latter is observed by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. DFT calculations show that the Fe-F-Fe spin exchange is stronger than the Fe-O-Fe exchange, so each [FeO3F]? chain is a Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain with alternating antiferromagnetic spin exchanges. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is well-reproduced by a quantum-Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:24684563

Hu, Shichao; Johnsson, Mats; Law, Joseph M; Bettis, Jerry L; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Kremer, Reinhard K

2014-04-21

40

Purification, properties and alternate substrate specificities of arginase from two different sources: Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver.  

PubMed

Arginase was purified from Vigna catjang cotyledons and buffalo liver by chromatographic separations using Bio-Gel P-150, DEAE-cellulose and arginine AH Sepharose 4B affinity columns. The native molecular weight of an enzyme estimated on Bio-Gel P-300 column for Vigna catjang was 210 kDa and 120 kDa of buffalo liver, while SDS-PAGE showed a single band of molecular weight 52 kDa for cotyledon and 43 kDa for buffalo liver arginase. The kinetic properties determined for the purified cotyledon and liver arginase showed an optimum pH of 10.0 and pH 9.2 respectively. Optimal cofactor Mn(++) ion concentration was found to be 0.6 mM for cotyledon and 2 mM for liver arginase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for cotyledon arginase and hepatic arginase were found to be 42 mM and 2 mM respectively. The activity of guanidino compounds as alternate substrates for Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver arginase is critically dependent on the length of the amino acid side chain and the number of carbon atoms. In addition to L-arginine cotyledon arginase showed substrate specificity towards agmatine and L-canavanine, whereas the liver arginase showed substrate specificity towards only L-canavanine. PMID:16094464

Dabir, Snehal; Dabir, Pankaj; Somvanshi, Baburao

2005-01-01

41

Information Wants To Be Shared: An Alternative Framework for Approaching Intellectual Property Disputes in an Information Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the debate over intellectual property rights for digital media. Topics include why intellectual property should be protected; the evolution of copyright law; fair use doctrine; case studies; the philosophical theories of property, including labor theory, utilitarian theory, and personality theory; natural law theory; the social role of…

Tavani, Herman T.

2002-01-01

42

Measurement of alternating magnetic properties of grain-oriented materials using a round rotational single sheet tester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a measurement of grain-oriented electrical steel under pure alternating magnetic flux condition at inclination angles from -90° to 90° with respect to the rolling direction (RD). The measurement was carried out using a round rotational single sheet tester. The results show a strong asymmetry of alternating power loss and magnetic field strength with respect to the RD. The alternating power loss depends on the side of the band where the specimen was cut off.

Gori?an, V.; Hamler, A.; Jesenik, M.; Štumberger, B.; Trlep, M.

2006-02-01

43

Alternate stresses and temperature variation as factors of influence of ultrasonic vibration on mechanical and functional properties of shape memory alloys.  

PubMed

It is known that the main factors in a variation in the shape memory alloy properties under insonation are heating of the material and alternate stresses action. In the present work the experimental study of the mechanical behaviour and functional properties of shape memory alloy under the action of alternate stresses and varying temperature was carried out. The data obtained had demonstrated that an increase in temperature of the sample resulted in a decrease or increase in deformation stress depending on the structural state of the TiNi sample. It was shown that in the case of the alloy in the martensitic state, a decrease in stress was observed, and on the other hand, in the austenitic state an increase in stress took place. It was found that action of alternate stresses led to appearance of strain jumps on the strain-temperature curves during cooling and heating the sample through the temperature range of martensitic transformation under the constant stress. The value of the strain jumps depended on the amplitude of alternate stresses and the completeness of martensitic transformation. It was shown that the heat action of ultrasonic vibration to the mechanical behaviour of shape memory alloys was due to the non-monotonic dependence of yield stress on the temperature. The force action of ultrasonic vibration to the functional properties was caused by formation of additional oriented martensite. PMID:23870387

Belyaev, Sergey; Volkov, Alexander; Resnina, Natalia

2014-01-01

44

Influence of ZrO2 addition on the microstructure and discharge properties of Mg-Zr-O protective layers in alternating current plasma display panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mg-Zr-O protective layers for alternating current plasma display panels were deposited by e-beam evaporation. The effect of the ZrO2 addition on both the discharge properties [firing voltage Vf, minimum sustaining voltage Vs, and memory coefficient (MC)] and the microstructure of deposited Mg-Zr-O films were investigated. The results show that the film microstructure changes and the electron emission enhancement due to

Bingang Guo; Chunliang Liu; Zhongxiao Song; Liu Liu; Yufeng Fan; Xing Xia; Duowang Fan

2005-01-01

45

Diffuse-Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of Soils under Alternative Crop Rotations in a Semiarid Climate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An Alternative Crop Rotations (ACR) experiment was designed to compare the traditional wheat-fallow rotation with more intensive no-till rotations in the Central Great Plains. In order to ascertain the effect of the different agronomic managements on soil quality, we carried out mid-infrared (MidIR)...

46

Profilin II Is Alternatively Spliced, Resulting in Profilin Isoforms That Are Differentially Expressed and Have Distinct Biochemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We deduced the structure of the mouse profilin II gene. It contains five exons that can generate four different transcripts by alternative splicing. Two transcripts encode different profilin II isoforms (designated IIa and IIb) that have similar affinities for actin but different affinities for polyphosphoinositides and proline-rich sequences. Profilins IIa and IIb are also present in humans, suggesting that all

ANJA LAMBRECHTS; ATTILA BRAUN; VERONIQUE JONCKHEERE; ATTILA ASZODI; LORENE M. LANIER; JOHAN ROBBENS; INGE VAN COLEN; JOEL VANDEKERCKHOVE; REINHARD FASSLER; CHRISTOPHE AMPE

2000-01-01

47

Development of an indicator model and ranking of sustainable revitalization alternatives of derelict property: a Lithuanian case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the problem of the redevelopment of derelict buildings and abandoned sites as a complex issue that includes environmental, social and economic aspects. The objective of the research was to suggest a model for determining the rational revitalization of derelict immovable property from the perspective of sustainable development. The authors assume that a multi-criterion analysis is an

Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas; Jurgita Antucheviciene

2006-01-01

48

Color properties of gold-silver alternate nanowires electrochemically grown in the pores of aluminum anodic oxidation film.  

PubMed

Repeated electrodeposition of gold and silver on anodized aluminum plate yielded Au-Ag alternate nanowires in the geometrically anisotropic pores of the anodic oxidation films with mean diameter 10 nm and depth 10 mum, respectively. The absorption maximum wavelengths in the visible region resulting from the transverse surface plasmon resonances of Au and Ag nanorods are invariant with their growth. Consequently, the color of the anodized aluminum was simply tuned in a wide range, which is impossible to attain in each monometallic system. PMID:16111694

Yasui, Akihito; Iwasaki, Mitsunobu; Kawahara, Tetsuro; Tada, Hiroaki; Ito, Seishiro

2006-01-15

49

Alternative training agents, phase 1. Survey of near-term candidate fire extinguishing agents and predicting properties of halocarbon mixtures, volume 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, 14 compounds are examined as potential near-term candidates for alternative firefighter training agents for streaming applications. This list consists of suitable fluorine-containing compounds (primarily fluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons) known to have had significant toxicity testing completed, with bulk production capabilities existing in the past, present, or anticipated near future. Many of these compounds are being produced or considered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigeration and foam-blowing applications. The ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, stage of toxicity testing, toxicity, availability, and relative cost of each compound are discussed. Physical and thermodynamic properties and estimated and measured flame suppression concentrations are reported. Those compounds that have low toxicity (with significant testing completed) are available in bulk and have desirable properties are discussed in detail. It is recommended that HCFC-123 be tested both in pure form and in blends as potential replacement training agents. Twelve blends are recommended for fire suppression.

Nimitz, Jonathan S.; Tapscott, Robert E.; Skaggs, Stephanie R.; Beeson, Harold D.

1991-02-01

50

Alternative security  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

Weston, B.H. (Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States))

1990-01-01

51

Alternatively spliced alpha(1G) (Ca(V)3.1) intracellular loops promote specific T-type Ca(2+) channel gating properties.  

PubMed Central

At least three genes encode T-type calcium channel alpha(1) subunits, and identification of cDNA transcripts provided evidence that molecular diversity of these channels can be further enhanced by alternative splicing mechanisms, especially for the alpha(1G) subunit (Ca(V)3.1). Using whole-cell patch-clamp procedures, we have investigated the electrophysiological properties of five isoforms of the human alpha(1G) subunit that display a distinct III-IV linker, namely, alpha(1G-a), alpha(1G-b), and alpha(1G-bc), as well as a distinct II-III linker, namely, alpha(1G-ae), alpha(1G-be), as expressed in HEK-293 cells. We report that insertion e within the II-III linker specifically modulates inactivation, steady-state kinetics, and modestly recovery from inactivation, whereas alternative splicing within the III-IV linker affects preferentially kinetics and voltage dependence of activation, as well as deactivation and inactivation. By using voltage-clamp protocols mimicking neuronal activities, such as cerebellar train of action potentials and thalamic low-threshold spike, we describe that inactivation properties of alpha(1G-a) and alpha(1G-ae) isoforms can support channel behaviors reminiscent to those described in native neurons. Altogether, these data demonstrate that expression of distinct variants for the T-type alpha(1G) subunit can account for specific low-voltage-activated currents observed in neuronal tissues. PMID:11222288

Chemin, J; Monteil, A; Bourinet, E; Nargeot, J; Lory, P

2001-01-01

52

Toxicant content, physical properties and biological activity of waterpipe tobacco smoke and its tobacco-free alternatives  

PubMed Central

Objectives Waterpipe smoking using sweetened, flavoured tobacco products has become a widespread global phenomenon. In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, narghile, hookah, shisha along with names of chemical compounds and classes of compounds, in addition to terms commonly used in cellular biology and aerosol sizing. Study selection The search was limited to articles published in English which reported novel data on waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) toxicant content, biological activity or particle size and which met various criteria for analytical rigour including: method specificity and selectivity, precision, accuracy and recovery, linearity, range, and stability. Data extraction Multiple researchers reviewed the reports and collectively agreed on which data were pertinent for inclusion. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoke contains significant concentrations of toxicants thought to cause dependence, heart disease, lung disease and cancer in cigarette smokers, and includes 27 known or suspected carcinogens. Waterpipe smoke is a respirable aerosol that induces cellular responses associated with pulmonary and arterial diseases. Except nicotine, smoke generated using tobacco-free preparations marketed for ‘health conscious’ users contains the same or greater doses of toxicants, with the same cellular effects as conventional products. Toxicant yield data from the analytical laboratory are consistent with studies of exposure biomarkers in waterpipe users. Conclusions A sufficient evidence base exists to support public health interventions that highlight the fact that WTS presents a serious inhalation hazard. PMID:25666550

Shihadeh, Alan; Schubert, Jens; Klaiany, Joanne; El Sabban, Marwan; Luch, Andreas; Saliba, Najat A

2015-01-01

53

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory operates the Alternative Fuels Data Center, a Web site with vast amounts of information on alternative fuels and the vehicles that use them. A general table of fuel properties gives a quick comparison of gasoline to several alternatives, while sections devoted to eight different fuels go into much greater depth. There are several documents that examine new alternative fuel vehicles, including performance tests, fact sheets, statistics, and case studies. The site also has common questions and answers about converting a gasoline vehicle to one that uses alternative fuels.

54

Ligand effects on the structure and magnetic properties of alternating copper(II) chains with 2,2'-bipyrimidine- and polymethyl-substituted pyrazolates as bridging ligands.  

PubMed

A novel series of heteroleptic copper(II) compounds of formulas {[Cu2(?-H2O)(?-pz)2(?-bpm)(ClO4)(H2O)]ClO4·2H2O}n (1), {[Cu2(?-H2O)(?-3-Mepz)2(?-bpm)](ClO4)2·2H2O}n (2), and {[Cu2(?-OH)(?-3,5-Me2pz)(?-bpm)(H-3,5-Me2pz)2](ClO4)2}n (3) [bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, Hpz = pyrazole, H-3-Mepz = 3-methylpyrazole, and H-3,5-Me2pz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole] have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction methods. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 consist of copper(II) chains with regular alternating bpm and bis(pyrazolate)(aqua) bridges, whereas that of 3 is made up of copper(II) chains with regular alternating bpm and (pyrazolate)(hydroxo) bridges. The copper centers are six- (1) or five-coordinate (2) in axially elongated, octahedral (1) or square-pyramidal (2) environments in 1 and 2, whereas they are five-coordinate in distorted trigonal-bipyramidal surroundings in 3. The values of the copper-copper separations across the bpm/pyrazolate bridges are 5.5442(7)/3.3131(6) (1), 5.538(1)/3.235(1) (2), and 5.7673(7)/3.3220(6) Ĺ (3). The magnetic properties of 1-3 have been investigated in the temperature range of 25-300 K. The analysis of their magnetic susceptibility data through the isotropic Hamiltonian for an alternating antiferromagnetic copper(II) chain model [H = -J?i=1-n/2 (S2i·S2i-1 + ?S2i·S2i+1), with ? = J'/J and Si = SCu = 1/2] reveals the presence of a strong to moderate antiferromagnetic coupling through the bis(pyrazolate)(aqua) [-J = 217 (1) and 215 cm(-1) (2)] and (pyrazolate)(hydroxo) bridges [-J = 153 cm(-1) (3)], respectively, whereas a strong to weak antiferromagnetic coupling occurs through the bis-bidentate bpm [-J' = 211 (1), 213 (2), and 44 cm(-1) (3)]. A simple orbital analysis of the magnetic exchange interaction within the bpm- and pyrazolate-bridged dicopper(II) fragments of 1-3 visualizes the ?-type pathways involving the (dx(2)-y(2)) (1 and 2) or d(z(2)) (3) magnetic orbitals on each metal ion, which account for the variation of the magnetic properties in these three novel examples of one-dimensional copper(II) compounds with regular alternating intrachain antiferromagnetic interactions. PMID:24828822

Castro, Isabel; Calatayud, M Luisa; Barros, Wdeson P; Carranza, José; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Marino, Nadia; De Munno, Giovanni

2014-06-01

55

The structure, function and properties of sirohaem decarboxylase - an enzyme with structural homology to a transcription factor family that is part of the alternative haem biosynthesis pathway  

PubMed Central

Some bacteria and archaea synthesize haem by an alternative pathway, which involves the sequestration of sirohaem as a metabolic intermediate rather than as a prosthetic group. Along this pathway the two acetic acid side-chains attached to C12 and C18 are decarboxylated by sirohaem decarboxylase, a heterodimeric enzyme composed of AhbA and AhbB, to give didecarboxysirohaem. Further modifications catalysed by two related radical SAM enzymes, AhbC and AhbD, transform didecarboxysirohaem into Fe-coproporphyrin III and haem respectively. The characterization of sirohaem decarboxylase is reported in molecular detail. Recombinant versions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri AhbA/B have been produced and their physical properties compared. The D. vulgaris and M. barkeri enzyme complexes both copurify with haem, whose redox state influences the activity of the latter. The kinetic parameters of the D. desulfuricans enzyme have been determined, the enzyme crystallized and its structure has been elucidated. The topology of the enzyme reveals that it shares a structural similarity to the AsnC/Lrp family of transcription factors. The active site is formed in the cavity between the two subunits and a AhbA/B-product complex with didecarboxysirohaem has been obtained. A mechanism for the decarboxylation of the kinetically stable carboxyl groups is proposed. PMID:24865947

Palmer, David J; Schroeder, Susanne; Lawrence, Andrew D; Deery, Evelyne; Lobo, Susana A; Saraiva, Ligia M; McLean, Kirsty J; Munro, Andrew W; Ferguson, Stuart J; Pickersgill, Richard W; Brown, David G; Warren, Martin J

2014-01-01

56

The structure, function and properties of sirohaem decarboxylase--an enzyme with structural homology to a transcription factor family that is part of the alternative haem biosynthesis pathway.  

PubMed

Some bacteria and archaea synthesize haem by an alternative pathway, which involves the sequestration of sirohaem as a metabolic intermediate rather than as a prosthetic group. Along this pathway the two acetic acid side-chains attached to C12 and C18 are decarboxylated by sirohaem decarboxylase, a heterodimeric enzyme composed of AhbA and AhbB, to give didecarboxysirohaem. Further modifications catalysed by two related radical SAM enzymes, AhbC and AhbD, transform didecarboxysirohaem into Fe-coproporphyrin III and haem respectively. The characterization of sirohaem decarboxylase is reported in molecular detail. Recombinant versions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri?AhbA/B have been produced and their physical properties compared. The D. vulgaris and M. barkeri enzyme complexes both copurify with haem, whose redox state influences the activity of the latter. The kinetic parameters of the D. desulfuricans enzyme have been determined, the enzyme crystallized and its structure has been elucidated. The topology of the enzyme reveals that it shares a structural similarity to the AsnC/Lrp family of transcription factors. The active site is formed in the cavity between the two subunits and a AhbA/B-product complex with didecarboxysirohaem has been obtained. A mechanism for the decarboxylation of the kinetically stable carboxyl groups is proposed. PMID:24865947

Palmer, David J; Schroeder, Susanne; Lawrence, Andrew D; Deery, Evelyne; Lobo, Susana A; Saraiva, Ligia M; McLean, Kirsty J; Munro, Andrew W; Ferguson, Stuart J; Pickersgill, Richard W; Brown, David G; Warren, Martin J

2014-07-01

57

Structural and thermoelectric properties of pure and La, Y doped HoMnO3 for their use as alternative energy materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HoMnO3 and its La and Y doped compounds Ho0.67La0.33MnO3 and Ho0.67Y 0.33MnO3 are investigated for their structural and thermoelectric transport properties. Small bandgaps of these compounds, as investigated by first principles calculations, make them suitable for application in thermoelectric devices. It is found that the bandgap of pure HoMnO3 increases with La and Y dopants. Thermoelectric parameters such as Seebeck coefficient, electric conductivity and thermal conductivity are calculated and their dependences on chemical potential are reported. Electrical conductivity is found to be of the order of 1020  1/m ? s, and thermal conductivity of the order of 1015  W/mKs for all these alloys. HoMnO3 in pure form and in the presence of La and Y dopants is very suitable for thermoelectric devices and as alternative energy materials.

Khan, Banaras; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.; Razghandi, N.; Maqbool, M.; Jalali Asadabadi, S.; Ahmad, Iftikhar

2015-02-01

58

Alternative Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special double issue focuses on the issue of alternative assessment and its place in educational reform. "Alternative Assessment: A National Perspective" (T. Stefonek) emphasizes that the fundamental purposes of new assessment methods are grounded in educational goals, meaningful outcomes, and curricular and instructional programs promoting…

Stefonek, Tom; And Others

1991-01-01

59

Clearance of Human IgG1-Sensitised Red Blood Cells In Vivo in Humans Relates to the In Vitro Properties of Antibodies from Alternative Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC) were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human Fc?R, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the Fc?RI and Fc?RII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in Fc?RIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for Fc?RIIIa 158F, 20-fold for Fc?RIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for Fc?RIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with Fc?RIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where Fc?RI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only Fc?RIII binding and Fc?RIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of Fc?RIII in RBC clearance. PMID:25302805

Armour, Kathryn L.; Smith, Cheryl S.; Ip, Natasha C. Y.; Ellison, Cara J.; Kirton, Christopher M.; Wilkes, Anthony M.; Williamson, Lorna M.; Clark, Michael R.

2014-01-01

60

Alternative Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an alternative method of assessment, students create portfolios by submitting monthly entries that demonstrate and expand their understanding of science concepts. Teachers can also use the portfolios to assess the success of their teaching practices an

Penelope S. Valdez

2001-11-01

61

Alternative Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

2002-01-01

62

Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... that some of these treatment alternatives have no proven clinical effect. Regular exercise and relaxation techniques can ... use homeopathic remedies and dismiss valid therapies, delaying proven treatment for serious conditions. Holistic Treatments Holistic medicine ...

63

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

Piele, Philip K.

64

The inhibitor of differentiation isoform Id1b, generated by alternative splicing, maintains cell quiescence and confers self-renewal and cancer stem cell-like properties.  

PubMed

Id1 has been shown to play a critical role in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. Moreover, recent reports have involved Id1 in the maintenance of cancer stem cell features in some tumor types. The Id1 gene generates two isoforms through alternative splicing: Id1a and Id1b. We have investigated the role of each isoform in cancer development. Using lentiviral systems we modified the endogenous expression of each of these isoforms in cancer cells and analyzed their biological effect both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of Id1b in murine CT26 and 3LL cells caused a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and reduced proliferation, clonogenicity and phospho-ERK1/2 levels, while increasing p27 levels. High levels of Id1a had an opposite effect and the proportion of cells in the S phase increased significantly. In vivo models confirmed the inhibitory role of Id1b in primary tumor growth and metastasis. Through microarray analysis we found that the cancer stem cell (CSC) markers ALDH1A1 and Notch-1 were up-regulated specifically in Id1b-overexpressing cells. By using qPCR we also found overexpression of Sca-1, Tert, Sox-2 and Oct-4 in these cells. Increased levels of Id1b promoted self-renewal and CSC-like properties, as shown by their high capacity for developing secondary tumorspheres and retaining the PKH26 dye. The acquisition of CSC phenotype was confirmed in human PC-3 cells that overexpressed Id1b. Our results show that Id1b maintains cells in a quiescent state and promotes self-renewal and CSC-like features. On the contrary, Id1a promotes cell proliferation. PMID:25449776

Manrique, Irene; Nguewa, Paul; Bleau, Anne-Marie; Nistal-Villan, Estanislao; Lopez, Ines; Villalba, Maria; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; Calvo, Alfonso

2015-01-28

65

Alternative splicing in the fiddler crab cognate ecdysteroid receptor: variation in receptor isoform expression and DNA binding properties in response to hormone.  

PubMed

RXR cDNA cloning from three Uca species led to the identification of 4 conserved isoforms, indicative of alternative splicing in the hinge and ligand binding domains (LBD). Sequencing of overlapping clones from a Ucapugilator genomic library identified EcR isoforms matching previously identified cDNA variants; in addition, a cryptic exon in the LBD was detected and evidence for expression of this new isoform was obtained from next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq analysis also identified a new amino terminal EcR variant. EcR and RXR transcript abundance increases throughout ovarian maturation in U. pugilator, while cognate receptor transcript abundance remains constant in a related Indo-Pacific species with a different reproductive strategy. To examine if crab RXR LBD isoforms have different physical properties in vitro, electromobility shift assays were performed with different EcR isoforms. The cognate crab and fruit fly receptors differ in their responses to hormone. Ecdysteroids did not increase DNA binding for the crab heterodimers, while ecdysteroids stimulate binding for Drosophilamelanogaster EcR/USP heterodimers. In swapping experiments, UpEcR/USP heterodimers did not show ligand-responsive differences in DNA binding; both crab RXR LBD isoforms, however, conferred ligand-responsive increases in DNA binding with DmEcRs. These data indicate that both UpRXR LBD isoforms can heterodimerize with the heterologous DmEcR receptors and promote ligand and DNA binding. Unresponsiveness of the cognate receptors to ecdysteroid, however, suggest additional factors may be required to mediate endogenous, perhaps isoform-specific, differences in EcR conformation, consistent with previously reported effects of UpRXR isoforms on UpEcR ligand-binding affinities. PMID:25025945

Durica, David S; Das, Sunetra; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce; Phillips, Barret; Kappalli, Sudha; Anilkumar, Gopinathan

2014-09-15

66

Magnetostrictive Alternator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

67

Alternative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

Herman, Dan

1999-01-01

68

Alternative Conceptualizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

1992-01-01

69

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

Piele, Philip K.

70

Alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

1977-01-01

71

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting widespread unhappiness with the growing tax burdens in this country, the most active area of litigation reported in the property chapter this year involves various attempts by taxpayers to prevent the construction or remodeling of public school facilities. While some taxpayers fought to keep schools from being built, others in New York…

Piele, Philip K.

72

Property.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author notes that controversies over construction bids and contracts continue to represent the largest number of property cases reported in this year's chapter. Most of these cases are routine disputes between colleges or universities and contractors over such issues as the return of bid bonds, recovery of additional costs for construction…

Piele, Philip K.

73

Remarkable proanthocyanidin adsorption properties of monastrell pomace cell wall material highlight its potential use as an alternative fining agent in red wine production.  

PubMed

The existence of interactions between the polysaccharides of vegetal cell walls and proanthocyanins makes this cell wall material an interesting option for its use as a fining agent to reduce the level of proanthocyanins in wines. Pomace wastes from the winery are widely available and a source of cell wall material, and the identification of varieties whose pomace cell walls present high proanthocyanin binding capacity and of processing methods that could enhance their adsorption properties could be of great interest. This study compared the proanthocyanin adsorption properties of pomace cell wall material from three different grape varieties (Monastrell, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Syrah), and the results were compared with those obtained using fresh grape cell walls. Also, the effect of the vinification method has been studied. Analysis of the proanthocyanidins in the solution after reaction with the cell wall material, using phloroglucinolysis and size exclusion chromatography, provided quantitative and qualitative information on the adsorbed and nonadsorbed compounds. A highlight of this study was the observation that Monastrell pomace cell wall material showed a strong affinity for proanthocyanidins, with values similar to that obtained for fresh grapes cell walls, and a preferential binding of high molecular mass proanthocyanidins, so these pomace cell walls could be used in wines to reduce astringency. The use of maceration enzymes during vinification had little effect on the retention capacity of the pomace cell walls obtained from this vinification, although an increase in the retention of low molecular mass proanthocyanidins was observed, and this might have implications for wine sensory properties. PMID:25529053

Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Marín, Fátima; Molero, Noelia; Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

2015-01-21

74

Alternating-Current Transport Properties of the Interface between Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 Ceramic and a Ag Electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical transport properties of the interface between a Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 ceramic and a Ag electrode are investigated using the ac impedance over a wide temperature and frequency ranges. The ac impedance measurements give the compressed semicircle arcs at different temperatures, which are used for the analysis of different contributions to electrical transport based on an electrical equivalent circuit. A significant interface-dependent electroresistance effect of 530% is clearly developed around the metal-insulator transition temperature 130 K, which is confirmed as the interface-layer dependent Curie temperature by the plot of interfacial conductance with frequency at different temperatures.

Chen, Shun-Sheng; Yang, Chang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jing; Bärner, K.; Medvedeva, I. V.

2012-02-01

75

Synthesis and heteronuclear inclusion properties of a novel thiacalix[4]arene-based hard-soft receptor with 1,3- alternate conformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel thiacalix[4]arene ditopic receptor with 1,3-alternate conformation and possessing two complexation sites for hard and soft cations, 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis[(N,N-diethylaminocarbonyl)methoxy]-26,28-bis[(pyridylmethyl)oxy]-2,8,14,20-tetrathiacalix[4]arene is prepared. Regioselective\\u000a synthesis of distal-bis[(N,N-diethylaminocarbonyl)methoxy]thiacalix[4]arene is accomplished by a protection-deprotection method using benzyl groups as\\u000a a protecting group. The deprotection of benzyl group was succeeded in the presence of solid superacid (Nafion-H) under refluxing\\u000a benzene. Its complexation behavior is examined

Xin-long Ni; Hirotsugu Tomiyasu; Tomoe Shimizu; Carol Pérez-Casas; Zeng Xi; Takehiko Yamato

2010-01-01

76

Alternative approaches to plasma confinement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.

Roth, J. R.

1977-01-01

77

Optical devices having flakes suspended in a host fluid to provide a flake/fluid system providing flakes with angularly dependent optical properties in response to an alternating current electric field due to the dielectric properties of the system  

DOEpatents

Optical devices utilizing flakes (also called platelets) suspended in a host fluid have optical characteristics, such as reflective properties, which are angular dependent in response to an AC field. The reflectivity may be Bragg-like, and the characteristics are obtained through the use of flakes of liquid crystal material, such as polymer liquid crystal (PLC) materials including polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) and polymer nematic liquid crystal (PNLC) material or birefringent polymers (BP). The host fluid may be propylene carbonate, poly(ethylene glycol) or other fluids or fluid mixtures having fluid conductivity to support conductivity in the flake/host system. AC field dependent rotation of 90.degree. can be obtained at rates and field intensities dependent upon the frequency and magnitude of the AC field. The devices are useful in providing displays, polarizers, filters, spatial light modulators and wherever switchable polarizing, reflecting, and transmission properties are desired.

Kosc, Tanya Z. (Rochester, NY); Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY); Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY)

2006-05-09

78

27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol...SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale. (a) Sale by auction or...

2010-04-01

79

Community alternatives to psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, individuals are turning to and being confronted by alternatives to dynamically-oriented therapy. Among these alternative change systems are alternative therapies such as Alcoholics Anonymous, and alternatives to therapy, such as the spiritual approaches based on various meditations. There are important theoretical conflicts between dynamic therapy and these alternatives. However, combinations of dynamic therapy and these alternatives are being forged

Richard Katz; Edward Rolde

1981-01-01

80

Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3} textured ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The influence of alternating (ac) and direct current (dc) fields on the structural and dielectric properties of [001]{sub PC} textured Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-7%BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-7%BT) ceramics has been investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the depolarization at temperature T{sub d} in poled samples resulted from a tetragonal {yields} pseudo-cubic transition on heating. Moderate ac drive and dc bias had opposite influences on T{sub d}: ac drive decreased the T{sub d}, whereas dc bias increased it. These investigations suggested an effective method to expand the working temperature range of NBT-x%BT textured ceramics to a high temperature.

Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Maurya, Deepam; Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

2013-06-03

81

Alternative aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

1978-01-01

82

ALTERNATIVE MARKOV PROPERTIES FOR CHAIN GRAPHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphical Markov models use graphs, either undirected, directed, or mixed, to rep- resent possible dependences among statistical variables. Applications of undirected graphs (UGs) include models for spatial dependence and image analysis, while acyclic directed graphs (ADGs), which are especiallyconvenient for statistical analysis, arise in such fields as genetics and psychometrics and as models for expert systems and Bayesian belief networks.

Steen A. Andersson; David Madigan; Michael D. Perlman

1999-01-01

83

Fuel properties of biodiesel from alternative feedstocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Defined as monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids prepared from plant oils, animal fats, or other lipids, advantages of biodiesel over conventional petroleum diesel fuel include derivation from renewable and domestic feedstocks, superior lubricity and biodegradability, higher cetane number and f...

84

November 2008 Alternative Energy  

E-print Network

on conventional fossil fuels even further. Two questions then naturally arise: which alternative energyNovember 2008 Alternative Energy Technologies for BC R.L. Evans CleaN eNergy researCh CeNtre, UNiversity of british ColUmbia PaCifiC iNstitUte for Climate solUtioNs AlternAtive energy #12;Pacific

Pedersen, Tom

85

A new quenching alternative  

SciTech Connect

The quenching of ferrous alloys implies the controlled extraction of heat from a part at a rate sufficient to harden the part and still control the desired dimensional limitations. Quenchants in common use today are: molten metals, molten salts, petroleum oils, polymer solutions, water, and salt/water solutions. Each type of quenchant has its benefits and limitations. With current waste legislation and the trends toward environmentally friendlier industrial working fluids, many of these quenching products are coming under close scrutiny by the users and legislators. The most widely used quenchant is petroleum oil due to its favorable heat extraction characteristics. The dependence upon imports, price vulnerability, and contamination potential have caused suppliers and users to look into alternative products. Research into renewable resource, non-petroleum, vegetable oils has been going on globally for several years. The drawbacks encountered with many vegetable oils were widely known and only years of research enabled them to be overcome. The presently formulated product not only performs as well as petroleum oil but shows some characteristics better than those of the petroleum products, especially in the biodegradability and ecological aspects of the products. Stability and reproducible quenching properties have been proven with over two and one half years of field testing.

Brennan, R.J.; Faulkner, C.H. [Houghton International, Valley Forge, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

86

Alternative and Integrative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... from, the development of conventional medicine. Examples include: Traditional Medicine: These alternative medicine systems often are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is ...

87

Center for Alternative Fuels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The success of the HEV programs under this grant prompted Macomb to launch this resource, the Center for Alternative Fuels. The center holds forums in which academic and industry experts discuss the technical and societal impact of alternative fuels.

88

Centre for Alternative Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CAT is an environmental nonprofit that promotes sustainable living. Its key areas of work are renewable energy, environmental building, energy efficiency, organic growing and alternative sewage systems. The group offers workshops on alternative energy, including wind, solar, and microhydroelectric.

89

NEW CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVES TO CHLOROFLOUROCARBONS AND HALONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a determination of the basic properties of laboratory quantities of potential alternative compounds which may be used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons listed in the "Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer." he property te...

90

Industry experience with alternative methods.  

PubMed

L'OREAL has been using alternative methods for almost 30 years and this has led to their current widespread in-house use for evaluation of local effects in safety and efficacy. Alternative methods are used daily to assess eye and skin tolerance, phototoxicity, photoprotection, skin sensitization, percutaneous absorption and skin and hair care. For eye irritation, many years of in-house studies have enabled us to develop and to select the most reliable tests. New in vitro methods have also been developed to help to understand the ocular irritation mechanisms which underlie the irritative properties of new chemicals. In the field of skin irritation, L'OREAL's work has focused mainly on the wide possibilities offered by reconstructed human skins to evaluate the skin tolerance of cosmetics. Today we have managed to introduce Langerhans cells in reconstructed epidermis to develop an alternative to skin sensitization. Besides these in-house investigations either in research or in evaluation, our laboratories have contributed actively to multicentric studies to help the prevalidation/validation process in various fields. The alternative approach is now totally integrated into the safety evaluation strategy, and this allowed L'OREAL to totally ban animal testing on cosmetic products several years ago. In vitro alternatives are very powerful tools: they allow the study of fine mechanisms and the use of human cells. This overall 'in vitro' approach is a scientific, ethical and industrial breakthrough. PMID:10022316

LeClaire, J; de Silva, O

1998-12-28

91

ALTERNATIVE SPRING BREAK!  

E-print Network

SIGN UP TODAY! ALTERNATIVE SPRING BREAK! The Community Service Center, Boston University's volunteer hub, just keeps growing. Lining Up toServe BOSTON UNIVERSITY Spring 2009 SIGN UP TODAY! ALTERNATIVE SPRING BREAK! #12;BUParentSpring2009 1 SIGN UP TODAY! ALTERNATIVE SPRING BREAK! Features 5 Online

Goldberg, Bennett

92

Current Alternative Engine Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, methyl and ethyl alcohols, hydrogen, biodiesel, boron, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, p-series, electricity, and solar fuels were concluded as alternative engine fuels. Alternative engine fuels are competitive fuels to petroleum. These fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. There are many benefits the environment, economy and consumers in using alternative fuels.

MUSTAFA BALAT

2005-01-01

93

The Alternate Atomic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternate atomic model posits concentric electron and nucleon fields spinning together about an empty center. It is alternative to the generally accepted planetary system in which electron point particles orbit about a center clump of nucleon point particles. Introduced in 1992 as an alternative to the standard model of the nucleus it applies scientific space-time knowledge unknown when the

Evan Ragland

2008-01-01

94

Depleted uranium management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

1994-08-01

95

Alternative Certification Isn't Alternative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While nearly all states now have something on their books labeled "alternate route to certification," these programs defy standard definition due to their enormous variability. States differ in the types of candidates allowed to apply (e.g., career changers or recent college graduates) and in the academic backgrounds these individuals must…

Walsh, Kate; Jacobs, Sandi

2007-01-01

96

Anticommuting space : an alternative formulation of the wavefunction antisymmetry description  

E-print Network

alternating application. In this section we present some properties of a linear alternating space [11. An r-linear application f : E x ... x E -+ 91 is called alternating when whenever the sequence (e 1 is a r-linear alternating application. Since we have an ordered basis (y,, ..., y.) at E, for each

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

A Study of School Finance: Local Property Tax Burden Variance, Alternative Finance Formulas and/or Formula Adjustments, Cost-of-Living and Cost-of-Education Education Index. Report to the Legislative Budget Board and The Sixty-Eighth Legislature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three basic issues were examined in this study: (1) the variance in the purchasing power of the dollar among Texas school districts, (2) the variance in local property tax burden among Texas school districts, and (3) consideration of alternative Texas school finance formulas. Data used were from the data banks of the Texas Education Agency and…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

98

Alternate drop pulse polarography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

1976-01-01

99

On an Alternative Cosmology  

E-print Network

The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

A. Vankov

1998-11-10

100

Alternative solar indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

Lantz, L. J.

1980-07-01

101

Alternator insulation evaluation tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

1972-01-01

102

Alternating to Direct: Rectifying Alternating Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this activity for classes learning about diodes and electrical currents. The laboratory illustrates how diodes can be used to rectify alternating current. It uses a galvanometer to determine the direction of current flow when an AC or DC current is applied to the circuit containing a diode in series with a resistor and a galvanometer.The lesson includes step by step directions for the experiment.The activity should require about 20-30 minutes of class time to complete. Discussion questions and teacher notes are included.

103

Normetex Pump Alternatives Study  

SciTech Connect

A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying resistances to ionizing radiation - aromatic polymers such as polyimide Vespel (TM) and the elastomer EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) have been found to be more resistant to degradation in tritium than other polymers. This report presents information to help select replacement pumps for Normetex pumps in tritium systems. Several pumps being considered as Normetex replacement pumps are discussed.

Clark, E.

2013-04-25

104

ALTERNATIVES TO RESEARCH PAPERS  

E-print Network

ALTERNATIVES TO RESEARCH PAPERS Compiled by Kathy Labadorf kathy.labadorf@uconn.edu December 30, 2010 Creative alternatives to traditional research papers: Undergrads and Scholarly Communication The ability to write a finely crafted, well documented, and thought provoking research paper is a hallmark

Alpay, S. Pamir

105

Developing Alternative Assessment Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two case studies describe the development of alternative assessment within urban North Carolina elementary schools, examining each assessment development process, identifying commonalities and differences, and relating real-world endeavors to the change process. The studies argue for placing alternative assessment on the school reform agenda,…

Hudson, Martha B.; Penta, Mary Q.

1998-01-01

106

Teaching (With) Alternative Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines a variety of approaches to teaching about and with alternative media across a media studies curriculum. I locate this discussion in the context of ongoing debates surrounding the theory and practice of critical media literacy (Kellner and Share, 2005; Lewis and Jhally, 1998). The essay proceeds with examples of teaching (with) alternative media in two courses: an

Kevin Howley

107

Alternative Retirement Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative college retirement programs and features of a desirable retirement program are discussed. The historical, social, and economic forces that prompt institutions to consider alternative programs are identified. The present position of college faculty in terms of retirement options is also addressed. Since its inception, the Teachers…

Hogan, John D.

1984-01-01

108

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

2013-01-01

109

Alternative Work Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and…

Kuehn, Kerri L.

2004-01-01

110

Alternative Automobile Engines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

Wilson, David Gordon

1978-01-01

111

ALTERNATIVE DEER FENCES  

E-print Network

ALTERNATIVE DEER FENCES IN CORE CAPERCAILLIE and BLACK GROUSE HABITATS AN INTERIM BEST GUIDANCE, Surrey, GU10 4LH 2 RSPB Scotland, Dunedin House, 25 Ravelston Terrace, Edinburgh, EH4 3TP #12;2 Purpose in core woodland grouse habitats. As an alternative strategy, various materials have been fixed onto deer

112

Complex Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a powerful means of controlling gene expression and increasing protein diversity. Most genes express a limited number of mRNA isoforms, but there are several examples of genes that use alternative splicing to generate hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of isoforms. Collectively such genes are considered to undergo complex alternative splicing. The best example is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene, which can generate 38,016 isoforms by the alternative splicing of 95 variable exons. In this review, we will describe several genes that use complex alternative splicing to generate large repertoires of mRNAs and what is known about the mechanisms by which they do so. PMID:18380340

Park, Jung Woo; Graveley, Brenton R.

2015-01-01

113

Alternative fuel transit buses  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K. [and others

1996-10-01

114

Alternate policies for alternate energy sources  

SciTech Connect

Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

Hall, F.F.

1985-09-01

115

Alternatives for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excerpts from a study conducted for the Rhode Island Special Commission to Study the Entire Field of Education outlining a criteria for public policy and suggesting alternatives regarding public support of nonpublic education. (LN)

Brickell, Henry M.

1970-01-01

116

Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Standard care is ... such as nurses and physical therapists, practice. Complementary medicine is used together with standard medical care. An ...

117

Alternating projections on manifolds  

E-print Network

Jul 27, 2006 ... By contrast, for nonconvex sets, the projection mapping can no longer ..... consider two manifolds M and N in the space E, and study the alternating projection sequence ...... Journal of the Optical Society of America,. 19(7) ...

2006-07-27

118

Some Natural Pesticide Alternatives  

MedlinePLUS

... Pest Management web site. http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ipm.htm City of Tucson/ Pima County ... Grant Road Printed on recycled paper. SOME NATURAL PESTICIDE ALTERNATIVES For the safety of you, your family ...

119

Enhanced next generation alternator  

E-print Network

The power requirements of automotive alternators are increasing significantly due to the introduction of new vehicle electrical loads. Moreover, the possible transition to a 42 V electrical system is introducing new concerns ...

Lorilla, Leandro M. (Leandro Manalac), 1977-

2005-01-01

120

Alternative energy design toolkit  

E-print Network

This thesis concerns the concepts, structure, and applications of the Alternative Energy Design Toolkit. The toolkit is aimed to provide a widely accessible, easy to use, flexible, yet powerful modeling environment for ...

Sukkasi, Sittha

2004-01-01

121

Seal design alternatives study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

1993-06-01

122

Alternative and Complementary Therapies  

MedlinePLUS

... always designed to treat a particular illness: Some alternative therapies treat the whole person, not an illness. They might restore harmony, balance, or normal energy flow. Acupuncturists, for example, use the pulse to ...

123

Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... of artificial lenses. Following are some of the alternative refractive surgery procedures to LASIK . Wavefront-Guided LASIK ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

124

SOLVENT WASTE REDUCTION ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication contains edited versions of presentations on this subject made at five Technology Transfer seminars in 1988. Chapters are included on land disposal regulations and requirements; waste solvent disposal alternatives from various industries such as process equipment...

125

Alternating proximal regularized dictionary learning.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for dictionary learning that is based on the alternating proximal algorithm studied by Attouch, Bolte, Redont, and Soubeyran (2010), coupled with a reliable and efficient dual algorithm for computation of the related proximity operators. This algorithm is suitable for a general dictionary learning model composed of a Bregman-type data fit term that accounts for the goodness of the representation and several convex penalization terms on the coefficients and atoms, explaining the prior knowledge at hand. As Attouch et al. recently proved, an alternating proximal scheme ensures better convergence properties than the simpler alternating minimization. We take care of the issue of inexactness in the computation of the involved proximity operators, giving a sound stopping criterion for the dual inner algorithm, which keeps under control the related errors, unavoidable for such a complex penalty terms, providing ultimately an overall effective procedure. Thanks to the generality of the proposed framework, we give an application in the context of genome-wide data understanding, revising the model proposed by Nowak, Hastie, Pollack, and Tibshirani (2011). The aim is to extract latent features (atoms) and perform segmentation on array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data. We improve several important aspects that increase the quality and interpretability of the results. We show the effectiveness of the proposed model with two experiments on synthetic data, which highlight the enhancements over the original model. PMID:25248086

Salzo, Saverio; Masecchia, Salvatore; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa

2014-12-01

126

Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

2011-01-01

127

Alternative therapies for headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Although alternative therapies are widely used for the treatment of headache disorders, physicians often know little about\\u000a the available options or about the risks and benefits of the treatments their patients may already be using. Alternative treatments\\u000a or complementary medicine can provide significant benefit for the headache sufferers, be neutral, distract the headache patient\\u000a from using more effective therapies,

William B. Young; Patricia Pozo-Rosich; Mary F. Paolone

2003-01-01

128

Alternative Energy Evaluation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from Misty Scevola serves as an assessment of student knowledge of alternative energy technologies. This document would be useful for instructors looking to expand their students' knowledge of alternative energy and sustainability. The document is intended to be used twice: once before learning about the concepts outlined, and once after the class has been completed. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Scevola, Misty

129

Alternative Addition Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores recall of multiple alternative addition strategies of two-digit numbers. The lesson focus is to encourage students to use more than one strategy to solve addition problems. By reinforcing the multiple alternative addition strategies students will develop a strong understanding of addition structures and mechanics before moving on to three-digit addition. The lesson includes making an Addition Strategies Mini Booklet, which students can keep and use as a reference tool.

Judith Scapecchi

2012-07-31

130

Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development  

SciTech Connect

This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels. Thailand is of particular interest since it introduced E20 to its commercial market in 2007 and the US is now considering introducing E20 into the US market.

Bloyd, Cary N.

2010-06-30

131

35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION  

E-print Network

35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California Chapter 4 ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION FUELS IN CALIFORNIA INTRODUCTION The introduction of alternative fuels into California's transportation market has resources remains an appropriate objective. Developing and commercializing alternative fuels is one

132

REACT: Alternatives to Critical Materials in Magnets  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s REACT Project, short for “Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies”, are developing cost-effective alternatives to rare earths, the naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. The REACT projects will identify low-cost and abundant replacement materials for rare earths while encouraging existing technologies to use them more efficiently. These alternatives would facilitate the widespread use of EVs and wind power, drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

None

2012-01-01

133

MSAT an alternative choice?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of potential applications are described of MSAT that use the unique properties of this transportation mechanism. Emphasis is placed on the market introduction strategy for the North American system.

Fagan, K. E.; Elmer, C.

1990-01-01

134

MSAT an alternative choice?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of potential applications are described of MSAT that use the unique properties of this transportation mechanism. Emphasis is placed on the market introduction strategy for the North American system.

Fagan, K. E.; Elmer, C.

135

Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development  

SciTech Connect

This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. Thailand has continued to work to promote increased consumption of gasohol especially for highethanol content fuels like E85. The government has confirmed its effort to draw up incentives for auto makers to invest in manufacturing E85-compatible vehicles in the country. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels.

Bloyd, Cary N.; Stork, Kevin

2011-02-01

136

Alternative Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to the most common alternative energy sources that they may encounter in electronic work including fuel cells, solar power, and ultracapacitors. The module includes course materials covering each of these alternative energy sources along with three "Knowledge Probes" which provide an opportunity for students to master the objectives of the module. By clicking on "Learning Resources" at the top of the page, users will also find supplemental learning activities and additional resources for practice and research. The module also includes a glossary of terms and a notebook function.

137

Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This Federal Technology Alert on alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), is intended for fleet managers in government agencies and other government officials who need to use more alternative fuels and AFVs in their fleets of cars and trucks. This publication describes the government's plans and progress in meeting goals for the use of AFVs, which are stated in the Energy Policy Act and various Executive Orders. It describes the types of AFVs available, lists actual and potential federal uses, makes some general recommendations, and presents field experiences to date.

Not Available

2003-09-01

138

Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

1982-01-01

139

Alternative Linear Chiral Models for Nuclear Matter  

E-print Network

The equation of state of a family of alternative linear chiral models in the mean field approximation is discussed. We investigate the analogy between some of these models with current models in the literature, and we show that it is possible to reproduce very well the saturation properties of nuclear matter.

A. Delfino; F. S. Navarra; M. Nielsen; R. B. Prandini; M. Chiapparini

1998-06-05

140

Making a Non-animal Alternative Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the author's decision to help a student find alternatives to performing several terminal experiments on animals in a college physiology class. Replacement exercises used for studying the properties of muscle types are described. Details about the difficulties and successes of the entire experience are reported. (KR)

Zawistowski, Stephen

1990-01-01

141

ALTERNATIVE SEWER STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of design and operational aspects for two popular alternative sewering techniques, i.e., pressure and small-diameter gravity sewers, was performed. The results provided insights useful to designers of these systems with regard to sulfide concentrations in these sewe...

142

Alternative congestion pricing schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important that alternative congestion pricing schedules are compared with respect to a broad spectrum of their effects. This paper uses an equilibrium simulation model of peak-period commuting along an urban highway to compare quantitatively both positive and normative effects of six congestion pricing schedules. Three of these schedules have been investigated qualitatively in the literature; the others are

Xuehao Chu

1999-01-01

143

Compensated pulsed alternator  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX); Driga, Mircea D. (Austin, TX); Woodson, Herbert H. (Austin, TX)

1980-01-01

144

Alternative Break Service Trips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even as educators understand how their millennial students learn in such different ways than previous generations (watching how-to videos downloaded from YouTube or engaging in experiential learning adventures), colleges still rely heavily on in-the-classroom learning. The author can't offer an alternative to this classroom format, but she…

DuPre, Carrie

2010-01-01

145

Multiclass Alternating Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternating decision tree (ADTree) is a successful clas- sication technique that combines decision trees with the predictive ac- curacy of boosting into a set of interpretable classication rules. The original formulation of the tree induction algorithm restricted atten- tion to binary classication problems. This paper empirically evaluates several wrapper methods for extending the algorithm to the multiclass case by

Geoffrey Holmes; Bernhard Pfahringer; Richard Kirkby; Eibe Frank; Mark Hall

2002-01-01

146

Fuel Alternatives to Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all motor vehicles today are powered by either gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The main alternative fuels include vegetable oil degradation products, alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, and electricity. Methanol and

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

147

Canadian alternative fuels activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada, along with Italy and New Zealand, promotes domestic natural gas as a motor vehicle fuel. Government grants and gas utility loan programs encourage conversion of commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG) and the establishment of a network of public access refueling stations, where business is good. In addition to buses, alternative fuels activities include a 26-car ferry, locomotives,

McCoy

2009-01-01

148

Alternatives in solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

Schueler, D. G.

1978-01-01

149

Alternative energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising.

M. S. Dresselhaus; I. L. Thomas

2001-01-01

150

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative

Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

2006-01-01

151

Energy conversion alternatives study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

Shure, L. T.

1979-01-01

152

Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

1977-01-01

153

Spent fuel storage alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares a small onsite wet storage pool to a dry cask storage facility in order to determine what type of spent fuel storage alternatives would best serve the utilities in consideration of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The Act allows the DOE to provide a total of 1900 metric tons (MT) of additional spent fuel storage

R. H. OConnell; M. A. Bowidowicz

1983-01-01

154

ALTERNATIVE FUELS RESEARCH STRATEGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this document was to lay a foundation for developing the scientific information needed to compare the benefits and risks of various motor vehicle fuels, especially alternative and reformulated fuels in relation to conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. Among the f...

155

Augmentative & Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

Murphy, Patti

2007-01-01

156

Alternatives to Evolutionism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses alternative theories to evolutionism. Five theories are mentioned, but most attention is given to the steady state theory of species which the author considers the most suitable partner for Darwinism in O- and A-level biology courses in the United Kingdom. (HM)

Harper, G. H.

1979-01-01

157

Alternative Energy Busing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

LaFee, Scott

2012-01-01

158

Agglomeration — the practical alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods of agglomeration are offered as viable alternatives to spray drying. Equipment used includes horizontal mixers,\\u000a orbital screw mixers, batch drum mixers, continuous two-stage rotary drum mixers, V-shaped twin shell batch mixers, and continuous\\u000a zig-zag mixers.

S. A. Kuti

1978-01-01

159

Insects: A nutritional alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

Dufour, P. A.

1981-01-01

160

Funerals: Alternatives and Arrangements.  

E-print Network

,_ . \\ J Funerals: Alternatives and Arrangements Since ancient times, death ceremonies have been held to honor the dead and help survivors cope with their grief. In the United States, two kinds of ceremonies after death are used - funerals.... The funeral, usually held within 3 days after the death, takes place in a church, synagogue, funeral home or other designated place, and can be either a reli gious or secular ritual. Traditionally, funeral services are followed by a brief committal...

McCormick, Linda J.; Kerbel, Claudia M.

1981-01-01

161

Complementary and Alternative Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a More and more people are employing complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to treat their illnesses. A survey of English-speaking\\u000a patients found that 42.1% used at least 1 of 16 specific CAM therapies during a 12-month period (1). In this study population,\\u000a visits to CAM practitioners exceeded total visits to primary care physicians, and more than 50% of the patients had

Erin L. Arnold; William J. Arnold

162

Alternatives to Antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens has stimulated a need to find alternatives to antimicrobials. Currently, no\\u000a single treatment is available that can eliminate the need for antimicrobials; particularly for immunocompromised individuals.\\u000a Prudent use to protocols have been called for to decrease the consumption of antimicrobials. This includes the use to antimicrobials\\u000a for individuals clinically diagnosed with bacterial infections and

Toni L. Poole; Todd R. Callaway; David J. Nisbet

163

Alternative Assessment Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excerpt from Reading Teacher's Book of Lists describes alternative ways to assess students, including using journals, portfolios, re-tellings, reading logs, and checklists. Descriptions of the best practices to use with any of these evaluation techniques and how to make the process work for both students and teachers are provided. This resource is aimed for use in the classroom and is intended for K-12 teachers.

164

Alternative Energy Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website has 23 lesson plans in alternative energy developed by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The lesson plans include the following topics: the photoelectric effect, efficiency of energy conversion, the photoelectric effect in photocells, chemical consequences of burning fossil fuels, The Geology of Oil and Coal, environmental pollution, Where Do Plants Get Their Food?, considerations in heating a house, and many more valuable and useful classroom lessons.

165

Alternation in Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study competing-prover one-round interactive proofsystems. We show that one-round proof systems inwhich the first prover is trying to convince a verifierto accept and the second prover is trying to make theverifier reject recognize languages in NEXPTIME, and,with restrictions on communication and randomness,languages in NP. We extended the restricted model toan alternating sequence of k competing provers, whichwe show characterizes

Marcos A. Kiwi; Carsten Lund; Alexander Russell; Daniel A. Spielman; Ravi Sundaram

1994-01-01

166

MANOVA versus alternative methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a powerful tool in analysing multivariate data of multi-factorial experiments. However one of the assumptions in MANOVA requires the data to be normally distributed. This study concerned with the violation of this assumption, particularly when the data are either moderately non-normal or extremely non-normal. Possible alternative methods of handling such data are (i) permutational MANOVA (PMANOVA) or (ii) analysis of distance (AoD). Both of these alternative methods were compared with MANOVA via Monte Carlo experiments using the power of tests. The experiments focussed on testing interaction effects by incorporating different data types (i.e. having multivariate normal distribution, moderately non-normal and extremely non-normal), three level of inter-variable correlations (low: 0.25, medium: 0.5 and high: 0.75), two designs (small: 3×3 and large: 7×7) and two sample sizes (2 and 5 replicates). Overall, the results revealed that irrespective of the data types and the level of inter-variable correlations MANOVA performed satisfactorily in situations having larger sample size (5 replicates). In these situations, no alternative method is necessary. However, in small design with high inter-variable correlations PMANOVA performed slightly better. In small samples (2 replicates), AoD outperformed both MANOVA and PMANOVA. This is especially true in situation having small sample (2 replicates), large design and highly correlated inter-variables.

Yatim, Bidin; Ismail, Suzilah

2014-12-01

167

Alternative futures lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternative futures studies are a valuable yet resource-intensive way in which environmental scientists try to conduct informed debates about policies for specific geographic regions. These studies require modeling what the future would look like if different stakeholder groups had their way. The modeling is carried out by applying historical trend data to future projections that are rooted in the preferences of the different groups. Alternative future studies can be controversial due to the limitations of modeling and to the extent to which the models represent fully the different possible scenarios. Yet, they can be especially valuable for decision making about which areas in the region would be most appropriate and most acceptable for the applications of different policies such as development and restoration. Through a series of hands-on classroom activities that are the culmination of a variety of field trips, case studies, and analyses of GIS data about river systems and river restoration options, the students build deep understanding about what alternative futures studies entail and what are the applications of such studies to specific rivers in the Puget Sound area.

Dan Zalles

168

State alternative route designations  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

Not Available

1989-07-01

169

State alternative route designations  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

Not Available

1989-07-01

170

Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-3 Natrona County, Wyoming. Addendum to 22 August 1996 study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-3  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Natrona County, Wyoming. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and surface rights in 9,321-acre NPR-3. This property comprises the Teapot Dome oil field and related production, processing and other facilities. Discovered in 1914, this field has 632 wells producing 1,807 barrels of oil per day. Production revenues are about $9.5 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 1.3 million barrels of oil. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present.

NONE

1997-05-01

171

Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

172

Intermetallics as alternative materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aluminum containing intermetallics have B2 cubic crystal structures, exist over a wide range of composition, have large solubilities for third element alloying additions, are capable of both low and high temperature plastic flow, and have very high melting temperatures (approximately 1900 K) except for FeAl. The slow strain rate elevated temperature properties of Fe, Ni, and Co aluminides are investigated. Because of the reported difficulties with traditional melting/casting methods, sound polycrystalling materials are fabricated by hot extrusion of steel canned blended prealloyed powders. These binary aluminides are used to develop base line elevated temperature mechanical properties as well as an understanding of the factors which affect/control the strength and ductility.

Whittenberger, J. D.

1982-01-01

173

Lubricants for CFC alternates  

SciTech Connect

With the recent development and introduction of environmentally preferred refrigerants as substitutes for HCFC`s, a number of new classes of companion compressor lubricants also have been offered. In contrast to the former compressor lubricants which were derived from petroleum based stocks, the new lubricants are synthetic products, initially designed to provide miscibilities and solubilities similar to the CFC/mineral oil predecessors. Rather than review the classes of lubricants being evaluated and used for different types of refrigeration machinery, this paper will address longer term benefits and challenges related to the introduction of synthetic compressor lubricants such as polyesters, polyolesters, polyalkalene glycols and polycarbonates. Within these families of synthetic fluids, large selections of chemical structures are available, each with unique physical and chemical properties. Of course all of the lubricants must meet general requirements of compressor oils with respect to flammability, pour point, volatility, toxicity, etc., but beyond these minimum requirements, there are technical options for tailoring lubricant structures to optimize certain lubricant (and thus lubricant/refrigerant) properties such as vapor pressure, solubility, viscosity, viscosity index, miscibility, moisture absorption, additive response and biodegradability. Basic studies to predict lubricant/refrigerant mixture properties based on chemical structure of the components are recommended. A number of practical challenges in the selection and application of new lubricants and new working fluids will be discussed including standards for bench screening tests and compressor tests, guidelines for lubricant handling during recovery and servicing of equipment and the potential for reprocessing compressor lubricants.

Spauschus, H.O. [Spauschus Associates, Inc., Stockbridge, GA (United States)

1995-12-01

174

Analyzing Replacement Stock Alternatives  

E-print Network

1 Analyzing Replacement Stock Alternatives Risk Management E-469 RM1-4.0 10-08 *Professor and Extension Economist?Management, The Texas A&M System. The economic rules used to determine whether to keep or replace a cow or any other breeding... what a cow is worth? The answer is not always as simple as what you have to pay for a cow of similar age and quality at your local auction barn. In fact, a cow is just like a machine in a factory in that she has both a productive value and a...

Falconer, Lawrence; McGrann, James M.; Parker, John; Jones, Rodney

2008-10-21

175

Complementary and Alternative Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a Complementary and alternative therapies are popular and widely used among patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a Marketing and word of mouth, ready availability, and interest in “natural” treatments contribute to their popularity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a ? Scientific basis and clinical trails of most therapies is limited or lacking.

Erin L. Arnold; William J. Arnold

176

Electricity - The Alternative  

E-print Network

ELECTRICITY - THE ALTERNATIVE J. A. Watson, P.E. Ohio Edison Company Akron, Ohio ABSTRACT Energy has played a significant role in the history of this nation. Until the 1970s, little thought was given to energy by consumers. Changes.... This resulted in substantial econo ic effect on the cost of oil and other forms of energy as well. In the last eight years, inflation as averaged 8.9% per year. Electricity purcha ed by commercial/industrial customers of 0 io Edison Company has increased...

Watson, J. A.

1982-01-01

177

Complementary and Alternative Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Complementary and alternative medicine encompasses a wide array of interventions, including diets, dietary supplements,\\u000a and herbal products.\\u000a \\u000a • Scientific evidence does not support a substantial role of special diets in the treatment of the majority of patients with\\u000a rheumatic disease, but various dietary manipulations may be beneficial when combined with standard medical therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • Long-term safety of dietary and

Kevin Khaw; Sharon L. Kolasinski

178

Review of alternative fuels data bases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on an analysis of the interaction of fuel physical and chemical properties with combustion characteristics and indicators, a ranking of the importance of various fuel properties with respect to the combustion process was established. This ranking was used to define a suite of specific experiments whose objective is the development of an alternative fuels design data base. Combustion characteristics and indicators examined include droplet and spray formation, droplet vaporization and burning, ignition and flame stabilization, flame temperature, laminar flame speed, combustion completion, soot emissions, NOx and SOx emissions, and the fuels' thermal and oxidative stability and fouling and corrosion characteristics. Key fuel property data is found to include composition, thermochemical data, chemical kinetic rate information, and certain physical properties.

Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

1983-01-01

179

Alternative sources of natural rubber.  

PubMed

Rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is one of the most important polymers naturally produced by plants because it is a strategic raw material used in more than 40,000 products, including more than 400 medical devices. The sole commercial source, at present, is natural rubber harvested from the Brazilian rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. Primarily due to its molecular structure and high molecular weight (> 1 million daltons) this rubber has high performance properties that cannot easily be mimicked by artificially produced polymers, such as those derived from, e.g., bacterial poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). These high performance properties include resilience, elasticity, abrasion resistance, efficient heat dispersion (minimizing heat build-up under friction), and impact resistance. Medical rubber gloves need to fit well, be break-resistant, allow the wearer to retain fine tactile sensation, and provide an effective barrier against pathogens. The sum of all these characteristics cannot yet be achieved using synthetic gloves. The lack of biodiversity in natural rubber production renders continuity of supply insecure, because of the risk of crop failure, diminishing acreage, and other disadvantages outlined below. A search for alternative sources of natural rubber production has already resulted in a large number of interesting plants and prospects for immediate industrial exploitation of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) as a source of high quality latex. Metabolic engineering will permit the production of new crops designed to accumulate new types of valued isoprenoid metabolites, such as rubber and carotenoids, and new combinations extractable from the same crop. Currently, experiments are underway to genetically improve guayule rubber production strains in both quantitative and qualitative respects. Since the choice for gene activities to be introduced or changed is under debate, we have set up a complementary approach to guayule with yeast species, which may more quickly show the applicability and relevance of genes selected. Although economic considerations may prevent commercial exploitation of new rubber-producing microorganisms, transgenic yeasts and bacteria may yield intermediate or alternative (poly-)isoprenes suitable for specific applications. PMID:10803889

Mooibroek, H; Cornish, K

2000-04-01

180

Exploring new energy alternatives.  

SciTech Connect

What is most likely to satisfy our energy needs in the future - wind farms and photovoltaic arrays, or something yet to be invented? Options for the world's energy future may include surprises, thanks to innovative research under way around the world. The article focuses on the energy sources alternatives in the U.S. It explores innovations for energy sources such as wind farms, solar thermal concentrators, solar cells, and geothermal energy production. It states that the attainment of energy efficiency through conversation or improved technology allows to extract more applied energy. It points out that techniques are being explored to expand the possible fuel materials to includes other types of uranium and thorium. Furthermore, it discusses the capability of nanotechnology in offering a tool which could help create designs that convert energy more efficiently.

LePoire, D.J. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-09-01

181

Alternative Energy COLLEGE of ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

Alternative Energy technology COLLEGE of ENGINEERING AlternativeEnergyTechnologyProgram Collegeof program and alternative energy technology master's degree program t One of 23 U.S. PACE institutions to a alternative energy technology degree. The EDGE program trains engineering students in the entrepreneurial

Berdichevsky, Victor

182

Alternative Fuels Research Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn has invested over $1.5 million in engineering, and infrastructure upgrades to renovate an existing test facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), which is now being used as an Alternative Fuels Laboratory. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and thermal stability testing. This effort is supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing project. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale F-T catalyst screening experiments. These experiments require the use of a synthesis gas feedstock, which will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics, product yields and hydrocarbon distributions. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor for catalyst activation studies. Product gas composition and performance data can be continuously obtained with an automated gas sampling system, which directly connects the reactors to a micro-gas chromatograph (micro GC). Liquid and molten product samples are collected intermittently and are analyzed by injecting as a diluted sample into designated gas chromatograph units. The test facility also has the capability of performing thermal stability experiments of alternative aviation fuels with the use of a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) (Ref. 1) in accordance to ASTM D 3241 "Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels" (JFTOT method) (Ref. 2). An Ellipsometer will be used to study fuel fouling thicknesses on heated tubes from the HLPS experiments. A detailed overview of the test facility systems and capabilities are described in this paper.

Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Nakley, Leah M.; Yen, Chia H.

2012-01-01

183

MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

184

MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATING IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. his study was ini...

185

Reliability of Radioisotope Stirling Convertor Linear Alternator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Onboard radioisotope power systems being developed and planned for NASA s deep-space missions would require reliable design lifetimes of up to 14 years. Critical components and materials of Stirling convertors have been undergoing extensive testing and evaluation in support of a reliable performance for the specified life span. Of significant importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor is the design of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. Alternator performance could vary due to small deviations in the permanent magnet properties, operating temperature, and component geometries. Durability prediction and reliability of the alternator may be affected by these deviations from nominal design conditions. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of these uncertainties in predicting the reliability of the linear alternator performance. This paper presents a study in which a reliability-based methodology is used to assess alternator performance. The response surface characterizing the induced open-circuit voltage performance is constructed using 3-D finite element magnetic analysis. Fast probability integration method is used to determine the probability of the desired performance and its sensitivity to the alternator design parameters.

Shah, Ashwin; Korovaichuk, Igor; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

2006-01-01

186

Thermophysical properties  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment, and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. Objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the third quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

Kayser, R.F.

1992-10-01

187

Thermophysical properties  

SciTech Connect

Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the fourth quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

Kayser, R.F.

1993-01-01

188

Alternative aircraft fuels technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

Grobman, J.

1976-01-01

189

Alternative Mathematics without Actual Infinity  

E-print Network

An alternative mathematics based on qualitative plurality of finiteness is developed to make non-standard mathematics independent of infinite set theory. The vague concept "accessibility" is used coherently within finite set theory whose separation axiom is restricted to definite objective conditions. The weak equivalence relations are defined as binary relations with sorites phenomena. Continua are collection with weak equivalence relations called indistinguishability. The points of continua are the proper classes of mutually indistinguishable elements and have identities with sorites paradox. Four continua formed by huge binary words are examined as a new type of continua. Ascoli-Arzela type theorem is given as an example indicating the feasibility of treating function spaces. The real numbers are defined to be the points on the linear continuum and have indefiniteness. Exponentiation is introduced by the Eulerian style and basic properties are established. Basic calculus is developed and the differentiability is captured by the behavior on a point. Main tools of Lebesgue measure theory is obtained in a similar way as Loeb measure. Differences from the current mathematics are examined, such as the indefiniteness of natural numbers, qualitative plurality of finiteness, mathematical usage of vague concepts, the continuum as a primary inexhaustible entity and the hitherto disregarded aspect of "internal measurement" in mathematics.

Toru Tsujishita

2012-06-13

190

Alternative Compression Garments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

2011-01-01

191

The Alternative Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1975, the Alternative Museum existed in analog form for 25 years, occupying space in New York City, presenting four to six major exhibitions per year. While I was unable to find a definitive statement to this effect at the site, it appears that the Museum has decided to move all current exhibitions to the Web, to expand its reach to millions more art patrons while still remaining true to its original mission: "providing a professional showcase for artists." At the moment, there are five current exhibitions at the site, including Tools as Art: The Hechinger Collection, presenting 25 works that use tools as either subject matter, for example Bernice Abbot's photograph "Spinning Wrench," or as medium, for example, Mark Blumenstein's "Saw Bird." Other current exhibitions are Tourists on the Moon, by Yoshio Itagaki, a collection of photographs that resemble 19th-century, hand-colored tourist photographs, but that are given a 20th-century slant; I-Section: Do-It-Yourself Human Dissection, a Website by Friederike Paetzold; Between the Real and the Unreal, photographs by Simen Johan; and GenoChoice: Create Your Own Genetically Healthy Child Online! by Virgil Wong. Also available is an archive of selected past exhibitions and art depot, the online museum shop.

192

The properties of a subtype of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor resulting from alternative splicing of the mRNA in the ligand-binding domain.  

PubMed Central

Subtypes of the type-1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptor differ at the mRNA level in two small variably spliced segments. One segment (SI) encodes for a sequence within the InsP3-binding domain, thus its presence or absence could affect the functions of the receptor. We have used anti-peptide antibodies to confirm the existence of different subtypes of the InsP3 receptor (InsP3R) protein. The antibody against residues 322-332, within the SI region, recognized a 260 kDa polypeptide in membranes prepared from rat cerebellum or cerebral cortex. The cerebellum contained a few percent of the InsP3R protein having the SI region, whereas the cerebral cortex contained a high proportion of receptors with the SI region. These two tissues were representative of both isoforms, SI- or SI+, and displayed the same [3H]InsP3-binding characteristics. Thus, the SI region was not involved in the basic properties of the receptor. Deletion of the peptide 316-352 containing the SI segment greatly reduced InsP3 binding [Miyawaki, Furuichi, Ryou, Yoshikawa, Nakagawa, Saitoh and Mikoshiba (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 4911-4915]. The antibodies against the SI region or against residues 337-349 did not modify the binding of [3H]InsP3 in the cortical membranes rich in the SI+ isoform or in cerebellar membranes. These results suggested that the SI region was not part of the binding site. The subcellular distribution of these two isoforms was then investigated in rat liver. The two isoforms were identified in different membrane fractions and they followed the same subcellular distribution. We suggest that the domain with the SI region may be involved in a function other than InsP3-induced Ca2+ release. PMID:8760359

Ličvremont, J P; Lancien, H; Hilly, M; Mauger, J P

1996-01-01

193

Alternative weighting material  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Inc.'s experiences with mined iron oxide used as an alternative weighting material for barite are presented. This paper discusses laboratory studies made before field application of this product. Also included are test results of a SWACO choke assembly to simulate field conditions. Some abrasion appears to occur in the highvelocity fluid regimes. This is particularly true in smallhole drilling and where small liners are used in pumps. It is possible that changes in hydraulic programs will alleviate this situation. The effect of high-density muds containing iron compounds on bit wear is, at best, questionable. While there are indications of severe bit wear, there are also times when long bit runs are made with no problems. Centrifugal-pump wear is a problem. The iron materials seem to intrude between the bearings and shaft. No excessive wear of impellers has been seen. These problems can be controlled by keeping discharge pressures as low as possible. There have been no problems with chokes and valves during circulation. It appears that electric motors and magnetic probes should be protected. There have been indications of some problem. A dust catcher on bins could alleviate this problem. Pipe makeup must be watched very closely, and pipe threads must be thoroughly cleaned to ensure makeup to prevent washouts from occurring. There seems to be a problem with mined iron oxide wetting once added to the mud. It appears that up to 48 hours may be required depending on the amount added. The materials do stain. Iron-base materials may be used successfully as a substitute for barite. Just how successful they can be will be determined only with time and numerous applications.

Walker, C.O.

1983-12-01

194

Alternatives for Jet Engine Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approaches are developed as alternatives to current design methods which rely heavily on linear quadratic and Riccati equation methods. The main alternatives are discussed in two broad categories, local multivariable frequency domain methods and global nonlinear optimal methods.

Leake, R. J.; Sain, M. K.

1976-01-01

195

Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators  

E-print Network

Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

Tang, Sai Chun

196

Extending the Alternating Series Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

Katsuura, Hidefumi

2012-01-01

197

Segmental alternations and metrical theory  

E-print Network

This dissertation focuses on phonological alternations that are influenced or constrained by word-internal prosody, i.e. prominence and foot structure, and what these alternations can tell us about metrical theory. Detailed ...

Vaysman, Olga

2009-01-01

198

Qubit dynamics under alternating controls  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we discuss two problems of quantum dynamics in the presence of alternating controls. Alternating controls arise in many protocols designed to extend the duration over which a qubit is a useful computational ...

Aiello, Clarice Demarchi

2014-01-01

199

CALIFORNIA ALTERNATIVE FUELS MARKET ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ALTERNATIVE FUELS MARKET ASSESSMENT 2006 Prepared For: California Energy Commission Yee #12;#12;v ABSTRACT Since 2001, the California Alternative Fuels Market Assessment (formerly's alternative fuels programs. It has been designed to provide a dynamic process for periodic reviews and updates

200

5, 1206712102, 2005 Alternative fuel  

E-print Network

ACPD 5, 12067­12102, 2005 Alternative fuel blends and regional air quality J.-F. Vinuesa et al License. 12067 #12;ACPD 5, 12067­12102, 2005 Alternative fuel blends and regional air quality J to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gaso- line passenger cars (from 50% to 100%) using the three fuel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

201

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY College of Engineering  

E-print Network

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY College of Engineering eng.wayne.edu STEERING YOUR WAY INTO A HIGH or registration questions, call (313) 577-3716 or e-mail aet@wayne.edu. Alternative Energy Technology College Energy Technology (AET) curriculum is designed to be a premier program in alternative energy research

Berdichevsky, Victor

202

File Preparation Candidate or Alternate(s) submits  

E-print Network

FINAL 5/1/09 File Preparation Candidate or Alternate(s) submits review file materials such as/patient load forms Employment history Candidate certifies the review file (Departmental Review Certification). By electronically signing this certification, Candidate formally submits file for departmental review. AP On

Tsien, Roger Y.

203

Introduction to Alternative and Renewable Energy: Alternative Energy- New Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended for use in a college-level introductory course in alternative and renewable energy. The document covers new directions for alternative energy such as thermoacoustics, thermoelectrics, magnetocalorics, sun heat thermochemical storage, liquid metal batteris and fusion. Each technology is described in depth and useful graphics are included to illustrate the material. This module may be downloaded in PDF file format.

204

Plasma-facing material alternatives to tungsten  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tungsten is the leading high-Z candidate surface material for magnetic fusion reactor plasma-facing components, however, there are specific performance concerns for tungsten, and a general major concern about relying on one material. To broaden the options for fusion development we identified and examined five potential alternative high-Z plasma-facing materials: zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, hafnium and tantalum. We assess these materials from three standpoints: neutron-induced activation, sputter erosion/redeposition and plasma transient response. This initial analysis is encouraging showing (1) environmentally attractive activation properties with minimum waste disposal, for a tokamak reactor divertor, using advanced recycling techniques, (2) acceptable sputtering erosion/redeposition performance, similar to a tungsten divertor, and (3) concerns about the transient response of the alternative materials, but not fundamentally different than concerns for tungsten. We identify work needed to advance the qualification of these materials.

Brooks, J. N.; El-Guebaly, L.; Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, T.

2015-04-01

205

Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

1979-01-01

206

Alternating current electrokinetic properties of gold-coated microspheres.  

PubMed

We present dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrorotation (ROT) measurements of gold-coated polystyrene microspheres as a function of frequency and for several electrolyte conductivities. Particle rotation was counterfield with a maximum rotation rate observed at a single characteristic frequency. Negative DEP was observed for frequencies lower than this characteristic frequency and positive DEP for signal frequencies higher than this. These experimental observations are in agreement with predictions for the force and torque on the induced dipole of a perfectly polarizable metal sphere. We present a theoretical model for this case, and good agreement is found for both ROT and DEP measurements if we take into account the viscous friction for a spherical particle near a wall. From the characteristic frequency for rotation, we obtain the capacitance of the electrical double layer at the electrolyte-particle interface. Remarkably, no effect of induced charge electroosmosis around the particles can be inferred from DEP measurements. PMID:22931290

García-Sánchez, Pablo; Ren, Yukun; Arcenegui, Juan J; Morgan, Hywel; Ramos, Antonio

2012-10-01

207

Is propolis safe as an alternative medicine?  

PubMed Central

Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honeybees as defense against intruders. It has relevant therapeutic properties that have been used since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis is of increasing importance as a therapeutic, alone or included in many medicines and homeopathic products or in cosmetics. Propolis is produced worldwide and honeybees use the flora surrounding their beehives for its production. Therefore its chemical composition may change according to the flora. The phenolic and volatile fractions of propolis have been revised in the present study, as well as some of the biological properties attributed to this natural product. An alert is given about the need to standardize this product, with quality control. This has already been initiated by some authors, mainly in the propolis from the poplar-type. Only this product can constitute a good complementary and alternative medicine under internationally acceptable quality control. PMID:22219581

Miguel, Maria Graça; Antunes, Maria Dulce

2011-01-01

208

Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

2012-01-01

209

Children's Understanding of Counterfactual Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how children integrate information about counterfactual alternatives in making judgments. Previous research in adults had shown that they make judgments on the basis of comparisons between factual events and counterfactual alternatives. We suggest that children adopt a summative strategy instead, where they focus on the presented outcomes, both real and counterfactual, and base their judgments on the

Rachel McCloy; Paul Strange

210

Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical  

E-print Network

Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated Edison.www.gastechnology.org 2 #12;Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated-Battelle for the Department of Energy Subcontract Number: 4000052360 GTI Project Number: 20441 New York State Energy Research

Pennycook, Steve

211

Rural Inservice Using Alternate Scheduling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three small rural school districts in Montana and Wyoming used alternate school day scheduling to make time for staff and curriculum development inservice programs. The schedule of one short and four long days delivered the instructional time of 175 6-hour days each year. Benefits of alternate scheduling included time for regular inservice…

Kimmet, James L.

212

Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

Rubin, David

1998-01-01

213

Alternative Wnt Pathways and Receptors  

PubMed Central

In addition to activating ?-catenin/TCF transcriptional complexes, Wnt proteins can elicit a variety of other responses. These are often lumped together under the denominator “alternative” or “non-canonical” Wnt signaling, but they likely comprise distinct signaling events. In this article, I discuss how the use of different ligand and receptor combinations is thought to give rise to these alternative Wnt-signaling responses. Although many of the biochemical details remain to be resolved, it is evident that alternative Wnt signaling plays important roles in regulating tissue morphogenesis during embryonic development. PMID:22935904

van Amerongen, Renée

2012-01-01

214

Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

Mezey, Paul G.

2015-01-01

215

Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties. A second objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication methods for these materials whereby they can be processed in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions. This paper summarizes a comprehensive study that assessed the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on the stability of air-sinterable chromites and the sintering behavior of doped lanthanum manganites.

Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.

1994-08-01

216

Pb-free Soldering Alternatives For Fine Pitched Electronics Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of a ban of Pb has forced the electronics industry to search for alternatives for Pb-based solders. We present a discussion of several of these alternatives and present preliminary results of experiments aimed at developing these solutions. Experimental results presented include an assessment of the strain rate sensitivity of Sn-Bi solder joints; the wetting properties of Sn-Bi solders

L. E. Felton; C. H. Raeder; C. K. Havasy; D. B. Knorr

1992-01-01

217

Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

Kobeti?ová, Hana; Galbi?ková, Blanka; Šev?íková, Janka; Soldán, Maroš

2014-12-01

218

Neuronal Signaling through Alternative Splicing: Some Exons CaRRE...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternative splicing represents a mechanism by which a single gene can be used to create proteins with different functions. Neurons use alternative splicing to produce channels with different sequences and biophysical or regulatory properties. O'Donovan and Darnell discuss a mechanism by which neurons can alter channel splicing in response to neuronal activity through a signal generated by calcium and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase activity.

Kevin J. O'Donovan (The Rockefeller University; Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV)

2001-08-07

219

Peat as an energy alternative  

SciTech Connect

The importance of developing alternative energy sources to augment supplies of fossil fuels is growing all over the world. Coal, oil shale, tar sands, biomass, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power have received considerable attention as alternative energy sources. One large energy resource, however, has received little attention until recently. That resource is peat. Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries including the United States. This paper provides an understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization.

Punwani, D.V.

1980-07-01

220

Biased learning of phonological alternations  

E-print Network

What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...

Do, Young Ah

2013-01-01

221

Alternative Medicine and Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... practice that is not widely taught in medical schools or frequently used by doctors or in hospitals. ... CAM can refer to different types of medical philosophies. These alternative medical systems are entire fields of ...

222

SAGE--SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE does not recommend any ozone depleting chemicals. SAGE was developed by the Surface Cleaning Program at Research Triang...

223

The Generation of Alternate Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Terry L.M. Bartelt of Wisconsin Online Resource Center is a learning object lesson of the generation of alternate current. This is a nice brief introduction for those interested in basic electronic theories.

Bartelt, Terry L. M.

224

Alternative food safety intervention technologies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

225

Novel platelet products, substitutes and alternatives.  

PubMed

Despite the many advances in the safety, processing, and storage of conventional 22 degrees C liquid-stored allogeneic platelet concentrates, there still are significant drawbacks to the use of such products. Efforts to overcome these shortcomings have resulted in an array of novel platelet products, substitutes, and alternatives; which are currently at various stages of development. This review summarizes the recent developments in the frozen and cold storage of platelets; their pathogen inactivation; as well as the status of lyophilized platelets, infusible platelet membranes (IPMs), red cells bearing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) ligands, fibrinogen-coated albumin microcapsules, and liposome-based agents; as potential alternatives to the use of conventional platelet transfusions. Pre-clinical studies have been encouraging for several of these novel products; however, to date, very few have entered human trials. Nonetheless, with the ongoing development of diverse products, those properties that may be necessary for their hemostatic effectiveness will become apparent. However, safety and efficacy must be demonstrated in pre-clinical and phase I to III clinical trials before these novel agents, substitutes and alternatives can be used clinically for patients with thrombocytopenia. PMID:11499975

Blajchman, M A

2001-06-01

226

Alternatives to Petroleum Diesel Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are four alternative fuels that can be relatively easily used in conventional compression ignition engines (CIE): vegetable oil, biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel, and dimethyl ether (DME). Vegetable oils, such as palm, soybean, sunflower, peanut, and olive, can be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. Both F-T and DME can be manufactured from natural gas and are therefore not

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

227

Alternative analysis to perturbation theory  

E-print Network

We develop an alternative approach to time independent perturbation theory in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The method developed has the advantage to provide in one operation the correction to the energy and to the wave function, additionally we can analyze the time evolution of the system. To verify our results, we apply our method to the harmonic oscillator perturbed by a quadratic potential. An alternative form of the Dyson series, in matrix form instead of integral form, is also obtained.

J. Martinez-Carranza; F. Soto-Eguibar; H. Moya-Cessa

2011-10-04

228

Citrus Canker: Alternatives for Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do you do when county officials show up to cut down the orange trees in your backyard? What causes citrus canker and how is it spread? This plant pathogen was the first microbe to have its genome sequenced outside of the US. There is much to investigate before deciding on the best alternative for control. * examine international alternatives for the control of citrus canker

Linda Weinland (Edison College; Biology)

2006-05-20

229

Hematologic Complications of Alternative Remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alternative therapies increased dramatically over the last decade with a wide variety of methods and interventions.\\u000a Dietary supplements are a very common form of alternative therapy used by healthy people as well as patients with serious\\u000a health problems.The use of these untested, unregulated therapies may carry inherent risks. Hematologic complications are known\\u000a side effects of these remedies

Abdul Rahman Jazieh; Maisaa Khalil

2001-01-01

230

Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

1983-01-01

231

State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State  

DOE Data Explorer

This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

232

Remediation alternatives for low-level herbicide contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

In early 1995, an evaluation of alternatives for remediation of a shallow groundwater plume containing low-levels of an organic herbicide was conducted at BASF Corporation, a petrochemical facility located in Ascension Parish, Louisiana. The contaminated site is located on an undeveloped portion of property within 1/4 mile of the east bank of the Mississippi River near the community of Geismar. Environmental assessment data indicated that about two acres of the thirty acre site had been contaminated from past waste management practices with the herbicide bentazon. Shallow soils and groundwater between 5 to 15 feet in depth were affected. Maximum concentrations of bentazon in groundwater were less than seven parts per million. To identify potentially feasible remediation alternatives, the environmental assessment data, available research, and cost effectiveness were reviewed. After consideration of a preliminary list of alternatives, only two potentially feasible alternatives could be identified. Groundwater pumping, the most commonly used remediation alternative, followed by carbon adsorption treatment was identified as was a new innovative alternative known as vegetative transpiration. This alternative relies on the natural transpiration processes of vegetation to bioremediate organic contaminants. Advantages identified during screening suggest that the transpiration method could be the best remediation alternative to address both economic and environmental factors. An experiment to test critical factors of the vegetatived transpiration alternative with bentazon was recommended before a final decision on feasibility can be made.

Conger, R.M. [BASF Corp., Geismar, LA (United States)

1995-10-01

233

The Alternative Fuels Data Center  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) became Public Law 100-494. The AMFA encourages the production and use of motor vehicles designed to operate on alternative fuels. The alternative fuels specified in the law are methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. The Department of Energy (DOE), along with several other federal, state, and local agencies, has undertaken numerous activities aimed at fulfilling the AMFA directives. Among these activities is the establishment of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC), operated and managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in Golden Colorado. The AMFA targets activities for three vehicle types using alternative fuels: (1) light-duty vehicles such as automobiles, mini-vans, and light-duty; (2) heavy-duty vehicles such as tractor trailers and garbage trucks; and (3) urban transit buses. The primary purpose of the AFDC is to gather and analyze information on the fuel consumption, emissions, operation, and durability of these vehicles types. The AFDC staff work with an Oracle Relational Database Management System and statistical software to provide information to users.

Not Available

1991-08-01

234

Synthetic Morphology Using Alternative Inputs  

PubMed Central

Designing the shape and size of a cell is an interesting challenge for synthetic biology. Prolonged exposure to the mating pheromone ?-factor induces an unusual morphology in yeast cells: multiple mating projections. The goal of this work was to reproduce the multiple projections phenotype in the absence of ?-factor using a gain-of-function approach termed “Alternative Inputs (AIs)”. An alternative input is defined as any genetic manipulation that can activate the signaling pathway instead of the natural input. Interestingly, none of the alternative inputs were sufficient to produce multiple projections although some produced a single projection. Then, we extended our search by creating all combinations of alternative inputs and deletions that were summarized in an AIs-Deletions matrix. We found a genetic manipulation (AI-Ste5p ste2?) that enhanced the formation of multiple projections. Following up this lead, we demonstrated that AI-Ste4p and AI-Ste5p were sufficient to produce multiple projections when combined. Further, we showed that overexpression of a membrane-targeted form of Ste5p alone could also induce multiple projections. Thus, we successfully re-engineered the multiple projections mating morphology using alternative inputs without ?-factor. PMID:19746161

Tanaka, Hiromasa; Yi, Tau-Mu

2009-01-01

235

APAP and Alternative Titration Methods.  

PubMed

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Positive airway pressure therapy (PAP) is commonly prescribed treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Traditionally, the determination of the optimal pressure for treatment of sleep-disordered breathing was made by manual titration of the device by a sleep technician in attendance during polysomnography. However, the advent of alternative methods for determination of optimal PAP - such as auto-titrating PAP (APAP) - has seen tremendous growth over the past decade. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the currently available alternative methods for titration of PAP in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) with special emphasis on obstructive sleep apnea. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent prospective-randomized studies of alternative methods of titration suggest that pressure determinations made by such devices are comparable to traditional manual titrations made in the sleep laboratory. Obstacles to the adoption of such alternative modes of titration into day-to-day practice may be attributable to issues surrounding appropriate patient selection, differences between devices, re-imbursement policies of third party payors, consensus amongst sleep experts, and individual physicians' practice patterns and volumes. While newer generations and types of auto-titrating PAP devices are entering the sleep field constantly, providers' knowledge and time availability remain limiting factors. SUMMARY: There is tremendous growth in the technology and scientific evidence in support of alternative modes of PAP titration for sleep-disordered breathing, but barriers to implementation remain. PMID:20806054

Ahmed, Omer; Parthasarathy, Sairam

2010-09-01

236

APAP and Alternative Titration Methods  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Positive airway pressure therapy (PAP) is commonly prescribed treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Traditionally, the determination of the optimal pressure for treatment of sleep-disordered breathing was made by manual titration of the device by a sleep technician in attendance during polysomnography. However, the advent of alternative methods for determination of optimal PAP – such as auto-titrating PAP (APAP) – has seen tremendous growth over the past decade. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the currently available alternative methods for titration of PAP in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) with special emphasis on obstructive sleep apnea. Recent Findings Recent prospective-randomized studies of alternative methods of titration suggest that pressure determinations made by such devices are comparable to traditional manual titrations made in the sleep laboratory. Obstacles to the adoption of such alternative modes of titration into day-to-day practice may be attributable to issues surrounding appropriate patient selection, differences between devices, re-imbursement policies of third party payors, consensus amongst sleep experts, and individual physicians’ practice patterns and volumes. While newer generations and types of auto-titrating PAP devices are entering the sleep field constantly, providers’ knowledge and time availability remain limiting factors. Summary There is tremendous growth in the technology and scientific evidence in support of alternative modes of PAP titration for sleep-disordered breathing, but barriers to implementation remain. PMID:20806054

Ahmed, Omer; Parthasarathy, Sairam

2010-01-01

237

Transitivity Alternations in Sorani Kurdish  

E-print Network

Guerssel et al. propose Lexical Conceptual Structures to account for the syntactic properties of verbs in four languages. The Lexical Conceptual Structures reference a universal set of semantic components to predict the ...

Gharib, Hiba Esmail

2011-05-31

238

Rational Formulation of Alternative Fuels using QSPR Methods: Application to Jet Fuels  

E-print Network

Rational Formulation of Alternative Fuels using QSPR Methods: Application to Jet Fuels D.A. Saldana intéressant. Abstract -- Rational Formulation of Alternative Fuels using QSPR (Quantitative Structure Properties Relationship) Methods: Application to Jet Fuels -- Alternative fuels are a promising solution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative  

SciTech Connect

Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

NONE

1996-09-01

240

Alternative Constructions Alternative Constructions of Science and Science Education  

E-print Network

called the culture of science and how that becomes interpreted in science education by teacher of great differences between the two continents - it is simply that I have found that certain themes of one's position on the singularity of science proper; one ought to consider alternative, culturally

Cobern, William W.

241

Augmented and alternative NLP techniques for augmentative and alternative communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current communication devices designed for non-speaking users are inadequate to support conversation because the speed with which a user can input information is typically very limited. We describe some practical work on word prediction, and discuss its limitations as a technique for speeding up free text entry. We then out- line an alternative approach, currently un- der development, which combines

Ann Copestake

1997-01-01

242

Augmented and alternative NLP techniques for augmentative and alternative communication  

E-print Network

as a technique for speeding up free text entry. We then out­ line an alternative approach, currently un­ der was prompted by the needs of an individual who has lost the ability to speak due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). Such users would prefer to continue using their original language

Copestake, Ann

243

Advances in alternative cementitious binders  

SciTech Connect

There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

Juenger, M.C.G., E-mail: mjuenger@mail.utexas.edu [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C 1748, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Winnefeld, F. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Provis, J.L. [University of Melbourne, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ideker, J.H. [Oregon State University, School of Civil and Construction Engineering, 220 Owen Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

2011-12-15

244

Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

Cabraal, A.

1997-12-01

245

Spent-fuel-storage alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

Not Available

1980-01-01

246

Alternatives to the Seesaw Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed pattern of lepton mixing does not give an evidence of the seesaw. It is easier to disprove seesaw showing that one of the alternatives gives dominant contribution to the neutrino mass. We consider alternative mechanisms based on (i) small (tree level) effective couplings, (ii) small VEV, (iii) radiative generation of masses, (iv) protection by SUSY breaking scale or by ?-term, (v) small overlap of wave functions of the left and right handed neutrino components in extra dimensions. Seesaw can be the mechanism of suppression of the Dirac mass terms and not dominant mechanism of the neutrino mass giving just a sub-leading contribution.

Smirnov, A. Yu.

2005-04-01

247

Two alternative versions of strangeness  

PubMed Central

The concept of strangeness emerged from the low energy phenomenology before the entry of quarks in particle physics. The connection between strangeness and isospin is rather accidental and loose and we recognize later that the definition of strangeness is model-dependent. Indeed, in Gell-Mann’s triplet quark model we realize that there is a simple alternative representation of strangeness. When the concept of generations is incorporated into the quark model we find that only the second alternative version of strangeness remains meaningful, whereas the original one does no longer keep its significance. PMID:18997448

Nishijima, Kazuhikoa

2008-01-01

248

Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene  

SciTech Connect

In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

2008-11-07

249

ALTERNATE VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND WALL OF INDIGENOUS VOLCANIC RYOLITE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ALTERNATE VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND WALL OF INDIGENOUS VOLCANIC RYOLITE EASTSIDE OF PIEDMONT AVENUE ADJACENT TO OAK GROVE AND CALIFORNIA MEMORIAL STADIUM. LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, June 29, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

250

Compost Teas: Alternatives to Traditional Biological Control Agents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many areas of plant production, practitioners are looking for alternatives to synthetic pesticides and commercial biocontrol agents. Compost teas are being extensively used in urban, horticultural and agricultural settings for their fertility and disease control properties. The majority of the ...

251

NEW CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVES FOR THE PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study that focused on the investigation of fluorinated derivatives of propane and butane to determine if synthesis routes of such compounds were feasible and economical and to measure the physical properties needed to evaluate the compounds as altern...

252

Home Schooling: A Controversial Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Home schooling, an alternative involving about 1 million students annually, walks a fine line in an educational reform era. Home-schooling families have succeeded in establishing their constitutional right to educate their children and have proven their educational programs' legitimacy with achievement test results and with successful "graduates."…

Duffey, Jane

1998-01-01

253

Alternatives for jet engine control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control, is reported. The principal new activities involved the initial testing of an input design method for choosing the inputs to a non-linear system to aid the approximation of its tensor parameters, and the beginning of order reduction studies designed to remove unnecessary monomials from tensor models.

Sain, M. K.

1983-01-01

254

Post Flood Alternatives Mosquito Flats  

E-print Network

Post Flood Alternatives for Mosquito Flats (an entirely amateur perspective) Douglas Jones 816 Park of problems in Mosquito Flats: ! As developed, this is a single-exit neighborhood. This never should have been the Normandy ­ Park Road intersection approached gridlock. ! The storm drains serving Mosquito flats are very

Jones, Douglas W.

255

An Alternative to Thought Suppression?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

Boice, Robert

2012-01-01

256

A Simple Alternative to Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

Potts, Glenda

2010-01-01

257

Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

Not Available

2009-04-01

258

CAGE--COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

CAGE provides information on low-emitting alternative coating technologies to coatings users and technical assistance program representatives. The Coatings GuideTM, a pollution prevention tool for paints and coatings users, contains several tools to help users identify low-volati...

259

Unaccusative Syntax and Verbal Alternations  

E-print Network

5 Unaccusative Syntax and Verbal Alternations David Embick 5.1. INTRODUCTION Syntactic and lexico of `Linking' in theories of the inter- face between syntax and the lexicon; Pesetsky (1995) and Levin structures and syntactico-semantic features that are involved in unac- cusative syntax. `Unaccusative syntax

Embick, David

260

REGULATION SCOPING Alternative and Renewable  

E-print Network

REGULATION SCOPING PAPER Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program California Energy Commission Presented at: 1516 Ninth Street Sacramento, California July 8, 2008 DISCLAIMER This paper was prepared by a California Energy Commission staff person. It does not necessarily represent

261

"Partial Vision" in Alternative Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of the philosophies and pedagogies of Waldorf and Montessori schools points out that no single educational perspective can encompass all possibilities of human growth. Educators should attend to the "seed qualities" of alternative educational philosophies rather than their dogmas. A caring relationship between teachers and students is…

Miller, Ron

1997-01-01

262

Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

263

The Alternate Route to Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative certification programs are needed to address the projected teacher shortage by 2000. Only two-thirds of prepared graduates enter the profession, half who do enter leave after five years, and teacher salaries are 25 percent lower than the salaries of college graduates in other fields. Afternoon, evening, and weekend preparation programs…

Penning, Nick

1990-01-01

264

Alternative Education: The Cutting Edge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miami Valley Career Technology Youth Connections, an alternative high school located in Dayton, Ohio, has an enrollment of 160 students and was created as a joint venture among local politicians to address the high dropout rates in Montgomery County, Ohio. To achieve this, the Montgomery County commissioners created a task force to develop…

Byrne, Jay

2004-01-01

265

Biotherapeutics as alternatives to antibiotics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing pressure to limit antibiotic use in agriculture is heightening the need for alternative methods to reduce the adverse effects of clinical and subclinical disease on livestock performance that are currently managed by in-feed antibiotic usage. Immunomodulators have long been sought as such...

266

Software Architectural Alternatives for User  

E-print Network

needing instant access to data in life­critical situations. In CAD applications, the most upSoftware Architectural Alternatives for User Role­Based Security Policies S. A. Demurjian, Sr., T and control access to object­oriented software, especially with an exploding interest in designing

Demurjian, Steven A.

267

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA's National Agricultual Library provides access to a wide array of resources pertaining to alternative farming methods, including organic food production, sustainable agriculture, and community supported agriculture. Users can browse the site by subject or the spotlights areas that are changed regularly. Examples of spotlights include a background explanation of sustainable agriculture, community supported agriculture and grant research assistance.

268

ALTERNATIVE HEALTH CARE FINANCING MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing mechanized life styles, human beings, especially the female generations are increasingly getting exposed to a variety of health and life risks and hazards. It has therefore, become imperative on the part of individuals and also governments to focus their efforts on a search for alternatives to meet the phenomenal rise in the expenses related to health care.

V. Jayalakshmi; Mahatma Gandhi

269

Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of

Charles H. Eldred; Barney B. Roberts

1992-01-01

270

Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soil water flux will result in larger increases in soil- adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distribution of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading.

Huntington, T.G.

1996-01-01

271

Post Flood Alternatives Mosquito Flats  

E-print Network

, and many more have indicated that they do not intend to return. The result of this is an immediate threat of serious urban blight. Those who move out but opt to hang onto their property in the flats hoping- occupants to fully (and appropriately) rebuild. What is needed is a flood mitigation plan

Jones, Douglas W.

272

Industrial research on alternative fluorocarbons.  

PubMed

Fluorocarbons containing chlorine or bromine have been associated with stratospheric ozone depletion and the search for suitable alternatives is progressing at an accelerated pace. The Program for Alternative Fluorocarbon Toxicity Testing (PAFT), an international group representing most of the world's CFC producers, has been conducting comprehensive toxicological evaluations on several possible replacements for current fire-extinguishing agents--1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123), 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124), pentafluoroethane (HFC-125), and 1-fluoro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HFC-134a). Results from short-term experimental studies showing a low order of acute toxicity, as well as results from longer-term toxicity studies on these replacements, will be discussed. PMID:8516770

Trochimowicz, H J

1993-05-01

273

Alternative administration of camptothecin analogues.  

PubMed

In order to improve the therapeutic index of camptothecin (CPT) analogues, alternative administration of CPT analogues is being evaluated. Topotecan, irinotecan, rubitecan, lurtotecan and 9-aminocamptothecin have been administered orally with response rates equivalent to that seen after intravenous administration, where applicable. Oral availability and administration of some of the newer CPT analogues, including diflomotecan (BN80915) and grimatecan (ST1481), have also shown promising results. Aerosolisation of liposomal 9-nitrocamptothecin has been studied in patients with advanced malignancies involving the lung, demonstrating systemic antitumour activity. Intrathecal administration of topotecan has been studied in children with refractory neoplastic meningitis. It is well tolerated and associated with some antitumour activity. Intraperitoneal administration of topotecan as consolidation therapy in patients with ovarian cancer has shown promising results. Transdermal administration of rubitecan has been studied in mice. So far, no CPT has been approved for an alternative route of administration. PMID:16296757

Glaberman, Ursa; Rabinowitz, Ian; Verschraegen, Claire F

2005-03-01

274

Alternative Medicine and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative medicine has an extensive worldwide history and is commonly used by older patients. A number of different alternative medicines are used by patients having Alzheimer's disease. It is both desirable and expected for clinicians to be acquainted with these medications. Review Summary This paper discusses the available clinical trial evidence regarding eight agents commonly used by people having Alzheimer's disease. We provide an overview of the history and basic scientific evidence available for each agent, followed by a critical analysis of the evidence available from clinical trials, including the number of participants, trial duration and specific outcomes evaluated. Conclusion While many of these compounds have been associated with interesting basic science, none has shown clear clinical benefit to date. Data available for some, such as ginkgo biloba, curcumin and huperzine A, suggest that further evaluation is warranted. Familiarity with this literature will allow clinicians to provide meaningful recommendations to patients who wish to use these agents. PMID:18784599

Kelley, Brendan J.; Knopman, David S.

2009-01-01

275

The Project on Defense Alternatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Commonwealth Institute's Project on Defense Alternatives (PDA) "offers critical analysis of US [military] policy," promoting the "consideration of the broadest range of defense options" to devise and adapt national and international security policies in the post-Cold War era. The PDA's research and development activities include policy analysis and alternative policy development, as well as technical, historical, and methodological research. This Website provides access to the full text and abstracts of PDA briefing memos, reports, and monographs. The online publications are organized into four sections: US Defense Posture, Global & Regional Issues, Confidence Building Defense, and Opinion & Commentary. In addition, this searchable site provides organizational information, links to related military and defense Websites, and background and commentaries on the first US Quadrennial Defense Review issued by the US Department of Defense.

276

Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

1992-01-01

277

Alternate-fuel reactor studies  

SciTech Connect

A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a /sup 3/He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding.

Evans, K. Jr.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.R.

1983-02-01

278

Alternative therapies in veterinary dermatology.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of alternative therapies for skin disorders including traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture and Chinese herbs), homeopathy, and Western herbs and plant extracts. The medical and veterinary literature on the aforementioned modalities will be reviewed with a focus on reduction of inflammation and pruritus of the skin and ear canal in the canine species. Clinical application and potential adverse effects will also be included when available. PMID:23182332

Budgin, Jeanne B; Flaherty, Molly J

2013-01-01

279

Alternative Financing for Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

Alternative Financing for Energy Efficiency • Eddy Trevino • Matt Golden – – Investor Confidence Project • Josh Briggs – QECBs • Michael Flores – High Performance New Construction • Denise Malloy – Performance Contracting for Public Sector... Improvement Projects ESL-KT-13-12-37 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Texas LoanSTAR Program 12/18/13 Maximizing Energy Efficiency while Protecting the Environment ESL-KT-13-12-37 CATEE 2013: Clean Air...

Trevino, E.

2013-01-01

280

FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative  

SciTech Connect

Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

1996-10-07

281

[Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].  

PubMed

Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension. PMID:10907162

Happle, R

2000-06-01

282

Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering  

E-print Network

Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Handbook 2014-2015 Victoria Heberling, Graduate Program Coordinator Professor Matthew Yates, Director of Alternative Energy #12;University of Rochester Graduate Handbook Alternative Energy updated August, 2013 Department of Chemical

Cantlon, Jessica F.

283

Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering  

E-print Network

Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Handbook 2013-2014 Gina Eagan, Graduate Program Coordinator Professor Matthew Yates, Director of Alternative Energy #12;University of Rochester Graduate Handbook Alternative Energy updated August, 2013 Department of Chemical Engineering Page

Mahon, Bradford Z.

284

Alternative (Complementary) Therapies for HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Alternative (Complementary) Therapies for HIV/AIDS for Veterans and the Public Alternative (Complementary) Therapies for HIV/AIDS: Entire Lesson Alternative ...

285

Crashworthiness analysis on alternative square honeycomb structure under axial loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexagonal metal honeycomb is widely used in energy absorption field for its special construction. However, many other metal honeycomb structures also show good energy absorption characteristics. Currently, most of the researches focus on hexagonal honeycomb, while few are performed into different honeycomb structures. Therefore, a new alternative square honeycomb is developed to expand the non-hexagonal metal honeycomb applications in the energy absorption fields with the aim of designing low mass and low volume energy absorbers. The finite element model of alternative square honeycomb is built to analyze its specific energy absorption property. As the diversity of honeycomb structure, the parameterized metal honeycomb finite element analysis program is conducted based on PCL language. That program can automatically create finite element model. Numerical results show that with the same foil thickness and cell length of metal honeycomb, the alternative square has better specific energy absorption than hexagonal honeycomb. Using response surface method, the mathematical formulas of honeycomb crashworthiness properties are obtained and optimization is done to get the maximum specific energy absorption property honeycomb. Optimal results demonstrate that to absorb same energy, alternative square honeycomb can save 10% volume of buffer structure than hexagonal honeycomb can do. This research is significant in providing technical support in the extended application of different honeycomb used as crashworthiness structures, and is absolutely essential in low volume and low mass energy absorber design.

Li, Meng; Deng, Zongquan; Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Rongqiang; Ding, Beichen

2013-07-01

286

Magnetic Properties in Nondestructive Testing  

E-print Network

that the magnetic properties of steels de- pend on their composition and heat treatment. Mechanically harder steels. ­ 55 ­ #12;Chapter 4 Magnetic Properties in NDT 4.1.2 Alternative terminology The magnetic induction B to as the coercive field, and BR and MR as the re- manent induction and remanent magnetisation respectively

Cambridge, University of

287

Factory Farms and Organic Alternatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Modern farming has helped feed the world, but along the way, the land has suffered, according to this video adapted from the series Race to Save the Planet. When farmers grow too much too fast, topsoil is depleted. Farmers can work around this problem with fertilizers, irrigation, and pesticides, but these create new problems. Pesticides can harm wildlife, linger on fruits and vegetables, or wash into water supplies. Farmers are now finding new approaches to raising food, like diversifying crops, applying organic fertilizers, and finding alternatives to pesticides. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

2010-08-31

288

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2011-01-01

289

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2012-01-01

290

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2014-01-01

291

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2010-01-01

292

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2013-01-01

293

Morphogenetic fields: outlining the alternatives and enlarging the context.  

PubMed

Several alternative properties which we define as deterministic or field ones are formulated and analyzed in their relations to the realms of morphogenesis and biophoton emission. In spite of all the differences between these two groups of events both of them share the properties of non-additivity, delocalization, self-focusing and several others which we relate to the field phenomena. To a large extent, the field properties of the biological systems are associated with a set of oscillations of different time periods. We suggest that even such deterministic events as, for example, a ligand-receptor coupling are acting, within an activated cell, as the switches and/or modulators of its field properties. PMID:11702649

Beloussov, L V

2001-01-01

294

Lagrangian alternative to QCD string  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectrum of radially excited hadrons provides much information about the confinement forces in QCD. The confinement is realized most naturally in terms of the QCD string whose quantization gives rise to the radially excited modes. We propose an alternative framework for the description of the excited spectrum. Namely we put forward some effective field models in which the hadrons acquire masses due to interaction with a scalar field modeling the non-perturbative gluon vacuum. The effective potential for this field is periodic with an infinite number of non-equivalent vacua. The radially excited hadrons emerge as elementary excitations over different vacua. We construct explicit examples for such effective theories in the meson sector. An interesting byproduct of the considered models is the existence of a classical field configuration in each vacuum. Depending on the model, it can represent a domain wall, Nielsen-Olesen vortex or 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole. In the pure scalar sector, it is shown that the first quantum correction leads to splitting of the radially excited modes into two nearly degenerate states. Such a phenomenon has some phenomenological support. The presented approach may also be viewed as an alternative framework to the bottom-up AdS/QCD models where the radial excitations appear on the classical level as well.

Afonin, S. S.; Katanaeva, A. D.

2013-08-01

295

Alternative healing and health education.  

PubMed

As new and unorthodox methods of health care become increasingly popular, more and more stories appear in magazines, television, and even professional journals. Advocates of alternative healing appear as conference speakers for lay and professional groups alike-including health educators. Such therapies appeal to a public eager to take control of their own health and bodies. Via the Internet, new ideas and treatments can spread through the population incredibly fast. The abundance of new healing techniques coupled with an interested audience and the wonders of mass communication present a challenge to the health educator. The author believes health educators need to be aware of trends in popular culture and new forms of alternative health care. Health educators should have the insight, by virtue of their training, to distinguish real from fantasy, science from pseudoscience. They need to become health information specialists and competent in operating the latest technology. Most importantly, health educators need to remain objective and keep an open mind coupled with a healthy degree of skepticism. PMID:20841077

Pahz, J A

1997-01-01

296

Alternate nozzle ablative materials program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

Kimmel, N. A.

1984-01-01

297

Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to influence uniform rates. The welfare results of these exercises indicate that popular conceptions about increasing block rates may be incorrect insofar as the scarcity-endogenous uniform rate favors low-income households. That is, under scarcity conditions a switch from increasing block rates to full price uniform rates redistributes welfare so as to place more of the welfare burden of conservation on high-income households. Similarly, any household characteristic that tends to accompany low water use (e.g. low property value) generates a the same rate structure preference. These results are an intriguing addition to existing knowledge pertaining to the properties of increasing block rates and uniform rates with respect to criteria such as efficiency, simplicity, effectiveness, and (now) equity.

Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

2011-12-01

298

Preliminary studies of combustor sensitivity to alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustion problems associated with using alternative fuels ground power and aeropropulsion applications were studied. Rectangular sections designed to simulate large annular combustor test conditions were examined. The effects of using alternative fuels with reduced hydrogen content, increased aromatic content, and a broad variation in fuel property characteristics were also studied. Data of special interest were collected which include: flame radiation characteristics in the various combustor zones; the correponding increase in liner temperature from increased radiant heat flux; the effect of fuel bound nitrogen on oxides of nitrogen (NO sub x) emissions; and the overall total effect of fuel variations on exhaust emissions.

Humenik, F. M.

1980-01-01

299

Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. The areas covered were: (1) development of a theoretical expression for the rotating ring disk electrode technique; (2) determination of the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; (3) determination of oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoreomethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) which was considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and (4) the measurement of transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures.

Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

1984-01-01

300

Generalized Quantum Theory, Contextual Emergence and Non-Hierarchic Alternatives  

E-print Network

The concept of emergence is critically analyzed in particular with respect to the assumed emergence of mental properties from a neuronal basis. We argue that so-called contextual emergence is needed to avoid an eliminatory reductionism. Quantum-like features of the emergent qualities are to be expected. As a consequence, non-causal relations like entanglement correlations have to be considered as full fledged elements of reality. "Observable extension" is proposed as a contextual alternative to emergence avoiding the asymmetry between purportedly basic and emergent properties.

Römer, Hartmann

2015-01-01

301

Recent advances in alternative therapies.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming more popular, and CAM remedies are used instead of, or integrated with, orthodox allopathic therapies by many patients with asthma. Although most CAM remedies may have no discernible effects when analyzed by conventional medical techniques, some double-blind controlled studies do suggest that a meaningful benefit can be obtained with acupunture and homeopathic management in asthma. Herbal medicine is more popular, despite little evidence that the vast majority of herbs for asthma have any useful effects other than a nonspecific expectorant action. Dietary adjustment may benefit a small percentage of patients with asthma, but extreme measures are very rarely indicated. Formal pyschologic approaches can help some patients by reducing anxiety. Although most CAM approaches are harmless, the lack of benefit of many remedies and the potential harm from some of them must be recognized. PMID:10608429

Ziment, I

2000-01-01

302

Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative  

SciTech Connect

This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners.

Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

1985-01-01

303

Alternative fuels for cancer cells.  

PubMed

Tumor metabolism is significantly altered to support the various metabolic needs of tumor cells. The most prominent change is the increased tumor glycolysis that leads to increased glucose uptake and utilization. However, it has become obvious that many nonglucose nutrients, such as amino acids, lactate, acetate, and macromolecules, can serve as alternative fuels for cancer cells. This knowledge reveals an unexpected flexibility and evolutionarily conserved model in which cancer cells uptake nutrients from their external environment to fulfill their necessary energetic needs. Tumor cells may have evolved the ability to utilize different carbon sources because of the limited supply of nutrients in their microenvironment, which can be driven by oncogenic mutations or tumor microenvironmental stresses. In certain cases, these factors permanently alter the tumor cells' metabolism, causing certain nutrients to become indispensable and thus creating opportunities for therapeutic intervention to eradicate tumors by their metabolic vulnerabilities. PMID:25815843

Keenan, Melissa M; Chi, Jen-Tsan

2015-01-01

304

Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of research institutes are concerned with issues of social and economic justice, and the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) is perhaps one of the best known institutes working in these fields of endeavor. Founded in 1980, the Centre works "to enrich democratic dialogue and ensure Canadians know there are workable solutions to the issues we face." A good place to start exploring the site's contents is at the "New from the CCPA" area on the homepage. Here, visitors will find recent policy statements and reports on everything from Canada's health care system to the regulation of chemical emissions into the environment. Visitors may also wish to look through the "Research & Publications" area, as it contains editorials, news releases, and selected articles from their monthly magazine, "The Monitor".

305

Academic Programs in Alternative Education: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, second in a series of papers on alternative education, examines the academic programming in alternative education programs by reviewing the literature specifically focused on the academic programs in alternative education and summarizing a survey of fifteen alternative education programs. It suggests options for further research on…

Ruzzi, Betsy Brown; Kraemer, Jacqueline

2006-01-01

306

Alternative calcination development status report  

SciTech Connect

The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

Boardman, R.D.

1997-12-01

307

Demagnetization Tests Performed on a Linear Alternator for a Stirling Power Convertor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Demagnetization temperature of a linear alternator (LA) can be accurately predicted through an analytical Maxwell model. The M-H characteristics of the alternator magnets must be known. Vendor data are given for cube-shaped magnets, and the shape of a LA magnet may affect its magnetic properties. At GRC, M-H data are directly measured for each LA magnet. This method was validated using TDC alternator tests on the Alternator Test Rig. The analytical Maxwell modeling was utilized on a different style linear alternator to predict demagnetization temperatures for the Advanced Stirling Convertor.

Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

2011-01-01

308

Thermal analysis of alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively poor cold-flow properties of monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats (biodiesel) present a major\\u000a obstacle to their development as alternative fuels and extenders for combustion in direct injection compressionignition (diesel)\\u000a engines. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating and cooling curves of methyl soyate (SME), methyl tallowate\\u000a (TME), SME\\/TME admixtures, and winterized SME were analyzed.

Robert O. Dunn

1999-01-01

309

Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief*  

PubMed Central

This report—the second of a series on codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief—contains a detailed evaluation of experimental and clinical data on newer substances having analgesic properties comparable to and in approximately the same range as those of codeine. The data are discussed under the headings: analgesic effects in animals; clinical usefulness; side-effects with particular reference to dependence and abuse liability. PMID:4894737

Eddy, Nathan B.; Friebel, Hans; Hahn, Klaus-Jürgen; Halbach, Hans

1969-01-01

310

CCMR: “ Green ” Composites: An alternative to petroleum-based materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Composites made from natural fibers and resins offer a potential alternative to the petroleum-based materials that are currently used in in many applications such as packaging. These composites have the advantage of being biodegradable, renewable and environmentally friendly. In this work, different additives, including glycerol and polycarboxylic acid (PCA), are introduced to these composites in an attempt to increase properties such as strength and flexibility.

Cooley, LaDean M.

2007-08-29

311

Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn about the properties that will help you identify minerals. If you closed your eyes and tasted different foods, you could probably determine what the foods are by noting properties such as saltiness or sweetness. You can also determine the identity of a mineral by noting different properties. Some properties that help us determine the identy of a mineral are: COLOR, ...

Mr. Wood

2010-11-14

312

Bond Alternation, Polarizability and Resonance Detuning in Methine Dyes  

E-print Network

Many organic molecules with a high nonlinear polarizability have a "Brooker dye" structure, featuring electron accepting or donating groups separated by an unsaturated (methine or polyene) hydrocarbon bridge. These systems have been the topic of much discussion with regard to their structure-property relationships - particularly relationships linking nonlinear response to bond-length alternation. Here, we show that these relationships can be subsumed within the conceptual framework of a Brooker dye color proposed by Platt [J.R. Platt, J. Chem. Phys. 25 80 (1956)]. The key quantities of Platt's model are the Brooker basicity difference and the isoexcitation energy. These concepts provide a spectroscopic definition of the resonant (cyanine) limit, which is independent of other descriptors commonly used (e.g. bond length alternation). We establish a relation ship between the bond length and the Brooker basicity difference, with which we establish a natural origin for bond length alternation coordinates in asymme...

Olsen, Seth

2010-01-01

313

An alternative approach to infrared optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MONTAGE program sponsored by the Microsystems Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) resulted in the demonstration of a novel approach to designing compact imaging systems. This approach was enabled by an unusual four-fold annular lens originally designed and demonstrated for operation exclusively in the visible spectral band. To accomplish DARPA's goal of an ultra-thin imaging system, the folded optic was fabricated by diamond-turning concentric aspheric annular zones on both sides of a CaF2 core. The optical properties of the core material ultimately limit the operating bandwidth of such a design. We present the latest results of an effort to re-engineer and demonstrate the MONTAGE folded optics for imaging across a broad spectral band. The broadband capability is achieved by taking advantage of a new design that substitutes a hollow core configuration for the solid core. Along with enabling additional applications for the folded optics, the hollow-core design offers the potential of reducing weight and cost in comparison to an alternative solid-core design. We present new results characterizing the performance of a lens based on the new design and applied to long-wave infrared imaging.

Morrison, Rick; Stack, Ronald; Euliss, Gary; Athale, Ravindra; Reese, Colin; Vizgaitis, Jay; Stevens, James; Tremblay, Eric; Ford, Joseph

2010-04-01

314

Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

1985-01-01

315

Aqueous alternatives for metal and composite cleaning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For many years the metalworking industry has cleaned metal and composite substrates with chlorinated solvents. Recently, however, health and disposal related environmental concerns have increased regarding chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, or Freon'. World leaders have instituted a production ban of certain ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) by 1996. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has instituted worker vapor exposure limitations for virtually all of the solvents used in solvent-based cleaners. In addition, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has defined nearly all solvent-based cleaners as 'hazardous'. Cradle to grave waste responsibility is another reason manufacturers are trying to replace chlorinated solvents in their cleaning processes. Because of these factors, there now is a world wide effort to reduce and/or eliminate the use of chlorinated solvents for industrial cleaning. Waterbased cleaners are among the alternatives being offered to the industry. New technology alkaline cleaners are now available that can be used instead of chlorinated solvents in many cleaning processes. These waterbased cleaners reduce the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) by as much as 99 percent. (The definition and method of calculation of VOC's now varies from region to region.) Hazardous waste generation can also be significantly reduced or eliminated with new aqueous technology. This in turn can ease worker exposure restrictions and positively impact the environment. This paper compares the chemical and physical properties of this aqueous cleaners versus chlorinated solvents.

Quitmeyer, Joann

1994-01-01

316

Economics of alternative energy sources.  

PubMed

An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. PMID:16073407

Ryle, M

1977-05-12

317

An Alternative Cosmology: The QSSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will begin by highlighting the observational constraints on the standard hot big bang models, with or without inflation, with or without the cosmological constant. It appears that very limited and contrived set of parameters are now allowed for these models, robbing them of their initial simplicity and hence credibility. This therefore motivates thinking about alternative cosmologies, and here one such model, the Quasi-Steady State Cosmology (QSSC) of Hoyle, Burbidge and Narlikar will be described. In the QSSC the basic theory is Machian and links inertia to the distribution of matter in the universe. By starting with a conformally invatiant action that allows the creation of matter, one arrives at a set of field equations which can be solved for homogeneous and isotropic world models. These models have a few parameters which can be fixed by recourse to a few cosmological observations. The models then become essentially fixed and it is a genuine test of their validity that they are able to explain the large scale features of discrete source populations like the Hubble diagram, the radio source count, the angular size flux density relation for radio sources, the surface brightness test, etc. The theory also accounts for the observed features of the microwave background and the abundances of light nuclei, which are commonly considered the hallmarks of the standard model. In the end a few distinguishing tests for this cosmology will be described and also some ideas on structure formation.

Narlikar, J. V.

318

Casimir force: an alternative treatment  

E-print Network

The Casimir force between two parallel uncharged closely spaced metallic plates is evaluated in ways alternatives to those usually considered in the literature. In a first approximation we take in account the suppressed quantum numbers of a cubic box, representing a cavity which was cut in a metallic block. We combine these ideas with those of the MIT bag model of hadrons, but adapted to non-relativistic particles. In a second approximation we consider the particles occupying the energy levels of the Bohr atom, so that the Casimir force depends explicitly on the fine structure constant alpha. In both treatments, the mean energies which have explicit dependence on the particle mass and on the maximum occupied quantum number (related to the Fermi level of the system) at the beginning of the calculations, have these dependences mutually canceled at the end of them. Finally by comparing the averaged energies computed in both approximations, we are able to make an estimate of the value of the fine structure constant alpha.

P. R. Silva

2009-01-07

319

Alternative Energy for Higher Education  

SciTech Connect

This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time â??dashboardâ?ť and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

Michael Cherney, PhD

2012-02-22

320

Alternative pathways for abortion services.  

PubMed

The interests of women seeking abortion and of doctors opposed to abortion are best served by alternative referral abortion facilities. Of 22 area health authorities in England with day-care gynecology in 1977, only 13 had day-care abortion units. The 2 abortion charities were doing about 3 times as many abortions as all National Health Service Hospitals put together. At day-care abortion facilities, part-time nurses and doctors sympathetic to abortion are supportive to women in a vulnerable situation. There is no pressure for valuable hospital beds. Women being treated for infertility are not housed next to abortion patients. Resources are not available for women seeking abortion under the 1967 Abortion Act. In 1 district 66% women succeeded in obtaining their abortion through the National Health Service (NHS). Over half the women in Wessex had to go to another region to obtain abortions. Many local gynecologists have conscientious objections to abortion. Subcontracting or referral of NHS patients to charitable organizations running day-care facilities is one answer to the lack of facilities. PMID:6103449

1980-05-24

321

Alternative systematic approaches to training  

SciTech Connect

This handbook is approved for use by all DOE Components and contractors. The handbook was prepared primarily for DOE nuclear facilities, but the information can be effectively used by any other type of facility. DOE nuclear, DOE non-nuclear, commercial nuclear reactor, fuel fabrication, chemical processing, or other types of facilities may also apply the principles of this approach and find it useful and applicable to local needs. The handbook provides DOE and contractor operating organizations with concepts and guidance regarding the use of alternative techniques to implement a systematic approach to training (SAT). The techniques described in this handbook are endorsed by DOE and use of the guidance in this handbook is appropriate for establishment of technical training programs at DOE nuclear facilities. The use of guidance on selection and implementation of appropriate training approaches after consideration of job complexity, the consequences of error based on risk/hazard potential, and available training media should result in effective and efficient training programs. The information presented in this handbook can be used to grade the level of effort and formality used in developing training programs.

Not Available

1995-01-01

322

Polyandry and alternative mating tactics  

PubMed Central

Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research. PMID:23339236

Neff, Bryan D.; Svensson, Erik I.

2013-01-01

323

Phytoremediation -- a practical capping alternative  

SciTech Connect

Much literature has been devoted recently to the use of various plant species for the uptake of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Other uses for plants as part of the remediation process are growing in perceived effectiveness. Consequently, this paper deals with two other equally important potential uses of plants to address environmental problems that are just now evolving to the field trial stage: the use of plants to remediate organic pollutants; and the use of plants to control the rainfall-driven leaching of contaminants and the subsequent delivery to underlying groundwater. The traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) approach to capping landfills will be contrasted with the potential benefits of using plants that can balance incoming rainfall with evapotranspiration, as well as plants which can act on organic constituents in soil or sludge by either uptake or by promoting microbial activity in soil. This paper compares traditional RCRA capping costs to those for a phytoremediation capping alternative, whose benefits include significantly lower implementation cost and continued remediation. This paper discusses important elements of a successful approach to phytoremediation including: species selection, implementation techniques, cost-efficient monitoring, regulatory aspects, project timing, and realistic expectations.

Beath, J.M.; Peak, M.J. [ERM-Southwest, Inc., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

324

Alternative Water Processor Test Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

2012-01-01

325

Boom Rendezvous Alternative Docking Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space rendezvous and docking has always been attempted with primarily one philosophic methodology. The slow matching of one vehicle's orbit by a second vehicle and then a final closing sequence that ends in matching the orbits with perfect precision and with near zero relative velocities. The task is time consuming, propellant intensive, risk inherent (plume impingement, collisions, fuel depletion, etc.) and requires substantial hardware mass. The historical background and rationale as to why this approach is used is discussed in terms of the path-not-taken and in light of an alternate methodology. Rendezvous and docking by boom extension is suggested to have inherent advantages that today s technology can readily exploit. Extension from the primary spacecraft, beyond its inherent large inertia, allows low inertia connections to be made rapidly and safely. Plume contamination issues are eliminated as well as the extra propellant mass and risk required for the final thruster (docking) operations. Space vehicle connection hardware can be significantly lightened. Also, docking sensors and controls require less fidelity; allowing them to be more robust and less sensitive. It is the potential safety advantage and mission risk reduction that makes this approach attractive, besides the prospect of nominal time and mass savings.

Bonometti, Joseph A.

2006-01-01

326

Evaluation and Application of Alternative Die Materials Using Simulation technology for the High Pressure Diecasting industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative die materials have been routinely used in the high pressure diecasting industry to take advantage of the material's thermophysical properties. Notable among these is an alloy made from refractory material, which contains 80% tungsten. Typically, the choice for an alternative to H13 die material is considered only when all ingenious avenues to solve porosity problems in relatively thick sections

Winston Sequeira; Matt Proske; Dave Fitzgerald; Dave Bandy

327

Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

Brown, Michael A.

2010-01-01

328

Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary  

SciTech Connect

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2010-04-08

329

Alternative to particle dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an alternative to particle dark matter that borrows ingredients of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) while adding new key components. The first new feature is a dark matter fluid, in the form of a scalar field with small equation of state and sound speed. This component is critical in reproducing the success of cold dark matter for the expansion history and the growth of linear perturbations, but does not cluster significantly on nonlinear scales. Instead, the missing mass problem on nonlinear scales is addressed by a modification of the gravitational force law. The force law approximates MOND at large and intermediate accelerations, and therefore reproduces the empirical success of MOND at fitting galactic rotation curves. At ultralow accelerations, the force law reverts to an inverse-square law, albeit with a larger Newton's constant. This latter regime is important in galaxy clusters and is consistent with their observed isothermal profiles, provided the characteristic acceleration scale of MOND is mildly varying with scale or mass, such that it is 12 times higher in clusters than in galaxies. We present an explicit relativistic theory in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field is governed by a Dirac-Born-Infeld action and behaves as a dark matter fluid on large scales. The second scalar field also has single-derivative interactions and mediates a fifth force that modifies gravity on nonlinear scales. Both scalars are coupled to matter via an effective metric that depends locally on the fields. The form of this effective metric implies the equality of the two scalar gravitational potentials, which ensures that lensing and dynamical mass estimates agree. Further work is needed in order to make both the acceleration scale of MOND and the fraction at which gravity reverts to an inverse-square law explicitly dynamical quantities, varying with scale or mass.

Khoury, Justin

2015-01-01

330

Alternative Fuel Road Signage Policies & Programs  

E-print Network

1 Alternative Fuel Road Signage Policies & Programs in Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South.............................................................................................................................................9 South Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia compiled and assessed information about alternative fuel road

331

Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En espańol ) ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...

332

ALTERNATIVE JET FUEL SCENARIO ANALYSIS Final Report  

E-print Network

1 ALTERNATIVE JET FUEL SCENARIO ANALYSIS REPORT Final Report U.S. Department of Transportation Alternative jet fuel scenario analysis report 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Kristin Lewis, Shuchi Mitra

333

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

334

7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 930.28 Alternate members. An alternate member of...

2010-01-01

335

Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Espańol Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ®) Overview Complementary ... NCI Fact Sheet for more information about each topic. See NCI's Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative ...

336

7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

2012-01-01

337

7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

2011-01-01

338

7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

2010-01-01

339

7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

2014-01-01

340

7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

2013-01-01

341

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine  

E-print Network

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz Energy Frontier Workshop, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2013 Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A tension between naturalness and simplicity The decades prior

California at Santa Cruz, University of

342

7 CFR 981.35 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.35 Alternates. An alternate for a member for the...

2010-01-01

343

Cost-benefit evaluation of using biodiesel as an alternative fuel for fishing boats in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel, which is manufactured from vegetables oils, animal fats, or algae can be an excellent alternative fuel to petroleum diesel due to its superior fuel properties and lower pollutant emissions. In contrast, fishing-boat fuel generally has much poorer fuel properties and a high sulfur content that can reach several hundred times that of the premium diesel used in land-based vehicles.

Cherng-Yuan Lin; Tsan-Huang Huang

2012-01-01

344

an educational alternative futures wildland planning game  

E-print Network

an educational alternative futures wildland planning game Edward C. Thor James L. Creighton PACIFIC. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Mystic Mountain Game was initially developed for a workshop on alternative futures planning alternative futures wildland planning game. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-30, 8 p., illus. Pacific South- west Forest

Standiford, Richard B.

345

A New Design for Automotive Alternators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new design for alternator systems that provides dramatic increases in peak and average power output from a conventional Lundell alternator, along with substantial improvements in efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate these capability improvements. Additional performance and functionality improvements of particular value for high- voltage (e.g., 42 V) alternators are also demonstrated. Tight load-dump transient suppression can be

David J. Perreault; Vahe Caliskan

2000-01-01

346

Syllabus for Chem. 3700 Alternative Energy  

E-print Network

Syllabus for Chem. 3700 Alternative Energy Class Meetings: Tuesdays and Thursdays popular alternative energy sources which are currently being used or developed to help relieve with the most popular alternate energy options. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the topic, the course

Houston, Paul L.

347

January 31, 2011 Alternative and Renewable Fuel  

E-print Network

January 31, 2011 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program PON-11-603 Subject OPPORTUNITY NOTICE AND APPLICATION PACKAGE Alternative and Renewable Fuels and Vehicle Technology Program- petroleum fuels that are lower-cost alternatives to gasoline and diesel and have lower carbon emission

348

Designing Alternatives to State Motor Fuel Taxes  

E-print Network

Designing Alternatives to State Motor Fuel Taxes All states rely on gasoline taxes as one source efficiency and alternative fuel vehicles reduce both the equity of the revenue source and its growth over, leading to higher fuel efficiency, wide variations in fuel efficiency, and alternative- fuel vehicles

Bertini, Robert L.

349

Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans  

E-print Network

Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans PON-13-603 September 3, 2013 Eligibility Q1 to readiness plans? A1 This solicitation is limited to readiness planning only for alternative fuels. Q2 In regards to PON-13-603 - Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans, is electricity used for transportation

350

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative 2009 Prof. David Cahen Scientific Director #12;Alternative and Sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI) Weizmann Institute of Science 1 thousands of strains of algae, analyzing their Alternative and Sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI

Maoz, Shahar

351

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative 2010 Prof. David Cahen Scientific Director #12;Alternative and sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI) Weizmann Institute of Science Designer Cellulosomes 28 SSC2010: Solar Student Conference 2010 30 #12;Alternative and sustainable Energy

Maoz, Shahar

352

Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy  

E-print Network

Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy storage technologies and what the future may hold for multi-scale storage applications Presented by: Dave Lucero, Director Alternative Energy Implantable Devices Aerospace Systems Satellites Aircraft Commercial Alternative Energy #12;4Copyright© 2010

353

Alternative Energy Leadership Study Measuring Performance  

E-print Network

Alternative Energy Leadership Study Measuring Performance Through a Multidisciplinary Lens February and a major cause of pollution, scientists and engineers have sought for decades to develop alternative energy to alternative energy-related research is critical for understanding the potential solutions emerging from

Franssen, Michael

354

Alternators on uniform rings of odd size  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternator is a network of concurrent processes, which satisfies the following conditions. (1) If one process executes the critical step, no neighbor of the process executes the critical step in the same computing step. (2) Along any infinite computing steps, each process executes the critical step infinitely often. (3) An alternator is self-stabilizing to the above conditions. An alternator

Shing-tsaan Huang; Ying-sung Huang; Su-shen Hung

2003-01-01

355

Amending pine bark with alternative substrates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to a number of factors, pine bark supplies have significantly decreased over the past few years. While alternative substrates are being evaluated, many growers are asking if these alternative substrates can be used to stretch existing PB supplies. In this study, two alternative substrates, “Cl...

356

Alternative Clustering Analysis: A Review James Bailey  

E-print Network

Chapter 21 Alternative Clustering Analysis: A Review James Bailey Department of Computing Clustering Analysis using Alternative Clusterings .......... 536 21.3.1 Alternative Clustering Algorithms and Web mining. Clustering analysis provides a way to automatically identify patterns and 533 #12;534 Data

Bailey, James

357

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-01-01

358

Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

1981-05-01

359

Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition  

PubMed Central

The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical properties. PMID:23925042

de Godoy, Maria R. C.; Kerr, Katherine R.; Fahey, George C.

2013-01-01

360

77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination...authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy...authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or...

2012-05-30

361

Improving System Dependability with Functional Alternatives We present the concept of alternative functionality for  

E-print Network

to enhance system dependability with a case study of an elevator control system. In simulation, an elevatorImproving System Dependability with Functional Alternatives Abstract We present the concept of alternative functionality for improving dependability in distributed embedded systems. Alternative

Koopman, Philip

362

Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water bottle, insulating tape, a screwdriver, a connecting block, a solar motor, a plastic fan and thin wires. The only difference was that the wind groups were issued hairdryers and the hydroelectric groups worked at a sink. The wave turbine was constructed in a similar way using the bases from two 5 litre water bottles. Various investigations were conducted into the factors affecting the voltage produced. For instance, the effect of the distance from the light source, the area of the solar cell, the type of blades, the depth of water and the wind speed were studied. The lessons reinforced their understanding of ideas covered in Science and Geography, such as voltage, power, fair tests, compass directions and map contours. Students also had the opportunity to practise connecting electrical components in series and they consolidated their understanding of energy changes, observing that generators convert kinetic energy to electrical energy. The activities allowed students to learn the basics of how renewable energy technologies work. The tasks provided a hands-on experience of renewable energy being used to power small-scale electrical devices such as an LED. The students also gained an appreciation of the complex issues involved in planning and implementing renewable energy generation in the real world.

Boyle, Julie

2010-05-01

363

Utiization of alternate fuels in diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments during three years entitled The Utilization of Alternate Fuels in Diesel Engines are summarized. Experiments were designed and test equipment set-up for the purpose of evaluating the use of methanol as a fumigant for light-duty Diesel engine service. The major experimental results were obtained from a multicylinder automotive Diesel engine. However, fundamental studies employing a GC/micro-reactor and a constant volume combustion bomb were also started. The purpose of this work was to measure some of the chemical and physical properties of methanol and methanol-air mixtures. The laminar flame velocity for various mixtures has been measured in the combustion bomb and thermal degradation studies have begun in the GC/micro-reactor. An Oldsmobile 5.7 liter V/8 Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 40% of the fuel energy. The primary objectives of the study were to determine the effect of methanol fumigation on fuel efficiency, smoke, nitric oxide emission, and the occurrence of severe knock. An assessment of the biological activity for samples of the raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract was also made using boh the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test and the B. subtilis Comptest. Generally, methanol fumigation was found to decrease NO emission for all conditions, to have a slight effect on smoke opacity, and to have a beneficial effect on fuel efficiency at higher loads. Also at higher loads, the methanol was found to induce what was defined as knock limited operation. The biological activity of the raw particulate matter was fond to be less than that of its soluble organic extract. However, for both the fumigation of methanol did enhance the biological activity.

Lestz, S.S.

1980-09-01

364

Fuel properties of cottonseed oil  

SciTech Connect

The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E. [Sakarya Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-11-01

365

Three-level schemes of the alternating triangular method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the schemes of the alternating triangular method are set out in the class of splitting methods used for the approximate solution of Cauchy problems for evolutionary problems. These schemes are based on splitting the problem operator into two operators that are conjugate transposes of each other. Economical schemes for the numerical solution of boundary value problems for parabolic equations are designed on the basis of an explicit-implicit splitting of the problem operator. The alternating triangular method is also of interest for the construction of numerical algorithms that solve boundary value problems for systems of partial differential equations and vector systems. The conventional schemes of the alternating triangular method used for first-order evolutionary equations are two-level ones. The approximation properties of such splitting methods can be improved by transiting to three-level schemes. Their construction is based on a general principle for improving the properties of difference schemes, namely, on the regularization principle of A.A. Samarskii. The analysis conducted in this paper is based on the general stability (or correctness) theory of operator-difference schemes.

Vabishchevich, P. N.

2014-06-01

366

Nominalization and Alternations in Biomedical Language  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents data on alternations in the argument structure of common domain-specific verbs and their associated verbal nominalizations in the PennBioIE corpus. Alternation is the term in theoretical linguistics for variations in the surface syntactic form of verbs, e.g. the different forms of stimulate in FSH stimulates follicular development and follicular development is stimulated by FSH. The data is used to assess the implications of alternations for biomedical text mining systems and to test the fit of the sublanguage model to biomedical texts. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined 1,872 tokens of the ten most common domain-specific verbs or their zero-related nouns in the PennBioIE corpus and labelled them for the presence or absence of three alternations. We then annotated the arguments of 746 tokens of the nominalizations related to these verbs and counted alternations related to the presence or absence of arguments and to the syntactic position of non-absent arguments. We found that alternations are quite common both for verbs and for nominalizations. We also found a previously undescribed alternation involving an adjectival present participle. Conclusions/Significance We found that even in this semantically restricted domain, alternations are quite common, and alternations involving nominalizations are exceptionally diverse. Nonetheless, the sublanguage model applies to biomedical language. We also report on a previously undescribed alternation involving an adjectival present participle. PMID:18779866

Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Palmer, Martha; Hunter, Lawrence

2008-01-01

367

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

Not Available

1994-06-01

368

On the Lower Alternating Integral of Pontryagin in Linear Differential Games of Pursuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article the concept of the lower alternating integral of Pontryagin, which differs from the analogous concept of A. Azamov (MR 83k: 90142), is introduced. The properties of this object are studied in comparison with those of the alternating integral of Pontryagin. A procedure is given for application of the lower alternating integral of Pontryagin to linear differential games of pursuit, with special consideration for the question of using the lower alternating integral of Pontryagin when there are countably many measurements of the phase vector. The results are illustrated in two known differential games: "the boy and the crocodile" and the "control example of Pontryagin."Bibliography: 18 titles.

Nikol'ski?, M. S.

1987-02-01

369

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane conversions. This guide may be particularly helpful for organizations that are already using alternative fuels in their vehicles and have an alternative fuel supply or electric charging in place (e.g., golf cart charging stations at most golf courses). On the flip side, experiencing the benefits of using alternative fuels in mowing equipment may encourage organizations to try them in on-road vehicles as well. Whatever the case, alternative fuel commercial lawnmowers are a powerful and cost-effective way to reduce U.S. petroleum dependence and help protect the environment.

Not Available

2011-10-01

370

ASD: a bioinformatics resource on alternative splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism of mammalian gene expression. The alternative splicing database (ASD) consortium is systematically collecting and annotating data on alternative splicing. We present the continuation and upgrade of the ASD (T. A. Thanaraj, S. Stamm, F. Clark, J. J. Riethoven, V. Le Texier, J. Muilu (2004) NucleicAcidsRes.32,D64-D69)thatconsistsofcom- putationally and manually generated data. Its largest parts

Stefan Stamm; Jean-jack M. Riethoven; Vincent Le Texier; Chellappa Gopalakrishnan; Vasudev Kumanduri; Yesheng Tang; Nuno L. Barbosa-morais; Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj

2006-01-01

371

Should pharmacologists care about alternative splicing? IUPHAR Review 4  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of mRNAs occurs in the majority of human genes, and most differential splicing results in different protein isoforms with possibly different functional properties. However, there are many reported splicing variations that may be quite rare, and not all combinatorially possible variants of a given gene are expressed at significant levels. Genes of interest to pharmacologists are frequently expressed at such low levels that they are not adequately represented in genome-wide studies of transcription. In single-gene studies, data are commonly available on the relative abundance and functional significance of individual alternatively spliced exons, but there are rarely data that quantitate the relative abundance of full-length transcripts and define which combinations of exons are significant. A number of criteria for judging the significance of splice variants and suggestions for their nomenclature are discussed. PMID:24670145

Bonner, T I

2014-01-01

372

7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

2010-01-01

373

Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief*  

PubMed Central

This chapter concludes the survey of experimental and clinical data on the analgesic and antitussive properties of codeine and its potential therapeutic alternates. From an evaluation of their effectiveness on the one hand and the side-effects, including tolerance, dependence and abuse liability on the other, it would appear that the therapeutic goals of codeine could be achieved by other substances, except perhaps where analgesia, cough relief, and sedation are required simultaneously. The use of these other substances would, however, result in no particular gain and probably no particular loss. PMID:4898386

Eddy, Nathan B.; Friebel, Hans; Hahn, Klaus-Jürgen; Halbach, Hans

1969-01-01

374

Alternative Fuels Data Center (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

Not Available

2013-07-01

375

ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING SOLVENT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

There are economic and regulatory incentives for considering alternatives to the direct land disposal of solvent-bearing hazardous waste streams (EPA Hazardous Waste Codes: F001, F002, F003, F004, and F005). These alternatives include recycle/reuse (including use as a fuel substi...

376

ALTERNATIVE SEWER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The problem of sewering small communities is generally one of prohibitive economics. In response to this problem alternative sewering methods which are lower in cost than conventional gravity sewers have been developed over the past two decades. The major alternative sewering met...

377

Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

378

Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Capitol Hill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congress, in coordination with the public, has been the driving force behind improving research, regulation, and access to complementary and alternative therapies. While government agencies have remained reluctant to move forward in conducting research in some areas of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), at times displaying a bias against them, many in Congress have been open- minded and active in

S. Elizabeth Clay

1999-01-01

379

Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided.

Murphy, James Anthony; Palmer, Brent J; Perry, Keith Joseph

2003-12-01

380

ALTERNATIVE BEEF MARKETING LIVESTOCK TECHNICAL NOTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information center funded by the USDA's Rural Business -- Cooperative Service. Abstract: This publication explores marketing alternatives for small-scale cattle ranchers who would like to add value to the beef they produce. Part One discusses methods for adding value within the conventional marketing system, including retained ownership and cooperative marketing. Part Two introduces alternative

Richard Earles; Anne Fanatico; Lance Gegner; Ron Morrow

381

THE EDEN ALTERNATIVE: IMPACT ON STUDENT ATTITUDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing homes as clinical sites for student learning have the potential to produce negative attitudes toward aging. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to determine the impact of the Eden Alternative on the attitudes of students toward elders residing in nursing homes. Prior to beginning implementation of the Eden Alternative, 61 students completed the Health Professional

Richard B. Rosher; Sherry Robinson

2005-01-01

382

Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Alternative Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for alternative energy courses is part of a series of curriculum guides for use in the industrial arts curriculum in Connecticut. The guide contains two parts. Part 1 provides the following overview: (1) objectives of alternative energy education, including suggestions for course levels, class sizes, teaching methods, and…

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

383

Requirements, possible alternatives & international NEUTRON SCATTERING  

E-print Network

Requirements, possible alternatives & international NEUTRON SCATTERING DETECTORS for Rob Dimeo NIST neutron scattering instruments are the most demanding require background low #12;#12;The Helium-3 Supply Crisis ­ Alternative Techniques to Helium-3 based Detectors for Neutron Scattering Applications

Dimeo, Robert M.

384

Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the recent interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), some patients may seek such treatments to supplement their traditional glaucoma management. The prevalence of CAM use for glaucoma is approximately 5%. We reviewed the literature to determine the potential benefit of various alternative treatments. Aside from a temporary osmotic effect from high dose intravenous ascorbic acid, there is no

Douglas J Rhee; L. Jay Katz; George L Spaeth; Jonathan S Myers

2001-01-01

385

Potential demand for alternative fuel vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the potential demand for alternative fuel vehicles. The alternative fuel vehicles we consider are liquid propane gas and electric powered vehicles in addition to dual-fuel vehicles. The data were obtained from a stated preference survey in which each respondent, in a randomly selected sample, was exposed to 15 experiments. In each experiment the respondents were asked to

John K. Dagsvik; Tom Wennemo; Dag G. Wetterwald; Rolf Aaberge

2002-01-01

386

Context-driven expectations about focus alternatives.  

PubMed

What is conveyed by a sentence frequently depends not only on the descriptive content carried by its words, but also on implicit alternatives determined by the context of use. Four visual world eye-tracking experiments examined how alternatives are generated based on aspects of the discourse context and used in interpreting sentences containing the focus operators only and also. Experiment 1 builds on previous reading time studies showing that the interpretations of only sentences are constrained by alternatives explicitly mentioned in the preceding discourse, providing fine-grained time course information about the expectations triggered by only. Experiments 2 and 3 show that, in the absence of explicitly mentioned alternatives, lexical and situation-based categories evoked by the context are possible sources of alternatives. While Experiments 1-3 all demonstrate the discourse dependence of alternatives, only explicit mention triggered expectations about alternatives that were specific to sentences with only. By comparing only with also, Experiment 4 begins to disentangle expectations linked to the meanings of specific operators from those generalizable to the class of focus-sensitive operators. Together, these findings show that the interpretation of sentences with focus operators draws on both dedicated mechanisms for introducing alternatives into the discourse context and general mechanisms associated with discourse processing. PMID:25797456

Kim, Christina S; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Runner, Jeffrey T

2015-06-01

387

Alternative High Schools: Models For the Future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A little known movement within public school systems, the creation of alternative schools for at-risk students has been in existence for several years. Alternative high schools have grown nationally in both quality and number. These schools for both existing and potential drop-outs rely heavily on forming learning communities where both teacher and learner are empowered. Innovation and flexibility are usual

Gay G. Knutson

388

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996  

SciTech Connect

Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

NONE

1997-12-01

389

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS  

E-print Network

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS MARC LACKENBY with an appendix by Ian Agol volume - can be estimated directly from its alternating diagram. A bigon region in a link diagram is the following rather surprising result, which asserts that the link complement's hyperbolic volume is, up

Lackenby, Marc

390

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS  

E-print Network

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS MARC LACKENBY with an appendix by Ian Agol volume ­ can be estimated directly from its alternating diagram. A bigon region in a link diagram is the following rather surprising result, which asserts that the link complement's hyperbolic volume is, up

Lackenby, Marc

391

Realistic ocean energy alternatives to fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Commission on Ocean Policy endorsed the Administrations complete dependence on fossil fuels as the primary energy source for the nation. Two very significant alternatives were rejected or neglected. The first alternative was sea based semi submerged nuclear power plant ships deployed in a line paralleling the coastline of the United States. The US has developed and deployed hundreds

John Pińa Craven

2005-01-01

392

Alternative Setting-Wide Positive Behavior Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has an established evidence base in general education settings, and emerging evidence suggests that SWPBS may be effective in alternative settings (e.g., alternative, residential, or hospital schools; psychiatric hospitals). Given the intense educational and behavioral needs of students typically…

Simonsen, Brandi; Jeffrey-Pearsall, Jennifer; Sugai, George; McCurdy, Barry

2011-01-01

393

Alternative Therapies and Empowerment of Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a striking increase in Americans' awareness and use of alternative therapies over the last decade. Women, in particular, have been drawn to explore these unconventional health practices, which include herbal medicine, acupuncture, homeopathy, manual therapies, energy healing, and mind-body therapies. From a feminist perspective, the rise in alternative therapies' use in the United States represents a shift

Susan Gaylord

1999-01-01

394

Tonal Alternations and Prosodic Structure in Somali  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the prosody of focalisation in Somali, a cushitic tonal accent language. The Somali nouns undergo many tonal accent alternations according to the discursive contexts. A primary aim of the study is to explain these alternations by assuming that they are triggered by intonative tones. However, very little attention has been devoted to the intonation of Somali. As

David Le Gac

2002-01-01

395

Third Party Financing of Alternate Energy Projects  

E-print Network

of financing alternate energy projects. By the term 'alternate energy' most financial people mean a project which will sell at least part of its total energy output to an electric utility, taking advantage of the rules of PURPA already outlines for you by Marty...

Jones, A. C.

1983-01-01

396

Alternative Energy Options for Antarctic Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique problems of designing an alternative energy system for the Australian and French Antarctic research stations and the possible options that can be pursued to obtain a clean, efficient, safe and reliable energy system. The adoption of the alternative systems will rely on the further technological and commercial development of equipment

John Steel; Antoine Guichard

397

Alternative Energy and Remote Power Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Alaska, ABS Alaskan provides batteries, alternative energy and remote and power products. The site contains a Library link, where users can explore a basic power system diagram, visit the document download center, and find information explaining alternative energy and power systems.

398

Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources,  

E-print Network

Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios #12;#12;TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Alternative FuelFUELS Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 2013

399

Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

Roizen, Nancy J.

2005-01-01

400

Alternate Assessment: Have We Learned Anything New?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the first review of alternate assessment literature by Browder, Spooner, Algozzine, et al. (2003), educational research related to alternate assessment has rapidly expanded as state and federal policies have required the inclusion of students with disabilities, including students with the most significant cognitive disabilities, in state and…

Towles-Reeves, Elizabeth; Kleinert, Harold; Muhomba, Monicah

2009-01-01

401

Educational Telecommunications Alternatives for Alaska. Product 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores a wide variety of technical alternatives, from equipment needs and on-the-ground system design, to equipment operation and suggested applications for department activities, both now and in the future. Some suggested alternatives include (1) communication satellites, (2) one way audio transmission, (3) one and two way hard copy…

Wilke, Jennifer L.; And Others

402

Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

Schroeder, A. N.

2013-09-01

403

Student Perceptions of the Alternative School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some students find it difficult to reach graduation in a regular secondary school setting, but may be successful in an alternative setting. Causes of not graduating could include high absenteeism and behavior problems, which may result in dropping out. This study sought student perceptions of an alternative program in a public school district in…

Herrington, Tina Sabrina

2012-01-01

404

Alternative Learning Environments in the Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines a program utilized in the Countryside School which offers alternative learning environments in the elementary school. The program includes (1) semi-departmentalization; (2) team teaching; and (3) an open-alternatives program. Each of these areas is outlined and fully discussed in terms of student and parent needs. (YRJ)

Davis, Eugene D.

405

Emptiness of Linear Weak Alternating Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automata-theoretic approach to model checking requires two basic ingre- dients: a translation from logic to automata, and an algorithm for checking lan- guage emptiness. LTL model checking has traditionally been based on (general- ized) B¨ uchi automata. Weak alternating automata provide an attractive alternative because there is an elegant and linear-time translation from LTL. However, due to their intricate

Stephan Merz; Ali Sezgin

406

Alternative Employment Arrangements: A Gender Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we drew on national-level data to investigate the gendered nature of two alternative employment arrangements (independent contractors and temporary agency help), preferences for such arrangements, and the extent to which such arrangements accommodate work\\/family career quandaries of contemporary workers. Multivariate analyses revealed the perpetuation of gender schema and gendered structures, but this varied by type of alternative

Janet H. Marler; Phyllis Moen

2005-01-01

407

Alternative automotive engines and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential ability of alternatives to the internal combustion engine (ICE) to contribute towards the dual goals of reduction in the power consumed by the United States passenger car fleet and reduction in air pollutant emissions is assessed. The principal advantages and limitations of a variety of alternative engines are identified, including the Wankel spark-ignition engine, the carbureted prechamber stratified

J. B. Heywood; L. H. Linden

1976-01-01

408

Matrix Management: An Organizational Alternative for Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes various organizational structures and models, presents matrix management as an alternative to traditional hierarchical structures, and suggests matrix management as an appropriate organizational alternative for academic libraries. Benefits that are discussed include increased flexibility, a higher level of professional independence, and…

Johnson, Peggy

1990-01-01

409

Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 4  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the accomplishments of the Clean Cities coalitions during the past 5 years. Now Clean Cities advocates in city after city across the US are building stations and driving alternative fuel vehicles, in addition to enhancing public awareness.

O'Connor, K.; Riley, C.; Raye, M.

1998-11-30

410

Methyl bromide alternatives for grape replant  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The project is part of the USDA-ARS Pacific Area-Wide Pest Management Program for Methyl Bromide Alternatives. The Critical Use Exemption (CUE) for methyl bromide (MB) on all grapes (wine, raisin, and table) is a short term solution until alternatives to MB are identified, and active research on MB ...

411

Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to

Bernward Garthoff; Bernward

2005-01-01

412

Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Mineralogical Society of America describes the physical properties of minerals in terms that kids will understand. The site also includes the definition of a mineral, an identification chart, and links to descriptions of the physical properties used to identify minerals.

Mineralogy 4 Kids

413

Optimizing biodiesel composition and properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel prepared from vegetable oils, animal fats or other oil-containing materials. While it is technically competitive with conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum, some of its fuel properties still require improvement. This article briefly summarizes the t...

414

Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis used to evaluate the energy and emission impact of two pathways of alternative energy development. The results show that China can only meets its 2015 and 2020 targets for non-fossil penetration if it successfully achieves all of its capacity targets for 2020 with continued expansion through 2030. To achieve this level of alternative generation, significant amounts of raw materials including 235 Mt of concrete, 54 Mt of steel, 5 Mt of copper along with 3 billion tons of water and 64 thousand square kilometers of land are needed. China’s alternative energy supply will likely have relatively high average energy output to fossil fuel input ratio of 42 declining to 26 over time, but this ratio is largely skewed by nuclear and hydropower capacity. With successful alternative energy development, 32% of China’s electricity and 21% of its total primary energy will be supplied by alternative energy by 2030. Compared to the counterfactual baseline in which alternative energy development stumbles and China does not meet its capacity targets until 2030, alternative energy development can displace 175 Mtce of coal inputs per year and 2080 Mtce cumulatively from power generation by 2030. In carbon terms, this translates into 5520 Mt of displaced CO{sub 2} emissions over the twenty year period, with more than half coming from expanded nuclear and wind power generation. These results illustrate the critical role that alternative energy development can play alongside energy efficiency in reducing China’s energy-related carbon emissions.

Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

2011-06-15

415

Subgroup Specific Alternative Splicing in Medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastoma is comprised of four distinct molecular variants: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. We analyzed alternative splicing usage in 14 normal cerebellar samples and 103 medulloblastomas of known subgroup. Medulloblastoma samples have a statistically significant increase in alternative splicing as compared to normal fetal cerebella (2.3-times; P<6.47E-8). Splicing patterns are distinct and specific between molecular subgroups. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of alternative splicing events accurately assigns medulloblastomas to their correct subgroup. Subgroup-specific splicing and alternative promoter usage was most prevalent in Group 3 (19.4%) and SHH (16.2%) medulloblastomas, while observed less frequently in WNT (3.2%), and Group 4 (9.3%) tumors. Functional annotation of alternatively spliced genes reveals over-representation of genes important for neuronal development. Alternative splicing events in medulloblastoma may be regulated in part by the correlative expression of antisense transcripts, suggesting a possible mechanism affecting subgroup specific alternative splicing. Our results identify additional candidate markers for medulloblastoma subgroup affiliation, further support the existence of distinct subgroups of the disease, and demonstrate an additional level of transcriptional heterogeneity between medulloblastoma subgroups. PMID:22358458

Kloosterhof, Nanne K; Northcott, Paul A; Yu, Emily PY; Shih, David; Peacock, John; Grajkowska, Wieslawa; van Meter, Timothy; Eberhart, Charles G; Pfister, Stefan; Marra, Marco A; Weiss, William A; Scherer, Stephen W; Rutka, James T; French, Pim J; Taylor, Michael D

2014-01-01

416

Alternatives in the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease.  

PubMed

Pain, bleeding, protrusion, soilage, itching, and burning are anorectal complaints associated with hemorrhoidal disease. Although hemorrhoidectomy remains the treatment of choice for grade 3 and 4 hemorrhoids, symptoms can be controlled short of hemorrhoidectomy, the alternative methods being effective in lesser degrees of involvement, such as grades 1, 2, and 3. Cryosurgery and dilation are fading alternatives; laser is becoming more widely used, but results have not been fully evaluated. Sclerotherapy, rubber band ligation, and infrared coagulation are also effective alternatives for patients who demand nonsurgical therapy. PMID:3368813

Ferguson, E F

1988-05-01

417

Tapping the potential of alternative medicine.  

PubMed

Interest in alternative medicine is growing among healthcare consumers. Health plans and healthcare organizations may be able to improve clinical outcomes and benefit financially by providing patients with access to alternative services. Organizations that can assess their communities' particular needs, draw on interested professional staff to help develop alternative medicine programs and protocols, and study quality outcomes will stand a better chance of making such programs successful. Educating medical staff, designing a credible program, and forging strategic alliances with respected partners can help organizations create a sharply focused brand identity in the community. PMID:10178063

La Puma, J; Eiler, G

1998-04-01

418

Can scientific medicine incorporate alternative medicine?  

PubMed

The authors examine the problem of defining alternative medicine, and after a brief analysis conclude that a satisfactory unifying definition of the different practices is not possible. Scientific knowledge is a function of scientific method. In turn the principle of falsifiability proposed by Karl Popper is used as a demarcation line between science and pseudoscience. They assert that the various alternative modalities do not represent authentic scientific disciplines, as they lack many of the minimum requirements of scientific discourse and, above all, because they violate the principle of falsifiability. Until they overcome these methodological shortcomings, alternative medical practices cannot become authentic scientific disciplines. PMID:10890333

Federspil, G; Vettor, R

2000-06-01

419

Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual  

SciTech Connect

This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

None

1980-02-01

420

Alternative Medicine: All in Your Mind?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest addition to the University of Wisconsin-Madison graduate school's Why Files (first mentioned in the August 9. 1996 Scout Report) is about alternative medicine and the actual biological effects that alternative medicine has on the human body. For many years, alternative medicine was considered "quackery", but this Web site presents some of the science behind the placebo effect and hypnosis. There is also a page on some of the effects of and concerns about St. John's Wort. A bibliography and links to related Why Files provide additional resources for those users who are not satisfied by this brief glance at the topic.

2001-01-01

421

Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator  

DOEpatents

A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

Brandenburg, Larry Raymond (Plymouth, MI); Miller, John Michael (Saline, MI)

2000-06-13

422

Characterization of alternative FBR development strategies  

SciTech Connect

Near-term decisions regarding the nature and place of the FBR development program must be made. This study is part of a larger program designed to provide the Department of Energy (DOE) with imformation that can be used to make strategic programmatic decisions. The focus of this report is the description of alternative approaches for developing the FBR and the quantification of the duration and cost of each alternative. The time frames of the alternative approaches are investigated in companion reports (White 1981 and Fraley 1981). The results of these analyses will be described in a summary report (Burnham et al. 1981).

Boegel, A.J.; Clausen, M.J.

1981-08-01

423

Alternative Dispute Resolution: A Resource Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the US Department of Personnel Management, Alternative Dispute Resolution: A Resource Guide is a seven-chapter comprehensive manual that considers the ways in which various government agencies resolve disputes. Chapter one, organized alphabetically by agency name, examines the dispute tactics used by these agencies. The second chapter looks at the alternative dispute resolution practices within these agencies. Other sections include "Shared Neutrals Program" and "Administrative Appeals Agencies." The site also features Alternative Dispute Resolutions training and assistance sources and Websites, as well as an annotated bibliography.

424

Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

425

77 FR 32038 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods AGENCY...Department records showing: (A) The method or methods used; (B) The mathematical model, the engineering or statistical analysis, computer simulation...

2012-05-31

426

Alternative Resources The Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources (ICFAR)  

E-print Network

Alternative Resources The Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources (ICFAR that produce chemicals and fuels from alternative resources ­ with an emphasis on green engineering converting renewable biomass into energy, fuels and chemicals · Sharing common goals, ICFAR and Sarnia

Denham, Graham

427

Nov/15/2006 Power Alternatives for the OTG Power Alternatives for the  

E-print Network

by a renewable energy alternative. #12;Nov/15/2006 Photovoltaic Technology-PV · Based on photoelectric effect Alternatives for the OTG Photovoltaic Technology-PV · PV Cell, basic building block ­ Semiconductors ­ PN junction- photodiode ­ By photoelectric effect generates current #12;Nov/15/2006 Power Alternatives

Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

428

Alternative Uses for Surplus School Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The suggestions contained in this guide are intended for local Illinois school boards faced with surplus school property. School boards should have open meetings to advise the community of the decision to sell or lease the property. Liaison committees should be established for communication between the school board and the city council, planning…

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield, Dept. of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

429

Protein transduction: an alternative to genetic intervention?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein transduction, an emerging technology with potential applications in gene therapy, can best be described as the internalisation of proteins into the cell, from the external environment. This process relies on the inherent property of a small number of proteins and peptides of being able to penetrate the cell membrane. The transducing property of these molecules can be conferred upon

KG Ford; BE Souberbielle; D Darling; F Farzaneh; K Ford or F Farzaneh

2001-01-01

430

Water Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple description of the chemical and physical properties of water was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey. It includes a brief quiz to assess prior knowledge, diagrams of water molecules, and important numerical data about water.

2009-11-04

431

7 CFR 989.33 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.33 Alternate members....

2012-01-01

432

Ultrasound : an alternative solution for removing tattoos  

E-print Network

The recent influx of tattoos has been accompanied by a rise in demand for tattoo removals. Due to the recent success of ultrasound as a noninvasive alternative for multiple medical therapies, the feasibility of ultrasound-mediated ...

Teng, Jennifer

2005-01-01

433

INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

434

Alternating directions based contraction method for generally ...  

E-print Network

Xiao-Ming Yuan4. Abstract. ... Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China. This au- thor was ...... [25] J. Sun and S. Zhang, A modified alternating direction method for convex quadratically con- strained ...

2009-11-20

435

7 CFR 906.27 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.27 Alternate...

2011-01-01

436

Alternative Computational Approaches for Probalistic Fatigue Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility is discussed for alternative methods of direct Monte Carlo simulation for failure probability computations. First and second order reliability methods are used for fatigue crack growth and low cycle fatigue structural failure modes to illustrate typical problems.

Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Moore, N. R.; Grigoriu, M.

1995-01-01

437

An Approach to Examining Technical Alternatives  

E-print Network

­ Some Methods of Technology Selection · Cost-Benefit Analysis · The Role of Probability · Risk · Current Operational Effectiveness Analysis Cost Analysis Concept Development Specific Ship Impacts Signature Control, ship design, cost analysis, and operations research analysis to examine alternative approaches

438

7 CFR 945.29 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 945.29 Alternate members....

2013-01-01

439

7 CFR 945.29 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 945.29 Alternate members....

2011-01-01

440

An alternative to the Schwarzschild Christian Corda  

E-print Network

Research, P. O. Box 1577, Palm Harbor, FL 34682, USA and Associazione Galileo Galilei, Via Buozzi 47, 59100 PRATO, Italy E­mail addresses: cordac.galilei@gmail.com Abstract We propose an alternative to the famous

441

An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)

Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

1997-01-01

442

40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative...

2010-07-01

443

40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative...

2011-07-01

444

40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative...

2012-07-01

445

40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative...

2014-07-01

446

40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative...

2013-07-01

447

Alternate Fuels for use in Commercial Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engine and commercial aircraft research and development communities have been investigating the practicality of using alternative fuels in near, mid, and far-term aircraft. Presently, it appears that an approach of using a \\

David L. Daggett; Robert C. Hendricks; Edwin Corporan

448

Alternate Cooling Methods for Industrial Plants  

E-print Network

refrigerants has caused many plants to evaluate existing cooling methods. This paper presents case studies on alternate cooling methods used for space conditioning at several different industrial facilities. Methods discussed include direct and indirect...

Brown, M.; Moore, D.

449

Alternating Current Jee-Hwan Ryu  

E-print Network

and Education MEC240 Korea University of Technology and Education (Direct Current) #12;Korea University of Technology and Education (Alternating Current) Korea University of Technology and Education Why AC ? , , , #12;Korea University of Technology and Education

Ryu, Jee-Hwan

450

Alternating Current Circuit Jee-Hwan Ryu  

E-print Network

of Technology and Education EFS161 Korea University of Technology and Education (Direct Current) #12;Korea University of Technology and Education (Alternating Current) Korea University of Technology and Education Why AC ? , , , #12;Korea University of Technology and Education

Ryu, Jee-Hwan

451

7 CFR 956.25 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Administrative...alternate, during such member's absence. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member,...

2011-01-01

452

7 CFR 956.25 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Administrative...alternate, during such member's absence. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member,...

2012-01-01

453

7 CFR 956.25 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Administrative...alternate, during such member's absence. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member,...

2014-01-01

454

7 CFR 956.25 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Administrative...alternate, during such member's absence. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member,...

2010-01-01

455

7 CFR 956.25 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Administrative...alternate, during such member's absence. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member,...

2013-01-01

456

46 CFR 107.205 - Alternate compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...107.205 Section 107.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.205 Alternate...

2010-10-01

457

PILOT INVESTIGATION OF SECONDARY SLUDGE DEWATERING ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot investigation of biological sludge thickening and dewatering alternatives, including pressure filtration, precoat vacuum filtration, filter belt pressing, capillary suction, dewatering, gravity filtration, centrifugation, and ultrafiltration has been conducted on waste ac...

458

Recycling/Alternative Use of Spent Refractories  

SciTech Connect

The driving force for recycling or finding an alternative use for spent refractory materials typically is environmental or economical. Research is needed to develop other applications or outlets for this material.

Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.

1997-01-01

459

Directory of Resources for Educational Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists 34 resources related to alternative education, including parent organizations, graduate programs, Web sites, clearinghouses, journals, advocacy groups, publishers, newsletters, and national organizations. Listings include contact information and a brief description. (LP)

Paths of Learning: Options for Families & Communities, 1999

1999-01-01

460

7 CFR 948.52 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling...alternates to recommend regulations for early crop potatoes or for late crop potatoes and to specify the particular crop for which...

2012-01-01

461

7 CFR 948.52 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling...alternates to recommend regulations for early crop potatoes or for late crop potatoes and to specify the particular crop for which...

2013-01-01

462

7 CFR 948.52 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling...alternates to recommend regulations for early crop potatoes or for late crop potatoes and to specify the particular crop for which...

2014-01-01

463

7 CFR 948.52 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling...alternates to recommend regulations for early crop potatoes or for late crop potatoes and to specify the particular crop for which...

2010-01-01

464

An Alternative Framework for Defining Mediation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an alternative framework for evaluating mediated relationships. The distinguishing feature of mediation is that mediation involves a chain reaction. The definition presented emphasizes the intra-individual, time-ordered nature of mediation. (SLD)

Collins, Linda M.; Graham, John W.; Flaherty, Brian P.

1998-01-01

465

Least restrictive alternatives: do they really work?  

PubMed

Seclusion and restraint continue to spark debate regarding their therapeutic value and ethical, legal, and humanitarian implications, yet they remain frequently used forms of treatment in psychiatric settings. Identifying specific alternatives to seclusion and restraint use, teaching nursing staff how and when to use them, and determining their effect on patient outcome are important quality improvement issues. A quality improvement study conducted at a long-term care psychiatric facility identified alternatives that nursing staff used and their effect on reducing seclusion and restraint rates. A total of 773 incidents of disruptive behavior were managed with least restrictive alternatives and did not require the use of seclusion or restraint. One-to-one verbal intervention followed by medication as needed represented the most frequently used alternative. Total seclusion and restraint hours decreased by 31 percent, and restraint hours decreased by 47 percent. PMID:8936879

Richmond, I; Trujillo, D; Schmelzer, J; Phillips, S; Davis, D

1996-10-01

466

ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION FOR SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) developed by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc., was evaluated for a 2-year period. CE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous...

467

Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients  

Cancer.gov

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is any medical and health care systems, practices, or products that are not thought of as standard care. Standard treatments are based on scientific evidence from research studies.

468

Wind Power Integration: Exploring Impacts and Alternatives  

E-print Network

Wind Power Integration: Exploring Impacts and Alternatives Assist. Prof. C sustainable sources of energy. The idea of harnessing wind energy has been and also for destabilizing the existing power system. Over the past decade

Walter, M.Todd

469

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

470

DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVES TO PLASTIC MULCH  

EPA Science Inventory

We propose a project to raise awareness of pollution associated with the production, use and disposal of plastic films/ sheeting used as mulch, and to work with farmers and industry partners to develop a biodegradable, sustainable alternative to plastic mulch. ...

471

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine  

E-print Network

by a remarkably simple set of principles. Amazing that one of the most critical signals involves virtual tops. Our #12;Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;Higgs capabilities of different machines

California at Santa Cruz, University of

472

Alternative Programs and Desegregation in Flint, Michigan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the results of the Flint, Michigan Board of Education's decision to include extensive development of alternative programs as part of the Quality Education/Desegregation Plan developed for the Flint schools. (Author/RK)

Kugler, Marianne Russell

1978-01-01

473

Alternative Splicing Programs in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains one of the most frequent causes of death for cancer in the male population. Although the initial antiandrogenic therapies are efficacious, PCa often evolves into a hormone-resistant, incurable disease. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of this type of cancer renders its diagnosis and cure particularly challenging. Mounting evidence indicates that alternative splicing, the process that allows production of multiple mRNA variants from each gene, contributes to the heterogeneity of the disease. Key genes for the biology of normal and neoplastic prostate cells, such as those encoding for the androgen receptor and cyclin D1, are alternatively spliced to yield protein isoforms with different or even opposing functions. This review illustrates some examples of genes whose alternative splicing regulation is relevant to PCa biology and discusses the possibility to exploit alternative splicing regulation as a novel tool for prognosis, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to PCa. PMID:23983695

Sette, Claudio

2013-01-01

474

Linearized Alternating Direction Method with Gaussian Back ...  

E-print Network

Oct 28, 2011 ... Keywords: Alternating direction method, Gaussian back substitution, Linearization, ...... [8] T. F. Chan and R. Glowinski, Finite element approximation and ... Lagrange Methods: Applications to the Solution of Boundary-valued ...

2011-10-28

475

Treatment Alternatives Following Mild Head Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses treatment alternatives which may alleviate problems in recovery following mild head injury, including providing education, cognitive stimulation, stress management training, individual counseling, group discussion, and physical activity in a day treatment setting. (Author/ABL)

Novack, Thomas A.; And Others

1988-01-01

476

25 CFR 11.1012 - Dispositional alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1012 Dispositional alternatives. (a) If a minor has been adjudged a juvenile offender, the children's court may make the following...

2010-04-01

477

25 CFR 11.1012 - Dispositional alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1012 Dispositional alternatives. (a) If a minor has been adjudged a juvenile offender, the children's court may make the following...

2011-04-01

478

25 CFR 11.1012 - Dispositional alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1012 Dispositional alternatives. (a) If a minor has been adjudged a juvenile offender, the children's court may make the following...

2012-04-01

479

25 CFR 11.1012 - Dispositional alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1012 Dispositional alternatives. (a) If a minor has been adjudged a juvenile offender, the children's court may make the following...

2014-04-01

480

25 CFR 11.1012 - Dispositional alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1012 Dispositional alternatives. (a) If a minor has been adjudged a juvenile offender, the children's court may make the following...

2013-04-01

481

Evaluation of alternative sign replacement strategies  

E-print Network

data in Texas; an economic analysis of alternative sign replacement strategies; and a sensitivity analysis of key variables within the economic analysis. The recommendations in this study will allow TXDOT to implement the most cost-effective sign...

McCaleb, James Bradley

1996-01-01

482

Evaluation of alternative leachate liner materials  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to evaluate alternative landfill liner materials that could be utilized in conjunction with current liners in order to improve the liner's performance by preventing the release of hazardous chemicals into the subsurface...

Biles, Daniel Franklin

1994-01-01

483

7 CFR 917.27 - Alternates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.27 Alternates. There shall be an...

2010-01-01

484

Alternative fulfillment operations and vendor analysis  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of quantitative methods to strategically plan the SKU make-up and operational aspects of Amazon's Alternative Fulfillment Sites (AFS). AFSs are smaller Fulfillment Centers (FCs) that ...

Ogundele, Tope (Temitope)

2013-01-01

485

A call for antibiotic alternatives research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance and decreased profitability of new antibiotics have created the dangerous prospect of ineffective therapies against bacterial diseases. The discovery, development, and application of effective antibiotic alternatives, especially in agriculture, sho...

486

Black Independent Schools: Reality of Alternative Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys eight Philadelphia alternative schools which offer independent education emphasizing academic achievement, Black unity, and Pan-African values. Provides information on admissions, curriculum, philosophical orientation, and other facets of each school. (KH)

Wilkinson, Deborah M.

1983-01-01

487

Optimization Online - Fast Alternating Linearization Methods for ...  

E-print Network

Dec 22, 2009 ... Fast Alternating Linearization Methods for Minimizing the Sum of Two Convex Functions ... Algorithms in this paper are Gauss-Seidel type methods, in contrast to the ... and demonstrate the practical potential of our algorithms.

Donald Goldfarb

2009-12-22

488

Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.  

PubMed

The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis. PMID:20033403

Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2010-02-01

489

Experimental validation of alternating transillumination for imaging intramural wave propagation.  

PubMed

Current techniques to map intramural activation patterns in ex vivo cardiac tissue have limited spatial resolution. Here, we report on the experimental validation of a novel optical technique that was recently proposed to resolve the size and depth of intramural wave fronts using alternating transillumination (AT). AT was achieved by simultaneously mapping the epi- and endocardial surfaces with two synchronized CCD cameras and rapidly alternating LED illumination between both surfaces. Optical phantoms were made based on tissue optical properties measured using a hybrid optical spectrometer. Spherical fluorescent sources (Scarlet microspheres, Invitrogen, UK) of varying sizes were embedded at known depths in the phantoms. Coronary-perfused procine left ventricular slab preparations were stained with DI-4-ANBDQBS (n = 3) and paced at known intramural depths. In phantoms we were able to reliably estimate the depth of the center of fluorescent sources (9.6 ± 5.4% error), as well as their transmural extent (15.7 ± 11.5% error). In ventricular slabs we were able to localize the sites of origin of intramural excitation waves with a precision of ± 1.6 mm. Transmural conduction velocities were, for the first time, measured optically from the surfaces and found to be 21.0 ± 12.4 cm/s. In conclusion, alternating transillumination is a promising technique for reliable reconstruction of depth and expansion rate of intramural activation wave fronts in cardiac tissue. PMID:22254647

Walton, Richard D; Xavier, Christopher D Lawrence; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Bernus, Olivier

2011-01-01

490

Alternative pain medicine: Current modalities and principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional pain medicine does not solve all the problems of chronic pain patients. In this technological era, patients are\\u000a more demanding and in their frustration may seek alternative modalities for managing their chronic pain. Recent studies have\\u000a shown that this tendency may in fact expose patients not only to useless therapies but occasionally harmful ones. Many alternative\\u000a modalities have been

Winston C. V. Parris

1997-01-01

491

Developing Alternative Assessments using the Benchmarks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written from the perspective of a classroom teacher, this article describes a process for developing alternative assessments, provides examples of alternative assessment tasks and student responses, amd illustrates the use of scoring rubrics. The examples use the AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the National Science Education Standards to identify learning goals. This resource is intended for use in the classroom by K-12 teachers.

1997-01-01

492

Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel

Troy A. Semelsberger; Rodney L. Borup; Howard L. Greene

2006-01-01

493

Progress in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research  

PubMed Central

Integrative Medicine at Yale and the Yale Center for Continuing Medical Education (CME) sponsored the Yale Research Symposium on Complementary and Integrative Medicine in March 2010 at the university’s School of Medicine. Delivering the keynote address, Dr. Josephine P. Briggs, Director of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), highlighted recent progress made in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). PMID:20885899

Millet, John D.

2010-01-01

494

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-08-01

495

Patients With Diabetes Using Alternative Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians need for valid information on herbal medicinal products is considerable. In the United States, the popularity of\\u000a complementary and alternative medicine is growing at a remarkable, and possibly concerning, rate (1). In particular, herbal medicine has grown faster than any other complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatment method\\u000a in the United States (1,2). The top-selling herbal medicinal products in

Dugald Seely; Edward Mills; Beth Rachlis

496

Computer models for evaluating financial decision alternatives  

E-print Network

COMPUTER MODELS FOR EVALUATING FINANCIAL DECISION ALTERNATIVES A Thesis by JAMES CARROLL CHRISTIAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Ab'M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May l...973 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering COMPUTER MODELS FOR EVALUATING FINANCIAL DECISION ALTERNATIVES A Thesis by JAMES CARROLL CHRISTIAN Approved as to style and content by: . '; . . i', , ( (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Depar n...

Christian, James Carroll

1973-01-01

497

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-01-01

498

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2000-10-01

499

Statistical and Computational Studies on Alternative Splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The accumulating genome sequences and other high-throughput data have shed light on the extent and importance of alternative\\u000a splicing in functional regulation. Alternative splicing dramatically increases the transcriptome and proteome diversity of\\u000a higher organisms by producing multiple splice variants from different combinations of exons. It has an important role in many\\u000a biological processes including nervous system development and programmed cell

Liang Chen

500

Alternative DNA Security Using BioJava  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents alternative security methods based on DNA. From the alternative security methods available, a DNA algorithm\\u000a was implemented using symmetric coding in BioJava and MatLab. As results, a comparison has been made between the performances\\u000a of different standard symmetrical algorithms using dedicated applications. In addition to this, we also present an asymmetric\\u000a key generation and DNA security algorithm.

Mircea-Florin Vaida; Radu Terec; Lenuta Alboaie