Sample records for alternative dunford-pettis property

  1. Some properties of the alternating separation (AS), alternating projection (AP) and ASAP algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Shao; Guangyue Lu; Zheng Bao

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes some properties of the alternating separation (AS) and alternating projection (AP) algorithm. The analysis\\u000a shows that AS converges to the optimal point steadily but slowly, while AP converges to the optimal point quickly but is prone\\u000a to immersing into the local extreme of the maximum likelihood (ML) criterion. To avoid their disadvantages and make use of\\u000a their

  2. Physical properties of alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclinden, Mark O.

    1990-01-01

    Presented here are recommended values and correlations of selected physical properties of several alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorocarbons. The quality of the data used in this compilation varies widely, ranging from well-documented, high accuracy measurements from published sources to completely undocumented values listed on anonymous data sheets. That some of the properties for some fluids are available only from the latter type of source is clearly not the desired state of affairs. While some would reject all such data, the compilation given here is presented in the spirit of laying out the present state of knowledge and making available a set of data in a timely manner, even though its quality is sometimes uncertain. The correlations presented here are certain to change quickly as additional information becomes available.

  3. Alternative oxidase: distribution, induction, properties, structure, regulation, and functions.

    PubMed

    Rogov, A G; Sukhanova, E I; Uralskaya, L A; Aliverdieva, D A; Zvyagilskaya, R A

    2014-12-01

    The respiratory chain in the majority of organisms with aerobic type metabolism features the concomitant existence of the phosphorylating cytochrome pathway and the cyanide- and antimycin A-insensitive oxidative route comprising a so-called alternative oxidase (AOX) as a terminal oxidase. In this review, the history of AOX discovery is described. Considerable evidence is presented that AOX occurs widely in organisms at various levels of organization and is not confined to the plant kingdom. This enzyme has not been found only in Archaea, mammals, some yeasts and protists. Bioinformatics research revealed the sequences characteristic of AOX in representatives of various taxonomic groups. Based on multiple alignments of these sequences, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to infer their possible evolution. The ways of AOX activation, as well as regulatory interactions between AOX and the main respiratory chain are described. Data are summarized concerning the properties of AOX and the AOX-encoding genes whose expression is either constitutive or induced by various factors. Information is presented on the structure of AOX, its active center, and the ubiquinone-binding site. The principal functions of AOX are analyzed, including the cases of cell survival, optimization of respiratory metabolism, protection against excess of reactive oxygen species, and adaptation to variable nutrition sources and to biotic and abiotic stress factors. It is emphasized that different AOX functions complement each other in many instances and are not mutually exclusive. Examples are given to demonstrate that AOX is an important tool to overcome the adverse aftereffects of restricted activity of the main respiratory chain in cells and whole animals. This is the first comprehensive review on alternative oxidases of various organisms ranging from yeasts and protists to vascular plants. PMID:25749168

  4. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  5. Properties of alternately charged coplanar parallel strips by conformal mappings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Chin Lim; R. A. Moore

    1968-01-01

    Deposited electrodes with periodic geometries are beginning to attract attention in microwave integrated circuitry. In many cases where the interaction with the substrate materials is important, the grounded base may be sufficiently distant to be insignificant or absent altogether. In this paper, the equipotential surfaces and flux lines of alternately charged coplanar parallel strips most often encountered in these cases

  6. Effect of alternative aging and accident simulations on polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Gaussens, G.; LeMeur, M.

    1984-01-01

    The response of eighteen US and French polymer materials to variations in aging and accident simulation techniques has been determined by this experimental program. This information will provide a partial data base by which to judge appropriate simulation practices. The overall research goal was to determine whether some aging and accident simulation techniques are better suited for qualification activities than other alternative simulation techniques.

  7. IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS ON SOOT PROPERTIES AND DPF REGENERATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUHUN SONG; MAHABUBUL ALAM; ANDRÉ L. BOEHMAN

    2007-01-01

    In this work, fuel formulation exerted a strong influence on the properties of diesel particulates leading to differences in oxidation rate. These differences were especially significant when comparing soot derived from the combustion of soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel (B100) and soot obtained from combustion of a Fischer–Tropsch diesel fuel (FT). These 2 fuels mainly differ in fuel oxygen content. Although

  8. Tumorigenic properties of alternative osteopontin isoforms in mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Sergey V., E-mail: Sergey.Ivanov@med.nyu.edu [Thoracic Surgery Laboratory, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, NYU Langone Medical Center, 462 First Ave., Bellevue Hospital, Room 15N20, NY 10016 (United States); Ivanova, Alla V.; Goparaju, Chandra M.V.; Chen, Yuanbin; Beck, Amanda; Pass, Harvey I. [Thoracic Surgery Laboratory, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, NYU Langone Medical Center, 462 First Ave., Bellevue Hospital, Room 15N20, NY 10016 (United States)] [Thoracic Surgery Laboratory, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, NYU Langone Medical Center, 462 First Ave., Bellevue Hospital, Room 15N20, NY 10016 (United States)

    2009-05-08

    Osteopontin (SPP1) is an inflammatory cytokine that we previously characterized as a diagnostic marker in patients with asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma (MM). While SPP1 shows both pro- and anti-tumorigenic biological effects, little is known about the molecular basis of these activities. In this study, we demonstrate that while healthy pleura possesses all three differentially spliced SPP1 isoforms (A-C), in clinical MM specimens isoform A is markedly up-regulated and predominant. To provide a clue to possible functions of the SPP1 isoforms we next performed their functional evaluation via transient expression in MM cell lines. As a result, we report that isoforms A-C demonstrate different activities in cell proliferation, wound closure, and invasion assays. These findings suggest different functions for SPP1 isoforms and underline pro-tumorigenic properties of isoforms A and B.

  9. Effect of alternative aging and accident simulations on polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Gaussens, G.; LeMeur, M.

    1985-05-01

    The influence of accident irradiation, steam, and chemical spray exposures on the behavior of twenty-three age-preconditioned polymer sample sets (twenty-one different materials) has been investigated. The test program varied the following conditions: (1) Accident simulations of irradiation and thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) conditions were performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (2) Accident thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) exposures were performed both with and without air present during the exposures. (3) Sequential accident irradiations were performed both at 28/sup 0/C and 70/sup 0/C. (4) Age preconditioning was performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (5) Sequential aging irradiations were performed both at 27/sup 0/C and 70/sup 0/C. (6) Sequential aging exposures were performed using two sequences: (1) thermal followed by irradiation and (2) irradiation followed by thermal. We report both general trends applicable to a majority of the tested materials as well as specific results for each polymer. Our data base consists of ultimate tensile properties at the completion of the accident exposure for three XLPO and XLPE, five EPR and EPDM, two CSPE (HYPALON), one CPE, one VAMAC, one polydiallylphtalate, and one PPS material. We also report bend test results at completion of the accident exposures for two TEFZEL materials and permanent set after compression results for three EPR, one VAMAC, one BUNA N, one SILICONE, and one VITON material.

  10. PHYSICAL PROPERTY DATA ON FLUORINATED PROPANES AND BUTANES AS CFC AND HCFC ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of the measurement and estimation of the physical properties of fluorinated propane derivatives as second generation alternatives for currently used CFC and HCFC chemicals. ne fluorinated ether was also studied. NOTE: lthough synthesis of the derivativ...

  11. Dynamics of soil physical properties under alternative systems to slash-and-burn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio C. Alegre; D. K. Cassel

    1996-01-01

    A change from slash-and-burn to continuously cropped agricultural systems is occurring in heavily populated areas in the humid tropics. Well managed alternative systems to slash-and-burn can reduce soil structure deterioration, maintain soil fertility, and promote long-term productivity. The objectives of this paper are to describe the dynamics of soil physical properties under slash-and-burn and some alternative systems. Different land-clearing methods

  12. Application of an alternative measuring system to determine the mechanical properties of composites under impact loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadayuki Ujihashi; Masahiro Nishida; Tadaharu Adachi; Hiroyuki Matsumoto

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an alternative estimating method for the current drop weight impact test used to determine the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP). The method proposed here measures the strain variations in time of the drop weight and uses the 1D wave equation to convert the measurements into load and displacement variations in time. A dynamic load and displacement

  13. Alternative approach to protein structure prediction based on sequential similarity of physical properties.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Rackovsky, S; Yin, Yanping; Scheraga, Harold A

    2015-04-21

    The relationship between protein sequence and structure arises entirely from amino acid physical properties. An alternative method is therefore proposed to identify homologs in which residue equivalence is based exclusively on the pairwise physical property similarities of sequences. This approach, the property factor method (PFM), is entirely different from those in current use. A comparison is made between our method and PSI BLAST. We demonstrate that traditionally defined sequence similarity can be very low for pairs of sequences (which therefore cannot be identified using PSI BLAST), but similarity of physical property distributions results in almost identical 3D structures. The performance of PFM is shown to be better than that of PSI BLAST when sequence matching is comparable, based on a comparison using targets from CASP10 (89 targets) and CASP11 (51 targets). It is also shown that PFM outperforms PSI BLAST in informatically challenging targets. PMID:25848034

  14. Application of an alternative measuring system to determine the mechanical properties of composites under impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihashi, Sadayuki; Nishida, Masahiro; Adachi, Tadaharu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki

    This paper describes an alternative estimating method for the current drop weight impact test used to determine the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP). The method proposed here measures the strain variations in time of the drop weight and uses the 1D wave equation to convert the measurements into load and displacement variations in time. A dynamic load and displacement relationship is obtained by eliminating time from the load the displacement variations in time, thus determining the mechanical properties of GFRP and CFRP plates subjected to drop weight impact with considerable accuracy.

  15. Three-dimensional Magnetostriction and Vector Magnetic Properties under Alternating Magnetic Flux Conditions in Arbitrary Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Todaka, Takashi; Enokizono, Masato

    This paper presents measured magnetostriction of electrical steel sheets under alternating magnetic flux conditions. In the measurements, we used a two-dimensional vector magnetic property measurement system, and a three-axial strain gauge. In order to know magnetostrictions in arbitrary direction, the strain tensor was evaluated. In addition, we try to evaluate the magnetostrictions in thickness direction. In this paper, the three-dimensional magnetostriction in non-oriented and grain-oriented silicon steel sheets are compared.

  16. Three-dimensional Magnetostriction and Vector Magnetic Properties under Alternating Magnetic Flux Conditions in Arbitrary Direction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Wakabayashi; Takashi Todaka; Masato Enokizono

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents measured magnetostriction of electrical steel sheets under alternating magnetic flux conditions. In the measurements, we used a two-dimensional vector magnetic property measurement system, and a three-axial strain gauge. In order to know magnetostrictions in arbitrary direction, the strain tensor was evaluated. In addition, we try to evaluate the magnetostrictions in thickness direction. In this paper, the three-dimensional

  17. Examination of physical properties of fuels and mixtures with alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lown, Anne Lauren

    ABSTRACT. EXAMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FUELS AND MIXTURES WITH ALTERNATIVE FUELS. By. Anne Lauren Lown. The diversity of alternative fuels is increasing due to new second generation biofuels. By modeling alternative fuels and fuel mixtures, types of fuels can be selected based on their properties, without producing and testing large batches. A number of potential alternative fuels have been tested and modeled to determine their impact when blended with traditional diesel and jet fuels. The properties evaluated include cloud point and pour point temperature, cetane number, distillation curve, and speed of sound. This work represents a novel approach to evaluating the properties of alternative fuels and their mixtures with petroleum fuels. Low temperature properties were evaluated for twelve potential biofuel compounds in mixtures with three diesel fuels and one jet fuel. Functional groups tested included diesters, esters, ketones, and ethers, and alkanes were used for comparison. Alkanes, ethers, esters, and ketones with a low melting point temperature were found to decrease the fuel cloud point temperature. Diesters added to fuels display an upper critical solution temperature, and multiple methods were used to confirm the presence of liquid-liquid immiscibility. These behaviors are independent of chain length and branching, as long as the melting point temperature of the additive is not significantly higher than the cloud point temperature of the fuel. Physical properties were estimated for several potential fuel additive molecules using group contribution methods. Quantum chemical calculations were used for ideal gas heat capacities. Fuel surrogates for three petroleum based fuels and six alternative fuels were developed. The cloud point temperature, distillation curve, cetane number, and average molecular weight for different fuel surrogates were simultaneously represented. The proposed surrogates use the experimental mass fractions of paraffins, and the experimental concentrations of mono- and di-aromatics, isoparaffins, and naphthenics. The surrogates represent both low and high temperature properties better than most surrogates in the literature. Three different methods were developed to predict the cetane number of alternative fuels and their mixtures with JP-8, a military jet fuel. The same six alternative fuels were distilled, as well as blended with JP-8, and the cetane numbers measured. The Ghosh and Jaffe model represented the neat fuels with pseudocomponents to predict the cetane numbers of blends. This model worked well for the neat fuels, but the mixture behavior was predicted with incorrect curvature. The second and third methods used near infrared (NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to correlate the cetane number. The correlation provides prediction of the cetane numbers of the blends based on spectral measurements. Both the FTIR and NIR correlations are able to predict mixture cetane numbers within experimental error, but the NIR model was found to be the most reliable of all three methods. Finally, the SAFT-BACK and ESD equations of state were used to model the density and speed of sound for hydrocarbons at elevated pressures. The SAFT-BACK equation was found to be more accurate, and the model was extended to predicting the speed of sound. Mixtures of hydrocarbons were also predicted, but the SAFT-BACK is limited in capability for representing compressed alkanes heavier than octane.

  18. Copper dynamics under alternating redox conditions is influenced by soil properties and contamination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Ramona; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of soil redox conditions on contaminant dynamics is of significant importance for evaluating their lability, mobility and potential transfer to other environmental compartments. Under changing redox conditions, soil properties and constituents such as Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and organic matter (OM) may influence the behavior of associated metallic elements (MEs). In this work, the redox-driven release and redistribution of Cu between different soil pools was studied in three soils having different contamination sources. This was achieved by subjecting soil columns to a series of alternating reducing and oxidizing cycles under non-limiting C conditions, and assessing their influence on soil pore water, leachate and solid phase composition. Results showed that, in all soils, alternating redox conditions led to an increase in the distribution of Cu in the more labile fractions, consequently enhancing its susceptibility to loss. This was generally linked to the redox-driven cycling of Fe, Mn and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In fact, results suggested that the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and subsequent reprecipitation as poorly-ordered phases under oxic conditions contributed to the release and mobilization of Cu and/or Cu-containing organometallic complexes. However, the behavior of Cu, as well as the mechanisms controlling Cu release and loss with redox cycling, was influenced by both soil properties (e.g. pH, contents of easily reducible Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides) and source of Cu contamination.

  19. Copper dynamics under alternating redox conditions is influenced by soil properties and contamination source.

    PubMed

    Balint, Ramona; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of soil redox conditions on contaminant dynamics is of significant importance for evaluating their lability, mobility and potential transfer to other environmental compartments. Under changing redox conditions, soil properties and constituents such as Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and organic matter (OM) may influence the behavior of associated metallic elements (MEs). In this work, the redox-driven release and redistribution of Cu between different soil pools was studied in three soils having different contamination sources. This was achieved by subjecting soil columns to a series of alternating reducing and oxidizing cycles under non-limiting C conditions, and assessing their influence on soil pore water, leachate and solid phase composition. Results showed that, in all soils, alternating redox conditions led to an increase in the distribution of Cu in the more labile fractions, consequently enhancing its susceptibility to loss. This was generally linked to the redox-driven cycling of Fe, Mn and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In fact, results suggested that the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and subsequent reprecipitation as poorly-ordered phases under oxic conditions contributed to the release and mobilization of Cu and/or Cu-containing organometallic complexes. However, the behavior of Cu, as well as the mechanisms controlling Cu release and loss with redox cycling, was influenced by both soil properties (e.g. pH, contents of easily reducible Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides) and source of Cu contamination. PMID:25561428

  20. Properties of human liver cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase mRNAs generated by alternative polyadenylation site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bousquet-Lemercier, B.; Pol, S.; Pave-Preux, M.; Hanoune, J.; Barouki, R. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Creteil (France))

    1990-06-05

    Human cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (cAspAT) cDNA clones have been isolated from an adult human liver cDNA library. Among the clones, two cDNAs of 1,550 and 1,950 base pairs, respectively, have been characterized. These two cDNAs differ only in the lengths of their 3{prime} noncoding regions and by the presence of one or two putative polyadenylation signals AATAAA. Northern blot analysis revealed two different mRNAs of 2.1 and 1.8 kbp in several human tissues, whereas Southern blot analysis suggested the existence of a single gene for the human cAspAT. The two mRNA species result from the alternative use of two polyadenylation signals. In the liver, the relative ratio of these mRNAs varies among different species and, in humans at least, during development. The properties of the two mRNAs were compared. The half-lives of the 2.1 and 1.8 kbp mRNAs, in the HepG2 cell line, are 8 and 12 h, respectively. The two mRNAs have similar and rather short poly(A) tracts of 20-50 nucleotides. Both mRNAs are capable of directing the in vitro synthesis of the cAspAT protein. The authors conclude that both the 2.1 and 1.8 kbp cAspAT mRNAs are functional and exhibit similar properties.

  1. Hygroscopic Properties of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Aerosol Produced From Traditional and Alternative Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Chen, G.; Anderson, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    Aircraft emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols constitute an important component of anthropogenic climate forcing, of which aerosol-cloud interactions remain poorly understood. It is currently thought that the ability of these aerosols to alter upper tropospheric cirrus cloud properties may produce radiative forcings many times larger than the impact of linear contrails alone and which may partially offset the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from aviation (Burkhardt and Karcher, Nature, 2011). Consequently, it is important to characterize the ability of these engine-emitted aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) to form clouds. While a number of studies in the literature have examined aerosol-cloud interactions for laboratory-generated soot or from aircraft engines burning traditional fuels, limited attention has been given to how switching to alternative jet fuels impacts the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to form clouds. The key to understanding these changes is the aerosol hygroscopicity. To address this need, the second NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-II) was conducted in 2011 to examine the aerosol emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different engine power and fuel type conditions. Five fuel types were considered including traditional JP-8 fuel, synthetic Fischer-Tropsh (FT) fuel , sulfur-doped FT fuel (FTS) , hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel, and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 with HRJ. Emissions were sampled from the DC-8 on the airport jetway at a distance of 145 meters downwind of the engine by a comprehensive suite of aerosol instrumentation that provided information on the aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and CCN activity. Concurrent measurements of carbon dioxide were used to account for plume dilution so that characteristic emissions indices could be determined. It is found that both engine power and fuel type significantly influence the hygroscopic properties of the emitted aerosol, with emissions from FT fuel being much less hygroscopic than those from the JP-8 or blended fuels. Doping the FT fuel with sulfur greatly increased the hygroscopicity of the emitted aerosol beyond that for the other fuels considered. In addition, it was observed that aerosol emitted during low engine power were smaller but more hygroscopic than those emitted during typical takeoff or cruise conditions. The implications of these property changes for contrail formation will be discussed.

  2. Synthesis, photo- and electroluminescence properties of asymmetrical alternating copoly( p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Songting; Zou, Yingping; Zhu, Weiguo; Jiang, Changyun

    2006-06-01

    A series of asymmetrical alternating copoly( p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives (PPVs), poly(2-methoxy-5-alkoxy)-1,4-(phenylene vinylene)-alt-1,4-(phenylene vinylene), have been successfully synthesized via the Wittig polycondensation reaction as potential electroluminescent (EL) materials. These copolymers contain two components, one is phenylene vinylene with asymmetrical flexible side chain to improve the solubility of the copolymer in common solvents and to suppress its crystallization; the other is a rigid phenylene vinylene moiety to improve the luminescent quantum efficiency and the thermal stability. The photoluminescent (PL) properties and thermal behavior of these copolymers have been investigated in detail. The results showed that the PL intensity increased but the thermal stability decreased with increasing side chain length. A double-layer device of ITO/PEDOT-PSS/Polymer 3/Ba/Al showed a greenish yellow emission peaking at 548 nm with a turn-on voltage as low as 6.2 V. A maximum brightness of 534 cd/m 2 was obtained at a driving voltage of 10 V.

  3. Conservation laws, symmetry properties, and the equivalence principle in a class of alternative theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraco, D. E.; Domínguez, E.; Guibert, R.

    1999-08-01

    We consider a subclass of alternative theories of gravitation obtained by a first order formalism from a Lagrangian density LT=f(R)-g+LM where the matter field Lagrangian density LM does not depend on the connection. For this theory we derive an analogue of the Einstein pseudotensor and the von Freud superpotential. Then we derive, using the arbitrariness that is always present in the choice of pseudotensor and superpotential, a generalization of the Møller superpotential as associated with a double-index differential conservation law. This superpotential allows us to deduce that there are two analogues of the Komar vector of general relativity (GR): one associated with the general connection and the other with the metric connection. Astonishingly both of them satisfy the physical condition that the inertial mass must be equal to the gravitational (active) mass for any class of matter. We also obtain a generalization of Tolman's expression for the energy, and prove that those theories with f(0)=0 share with GR the property that the total energy is independent of any two-dimensional surface which encloses the support of the matter distribution.

  4. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUORINATED PROPANE AND BUTANE DERIVATIVES AS ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical property measurements are presented for 24 fluorinated propane and butane derivatives and one fluorinated ether. These measurements include melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure below the boiling point, heat of vaporization at the boiling point, critical propertie...

  5. Asymptotic Power Properties of the Cramer-von Mises Test Under Contiguous Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Georg

    1976-01-01

    The asymptotic power of the Cramer-von Mises test when parameters are estimated from the data is studied under certain local (contiguous) alternatives. Notion of (asymptotic) direction and distance from the null hypothesis of alternatives is introduced, and it is shown that there exist directions with maximum, minimum, and arbitrary intermediate…

  6. Investigation of properties of human epidermal membrane under constant conductance alternating current iontophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Honggang Zhu; Kendall D Peck; David J Miller; Mark R Liddell; Guang Yan; William I Higuchi; S. Kevin Li

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that enhanced, constant permeant fluxes across human skin can be achieved by applying an alternating current (AC) to maintain skin electrical conductance at a constant level. Relative to conventional direct current (DC) iontophoresis, for which current is maintained at a constant level, this newly developed constant conductance alternating current (CCAC) method achieves constant

  7. Frequency spectrum of alternating current magnetic susceptibility: A new rock magnetic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, K.

    2011-12-01

    Low-field alternating current magnetic susceptibility (MS) is among the most commonly used magnetic property, from fundamental rock magnetism to various applied fields such as environmental magnetism studies. The prevalence of MS is mainly due to the rapid and simple measurements by means of commercially available devices. Frequency dependent susceptibility, a magnetic parameter defined as the change in MS per decade frequency, has also been frequently used in environmental magnetism. However, the performance of conventional instruments has put some constraint when characterizing SP-SD particle ensemble in terms of grain size distribution. The limitation is due to the specific operating frequencies, generally with one fixed frequency in hundreds of Hz associated with one or two more frequency steps in the range of kHz at the highest. This study proposes a new MS-derived magnetic property, or Frequency Spectrum of MS (FSM), which consists of MS values measured at multiple frequencies ranging in three orders of magnitudes from hundreds of Hz to hundreds of kHz. The FSM analyses were made for selected volcanic rocks and sediments, each characterized by the inclusion of SP, SD, MD particles, or their mixtures. The studied samples include andesite (Sakurajima, Japan), basalt (Kilauea), granite (Minnesota), and less and paleosol (Luochuan, China). Most remarkable is the FSM from the andesite samples showing a susceptibility increase, as much as 5%, observed over a specific frequency interval between 16 kHz and 128 kHz. This anomalous increase is superimposed on a linear decay of MS over the entire frequency range, which obviously shows a broad distribution of SP particle ensemble. In contrast, the FSM of granite shows no frequency dependence, while the basalt and paleosol exhibit the patterns indicating the presence of SP grains with broad volume distributions. The characteristic FSM pattern from the andesite suggests a new rock magnetic phenomena, which is most likely a magnetic resonance of domain wall oscillations of specific-size MD grains occurring as phenocrysts. Considering the specific frequency range, the hypothetical resonance appears to be relevant to some magnetoelastic phenomenon, where magnetic energy could be dissipated through a long-range, magnetostructural coupling, probably magnetostriction. Another observational fact that the thermally demagnetized andesite samples of them show less noticeable FSM anomaly supports this hypothesis, because thermal annealing generally lowers the internal stress that eventually could lead to the reduction of resistance in a forced oscillation system. Measurements of both in-phase and out-of-phase components of MS at low temperatures were made by means of combined frequency and temperature scans with MPMS. The results show that the out-of-phase component is maximized at a certain frequency over one temperature scan and the frequency at each maximum increases with increasing temperature. Those results at low temperatures also suggest the above hypothesis. Analyses of FSM in terms of grain size, domain state and grain size distribution will serve as a new rock magnetic method to be useful in not only fundamental rock magnetism but also their applications in environmental studies.

  8. Chiroptical properties of an alternatingly functionalized cellotriose bearing two porphyrin groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternatingly functionalized cellulose molecules have potential applications in optoelectronics and molecular receptors. For example, cellulose-based solar cells have been proposed. As a prototype for such molecules, the trisaccharide fragment of cellulose was modified by attachment of porphyrin gro...

  9. Subject-Specific Bone Mechanical Properties: Is There An Alternative To X-Rays Modalities?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and apparent elastic properties of ribs. 2. Methods This approach was already performed on 9 human rib'Anatomie Rockefeller (Lyon, France) through the French program on voluntary corpse donation to science. Rib segment

  10. Theory of the magnetic properties of igneous rocks in alternating fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. D. Stacey

    1961-01-01

    Each magnetic grain in a rock contains ferromagnetic domains with a range of sizes, the small ones being magnetically harder and responding less readily to demagnetizing fields than the larger ones. By exposing a grain which has a thermoremanent magnetic moment to an alternating field, domains larger than a critical size are demagnetized, leaving the smaller domains unaffected. Domain size

  11. IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL ON THE1 MECHANICAL AND TRANSFER PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE2

    E-print Network

    , glass powder, alternative fly ash, limestone4 filler, corrosion, chloride, concrete durability, concrete OF CONCRETE2 3 Alexandre Pavoine, David Harbec, Thierry Chaussadent, Arezki Tagnit-Hamou and Loïc4 Divet5. The subject of his PhD thesis was the risk of development of Delayed9 Ettringite Formation in concretes. His

  12. Properties of excited xenon atoms in an alternating current plasma display panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han S. Uhm; Phil Y. Oh; Eun H. Choi

    2008-01-01

    The properties of excited xenon atoms in the discharge cells of a plasma display panel are investigated by measuring the excited atom density via laser absorption spectroscopy. The density of the excited xenon atoms in the metastable state increases from zero, reaches its peak, and decreases with time in the discharge cells, as expected from a theoretical model. The profile

  13. Environmentally benign alternatives: Plasma and enzymes to improve moisture management properties of knitted PET fabrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Karaca; A. Demir; E. Özdo?an; Ö E. ??mal

    2010-01-01

    Effects of enzymatic and atmospheric plasma treatments individually and their combinations on knitted PET fabrics were investigated\\u000a in terms of hydrophilicity, surface modification and moisture management properties. Cutinase from Humicola Insolens, lipase from Candida SP and atmospheric plasma with air and argon gases were applied to PET fabrics. To evaluate results, moisture management tester\\u000a (MMT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  14. Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanorods grown on conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Azam; Hussain, Mushtaque; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2014-08-01

    The present research is devoted to understanding the mechanism and causes of variation in the piezoelectric potential generated from vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs), which were grown on a conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate by using the aqueous chemical growth method. The piezoelectric voltage was harvested from vertically aligned ZnO NRs having different physical parameters by using atomic force microscopy in contact mode and the variation in the generated piezoelectricity was investigated. The generated output potential indicates that different physical parameters such aspect ratio, crystal size and lattice internal crystal strain have a strong influence on the piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned ZnO NRs, which were grown on a textile fabric. Presented results indicate that textiles can be used as an alternative substrate just like the other conventional substrates, because our results are similar/better than many reported works on conventional substrates.

  15. Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

  16. Improving the low-temperature properties of alternative diesel fuels: Vegetable oil-derived methyl esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Dunn; M. W. Shockley; M. O. Bagby

    1996-01-01

    This work explores near-term approaches for improving the low-temperature properties of triglyceride oil-derived fuels for\\u000a direct-injection compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Methyl esters from transesterified soybean oil were evaluated as a\\u000a neat fuel and in blends with petroleum middle distillates. Winterization showed that the cloud point (CP) of methyl soyate\\u000a may be reduced to ?16C. Twelve cold-flow additives marketed for distillates were

  17. Novolacs With Alternating P-Cresol & Polyhydroxyphenyl Monomer Units: Developer Cationic Effects And Thermal Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeney, Andrew J.; Jeffries, Alfred T.; Wehrle, John J.; Gardner, Wesley M.

    1988-01-01

    Novolacs which alternate p-cresol monomer units with polyhydroxyphenyl monomer units have been synthesized by acid catalyzed condensation of 2,6-bis(hydroxymethyl)-p-cresol with polyhydroxybenzenes such as resorcinol or 4-chlororesorcinol. These novolacs are highly alkaline soluble and exhibit improved glass transition temperatures relative to conventional novolacs. Unexpected developer cation effects have been observed on the dissolution times of some of these novolacs. The effect of molecular weight on these effects will be discussed for one system. The dissolution discrimination and inhibition of a 4- chlororesorcinol containing novolac was examined relative to a standard m-,p-cresol novolac and polyvinyl phenol. Images produced from a resist using a p-cresol/ 4-chlororesorcinol novolac showed no significant image degradation at 200 degrees C.

  18. Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenfeld, J.W.; Taylor, W.F.

    1980-11-01

    The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from Occidental Shale Company was fractionated to give three liquids in the diesel fuel boiling range. The initial boiling point in each case was 325/sup 0/F (163/sup 0/C). The final boiling points were 640/sup 0/F (338/sup 0/C), 670/sup 0/F (354/sup 0/C) and 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/F). Each fraction was hydrotreated to three different severities (800, 1200 and 1500 psi total pressure) over a Shell 324 nickel molybdate on alumina catalyst at 710 to 750/sup 0/F to afford 9 different model fuels. A variety of commercial and experimental additives were evaluated as cold flow improvers in the model fuels at treat levels of 0.04 to 0.4 wt %. Both the standard pour point test (ASTM D97) and a more severe low temperature flow test (LTFT) were employed. Reductions in pour points of up to 70/sup 0/F and improvements in LTFT temperatures up to 16/sup 0/F were achieved. It is concluded that flow improver additives can play an important role in improving the cold flow properties of future synthetic fuels of the diesel type derived from oil shale.

  19. Selection and Properties of Alternative Forming Fluids for TRISO Fuel Kernel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Marshall; M. Baker; J. King; B. Gorman

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  20. Alternative chelating agents: evaluation of the ready biodegradability and complexation properties.

    PubMed

    Martins, João G; Neto, Isabel F F; Pinto, Isabel S S; Soares, Eduardo V; Barros, Maria Teresa; Soares, Helena M V M

    2014-01-01

    The ready biodegradability of four chelating agents, N,N'-(S,S)-bis[1-carboxy-2-(imidazol-4-yl)ethyl]ethylenediamine (BCIEE), N'-ethylenedi-L-cysteine (EC), N,N'-bis (4-imidazolymethyl)ethylenediamine (EMI) and 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (PDA), was tested according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals. PDA proved to be a readily biodegradable substance. However, none of the other three compounds were degraded during the 28 days of the test. Chemical simulations were performed for the four compounds in order to understand their ability to complex with some metal ions (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and discuss possible applications of these chelating agents. Two different conditions were simulated: (i) in the presence of the chelating agent and one metal ion, and (ii) in the simultaneous presence of the chelating agent and all metal ions with an excess of Ca. For those compounds that were revealed not to be readily biodegradable (BCIEE, EC and EMI), applications were evaluated where this property was not fundamental or even not required. Chemical simulations pointed out that possible applications for these chelating agents are: food fortification, food process, fertilizers, biocides, soil remediation and treatment of metal poisoning. Additionally, chemical simulations also predicted that PDA is an efficient chelating agent for Ca incrustations removal, detergents and for pulp metal ions removal process. PMID:24279626

  1. Bio-based alternative to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with controlled materials properties.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Anthony; Spinella, Stephen; Gross, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    A series of biobased epoxy monomers were prepared from diphenolic acid (DPA) by transforming the free acid into n-alkyl esters and the phenolic hydroxyl groups into diglycidyl ethers. NMR experiments confirmed that the diglycidyl ethers of diphenolates (DGEDP) with methyl and ethyl esters have 6 and 3 mol % of glycidyl ester. Increasing the chain length of DGEDP n-alkyl esters from methyl to n-pentyl resulted in large decreases in epoxy resin viscosity (700-to-11 Pa·s). Storage modulus of DPA epoxy resins, cured with isophorone diamine, also varied with n-alkyl ester chain length (e.g., 3300 and 2100 MPa for the methyl and n-pentyl esters). The alpha transition temperature of the cured materials showed a linear decrease from 158 to 86 °C as the ester length increases. The Young's modulus and tensile strengths were about 1150 and 40 MPa, respectively, for all the cured resins tested (including DGEBA) and varied little as a function of ester length. Degree of cure for the different epoxy resins, determined by FTIR and DSC, closely approached the theoretical maximum. The result of this work demonstrates that diglycidyl ethers of n-alkyl diphenolates represent a new family of biobased liquid epoxy resins that, when cured, have similar properties to those from DGEBA. PMID:25633466

  2. Functional properties of an alternative, tissue-specific promoter for human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David F.; Husain, Anwar; Neale, Jason R.; Martini, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Doll, Mark A.; Christopher States, J.; Hein, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Variable expression of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) due to genetic polymorphism, gene regulation or environmental influences is associated with individual susceptibility to various cancers. Recent studies of NAT1 transcription showed that most mRNAs originate at a promoter, P1, located 11.8 kb upstream of the single open reading frame (ORF) exon. We have now characterized an alternative NAT1 promoter lying 51.5 kb upstream of the NAT1 ORF. In the present study, analysis of human RNAs representing 27 tissue types by RT-PCR and quantitative RT-PCR showed the upstream 51.5 kb promoter, designated P3, to be most active in specific tissues, including kidney, liver, lung, and trachea. All NAT1 P3 mRNAs included 5’-untranslated region (5’-UTR) internal exons of 61 and 175 nucleotides in addition to the 79 nucleotide 5’-UTR exon present in P1 mRNA. CAP-dependent amplification of 5’ P3 mRNA termini defined an 84 bp transcription start region in which most start sites are centrally clustered. The hepatoma-derived HepG2 cell line expressed a high level of P3 mRNA with the same spliced structure and start site pattern as found in normal tissues. A 435 bp minimal promoter was defined by transfection of HepG2 with luciferase expression constructs containing genomic fragments from the P3 start region. These findings imply a fundamental role for P3 in NAT1 regulation and define additional regions for genetic polymorphisms associated with enhanced cancer risk. PMID:16788383

  3. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of FeSeO(3)F--alternating antiferromagnetic S = 5/2 chains.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shichao; Johnsson, Mats; Law, Joseph M; Bettis, Jerry L; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Kremer, Reinhard K

    2014-04-21

    The new oxofluoride FeSeO3F, which is isostructural with FeTeO3F and GaTeO3F, was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and its structure was determined by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties of FeSeO3F were characterized by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, by evaluating its spin exchanges on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and by performing a quantum Monte Carlo simulation of the magnetic susceptibility. FeSeO3F crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n and has one unique Se(4+) ion and one unique Fe(3+) ion. The building blocks of FeSeO3F are [SeO3] trigonal pyramids and cis-[FeO4F2] distorted octahedra. The cis-[FeO4F2] octahedra are condensed by sharing the O-O and F-F edges alternatingly to form [FeO3F]? chains, which are interconnected via the [SeO3] pyramids by corner-sharing. The magnetic susceptibility of FeSeO3F is characterized by a broad maximum at 75(2) K and a long-range antiferromagnetic order below ?45 K. The latter is observed by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. DFT calculations show that the Fe-F-Fe spin exchange is stronger than the Fe-O-Fe exchange, so each [FeO3F]? chain is a Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain with alternating antiferromagnetic spin exchanges. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is well-reproduced by a quantum-Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:24684563

  4. The influence of high thermal gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing and alternate heat treatment on the structure and properties of a single crystal nickel base superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    A development program has been conducted to improve the cyclic properties of the PWA 1480 single-crystal superalloy by reducing or entirely eliminating casting porosity at fatigue-initiation sites, through the use of improved casting process parameters and HIPing; potential mechanical property improvements in a high-pressure hydrogen environment were also sought in alternatives to the standard coating and heat-treatment cycle. High thermal gradient casting was found to yield a reduction in overall casting porosity density and pore sizes. The most dramatic mechanical property improvement resulted from HIPing.

  5. Differentiably simple alternative algebras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Popov

    2010-01-01

    Differentiably simple alternative nonassociative algebras of characteristic p > 0 are described in terms of differentiably simple associative commutative algebras. Also we look at some properties of\\u000a differentiably simple alternative nonassociative algebras of characteristic 0.

  6. The influence of insulator properties on the electro-optical performance of flexible ZnS:ErF 3 alternating current thin film electroluminescent devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel Shepherd; David C. Morton; Eric W. Forsythe; Dave Chiu

    2006-01-01

    We have developed flexible ZnS:ErF3 alternating current thin film electroluminescent devices on molybdenum foils, and quantified the effect of insulator properties for the case of alumina (Al2O3) and barium tantalate (BaTa2O6) on the device electrical characteristics, and infrared emission. The inverted, full-stack structures could be flexed in tension and compression without mechanical failure or deterioration of optical output, and flex

  7. Diffuse-Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of Soils under Alternative Crop Rotations in a Semiarid Climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Alternative Crop Rotations (ACR) experiment was designed to compare the traditional wheat-fallow rotation with more intensive no-till rotations in the Central Great Plains. In order to ascertain the effect of the different agronomic managements on soil quality, we carried out mid-infrared (MidIR)...

  8. Prediction of physico-chemical properties for PCs/DFs using the UNIFAC model with an alternative approximation for group assignment.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Ohsako, Masahiro; Maeda, Kouji; Sakai, Shinichi

    2002-10-01

    The original-type UNIFAC model was used to predict the environmentally important physico-chemical properties of PCDDs/DFs, such as aqueous solubility, Henry's law constant, and 1-octanol/water partition coefficient, through the UNIFAC-derived infinite dilution activity coefficient. In this application, we suggest an alternative approximation that the aromatic ether group AC-O in PCDD/DF molecules is replaced with the aliphatic ether group CH-O, because the AC-O group is not available in the conventional UNIFAC model. With this approximation, the ability of the UNIFAC model to predict those properties was examined by comparing with experimental data. The UNIFAC model provided comparatively good estimation results. From these results, it is shown that the alternative approximation is useful for the UNIFAC estimation of physico-chemical properties for PCDDs/DFs. Furthermore, the predicted solubilities of 2,3,7,8-T4CDD and O8CDD in organic solvents and the co-solvency effect on solubility of PCDDs in methanol/water mixture indicate that the UNIFAC calculation presented here could well predict the physico-chemical properties of PCDDs/DFs in various solution conditions. PMID:12375860

  9. Alternative splicing of Tcf7l2 transcripts generates protein variants with differential promoter-binding and transcriptional activation properties at Wnt/?-catenin targets

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Andreas; Bruser, Katja; Elfert, Susanne; Wallmen, Britta; Wittel, Yvonne; Wöhrle, Simon; Hecht, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing can produce multiple protein products with variable domain composition from a single gene. The mouse Tcf7l2 gene is subject to alternative splicing. It encodes TCF4, a member of the T-cell factor (TCF) family of DNA-binding proteins and a nuclear interaction partner of ?-catenin which performs essential functions in Wnt growth factor signalling. Multiple TCF4 isoforms, potentially exhibiting cell-type-specific distribution and differing in gene regulatory properties, could strongly influence tissue-specific Wnt responses. Therefore, we have examined mouse Tcf7l2 splice variants in neonatal tissues, embryonic stem cells and neural progenitors. By polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning and sequencing, we identify a large number of alternatively spliced transcripts and report a highly flexible combinatorial repertoire of alternative exons. Many, but not all of the variants exhibit a broad tissue distribution. Moreover, two functionally equivalent versions of the C-clamp, thought to represent an auxiliary DNA-binding domain, were identified. Depending upon promoter context and precise domain composition, TCF4 isoforms exhibit strikingly different transactivation potentials at natural Wnt/?-catenin target promoters. However, differences in C-clamp-mediated DNA binding can only partially explain functional differences among TCF4 variants. Still, the cell-type-specific complement of TCF4 isoforms is likely to be a major determinant for the context-dependent transcriptional output of Wnt/?-catenin signalling. PMID:20044351

  10. Plaster of Paris: thermal properties and biocompatibility. A study on an alternative implant material for ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Högset, O; Bredberg, G

    1986-01-01

    There is no single technique for reconstruction of the canal wall following radical mastoidectomy. Autograft tissues may be unsuitable because of resorption and limited availability. An ideal foreign implant material should be bone-like in quality, non-ototoxic, readily available and malleable. Plaster of Paris, a degradable ceramic powder of CaSO4, may be regarded as a bone mineral. But a certain amount of heat develops during its solidifying process and may present a risk for injury to the facial nerve and the labyrinth. We studied the temperature rise with respect to added solution, to volume, and to surroundings, and investigated its biocompatibility when implanted in soft tissue in guinea pigs. The investigations suggested no risk of thermal injury and the biocompatibility was excellent. Hence plaster of Paris may constitute an alternative implant material for mastoid obliteration and reconstruction of the canal wall in ear surgery. PMID:3727980

  11. Alternative training agents, Phase 1. Survey of near-term-candidate fire-extinguishing agents and predicting properties of halocarbon mixtures. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nimitz, J.S.; Tapscott, R.E.; Skaggs, S.R.; Beeson, H.D.

    1991-02-01

    In this report, 14 compounds are examined as potential near-term candidates for alternative firefighter training agents for streaming applications. This list consists of suitable fluorine-containing compounds(primarily fluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons) known to have had significant toxicity testing completed, with bulk production capabilities existing in the past, present, or anticipated near future. Many of these compounds are being produced or considered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigeration and foam-blowing applications. The ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, stage of toxicity testing, toxicity, availability, and relative cost of each compound are discussed. Physical and thermodynamic properties and estimated and measured flame suppression concentrations are reported. Those compounds that have low toxicity (with significant testing completed) are available in bulk and have desirable properties are discussed in detail. It is recommended that HCFC-123 be tested both in pure form and in blends as potential replacement training agents. Twelve blends are recommended for fire suppression.

  12. Toxicant content, physical properties and biological activity of waterpipe tobacco smoke and its tobacco-free alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Schubert, Jens; Klaiany, Joanne; El Sabban, Marwan; Luch, Andreas; Saliba, Najat A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking using sweetened, flavoured tobacco products has become a widespread global phenomenon. In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, narghile, hookah, shisha along with names of chemical compounds and classes of compounds, in addition to terms commonly used in cellular biology and aerosol sizing. Study selection The search was limited to articles published in English which reported novel data on waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) toxicant content, biological activity or particle size and which met various criteria for analytical rigour including: method specificity and selectivity, precision, accuracy and recovery, linearity, range, and stability. Data extraction Multiple researchers reviewed the reports and collectively agreed on which data were pertinent for inclusion. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoke contains significant concentrations of toxicants thought to cause dependence, heart disease, lung disease and cancer in cigarette smokers, and includes 27 known or suspected carcinogens. Waterpipe smoke is a respirable aerosol that induces cellular responses associated with pulmonary and arterial diseases. Except nicotine, smoke generated using tobacco-free preparations marketed for ‘health conscious’ users contains the same or greater doses of toxicants, with the same cellular effects as conventional products. Toxicant yield data from the analytical laboratory are consistent with studies of exposure biomarkers in waterpipe users. Conclusions A sufficient evidence base exists to support public health interventions that highlight the fact that WTS presents a serious inhalation hazard. PMID:25666550

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory operates the Alternative Fuels Data Center, a Web site with vast amounts of information on alternative fuels and the vehicles that use them. A general table of fuel properties gives a quick comparison of gasoline to several alternatives, while sections devoted to eight different fuels go into much greater depth. There are several documents that examine new alternative fuel vehicles, including performance tests, fact sheets, statistics, and case studies. The site also has common questions and answers about converting a gasoline vehicle to one that uses alternative fuels.

  14. Impairment of alternative splice sites defining a novel gammaretroviral exon within gag modifies the oncogenic properties of Akv murine leukemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Annette Balle; Lund, Anders H; Kunder, Sandra; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schmidt, Jörg; Wang, Bruce; Wabl, Matthias; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2007-01-01

    Background Mutations of an alternative splice donor site located within the gag region has previously been shown to broaden the pathogenic potential of the T-lymphomagenic gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus, while the equivalent mutations in the erythroleukemia inducing Friend murine leukemia virus seem to have no influence on the disease-inducing potential of this virus. In the present study we investigate the splice pattern as well as the possible effects of mutating the alternative splice sites on the oncogenic properties of the B-lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. Results By exon-trapping procedures we have identified a novel gammaretroviral exon, resulting from usage of alternative splice acceptor (SA') and splice donor (SD') sites located in the capsid region of gag of the B-cell lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. To analyze possible effects in vivo of this novel exon, three different alternative splice site mutant viruses, mutated in either the SA', in the SD', or in both sites, respectively, were constructed and injected into newborn inbred NMRI mice. Most of the infected mice (about 90%) developed hematopoietic neoplasms within 250 days, and histological examination of the tumors showed that the introduced synonymous gag mutations have a significant influence on the phenotype of the induced tumors, changing the distribution of the different types as well as generating tumors of additional specificities such as de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and histiocytic sarcoma. Interestingly, a broader spectrum of diagnoses was made from the two single splice-site mutants than from as well the wild-type as the double splice-site mutant. Both single- and double-spliced transcripts are produced in vivo using the SA' and/or the SD' sites, but the mechanisms underlying the observed effects on oncogenesis remain to be clarified. Likewise, analyses of provirus integration sites in tumor tissues, which identified 111 novel RISs (retroviral integration sites) and 35 novel CISs (common integration sites), did not clearly point to specific target genes or pathways to be associated with specific tumor diagnoses or individual viral mutants. Conclusion We present here the first example of a doubly spliced transcript within the group of gammaretroviruses, and we show that mutation of the alternative splice sites that define this novel RNA product change the oncogenic potential of Akv murine leukemia virus. PMID:17617899

  15. Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

  16. Theoretical studies on the electron capture properties of the H2SO4...HOO? complex and its implications as an alternative source of HOOH.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Ma, Zhiying; Wang, Weihua; Song, Rui; Zhai, Yazhou; Bi, Siwei; Sun, Haitao; Bu, Yuxiang

    2011-04-01

    To better understand the potential role of sulfuric acid aerosols in the atmosphere, the electron capture properties of the H(2)SO(4)...HOO? complex have been systematically investigated by employing the MP2 and B3LYP methods in combination with the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory, energy decomposition analysis (EDA), and ab initio molecular dynamics. It was found that the electron capture process is a favorable reaction thermodynamically and kinetically. The excess electron can be captured by the HOO? fragment initially, and then the proton of the H(2)SO(4) fragment associated with the intermolecular H-bonds is transferred to the HOO? fragment without any activation barriers, resulting in the formation of the HOOH species directly. Therefore, the electron capture process of the H(2)SO(4)...HOO? complex provides an alternative source of HOOH in the atmosphere. The nature of the coupling interactions in the electron capture products are clarified, and the most stable anionic complex is also determined. Additionally, the influences of the adjacent water molecules on the electron capture properties are investigated, as well as the distinct IR features of the most stable electron capture product. PMID:21336375

  17. Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    Alternative Medicine en Español email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... Send Thanks for emailing that article! Tweet Alternative medicine may be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments ...

  18. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  19. The structure, function and properties of sirohaem decarboxylase - an enzyme with structural homology to a transcription factor family that is part of the alternative haem biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David J; Schroeder, Susanne; Lawrence, Andrew D; Deery, Evelyne; Lobo, Susana A; Saraiva, Ligia M; McLean, Kirsty J; Munro, Andrew W; Ferguson, Stuart J; Pickersgill, Richard W; Brown, David G; Warren, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Some bacteria and archaea synthesize haem by an alternative pathway, which involves the sequestration of sirohaem as a metabolic intermediate rather than as a prosthetic group. Along this pathway the two acetic acid side-chains attached to C12 and C18 are decarboxylated by sirohaem decarboxylase, a heterodimeric enzyme composed of AhbA and AhbB, to give didecarboxysirohaem. Further modifications catalysed by two related radical SAM enzymes, AhbC and AhbD, transform didecarboxysirohaem into Fe-coproporphyrin III and haem respectively. The characterization of sirohaem decarboxylase is reported in molecular detail. Recombinant versions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri AhbA/B have been produced and their physical properties compared. The D. vulgaris and M. barkeri enzyme complexes both copurify with haem, whose redox state influences the activity of the latter. The kinetic parameters of the D. desulfuricans enzyme have been determined, the enzyme crystallized and its structure has been elucidated. The topology of the enzyme reveals that it shares a structural similarity to the AsnC/Lrp family of transcription factors. The active site is formed in the cavity between the two subunits and a AhbA/B-product complex with didecarboxysirohaem has been obtained. A mechanism for the decarboxylation of the kinetically stable carboxyl groups is proposed. PMID:24865947

  20. Alternative fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rezendes

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in reviewing programs in Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand to encourage the use of alternative fuels, GAO found that each country was able, to some extent, to get motorists to use alternative fuels, although not without problems and setbacks. GAO also found remarkable consistency in the experiences and lessons reported. GAO testified that the experiences of

  1. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  2. Clearance of Human IgG1-Sensitised Red Blood Cells In Vivo in Humans Relates to the In Vitro Properties of Antibodies from Alternative Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Armour, Kathryn L.; Smith, Cheryl S.; Ip, Natasha C. Y.; Ellison, Cara J.; Kirton, Christopher M.; Wilkes, Anthony M.; Williamson, Lorna M.; Clark, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC) were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human Fc?R, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the Fc?RI and Fc?RII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in Fc?RIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for Fc?RIIIa 158F, 20-fold for Fc?RIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for Fc?RIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with Fc?RIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where Fc?RI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only Fc?RIII binding and Fc?RIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of Fc?RIII in RBC clearance. PMID:25302805

  3. Case study II: application of the divalent cation bridging theory to improve biofloc properties and industrial activated sludge system performance-using alternatives to sodium-based chemicals.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew J; Sobeck, David C; Owens, Steven J; Szabo, Lynn M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of the divalent cation bridging theory (DCBT) as a tool in the chemical selection process at an activated sludge plant to improve settling, dewatering, and effluent quality. According to the DCBT, to achieve improvements, the goal of chemical selection should be to reduce the ratio of monovalent-to-divalent (M/D) cations. A study was conducted to determine the effect of using magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] as an alternative to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at a full-scale industrial wastewater treatment plant. Floc properties and treatment plant performance were measured for approximately one year during two periods of NaOH addition and Mg(OH)2 addition. A cost analysis of plant operation during NaOH and Mg(OH)2 use was also performed. During NaOH addition, the M/D ratio was 48, while, during Mg(OH)2 addition, this ratio was reduced to an average of approximately 0.1. During the Mg(OH)2 addition period, the sludge volume index, effluent total suspended solids, and effluent chemical oxygen demand were reduced by approximately 63, 31, and 50%, respectively, compared to the NaOH addition period. The alum and polymer dose used for clarification was reduced by approximately 50 and 60%, respectively, during Mg(OH)2 addition. The dewatering properties of the activated sludge improved dewatering as measured by decreased capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), along with an increase in cake solids from the SRF test. This corresponded to a reduction in the volume of solids thickened by centrifuges at the treatment plant, which reduced the disposal costs of solids. Considering the costs for chemicals and solids disposal, the annual cost of using Mg(OH)2 was approximately 30,000 dollars to 115,000 dollars less than using NaOH, depending on the pricing of NaOH. The results of this study confirm that the DCBT is a useful tool for assessing chemical-addition strategies and their potential effect on activated sludge performance. PMID:15508426

  4. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  5. Alternative splicing in the fiddler crab cognate ecdysteroid receptor: variation in receptor isoform expression and DNA binding properties in response to hormone.

    PubMed

    Durica, David S; Das, Sunetra; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce; Phillips, Barret; Kappalli, Sudha; Anilkumar, Gopinathan

    2014-09-15

    RXR cDNA cloning from three Uca species led to the identification of 4 conserved isoforms, indicative of alternative splicing in the hinge and ligand binding domains (LBD). Sequencing of overlapping clones from a Ucapugilator genomic library identified EcR isoforms matching previously identified cDNA variants; in addition, a cryptic exon in the LBD was detected and evidence for expression of this new isoform was obtained from next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq analysis also identified a new amino terminal EcR variant. EcR and RXR transcript abundance increases throughout ovarian maturation in U. pugilator, while cognate receptor transcript abundance remains constant in a related Indo-Pacific species with a different reproductive strategy. To examine if crab RXR LBD isoforms have different physical properties in vitro, electromobility shift assays were performed with different EcR isoforms. The cognate crab and fruit fly receptors differ in their responses to hormone. Ecdysteroids did not increase DNA binding for the crab heterodimers, while ecdysteroids stimulate binding for Drosophilamelanogaster EcR/USP heterodimers. In swapping experiments, UpEcR/USP heterodimers did not show ligand-responsive differences in DNA binding; both crab RXR LBD isoforms, however, conferred ligand-responsive increases in DNA binding with DmEcRs. These data indicate that both UpRXR LBD isoforms can heterodimerize with the heterologous DmEcR receptors and promote ligand and DNA binding. Unresponsiveness of the cognate receptors to ecdysteroid, however, suggest additional factors may be required to mediate endogenous, perhaps isoform-specific, differences in EcR conformation, consistent with previously reported effects of UpRXR isoforms on UpEcR ligand-binding affinities. PMID:25025945

  6. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert D.; Zeller, Trisha A.

    A number of cases related to property issues involving institutions of higher education are examined in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as funding for property and equipment acquisition; opposition to building construction or demolition; zoning issues; building construction and equipment contracts; and lease agreements. Current…

  7. Alternating Hemiplegia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and balance and gait problems continue. Over time, walking unassisted becomes difficult or impossible. What research is being done? The NINDS supports research on paralytic disorders such as alternating hemiplegia, with the goals of learning more about these disorders and finding ways to ...

  8. Axion alternatives

    E-print Network

    I. Antoniadis; A. Boyarsky; Oleg Ruchayskiy

    2006-06-29

    If recent results of the PVLAS collaboration proved to be correct, some alternative to the traditional axion models are needed. We present one of the simplest possible modifications of axion paradigm, which explains the results of PVLAS experiment, while avoiding all the astrophysical and cosmological restrictions. We also mention other possible models that possess similar effects.

  9. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  10. Alternative Value Capture Systems for Improved Wheat Variety Intellectual Property for Increased Access by Tanzanian Smallholder Emerging Farmers: A Case Study 

    E-print Network

    King, Joseph N

    2014-08-26

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine management theory and impact of agricultural intellectual property rights systems in Tanzania to restructure policies and institutions for more efficient technology adoption and diffusion, enhanced...

  11. Development of alternate silicone potting compounds. Volume 11. Influences of temperature, material variables, and composition variables on the properties of substitute potting compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    We evaluated the effect that Sylgard 184 and 186 and Dielectric Gel Q3-6527 have on the mechanical properties of cured Sylgard starting materials, cured APC2.5, and APC10 substitute potting compounds. We looked specifically at the influences of five variables of 184, 186, and Q3-6527 on the 25/sup 0/C mechanical properties, namely temperature, platinum content of the accelerator, amount of accelerator used, reactivity, and viscosity. Within limited ranges, the platinum content of the accelerator and the amount of accelerator used had no effect on the mechanical properties of cured silicones. The reactivity and viscosity of the major components (184, 186, and Q3) had only two slight effects on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the cured APC compounds. We checked lot variations on Sylgards 184 and 186 and ingredient variations on APC2.5, 10, and 300 compounds. Sylgards 184 and 186 vary from lot to lot, but the variability is moderate and of the same magnitude as testing variability. For the cured APC compounds, mechanical properties vary considerably depending upon the type of ingredients used in the formulation, whereas thermal properties are less sensitive. Compressive strength depends greatly upon the types of ingredients in the formulation.

  12. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

  13. The effects on tensile, shear, and adhesive mechanical properties when recycled epoxy\\/fiberglass is used as an alternative for glass microballoons in fiberglass foam core sandwiches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dru Matthew Wilson

    1998-01-01

    The problem of this study was to determine whether fiberglass foam core sandwiches made with recycled epoxy\\/fiberglass have equal or better flatwise tension, shear, and peel (adhesion) mechanical properties when compared with composite sandwiches made with industry standard glass microballoons. Recycling epoxy\\/fiberglass could save money by: (1) reusing cured composite materials, (2) consuming less virgin composite materials, (3) spending less

  14. Low-frequency alternative-current magnetic susceptibility, photoelectric properties, and adhesive properties of Ni80Fe20 (XÅ)/ZnO(500Å) and ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ) on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Tsung

    2015-08-01

    The following conditions are deposited: (a) glass/Ni80Fe20(XÅ)/ZnO(500Å) and (b) glass/ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ), where each of X and Y is 1000Å, 1500Å, 2000Å or 2500Å. The substrate temperature was maintained at room temperature (RT), and post-annealing was performed with heating at (TA) = 150 °C for 1 h or (TA) = 250 °C for 1 h. The sputtering sequence and the thickness of the NiFe film were varied to study the effects of these factors on the low-frequency alternative-current magnetic susceptibility (?ac), maximum ?ac with corresponding optimal resonance frequency (fres), transmission, electrical resistivity (?), and surface energy of the multilayered glass/Ni80Fe20(XÅ)/ZnO(500Å) and glass/ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ). Experimental results demonstrate that ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ) is superior to Ni80Fe20/ZnO(500Å) because diffraction from the ZnO (0 0 2) crystals at the bottom of ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ) improves the magneto crystalline anisotropy of Ni80Fe20, improving its magnetic and photoelectrical properties. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) reveal that the ZnO (0 0 2), ZnO (2 2 0), and NiFe (1 1 1) peaks of ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ) are more intense than those of Ni80Fe20/ZnO(500Å) under three substrate conditions, indicating the ZnO (0 0 2) peak reflects magneto crystalline anisotropy in the crystalline NiFe layer of ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ), yielding the highest ?ac of approximately 3.16 with an fres of 250 Hz upon post-annealing TA = 250 °C for 1 h. The (1 1 1) diffracted intensity and grain size of the thicker and post-annealed Ni80Fe20 thin films exceeded those of the thinner and as-deposited Ni80Fe20 thin films. A spectral analyzer was used to measure transmittance through NiFe of various thicknesses. The transmittance declined slightly as the thickness and grain size increased, because increasing thickness reduced penetration. Post-annealing promoted grain growth, increased the average size of the grains and reduced transmittance. Both as-deposited glass/Ni80Fe20(XÅ)/ZnO(500Å) and as-deposited glass/ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ) had the highest penetration, when X, Y = 1000Å, and the highest transmittances of 87% and 93%, respectively. The highest transmittance of glass/ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ) exceeded that of glass/Ni80Fe20(XÅ)/ZnO(500Å) owing to ZnO (0 0 2) crystallization. Furthermore, ? decreased as the Ni80Fe20 thickness increased, because grain boundaries and the surface of thin films scattered the electrons, so thinner films had greater resistance. Electrical measurements revealed that the maximum resistivities of glass/Ni80Fe20(1000Å)/ZnO(500Å) and glass/ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(1000Å) were 292 ?? cm and 288 ?? cm, and the resistivity declined as the thickness of the film increased. The surface energy of the as-deposited and thinner NiFe layers exceeded that of post-annealed and thicker NiFe layers, revealing that the adhesion of the as-deposited and thinner NiFe films was stronger than that of the post-annealed and thicker films, on account of the degrees of crystallinity. Glass/Ni80Fe20(1000Å)/ZnO(500Å) and glass/ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(1000Å) had the highest surface energies of 64 mJ/mm2 and 59 mJ/mm2; the surface energy worsened as the temperature increased, suggesting that the adhesion of the as-deposited and thinner NiFe films in glass/Ni80Fe20(XÅ)/ZnO(500Å) was stronger than in glass/ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ). The results indicate that the magnetic and photoelectric properties of glass/ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ) were better than those of glass/Ni80Fe20(XÅ)/ZnO(500Å) because the strong ZnO (0 0 2) crystallization in ZnO(500Å)/Ni80Fe20(YÅ) increased the magneto crystalline anisotropy NiFe (1 1 1) and importantly affected the magnetic and photoelectrical properties.

  15. Remarkable proanthocyanidin adsorption properties of monastrell pomace cell wall material highlight its potential use as an alternative fining agent in red wine production.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Marín, Fátima; Molero, Noelia; Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2015-01-21

    The existence of interactions between the polysaccharides of vegetal cell walls and proanthocyanins makes this cell wall material an interesting option for its use as a fining agent to reduce the level of proanthocyanins in wines. Pomace wastes from the winery are widely available and a source of cell wall material, and the identification of varieties whose pomace cell walls present high proanthocyanin binding capacity and of processing methods that could enhance their adsorption properties could be of great interest. This study compared the proanthocyanin adsorption properties of pomace cell wall material from three different grape varieties (Monastrell, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Syrah), and the results were compared with those obtained using fresh grape cell walls. Also, the effect of the vinification method has been studied. Analysis of the proanthocyanidins in the solution after reaction with the cell wall material, using phloroglucinolysis and size exclusion chromatography, provided quantitative and qualitative information on the adsorbed and nonadsorbed compounds. A highlight of this study was the observation that Monastrell pomace cell wall material showed a strong affinity for proanthocyanidins, with values similar to that obtained for fresh grapes cell walls, and a preferential binding of high molecular mass proanthocyanidins, so these pomace cell walls could be used in wines to reduce astringency. The use of maceration enzymes during vinification had little effect on the retention capacity of the pomace cell walls obtained from this vinification, although an increase in the retention of low molecular mass proanthocyanidins was observed, and this might have implications for wine sensory properties. PMID:25529053

  16. [Alternative oxidase in industrial fungi].

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Liu, Qiang; He, Hao; Li, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have been used in industrial fermentation extensively. Based on non-phosphorylating electron transport process, alternative respiration pathway (ARP) acts as an energy overflow, which can balance carbon metabolism and electron transport, allow the continuance of tricarboxylic acid cycle without the formation of ATP, and permit the turnover of carbon skeletons. Alternative respiration pathway also plays an important role in the stress response of fungi and the physiological function of conditioned pathogen. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase responsible for the activity of alternative respiration pathway, which exists widely in higher plants, parts of fungi and algae. Owing to the property that alternative oxidase (AOX) is sensitive to salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and insensitive to conventional inhibitors of cytochrome respiration, alternative respiration pathway by AOX is also named as cyanide-resistant respiration (CRR). In recent years, the study of the alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase has been a hot topic in the area involving cellular respiration metabolism. In this review we summarized the latest research advances about the functions of alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase in industrial fungi. PMID:26021078

  17. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.

  18. Optical devices having flakes suspended in a host fluid to provide a flake/fluid system providing flakes with angularly dependent optical properties in response to an alternating current electric field due to the dielectric properties of the system

    DOEpatents

    Kosc, Tanya Z. (Rochester, NY); Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY); Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY)

    2006-05-09

    Optical devices utilizing flakes (also called platelets) suspended in a host fluid have optical characteristics, such as reflective properties, which are angular dependent in response to an AC field. The reflectivity may be Bragg-like, and the characteristics are obtained through the use of flakes of liquid crystal material, such as polymer liquid crystal (PLC) materials including polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) and polymer nematic liquid crystal (PNLC) material or birefringent polymers (BP). The host fluid may be propylene carbonate, poly(ethylene glycol) or other fluids or fluid mixtures having fluid conductivity to support conductivity in the flake/host system. AC field dependent rotation of 90.degree. can be obtained at rates and field intensities dependent upon the frequency and magnitude of the AC field. The devices are useful in providing displays, polarizers, filters, spatial light modulators and wherever switchable polarizing, reflecting, and transmission properties are desired.

  19. Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3} textured ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Maurya, Deepam; Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2013-06-03

    The influence of alternating (ac) and direct current (dc) fields on the structural and dielectric properties of [001]{sub PC} textured Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-7%BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-7%BT) ceramics has been investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the depolarization at temperature T{sub d} in poled samples resulted from a tetragonal {yields} pseudo-cubic transition on heating. Moderate ac drive and dc bias had opposite influences on T{sub d}: ac drive decreased the T{sub d}, whereas dc bias increased it. These investigations suggested an effective method to expand the working temperature range of NBT-x%BT textured ceramics to a high temperature.

  20. Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test An alternating series is defined to be a series of the form: S = # # n=0 (-1) n a n , (1) where all the a n > 0. The alternating series test but property 1 and/or property 2 do not hold, then the alternating series test is inconclusive. Note

  1. Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test An alternating series is defined to be a series of the form: S = n=0 (-1)n an , (1) where all the an > 0. The alternating series test is a set and/or property 2 do not hold, then the alternating series test is inconclusive. Note that property 1

  2. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  3. ALTERNATIVE MARKOV PROPERTIES FOR CHAIN GRAPHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steen A. Andersson; David Madigan; Michael D. Perlman

    1999-01-01

    Graphical Markov models use graphs, either undirected, directed, or mixed, to rep- resent possible dependences among statistical variables. Applications of undirected graphs (UGs) include models for spatial dependence and image analysis, while acyclic directed graphs (ADGs), which are especiallyconvenient for statistical analysis, arise in such fields as genetics and psychometrics and as models for expert systems and Bayesian belief networks.

  4. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hall

    1985-01-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep

  5. Detecting alternative graph clusterings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandala, Supreet; Kumara, Soundar; Yao, Tao

    2012-07-01

    The problem of graph clustering or community detection has enjoyed a lot of attention in complex networks literature. A quality function, modularity, quantifies the strength of clustering and on maximization yields sensible partitions. However, in most real world networks, there are an exponentially large number of near-optimal partitions with some being very different from each other. Therefore, picking an optimal clustering among the alternatives does not provide complete information about network topology. To tackle this problem, we propose a graph perturbation scheme which can be used to identify an ensemble of near-optimal and diverse clusterings. We establish analytical properties of modularity function under the perturbation which ensures diversity. Our approach is algorithm independent and therefore can leverage any of the existing modularity maximizing algorithms. We numerically show that our methodology can systematically identify very different partitions on several existing data sets. The knowledge of diverse partitions sheds more light into the topological organization and helps gain a more complete understanding of the underlying complex network.

  6. A new quenching alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R.J.; Faulkner, C.H. [Houghton International, Valley Forge, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The quenching of ferrous alloys implies the controlled extraction of heat from a part at a rate sufficient to harden the part and still control the desired dimensional limitations. Quenchants in common use today are: molten metals, molten salts, petroleum oils, polymer solutions, water, and salt/water solutions. Each type of quenchant has its benefits and limitations. With current waste legislation and the trends toward environmentally friendlier industrial working fluids, many of these quenching products are coming under close scrutiny by the users and legislators. The most widely used quenchant is petroleum oil due to its favorable heat extraction characteristics. The dependence upon imports, price vulnerability, and contamination potential have caused suppliers and users to look into alternative products. Research into renewable resource, non-petroleum, vegetable oils has been going on globally for several years. The drawbacks encountered with many vegetable oils were widely known and only years of research enabled them to be overcome. The presently formulated product not only performs as well as petroleum oil but shows some characteristics better than those of the petroleum products, especially in the biodegradability and ecological aspects of the products. Stability and reproducible quenching properties have been proven with over two and one half years of field testing.

  7. Centre for Alternative Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CAT is an environmental nonprofit that promotes sustainable living. Its key areas of work are renewable energy, environmental building, energy efficiency, organic growing and alternative sewage systems. The group offers workshops on alternative energy, including wind, solar, and microhydroelectric.

  8. Center for Alternative Fuels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The success of the HEV programs under this grant prompted Macomb to launch this resource, the Center for Alternative Fuels. The center holds forums in which academic and industry experts discuss the technical and societal impact of alternative fuels.

  9. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    MedlinePLUS

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of ... Acupuncture involves stimulating certain acupoints on the body ...

  10. Assessment "Honest Alternatives".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Susan Glazer

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the challenge of finding or creating alternatives to tests and traditional grading systems. Reflects on and describes the experience of creating an assessment tool and cautions against choosing alternatives that merely camouflage the grades. Encourages educators to find authentic alternatives to describe children's growth. (BAC)

  11. ALTERNATIVE DEER MANAGEMENT PLAN

    E-print Network

    Theimer, Tad

    ALTERNATIVE DEER MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR GAME MANAGEMENT UNITS 12A, 12B, 13A, 13B, 16A, 45A, 45B, 45C, and White-tailed Deer Units Arizona Game and Fish Department April 4, 2006 #12;Alternative Deer Management on subsequent Commission direction, and this document addresses alternative deer management in Units 12A, 12B

  12. IDCS NETWORK ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    R.T. Rosche

    1995-02-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to determine the feasibility of network alternatives available to support the Exploratory Study Facilities (ESF) site characterization test data gathering activity as well as the facility control and monitoring systems. If it is found that more than one feasible alternative exists, a cost analysis will also be conducted to determine the least costly alternative.

  13. Chicano Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicia, H. Homero; Almaguer, Clementina

    Alternative schooling is challenging some basic notions of curriculum, operation, and structure of traditional schools; it is not challenging the basic concept of schooling. Chicano alternative education, an elusive concept, lacks a precise definition. Chicano alternative schools reflect a vast diversity in structure, focus, and goals. The Chicano…

  14. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  15. Alternative Certification Isn't Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Jacobs, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    While nearly all states now have something on their books labeled "alternate route to certification," these programs defy standard definition due to their enormous variability. States differ in the types of candidates allowed to apply (e.g., career changers or recent college graduates) and in the academic backgrounds these individuals must…

  16. Piston engine configuration alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a technological assessment of alternate engine component configuration and material alternatives. It includes a comparative analysis of key characteristics of Gasoline, Diesel and Gas Turbine engines built by Daihatsu, Honda, Isuzu, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Suburu, Suzuki and Toyota. The piston engines range from two to ten cylinders with inline, vee and opposed configurations. Furthermore, additional special features and alternative choices include variable compression ratio, ceramic structural components, supercharger, turbocharger, twin turbocharger, supercharger-turbocharger combined and the regenerative gas turbine.

  17. Alternator insulation evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

  18. Alternative Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Kerri L.

    2004-01-01

    Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and…

  19. Alternatives as Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, John

    1973-01-01

    Focuses on the wider meaning of the growth of alternative schooling in our society. Suggests that the survival of society depends on the widespread existence of decisionmaking powers, that such power is learned by making decisions, and that alternatives are needed in order that decisions may be made. (Author/DN)

  20. Concepts in alternative medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Aakster

    1986-01-01

    After discussing some important alternative approaches, different interpretations are presented of the concepts of health, disease, diagnosis, therapy and patient. These differences are elucidated in three main frames of medical thinking: the pharmaceutical, the integrational and the holistic model. Attention is given to the problem of scientific proof, especially in relation to the effectiveness of alternative therapies. In a concluding

  1. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

  2. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  3. Compensation in pulsed alternators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Pratap; M. D. Driga

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a generic discussion on compensation in pulsed alternators. It covers all aspects of compensation i.e., types of compensation, alternative methods for the physical realization of the various compensation schemes, the pros and cons of compensation or the rationale for compensation. The intent of this paper is to form a guiding reference on the issues of compensation in

  4. ALTERNATIVE DEER FENCES

    E-print Network

    ALTERNATIVE DEER FENCES IN CORE CAPERCAILLIE and BLACK GROUSE HABITATS AN INTERIM BEST GUIDANCE This advice note provides interim guidance on deer fencing in order to reduce mortality to capercaillie in core woodland grouse habitats. As an alternative strategy, various materials have been fixed onto deer

  5. ALTERNATIVES TO RESEARCH PAPERS

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    , 2010 Creative alternatives to traditional research papers: Undergrads and Scholarly CommunicationALTERNATIVES TO RESEARCH PAPERS Compiled by Kathy Labadorf kathy.labadorf@uconn.edu December 30 The ability to write a finely crafted, well documented, and thought provoking research paper is a hallmark

  6. Alternating to Direct: Rectifying Alternating Current

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this activity for classes learning about diodes and electrical currents. The laboratory illustrates how diodes can be used to rectify alternating current. It uses a galvanometer to determine the direction of current flow when an AC or DC current is applied to the circuit containing a diode in series with a resistor and a galvanometer.The lesson includes step by step directions for the experiment.The activity should require about 20-30 minutes of class time to complete. Discussion questions and teacher notes are included.

  7. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  8. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  9. Alternatives and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Milstien, J B; Dellepiane, N

    1999-01-01

    Alternative tests have a role in vaccine testing, especially to confirm production consistency. Given the characteristics of these alternative tests and of the products for which they may be used, there are several factors which will influence their use. These include a good understanding of the test and the product to be tested, strong national regulatory infrastructure, a laboratory run in accordance with the principles of laboratory quality systems, and the ability to validate the alternative method. This means that national regulatory authorities will need strong expertise in epidemiology and quality assurance to complement laboratory experience. PMID:10566794

  10. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  11. Alternative and Complementary Therapies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... always designed to treat a particular illness: Some alternative therapies treat the whole person, not an illness. They might restore harmony, balance, or normal energy flow. Acupuncturists, for example, use the pulse to ...

  12. Marketing alternative fueled automobiles

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Alex (Yi Alexis)

    2011-01-01

    Marketing alternative fueled vehicles is a difficult challenge for automakers. The foundation of the market, the terms of competition, and the customer segments involved are still being defined. But automakers can draw ...

  13. Enhanced next generation alternator

    E-print Network

    Lorilla, Leandro M. (Leandro Manalac), 1977-

    2005-01-01

    The power requirements of automotive alternators are increasing significantly due to the introduction of new vehicle electrical loads. Moreover, the possible transition to a 42 V electrical system is introducing new concerns ...

  14. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  15. Alternative energy design toolkit

    E-print Network

    Sukkasi, Sittha

    2004-01-01

    This thesis concerns the concepts, structure, and applications of the Alternative Energy Design Toolkit. The toolkit is aimed to provide a widely accessible, easy to use, flexible, yet powerful modeling environment for ...

  16. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  17. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  18. Alternative Energy Evaluation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scevola, Misty

    This document from Misty Scevola serves as an assessment of student knowledge of alternative energy technologies. This document would be useful for instructors looking to expand their students' knowledge of alternative energy and sustainability. The document is intended to be used twice: once before learning about the concepts outlined, and once after the class has been completed. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice Post-White; Elena Ladas

    \\u000a Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) encompasses practices and therapeutic modalities that fall outside of the mainstream\\u000a of conventional medicine. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health\\u000a (NCCAM, NIH)(2008) identifies four domains of CAM therapies, including mind–body, touch, energy, and biological therapies\\u000a (www.nccam.nih.gov). Children with cancer use therapies from all domains; most often used

  20. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2010-06-30

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels. Thailand is of particular interest since it introduced E20 to its commercial market in 2007 and the US is now considering introducing E20 into the US market.

  1. MSAT an alternative choice?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagan, K. E.; Elmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    A number of potential applications are described of MSAT that use the unique properties of this transportation mechanism. Emphasis is placed on the market introduction strategy for the North American system.

  2. The Market Alternative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph W. Dellapenna

    Water generally has been regarded as a ‘free good’, available for use by anyone with access to it. Because the water can be\\u000a used multiple times, water traditionally has been a ‘public good’, held by the community, either as common property or as\\u000a public property, although rights to make particular uses of water might be assigned to particular persons to

  3. Biodiesel: an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Manzanera, Maximino; Molina-Muñoz, Maria L; González-López, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy source and could be a substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Most of the sources, methods and apparatus to produce biodiesel are reviewed here. Some of the patents propose the use of oils and fats of animal or vegetal origin and other kind of sources. Many others focus on the methods for the production or oxidation stability of the biofuel in order to make its production economically competitive. Several apparatus comprising reactors and refineries are also presented. This review article summarizes recent and important patents relating to the production of biodiesel to make its production a viable alternative. PMID:19075850

  4. Alternative starshade missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, W.; Glassman, T.; Lo, A.; Soummer, R.

    2010-07-01

    Starshades have been shown to hold the potential to reveal Earth-like planets around nearby stars and to allow detailed follow-up study including spectroscopy. Ideally this would be performed with a starshade in excess of 50m diameter and a telescope over 4m in diameter. However, such a flagship-class mission is unlikely to be realized in under fifteen years. But much can be accomplished in substantially less expensive missions. I will review the alternatives and provide an assessment of various architectures and what they can accomplish. These alternatives will include using JWST as the telescope, using small dedicated telescopes, and using smaller starshades.

  5. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Stork, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. Thailand has continued to work to promote increased consumption of gasohol especially for highethanol content fuels like E85. The government has confirmed its effort to draw up incentives for auto makers to invest in manufacturing E85-compatible vehicles in the country. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels.

  6. Phase transitions in an alternating superlattice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Saber; A. Ainane; K. Bärner

    2007-01-01

    Within the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self spin correlation functions, we examine the phase transition properties of a ferroelectric superlattice with two alternating layers A and B described by a transverse spin-1\\/2 Ising model. The equations that determine the Curie temperature Tc and the polarization have been obtained. The effects of the

  7. THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS

    E-print Network

    Lackenby, Marc

    THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS MARC LACKENBY with an appendix by Ian Agol of a knot complement to the knot's more basic topological properties. In this paper, we will do is the following rather surprising result, which asserts that the link complement's hyperbolic volume is, up

  8. Students' Alternate Conceptions on Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Hanqing; Henriques, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Knowing what students bring to the classroom can and should influence how we teach them. This study is a review of the literature associated with secondary and postsecondary students' ideas about acids and bases. It was found that there are six types of alternate ideas about acids and bases that students hold. These are: macroscopic properties of…

  9. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  10. Alternative energy technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Dresselhaus; I. L. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Fossil fuels currently supply most of the world's energy needs, and however unacceptable their long-term consequences, the supplies are likely to remain adequate for the next few generations. Scientists and policy makers must make use of this period of grace to assess alternative sources of energy and determine what is scientifically possible, environmentally acceptable and technologically promising.

  11. Environment and Alternative Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Rajni

    Stressing the global dimension to the adversary relationship between economic development and environmental conservation, this monograph examines the philosophical, historical, cultural, and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology. In addition, the monograph spells out policy implications of an alternative concept of development and…

  12. Alternatives in solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  13. Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Jan A.

    Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

  14. Alternative Medicine: A \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan P. Vandenbroucke; Anton J. M. de Craen

    2001-01-01

    A reflection on the scientific behavior of adherents of conventional medicine toward one form of alternative medicine—homeopa- thy—teaches us that physicians do reject seemingly solid evidence because it is not compatible with theory. Further reflection, how- ever, shows that physicians do the same within conventional medical science: Sometimes they discard a theory because of new facts, but at other times

  15. Superconducting alternating current cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kafka

    1971-01-01

    A superconducting alternating current cable has a space for conducting a fluid of insulating helium and a carrier member for conducting a fluid of cooling helium. The carrier member maintains the insulating helium separate from the cooling helium, the insulating helium being kept at a pressure different from that of the cooling helium.

  16. Compensated pulsed alternator

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX); Driga, Mircea D. (Austin, TX); Woodson, Herbert H. (Austin, TX)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

  17. Compensated pulsed alternator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Weldon; M. D. Driga; H. H. Woodson

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the

  18. Compensated pulsed alternator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Weldon; M. D. Driga; H. H. Woodson

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the

  19. Alternative Security Metrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Bayuk

    2011-01-01

    Today's security metrics support management practices rather than measure system capability to withstand attacks. This eliminates consideration of security features that are not currently used to manage systems as the basis for security metrics. Rather than judge security metrics by a utility standard with respect to current security management practices, they should instead be appreciated for proposing alternatives ways to

  20. Alternatives for Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBlois, Robert; Place, Patti

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about two alternative schools that have adapted to be a better fit for at-risk students than a comprehensive middle or high school might be. It is easy to suggest that an increase in the dropout rate is merely a natural result of the recent preoccupation with test scores. Whatever truth there may be to this, educators must still…

  1. Fuel Alternatives to Gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demirbas

    2007-01-01

    Almost all motor vehicles today are powered by either gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The main alternative fuels include vegetable oil degradation products, alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, and electricity. Methanol and

  2. PEAT: an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Schora, F.C.; Punwani, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    Even though peat is a low-heating value and low-bulk density fossil fuel which in its natural state contains over 80 percent moisture, it can be an economical alternative to coal, and fuel oil, as is the case in Iceland and Finland for direct combustion applications. This is because of the relative ease with which peat can be harvested, and the generally low sulfur and ash content of peat. Recent studies show that peat also has very favorable characteristics for conversion to synthetic fuels. Tests show that on the basis of chemistry and kinetics, peat is a better raw material than coal for production of synthetic fuels. Recent estimates also show that conversion of peat to high-Btu gas (>950 Btu/scf) is competitive with other alternatives of synthetic high-Btu gas. Therefore, peat can be an economical energy alternative depending upon location of peat deposits, region of energy need, scale of operation and cost of other energy alternatives.

  3. One Institution: Six Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Winthrop R.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    This expanded issue of the Research Review examines six alternatives to current patterns in the community college. In the first article, the authors offer guidelines for formulating institution-building capabilities, developing curricula, and designing a Personal Development program according to a Life Skills Education model. The second paper…

  4. ALTERNATIVE SEWER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of design and operational aspects for two popular alternative sewering techniques, i.e., pressure and small-diameter gravity sewers, was performed. The results provided insights useful to designers of these systems with regard to sulfide concentrations in these sewe...

  5. Publishing: Alternatives and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penchansky, Mimi; And Others

    The Library Association of the City University of New York presents an annotated bibliography on the subject of small and alternative publishing. In the first section directories, indexes, catalogs, and reviews are briefly described. Book distributors for small publishers are listed next. The major portion of the bibliography is a listing of books…

  6. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  7. Archive Storage Media Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    Reviews requirements for a data archive system and describes storage media alternatives that are currently available. Topics discussed include data storage; data distribution; hierarchical storage architecture, including inline storage, online storage, nearline storage, and offline storage; magnetic disks; optical disks; conventional magnetic…

  8. Characteristics of Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Marcia

    1985-01-01

    Alternative secondary schools were placed in separate groups based on patterns of organizational variables including goals, instructional features, size, sources of funding, and target school population. Distinct patterns of student perceptions of their school learning environment seem to be associated with identifiable patters of organizational…

  9. Alternative gaseous fuels safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M.C.; Laquer, H.L.; Peaslee, A.T.

    1983-12-01

    Public acceptance of alternative transportation fuels in the United States is contingent not only upon the requisite technical, environmental, and economic factors but also upon demonstration through adequate assessment, testing, and operational experience that the intrinsic risk is either equivalent to or less than that associated with energy carriers presently in common use. In support of work sponsored by the Office of Vehicle and Engine R and D of the Department of Energy, a relative safety assessment of alternative gaseous and reference liquid fuels utilized for light automotive transportation in the public sector was completed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG); liquefied natural gas (LNG); liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); and the liquid fuels, gasoline and diesel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. A technique involving a method of eliciting expert judgment combined with a comparative scoring methodology was applied in establishing fuel relative safety rankings.

  10. Deployable antennae design alternatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Frisch; L. Heichele; W. Nagl; H. Popp; W. Schaefer

    1975-01-01

    To have a large spectrum of design and decision criteria, some RF configurations of microwave reflector antennas which seem to achieve the best RF properties, especially in a deployable configuration, are considered. Antenna concepts suitable for the 12 GHz range (high surface accuracy, low weight, and high stiffness) were considered. An RF configuration with about 3m diameter and 12 GHz

  11. Finding alternatives to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Allen, Heather K; Trachsel, Julian; Looft, Torey; Casey, Thomas A

    2014-09-01

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. As the rate of development of new antibiotics has severely declined, alternatives to antibiotics must be considered in both animal agriculture and human medicine. Products for disease prevention are different from those for disease treatment, and examples of both are discussed here. For example, modulating the gut microbial community, either through feed additives or fecal transplantation, could be a promising way to prevent certain diseases; for disease treatment, non-antibiotic approaches include phage therapy, phage lysins, bacteriocins, and predatory bacteria. Interestingly, several of these methods augment antibiotic efficacy by improving bacterial killing and decreasing antibiotic resistance selection. Because bacteria can ultimately evolve resistance to almost any therapeutic agent, it is important to continue to use both antibiotics and their alternatives judiciously. PMID:24953233

  12. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Nathanael; Aliev, Ali; Baughman, Ray

    2015-03-01

    There is a large promise for thermophones in high power sonar arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding aerogel-like carbon nanotube sheets demonstrate the best performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large size freestanding carbon nanotube sheets and other even more exotic materials published recently, hampers the field. We present here new alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly and cost effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanoscale materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed.

  13. Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

    Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

  14. Alternative isotope enrichment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative processes such as gas centrifugation, plasma separation, and laser excited separation are evaluated for use at the ORNL Stable Isotope Enrichment Facility. The applicabiliy of each process to the isotopic enrichment of the calutron feed material and to the selective production of isotopes is determined. The process energy demands are compared to those of the existing facilities. The isotopic enrichment of the feed material prior to a first-pass through the calutrons can result in a significant saving in energy.

  15. Alternative activation of macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siamon Gordon

    2003-01-01

    The classical pathway of interferon-?-dependent activation of macrophages by T helper 1 (TH1)-type responses is a well-established feature of cellular immunity to infection with intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV. The concept of an alternative pathway of macrophage activation by the TH2-type cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 has gained credence in the past decade, to account for a

  16. Description of alternative strategies

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy vision 2020 draft report describes TVA`s final seven alternative strategies developed through the integration process and the reference, or `No Action` strategy. In addition, the general features of the strategies that distinguish them from one another are described. As a result of the integration process described in the preceeding section, most of the strategies are very similar are very similar and differences in their environmental performance are relatively small.

  17. Alternative Assessment Techniques

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This excerpt from Reading Teacher's Book of Lists describes alternative ways to assess students, including using journals, portfolios, re-tellings, reading logs, and checklists. Descriptions of the best practices to use with any of these evaluation techniques and how to make the process work for both students and teachers are provided. This resource is aimed for use in the classroom and is intended for K-12 teachers.

  18. Intellectual Property Access Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reiko Aoki; Aaron Schiff

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares patent pools and intellectual property clearinghouses as alternative systems for increasing the efficiency of access to intellectual property. These systems improve economic efficiency in downstream research and development by economizing on search and transaction costs faced by potential licensees, and by mitigating externalities among owners of complementary intellectual property that lead to excessively high license

  19. Alternative futures lesson

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dan Zalles

    Alternative futures studies are a valuable yet resource-intensive way in which environmental scientists try to conduct informed debates about policies for specific geographic regions. These studies require modeling what the future would look like if different stakeholder groups had their way. The modeling is carried out by applying historical trend data to future projections that are rooted in the preferences of the different groups. Alternative future studies can be controversial due to the limitations of modeling and to the extent to which the models represent fully the different possible scenarios. Yet, they can be especially valuable for decision making about which areas in the region would be most appropriate and most acceptable for the applications of different policies such as development and restoration. Through a series of hands-on classroom activities that are the culmination of a variety of field trips, case studies, and analyses of GIS data about river systems and river restoration options, the students build deep understanding about what alternative futures studies entail and what are the applications of such studies to specific rivers in the Puget Sound area.

  20. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  1. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  2. Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Khaw; Sharon L. Kolasinski

    • Complementary and alternative medicine encompasses a wide array of interventions, including diets, dietary supplements,\\u000a and herbal products.\\u000a \\u000a • Scientific evidence does not support a substantial role of special diets in the treatment of the majority of patients with\\u000a rheumatic disease, but various dietary manipulations may be beneficial when combined with standard medical therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • Long-term safety of dietary and

  3. Alternatives to amputation.

    PubMed Central

    Lendrum, J.

    1980-01-01

    Alternatives to conventional skin flap cover for limb wounds extend both the number and type of defects which can now be closed with reconstruction of both form and function for patients who might otherwise come to amputation. The old adage that where a sinus leads to dead or foreign material it can only be closed after removal of that dead or foreign material is no longer true. The number of patients coming to above-knee amputation after prosthetic replacement of the knee joint could be reduced by muscle flap cover of exposed arthroplasty prostheses. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7377695

  4. Alternative and complementary therapies.

    PubMed

    Breuner, Cora Collette

    2006-10-01

    The field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is broad and diverse, comprising numerous therapeutic modalities. CAM therapies are viewed as either an adjunct or a complement to conventional treatment. As of 1997, 64% of United States medical schools included elective or required CAM courses. The number of CAM practitioners in the United States is projected to increase by 88% between 1994 and 2010, and the number of conventional physicians who incorporate CAM into their practices will increase by 16%. Patients and their parents can make various health care choices; doctors need to understand and respect these options, and to support them, if safe and effective. PMID:17030278

  5. Review of alternative fuels data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the interaction of fuel physical and chemical properties with combustion characteristics and indicators, a ranking of the importance of various fuel properties with respect to the combustion process was established. This ranking was used to define a suite of specific experiments whose objective is the development of an alternative fuels design data base. Combustion characteristics and indicators examined include droplet and spray formation, droplet vaporization and burning, ignition and flame stabilization, flame temperature, laminar flame speed, combustion completion, soot emissions, NOx and SOx emissions, and the fuels' thermal and oxidative stability and fouling and corrosion characteristics. Key fuel property data is found to include composition, thermochemical data, chemical kinetic rate information, and certain physical properties.

  6. 35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION

    E-print Network

    35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California Chapter 4 ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION FUELS IN CALIFORNIA INTRODUCTION The introduction of alternative fuels into California's transportation market has supply at low prices. But, with an uncertain long-term future for oil supplies and prices, alternative

  7. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Ali E; Mayo, Nathanael K; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Robles, Raquel O; Fang, Shaoli; Baughman, Ray H; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yongsheng; Lee, Jae Ah; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-05-26

    Thermophones are highly promising for applications such as high-power SONAR arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets provide the most attractive performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large-size freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets and other even more exotic materials recently investigated hampers the field. We describe alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high-energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanostructured materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. We demonstrate that the heat capacity of aerogel-like nanostructures can be extracted by a thorough analysis of the sound pressure spectra. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high-power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed. PMID:25748853

  8. Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Mg((x))Zn((1 - x))Fe2O4 ferrites prepared by polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods: a low-toxicity alternative to Ni((x))Zn((1 - x))Fe2O4 ferrites.

    PubMed

    Daigle, A; Modest, J; Geiler, A L; Gillette, S; Chen, Y; Geiler, M; Hu, B; Kim, S; Stopher, K; Vittoria, C; Harris, V G

    2011-07-29

    The synthesis and properties of Mg((x))Zn((1 - x))Fe(2)O(4) spinel ferrites as a low-toxicity alternative to the technologically significant Ni((x))Zn((1 - x))Fe(2)O(4) ferrites are reported. Ferrite nanoparticles have been formed through both the polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods that can be readily adapted to industrial scale synthesis to satisfy the demand of a variety of commercial applications. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Mg((x))Zn((1 - x))Fe(2)O(4) were studied as a function of composition and particle size. Scanning electron microscopy images show particles synthesised by the aqueous co-precipitation method possess a broad size distribution (i.e. ? 80-120 nm) with an average diameter of the order of 100 nm ± 20 nm and could be produced in high process yields of up to 25 g l(-1). In contrast, particles synthesised by the polyol-based co-precipitation method possess a narrower size distribution with an average diameter in the 30 nm ± 5 nm range but are limited to smaller yields of ? 6 g l(-1). Furthermore, the polyol synthesis method was shown to control average particle size by varying the length of the glycol surfactant chain. Particles prepared by both methods are compared with respect to their phase purity, crystal structure, morphology, magnetic properties and microwave properties. PMID:21719975

  9. Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Mg(x) Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites prepared by polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods: a low-toxicity alternative to Ni(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, A.; Modest, J.; Geiler, A. L.; Gillette, S.; Chen, Y.; Geiler, M.; Hu, B.; Kim, S.; Stopher, K.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.

    2011-07-01

    The synthesis and properties of Mg(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 spinel ferrites as a low-toxicity alternative to the technologically significant Ni(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 ferrites are reported. Ferrite nanoparticles have been formed through both the polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods that can be readily adapted to industrial scale synthesis to satisfy the demand of a variety of commercial applications. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Mg(x)Zn(1 - x)Fe2O4 were studied as a function of composition and particle size. Scanning electron microscopy images show particles synthesised by the aqueous co-precipitation method possess a broad size distribution (i.e. ~ 80-120 nm) with an average diameter of the order of 100 nm ± 20 nm and could be produced in high process yields of up to 25 g l - 1. In contrast, particles synthesised by the polyol-based co-precipitation method possess a narrower size distribution with an average diameter in the 30 nm ± 5 nm range but are limited to smaller yields of ~ 6 g l - 1. Furthermore, the polyol synthesis method was shown to control average particle size by varying the length of the glycol surfactant chain. Particles prepared by both methods are compared with respect to their phase purity, crystal structure, morphology, magnetic properties and microwave properties.

  10. Transport properties of CF3I thermal plasmas mixed with CO2, air or N2 as an alternative to SF6 plasmas in high-voltage circuit breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Y.; Connord, V.; Hingana, H.; Teulet, Ph; Gleizes, A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper is devoted to the calculation of equilibrium compositions, thermodynamic properties (mass density, enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure) and transport coefficients (viscosity, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity) of air/CO2/N2-CF3I mixtures. These data are computed in the temperature range 300 K-50 kK and pressure between 1 and 32 bar. Results obtained for pure gases (CF3I, CO2, air and N2) are systematically compared with SF6. Transport coefficients for N2, CO2, CF3I and mixtures of CO2, N2 or air with CF3I are also confronted with previous published values. Particular attention is paid to the collision integral database by the use of the most accurate and recent cross-sections or interaction potentials available in the literature.

  11. Alternative Energy COLLEGE of ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Alternative Energy technology COLLEGE of ENGINEERING AlternativeEnergyTechnologyProgram Collegeof program and alternative energy technology master's degree program t One of 23 U.S. PACE institutions to a alternative energy technology degree. The EDGE program trains engineering students in the entrepreneurial

  12. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. R.

    1984-03-01

    This paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun.

  13. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  14. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATING IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. his study was ini...

  15. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  16. Alternative Fuels Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Nakley, Leah M.; Yen, Chia H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn has invested over $1.5 million in engineering, and infrastructure upgrades to renovate an existing test facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), which is now being used as an Alternative Fuels Laboratory. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and thermal stability testing. This effort is supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing project. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale F-T catalyst screening experiments. These experiments require the use of a synthesis gas feedstock, which will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics, product yields and hydrocarbon distributions. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor for catalyst activation studies. Product gas composition and performance data can be continuously obtained with an automated gas sampling system, which directly connects the reactors to a micro-gas chromatograph (micro GC). Liquid and molten product samples are collected intermittently and are analyzed by injecting as a diluted sample into designated gas chromatograph units. The test facility also has the capability of performing thermal stability experiments of alternative aviation fuels with the use of a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) (Ref. 1) in accordance to ASTM D 3241 "Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels" (JFTOT method) (Ref. 2). An Ellipsometer will be used to study fuel fouling thicknesses on heated tubes from the HLPS experiments. A detailed overview of the test facility systems and capabilities are described in this paper.

  17. Alternative alloys for resin-bonded retainers.

    PubMed

    Lawson, J R

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, resin-bonded fixed partial dentures have been made with nickel-chrome-beryllium alloys and cemented with conventional resin luting cements. However, alternative alloys for resin-bonded retainers offer improved physical and biocompatible properties, and resin-metal bond strengths twice that of traditional methods can be achieved. The superior bonds obtained with etched base metals bonded with adhesive resins and silica-coated alloys bonded with silane-coupling agents make these the most desirable techniques available. PMID:2033556

  18. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  19. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival. PMID:3300300

  20. Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory of Michigan State University is on the cutting edge of pest control in the Upper Midwest, whether on agricultural or non-agricultural lands, public or private. Visitors interested in seeing the pesky adversaries of the lab, should click on "Bugs of The Lab", on the left hand side of the page, then click on the subcategory "Research Subjects". Along with photos of a dozen pests, including the "Plum Curculio", "Mites", and the "Oblique-Banded Leaf Roller", visitors can read a description of the pest, learn about and see images of the damage they do to specific crops, and discover where they are found on the plant. The Resistant Pest management Newsletter section on the left-hand side of the page has numerous subsections that should be of interest to visitors. Visitors can "Subscribe to the Newsletter" and peruse "Archives of Past Issues". Also interesting is the "Ask an Expert About Resistance Issues" section, which lists ten regions of the earth, and when one of the regions is clicked on, several experts' names pop up with their area of expertise, e-mail, and location. Additionally, anyone who is an expert and qualified, but is not on the list, may have their name added after filling out the "Expert Application", available on the "Ask an Expert..." homepage. All of the experts are volunteers.

  1. Alternative Excision Repair Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Alternative excision repair (AER) is a category of excision repair initiated by a single nick, made by an endonuclease, near the site of DNA damage, and followed by excision of the damaged DNA, repair synthesis, and ligation. The ultraviolet (UV) damage endonuclease in fungi and bacteria introduces a nick immediately 5? to various types of UV damage and initiates its excision repair that is independent of nucleotide excision repair (NER). Endo IV-type apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases from Escherichia coli and yeast and human Exo III-type AP endonuclease APEX1 introduce a nick directly and immediately 5? to various types of oxidative base damage besides the AP site, initiating excision repair. Another endonuclease, endonuclease V from bacteria to humans, binds deaminated bases and cleaves the phosphodiester bond located 1 nucleotide 3? of the base, leading to excision repair. A single-strand break in DNA is one of the most frequent types of DNA damage within cells and is repaired efficiently. AER makes use of such repair capability of single-strand breaks, removes DNA damage, and has an important role in complementing BER and NER. PMID:23645854

  2. Alternative Constructions Alternative Constructions of Science and Science Education

    E-print Network

    Cobern, William W.

    Alternative Constructions Alternative Constructions of Science and Science Education A plenary presentation for the second annual Southern Africa Association for Mathematics and Science Education Research of Science Education Department of Teaching, Learning & Leadership Western Michigan University 2112 Sangren

  3. Alternating gradient photodetector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overhauser, Albert W. (inventor); Maserjian, Joseph (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A far infrared (FIR) range responsive photodetector is disclosed. There is a substrate of degenerate germanium. A plurality of alternating impurity-band and high resistivity layers of germanium are disposed on the substrate. The impurity-band layers have a doping concentration therein sufficiently high to include donor bands which can release electrons upon impingement by FIR photons of energy hv greater than an energy gap epsilon. The high resistivity layers have a doping concentration therein sufficiently low as to not include conducting donor bands and are depleted of electrons. Metal contacts are provided for applying an electrical field across the substrate and the plurality of layers. In the preferred embodiment as shown, the substrate is degenerate n-type (N++) germanium; the impurity-band layers are n+ layers of germanium doped to approximately the low 10(exp 16)/cu cm range; and, the high resistivity layers are n-layers of germanium doped to a maximum of approximately 10(exp)/cu cm. Additionally, the impurity-band layers have a thickness less than a conduction-electron diffusion length in germanium and likely to be in the range of 0.1 to 1.0 micron, the plurality of impurity-bands is of a number such that the flux of FIR photons passing therethrough will be substantially totally absorbed therein, the thickness of the high resistivity layers is such compared to the voltage applied that the voltage drop in each the high resistivity layers controls the occurence of impact ionization in the impurity-band layers to a desired level.

  4. Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators

    E-print Network

    Tang, Sai Chun

    Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

  5. Segmental alternations and metrical theory

    E-print Network

    Vaysman, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on phonological alternations that are influenced or constrained by word-internal prosody, i.e. prominence and foot structure, and what these alternations can tell us about metrical theory. Detailed ...

  6. Evaluating dredged material placement alternatives

    E-print Network

    Wooters, Kelly Lynne

    1989-01-01

    pinnata Glyclnde solitaria 4. 3. 2 Summary of results The Chocolate Bay alternatives with their feasibility ratings are listed in Table 4. 6. The assessments for each disposal option are listed in Appendix A. 5. Each alternative has a qualitative...

  7. Alternatives for Jet Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, R. J.; Sain, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Approaches are developed as alternatives to current design methods which rely heavily on linear quadratic and Riccati equation methods. The main alternatives are discussed in two broad categories, local multivariable frequency domain methods and global nonlinear optimal methods.

  8. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY College of Engineering

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY College of Engineering eng.wayne.edu STEERING YOUR WAY INTO A HIGH or registration questions, call (313) 577-3716 or e-mail aet@wayne.edu. Alternative Energy Technology College Energy Technology (AET) curriculum is designed to be a premier program in alternative energy research

  9. Alternative Schools. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This article examines so-called "alternative schools," taking care to define precisely what is meant by this designation. There are many types of alternative education available to the public, including those programs intended for special-education students, advanced-placement students, and home-schooled children. The first alternative schools…

  10. Comparative energies of alternative fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Goodger

    1978-01-01

    In order to provide additional design data on candidate alternative fuels, a broad comparison is made of the net calorific values of a wide variety of gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, including a number of alternatives of current interest, against a background of conventional fuels, some of which may have alternative applications. In general, higher gravimetric calorific values are shown

  11. ASD: the Alternative Splicing Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj; Stefan Stamm; Francis Clark; Jean-jack M. Riethoven; Vincent Le Texier; Juha Muilu

    2004-01-01

    Alternative splicing is widespread in mammalian gene expression, and variant splice patterns are often specific to different stages of development, particular tissues or a disease state. There is a need to systematically collect data on alternatively spliced exons, introns and splice isoforms, and to annotate this data. The Alternative Splicing Database consortium has been addressing this need, and is committed

  12. Alternative display and interaction devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolas, M. T.; McDowall, I. E.; Mead, R. X.; Lorimer, E. R.; Hackbush, J. E.; Greuel, C.

    1995-01-01

    While virtual environment systems are typically thought to consist of a head mounted display and a flex-sensing glove, alternative peripheral devices are beginning to be developed in response to application requirements. Three such alternatives are discussed: fingertip sensing gloves, fixed stereoscopic viewers, and counterbalanced head mounted displays. A subset of commercial examples that highlight each alternative is presented as well as a brief discussion of interesting engineering and implementation issues.

  13. Introduction to Alternative and Renewable Energy: Alternative Energy- New Directions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This module is intended for use in a college-level introductory course in alternative and renewable energy. The document covers new directions for alternative energy such as thermoacoustics, thermoelectrics, magnetocalorics, sun heat thermochemical storage, liquid metal batteris and fusion. Each technology is described in depth and useful graphics are included to illustrate the material. This module may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  14. Alternative Certification: Aspirations and Realities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fouad Abd-El-Khalick

    2006-01-01

    Although the number of alternative programs is ever increasing, shortages in the number of qualified science teachers continue. These programs have not solved the teacher shortage problem alone, but they should not bear full responsibility. Numerous societal and financial reasons make teaching a less desirable profession. The more contentious issue is whether alternative programs prepare qualified teachers or, in terms of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), "highly qualified" teachers. Initially, the authors believed that alternative programs did not produce competent teachers when they started their review. However, the limited research appears to indicate otherwise. This chapter discusses the aspirations and realities of alternative certification.

  15. Analysis of the alternating current properties of ionic conductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Jonscher

    1978-01-01

    A method of analysis of inclined semicircular complex impedance (Z) diagrams for ionic conductors has been developed on the basis of the concept of “non-Debye” behaviour of solid dielectrics. This approach replaces the rather arbitrary distribution of relaxation times by the physically much simpler concept of a frequency-independent ratio of energy lost per cycle to energy stored. This criterion of

  16. Effect of alternative aging and accident simulations on polymer properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Bustard; J. Chenion; F. Carlin; C. Alba; G. Gaussens; M. LeMeur

    1985-01-01

    The influence of accident irradiation, steam, and chemical spray exposures on the behavior of twenty-three age-preconditioned polymer sample sets (twenty-one different materials) has been investigated. The test program varied the following conditions: (1) Accident simulations of irradiation and thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) conditions were performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (2) Accident thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) exposures were performed

  17. Alternating current electrokinetic properties of gold-coated microspheres.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Pablo; Ren, Yukun; Arcenegui, Juan J; Morgan, Hywel; Ramos, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    We present dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrorotation (ROT) measurements of gold-coated polystyrene microspheres as a function of frequency and for several electrolyte conductivities. Particle rotation was counterfield with a maximum rotation rate observed at a single characteristic frequency. Negative DEP was observed for frequencies lower than this characteristic frequency and positive DEP for signal frequencies higher than this. These experimental observations are in agreement with predictions for the force and torque on the induced dipole of a perfectly polarizable metal sphere. We present a theoretical model for this case, and good agreement is found for both ROT and DEP measurements if we take into account the viscous friction for a spherical particle near a wall. From the characteristic frequency for rotation, we obtain the capacitance of the electrical double layer at the electrolyte-particle interface. Remarkably, no effect of induced charge electroosmosis around the particles can be inferred from DEP measurements. PMID:22931290

  18. Alternative carriers in dry powder inhaler formulations.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, Yahya; Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    The aerosolization efficiency of a powder is highly dependent on carrier characteristics, such as particle size distribution, shape and surface properties. The main objective in the inhalation field is to achieve a high and reproducible pulmonary deposition. This can be provided by successful carrier selection and careful process optimization for carrier modification. Lactose is the most common and frequently used carrier in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. But lactose shows some limitations in formulation with certain drugs and peptides that prohibit its usage as a carrier in DPI formulations. Here, we criticality review the most important alternative carriers to lactose with merits, demerits and applications in DPI formulations. PMID:24269834

  19. Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated Edison.www.gastechnology.org 2 #12;Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated-Battelle for the Department of Energy Subcontract Number: 4000052360 GTI Project Number: 20441 New York State Energy Research

  20. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  1. Alternate approaches to cryogenic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, W.; Devilliers, A.; Kappesser, R.

    1983-07-01

    Cryogenic cooling techniques for spaceborne infrared detectors are surveyed, and reason found to explore alternatives. An alternative class of cooling cycles is defined, and four practical cycles described. A general overview of operating efficiency for the whole class is developed. One of these cycles, the isobaric absorption cycle (Servel cycle), is explored in some detail.

  2. Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    1998-01-01

    Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

  3. Curricular Implications of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane; Flowers, Claudia; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn; Karvonen, Meagan; Spooner, Fred; Algozzine, Robert

    The 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) required that states provide alternate assessments for students unable to participate in the statewide assessment systems (e.g., those with severe disabilities). IDEA mandated that alternate assessments access the general curriculum. This study examined the curricular…

  4. Educational Alternatives for Marginalised Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Riele, Kitty

    2007-01-01

    In the context of pressure to increase retention rates a wide variety of alternative educational programs has developed in Australia over the past few decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a map of the alternative education landscape for marginalised youth in New South Wales, in order to reduce confusion and enable communication between…

  5. Bioalcohols as Alternatives to Gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demirbas

    2009-01-01

    Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The four major constituent groups of gasoline are olefins, aromatics, paraffins, and napthenes. The main alternative fuels include alcohol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity for operation gasoline-type vehicles. Ethanol and methanol are biofuels that provide alternatives to gasoline. Bioethanol is

  6. Experimental performance of ozone-safe alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Nowak, R.J. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (US))

    1990-01-01

    Several compounds proposed as near-term or longer range substitutes for the regulated chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants were tested in a breadboard vapor-compression circuit, and their performance was evaluated relative to more commonly used refrigerants. The limited physical property information available in the literature for these alternative compounds was used to fit an equation of state so coefficients of performance (COP) and capacities calculated from refrigerant property subroutines could be compared to those obtained experimentally. Comparisons of measured and modeled performance are given for 11 alternatives and for R22, R12, ad R11 Estimates of compressor efficiency with each refrigerant are provided. Several of the alternatives exhibited better performance than the more widely used refrigerants at some or all of the conditions tested. Ozone-safe, alternative refrigerants that performed better than CFC counterparts-at selected conditions are R152a, R143a, R134a, and R142b.

  7. Alternative Wnt Pathways and Receptors

    PubMed Central

    van Amerongen, Renée

    2012-01-01

    In addition to activating ?-catenin/TCF transcriptional complexes, Wnt proteins can elicit a variety of other responses. These are often lumped together under the denominator “alternative” or “non-canonical” Wnt signaling, but they likely comprise distinct signaling events. In this article, I discuss how the use of different ligand and receptor combinations is thought to give rise to these alternative Wnt-signaling responses. Although many of the biochemical details remain to be resolved, it is evident that alternative Wnt signaling plays important roles in regulating tissue morphogenesis during embryonic development. PMID:22935904

  8. Neuronal Signaling through Alternative Splicing: Some Exons CaRRE...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kevin J. O'Donovan (The Rockefeller University; Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV)

    2001-08-07

    Alternative splicing represents a mechanism by which a single gene can be used to create proteins with different functions. Neurons use alternative splicing to produce channels with different sequences and biophysical or regulatory properties. O'Donovan and Darnell discuss a mechanism by which neurons can alter channel splicing in response to neuronal activity through a signal generated by calcium and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase activity.

  9. New Technology and Energy Alternatives 

    E-print Network

    Lamphere, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses cogeneration, peak shaving, interruptible power and "on-site" generation as alternatives to purchasing traditional electrical power. Equipment used and case histories, including economics of the industrial installations...

  10. Making Room for Alternative Routes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tell, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Describes several models for fast-track alternative training programs for new and second-career teachers and principals, especially for teaching positions in disadvantaged urban schools. Teach for American program is highlighted. (PKP)

  11. SAGE--SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE does not recommend any ozone depleting chemicals. SAGE was developed by the Surface Cleaning Program at Research Triang...

  12. Alternating Permutations Richard P. Stanley

    E-print Network

    > a 3 · · · . En = #{w # S n : w is alternating}. E.g., E 4 = 5: 2143, 3142, 3241, 4132, 4231 2 # 2y # = 1 + y 2 , etc. 5 #12; # more sophisticated approaches. E.g., let f k (n) = #{w # S n : wAlternating Permutations Richard P. Stanley M.I.T. 1 #12; A sequence a 1 , a 2 , . . . , a k

  13. Correlated Knowledge Gradients: Example alternatives

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Correlated Knowledge Gradients: Example -4 -2 0 2 4 alternatives value 0 10 20 30 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0;Correlated Knowledge Gradients: Example -4 -2 0 2 4 alternatives value 0 10 20 30 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 num measurements log(KGfactor) 0 10 20 30 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 num measurements opportunitycost #12;Correlated Knowledge

  14. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

  15. State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State

    DOE Data Explorer

    This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

  16. Understanding the Pros and Cons of Alternative Routes to Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the historical context and an overview of alternative teacher certification (ATC). Common properties include: states have installed various forms of ATC since the early 1980s, people who enter teaching via alternate routes are usually self-selecting, and alternative programs include an intern/mentor relationship between candidates and…

  17. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  18. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    SciTech Connect

    Juenger, M.C.G., E-mail: mjuenger@mail.utexas.edu [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C 1748, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Winnefeld, F. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Provis, J.L. [University of Melbourne, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ideker, J.H. [Oregon State University, School of Civil and Construction Engineering, 220 Owen Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  19. The Alternative School: A Strategy for Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Ann; Griffin, Gary A.

    This paper examines three areas of alternative education: (1) In what ways, and for whom, are alternative schools alternative? (2) What appear to be the unanticipated consequences of the creation of alternative schools? (3) Can the creation of alternative schols be considered a change strategy? The authors compare the ideals of alternative

  20. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  1. Multipebble Simulations for Alternating Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Lorenzo; Mayr, Richard

    We study generalized simulation relations for alternating Büchi automata (ABA), as well as alternating finite automata. Having multiple pebbles allows the Duplicator to "hedge her bets" and delay decisions in the simulation game, thus yielding a coarser simulation relation. We define (k 1,k 2)-simulations, with k 1/k 2 pebbles on the left/right, respectively. This generalizes previous work on ordinary simulation (i.e., (1,1)-simulation) for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA)[4] in and ABA in [5], and (1,k)-simulation for NBA in [3].

  2. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  3. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    SciTech Connect

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  4. Rechargeable lithium battery anodes: alternatives to metallic lithium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fauteux; R. Koksbang

    1993-01-01

    This review is concerned with alternatives to metallic lithium for use in rechargeable lithium batteries. Emphasis is placed on the use of various materials and combinations of materials in different types of electrodes rather than on the properties of the materials themselves. The review includes carbon based electrodes, alloys, conducting polymers and transition metal compounds. Special consideration is given to

  5. Linear Rank Statisics For The Orderes Alternatives Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Fairley; Michael Higner

    1987-01-01

    Linear rank statistics for the ordered alternatives prblem are considered. Pitman efficiencies between several procedures are studied. A new minimax procedure is suggested and shown to have good efficiency propertieds. Additionally, it is the only considered with relative efficiency bounded away from zero

  6. NEW CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVES FOR THE PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study that focused on the investigation of fluorinated derivatives of propane and butane to determine if synthesis routes of such compounds were feasible and economical and to measure the physical properties needed to evaluate the compounds as altern...

  7. Fundamental limitations and design considerations for compensated pulsed alternators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Weldon; W. L. Bird; M. D. Driga; K. M. Tolk; H. G. Rylander; H. H. Woodson

    1979-01-01

    Fundamental limitations imposed on the design of a compensated pulsed alternator by the mechanical, thermal, magnetic, and electrical properties of the materials used are discussed. Based on these limitations, power and energy available from such a machine are calculated as functions of machine dimensions. New design approaches are suggested, which extend the operating limits of a compulsator concept.

  8. Ashac: An alternative towards classifying the shape of aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariffuddin Joret; M. Subhi Al-Batah; Ahmad Nazri Ali; Nor Ashidi Mat Isa; Muhammad Suhaimi Sulong

    2007-01-01

    A number of image analysis applications are already available to classify the shape of aggregate. These applications were evaluated and compared with our new alternative application called aggregate shape classification system (ASHAC). This newly developed direct measurement methods have the potential to objectively classify two types of aggregate known as well-shaped (fine) aggregate and poor-shaped (coarse) aggregate. The shape properties

  9. Mercury usage and alternatives in the electrical and electronics industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Sass; M. A. Salem; L. A. Smith

    1994-01-01

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. The study was initiated to identify source reduction and recycling options for mercury in the electrical and electronics industry (SIC 36) and measurement and control

  10. Alternative Nuclear Paths To 2050

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Vera; Evelyne Bertel; Geoffrey Stevens

    he circumstances surrounding nuclear power worldwide and the importance that may be given to issues affecting its future development point toward very different alternative paths over the next 50 years. Economic deregulation, lack of competitiveness in some countries, negative public perception and concerns about waste issues suggest that nuclear power might decrease progressively with a potential phase-out of the technology

  11. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  12. Alternative energy sources. Part B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manassah

    1981-01-01

    This text has been assembled from the proceedings of the Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) that was held in Kuwait in February 1980. The focus of this symposium was to review and assess those technologies that presently complement and will most likely substitute in the future

  13. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches Alternatives for Jet Engine Control is reported. A numerical study employing feedback tensors for optimal control of nonlinear systems was completed. It is believed that these studies are the first of their kind. State regulation, with a decrease in control power is demonstrated. A detailed treatment follows.

  14. "Partial Vision" in Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ron

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the philosophies and pedagogies of Waldorf and Montessori schools points out that no single educational perspective can encompass all possibilities of human growth. Educators should attend to the "seed qualities" of alternative educational philosophies rather than their dogmas. A caring relationship between teachers and students is…

  15. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  16. Biotherapeutics as alternatives to antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing pressure to limit antibiotic use in agriculture is heightening the need for alternative methods to reduce the adverse effects of clinical and subclinical disease on livestock performance that are currently managed by in-feed antibiotic usage. Immunomodulators have long been sought as such...

  17. Alternative gaseous fuels safety assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Krupka; H. L. Laquer; A. T. Peaslee

    1983-01-01

    Public acceptance of alternative transportation fuels in the United States is contingent not only upon the requisite technical, environmental, and economic factors but also upon demonstration through adequate assessment, testing, and operational experience that the intrinsic risk is either equivalent to or less than that associated with energy carriers presently in common use. In support of work sponsored by the

  18. Socioeconomic impacts of alternative strategies

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the socioeconomic impacts of the alternative strategies listed in the previous section and describes the methodology used to calculate how these strategies affect economic development. The results of the analysis for each strategy are presented in terms of changes in income and employment compared with a base case reference or `no action` strategy.

  19. Plain Talk about Alternative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    Testing is a technology, a socially mediated, value-laden endeavor. Technologies embody trade-offs between what is desired and real-world constraints of cost, time, thought, and energy. Although alternative assessments offer exciting prospects for middle schools, these new forms must not be misused or naively accepted as defensible, consummate…

  20. Correspondence Alternative Splicing at NAGNAG

    E-print Network

    Will, Sebastian

    Correspondence Alternative Splicing at NAGNAG Acceptors: Simply Noise or Noise and More? Michael splicing at NAGNAGs mainly results in the insertion/deletion of one amino acid. While such subtle events noise tolerated by cells? Zavolan and colleagues [3,4] suggest that these variations are the result

  1. Alternative Locations for School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Glen I.

    1999-01-01

    School systems in urbanized or built-up areas have difficulties locating suitable sites for new buildings. Examples of the use of space in alternative locations include the Parkway Program in Philadelphia; the Work Place School in Alberta, Canada; the Metropolitan Learning Alliance in Minnesota; and the Schoolhouse Boat in Vienna, Austria. (MLF)

  2. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control, is reported. The principal new activities involved the initial testing of an input design method for choosing the inputs to a non-linear system to aid the approximation of its tensor parameters, and the beginning of order reduction studies designed to remove unnecessary monomials from tensor models.

  3. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control is reported. Extensive numerical testing is included. It is indicated that optimal inputs contribute significantly to the process of calculating tensor approximations for nonlinear systems, and that the resulting approximations may be order-reduced in a systematic way.

  4. Alternative Models for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, John G.

    Higher education is beset from all sides by criticism, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and prophecies of doom. While the young call for change, the faculty often resist anything that might reduce their privileges and prerogatives. Before alternative models to the present system of higher education can be considered, it is useful to question present…

  5. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  6. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  7. Alternating Current Corrosion of Aluminum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William French

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of ac corrosion of aluminum alloys has led to a proposed mechanism of attack based on local pH changes. A critical alternating current density of 0.5 ma\\/in2 has been defined below which no corrosion occurs. At higher current densities the corrosion is time dependent. Engineering design data is presented.

  8. Alternative Math Techniques Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard

    This guide contains a collection of alternative techniques for teaching arithmetic that have proved useful in teaching both children and adults with various learning problems. Discussed first are several underlying principles of instructing individuals with learning disabilities, problems, and differences and special accommodations for…

  9. Alternatives to Afrocentrism. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John J., Ed.

    The essays in this collection place the current Afrocentric movement in its historical context and offer alternative suggestions about how to teach African American students about their history. The first section deals with the roots of Afrocentrism, analyzes the content of Afrocentric books and curricula, and discusses the impact of Afrocentrism…

  10. Home Schooling: A Controversial Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffey, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Home schooling, an alternative involving about 1 million students annually, walks a fine line in an educational reform era. Home-schooling families have succeeded in establishing their constitutional right to educate their children and have proven their educational programs' legitimacy with achievement test results and with successful "graduates."…

  11. Alternate Energy from the Desert

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Malek

    2003-01-01

    Due to rapid growth of the world's population and more demands for energy, and due to limited amount of fossil fuels (which provide 95 % of the world's energy needs), harnessing of alternate energy sources such as solar and wind power should be considered. In addition to the mountain passes with usually high wind, vast and flat desert areas could

  12. 23 CFR 710.505 - Real property donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Real property donations. ...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. ...uncomplicated and the fair market value is estimated...

  13. 23 CFR 710.505 - Real property donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Real property donations. ...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. ...uncomplicated and the fair market value is estimated...

  14. 23 CFR 710.505 - Real property donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Real property donations. ...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. ...uncomplicated and the fair market value is estimated...

  15. 23 CFR 710.505 - Real property donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Real property donations. ...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. ...uncomplicated and the fair market value is estimated...

  16. 23 CFR 710.505 - Real property donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Real property donations. ...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. ...uncomplicated and the fair market value is estimated...

  17. Process Simulation and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Jatropha Curcas L. Seed Oil Extraction in Biodiesel Production

    E-print Network

    Chiou, Ming-Hao

    2012-10-19

    alternatives for conventional petro-diesel. Currently, hexane is still the most commonly used solvent for commercial oil extraction. However, the increasing price and flammability properties of hexane are motivating industry to seek alternative solvents...

  18. Insights into alternative splicing of sarcomeric genes in the heart.

    PubMed

    Weeland, Cornelis J; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Creemers, Esther E

    2015-04-01

    Driven by rapidly evolving technologies in next-generation sequencing, alternative splicing has emerged as a crucial layer in gene expression, greatly expanding protein diversity and governing complex biological processes in the cardiomyocyte. At the core of cardiac contraction, the physical properties of the sarcomere are carefully orchestrated through alternative splicing to fit the varying demands on the heart. By the recent discovery of RBM20 and RBM24, two major heart and skeletal muscle-restricted splicing factors, it became evident that alternative splicing events in the heart occur in regulated networks rather than in isolated events. Analysis of knockout mice of these splice factors has shed light on the importance of these fundamental processes in the heart. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role and regulation of alternative splicing in the developing and diseased heart, specifically within the sarcomere. Through various examples (titin, myomesin, troponin T, tropomyosin and LDB3) we illustrate how alternative splicing regulates the functional properties of the sarcomere. Finally, we evaluate opportunities and obstacles to modulate alternative splicing in therapeutic approaches for cardiac disease. PMID:25683494

  19. Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soil water flux will result in larger increases in soil- adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distribution of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading.

  20. Alternative gaseous-fuels safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M.C.; Peaslee, A.T. Jr.; Laquer, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    A relative safety assessment of alternative gaseous and reference liquid fuels utilized for light automotive transportation in the public sector was completed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and the liquid fuels, gasoline and diesel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. A technique involving a method of eliciting expert judgment combined with a comparative scoring methodology was applied in establishing fuel relative safety rankings. Limitations of this type of assessment are discussed. Selected accident scenarios included fuel leakage in both residential and public garages; fueling line rupture at a refueling station in the presence of user vehicles or delivery vehicles; and vehicle collisions under rural, urban, and vehicular tunnel conditions. Overall, the results obtained demonstrate dependency upon the specific application or scenario. Gaseous fuels have increased relative risks in certain situations and are relatively safe in others. The results suggest that alternative gaseous fuels are not disqualified for public usage. The assessment also provides rationale for the development of selected safe handling criteria and recommendations.

  1. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  2. Alternative administration of camptothecin analogues.

    PubMed

    Glaberman, Ursa; Rabinowitz, Ian; Verschraegen, Claire F

    2005-03-01

    In order to improve the therapeutic index of camptothecin (CPT) analogues, alternative administration of CPT analogues is being evaluated. Topotecan, irinotecan, rubitecan, lurtotecan and 9-aminocamptothecin have been administered orally with response rates equivalent to that seen after intravenous administration, where applicable. Oral availability and administration of some of the newer CPT analogues, including diflomotecan (BN80915) and grimatecan (ST1481), have also shown promising results. Aerosolisation of liposomal 9-nitrocamptothecin has been studied in patients with advanced malignancies involving the lung, demonstrating systemic antitumour activity. Intrathecal administration of topotecan has been studied in children with refractory neoplastic meningitis. It is well tolerated and associated with some antitumour activity. Intraperitoneal administration of topotecan as consolidation therapy in patients with ovarian cancer has shown promising results. Transdermal administration of rubitecan has been studied in mice. So far, no CPT has been approved for an alternative route of administration. PMID:16296757

  3. The Project on Defense Alternatives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Commonwealth Institute's Project on Defense Alternatives (PDA) "offers critical analysis of US [military] policy," promoting the "consideration of the broadest range of defense options" to devise and adapt national and international security policies in the post-Cold War era. The PDA's research and development activities include policy analysis and alternative policy development, as well as technical, historical, and methodological research. This Website provides access to the full text and abstracts of PDA briefing memos, reports, and monographs. The online publications are organized into four sections: US Defense Posture, Global & Regional Issues, Confidence Building Defense, and Opinion & Commentary. In addition, this searchable site provides organizational information, links to related military and defense Websites, and background and commentaries on the first US Quadrennial Defense Review issued by the US Department of Defense.

  4. Using versions of the trail making test as alternate forms.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Thomas M; Ryan, Jeanne P; Kryza, Maria; Charette, Laci M

    2011-10-01

    Alternate forms of neuropsychological instruments are often made parallel by developing tests with similar numbers of items, formats, and psychometric properties. The present study offers an alternative approach by examining three different trail-making tests that could potentially be used as alternate forms. Over a 3-week period, the Trail Making Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DK-TMT), Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), and Connections Task (CT) were individually administered to 154 undergraduate psychology students in each of six possible orders. Consistent with hypotheses, the three tests share the same underlying factors of sequencing and shifting as alternatives to one- and three-factor models; statistical evidence is provided to support that the two-factor solution is invariant regardless of test order. These findings support the notion that three different trail-making tests can be administered without discernable practice effects, increasing the flexibility of a serial neuropsychological assessment battery. PMID:21780990

  5. Alternate-fuel reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.R.

    1983-02-01

    A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a /sup 3/He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding.

  6. Hydrogen and transportation: alternative scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Difiglio; Dolf Gielen

    2007-01-01

    If hydrogen (H2) is to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and oil use, it needs to displace conventional transport fuels and be\\u000a produced in ways that do not generate significant greenhouse gas emissions. This paper analyses alternative ways H2 can be produced, transported and used to achieve these goals. Several H2 scenarios are developed and compared to each other. In

  7. Alternative approaches to epilepsy treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caitlin McElroy-Cox

    2009-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a diverse group of health care practices and products that fall outside the\\u000a realm of traditional Western medical theory and practice and that are used to complement or replace conventional medical therapies.\\u000a The use of CAM has increased over the past two decades, and surveys have shown that up to 44% of patients with

  8. Ambitious Philippine alternative energy plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-07

    The Philippines is to spend $5.4 billion over the next ten years for the development of alternative sources of energy. These would include the development of fuel woods and other biomass, and the commercialization of a coconut/diesel-oil fuel. It is hoped that the Philippines' dependence on imported oil will be reduced from about 80% today to around 50% by the end of the decade.

  9. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  10. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  11. Development of reuse alternatives for Naval Ordnance Station, Louisville, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, P.A.; Krenz, K. [Turner Collie and Braden, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Sloger, W. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Charleston, SC (United States). Southern Div.

    1997-08-01

    According to Council on Environmental Quality guidance the Alternatives Analysis section is the heart of the environmental impact statement. The closure of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Naval Ordnance Station (NOS), Louisville, Kentucky was mandated by Congress as a result of decisions of the 1995 Defense Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. The BRAC Commission specified that gun and weapons systems and other operations should be privatized on-site at NOS Louisville, if feasible. If the operations could not be privatized on-site, missions, equipment, and personnel would be transferred to other locations and the property would be excessed through normal federal property disposal methods. The decision to transfer the property to the local redevelopment authority (LRA) or other entity can not be made until the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process is completed. Currently, work has been privatized at NOS Louisville through interim lease of facilities, and contractor operation. The LRA developed one reuse plan, which was the preferred alternative for reuse of NOS Louisville. Constraints which influenced the alternatives development included: existing facilities on-base, zoning plans, adjacent land uses, and local development goals and objectives. The reuse alternatives also incorporated needs of the local community.

  12. Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Handbook 2013-2014 Gina Eagan, Graduate Program Coordinator Professor Matthew Yates, Director of Alternative Energy #12;University of Rochester Graduate Handbook Alternative Energy updated August, 2013 Department of Chemical Engineering Page

  13. Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Alternative Energy Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Handbook 2014-2015 Victoria Heberling, Graduate Program Coordinator Professor Matthew Yates, Director of Alternative Energy #12;University of Rochester Graduate Handbook Alternative Energy updated August, 2013 Department of Chemical

  14. 7 CFR 1250.332 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Alternate members. 1250.332 Section 1250.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...Egg Research and Promotion Order Egg Board § 1250.332 Alternate members. An alternate member of the...

  15. Alternative substrates to glass mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruch, Eric

    1993-10-01

    Traditionally glass represents the common choice for mirror substrates and the current development of new techniques such as glass ceramics, lightweighted blanks or honeycomb structures even increase the fields of application of glass mirrors. However, the research on alternative substrates for mirrors covers a large variety of materials: metals, silicon, silicon carbide, metal matrix, etc... This presentation concentrates on the machining, polishing and testing of aluminum mirrors to demonstrate that the optical performance of these substrates can be compared to the more classical glass mirrors.

  16. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  17. Advances in diver alternative systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, G.S.

    1983-03-01

    The basic design and selection of oil rig equipment offshore is greatly influenced by the ability to maintain and service such equipment as and when required. A critical analysis of underwater work systems was made and primary research and development conducted that has resulted in advanced new diver alternative systems. Two new systems, a one person one atmosphere microsubmersible, DEEP ROVER, and a robotic device, RIG ROVER, both equipped with newly developed sensory manipulator systems are described. These systems markedly improve work capability subsea and may influence future offshore developments, particularly in deep water.

  18. Factory Farms and Organic Alternatives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-08-31

    Modern farming has helped feed the world, but along the way, the land has suffered, according to this video adapted from the series Race to Save the Planet. When farmers grow too much too fast, topsoil is depleted. Farmers can work around this problem with fertilizers, irrigation, and pesticides, but these create new problems. Pesticides can harm wildlife, linger on fruits and vegetables, or wash into water supplies. Farmers are now finding new approaches to raising food, like diversifying crops, applying organic fertilizers, and finding alternatives to pesticides. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

  19. Alternative splicing and retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Melissa M.; Zack, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is highly regulated in tissue-specific and development-specific patterns, and it has been estimated that 15% of disease-causing point mutations affect pre-mRNA splicing. In this review, we consider the cis-acting splice site and trans-acting splicing factor mutations that affect pre-mRNA splicing and contribute to retinal degeneration. Numerous splice site mutations have been identified in retinitis pigmentosa and various cone-rod dystrophies. For example, mutations in alternatively spliced retina-specific exons of the widely expressed RPGR and COL2A1 genes lead primarily to X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and ocular variants of Stickler Syndrome, respectively. Furthermore, mutations in general pre-mRNA splicing factors, such as PRPF31, PRPF8, and PRPF3, predominantly cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. These findings suggest an important role for pre-mRNA splicing in retinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. The development of novel therapeutic strategies to modulate aberrant splicing, including small molecule based therapies, has the potential to lead to the development of new treatments for retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23647439

  20. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  1. Alternate nozzle ablative materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

  2. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. The areas covered were: (1) development of a theoretical expression for the rotating ring disk electrode technique; (2) determination of the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; (3) determination of oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoreomethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) which was considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and (4) the measurement of transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures.

  3. Academic Programs in Alternative Education: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzzi, Betsy Brown; Kraemer, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    This paper, second in a series of papers on alternative education, examines the academic programming in alternative education programs by reviewing the literature specifically focused on the academic programs in alternative education and summarizing a survey of fifteen alternative education programs. It suggests options for further research on…

  4. An alternative to Zoe's Law.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, James

    2015-03-01

    Under the criminal law of New South Wales, the destruction of a foetus (other than in the course of a medical procedure) constitutes grievous bodily harm to the pregnant woman. Charges can be laid for offences against the woman, but not against the foetus. Many are dissatisfied with this. The Crimes Amendment (Zoe's Law) Bill 2013 (No 2) (NSW) aimed to change this by providing that a foetus is taken to be a living person for the purposes of certain offences. The Bill was strongly opposed on the basis that according personhood to a foetus in this way will have undesirable consequences that could erode the reproductive rights of women. The public debate over how the criminal law addresses the destruction of a foetus has centred on Zoe's Law. This article proposes an alternative amendment. that aims, to accommodate the concerns of the Bill's supporters and its detractors. PMID:25980199

  5. Landfill alternative offers powerful case.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    With many of Europe's landfill sites now close to capacity, and the EU Landfill Directive requiring that, by 2020, the amount of waste sent to landfill should be just 35% of the volume similarly disposed of in 1995, pressure is mounting to find environmentally acceptable waste disposal alternatives. At a recent IHEEM waste seminar, Gary Connelly, a technical consultant at environmental technology consultancy the Cameron Corporation, described a technology which he explained can effectively convert 85% of the European Waste Catalogue of materials into an inert residue, is "cleaner and cheaper" than incineration, and can generate both electricity an waste heat. As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports, a key target market is healthcare facilities. PMID:21585140

  6. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  7. Alternative calcination development status report

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

  8. The influence of Argonaute proteins on alternative RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Batsché, Eric; Ameyar-Zazoua, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor RNAs is an important process in multicellular species because it impacts several aspects of gene expression: from the increase of protein repertoire to the level of expression. A large body of evidences demonstrates that factors regulating chromatin and transcription impact the outcomes of alternative splicing. Argonaute (AGO) proteins were known to play key roles in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. More recently, their role in the nucleus of human somatic cells has emerged. Here, we will discuss some of the nuclear functions of AGO, with special emphasis on alternative splicing. The AGO-mediated modulation of alternative splicing is based on several properties of these proteins: their binding to transcripts on chromatin and their interactions with many proteins, especially histone tail-modifying enzymes, HP1? and splicing factors. AGO proteins may favor a decrease in the RNA-polymerase II kinetics at actively transcribed genes leading to the modulation of alternative splicing decisions. They could also influence alternative splicing through their interaction with core components of the splicing machinery and several splicing factors. We will discuss the modes of AGO recruitment on chromatin at active genes. We suggest that long intragenic antisense transcripts (lincRNA) might be an important feature of genes containing splicing events regulated by AGO. PMID:25255778

  9. Demagnetization Tests Performed on a Linear Alternator for a Stirling Power Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    2011-01-01

    Demagnetization temperature of a linear alternator (LA) can be accurately predicted through an analytical Maxwell model. The M-H characteristics of the alternator magnets must be known. Vendor data are given for cube-shaped magnets, and the shape of a LA magnet may affect its magnetic properties. At GRC, M-H data are directly measured for each LA magnet. This method was validated using TDC alternator tests on the Alternator Test Rig. The analytical Maxwell modeling was utilized on a different style linear alternator to predict demagnetization temperatures for the Advanced Stirling Convertor.

  10. Designing structured tight frames via an alternating projection method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel A. Tropp; Inderjit S. Dhillon; Robert W. Heath Jr.; Thomas Strohmer

    2005-01-01

    Tight frames, also known as general Welch-Bound- Equality sequences, generalize orthonormal systems. Numer- ous applications—including communications, coding and sparse approximation—require finite-dimensional tight frames that pos- sess additional structural properties. This paper proposes a versatile alternating projection method that is flexible enough to solve a huge class of inverse eigenvalue problems, which includes the frame design problem. To apply this method,

  11. Thermal analysis of alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert O. Dunn

    1999-01-01

    The relatively poor cold-flow properties of monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats (biodiesel) present a major\\u000a obstacle to their development as alternative fuels and extenders for combustion in direct injection compressionignition (diesel)\\u000a engines. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating and cooling curves of methyl soyate (SME), methyl tallowate\\u000a (TME), SME\\/TME admixtures, and winterized SME were analyzed.

  12. Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts Basic Plasma Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalton D. Schnack

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report for contract DE-FG03-99ER54528, ''Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts''. Progress was made in the following areas of investigation: (1) Extensive studies of the confinement properties of conventional Reversed-field Pinch (RFP) configurations (i.e., without current profile control) were performed in collaboration with the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden. These studies were carried out

  13. An alternative approach to viscosity in an accretion disc

    E-print Network

    R. G. Edgar

    2006-10-02

    Purely hydrodynamic numerical experiments into the evolution of astrophysical discs typically include some sort of viscosity in order to cause accretion. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative method of implementing viscous forces, with extremely good angular momentum conservation properties. The method is based on altering the cell fluxes, rather than incorporating a viscous force. We test this method on the classical `ring spreading' problem, and demonstrate angular momentum conservation at the $10^{-8}$ level.

  14. Alternate-form reliability of the Dementia Rating Scale-2.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kara S; Mattis, Paul J; Adams, Jane; Nestor, Paul

    2005-06-01

    The Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) is a frequently used assessment of cognitive status among older adults in both research and clinical practice. Despite its well-established psychometric properties, its use in serial assessments has posed limitations with regard to practice effects. The primary purpose of the present study is to provide preliminary evidence of alternate-form reliability for the DRS-2. A heterogeneous sample of 52 community-dwelling adults over age 60 with no reported diagnosis of dementia were administered the DRS-2 as well as a newly developed alternate form [DRS-2: AF; Schmidt, K. S. (2004). Dementia Rating Scale-2 Alternate Form: Manual supplement. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources]. Our results reveal strong correlations between the two forms; further, no significant differences were found between total scale and subscale scores obtained from the two forms. Therefore, the DRS-2: AF may be a valuable assessment tool in both research and clinical arenas. PMID:15896558

  15. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevito?lu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  16. An alternative approach to infrared optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Rick; Stack, Ronald; Euliss, Gary; Athale, Ravindra; Reese, Colin; Vizgaitis, Jay; Stevens, James; Tremblay, Eric; Ford, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    The MONTAGE program sponsored by the Microsystems Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) resulted in the demonstration of a novel approach to designing compact imaging systems. This approach was enabled by an unusual four-fold annular lens originally designed and demonstrated for operation exclusively in the visible spectral band. To accomplish DARPA's goal of an ultra-thin imaging system, the folded optic was fabricated by diamond-turning concentric aspheric annular zones on both sides of a CaF2 core. The optical properties of the core material ultimately limit the operating bandwidth of such a design. We present the latest results of an effort to re-engineer and demonstrate the MONTAGE folded optics for imaging across a broad spectral band. The broadband capability is achieved by taking advantage of a new design that substitutes a hollow core configuration for the solid core. Along with enabling additional applications for the folded optics, the hollow-core design offers the potential of reducing weight and cost in comparison to an alternative solid-core design. We present new results characterizing the performance of a lens based on the new design and applied to long-wave infrared imaging.

  17. Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Park, O.; Veloo, Peter S.; Liu, N.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of laminar flame speeds, as well as extinction and ignition limits of premixed flames. The experiments were modeled using the USC Mech II kinetic model. It was determined that when hydrocarbons are added to hydrogen flames as additives, flame ignition, propagation, and extinction are affected in a counterintuitive manner. More specifically, it was found that by substituting methane by propane or n-butane in hydrogen flames, the reactivity of the mixture is reduced both under pre-ignition and vigorous burning conditions. This behavior stems from the fact that propane and n-butane produce higher amounts of methyl radicals that can readily recombine with atomic hydrogen and reduce thus the rate of the H + O{sub 2} ? O + OH branching reaction. The kinetic model predicts closely the experimental data for flame propagation and extinction for various fuel mixtures and pressures, and for various amounts of carbon dioxide in the fuel blend. On the other hand, it underpredicts, in general, the ignition temperatures.

  18. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

  19. Langmuir-Blodgett Films with Bilayer Alternation of Hemicyanine Dye and Cadmium Stearate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J, Y. Fang; Z, M. Sun; S, J. Xiao; Z, H. Lu; Y, Wei; P, Stroeve

    1991-11-01

    Multilayers consisting of bilayer alternation of hemicyanine dye and cadmium stearate have been prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. x-ray diffraction and optical absorption spectra are used to characterize their periodic structures and optical properties. The results show that a well ordered superlattice is produced and the hemicyanine dye is in non-aggregated formation in the alternating multilayers.

  20. The Sublogarithmic Alternating Space World \\Lambda Maciej Li'skiewicz y Rudiger Reischuk z

    E-print Network

    Reischuk, Rüdiger

    The Sublogarithmic Alternating Space World \\Lambda Maciej Li'skiewicz y R¨udiger Reischuk z characterize the properties and relationships of space classes defined by Turing machines that use less than logarithmic space -- may they be deterministic, nondeter­ ministic or alternating (DTM, NTM or ATM). We

  1. Reproductive effects of alternative disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, B.D.; Barlett, P.; Basaran, A.; Colling, K.; Osis, I.; Smith, M.K.

    1986-11-01

    Organohalides formed through the reaction of chlorine and organic compounds in natural and waste waters pose potential health hazards. For this reason, alternative water disinfectants that do not form organohalides are being investigated with great interest. In this laboratory, the authors have examined the reproductive effects of chloramine and chlorine administered by gavage in Long-Evans rats. Animals were treated for a total of 66 to 76 days. Males were treated for 56 days and females for 14 days prior to breeding and throughout the 10-day breeding period. Females were treated throughout gestation and lactation. Following breeding, the males were necropsied and evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology. Adult females and some pups were necropsied at weaning on postnatal day 21. Other pups were treated postweaning until 28 or 40 days of age. These pups were evaluated for the day of vaginal patency and thyroid hormone levels. No differences were observed between control rats and those rats exposed to up to 5 mg/kg/day chlorine or 10 mg/kg/day chloramine when fertility, viability, litter size, day of eye opening, or day of vaginal patency were evaluated. No alterations in sperm count, sperm direct progressive movement percent motility, or sperm morphology were observed among adult male rats. In addition, male and female reproductive organ weights were comparable to their respective control groups, and no significant histopathologic changes were observed among chlorine- or chloramine-treated male and female rats.

  2. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  3. Casimir force: an alternative treatment

    E-print Network

    P. R. Silva

    2009-01-07

    The Casimir force between two parallel uncharged closely spaced metallic plates is evaluated in ways alternatives to those usually considered in the literature. In a first approximation we take in account the suppressed quantum numbers of a cubic box, representing a cavity which was cut in a metallic block. We combine these ideas with those of the MIT bag model of hadrons, but adapted to non-relativistic particles. In a second approximation we consider the particles occupying the energy levels of the Bohr atom, so that the Casimir force depends explicitly on the fine structure constant alpha. In both treatments, the mean energies which have explicit dependence on the particle mass and on the maximum occupied quantum number (related to the Fermi level of the system) at the beginning of the calculations, have these dependences mutually canceled at the end of them. Finally by comparing the averaged energies computed in both approximations, we are able to make an estimate of the value of the fine structure constant alpha.

  4. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  5. Alternative systematic approaches to training

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This handbook is approved for use by all DOE Components and contractors. The handbook was prepared primarily for DOE nuclear facilities, but the information can be effectively used by any other type of facility. DOE nuclear, DOE non-nuclear, commercial nuclear reactor, fuel fabrication, chemical processing, or other types of facilities may also apply the principles of this approach and find it useful and applicable to local needs. The handbook provides DOE and contractor operating organizations with concepts and guidance regarding the use of alternative techniques to implement a systematic approach to training (SAT). The techniques described in this handbook are endorsed by DOE and use of the guidance in this handbook is appropriate for establishment of technical training programs at DOE nuclear facilities. The use of guidance on selection and implementation of appropriate training approaches after consideration of job complexity, the consequences of error based on risk/hazard potential, and available training media should result in effective and efficient training programs. The information presented in this handbook can be used to grade the level of effort and formality used in developing training programs.

  6. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  7. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems` Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  8. Novel Alternative Scaffolds and Their Potential Use for Tumor Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Y. Frejd

    The class of macromolecules referred to as “Alternative Scaffolds” is reviewed in this chapter. A general introduction to\\u000a alternative scaffolds is presented, and groups of alternative scaffolds are described according to structural folds. The properties\\u000a of these biomolecules as molecular recognition tools are presented, scaffolds of special interest for targeted radionuclide\\u000a therapy are highlighted and tumor targeting data is discussed.

  9. Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-04-08

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

  10. Cost-benefit evaluation of using biodiesel as an alternative fuel for fishing boats in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cherng-Yuan Lin; Tsan-Huang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel, which is manufactured from vegetables oils, animal fats, or algae can be an excellent alternative fuel to petroleum diesel due to its superior fuel properties and lower pollutant emissions. In contrast, fishing-boat fuel generally has much poorer fuel properties and a high sulfur content that can reach several hundred times that of the premium diesel used in land-based vehicles.

  11. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  12. Requirements, possible alternatives & international NEUTRON SCATTERING

    E-print Network

    Dimeo, Robert M.

    Requirements, possible alternatives & international NEUTRON SCATTERING DETECTORS for Rob Dimeo NIST neutron scattering instruments are the most demanding require background low #12;#12;The Helium-3 Supply Crisis ­ Alternative Techniques to Helium-3 based Detectors for Neutron Scattering Applications

  13. An alternative to India ink stain.

    PubMed

    Ibembe, Isaac Nicholas; Wiggin, Timothy Roger

    2015-07-01

    Accessing India ink in rural Uganda is difficult and costly. An alternative stain was sought to assist in microbiological diagnoses of cryptococcal infections in immunosuppressed patients with meningitis. Mascara proved to be an excellent and cheap alternative. PMID:25999353

  14. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Doctor about Treatment Research Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is ... based on scientific evidence from research studies. Complementary medicine refers to treatments that are used with standard ...

  15. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-08-20

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

  16. 42 CFR 488.606 - Alternative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...area; and (2) This failure does not jeopardize patient health and safety. (b) Alternative sanctions. The alternative...1) Denial of payment for services furnished to patients first accepted for care after the effective...

  17. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

  18. 77 FR 59346 - Payday-Alternative Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE08 Payday-Alternative Loans AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA...reviewing its regulation governing payday-alternative loans (PAL or PAL loans), formerly known as short-term, small amount...

  19. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  20. ESSENTIAL TWISTED SURFACES IN ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS

    E-print Network

    Purcell, Jessica

    ESSENTIAL TWISTED SURFACES IN ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS MARC LACKENBY AND JESSICA S. PURCELL Abstract. Checkerboard surfaces in alternating link complements are used frequently to determine, the geometry of the link complement stabilizes (approaches a geometric limit), but a corresponding checkerboard

  1. Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy

    E-print Network

    Energy Storage: Current landscape for alternative energy storage technologies and what the future may hold for multi-scale storage applications Presented by: Dave Lucero, Director Alternative Energy · Industry initiatives · Technology · Energy Storage Market · EaglePicher initiatives · Summary #12

  2. Are There Feasible Alternatives to Laboratory Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses several alternatives to the use of laboratory animals in investigating biomedical problems. Alternatives include tissue culture, use of plant and bacterial material, redesigning experiments, and construction of mathematical and computer models. (CS)

  3. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...

  4. ALTBIB: Bibliography on Alternatives to Animal Testing

    Science.gov Websites

    for Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing Search Animal Alternatives Literature Links to PubMed citations on more than seventeen...

  5. 21 CFR 640.120 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...alternative to any requirement in subchapter F of chapter I of title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations regarding blood, blood components, or blood products. Requests for such exceptions or alternatives shall ordinarily be in writing. Licensed...

  6. Alternate Energy from the Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, E.

    2003-12-01

    Due to rapid growth of the world's population and more demands for energy, and due to limited amount of fossil fuels (which provide 95 % of the world's energy needs), harnessing of alternate energy sources such as solar and wind power should be considered. In addition to the mountain passes with usually high wind, vast and flat desert areas could be good candidates for harvesting both solar and wind power. We set up a weather station in the middle of a desert, approximately 65 km east-west by 130 km north-south, located at Dugway (40\\deg 08' N, 113\\deg 27' W, 1124 m above mean sea level) in northwestern Utah, USA, in 1999. This station measured the incoming (Rsi) and outgoing (Rso) solar or shortwave radiation using two CM21 Kipp & Zonen pyranometers (one inverted), the incoming (Rli or atmospheric) and outgoing (Rlo or terrestrial) longwave radiation, using two CG1 Kipp & Zonen pyrgeometers (one inverted), and the net (Rn) radiation using a Q*7 net radiometer (Radiation Energy Balance System, REBS). We also measured the 3-m wind speed (U3) and direction (R.M. Young wind monitor) and precipitation (Campbell Sci., Inc.) and some other weather parameters. The measurements were taken every two seconds, and averaged into 20-min, continuously, throughout the year. The two-year (January 2000 - December 2001) period comparisons of global or solar radiation and windiness with two other stations in central (Hunter) and northern (Logan) Utah, indicate higher average solar radiation [Rsi,Dugway = 601 MJ / (m2-month) vs. Rsi, Hunter = 5371 MJ /(m2-month) and Rsi, Logan = 516 MJ /(m2-month)] and much higher 10-m average wind (UDugway = 478 km/d vs. UHunter = 323 km/d and ULogan = 275 km/d) throughout the period over the desert. These data reveal the possibility of simultaneously harvesting these two sources of clean energies at this vast and uniform desert area. Keywords: Desert, energy, radiation balance, solar and wind energies, windiness.

  7. Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy

    E-print Network

    Maoz, Shahar

    Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative 2009 Prof. David Cahen Scientific Director #12;Alternative and Sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI) Weizmann Institute of Science 1 thousands of strains of algae, analyzing their Alternative and Sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI

  8. Syllabus for Chem. 3700 Alternative Energy

    E-print Network

    Houston, Paul L.

    Syllabus for Chem. 3700 Alternative Energy Class Meetings: Tuesdays and Thursdays popular alternative energy sources which are currently being used or developed to help relieve with the most popular alternate energy options. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the topic, the course

  9. Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy

    E-print Network

    Maoz, Shahar

    Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative 2010 Prof. David Cahen Scientific Director #12;Alternative and sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI) Weizmann Institute of Science Designer Cellulosomes 28 SSC2010: Solar Student Conference 2010 30 #12;Alternative and sustainable Energy

  10. Alternative Energy Leadership Study Measuring Performance

    E-print Network

    Franssen, Michael

    Alternative Energy Leadership Study Measuring Performance Through a Multidisciplinary Lens February and a major cause of pollution, scientists and engineers have sought for decades to develop alternative energy to alternative energy-related research is critical for understanding the potential solutions emerging from

  11. Electric motor alternating power supply for vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    An electric motor alternating power supply for vehicles to replace gas-fueled engines, wherein the power supply includes an electric motor having a transmission mounted thereto, the motor being operated by two alternating power circuits, each having a battery that is alternately charged and discharged in a regulated sequential order by a sensing voltage relay which activates a secondary relay between

  12. Alternative Farm Bills: Impacts on Minnesota Farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent D. Olson; Matthew R. DalSanto

    2007-01-01

    With the current federal farm bill set to expire at the end of September this year, many proposals have been made to redesign the next bill. The objectives of this study are to compare the current policy with major proposed alternatives and estimate the potential payments of farmers under each of the alternatives. The alternative policies are compared in two

  13. Pichia pastoris 'just in time' alternative respiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Kern; Franz S. Hartner; Maria Freigassner; Julia Spielhofer; Cornelia Rumpf; Laura Leitner; Kai-Uwe Frohlich; Anton Glieder

    2007-01-01

    Alternative oxidases (Aox or Aod) are present in the mitochondria of plants, fungi and many types of yeast. These enzymes transfer electrons from the ubiquinol pool directly to oxygen without contributing to the proton transfer across the mitochondrial membrane. Alternative oxidases are involved in stress responses, programmed cell death and maintenance of the cellular redox balance. The alternative oxidase gene

  14. A New Design for Automotive Alternators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Perreault; Vahe Caliskan

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a new design for alternator systems that provides dramatic increases in peak and average power output from a conventional Lundell alternator, along with substantial improvements in efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate these capability improvements. Additional performance and functionality improvements of particular value for high- voltage (e.g., 42 V) alternators are also demonstrated. Tight load-dump transient suppression can be

  15. Alternative Health and the Challenges of Institutionalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Schneirov; Jonathan David Geczik

    2002-01-01

    Through a case study of a complementary medicine clinic in a major urban hospital this article explores the links between two levels of power in the alternative health movement – the institutional level and alternative health’s ‘submerged networks.’ Alternative health is conceptualized as a ‘new social movement’ whose central goal has been to create and sustain a form of life

  16. Alternative Education in Japan: A Brief Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needle, Nat

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, not attending public school is stigmatized, and alternative education is in its infancy. Reviews free spaces, which are not schools, but places for traumatized students to recover; home schooling networks; government-approved independent alternative schools; alternative after-school programs; and innovative programs within the system.…

  17. an educational alternative futures wildland planning game

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    an educational alternative futures wildland planning game Edward C. Thor James L. Creighton PACIFIC. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Mystic Mountain Game was initially developed for a workshop on alternative futures planning alternative futures wildland planning game. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-30, 8 p., illus. Pacific South- west Forest

  18. Alternative School Development: A Guide for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTurk, Philip; Mackin, Robert

    There is a tendency to simply view alternative schools as against tests, grades, bells, seats in rows, and dress regulations. This obscures the need for alternative schools to have stable organizational structures if they are to play an important role in education. There are five stages in the development of an alternative school. They include (a)…

  19. INVESTMENT PLAN for the Alternative and

    E-print Network

    INVESTMENT PLAN for the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (Program). This legislation authorizes and vehicle types to help meet the state's alternative fuel use, and petroleum reduction goals in a manner

  20. Alternative Materials in Libraries: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Elliott, Ed.; Danky, James, Ed.

    The papers presented focus on the library acquisition, processing, and use of alternative publications, which include small press and other materials produced by non-standard, non-establishment groups or individuals. In "Libraries and Alternatives: An Essay," Patricia Glass Schuman discusses the importance of alternative publications and the role…

  1. Alternating projection for independent component Michael Mandel

    E-print Network

    Jebara, Tony

    Alternating projection for independent component analysis Michael Mandel LabROSA, Columbia University April 24, 2007 Michael Mandel (LabROSA) Alternating projection ICA April 24, 2007 1 / 18 #12 Evaluation Michael Mandel (LabROSA) Alternating projection ICA April 24, 2007 2 / 18 #12;Outline 1

  2. An alternative methodology in Schottky diode physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, J.; Feng, L.; Peñate-Quesada, L.; Dawson, P.

    2015-06-01

    The fabrication and electrical characterization of Schottky junction diodes have been extensively researched for three-quarters of a century since the original work of Schottky in 1938. This study breaks from the highly standardized regime of such research and provides an alternative methodology that prompts novel, more efficient applications of the adroit Schottky junction in areas such as chemical and thermal sensing. The core departure from standard Schottky diode configuration is that the metal electrode is of comparable or higher resistance than the underlying semiconductor. Further, complete electrical characterization is accomplished through recording four-probe resistance-temperature (RD-T) characteristics of the device, where electrical sourcing and sensing is done only via the metal electrode and not directly through the semiconductor. Importantly, this results in probing a nominally unbiased junction while eliminating the need for an Ohmic contact to the semiconductor. The characteristic RD-T plot shows two distinct regions of high (metal) and low (semiconductor) resistances at low and high temperatures, respectively, connected by a cross-over region of width, ?T, within which there is a large negative temperature coefficient of resistance. The RD-T characteristic is highly sensitive to the Schottky barrier height; consequently, at a fixed temperature, RD responds appreciably to small changes in barrier height such as that induced by absorption of a chemical species (e.g., H2) at the interface. A theoretical model is developed to simulate the RD-T data and applied to Pd/p-Si and Pt/p-Si Schottky diodes with a range of metal electrode resistance. The analysis gives near-perfect fits to the experimental RD-T characteristics, yielding the junction properties as fit parameters. The modelling not only helps elucidate the underlying physics but also helps to comprehend the parameter space essential for the discussed applications. Although the primary regime of application is limited to a relatively narrow range (?T) for a given type of diode, the alternative methodology is of universal applicability to all metal-semiconductor combinations forming Schottky contacts.

  3. Fuel properties of cottonseed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E. [Sakarya Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

  4. COMMUNICATION: Alternative splicing and genomic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Alternative splicing allows an organism to make different proteins in different cells at different times, all from the same gene. In a cell that uses alternative splicing, the total length of all the exons is much shorter than in a cell that encodes the same set of proteins without alternative splicing. This economical use of exons makes genes more stable during reproduction and development because a genome with a shorter exon length is more resistant to harmful mutations. Genomic stability may be the reason why higher vertebrates splice alternatively. For a broad class of alternatively spliced genes, a formula is given for the increase in their stability.

  5. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  6. Distributive Property

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    lhalls

    2009-09-22

    Standard 1 Objective 2: Students will recognize and use the identity properties of addition and multiplication, the multiplicative property of zero, the commutative and associative properties of addition and multiplication, and the distributive property of multiplication over addition. This lesson is self-paced so here are some guidelines to insure that you have learned everything you need to know by the end of the lesson: 1. What does it mean to distribute? 2. How to simplify an expression. 3. How to combine like terms once you distribute. Today you will be learning about ...

  7. Alternative RNA splicing in the nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula J. Grabowski; Douglas L. Black

    2001-01-01

    Tissue-specific alternative splicing profoundly effects animal physiology, development and disease, and this is nowhere more evident than in the nervous system. Alternative splicing is a versatile form of genetic control whereby a common pre-mRNA is processed into multiple mRNA isoforms differing in their precise combination of exon sequences. In the nervous system, thousands of alternatively spliced mRNAs are translated into

  8. ASD: a bioinformatics resource on alternative splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Stamm; Jean-jack M. Riethoven; Vincent Le Texier; Chellappa Gopalakrishnan; Vasudev Kumanduri; Yesheng Tang; Nuno L. Barbosa-morais; Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism of mammalian gene expression. The alternative splicing database (ASD) consortium is systematically collecting and annotating data on alternative splicing. We present the continuation and upgrade of the ASD (T. A. Thanaraj, S. Stamm, F. Clark, J. J. Riethoven, V. Le Texier, J. Muilu (2004) NucleicAcidsRes.32,D64-D69)thatconsistsofcom- putationally and manually generated data. Its largest parts

  9. Alternative displacement sensor with reflection type holographic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yao-Yuan; Lin, Zhi-Ru; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Wu, Chyan-Chyi; Lee, Ju-Yi

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we proposed an alternative displacement sensor which constructed with reflection type holographic diffraction grating. To integrate with the truly phase detection heterodyne interferometer, and then the in-plane displacement can be measured with sub-nanometer displacement resolution. The smallest variation can be observed of proposed method is approximately 20 pm and there are no significant differences between proposed method and comparison methods. Furthermore, we evaluated the thermal property of the hologram and showed that the grating pitch variation is smaller than 0.1 nm for temperature variations within 1 °C. According to these findings, we can conclude that the holographic grating can be an alternative displacement sensor with high sensitivity and high stability.

  10. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. PMID:25743421

  11. Enumeration of snakes and cycle-alternating permutations

    E-print Network

    Josuat-Vergès, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Springer numbers are an analog of Euler numbers for the group of signed permutations. Arnol'd showed that they count some objects called snakes, that generalize alternating permutations. Hoffman established a link between Springer numbers, snakes, and some polynomials related with the successive derivatives of trigonometric functions. The goal of this article is to give further combinatorial properties of derivative polynomials, in terms of snakes and other objects: cycle-alternating permutations, weighted Dyck or Motzkin paths, increasing trees and forests. We obtain the generating functions, in terms of trigonometric functions for exponential ones and in terms of J-fractions for ordinary ones. We also define natural q-analogs, make a link with normal ordering problems and combinatorial theory of differential equations.

  12. Should pharmacologists care about alternative splicing? IUPHAR Review 4

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, T I

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing of mRNAs occurs in the majority of human genes, and most differential splicing results in different protein isoforms with possibly different functional properties. However, there are many reported splicing variations that may be quite rare, and not all combinatorially possible variants of a given gene are expressed at significant levels. Genes of interest to pharmacologists are frequently expressed at such low levels that they are not adequately represented in genome-wide studies of transcription. In single-gene studies, data are commonly available on the relative abundance and functional significance of individual alternatively spliced exons, but there are rarely data that quantitate the relative abundance of full-length transcripts and define which combinations of exons are significant. A number of criteria for judging the significance of splice variants and suggestions for their nomenclature are discussed. PMID:24670145

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... childhood? alternating hemiplegia syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  14. On Some Alternative Characterizations of Riordan Arrays

    E-print Network

    Merlini, Donatella

    On Some Alternative Characterizations of Riordan Arrays Donatella Merlini, Douglas G. Rogers, Renzo Donatella Merlini, Douglas G. Rogers, Renzo Sprugnoli, M. Cecilia Verri 1 Introduction In December 1994

  15. Defining alternative rules in water and sanitation.

    PubMed

    Robert, J

    1995-11-01

    While the conventional water and sanitation package remains most prominent, alternatives exist to conventional waterworks and sanitation practices. Some alternate courses of action are considered. Promising an unprecedented availability of piped water, water development projects foster a pump-and-dump mentality even before they are completed. Often simply announcing the impending implementation of such projects encourages the intention among future beneficiaries to waste water resources. Alternatives to the domestic waste of water must be sought and implemented. Disestablishing water development, styles of alternative water technologies, decision-making and decision-makers, water policy scale, regenerating community access to sources, and water pricing are discussed. PMID:12293526

  16. Mineral Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mineralogy 4 Kids

    This site from the Mineralogical Society of America describes the physical properties of minerals in terms that kids will understand. The site also includes the definition of a mineral, an identification chart, and links to descriptions of the physical properties used to identify minerals.

  17. Broadband acoustic concentrator with multilayered alternative homogeneous materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-ran; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Shu-yi; Fan, Li; Sun, Hong-xiang

    2012-02-01

    A two-dimensional cylindrical acoustic concentrator is designed with multilayered alternative homogeneous materials, which can focus acoustic field and enhance acoustic energy in a given area. The frequency response analysis of the acoustic concentrator demonstrates that the acoustic energy can be concentrated within the device over a wide frequency band. Meanwhile, there are contradictory relations between the acoustic concentrating performances in the inner region and the scattering properties in the outer region of these concentrators. When the contradictory relations satisfy compromise balance, the concentration ratio can reach at least 70%. PMID:22352615

  18. Alternative Gate Dielectrics on Semiconductors for MOSFET Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, D.P.; Budai, J.D.; Chisholm, M.F.; Pennycook, S.J.; McKee, R.; Walker, F.; Lee, Y.; Park, C.

    1999-12-06

    We have investigated the synthesis and properties of deposited oxides on Si and Ge for use as alternative gate dielectrics in MOSFET applications. The capacitance and leakage current behavior of polycrystalline Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films synthesized by pulsed-laser deposition is reported. In addition, we also discuss the growth of epitaxial oxide structures. In particular, we have investigated the use of silicide termination for oxide growth on (001) Si using laser-molecular beam epitaxy. In addition, we discuss a novel approach involving the use of hydrogen to eliminate native oxide during initial dielectric oxide nucleation on (001) Ge.

  19. Optimizing biodiesel composition and properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel prepared from vegetable oils, animal fats or other oil-containing materials. While it is technically competitive with conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum, some of its fuel properties still require improvement. This article briefly summarizes the t...

  20. Silver nanosintering: a lead-free alternative to soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Minoru; Matsubayashi, Ryo; Iwakuro, Hiroaki; Isoda, Seiji; Komatsu, Teruo

    2008-07-01

    We propose a lead-free silver paste as a replacement for a high-temperature lead-rich solder used for electronics. The pastes tested here contain a small amount of solvent, but primarily consist of silver powder and alkoxide-passivated silver nanoparticles that undergo nanosintering when heated. The pastes were used to connect silicon diode chips to copper bases at 350°C in nitrogen ambient without external pressure. The resulting diode packages had electrical and thermal properties about equal to those with lead-solder joints. The mechanical strengths also were comparable to the lead joint. These properties make this nanosilver paste the first viable lead-free alternative to a lead solder.

  1. Alternative Energy and Remote Power Products

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in Alaska, ABS Alaskan provides batteries, alternative energy and remote and power products. The site contains a Library link, where users can explore a basic power system diagram, visit the document download center, and find information explaining alternative energy and power systems.

  2. Third Party Financing of Alternate Energy Projects

    E-print Network

    Jones, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    of financing alternate energy projects. By the term 'alternate energy' most financial people mean a project which will sell at least part of its total energy output to an electric utility, taking advantage of the rules of PURPA already outlines for you by Marty...

  3. Alternative Energy Options for Antarctic Stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Steel; Antoine Guichard

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique problems of designing an alternative energy system for the Australian and French Antarctic research stations and the possible options that can be pursued to obtain a clean, efficient, safe and reliable energy system. The adoption of the alternative systems will rely on the further technological and commercial development of equipment

  4. Analytical services contract reform alternatives project

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.W.; Fox, M.R.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Minette, M.J.

    1995-03-23

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) was directed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to examine the feasibility of outsourcing all or part of its laboratory and analytical functions as part of a contract reform effort. The analytical services provided by WHC were found to be significantly greater than that of a typical environmental laboratory which provides sample analysis based on a simple sample in-report out model. In addition to high-volume production analysis, the work scope includes special analytical services, technical consulting, sample handling and disposition, and special material preparations. Numerous broad ranging potential contract reform alternatives were identified and categorized into seven main alternatives with associated sub-alternatives. Issues associated with each alternative varied significantly depending on the alternative. Fifteen issues were identified and described including human resources, contract, and procurement areas. Readers of this report will perhaps identify additional alternatives and/or issues. In addressing the issues, it was determined that those issues pertaining to labor relations and procurement require major policy resolutions by WHC/DOE senior management prior to being able to establish meaningful assumptions for cost/benefit analyses of the seven alternatives. Further review was therefore stopped without economic analyses or recommendation for any specific alternative. Accordingly, this report is intended to fulfill the requirements of RL Milestone AS-95-016.

  5. The Eden Alternative: Impact on Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosher, Richard B.; Robinson, Sherry

    2005-01-01

    Nursing homes as clinical sites for student learning have the potential to produce negative attitudes toward aging. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to determine the impact of the Eden Alternative on the attitudes of students toward elders residing in nursing homes. Prior to beginning implementation of the Eden Alternative, 61…

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE ALTERNATIVE DAILY COVER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl D. Bishop; Susan G. MacKay; Zeomatrix Orono; Michael A. Bilodeau

    Alternative Daily Covers, or ADC's, are primarily valued for their ability to conserve airspace by reducing the soil cover needed for landfills. ADCs fall into two major categories: tarps and spray-on materials. The various spray-on ADCs include foam, mulch, and slurries which harden after application. Each of these alternatives provides adequate cover while freeing up hundreds of cubic yards of

  7. Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Capitol Hill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Elizabeth Clay

    1999-01-01

    Congress, in coordination with the public, has been the driving force behind improving research, regulation, and access to complementary and alternative therapies. While government agencies have remained reluctant to move forward in conducting research in some areas of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), at times displaying a bias against them, many in Congress have been open- minded and active in

  8. Environmental effects of reactor waste disposal alternatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Unruh

    1980-01-01

    This present document, Environmental Impact Statement on Management of Commercially Generated Radioactive Waste, describes ten alternative methods for disposal of nuclear wastes and evaluates their anticipated environmental impacts. The ten alternatives are: (1) geologic disposal using conventional mining techniques; (2) chemical resynthesis; (3) very deep hole concept; (4) rock melting concept; (5) island disposal; (6) sub-seabed geologic disposal; (7) ice

  9. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  10. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  11. Multiscale Modeling of Alternative Splicing Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien Eveillard; Delphine Ropers; Hidde De Jong; Christiane Branlant; Alexander Bockmayr

    2003-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a key process in post-transcriptional regulation, by which several kinds of mature RNA can be obtained from the same premessenger RNA. Using a constraint programming approach, we model the alternative splicing regulation at different scales (single site vs. multiple sites), thus exploiting different types of available experimen- tal data.

  12. Frequent Alternative Splicing of Human Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrey A. Mironov; James Wildon Fickett; Mikhail S. Gelfand

    1999-01-01

    Alternative splicing can produce variant proteins and expression patterns as different as the products of different genes, yet the prevalence of alternative splicing has not been quantified. Here the spliced alignment algorithm was used to make a first inventory of exon-intron structures of known human genes using EST contigs from the TIGR Human Gene Index. The results on any one

  13. Young doctors' views on alternative medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D T Reilly

    1983-01-01

    A survey was undertaken to explore attitudes to alternative medicine among 100 general practitioner trainees. A positive attitude emerged from the 86 respondents, with 18 doctors using at least one alternative method themselves and 70 wanting to train in one or more. A total of 31 trainees had referred patients for such treatments; 12 of these doctors made referrals to

  14. EASI—enrichment of alternatively spliced isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Julian P.; Burn, John

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing produces more than one protein from the majority of genes and the rarer forms can have dominant functions. Instability of alternative transcripts can also hinder the study of regulation of gene expression by alternative splicing. To investigate the true extent of alternative splicing we have developed a simple method of enriching alternatively spliced isoforms (EASI) from PCRs using beads charged with Thermus aquaticus single-stranded DNA-binding protein (T.Aq ssb). This directly purifies the single-stranded regions of heteroduplexes between alternative splices formed in the PCR, enabling direct sequencing of all the rare alternative splice forms of any gene. As a proof of principle the alternative transcripts of three tumour suppressor genes, TP53, MLH1 and MSH2, were isolated from testis cDNA. These contain missing exons, cryptic splice sites or include completely novel exons. EASI beads are stable for months in the fridge and can be easily combined with standard protocols to speed the cloning of novel transcripts. PMID:16951290

  15. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  16. Safety and Operational Impacts of Alternative Intersections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Tarko; Mike Inerowicz; Brandon Lang

    2008-01-01

    As the degradation of service at some conventional intersections increases, there becomes a need for alternative solutions other than expensive interchanges. Many alternative intersections have been proposed in the past. Under certain traffic and local conditions some solutions are more promising than other. In some cases, the conventional intersection may still be the optimal choice. The presented research focused on

  17. Renewal, resurgence, and alternative reinforcement context.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Mary M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-07-01

    Resurgence, relapse induced by the removal of alternative reinforcement, and renewal, relapse induced by a change in contextual stimuli, are typically studied separately in operant conditioning paradigms. In analogous treatments of operant problem behavior, aspects of both relapse phenomena can operate simultaneously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine a novel method for studying resurgence and renewal in the same experimental preparation. An alternative source of reinforcement was available during extinction for one group of rats (a typical resurgence preparation). Another group experienced an operant renewal preparation in which the extinction context was distinguished via olfactory and visual stimuli. A third group experienced alternative reinforcement delivery in the new context, a novel combination of typical resurgence and renewal preparations. Removal of alternative reinforcement and/or a change in context induced relapse relative to an extinction-only control group. When alternative reinforcement was delivered in a novel context, the alternative response was less persistent relative to when extinction of the alternative response took place in the context in which it was trained. This methodology might be used to illustrate shared (or distinct) mechanisms of resurgence and renewal, and to determine how delivering alternative reinforcement in another context may affect persistence and relapse. PMID:25936876

  18. The compensated pulsed alternator - Preliminary test results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Bird; W. F. Weldon; H. G. Rylander; H. H. Woodson; B. M. Carder; B. T. Merritt; W. F. Gagnon

    1979-01-01

    An engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator (Compulsator) has been designed and fabricated. The prototype compulsator is designed to drive a load consisting of sixteen parallel xenon flashlamps, 1.5 cm in diameter by 112 cm in length. The engineering prototype compulsator test facility is described, and the sequence of operation of the pulsed power circuit is discussed. Initial measurements of alternator

  19. ASAP: the Alternative Splicing Annotation Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Lee; Levan Atanelov; Barmak Modrek; Yi Xing

    2003-01-01

    Recently, genomics analyses have demonstrated that alternative splicing is widespread in mammalian genomes (30-60% of genes reported to have multiple isoforms), and maybe one of their most important mechanisms of functional regulation. However, by comparison with other genomics data such as genome annotation, SNPs, or gene expression, there exists relativelylittle database infrastructure for the studyof alternative splicing. We have constructed

  20. ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING SOLVENT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are economic and regulatory incentives for considering alternatives to the direct land disposal of solvent-bearing hazardous waste streams (EPA Hazardous Waste Codes: F001, F002, F003, F004, and F005). These alternatives include recycle/reuse (including use as a fuel substi...

  1. Tits alternatives for graph products Ashot Minasyan

    E-print Network

    Minasyan, Ashot

    Tits alternatives for graph products Ashot Minasyan (Joint work with Yago Antolín) University of Southampton Group Theory Webinar, 27.09.2012 Ashot Minasyan Tits alternatives for graph products #12;Background and motivation Theorem (J. Tits, 1972) Let H be a finitely generated subgroup of GLn(F) for some

  2. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Henry Reinhardt

    2000-01-01

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal

  3. Alternative Certification Pathways: Filling a Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Carlyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the proliferation of alternative certification pathways through an analysis of the role and history of teacher certification and supply followed by a synthesis of national, regional, and state research studies on alternative routes to certification programs and a review of studies conducted on well-known…

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  5. The evolving roles of alternative splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liana F Lareau; Richard E Green; Rajiv S Bhatnagar; Steven E Brenner

    2004-01-01

    Alternative splicing is now commonly thought to affect more than half of all human genes. Recent studies have investigated not only the scope but also the biological impact of alternative splicing on a large scale, revealing that its role in generating proteome diversity may be augmented by a role in regulation. For instance, protein function can be regulated by the

  6. Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

  7. Radiogenic metabolism: an alternative cellular energy source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Benford

    2001-01-01

    The concept of ‘healing energy’ is commonly used in complementary and alternative medicine; however, efforts to define this concept using contemporary scientific theory, and measure it using modern scientific methods, have been limited to date. Recent experimental testing by Benford et al. observed a uniform, substantial, and consistent decrease in gamma radiation during alternative healing sessions, thus supporting a new

  8. Functional consequences of developmentally regulated alternative splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Auinash Kalsotra; Thomas A. Cooper

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses of metazoan transcriptomes have revealed an unexpected level of mRNA diversity that is generated by alternative splicing. Recently, regulatory networks have been identified through which splicing promotes dynamic remodelling of the transcriptome to promote physiological changes, which involve robust and coordinated alternative splicing transitions. The regulation of splicing in yeast, worms, flies and vertebrates affects a variety of

  9. SKOLE: The Journal of Alternative Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leue, Mary, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The four issues of "SKOLE" published in 1996 include articles about alternatives to public education, the value of free schools and home-schooling, and children's learning experiences. Feature articles include profiles of alternative schools and educational programs; descriptions of learning experiences and teaching practices; a study of full…

  10. Tonal Alternations and Prosodic Structure in Somali

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Le Gac

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the prosody of focalisation in Somali, a cushitic tonal accent language. The Somali nouns undergo many tonal accent alternations according to the discursive contexts. A primary aim of the study is to explain these alternations by assuming that they are triggered by intonative tones. However, very little attention has been devoted to the intonation of Somali. As

  11. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  12. Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pytlinski, J.T. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico))

    1992-01-01

    All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

  13. Rotor windage losses for Lundell alternators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorland, S. H.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The Lundell alternator is being investigated for power system applications. At the high speeds required, power loss due to windage can become high and result in significant heating of the alternator. This loss must be incorporated in the cooling design. The velocity profiles expected in these alternators are highly turbulent, and the Reynolds numbers are well above the levels previously reported; the available data could only be extrapolated. For this reason, a range of experimental data was generated to permit accurate calculation of the windage power loss for Lundell alternator design. Windage tests were conducted on two concentric rotor-stator configurations in ambient air, producing Reynolds numbers as high as 100,000. Using the data obtained, a method was developed to calculate the windage loss for any Lundell alternator given the geometry and cavity conditions.

  14. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis used to evaluate the energy and emission impact of two pathways of alternative energy development. The results show that China can only meets its 2015 and 2020 targets for non-fossil penetration if it successfully achieves all of its capacity targets for 2020 with continued expansion through 2030. To achieve this level of alternative generation, significant amounts of raw materials including 235 Mt of concrete, 54 Mt of steel, 5 Mt of copper along with 3 billion tons of water and 64 thousand square kilometers of land are needed. China’s alternative energy supply will likely have relatively high average energy output to fossil fuel input ratio of 42 declining to 26 over time, but this ratio is largely skewed by nuclear and hydropower capacity. With successful alternative energy development, 32% of China’s electricity and 21% of its total primary energy will be supplied by alternative energy by 2030. Compared to the counterfactual baseline in which alternative energy development stumbles and China does not meet its capacity targets until 2030, alternative energy development can displace 175 Mtce of coal inputs per year and 2080 Mtce cumulatively from power generation by 2030. In carbon terms, this translates into 5520 Mt of displaced CO{sub 2} emissions over the twenty year period, with more than half coming from expanded nuclear and wind power generation. These results illustrate the critical role that alternative energy development can play alongside energy efficiency in reducing China’s energy-related carbon emissions.

  15. Water Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-11-04

    This simple description of the chemical and physical properties of water was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey. It includes a brief quiz to assess prior knowledge, diagrams of water molecules, and important numerical data about water.

  16. Enemy Property

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    One of several such initiatives in recent years, this site from the UK government hosts a database of some 30,000 records of bank accounts and other property held in the UK by residents of countries classed as "belligerent enemies" (e.g., Germany) and "technical enemies" (Nazi-occupied countries) that were confiscated by the British government during the war. Individuals who were victims of persecution in these countries or their heirs are now entitled to claim their property or compensation. The database may be searched initially by country and then by name and/or address. Returns include name and address, types of property seized, and the value of the property. The site also includes the full text of several reports that "give the complete background of wartime and postwar policy and procedures for settlement." While obviously aimed at victims of Nazi (and satellite state) persecution, this site may also prove useful to historians of the era.

  17. Mechanism of alternative splicing and its regulation

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YAN; LIU, JING; HUANG, BO; XU, YAN-MEI; LI, JING; HUANG, LIN-FENG; LIN, JIN; ZHANG, JING; MIN, QING-HUA; YANG, WEI-MING; WANG, XIAO-ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an essential mechanism to increase the complexity of gene expression, and it plays an important role in cellular differentiation and organism development. Regulation of alternative splicing is a complicated process in which numerous interacting components are at work, including cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors, and is further guided by the functional coupling between transcription and splicing. Additional molecular features, such as chromatin structure, RNA structure and alternative transcription initiation or alternative transcription termination, collaborate with these basic components to generate the protein diversity due to alternative splicing. All these factors contributing to this one fundamental biological process add up to a mechanism that is critical to the proper functioning of cells. Any corruption of the process may lead to disruption of normal cellular function and the eventuality of disease. Cancer is one of those diseases, where alternative splicing may be the basis for the identification of novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as new strategies for therapy. Thus, an in-depth understanding of alternative splicing regulation has the potential not only to elucidate fundamental biological principles, but to provide solutions for various diseases. PMID:25798239

  18. Annual Report FY2014 Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Due to concerns about future petroleum supply and accelerating climate change, increased engine efficiency and alternative fuels are of interest. This project contributes to the science-base needed by industry to develop highly efficient DISI engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Lean operation is studied since it can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, focus is on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification can be used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion, but may lead to soot and NOx emissions challenges. Advanced ignition system and intake air preheating both promote ignition stability. Controlled end-gas autoignition can be used maintain high combustion efficiency for ultra-lean well-mixed conditions. However, the response of both combustion and exhaust emission to these techniques depends on the fuel properties. Therefore, to achieve optimal fuel-economy gains, the combustion-control strategies of the engine must adopt to the fuel being utilized.

  19. 43 CFR 11.82 - Damage determination phase-alternatives for restoration, rehabilitation, replacement, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...equivalent of the injured resources. Each of the possible alternatives...undertaken to return injured resources to their baseline condition...physical, chemical, or biological properties that the injured resources would have exhibited or...

  20. 43 CFR 11.82 - Damage determination phase-alternatives for restoration, rehabilitation, replacement, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...equivalent of the injured resources. Each of the possible alternatives...undertaken to return injured resources to their baseline condition...physical, chemical, or biological properties that the injured resources would have exhibited or...

  1. 43 CFR 11.82 - Damage determination phase-alternatives for restoration, rehabilitation, replacement, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...equivalent of the injured resources. Each of the possible alternatives...undertaken to return injured resources to their baseline condition...physical, chemical, or biological properties that the injured resources would have exhibited or...

  2. 43 CFR 11.82 - Damage determination phase-alternatives for restoration, rehabilitation, replacement, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...equivalent of the injured resources. Each of the possible alternatives...undertaken to return injured resources to their baseline condition...physical, chemical, or biological properties that the injured resources would have exhibited or...

  3. 43 CFR 11.82 - Damage determination phase-alternatives for restoration, rehabilitation, replacement, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...equivalent of the injured resources. Each of the possible alternatives...undertaken to return injured resources to their baseline condition...physical, chemical, or biological properties that the injured resources would have exhibited or...

  4. Alternative Medicine: All in Your Mind?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    The latest addition to the University of Wisconsin-Madison graduate school's Why Files (first mentioned in the August 9. 1996 Scout Report) is about alternative medicine and the actual biological effects that alternative medicine has on the human body. For many years, alternative medicine was considered "quackery", but this Web site presents some of the science behind the placebo effect and hypnosis. There is also a page on some of the effects of and concerns about St. John's Wort. A bibliography and links to related Why Files provide additional resources for those users who are not satisfied by this brief glance at the topic.

  5. Alternating-Gradient Photodetector For Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overhauser, Albert W.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Proposed detector of photons of wavelengths in range of 30 to 200 micrometer made of alternating layers of lightly and heavily negatively doped germanium. Formed in sequence by conventional chemical-vapor deposition. Alternating-gradient structure enhances collection of photogenerated charge carriers while suppressing dark current, thus achieving high detectivity. Alternating layers of n+ and n- germanium provides high detectivity in far-infrared spectral region. Also possible to make similar structures with positive doping and with other semiconductors as silicon or gallium arsenide to obtain various spectral response.

  6. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    DOEpatents

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond (Plymouth, MI); Miller, John Michael (Saline, MI)

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  7. Who is the best alternative allotransplant donor?

    PubMed

    Gale, R P; Eapen, M

    2015-06-01

    Assuming that most physicians will chose an HLA-identical sibling as the best allotransplant donor, the question arises who is the best alternative donor when an HLA-identical sibling is unavailable? The most commonly used alternative donors are HLA-identical or -mismatched unrelated donors, HLA-matched or -mismatched umbilical cord blood donor or a related, HLA-haplotype-matched related donors. Each alternative donor option has advantages and disadvantages. We discuss selected aspects of these issues based on data from randomized clinical trials and observational databases. However, because there are limited data to address specific clinical settings, quantification of expert opinion is sometimes needed. PMID:26039206

  8. Characterization of alternative FBR development strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Boegel, A.J.; Clausen, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    Near-term decisions regarding the nature and place of the FBR development program must be made. This study is part of a larger program designed to provide the Department of Energy (DOE) with imformation that can be used to make strategic programmatic decisions. The focus of this report is the description of alternative approaches for developing the FBR and the quantification of the duration and cost of each alternative. The time frames of the alternative approaches are investigated in companion reports (White 1981 and Fraley 1981). The results of these analyses will be described in a summary report (Burnham et al. 1981).

  9. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  10. Alternative Uses for Surplus School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield, Dept. of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

    The suggestions contained in this guide are intended for local Illinois school boards faced with surplus school property. School boards should have open meetings to advise the community of the decision to sell or lease the property. Liaison committees should be established for communication between the school board and the city council, planning…

  11. Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.

    PubMed

    Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis. PMID:20033403

  12. An Energy Evolution: Alternative Fueled Vehicle

    E-print Network

    An Energy Evolution: Alternative Fueled Vehicle Comparisons Presented to the DOE EERE Office July Emissions ­ Oil consumption · Battery vs. Fuel Cell system comparison · Capital investments (industry) · Biofuels? · Fuel cell electric vehicles? (FCEVs) · Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) ... .or all

  13. Directory of Resources for Educational Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paths of Learning: Options for Families & Communities, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Lists 34 resources related to alternative education, including parent organizations, graduate programs, Web sites, clearinghouses, journals, advocacy groups, publishers, newsletters, and national organizations. Listings include contact information and a brief description. (LP)

  14. Choosing transportation alternatives for highly perishable goods

    E-print Network

    Bourassa, P. Louis (Pierre Louis)

    2006-01-01

    The selection of a transportation alternative to ship perishable goods is dependent on several interconnected factors, the most important usually being speed of delivery. This study focuses on the distribution operation ...

  15. 20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...to your primary insurance amount computed under the average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. We also compute your primary...average-monthly-wage method as the alternative to the average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. (b) Restrictions....

  16. 20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...to your primary insurance amount computed under the average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. We also compute your primary...average-monthly-wage method as the alternative to the average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. (b) Restrictions....

  17. 20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...to your primary insurance amount computed under the average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. We also compute your primary...average-monthly-wage method as the alternative to the average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. (b) Restrictions....

  18. 20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...to your primary insurance amount computed under the average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. We also compute your primary...average-monthly-wage method as the alternative to the average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. (b) Restrictions....

  19. ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION FOR SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) developed by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc., was evaluated for a 2-year period. CE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous...

  20. 7 CFR 989.33 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.33 Alternate members....

  1. 7 CFR 917.27 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.27 Alternates. There...

  2. 7 CFR 917.27 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.27 Alternates. There shall be an...

  3. 7 CFR 917.27 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.27 Alternates. There...

  4. 7 CFR 917.27 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.27 Alternates. There...

  5. PILOT INVESTIGATION OF SECONDARY SLUDGE DEWATERING ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot investigation of biological sludge thickening and dewatering alternatives, including pressure filtration, precoat vacuum filtration, filter belt pressing, capillary suction, dewatering, gravity filtration, centrifugation, and ultrafiltration has been conducted on waste ac...

  6. INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

  7. Habitable piers : an alternative for urban expansion

    E-print Network

    Lin, Chin Yuan, M. Arch. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    1990-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation into an alternative way of urban expansion for a seaside community. This thesis proposes a habitable urban environment on the water by creating for an exchange between the built urban landscape ...

  8. Alcoholism and alternative splicing of candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Sasabe, Toshikazu; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2010-04-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports suggest that aberrant expression of splice variants affects alcohol sensitivities, and alcohol consumption also regulates alternative splicing. Thus, investigations of alternative splicing are essential for understanding the molecular events underlying the development of alcoholism. PMID:20617039

  9. Duplex strand formation using alternating copolymers.

    PubMed

    Nakade, Hiroshi; Ilker, M Firat; Jordan, Brian J; Uzun, Oktay; Lapointe, Nicholas L; Coughlin, E Bryan; Rotello, Vincent M

    2005-07-14

    The regular arrangement of complementary diaminopyridine-thymine (DAP-THY) on alternating copolymers permits cooperative binding events and the effective formation of well-controlled micrometre-scale aggregates. PMID:15983644

  10. Field Initiation Design Fundamentals for Pulsed Alternators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon R. Kitzmiller; Mircea D. Driga

    2007-01-01

    Efficient high-performance pulsed alternator (PA) systems have low-impedance field windings that rely on very fast current rise times in order to maintain attractive system efficiencies. These systems rely on positive feedback self-excitation, or \\

  11. Alternative heat sources for heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-09-01

    Solar assisted, water source, and ground source heat pumps are described as alternatives to air to air heat pumps for use in a broader range of climates. Publications for further information on these systems are listed.

  12. Alternate Fuels for use in Commercial Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Daggett; Robert C. Hendricks; Edwin Corporan

    The engine and commercial aircraft research and development communities have been investigating the practicality of using alternative fuels in near, mid, and far-term aircraft. Presently, it appears that an approach of using a \\

  13. GRANT SOLICITATION Alternative and Renewable Fuel

    E-print Network

    GRANT SOLICITATION PON-12-606 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area - Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure http://www.energy.ca.gov/contracts/index.html State of California RENEWABLE HYDROGEN SET-ASIDE D

  14. Evaluation of alternative leachate liner materials 

    E-print Network

    Biles, Daniel Franklin

    1994-01-01

    environment. Five alternative liner materials were tested in this study: granular activated carbon, lignite, compost, peat moss, and powdered activated carbon produced from cotton gin trash. Three volatile organic compounds are used in this study: Benzene...

  15. Alternative profit scorecards for revolving credit 

    E-print Network

    Sanchez Barrios, Luis Javier; Sanchez, Luis Javier; Barrios, Luis Javier Barrios

    2013-07-03

    The aim of this PhD project is to design profit scorecards for a revolving credit using alternative measures of profit that have not been considered in previous research. The data set consists of customers from a lending ...

  16. Alternative and Herbal Livestock Health Sourcebook

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Alternative and Herbal Livestock Health Sourcebook University of Connecticut College of Agriculture University of Connecticut College of Agriculture and Natural Resources Department of Plant Science, particularly antibiotics and chemical residues in meat and milk, have stimulated renewed interest

  17. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

  18. Alternative Dewetting Pathways of Thin Liquid Films

    E-print Network

    Klein, Jacob

    Klein2 An alternative pathway for the initiation of dewetting in thin metastable films of partially, , is predicted to vary strongly with the film thick- ness h0 as h0 5 . Heterogeneous nucleation is expected

  19. 25 CFR 11.1012 - Dispositional alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1012 Dispositional alternatives. (a) If a minor has been adjudged a juvenile offender, the children's court may make the following...

  20. Treatment Alternatives Following Mild Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novack, Thomas A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses treatment alternatives which may alleviate problems in recovery following mild head injury, including providing education, cognitive stimulation, stress management training, individual counseling, group discussion, and physical activity in a day treatment setting. (Author/ABL)

  1. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation, an ancient disease, is prevalent, and costly in the general population. Complementary and alternative therapies are frequently used for constipation. This review introduces various methods of complementary and alternative therapies, including acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, and herbal medicine. Efficacy, safety, influence factors, sham control design, and mechanisms of these therapies are discussed and evaluated. Acupuncture or electroacupuncture was found to be most commonly used for constipation among these complementary and alternative therapies, followed by herbal medicine. Although only a small number of clinical studies are flawless, our review of the literature seems to suggest that acupuncture or electroacupuncture and herbal medicine are effective in treating constipation, whereas findings on massage and moxibustion are inconclusive. More well-designed clinical trials are needed to improve and prove the efficacy of the complementary and alternative therapies for constipation; mechanistic studies that would lead to wide spread use and improvement of the methods are also discussed in this review.

  2. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  3. 7 CFR 922.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 922.27 Alternate...

  4. 7 CFR 922.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 922.27 Alternate...

  5. Pressure-enthalpy diagrams for alternative refrigerants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chen; H. Kruse

    1996-01-01

    Thermodynamic diagrams, particularly log(p)-h diagrams, have become very convenient tools for refrigeration and air-conditioning industries. To promote alternative refrigerants-related development and application, it is urgently required to provide the industries with reliable engineering diagrams for the most promising candidate refrigerants. A computer program has been developed for automatically producing log(p)-h diagrams for alternative refrigerants. The Lee Kesler Ploecker (LKP) equation

  6. Developing Alternative Assessments using the Benchmarks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Written from the perspective of a classroom teacher, this article describes a process for developing alternative assessments, provides examples of alternative assessment tasks and student responses, amd illustrates the use of scoring rubrics. The examples use the AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the National Science Education Standards to identify learning goals. This resource is intended for use in the classroom by K-12 teachers.

  7. Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy A. Semelsberger; Rodney L. Borup; Howard L. Greene

    2006-01-01

    With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel

  8. Nonlinear optical films by alternating polyelectrolyte deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Roberts; Warren N. Herman; Geoffrey A. Lindsay; Kenneth J. Wynne

    1999-01-01

    Acentric films of stilbazolium-substituted polyepichlorohydrin (SPECH) and poly(sodium 4- styrenesulfonate) (PSS) were formed using alternating polyelectrolyte deposition (APD) on hydrophobic glass substrates. APD is a layer-by-layer technique for the formation of polymer films by alternately immersing a substrate in aqueous solutions of a polyanion and a polycation. APD provides precise control of the overall film thickness that through automated processing

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen D'Huyvetter

    Complementary medicine, also known as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), alternative medicine, functional medicine,\\u000a and integrative medicine, is reemerging as one of the fastest growing fields in medicine today. A 1997–1998 national survey\\u000a showed that 57% of individuals with diabetes reported using CAM therapies during that year; 35% used CAM specifi- cally for\\u000a their diabetes (Yeh et al., 2002). Individuals

  10. Handling alternative dietary requests from pet owners.

    PubMed

    Parr, Jacqueline M; Remillard, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to provide veterinary practitioners with an overview of the types of alternative dietary options available to pet owners and a practical method by which to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of these various options. Our approach to categorizing the alternative dietary options is based on the nutritional adequacy of these dietary options, because patients will be at risk for nutrition-related diseases if fed a nutritionally incomplete or improperly balanced diet long term. PMID:24951340

  11. FHA restructuring proposals: Alternatives and implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry D. Vandell

    1995-01-01

    This article evaluates problems of the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) under its current structure, develops criteria for judging alternative structures, and suggests one alternative—an assigned risk pool—that encourages efficiency in the insurance function while still promoting low? and moderate?income housing. A historical introduction explains how the current institutional relationships came about and created FHA's problems.FHA's decline resulted from the mixing

  12. Alternatives to Hormone Replacement Therapy in Menopause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie J. Ahrenstorff

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Since the Women's Health Initiative study results in 2002, many women are turning to alternative therapies instead of hormone replacement therapy for symptomatic menopause.\\u000aBackground: Complementary and alternative medical therapies have been used for centuries in other cultures, and now many products are available over-the-counter in the United States. In addition to non-hormone prescription medications, women are using different

  13. Status of standards for alternative test sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich-Wilhelm Trautnitz

    2006-01-01

    The latest status of alternative test sites for radiated emission is to be discussed, for emission measurements mainly the existing and well proven standards EN 50147-2, CISPR 16, ANSI C63.4 2001 and VCCI. Testing is performed at present mainly in the frequency range from 30...1000 MHz. The above mentioned standards describe the qualification of alternative test sites over a metallic

  14. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  15. Alternative medicine for allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Ziment, I; Tashkin, D P

    2000-10-01

    Orthodox medical approaches to asthma and allergic respiratory diseases are provided in guidelines developed by professional societies and national or state organizations that represent organized medicine. Alternative therapies may include such orthodox medical therapies as obsolescent formerly used agents, unusual but accepted agents, and agents that are in favor for orthodox therapy in other countries. However, the current growth of complementary and alternative medicine is based on the use of nonorthodox remedies that are becoming increasingly popular with patients and that should be familiar to physicians. Asthma and allergies are frequently treated with such remedies by patients, either as part of self-therapy or on the advice of a complementary and alternative medicine practitioner. The most popular alternative medical treatments are herbs (Western and Asiatic), acupuncture, various types of body manipulation, psychologic therapies, homeopathy, and unusual allergy therapies. There is little evidence in favor of most of these unorthodox treatments, although they are very often reported on favorably by patients. The published evidence that might support some alternative medical practices is reviewed so as to help physicians select alternatives that could appropriately be integrated into orthodox practice. PMID:11031328

  16. Soot Optical Property Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K. T.; Hassan, M. I.; Krishnan, S. S.; Lin, K.-C.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent past studies of soot reaction processes in laminar premixed and nonpremixed flames generally have used the intrusive technique of thermophoretic sampling and analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe soot structure and obtain important fundamental information about soot particle properties, such as soot primary particle diameters, the rate of change of soot primary particle diameter as a function of time (or rate of soot surface growth or oxidation), the amount of soot particle reactive surface area per unit volume, the number of primary soot particles per unit volume, and the rate of formation of primary soot particles (or the rate of soot primary particle nucleation). Given the soot volume per unit volume of the flame (or the soot volume fraction), all these properties are readily found from a measurement of the soot primary particle diameter (which usually is nearly a constant for each location within a laminar flame). This approach is not possible within freely propagating flames, however, because soot properties at given positions in such flames vary relatively rapidly as a function of time in the soot formation and oxidation regions compared to the relatively lengthy sampling times needed to accumulate adequate soot samples and to minimize effects of soot collected on the sampling grid as it moves to and from the sampling position through other portions of the flame. Thus, nonintrusive optical methods must be used to find the soot primary particle diameters needed to define the soot surface reaction properties mentioned earlier. Unfortunately, approximate nonintrusive methods used during early studies of soot reaction properties in flames, found from laser scattering and absorption measurements analyzed assuming either Rayleigh scattering or Mie scattering from polydisperse effective soot particles having the same mass of soot as individual soot aggregates, have not been found to be an effective way to estimate the soot surface reaction area per unit volume. Thus, alternative nonintrusive optical methods of finding these properties must be sought, which was the objective of this phase of the investigation. The alternative method used here involves use of the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans-Polydisperse-Fractal-Aggregate (RDG-PFA) scattering approximation for soot aggregates in flames. Thus, the development of this method will be discussed next before describing its evaluation as a means of nonintrusively measuring soot primary particle diameters in soot-containing flames.

  17. Antiparallel DNA duplex formation between alternating ? d(GA) n and ? d(GA) n sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd W Kalisch; Markus W Germann; J. H van de Sande

    1998-01-01

    Alternating polypurine d(GA)n sequences exhibit a considerable polymorphism. Here we report that ? d(GA)?d(GA) sequences form an antiparallel stranded duplex DNA at neutral pH. The spectroscopic, electrophoretic and thermodynamic properties of the ?\\/? chimeric oligodeoxynucleotide, 5?-d(GA)4(T)4 ? d(AG)4T-3?, support the formation of a hairpin structure with antiparallel strands in the stem. The optical properties of this novel antiparallel structure are

  18. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various energy usages will determine the demand, forecast future need and identify the differences in energy costs, narrowing the focus of the work and defining its scope. The Tribe's peak demand periods will help determine the scope of need for alternative energy sources. The Tribe's Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis report included several system investigations which include fuel cells, wind turbines, solar panels, hydro electric, ground source heat pumps, bio mass, cogeneration & energy conservation and implementation for the existing properties. The energy analysis included site visits to collect and analyze historical energy usage and cost. The analysis also included the study of the building systems for the Elk Valley Casino, Elk Valley Rancheria administration complex, United Indian Health Service/Small Community Center complex and the Tribal Gaming Commission Offices. The analysis involved identifying modifications, performing an engineering economic analysis, preparation of a rank ordered list of modifications and preparation of a report to provide recommendations and actions for the Tribe to implement.

  19. Engineering fibrin polymers through engagement of alternative polymerization mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Stabenfeldt, Sarah E.; Gourley, Merek; Krishnan, Laxminarayanan; Hoying, James B.; Barker, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrin is an attractive material for regenerative medicine applications. It not only forms a polymer but also contains cryptic matrikines that are released upon its activation/degradation and enhance the regenerative process. Despite this advantageous biology associated with fibrin, commercially available systems (e.g. TISSEEL) display limited regenerative capacity. This limitation is in part due to formulations that are optimized for tissue sealant applications and result in dense fibrous networks that limit cell infiltration. Recent evidence suggests that polymerization knob ‘B’ engagement of polymerization hole ‘b’ activates an alternative polymerization mechanism in fibrin, which may result in altered single fiber mechanical properties. We hypothesized that augmenting fibrin polymerization through the addition of PEGylated knob peptides with specificity to hole ‘b’ (AHRPYAAC-PEG) would result in distinct fibrin polymer architectures with grossly different physical properties. Polymerization dynamics, polymer architecture, diffusivity, viscoelasticity, and degradation dynamics were analyzed. Results indicate that specific engagement of hole ‘b’ with PEGylated knob ‘B’ conjugates during polymerization significantly enhances the porosity of and subsequent diffusivity through fibrin polymers. Paradoxically, these polymers also display increased viscoelastic properties and decreased susceptibility to degradation. As a result, fibrin polymer strength was significantly augmented without any adverse effects on angiogenesis within the modified polymers. PMID:22018389

  20. Fuel effects on the TF30 engine (Alternate test procedure)

    SciTech Connect

    Karpovich, P.A.; Musters, A.I.

    1984-09-01

    The objective of the Alternate Test Procedure (ATP) is to develop the capability to qualify new fuels for Navy aircraft use with a minimum of testing. The effect of fuel composition and properties on engine performance and component life has been shown to vary significantly from one engine configuration to another. The PandWA approach to the ATP has been to define fuel effects on the TF30 engine and then apply the methodology to other engines of interest to the Navy. Investigations of the TF30 conducted under the ATP Program and other Navy and Air Force Contracts have produced one of the most complete fuel effect characterizations available for any gas turbine engine. Major fuel effects which have been quantified are the relationships of lubricity to main fuel control reliability, viscosity and volatility to main burner and augmentor ignition limits, and hydrogen content to smoke and combustor life. The effects of fuel properties and composition on combustion efficiency and elastomeric seal life were found to be of secondary importance. Remaining uncertainties are the effects of fuel properties on turbine life and fuel nozzle fouling rate.

  1. Alternative C-Terminal Helix Orientation Alters Chemokine Function

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Je-Hung; Chen, Ya-Ping; Liu, Jai-Shin; Dubrac, Alexandre; Quemener, Cathy; Prats, Hervé; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Wu, Wen-guey; Sue, Shih-Che

    2013-01-01

    Chemokines, a subfamily of cytokines, are small, secreted proteins that mediate a variety of biological processes. Various chemokines adopt remarkable conserved tertiary structure comprising an anti-parallel ?-sheet core domain followed by a C-terminal helix that packs onto the ?-sheet. The conserved structural feature has been considered critical for chemokine function, including binding to cell surface receptor. The recently isolated variant, CXCL4L1, is a homologue of CXCL4 chemokine (or platelet factor 4) with potent anti-angiogenic activity and differed only in three amino acid residues of P58L, K66E, and L67H. In this study we show by x-ray structural determination that CXCL4L1 adopts a previously unrecognized structure at its C terminus. The orientation of the C-terminal helix protrudes into the aqueous space to expose the entire helix. The alternative helix orientation modifies the overall chemokine shape and surface properties. The L67H mutation is mainly responsible for the swing-out effect of the helix, whereas mutations of P58L and K66E only act secondarily. This is the first observation that reports an open conformation of the C-terminal helix in a chemokine. This change leads to a decrease of its glycosaminoglycan binding properties and to an enhancement of its anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects. This unique structure is recent in evolution and has allowed CXCL4L1 to gain novel functional properties. PMID:23536183

  2. PROPERTY MANUAL Berkeley Laboratory Property Management

    E-print Network

    Knowles, David William

    Management must approve all assignments of Laboratory equipment to non-laboratory employees. NonPROPERTY MANUAL Issued by Berkeley Laboratory Property Management Lawrence Berkeley National of Property Management Policies · I. Parties and Organizations Responsible for Property · II. Acquiring

  3. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  4. Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.

  5. Wing and Fuselage Optimization Considering Alternative Material

    E-print Network

    Lusk, Jonathan Thomas

    2008-05-06

    This study is a sensitivity analysis to compare weight benefits for a transport aircraft airframe from potential mechanical property enhancements of CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) Laminate and Aluminum Alloy. The computational framework...

  6. Combustion characteristics of alternative liquid fuels

    E-print Network

    Chong, Cheng Tung

    2011-11-08

    -mechanism ………………………………………………………….. 30 2.2 Comparison of fuel properties ………………………………………………….. 37 CHAPTER 3 3.1 Percentage of fatty acids composition of different vegetable oils …… 60 3.2 Chemical structure of common fatty acids and their methyl esters .. 60 3... (FAME) derived from vegetable oils or animal fats through the transesterification process [7]. The transesterified fuels contain physical properties comparable to those of petroleum-based diesel fuels and are suitable to be used neat or in blends...

  7. World Bank: Asia Alternative Energy Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A number of private and public concerns continue to search for alternative energy sources, and some of them have contributed mightily to the wide array of emerging technologies in this important area. The Asia Alternative Energy Program (ASTAE) was created in 1992 by the World Bank in order to maintain support for a broad range of alternative energy projects and related activities throughout Asia. ASTAE partners and staff members work with a portfolio valued at over $1.3 billion in order to identify such projects, and those interested in such projects would do well to take a closer look through this site. Some of the resources on the site include a number of reports, informational tables about their lending operations, and a selection of additional Web-based resources. The site concludes with a short video that describes recent achievements in increasing access to modern energy services in several client countries served by such endeavors.

  8. World Bank: Asia Alternative Energy Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    A number of private and public concerns continue to search for alternative energy sources, and some of them have contributed mightily to the wide array of emerging technologies in this important area. The Asia Alternative Energy Program (ASTAE) was created in 1992 by the World Bank in order to maintain support for a broad range of alternative energy projects and related activities throughout Asia. ASTAE partners and staff members work with a portfolio valued at over $1.3 billion in order to identify such projects, and those interested in such projects would do well to take a closer look through this site. Some of the resources on the site include a number of reports, informational tables about their lending operations, and a selection of additional Web-based resources. The site concludes with a short video that describes recent achievements in increasing access to modern energy services in several client countries served by such endeavors.

  9. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  10. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Eissenberg, D.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Casada, D.A.

    1993-03-16

    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  11. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  12. Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johns Hopkins School for Public Health established the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) in 1981. Although the concept of devising alternatives to animal testing is controversial, the CAAT website dispels the myths about the efficacy of using animals in testing everything from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics to medical procedures. Visitors interested in listening to or watching presentations about alternatives to animal testing should check out the "Media Center" for the link to the "CAAT Youtube Channel". Visitors interested in taking a free online course offered by CAAT entitled "Humane Science Course", should check out the "Resources" tab. The course consists of 12 audio lectures, slides, resource lists, and study questions presented by Johns Hopkins School for Public Health faculty. The course addresses experimental design, pain management, post-surgical care, environmental enrichment, and the impact of animals' stress levels on the quality of data.

  13. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); McAtee, James L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  14. Greenforce Florida: Alternative Energy Workforce Profile

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this report from Florida's Department of Education on the alternative energy workforce in that state. The document includes information on how cities can link residents to green-collar jobs, energy goals and policies in the state, and details on alternative energy programs and courses offered in Florida school districts, technical centers and colleges. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  15. Alternatives for NASTRAN maintenance, modification and dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    Various alternatives to direct NASA support of the program are considered ranging from no support at one end of the spectrum to subsidizing a non profit user's group at the other. Of all the alternatives that are developed, the user group appears to be most viable. NASA's past and future roles in the development of computerized technology are also considered. The need for an institute for computational analysis is identified and NASA's possible involvement is described. The goals of the proposed institute and research funds to support an activity that has the potential of a much larger impact on the technical community are identified.

  16. A q-enumeration of alternating permutations

    E-print Network

    Josuat-Vergès, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    A classical result of Euler states that the tangent numbers are an alternating sum of Eulerian numbers. A dual result of Roselle states that the secant numbers can be obtained by a signed enumeration of derangements. We show that both identities can be refined with the following statistics: the number of crossings in permutations and derangements, and the number of patterns 31-2 in alternating permutations. Using previous results of Corteel, Rubey, Prellberg, and the author, we derive closed formulas for both q-tangent and q-secant numbers. There are two different methods to obtain these formulas: one with permutation tableaux and one with weighted Motzkin paths (Laguerre histories).

  17. The Perils of Complementary Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bayme, Michael J.; Geftler, Alex; Netz, Uri; Kirshtein, Boris; Glazer, Yair; Atias, Shahar; Perry, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    More than 11,000 articles lauding alternative medicine appear in the PubMed database, but there are only a few articles describing the complications of such care. Two patients suffering from complications of alternative medicine were treated in our hospital: one patient developed necrotizing fasciitis after acupuncture, and the second developed an epidural hematoma after chiropractic manipulation. These complications serve as a clarion call to the Israeli Health Ministry, as well as to health ministries around the world, to include complementary medicine under its inspection and legislative authority. PMID:25120919

  18. Pulse Oximetry in the Physics Lab: A Colorful Alternative to Traditional Optics Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutschera, Ellynne; Dunlap, Justin C.; Byrd, Misti; Norlin, Casey; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    We designed a physics laboratory exercise around pulse oximetry, a noninvasive medical technique used to assess a patient's blood oxygen saturation. An alternative to a traditional optics and light lab, this exercise teaches the principles of light absorption, spectroscopy, and the properties of light, while simultaneously studying a common…

  19. Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations of Adulteration Effect on Bond Alternating Spin=1/2 Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Xu, Zhaoxin; Ying, Heping; Dai, Jianhui; Crompton, Peter

    The S=1/2 Heisenberg chain with bond alternation and randomness of antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) interactions is investigated by quantum Monte Carlo simulations of loop/cluster algorithm. Our results have shown interesting finite temperature magnetic properties of this model. The relevance of our study to former investigation results is discussed.

  20. Amblyopia occurs in retinal ganglion cells in cats reared with convergent squint without alternating fixation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ikeda; K. E. Tremain

    1979-01-01

    The spatial resolving power, contrast sensitivity, and receptive field properties of retinal ganglion cells were studied in cats reared with either convergent or divergent squint in one eye. Sustained-X cells in the area centralis of the squinting eye of the cats with esotropia without alternating fixation showed significantly poorer spatial resolution, and reduced contrast sensitivity compared with cells in the

  1. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE AVIATION FUELS IN AN AERO-ENGINE COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Uryga; M. Pourkashanian; D. Borman; E. Catalanotti; C. W. Wilson

    2009-01-01

    When considering alternative fuels for aviation, factors such as the overall efficiency of the combustion process and the levels of emissions emitted to the atmosphere, need to be critically evaluated. The physical and chemical properties of a fuel influence the combustion efficiency and emissions and therefore need to be considered. The energy content of a biofuel, which is influenced negatively

  2. Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

    2009-01-01

    As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

  3. Effect of dissolved lubricating oils on the viscosity of alternative refrigerants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. N. Chang; A. Nagashima

    1993-01-01

    The operation of refrigeration systems involves the circulation of a working fluid which is actually a mixture of refrigerant and lubricant oil. Since the viscosity of oil and that of refrigerants normally differ by up to a factor of 4, the effect of dissolved oil is very large. In order to use new alternative refrigerants, accurate information on thermophysical properties

  4. Mercury usage and alternatives in the electrical and electronics industries. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Sass; M. A. Salem; L. A. Smith

    1994-01-01

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. The study was initiated to identify source reduction and recycling options for mercury in the electrical and electronics industry (SIC 36) and measurement and control

  5. Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Relative Corrosion of Metals in Contact With Alternative-Chemical Treated Wood Figure III.1 Wood Contents Background 12 II.3 Efficacy 27 II.4 Depletion/Leaching 34 II.5 Corrosion 43 II.6 Mechanical Properties 51 II Extraction of Heavy Metals by Centrifugation in Chartherm process (From Chartherm Web Page 1999). Figure III

  6. Synthesis, characterization and comparative OFET behaviour of indenofluorene–bithiophene and terthiophene alternating copolymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prashant Sonar; Luke Oldridge; Andrew C. Grimsdale; Klaus Müllen; Mathieu Surin; Roberto Lazzaroni; Philippe Leclère; Jason Pinto; Lay-Lay Chua; Henning Sirringhaus; Richard H. Friend

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of alternating copolymers of tetraalkylindenofluorene with bithiophene and terthiophene using Suzuki polycondensation route is reported. We report on the optical and electrochemical properties of these copolymers. AFM analysis of the microscopic morphology of thin deposits showed that the copolymer with terthiophene units produced the more ordered films, with well-defined fibrillar structures, resulting from highly-regular dense packing due to

  7. A Comprehensive Projective Alternative to the TAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzler, Barry A.; And Others

    The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was noticed to consist primarily of pictures portraying characters in low-keyed, gloomy situations lacking in vibrance and physical activity. An alternative thematic apperception test was constructed by selecting pictures from the Family of Man photo essay collection. Pictures were selected to provide more…

  8. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  9. Energy Implications of Alternative Water Futures

    E-print Network

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Energy Implications of Alternative Water Futures First Western Forum on Energy & Water water, energy, and GHG emissions. Water-related energy use is expected to rise. Conservation canWaterUse(MAF) Historical Use More Resource Intensive Less Resource Intensive Current Trends #12;Water and Energy Link

  10. Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jani Heikkilä; Matti Sirén; ja Olli Äijälä

    2007-01-01

    Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for

  11. Alternative battery systems for transportation uses

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Thackeray

    2012-07-25

    Argonne Distinguished Fellow Michael Thackeray highlights the need for alternative battery systems for transportation uses. Such systems will not only need to be smaller, lighter and more energy dense, but also able to make electric vehicles more competitive with internal combustion engine vehicles.

  12. Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources Course Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course development model on renewable energy sources including solar energy, wind power, hydropower, fuel cells, biomass, and alternative transportation. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  13. Trigeneration: an alternative for energy savings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Hernández-Santoyo; Augusto Sánchez-Cifuentes

    2003-01-01

    The design of new processes focused towards a more efficient use of energy, is nowadays highly desirable. In this paper, the design of a system of trigeneration is presented as an alternative way of improved energy use in cogeneration systems. Savings are observed by the decrease of the fuel fed to the turbogeneration equipment. A regenerative-cycle cogeneration system and a

  14. Power electronics and alternative energy generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P Lyons; Vlatko Vlatkovic

    2004-01-01

    Growth in alterative energy generation technologies and markets will have a major impact on the development of power electronics in the future. The paper discusses some of these implications, and outlines the technological and performance challenges for power electronic systems in alternative energy applications.

  15. Thinking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... discomforts. PDF This booklet covers: What complementary and alternative medicine is (CAM) is and why people use it The different types of CAM (mind-body methods, biologically based practices, body-based practices, energy medicine, and whole medical systems. How to talk ...

  16. Energy accounting of alternative energy sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Roberts

    1980-01-01

    An energy accounting study was performed in the United Kingdom of five alternative energy resource systems - solar, geothermal, wind, wave and tidal power. The paper gives the data sources, the assumptions, an outline of the procedure, results and some general comments for each case. A detailed comparison with regard to likely energy ratios is not possible; however, a value

  17. 2006-01-0272 Eliminating Design Alternatives

    E-print Network

    data, modeling assumptions, and numerical methods. The approach presented in this paper recognizes decision alternatives until a small set of solutions remains. This is a fundamental shift from the current for engine type: gasoline engine, diesel engine, or electric motor. If the designer, or decision- maker

  18. Media and Sex among Alternative School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Tortolero, Susan R.; Markham, Christine; Baumler, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A school-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted among 927 Latino and African American students attending 10 alternative schools in Houston, Texas, to investigate mass media consumption and its influence on sexual risk-taking behavior. Among males, exposure to television increased their risk of engaging in early sexual intercourse. Females who…

  19. COMMERCIAL TANKER WITH REACTOR PROPULSION AS ALTERNATIVE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woltjer

    1958-01-01

    A project is described for the installation of a pressurized-water ; reactor amidships in an existing turboelectric tanker. The object is to acquire ; practical experience at an early date and at relatively low cost. The ; conventional machinery would be retained, the nuclear installation being regarded ; as an alternative source for part or all of the electric propulsive

  20. Can alternate energy live without tax credits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smock

    1985-01-01

    A combination of low oil prices and the expiration of federal tax credits comes before alternative energy systems have had a big breakthrough into large-scale commercial application, either for bulk energy production or decentralized application. An overview of solar photovoltaics and solar thermal points out that whether the government decides to extend tax credits will determine if the US is