Science.gov

Sample records for alternative experimental method

  1. Alternate Methods to Experimentally Investigate Shock Initiation Properties of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svingala, Forrest; Lee, Richard; Sutherland, Gerrit; Samuels, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Reactive flow models are desired for many new explosives early in the formulation development stage. Traditionally, these models are parameterized by carefully-controlled 1-D shock experiments, including gas-gun testing with embedded gauges and wedge testing with explosive plane wave lenses (PWL). These experiments are easy to interpret, due to their 1-D nature, but are generally expensive to perform, and cannot be performed at all explosive test facilities. We investigate alternative methods to probe shock-initiation behavior of new explosives using widely-available pentolite gap test donors and simple time-of-arrival type diagnostics. These methods can be performed at a low cost at virtually any explosives testing facility, which allows experimental data to parameterize reactive flow models to be collected much earlier in the development of an explosive formulation. However, the fundamentally 2-D nature of these tests may increase the modeling burden in parameterizing these models, and reduce general applicability. Several variations of the so-called modified gap test were investigated and evaluated for suitability as an alternative to established 1-D gas gun and PWL techniques. At least partial agreement with 1-D test methods was observed for the explosives tested, and future work is planned to scope the applicability and limitations of these experimental techniques.

  2. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. PMID:24548737

  3. 75 FR 71155 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product: ``Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' AGENCY: Postal... Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' experimental product on January 2, 2011. The Postal...

  4. A New Experimental Method for in Situ Corrosion Monitoring Under Alternate Wet-Dry Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xinxin; Dong, Junhua; Han, Enhou; Ke, Wei

    2009-01-01

    A new experimental method was applied in in situ corrosion monitoring of mild steel Q235 under alternate wet-dry conditions. The thickness of the electrolyte film during the wet cycle was monitored by a high-precision balance with a sensibility of 0.1 mg. At the same time, an electrochemical impedance technique was employed to study the effect of film thickness on corrosion rates. Experimental results showed that there was a critical electrolyte film condition for which the corrosion rate reached a maximum during wet-dry cycles. For the substrate, the critical condition could be described by a film thickness of about 17 μm. For the rusted specimen, the critical condition could be described by an electrolyte amount of about 0.038 g, which is equivalent to a film thickness of 38 μm. This monitoring system was very useful for studying atmospheric corrosion of metals covered by corrosion products. PMID:22303180

  5. A new experimental method for in situ corrosion monitoring under alternate wet-dry conditions.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinxin; Dong, Junhua; Han, Enhou; Ke, Wei

    2009-01-01

    A new experimental method was applied in in situ corrosion monitoring of mild steel Q235 under alternate wet-dry conditions. The thickness of the electrolyte film during the wet cycle was monitored by a high-precision balance with a sensibility of 0.1 mg. At the same time, an electrochemical impedance technique was employed to study the effect of film thickness on corrosion rates. Experimental results showed that there was a critical electrolyte film condition for which the corrosion rate reached a maximum during wet-dry cycles. For the substrate, the critical condition could be described by a film thickness of about 17 μm. For the rusted specimen, the critical condition could be described by an electrolyte amount of about 0.038 g, which is equivalent to a film thickness of 38 μm. This monitoring system was very useful for studying atmospheric corrosion of metals covered by corrosion products. PMID:22303180

  6. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  7. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  8. Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background

    SciTech Connect

    Garthoff, Bernward . E-mail: bernward.garthoff@bayercropscience.com

    2005-09-01

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political worldto feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry.

  9. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research: Alternative Methods To Demolition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  10. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...

  11. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  12. Validation of erythromycin microbiological assay using an alternative experimental design.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Felipe Rebello; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli

    2007-01-01

    The agar diffusion method, widely used in antibiotic dosage, relates the diameter of the inhibition zone to the dose of the substance assayed. An experimental plan is proposed that may provide better results and an indication of the assay validity. The symmetric or balanced assays (2 x 2) as well as those with interpolation in standard curve (5 x 1) are the main designs used in the dosage of antibiotics. This study proposes an alternative experimental design for erythromycin microbiological assay with the evaluation of the validation parameters of the method referring to linearity, precision, and accuracy. The design proposed (3 x 1) uses 3 doses of standard and 1 dose of sample applied in a unique plate, aggregating the characteristics of the 2 x 2 and 5 x 1 assays. The method was validated for erythromycin microbiological assay through agar diffusion, revealing its adequacy to linearity, precision, and accuracy standards. Likewise, the statistical methods used demonstrated their accordance with the method concerning the parameters evaluated. The 3 x 1 design proved to be adequate for the dosage of erythromycin and thus a good alternative for erythromycin assay. PMID:17760348

  13. Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of…

  14. "Alternative Responses to Literature": Experimental Writing, Experimental Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittier, Gayle

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that, despite the expanding variety of the university population, despite diversity and challenges to the literary canon, writing assignments continue to be uninspired and outdated. Describes an "Alternative Responses to Literature" course whose aim was to open up the communal readings, the forms of response to them, and the classroom…

  15. Statistical Health Monitoring Applied to a Metabolomic Study of Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis: An Alternative Approach to Supervised Methods for the Identification of False Positives.

    PubMed

    Del Carratore, Francesco; Lussu, Milena; Kowalik, Marta Anna; Perra, Andrea; Griffin, Julian Leether; Atzori, Luigi; Grosso, Massimiliano

    2016-08-16

    In a typical metabolomics experiment, two or more conditions (e.g., treated versus untreated) are compared, in order to investigate the potential differences in the metabolic profiles. When dealing with complex biological systems, a two-class classification is often unsuitable, since it does not consider the unpredictable differences between samples (e.g., nonresponder to treatment). An approach based on statistical process control (SPC), which is able to monitor the response to a treatment or the development of a pathological condition, is proposed here. Such an approach has been applied to an experimental hepatocarcinogenesis model to discover early individual metabolic variations associated with a different response to the treatment. Liver study was performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by multivariate statistical analysis. By this approach, we were able to (1) identify which treated samples have a significantly different metabolic profile, compared to the control (in fact, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry, the method correctly classified 7 responders and 3 nonresponders among the 10 treated animals); (2) recognize, for each individual sample, the metabolites that are out of control (e.g., glutathione, acetate, betaine, and phosphocholine). The first point could be used for classification purposes, and the second point could be used for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the early phase of carcinogenesis. The statistical control approach can be used for diagnosis (e.g., healthy versus pathological, responder versus nonresponder) and for generation of an individual metabolic profile, leading to a better understanding of the individual pathological processes and to a personalized diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27437557

  16. An Examination of Alternative Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Peggy D.

    2004-01-01

    Demographic shifts, advances in technology, and changing student perceptions and expectations have influenced the development of alternative means and methods for offering and delivering traditional college courses. This study reports student perceptions of four alternatives at one university where students were asked to rate course offerings…

  17. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  18. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - St. Louis, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  19. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Wisconsin Dells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  20. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  1. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Samuel E.; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing “minigene” in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest. PMID:26721495

  2. 76 FR 21673 - Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ...-substantiation of an AEDM or ARM as a result of a change in standard or test procedure. 76 FR 12492 (March 7...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy....

  3. Alternative Therapies and Methods of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    When her daughter was almost two years old, the author realized that she had never crawled. Reluctant to depend on someone else to lead her daughter's therapies and learning, she began to search for alternative developmental therapy approaches and learning methods that would allow her to become more informed and take a more active role. She found…

  4. Alternative Methods of Determining Teacher Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, Fred E.; O'Neil, Roy J.

    This publication consists of two papers that examine different topics related to collective bargaining for school personnel and alternative methods of determining teachers' and principals' salaries. The papers were originally prepared to serve as a basis for discussion at a 1976 meeting sponsored by the Canadian School Trustees' Association for…

  5. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA).

    SciTech Connect

    Leick, Michael T.; Moses, Ronald W.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer for Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, Andrew Carl

    2015-03-23

    modern turbine engines; and What advancements in film cooling hole geometry and design can increase effectiveness of film cooling in turbines burning high-hydrogen coal syngas due to the higher heat loads and mass flow rates of the core flow? Experimental and numerical investigations of advanced cooling geometries that can improve resistance to surface deposition were performed. The answers to these questions were investigated through experimental measurements of turbine blade surface temperature and coolant coverage (via infrared camera images and thermocouples) and time-varying surface roughness in the NETL high-pressure combustion rig with accelerated, simulated surface deposition and advanced cooling hole concepts, coupled with detailed materials analysis and characterization using conventional methods of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), 3-D Surface Topography (using a 3-D stylus profilometer). Detailed surface temperatures and cooling effectiveness could not be measured due to issues with the NETL infrared camera system. In collaboration with faculty startup funding from the principal investigator, experimental and numerical investigations were performed of an advanced film cooling hole geometry, the anti-vortex hole (AVH), focusing on improving cooling effectiveness and decreasing the counter-rotating vortex of conventional cooling holes which can entrain mainstream particulate matter to the surface. The potential benefit of this program is in gaining a fundamental understanding of how the use of alternative fuels will effect the operation of modern gas turbine engines, providing valuable data for more effective cooling designs for future turbine systems utilizing alternative fuels.

  7. An alternative method on quadratic programming problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasril, Y.; Mohd, I. B.; Mustaffa, I.; Aminuddin, MMM.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we proposed an alternative approach to find the optimum solution of quadratic programming problems (QPP) in its original form without additional information such as slack variable, surplus variable or artificial variable as done in other favourite methods. This approached is based on the violated constraints by the unconstrained optimum. The optimal solution of QPP obtained by searching from initial point to another point alongside of feasible region.

  8. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  9. Alternative Test Methods for Electronic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    It is common practice within NASA to test electronic parts at the manufacturing lot level to demonstrate, statistically, that parts from the lot tested will not fail in service using generic application conditions. The test methods and the generic application conditions used have been developed over the years through cooperation between NASA, DoD, and industry in order to establish a common set of standard practices. These common practices, found in MIL-STD-883, MIL-STD-750, military part specifications, EEE-INST-002, and other guidelines are preferred because they are considered to be effective and repeatable and their results are usually straightforward to interpret. These practices can sometimes be unavailable to some NASA projects due to special application conditions that must be addressed, such as schedule constraints, cost constraints, logistical constraints, or advances in the technology that make the historical standards an inappropriate choice for establishing part performance and reliability. Alternate methods have begun to emerge and to be used by NASA programs to test parts individually or as part of a system, especially when standard lot tests cannot be applied. Four alternate screening methods will be discussed in this paper: Highly accelerated life test (HALT), forward voltage drop tests for evaluating wire-bond integrity, burn-in options during or after highly accelerated stress test (HAST), and board-level qualification.

  10. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Methods and Alternative Rating Methods: Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed modifications to the regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products...

  11. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  12. Two Alternative Methods for Height Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin

    2008-03-01

    Geodesists have always been dealing with coordinate transformations. There exist various kinds of transformations, like three-dimensional (spatial datum) transformations, two-dimensional (horizontal datum) transformations and one-dimensional (eg, height) transformations. In this article we discuss height transformations. Height data is usually obtained by levelling. The problematic side of levelling is that this technique is very labour intensive and costly. Nowadays as well GPS measurements can be used, which are much faster and cheaper, but in order to use GPS measurements for height determination, we need a precise geoid model to transform GPS heights to heights above sea level. In this article two different approaches to this transformation are presented. At first, the affine transformation is discussed. The method is by nature linear, and employs the barycentric coordinates of the point, the height of which is going to be computed. Secondly, the method of fuzzy modelling is used. By these methods, the transformation surface is determined and the heights of desired points can be determined. As the input data, height information from the precise levelling campaign in Estonia is used. The computed values are tested against height information, gathered from the reference geoid model. The objectives of this research are acquiring insight into using alternative methods for height transformation as well as to statistically characterise the suitability of the proposed methods.

  13. An Alternative Method to Project Wind Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadillioglu, Cagla; Kiyisuren, I. Cagatay; Collu, Kamil; Turp, M. Tufan; Kurnaz, M. Levent; Ozturk, Tugba

    2016-04-01

    Wind energy is one of the major clean and sustainable energy sources. Beside its various advantages, wind energy has a downside that its performance cannot be projected very accurately in the long-term. In this study, we offer an alternative method which can be used to determine the best location to install a wind turbine in a large area aiming maximum energy performance in the long run. For this purpose, a regional climate model (i.e. RegCM4.4) is combined with a software called Winds on Critical Streamline Surfaces (WOCSS) in order to identify wind patterns for any domains even in a changing climate. As a special case, Çanakkale region is examined due to the terrain profile having both coastal and mountainous features. WOCSS program was run twice for each month in the sample years in a double nested fashion, using the provisional RegCM4.4 wind data between years 2020 and 2040. Modified version of WOCSS provides terrain following flow surfaces and by processing those data, it makes a wind profile output for certain heights specified by the user. The computational time of WOCSS is also in reasonable range. Considering the lack of alternative methods for long-term wind performance projection, the model used in this study is a very good way for obtaining quick indications for wind performance taking the impact of the terrain effects into account. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  14. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  15. 29 CFR 4211.23 - Approval of alternative method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of alternative method. 4211.23 Section 4211.23... Subject to PBGC Approval § 4211.23 Approval of alternative method. (a) General. The PBGC shall approve an alternative allocation method or modification to an allocation method if the PBGC determines that adoption...

  16. 29 CFR 4211.23 - Approval of alternative method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of alternative method. 4211.23 Section 4211.23... Subject to PBGC Approval § 4211.23 Approval of alternative method. (a) General. The PBGC shall approve an alternative allocation method or modification to an allocation method if the PBGC determines that adoption...

  17. 29 CFR 4211.23 - Approval of alternative method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of alternative method. 4211.23 Section 4211.23... Subject to PBGC Approval § 4211.23 Approval of alternative method. (a) General. The PBGC shall approve an alternative allocation method or modification to an allocation method if the PBGC determines that adoption...

  18. 29 CFR 4211.23 - Approval of alternative method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of alternative method. 4211.23 Section 4211.23... Subject to PBGC Approval § 4211.23 Approval of alternative method. (a) General. The PBGC shall approve an alternative allocation method or modification to an allocation method if the PBGC determines that adoption...

  19. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  20. Alternative Method of Removing Otoliths from Sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths. PMID:27403646

  1. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  2. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  3. Maggot Debridement: An Alternative Method for Debridement

    PubMed Central

    Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Debridement is an essential component to promote healing in a problem wound. Several techniques are available including maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Objective: To describe the efficacy of MDT for treating problem wound especially diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: The topic is elucidated from different points of view: the mode of action, when to use, use in a practice, clinical results, and discussing the problem of creating evidence for the clinical effect. Results: Literature and own results demonstrate that MDT is a safe method with few side effects. Maggot debridement therapy is as good as or better than conventional often surgical debridement, is more selective than surgical debridement, decreases time to healing and stay of patients in the ward, and may decrease the risk of major amputations. However, the evidence of these effects of MDT on the highest level is presently lacking. A detailed description of how to use MDT in practice is provided including a visual demonstration in a video. Conclusion: In spite of lacking clinical evidence, MDT clinical experience strongly suggests that this technique is effective and safe. It can be used for most types of problem wounds, but our indication is primarily diabetic foot ulcers, because of its selectivity for debriding necrotic dead tissue. It may be a valuable alternative surgical/sharp debridement. PMID:21776326

  4. Alternating direction method for balanced image restoration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shoulie; Rahardja, Susanto

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for solving a balanced regularization problem in the frame-based image restoration. The balanced regularization is usually formulated as a minimization problem, involving an l(2) data-fidelity term, an l(1) regularizer on sparsity of frame coefficients, and a penalty on distance of sparse frame coefficients to the range of the frame operator. In image restoration, the balanced regularization approach bridges the synthesis-based and analysis-based approaches, and balances the fidelity, sparsity, and smoothness of the solution. Our proposed algorithm for solving the balanced optimal problem is based on a variable splitting strategy and the classical alternating direction method. This paper shows that the proposed algorithm is fast and efficient in solving the standard image restoration with balanced regularization. More precisely, a regularized version of the Hessian matrix of the l(2) data-fidelity term is involved, and by exploiting the related fast tight Parseval frame and the special structures of the observation matrices, the regularized Hessian matrix can perform quite efficiently for the frame-based standard image restoration applications, such as circular deconvolution in image deblurring and missing samples in image inpainting. Numerical simulations illustrate the efficiency of our proposed algorithm in the frame-based image restoration with balanced regularization. PMID:22752137

  5. Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms in fibrous composites are studied. Methods to identify failure in composite materials includes interferometry, holography, fractography and ultrasonics.

  6. Alternative methods for the design of jet engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Leake, R. J.; Basso, R.; Gejji, R.; Maloney, A.; Seshadri, V.

    1976-01-01

    Various alternatives to linear quadratic design methods for jet engine control systems are discussed. The main alternatives are classified into two broad categories: nonlinear global mathematical programming methods and linear local multivariable frequency domain methods. Specific studies within these categories include model reduction, the eigenvalue locus method, the inverse Nyquist method, polynomial design, dynamic programming, and conjugate gradient approaches.

  7. Methods for generating hydroelectric power development alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shoou-yuh; Liaw, Shu-liang; Sale, M.J.; Railsback, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Hydropower development on large rivers can result in a number of environmental impacts, including potential reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. This study presents a methodology for generating different hydropower development alternatives for evaluation. This methodology employs a Streeter-Phelps model to simulate DO, and the Bounded Implicit Enumeration algorithm to solve an optimization model formulated to maximize hydroelectric energy production subject to acceptable DO limits. The upper Ohio River basin was used to illustrate the use and characteristics of the methodology. The results indicate that several alternatives which meet the specified DO constraints can be generated efficiently, meeting both power and environmental objectives. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR RIVER TRAINING WORKS: BANDAL-LIKE STRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraguchi, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hajime; Kawaike, Kenji; Baba, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Hao

    In this paper, the applicability of bandal-like structures as an alternative method for traditional river training structures like groins is investigated. This structure is usually used in Indian Sub-Continents for riverbank protection and improvement of navigation conditions in alluvial rivers. The mechanism behind the utilization of this type of structure which affects the flow patterns and sediment transport process was studied through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. During the calculations, the water flow is computed by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in 3D domain. The k model is used for the turbulence closure and the numerical simulation is conducted on the unstructured meshes with the finite volume method. The main characteristics of the sediment erosion/deposition process around the bandal-like structures are clarified. The promising use of bandal-like structures is demonstrated through the comparisons with conventional structures as impermeable groins.

  9. Experimental implementation of the modified independent modal space control method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental realization of a modified independent modal space control (MIMSC) method to control the vibration of a flexible cantilevered beam is presented. In its operation the method relies on the use of one piezoelectric actuator to control several vibration modes through a time-sharing strategy. The effectiveness of the MIMSC method in damping out the beam vibration is demonstrated by comparing the results with those obtained by other modal control methods. Two methods are considered, the independent modal space control method and the pseudo-inverse method. The feasibility of the MIMSC method as a viable alternative for controlling large flexible structures with a very small number of actuators is emphasized.

  10. 27 CFR 26.331 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... into the United States from Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands who desires to use an alternate method or procedure in lieu of a method or procedure prescribed by this part shall file application, in triplicate... use such alternate method or procedure, a separate application shall be submitted for each....

  11. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars in accordance with § 218.75 or § 218.77, the following methods of protection may be used: (a) When occupied...

  12. 49 CFR 218.29 - Alternate methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate methods of protection. 218.29 Section....29 Alternate methods of protection. Instead of providing blue signal protection for workers in accordance with § 218.27, the following methods for blue signal protection may be used: (a) When workers...

  13. 77 FR 43827 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ...The NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) announces an ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward.'' This workshop, the second in a series of specialized vaccine workshops, will review recent advances and innovations in science and technology that can be......

  14. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Miscellaneous Provisions § 27.221 Alternate methods or procedures. (a) Application. An importer who desires to... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods...

  15. 7 CFR 3565.455 - Alternative disposition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative disposition methods. 3565.455 Section 3565.455 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....455 Alternative disposition methods. The Agency, in its sole discretion, may choose to obtain...

  16. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale....

  17. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section 218.79 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars...

  18. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale....

  19. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section 218.79 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars...

  20. 26 CFR 403.55 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 403.55 Section 403.55 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Alternative methods of sale. When personal property forfeited administratively is to be sold, the...

  1. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section 218.79 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars...

  2. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section 218.79 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars...

  3. 7 CFR 3565.455 - Alternative disposition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative disposition methods. 3565.455 Section 3565.455 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....455 Alternative disposition methods. The Agency, in its sole discretion, may choose to obtain...

  4. 7 CFR 3565.455 - Alternative disposition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative disposition methods. 3565.455 Section 3565.455 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....455 Alternative disposition methods. The Agency, in its sole discretion, may choose to obtain...

  5. 26 CFR 403.55 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 403.55 Section 403.55 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Alternative methods of sale. When personal property forfeited administratively is to be sold, the...

  6. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale. (a) Sale by...

  7. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale....

  8. 7 CFR 3565.455 - Alternative disposition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative disposition methods. 3565.455 Section 3565.455 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....455 Alternative disposition methods. The Agency, in its sole discretion, may choose to obtain...

  9. Alternate Conceptions of Preservice Elementary Teachers: The Itakura Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effectiveness of the inquiry-based Itakura method for mediating alternate conceptions of preservice elementary teachers (N = 38) in an integrated mathematics, science, and technology methods course. We investigated alternate conceptions in the expansion of solids due to heating. There was a significant increase in…

  10. Alternative Inspection Methods for Single Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Timothy J.; Alzheimer, James M.; Hurley, David E.

    2010-01-19

    This document was prepared to provide evaluations and recommendations regarding nondestructive evaluation methods that might be used to determine cracks and bowing in the ceiling of waste storage tanks on the Hanford site. The goal was to determine cracks as small as 1/16 in. wide in the ceiling, and bowing as small as 0.25 in. This report describes digital video camera methods that can be used to detect a crack in the ceiling of the dome, and methods for determining the surface topography of the ceiling in the waste storage tanks to detect localized movements in the surface. A literature search, combined with laboratory testing, comprised this study.

  11. Alternative methods to determine headwater benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.S.; Perlack, R.D.; Sale, M.J.

    1997-11-10

    In 1992, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) began using a Flow Duration Analysis (FDA) methodology to assess headwater benefits in river basins where use of the Headwater Benefits Energy Gains (HWBEG) model may not result in significant improvements in modeling accuracy. The purpose of this study is to validate the accuracy and appropriateness of the FDA method for determining energy gains in less complex basins. This report presents the results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) validation of the FDA method. The validation is based on a comparison of energy gains using the FDA method with energy gains calculated using the MWBEG model. Comparisons of energy gains are made on a daily and monthly basis for a complex river basin (the Alabama River Basin) and a basin that is considered relatively simple hydrologically (the Stanislaus River Basin). In addition to validating the FDA method, ORNL was asked to suggest refinements and improvements to the FDA method. Refinements and improvements to the FDA method were carried out using the James River Basin as a test case.

  12. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  13. PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Va'vra, J.

    2011-05-01

    In this review article we discuss the recent progress in PID techniques other than the RICH methods. In particular we mention the recent progress in the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), d E/d x cluster counting, and Time of Flight (TOF) techniques. Invited talk at RICH 2010, May 5, Cassis, France

  14. ALTERNATIVE IONIZATION METHODS FOR PARTICLE MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to enhance the capabilities of a real-time airborne particle mass spectrometer by implementing matrix-independent methods for sample ionization. The enhancements should result in improved sensitivity for trace substances and, more importantly, per...

  15. Creating Alternative Methods for Educational Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nick L.

    1981-01-01

    A project supported by the National Institute of Education is adapting evaluation procedures from such areas as philosophy, geography, operations research, journalism, film criticism, and other areas. The need for such methods is reviewed, as is the context in which they function, and their contributions to evaluation methodology. (Author/GK)

  16. Animal experimentation in snake venom research and in vitro alternatives.

    PubMed

    Sells, Paula G

    2003-08-01

    Current experimental techniques used in snake venom research (with and without the use of animals) are reviewed. The emphasis is on the reduction of the use of animals in the development of antivenoms for the clinical treatment of snakebite. Diagnostic and research techniques for the major pathologies of envenoming are described and those using animals are contrasted with non-sentient methods where possible. In particular, LD50 and ED50 assays using animals (in vivo) and fertilised eggs (in vivo, non-sentient) are compared as well as in vitro procedures (ELISA and haemolytic test) for ED50 estimations. The social context of antivenom production, supply and demand is outlined together with the consequent tension between the benefits derived and the increase in opposition to experiments on animals. Stringent regulations governing the use of animals, limited research funds and public pressure all focus the need for progress towards non-animal, or non-sentient, research methods. Some achievements are noted but success is hampered by lack of detailed knowledge of the many constituents of venom which have to be assessed as a whole rather than individually. The only way to evaluate the net pathological effect of venom is to use a living system, usually a rodent, and similarly, the efficacy of antivenoms is also measured in vivo. The pre-clinical testing of antivenoms in animals is therefore a legal requirement in many countries and is strictly monitored by government authorities. New technologies applied to the characterisation of individual venom proteins should enable novel in vitro assays to be designed thus reducing the number of animals required. In the meantime, the principles of Reduce, Refine and Replace relating to animals in research are increasingly endorsed by those working in the field and the many agencies regulating ethical and research policy. PMID:12906883

  17. Alternative haplotype construction methods for genomic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jónás, Dávid; Ducrocq, Vincent; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Croiseau, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Genomic evaluation methods today use single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) as genomic markers to trace quantitative trait loci (QTL). Today most genomic prediction procedures use biallelic SNP markers. However, SNP can be combined into short, multiallelic haplotypes that can improve genomic prediction due to higher linkage disequilibrium between the haplotypes and the linked QTL. The aim of this study was to develop a method to identify the haplotypes, which can be expected to be superior in genomic evaluation, as compared with either SNP or other haplotypes of the same size. We first identified the SNP (termed as QTL-SNP) from the bovine 50K SNP chip that had the largest effect on the analyzed trait. It was assumed that these SNP were not the causative mutations and they merely indicated the approximate location of the QTL. Haplotypes of 3, 4, or 5 SNP were selected from short genomic windows surrounding these markers to capture the effect of the QTL. Two methods described in this paper aim at selecting the most optimal haplotype for genomic evaluation. They assumed that if an allele has a high frequency, its allele effect can be accurately predicted. These methods were tested in a classical validation study using a dairy cattle population of 2,235 bulls with genotypes from the bovine 50K SNP chip and daughter yield deviations (DYD) on 5 dairy cattle production traits. Combining the SNP into haplotypes was beneficial with all tested haplotypes, leading to an average increase of 2% in terms of correlations between DYD and genomic breeding value estimates compared with the analysis when the same SNP were used individually. Compared with haplotypes built by merging the QTL-SNP with its flanking SNP, the haplotypes selected with the proposed criteria carried less under- and over-represented alleles: the proportion of alleles with frequencies <1 or >40% decreased, on average, by 17.4 and 43.4%, respectively. The correlations between DYD and genomic breeding value

  18. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  19. ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD (AACM) RESEARCH - BALTIMORE, MD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  20. Satellite Seminars: An Alternative Method for Extension Educators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, N. E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Satellite seminars in grain and forage crop production and pest management were conducted for a large, geographically dispersed audience of farmers and agribusiness persons to test the feasibility of an alternative delivery method in extension. Results of a formative evaluation revealed it is feasible to create an alternative model. (LZ)

  1. Alternative methods for characterization of extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Balaj, Leonora; Alian, Sara; Tigges, John; Toxavidis, Vasilis; Ericsson, Maria; Distel, Robert J; Ivanov, Alexander R; Skog, Johan; Kuo, Winston Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (ECVs) are nano-sized vesicles released by all cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Their role has been implicated mainly in cell-cell communication, but also in disease biomarkers and more recently in gene delivery. They represent a snapshot of the cell status at the moment of release and carry bioreactive macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. A major limitation in this emerging new field is the availability/awareness of techniques to isolate and properly characterize ECVs. The lack of gold standards makes comparing different studies very difficult and may potentially hinder some ECVs-specific evidence. Characterization of ECVs has also recently seen many advances with the use of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, flow cytometry, cryo-electron microscopy instruments, and proteomic technologies. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in translational technologies involving characterization methods including the facts in their support and the challenges they face. PMID:22973237

  2. Alternative Methods for Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Balaj, Leonora; Alian, Sara; Tigges, John; Toxavidis, Vasilis; Ericsson, Maria; Distel, Robert J.; Ivanov, Alexander R.; Skog, Johan; Kuo, Winston Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (ECVs) are nano-sized vesicles released by all cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Their role has been implicated mainly in cell–cell communication, but also in disease biomarkers and more recently in gene delivery. They represent a snapshot of the cell status at the moment of release and carry bioreactive macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. A major limitation in this emerging new field is the availability/awareness of techniques to isolate and properly characterize ECVs. The lack of gold standards makes comparing different studies very difficult and may potentially hinder some ECVs-specific evidence. Characterization of ECVs has also recently seen many advances with the use of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, flow cytometry, cryo-electron microscopy instruments, and proteomic technologies. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in translational technologies involving characterization methods including the facts in their support and the challenges they face. PMID:22973237

  3. An Alternative Method for Multiplication of Rhotrices. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, an alternative multiplication method for rhotrices is proposed. The method establishes some relationships between rhotrices and matrices. This article has discussed a modified multiplication method for rhotrices. The method has a direct relationship with matrix multiplication, and so rhotrices under this multiplication procedure…

  4. Alternative methods of conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Zarzycka, Maja; Rozek, Karina; Zarzycki, Michał

    2009-01-01

    Scoliosis is a deformity of the spine known since Hippocrates times. The value of certain methods of conservative treatment remains controversial. Some of them have only a psychological value both for the physician and his or her caregivers. Based on current literature and the Scoliosis Research Society Report of Alternative Methods of Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis, we describe the effectiveness of various alternative methods, such as exercise, Dobosiewicz technique, Karski method, SEAS 02, acupuncture, Alexander technique, aromatherapy, ayurveda, ASCO treatment, biofeedback, chiropractic, Yoga, Feldenkrais method, Pilates method, massage therapy, rolfing, magnet therapy, surface electrical stimulation, PNF, Copes system, and bracing. PMID:19920282

  5. PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vavra, J.; /SLAC

    2011-03-01

    In this review article we discuss the recent progress in PID techniques other than the RICH methods. In particular we mention the recent progress in the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), dE/dx cluster counting, and Time Of Flight (TOF) techniques. The TRD technique is mature and has been tried in many hadron colliders. It needs space though, about 20cm of detector radial space for every factor of 10 in the {pi}/e rejection power, and this tends to make such detectors large. Although the cluster counting technique is an old idea, it was never tried in a real physics experiment. Recently, there are efforts to revive it for the SuperB experiment using He-based gases and waveform digitizing electronics. A factor of almost 2 improvement, compared to the classical dE/dx performance, is possible in principle. However, the complexity of the data analysis will be substantial. The TOF technique is well established, but introduction of new fast MCP-PMT and G-APD detectors creates new possibilities. It seems that resolutions below 20-30ps may be possible at some point in the future with relatively small systems, and perhaps this could be pushed down to 10-15ps with very small systems, assuming that one can solve many systematic issues. However, the cost, rate limitation, aging and cross-talk in multi-anode devices at high BW are problems. There are several groups working on these issues, so progress is likely. Table 6 summarizes the author's opinion of pros and cons of various detectors presented in this paper based on their operational capabilities. We refer the reader to Ref.40 for discussion of other more general limits from the PID point of view.

  6. Overview On Alternate Asbestos Control Method Research And NESHAP Comparison - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  7. Transmission and phase balancing of alternating phase-shifting masks (5x): theoretical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesinger, Uwe A.; Pforr, Rainer; Knobloch, Juergen; Friedrich, Christoph M.

    1999-12-01

    Dual trench alternating phase shifting masks with an optimized value of the so-called shallow trench depth represents an interesting approach to overcome aerial image imbalances. In order to get a better understanding of the possibilities and limits of this approach, especially for 5X reduction, theoretical and experimental investigations were accomplished. In this paper experimental data obtained from 5X dual trench type alternating PSMs, using DUV-lithography are introduced and compared with 3D-mask simulations. The masks were fabricated with different etch depths and contain parts of typical DRAM patterns. Besides the transmission balancing also the phase balancing has an important influence on the effective process window of an alternating PSM. The effective phase error can be measured with an AIMS-system (MSM100). The comparison with simulated data allows the determination of the phase error. In a second step the influence of different balancing methods on phase and transmission were investigated with the TEMPEST mask simulator for unpolarized light. The optimization of the balancing with respect to the CD-bias, undercut and etch depth will be shown and a first approach of a sensitivity analysis will be presented.

  8. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  9. A Modified Alternating Direction Method for Variational Inequality Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.

    2002-07-01

    The alternating direction method is an attractive method for solving large-scale variational inequality problems whenever the subproblems can be solved efficiently. However, the subproblems are still variational inequality problems, which are as structurally difficult to solve as the original one. To overcome this disadvantage, in this paper we propose a new alternating direction method for solving a class of nonlinear monotone variational inequality problems. In each iteration the method just makes an orthogonal projection to a simple set and some function evaluations. We report some preliminary computational results to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  10. 77 FR 32038 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... the Federal Register on April 18, 2011. 76 FR 21673. The RFI requested suggestions, comments, and... ;dct=FR%252BPR%252BN%252BO%252BSR%252BPS;rpp=25;po=0;D=EER E-2011-BT-TP-0024. Table II.1--Stakeholders... Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SEDIMENT BEHAVIOR ON ALTERNATE GRAVEL-BARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, Atsuko

    These days, more information about the physical surface condition of riverbeds is needed for good river management to be able to take the habitat of river organisms into account. However, it is difficult to examine either sediment conditions at the surface or the substrate structure in detail because of problems in predicting sediment behavior in a real river. Furthermore, the attributes of mixed sediment transport vary depending on physical conditions, making it difficult to describe using numerical simulations. Therefore, a series of flume experiments were conducted in order to examine sediment behavior through alternate bars composed of sand and gravel. These experiments demonstrated the characteristics of fine and coarse sediment movement and indicated the plane distribution of sediment transport on the bars. Additionally, results indicated the impact of fine sediment supply on bed degradation, as well as on bar-morphology.

  12. Recently approved and experimental methods of contraception.

    PubMed

    Franklin, M

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recently approved two new contraceptive methods, and others are nearing approval. In addition, several innovative approaches to contraception are under investigation. This paper details the latest information on the following methods: Paragard Copper T 380A intrauterine device, cervical cap, NORPLANT, vaginal pouch, long-acting injectables, hormonal vaginal ring, transdermal patch, experimental male methods, inhibin, and contraceptive vaccines. PMID:2286850

  13. Validation of an alternative microbiological method for tissue products.

    PubMed

    Suessner, Susanne; Hennerbichler, Simone; Schreiberhuber, Stefanie; Stuebl, Doris; Gabriel, Christian

    2014-06-01

    According to the European Pharmacopoeia sterility testing of products includes an incubation time of 14 days in thioglycollate medium and soya-bean casein medium. In this case a large period of time is needed for product testing. So we designed a study to evaluate an alternative method for sterility testing. The aim of this study was to reduce the incubation time for the routinely produced products in our tissue bank (cornea and amnion grafts) by obtaining the same detection limit, accurateness and recovery rates as the reference method described in the European Pharmacopoeia. The study included two steps of validation. Primary validation compared the reference method with the alternative method. Therefore eight bacterial and two fungi test strains were tested at their preferred milieu. A geometric dilution series from 10 to 0.625 colony forming unit per 10 ml culture media was used. Subsequent to the evaluation the second part of the study started including the validation of the fertility of the culture media and the parallel testing of the two methods by investigating products. For this purpose two product batches were tested in three independent runs. Concerning the validation we could not find any aberration between the alternative and the reference method. In addition, the recovery rate of each microorganism was between 83.33 and 100 %. The alternative method showed non-inferiority regarding accuracy to the reference method. Due to this study we reduced the sterility testing for cornea and amniotic grafts to 9 days. PMID:24810914

  14. 27 CFR 24.22 - Alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate method or procedure. 24.22 Section 24.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... purpose of, and consistent with the effect intended by, the specifically prescribed method or...

  15. 49 CFR 218.29 - Alternate methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.29 Alternate methods of protection. Instead of providing blue signal protection for workers in accordance with § 218.27, the following methods for blue signal protection may be used: (a) When workers...

  16. Alternative experimental protocol to demonstrate the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph (PBR) have recently proven an important new theorem in the foundations of quantum mechanics [Pusey , Nature Phys.1745-247310.1038/nphys2309 8, 475 (2012)]. Here we propose alternative experimental protocols which lead to the PBR result for a special case and a weaker PBR-like result generally. Alternative experimental protocols support the assumption of measurement independence required for the PBR theorem.

  17. A method for experimental modal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallauer, W. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the numerical simulation of multiple-shaker modal survey testing using simulated experimental data to optimize the shaker force-amplitude distribution for the purpose of isolating individual modes of vibration. Inertia, damping, stiffness, and model data are stored on magnetic disks, available by direct access to the interactive FORTRAN programs which perform all computations required by this relative force amplitude distribution method.

  18. Using Experimental Methods in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Morrison, Gary R.; Lowther, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental methods have been used extensively for many years to conduct research in education and psychology. However, applications of experiments to investigate technology and other instructional innovations in higher education settings have been relatively limited. The present paper examines ways in which experiments can be used productively…

  19. Alternating method applied to edge and surface crack problems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartranft, R. J.; Sih, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The alternating method, which intimately combines analytical results with numerical calculations, as applied to edge crack problems in two dimensions and surface crack problems in three dimensions, is treated. The case of a crack perpendicular to the edge of a semiinfinite material is considered. One of the crack geometries that has received continual interest in fracture mechanics is that of a semielliptical crack whose major axis lies on a stress free surface. In order to demonstrate the sensitivity of the solution to the influence of the free surface the semicircular crack problem is again treated by the alternating method.

  20. Experimental validation of structural optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.

    1992-01-01

    The topic of validating structural optimization methods by use of experimental results is addressed. The need for validating the methods as a way of effecting a greater and an accelerated acceptance of formal optimization methods by practicing engineering designers is described. The range of validation strategies is defined which includes comparison of optimization results with more traditional design approaches, establishing the accuracy of analyses used, and finally experimental validation of the optimization results. Examples of the use of experimental results to validate optimization techniques are described. The examples include experimental validation of the following: optimum design of a trussed beam; combined control-structure design of a cable-supported beam simulating an actively controlled space structure; minimum weight design of a beam with frequency constraints; minimization of the vibration response of helicopter rotor blade; minimum weight design of a turbine blade disk; aeroelastic optimization of an aircraft vertical fin; airfoil shape optimization for drag minimization; optimization of the shape of a hole in a plate for stress minimization; optimization to minimize beam dynamic response; and structural optimization of a low vibration helicopter rotor.

  1. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    Background An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be <1 cm in size. The tumor is characterized by night-time pain that may be relieved by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoid osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. Material/Methods In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. Results Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. Conclusions The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment. PMID:26898923

  2. 27 CFR 18.13 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 18.13 Section 18.13 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE...

  3. 27 CFR 18.13 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 18.13 Section 18.13 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE...

  4. Alternative method of retesting UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, R.

    1991-12-31

    The paper describes an alternative method to perform the periodic inspection of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The hydraulic test is replaced by ultrasonic checking of wall thickness and by magnetic particle testing of all the weld seams. Information about the legal background, the air leak test and the qualification of inspectors is also given.

  5. 27 CFR 41.26 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 41.26 Section 41.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO General §...

  6. 27 CFR 40.45 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 40.45 Section 40.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED...

  7. 27 CFR 40.385 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 40.385 Section 40.385 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED...

  8. 27 CFR 17.3 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 17.3 Section 17.3 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS General Provisions §...

  9. 27 CFR 19.665 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 19.665 Section 19.665 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel...

  10. 27 CFR 19.903 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 19.903 Section 19.903 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use §...

  11. 27 CFR 26.331 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 26.331 Section 26.331 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Miscellaneous Provisions § 26.331...

  12. Alternative to the Palatini method: A new variational principle

    SciTech Connect

    Goenner, Hubert

    2010-06-15

    A variational principle is suggested within Riemannian geometry, in which an auxiliary metric and the Levi Civita connection are varied independently. The auxiliary metric plays the role of a Lagrange multiplier and introduces nonminimal coupling of matter to the curvature scalar. The field equations are 2nd order PDEs and easier to handle than those following from the so-called Palatini method. Moreover, in contrast to the latter method, no gradients of the matter variables appear. In cosmological modeling, the physics resulting from the alternative variational principle will differ from the modeling using the standard Palatini method.

  13. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan. PMID:24512226

  14. An Alternate Method to Springback Compensation for Sheet Metal Forming

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Badrul; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) is conducted by firstly employing DA method followed by the SF method instead of either DA or SF method individually. The springback shape and the target part are used to optimize the die surfaces compensating springback. The hybrid method (HM) algorithm has been coded in Fortran and tested in two- and three-dimensional models. By implementing the HM, the springback error can be decreased and the dimensional deviation falls in the predefined tolerance range. PMID:25165738

  15. An alternate method to springback compensation for sheet metal forming.

    PubMed

    Siswanto, Waluyo Adi; Anggono, Agus Dwi; Omar, Badrul; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) is conducted by firstly employing DA method followed by the SF method instead of either DA or SF method individually. The springback shape and the target part are used to optimize the die surfaces compensating springback. The hybrid method (HM) algorithm has been coded in Fortran and tested in two- and three-dimensional models. By implementing the HM, the springback error can be decreased and the dimensional deviation falls in the predefined tolerance range. PMID:25165738

  16. Schwarz alternating methods for anisotropic problems with prolate spheroid boundaries.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenlong; Du, Qikui; Liu, Baoqing

    2016-01-01

    The Schwarz alternating algorithm, which is based on natural boundary element method, is constructed for solving the exterior anisotropic problem in the three-dimension domain. The anisotropic problem is transformed into harmonic problem by using the coordinate transformation. Correspondingly, the algorithm is also changed. Continually, we analysis the convergence and the error estimate of the algorithm. Meanwhile, we give the contraction factor for the convergence. Finally, some numerical examples are computed to show the efficiency of this algorithm. PMID:27625977

  17. Alternative Processing Methods for Ultra High Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusman, Michael; Beckman, Sarah; Gasch, Matthew; Ellerby, Don; Lau, Kai-Hung; Sanjurjo, Angel; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are being developed for possible use in a number of structural applications including hypersonic vehicles, engines, plasma arc electrodes and high temperature shielding. Alternative methods of processing Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) will be discussed. Techniques that may improve oxidation resistance, strength, and reduce the processing temperature of the UHTCs will be presented. Hot-pressed UHTCs made using either milled/uncoated powders or non-milled coated powders will be compared.

  18. An alternative method for cultivation of Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Fabio A; Wattanaphansak, Suphot; Gebhart, Connie J

    2012-03-01

    An alternative method for the cultivation of Lawsonia intracellularis, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of proliferative enteropathy, was developed using an Original Space Bag inflated with a mixture of gas containing 10% hydrogen, 10% carbon dioxide, and 80% nitrogen. The flexibility of this protocol allows the testing of various environmental conditions for static cultivation of this bacterium and the development of diagnostic techniques. PMID:22219308

  19. SLCA/IP power alternative screening method (SPASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.C. |; Ancrile, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the SLCA/IP Power Alternative Screening Method (SPASM), which was used to screen 784 possible combinations of electric power marketing alternatives and dam operational scenarios to provide a representative range for analysis in the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Each combination consists of one energy and capacity commitment level and one operational scenario for each of the hydroelectric facilities at Glen Canyon Dam, Flaming Gorge Dam, and the Aspinall Unit. The total annual cost to the SLCA/IP firm power customers of each of the 784 combinations is estimated and included in a relative frequency distribution. A relative frequency distribution is also generated for each marketing alternative. The number of combinations is reduced to 12 by taking the mean value and endpoint value for each of four marketing alternatives. Some minor deviations from this procedure, which are made for political purposes, are explained. 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. 48 CFR 32.503-9 - Liquidation rates-alternate method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-alternate method. 32.503-9 Section 32.503-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Liquidation rates—alternate method. (a) The liquidation rate determined under 32.503-8 shall apply throughout... the alternate method in this 32.503-9. The objective of the alternate liquidation rate method is...

  1. Experimental Study of Entropy Production in Cells under Alternating Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chang-Jiang; Luo, Liao-Fu

    2012-08-01

    We put forward a new method for measuring the entropy production in the living cell. It involves heating the sample by alternating the electric field and recording the outward heat flow. The entropy production in a normal cell MCF10A and a cancerous cell MDA-MB-231 were measured and compared. The results show that the method is effective for the entropy measurement of a living organism. The scaled electro-induced entropy production rate (SEEP) of MDA-MB-231 monotonically increases with the electric field strength at 5-40 V/cm. While that of MCF10A changes non-monotonically and there exists a peak at 5-30 V/cm. The electro-induced entropy production ratio (EEPR) is smaller than 1 in a large range of field strengths, from 5 to 25 V/cm, which reveals that under 5-25 V/cm electric field exposure, the direction of the entropy flow may be changed from normal tissue to cancerous cells. We present a facile and effective strategy for experimentally investigating the thermodynamic properties of the cell and give a deeper insight into the physical difference between normal and cancerous cells under electric field exposure.

  2. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity,more » as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.« less

  3. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity, as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.

  4. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories. PMID:26626125

  5. Alternative sewerage solution: Condominial method and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker, Umut

    In this study, the fundamental of the theory of condominial sewer design is discussed through a readily available computer program and the theory is used to bring out the effect of pipe diameter and sewer gradient on design calculations through alternative solutions. It is proved that the roughness of the pipe is effective on the size, lifetime, and cost-saving property of the condominial sewer system, whereas the pipe diameter is not a vital parameter for the same criteria. Any expansion on the pipe roughness increased the gradient of flow and thus enlarged the excavation area hence; undermine the cost-saving property of the condominial method.

  6. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes. PMID:27478491

  7. Outcome modelling strategies in epidemiology: traditional methods and basic alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Greenland, Sander; Daniel, Rhian; Pearce, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Controlling for too many potential confounders can lead to or aggravate problems of data sparsity or multicollinearity, particularly when the number of covariates is large in relation to the study size. As a result, methods to reduce the number of modelled covariates are often deployed. We review several traditional modelling strategies, including stepwise regression and the ‘change-in-estimate’ (CIE) approach to deciding which potential confounders to include in an outcome-regression model for estimating effects of a targeted exposure. We discuss their shortcomings, and then provide some basic alternatives and refinements that do not require special macros or programming. Throughout, we assume the main goal is to derive the most accurate effect estimates obtainable from the data and commercial software. Allowing that most users must stay within standard software packages, this goal can be roughly approximated using basic methods to assess, and thereby minimize, mean squared error (MSE). PMID:27097747

  8. Alternative methods of reproduction. Effects on the child.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, B Z

    1987-01-01

    Artificial donor insemination (DI), surrogate parenting, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer are alternative methods of reproduction being utilized with increasing frequency. Technological developments are being studied in detail. Because of the secrecy inherent in the families involved, there has been little written describing the emotional and psychological well-being of the participants. Significant factors, such as unlimited pregnancies per donor, lack of recordkeeping of the genetic background of each insemination, need for psychological counseling of the parents, the impact of the "family secret" of the pregnancy, and the well-being of the offspring, have not been adequately addressed. There has been little effort to make use of our experience in adoption in relation to many of these same areas. No medical guidelines or legislation exist. The inherent problems associated with these parenting methods and practices are discussed along with recommendations for improvement. PMID:3791832

  9. Outcome modelling strategies in epidemiology: traditional methods and basic alternatives.

    PubMed

    Greenland, Sander; Daniel, Rhian; Pearce, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Controlling for too many potential confounders can lead to or aggravate problems of data sparsity or multicollinearity, particularly when the number of covariates is large in relation to the study size. As a result, methods to reduce the number of modelled covariates are often deployed. We review several traditional modelling strategies, including stepwise regression and the 'change-in-estimate' (CIE) approach to deciding which potential confounders to include in an outcome-regression model for estimating effects of a targeted exposure. We discuss their shortcomings, and then provide some basic alternatives and refinements that do not require special macros or programming. Throughout, we assume the main goal is to derive the most accurate effect estimates obtainable from the data and commercial software. Allowing that most users must stay within standard software packages, this goal can be roughly approximated using basic methods to assess, and thereby minimize, mean squared error (MSE). PMID:27097747

  10. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. [LCC (Leadless Chip Carriers)

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  11. Development of an alternating integrator for magnetic measurements for experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D. M. Zhao, W. Z.; He, Y. G.; Chen, B.; Wan, B. N.; Shen, B.; Huang, J.; Liu, H. Q.

    2014-11-15

    A high-performance integrator is one of the key electronic devices for reliably controlling plasma in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak for long pulse operation. We once designed an integrator system of real-time drift compensation, which has a low integration drift. However, it is not feasible for really continuous operations due to capacitive leakage error and nonlinearity error. To solve the above-mentioned problems, this paper presents a new alternating integrator. In the new integrator, the integrator system of real-time drift compensation is adopted as one integral cell while two such integral cells work alternately. To achieve the alternate function, a Field Programmable Gate Array built in the digitizer is utilized. The performance test shows that the developed integrator with the integration time constant of 20 ms has a low integration drift (<15 mV) for 1000 s.

  12. Development of an alternating integrator for magnetic measurements for experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Liu, D M; Wan, B N; Zhao, W Z; Shen, B; He, Y G; Chen, B; Huang, J; Liu, H Q

    2014-11-01

    A high-performance integrator is one of the key electronic devices for reliably controlling plasma in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak for long pulse operation. We once designed an integrator system of real-time drift compensation, which has a low integration drift. However, it is not feasible for really continuous operations due to capacitive leakage error and nonlinearity error. To solve the above-mentioned problems, this paper presents a new alternating integrator. In the new integrator, the integrator system of real-time drift compensation is adopted as one integral cell while two such integral cells work alternately. To achieve the alternate function, a Field Programmable Gate Array built in the digitizer is utilized. The performance test shows that the developed integrator with the integration time constant of 20 ms has a low integration drift (<15 mV) for 1000 s. PMID:25430391

  13. Clinical outcome research in complementary and alternative medicine: an overview of experimental design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Gatchel, R J; Maddrey, A M

    1998-09-01

    This article serves as a primer for those beginning clinical research in complementary and alternative medicine. The authors provide a basic overview of important experimental design and statistical issues, of which clinical researchers in the area of complementary and alternative medicine must be aware when attempting to demonstrate the effectiveness of particular treatment modalities. As the article suggests, science is an inferential process, and experimental investigations can vary greatly in methodological integrity. Key concepts in clinical outcome research such as internal validity, statistical conclusion validity, and the appropriate measurement and operational definitions of outcomes are discussed. New scientific approaches that are evolving because of paradigm shifts in science (e.g., chaos theory) are also reviewed. Suggestions are provided to further develop an understanding of clinical outcome research methodology. PMID:9737030

  14. Alternative method for evaluating the pair energy of nucleons in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmukhamedov, A. M.

    2015-12-15

    An alternative method for determining the odd–even effect parameter related to special features of the Casimir operator in Wigner’s mass formula for nuclei is proposed. A procedure for calculating this parameter is presented. The proposed method relies on a geometric interpretation of the Casimir operator, experimental data concerning the contribution of spin–orbit interaction to the nuclear mass for even–even and odd–odd nuclei, and systematics of energy gaps in the spectra of excited states of even–even nuclei.

  15. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassett Farrelly, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Alternative schools operate today as a hidden, parallel educational system, providing a separate and often unequal education to many at-risk students, with little to no accountability. The number of alternative schools, and enrollment in alternative schools, is increasing, due in part to excessive use of zero tolerance policies. Students of color,…

  16. An alternate high yielding purification method for Clitoria ternatea lectin.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Aabgeena; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2007-10-01

    In our previous publication we had reported the purification and characterization of Clitoria ternatea agglutinin from its seeds on fetuin CL agarose affinity column, designated CTA [A. Naeem, S. Haque, R.H. Khan. Protein J., 2007]. Since CTA binds beta-d-galactosides, this lectin can be used as valuable tool for glycobiology studies in biomedical and cancer research. So an attempt was made for a high yielding alternative purification method employing the use of asialofetuin CL agarose column for the above-mentioned lectin, designated CTL. The fetuin affinity purified agglutinin was found similar to asialofetuin affinity purified lectin in SDS pattern, HPLC and N-terminal sequence. The content of lectin was found to be 30mg/30g dry weight of pulse. The yield was 2.8% as compared to 0.3% obtained on fetuin column. The number of tryptophan and tyrosine estimated was four and six per subunit. PMID:17590430

  17. Comprehensive exon array data processing method for quantitative analysis of alternative spliced variants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ping; Lepikhova, Tatiana; Hu, Yizhou; Monni, Outi; Hautaniemi, Sampsa

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA generates protein diversity. Dysfunction of splicing machinery and expression of specific transcripts has been linked to cancer progression and drug response. Exon microarray technology enables genome-wide quantification of expression levels of the majority of exons and facilitates the discovery of alternative splicing events. Analysis of exon array data is more challenging than the analysis of gene expression data and there is a need for reliable quantification of exons and alternatively spliced variants. We introduce a novel, computationally efficient methodology, Multiple Exon Array Preprocessing (MEAP), for exon array data pre-processing, analysis and visualization. We compared MEAP with existing pre-processing methods, and validation of six exons and two alternatively spliced variants with qPCR corroborated MEAP expression estimates. Analysis of exon array data from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines revealed several transcripts associated with 11q13 amplification, which is related with decreased survival and metastasis in HNSCC patients. Our results demonstrate that MEAP produces reliable expression values at exon, alternatively spliced variant and gene levels, which allows generating novel experimentally testable predictions. PMID:21745820

  18. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to simulate expected ranges of mercury

  19. An alternative numerical method for the stationary pulsar magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamori, Yohsuke; Okawa, Hirotada; Takamoto, Makoto; Suwa, Yudai

    2014-02-01

    Stationary pulsar magnetospheres in the force-free system are governed by the pulsar equation. In 1999, Contopoulos, Kazanas, and Fendt (hereafter CKF) numerically solved the pulsar equation and obtained a pulsar magnetosphere model called the CKF solution that has both closed and open magnetic field lines. The CKF solution is a successful solution, but it contains a poloidal current sheet that flows along the last open field line. This current sheet is artificially added to make the current system closed. In this paper, we suggest an alternative method to solve the pulsar equation and construct pulsar magnetosphere models without a current sheet. In our method, the pulsar equation is decomposed into Ampère's law and the force-free condition. We numerically solve these equations simultaneously with a fixed poloidal current. As a result, we obtain a pulsar magnetosphere model without a current sheet, which is similar to the CKF solution near the neutron star and has a jet-like structure at a distance along the pole. In addition, we discuss physical properties of the model and find that the force-free condition breaks down in a vicinity of the light cylinder due to dissipation that is included implicitly in the numerical method.

  20. An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…

  1. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  2. Alternative methods for the use of non-human primates in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Burm, Saskia M; Prins, Jan-Bas; Langermans, Jan; Bajramovic, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    The experimental use of non-human primates (NHP) in Europe is tightly regulated and is only permitted when there are no alternatives available. As a result, NHP are most often used in late, pre-clinical phases of biomedical research. Although the impetus for scientists, politicians and the general public to replace, reduce and refine NHP in biomedical research is strong, the development of 3Rs technology for NHP poses specific challenges. In February 2014 a workshop on "Alternative methods for the use of NHP in biomedical research" was organized within the international exchange program of EUPRIM-Net II, a European infrastructure initiative that links biomedical primate research centers. The workshop included lectures by key scientists in the field of alternatives as well as by experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. Furthermore, parallel sessions were organized to stimulate discussion on the challenges of advancing the use of alternative methods for NHP. Subgroups voted on four statements and together composed a list with opportunities and priorities. This report summarizes the presentations that were held, the content of the discussion sessions and concludes with recommendations on 3Rs development for NHP specifically. These include technical, conceptual as well as political topics. PMID:25058455

  3. 77 FR 40358 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM..., revised, and alternative safety testing methods with regulatory applicability and promotes the scientific..., provides scientific and operational support for ICCVAM-related activities, and conducts...

  4. Combining sources in stable isotope mixing models: alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Donald L; Newsome, Seth D; Gregg, Jillian W

    2005-08-01

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants; or water bodies, and many others. A common problem is having too many sources to allow a unique solution. We discuss two alternative procedures for addressing this problem. One option is a priori to combine sources with similar signatures so the number of sources is small enough to provide a unique solution. Aggregation should be considered only when isotopic signatures of clustered sources are not significantly different, and sources are related so the combined source group has some functional significance. For example, in a food web analysis, lumping several species within a trophic guild allows more interpretable results than lumping disparate food sources, even if they have similar isotopic signatures. One result of combining mixing model sources is increased uncertainty of the combined end-member isotopic signatures and consequently the source contribution estimates; this effect can be quantified using the IsoError model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isotopes/isoerror1_04.htm). As an alternative to lumping sources before a mixing analysis, the IsoSource mixing model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isosource/isosource.htm) can be used to find all feasible solutions of source contributions consistent with isotopic mass balance. While ranges of feasible contributions for each individual source can often be quite broad, contributions from functionally related groups of sources can be summed a posteriori, producing a range of solutions for the aggregate source that may be considerably narrower. A paleo-human dietary analysis example illustrates this method, which involves a terrestrial meat food source, a combination of three terrestrial plant foods, and a combination of three marine foods. In this case, a posteriori aggregation of sources allowed

  5. Integrated Experimental and Computational Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and the Use of Alternative Fracking Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, H.; Carey, J. W.; Karra, S.; Porter, M. L.; Rougier, E.; Zhang, D.; Makedonska, N.; Middleton, R. S.; Currier, R.; Gupta, R.; Lei, Z.; Kang, Q.; O'Malley, D.; Hyman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas is an unconventional fossil energy resource that is already having a profound impact on US energy independence and is projected to last for at least 100 years. Production of methane and other hydrocarbons from low permeability shale involves hydrofracturing of rock, establishing fracture connectivity, and multiphase fluid-flow and reaction processes all of which are poorly understood. The result is inefficient extraction with many environmental concerns. A science-based capability is required to quantify the governing mesoscale fluid-solid interactions, including microstructural control of fracture patterns and the interaction of engineered fluids with hydrocarbon flow. These interactions depend on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes over scales from microns to tens of meters. Determining the key mechanisms in subsurface THMC systems has been impeded due to the lack of sophisticated experimental methods to measure fracture aperture and connectivity, multiphase permeability, and chemical exchange capacities at the high temperature, pressure, and stresses present in the subsurface. This project uses innovative high-pressure microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments on shale to explore fracture-permeability relations and the extraction of hydrocarbon. These data are integrated with simulations including lattice Boltzmann modeling of pore-scale processes, finite-element/discrete element models of fracture development in the near-well environment, discrete-fracture modeling of the reservoir, and system-scale models to assess the economics of alternative fracturing fluids. The ultimate goal is to make the necessary measurements to develop models that can be used to determine the reservoir operating conditions necessary to gain a degree of control over fracture generation, fluid flow, and interfacial processes over a range of subsurface conditions.

  6. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    PubMed

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed. PMID:26184446

  7. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) is developing a U.S. plan for the evaluation of alternative skin sensitization test methods and testing strategies. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) requests information that ICCVAM might use to develop this plan and......

  8. Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeonji; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential. PMID:26191378

  9. Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuri; Park, Hyeonji; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-06-01

    The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential. PMID:26191378

  10. An alternative calibration method for counting P-32 reactor monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, T.J.; Vehar, D.W.

    2011-07-01

    Radioactivation of sulfur is a common technique used to measure fast neutron fluences in test and research reactors. Elemental sulfur can be pressed into pellets and used as monitors. The {sup 32}S(n, p) {sup 32}P reaction has a practical threshold of about 3 MeV and its cross section and associated uncertainties are well characterized [1]. The product {sup 32P} emits a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1710 keV [2]. This energetic beta particle allows pellets to be counted intact. ASTM Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32 (E265) [3] details a method of calibration for counting systems and subsequent analysis of results. This method requires irradiation of sulfur monitors in a fast-neutron field whose spectrum and intensity are well known. The resultant decay-corrected count rate is then correlated to the known fast neutron fluence. The Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia has traditionally performed calibration irradiations of sulfur pellets using the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron source at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) [4] as a transfer standard. However, decay has reduced the intensity of NIST's source; thus lowering the practical upper limits of available fluence. As of May 2010, neutron emission rates have decayed to approximately 3 e8 n/s. In practice, this degradation of capabilities precludes calibrations at the highest fluence levels produced at test reactors and limits the useful range of count rates that can be measured. Furthermore, the reduced availability of replacement {sup 252}Cf threatens the long-term viability of the NIST {sup 252}Cf facility for sulfur pellet calibrations. In lieu of correlating count rate to neutron fluence in a reference field the total quantity of {sup 32}P produced in a pellet can be determined by absolute counting methods. This offers an attractive alternative to extended {sup 252}Cf exposures because it

  11. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): Promoting Alternative Methods in Europe and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public–private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives. PMID:25836968

  12. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives. PMID:25836968

  13. Alternative method for VIIRS Moon in space view process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Samuel; Chiang, Kwofu V.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2013-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a radiometric sensing instrument currently operating onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) spacecraft. It provides high spatial-resolution images of the emitted and reflected radiation from the Earth and its atmosphere in 22 spectral bands (16 moderate resolution bands M1-M16, 5 imaging bands I1-I5, and 1 day/night pan band DNB) spanning the visible and infrared wavelengths from 412 nm to 12 μm. Just prior to each scan it makes of the Earth, the VIIRS instrument makes a measurement of deep space to serve as a background reference. These space view (SV) measurements form a crucial input to the VIIRS calibration process and are a major determinant of its accuracy. On occasion, the orientation of the Suomi NPP spacecraft coincides with the position of the moon in such a fashion that the SV measurements include light from the moon, rendering the SV measurements unusable for calibration. This paper investigates improvements to the existing baseline SV data processing algorithm of the Sensor Data Record (SDR) processing software. The proposed method makes use of a Moon-in-SV detection algorithm that identifies moon-contaminated SV data on a scan-by-scan basis. Use of this algorithm minimizes the number of SV scans that are rejected initially, so that subsequent substitution processes are always able to find alternative substitute SV scans in the near vicinity of detected moon-contaminated scans.

  14. Five factor model prototype matching scores: convergence within alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Douglas B; Edmundson, Maryanne; Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-10-01

    The Five Factor Model of Personality (FFM) has been proposed as a potential alternative to the current DSM-IV-TR model, which conceptualizes personality disorders (PDs) as categorical constructs. While an extensive literature has pointed out the flaws of the diagnostic categories, they are quite familiar to clinicians and there may still be instances when identifying these constructs for clinical purposes, such as for rapidly communicating information about a patient, is warranted. From the perspective of the FFM, the PDs represent specific constellations of personality traits and research has demonstrated that the PDs can be recovered by assessing the degree to which an FFM profile matches the FFM description of a prototypic PD case. The current study builds upon that research by assessing the convergent and discriminant validity of prototype scores and DSM-IV PD measures using self-report, informant report, semi-structured interview, and clinician descriptions. The results suggest that the prototype matching scores are largely valid across these methods for all PDs, with perhaps the exception of obsessive-compulsive. These findings are related to previous research and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22023296

  15. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. Results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Postconsolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  16. Alternate Methods in Refining the SLS Nozzle Plug Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbank, Scott; Allen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Numerical analysis has shown that the SLS nozzle environmental barrier (nozzle plug) design is inadequate for the prelaunch condition, which consists of two dominant loads: 1) the main engines startup pressure and 2) an environmentally induced pressure. Efforts to reduce load conservatisms included a dynamic analysis which showed a 31% higher safety factor compared to the standard static analysis. The environmental load is typically approached with a deterministic method using the worst possible combinations of pressures and temperatures. An alternate probabilistic approach, utilizing the distributions of pressures and temperatures, resulted in a 54% reduction in the environmental pressure load. A Monte Carlo simulation of environmental load that used five years of historical pressure and temperature data supported the results of the probabilistic analysis, indicating the probabilistic load is reflective of a 3-sigma condition (1 in 370 probability). Utilizing the probabilistic load analysis eliminated excessive conservatisms and will prevent a future overdesign of the nozzle plug. Employing a similar probabilistic approach to other design and analysis activities can result in realistic yet adequately conservative solutions.

  17. An alternative method for determining GPS receiver phase biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, Tobias; Schön, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is used in a broad variety of applications to determine very economically high precision parameters for positioning, navigation and timing. In comparison to traditional differential approaches, PPP with undifferenced phase measurements is highly attractive, since the effort on the user side can be reduced to minimum, e.g. due to an unnecessary reference station. The quality of obtained position solutions is comparable to those obtained from a differential approach. One of the most important limiting factor is the long integration time to determine (float) ambiguities. Furthermore, it is critical to consider adequately all occurring error sources. In this context, receiver phase biases are one of the limiting factors and very complex to model. At least they are highly correlated with the ambiguities during the estimation process, (Laurichesse et al. 2009). This contribution presents an alternative method to estimate carrier phase biases of different GPS/GNSS receivers and signals w.r.t. a reference receiver. Receiver phase biases are estimated on a zero baseline and in combination with a very stable and precise clock (H-Maser) using single differences. The presented method will be discussed in detail. This includes a critical look to the estimability of bias values for several GPS/GNSS receivers as well as a discussion on the stability and universality of these bias values. Finally relative phase biases are quantified and it will be discussed how GPS/GNSS observation equations have to be extended, to take these bias values correctly into account. References: Laurichesse D., Mercier F., Berthias J.P., Broca P., Cerri L. (2009): Integer ambiguity resolution on undifferenced GPS phase measurements and its application to PPP and satellite precise orbit determination, In: NAVIGATION, Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Volume 56, Number 2, pages: 135 - 149

  18. An alternative experimental approach for subcritical configurations of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnelli, E.; Lee, S. M.; Pinto, L. N.; Landim, H. R.; Diniz, R.; Jerez, R.; dos Santos, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents an alternative approach for the reactivity worth experiments analysis in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor considering highly subcritical arrays. In order to reach the subcritical levels, the removal of a specific number of fuel rods is proposed. Twenty three configurations were carried out for this purpose. The control bank insertion experiment was used only as reference for the fuel rod experiment and, in addition, the control banks were maintained completely withdrawn during all the fuel rods experiment. The theoretical simulation results using the MCNP5 code and the ENDF/B-VII.0 library neutron data are in a very good agreement to experimental results.

  19. Experimental methods for geological remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    During the past year a two channel IR technique for discrimination among silicate rocks was tested for a second time, a three channel IR method was tested for the first time, and a new visible-reflective IR ratio method was hypothesized and qualitatively tested for iron oxide recognition. Both the two channel and three channel IR ratios methods were capable of discriminating felsic from mafic rock types. The three-channel ratio values measured by the scanner were found to agree, within reasonable limits, with the values of R calculated from laboratory data. The capability of the three channel method to obtain absolute ratios is accompanied by a costly processing routine. The two channel technique is superior for low thermal contrast scenes about which some ground truth is available because of its speed and economy.

  20. [Alternative endourologic methods for treatment of urethral stricture].

    PubMed

    Niesel, T; Moore, R G; Hofmann, R; Kavoussi, L R

    1998-01-01

    Advances in endoscopic instrumentation and techniques offer new alternatives for safe and effective treatment of urethral strictures. Visual internal urethrotomy, the standard treatment modality, is associated with new scar formation with stricture recurrence. This experience has led to the investigation of alternative techniques which would avoid or ameliorate this result. This article reviews the current literature and discusses these newer approaches, including balloon dilatation, laser urethrotomy, endoscopic urethroplasty, "cut to the light" and "core through" procedures, and urethral wallstent implantation. PMID:9540185

  1. Experimental and analysis methods in radiochemical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, C. M.; Pandola, L.

    2016-04-01

    Radiochemical experiments made the history of neutrino physics by achieving the first observation of solar neutrinos (Cl experiment) and the first detection of the fundamental pp solar neutrinos component (Ga experiments). They measured along decades the integral νe charged current interaction rate in the exposed target. The basic operation principle is the chemical separation of the few atoms of the new chemical species produced by the neutrino interactions from the rest of the target, and their individual counting in a low-background counter. The smallness of the expected interaction rate (1 event per day in a ˜ 100 ton target) poses severe experimental challenges on the chemical and on the counting procedures. The main aspects related to the analysis techniques employed in solar neutrino experiments are reviewed and described, with a special focus given to the event selection and the statistical data treatment.

  2. Experimental Mathemataics: Examples, Methods andImplications

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-01-31

    Recent years have seen the flowering of ''experimental'' mathematics, namely the utilization of modern computer technology as an active tool in mathematical research. This development is not limited to a handful of researchers, nor to a handful of universities, nor is it limited to one particular field of mathematics. Instead, it involves hundreds of individuals, at many different institutions, who have turned to the remarkable new computational tools now available to assist in their research, whether it be in number theory, algebra, analysis, geometry or even topology. These tools are being used to work out specific examples, generate plots, perform various algebraic and calculus manipulations, test conjectures, and explore routes to formal proof. Using computer tools to test conjectures is by itself a major time saver for mathematicians, as it permits them to quickly rule out false notions.

  3. Clinical experimental stress studies: methods and assessment.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis during which a variety of adaptive processes are activated to produce physiological and behavioral changes. Stress induction methods are pivotal for understanding these physiological or pathophysiological changes in the body in response to stress. Furthermore, these methods are also important for the development of novel pharmacological agents for stress management. The well-described methods to induce stress in humans include the cold pressor test, Trier Social Stress Test, Montreal Imaging Stress Task, Maastricht Acute Stress Test, CO2 challenge test, Stroop test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, noise stress, and Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test. Stress assessment in humans is done by measuring biochemical markers such as cortisol, cortisol awakening response, dexamethasone suppression test, salivary α-amylase, plasma/urinary norepinephrine, norepinephrine spillover rate, and interleukins. Physiological and behavioral changes such as galvanic skin response, heart rate variability, pupil size, and muscle and/or skin sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and self-reported anxiety are also monitored to assess stress response. This present review describes these commonly employed methods to induce stress in humans along with stress assessment methods. PMID:26020552

  4. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected. PMID:25876996

  5. An Experimental Database for Conventional and Alternate Control Concepts on the HSR 1.675% Reference H Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Naomi; Allen, Jerry; Erickson, Gary; Campbell, Jim; Mann, Mike; Kubiatko, Paul; Yingling, David; Mason, Charlie

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to experimentally evaluate the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the Reference H configuration at supersonic and transonic speeds. A series of conventional and alternate control devices were also evaluated at supersonic and transonic speeds. A database on the conventional and alternate control devices was to be created for use in the HSR program.

  6. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking.

  7. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking. 6 figs.

  8. The cervical cap. An alternate barrier contraceptive method.

    PubMed

    Gilbirds, W M; Jonas, H S

    1982-04-01

    The cervical cap is examined as an acceptable addition to barrier method technology. Attention is directed to its history, methodology, contradindications and side effects, effectiveness, and areas of current research. Invention of the modern cervical cap occurred in the mid-1800s. Finch reports that the 1st cervical cap was described in 1838 by Frederick Adolphe Wilde, a German gynecologist. He called it a Cautchuk Pessarium, and each cap was custom made from a wax impression of the woman's cervix. No matter who is credited with the invention of the cap, it remained a widely used method of contraception for the next century although principally employed in Europe. Currently, cervical caps are widely used in England and Central Europe. Use of the cap in the U.S. has been limited by the small amount of data on its demonstrated effectiveness as well as most clinican's belief that the method is too complicated for the "average woman." There are 2 primary types of cervical caps: firm and soft rubber. For the cap to be effective, it must be fitted by trained medical personnel. For maximum effectiveness, it is essential that the cervical cap user master the techniques of self insertion and removal. Most sources recommend that prior to insertion, the cap be approximately 1/3 filled with spermicidal cream or jelly. Whether or not a spermicide is used, the woman assumes a semi-reclining or squatting position. Removal of the cap is facilitated by inserting the index and middle fingers into the vagina and tiling the rim of the cap away from the cervix, thus breaking the suction. The cap can then be easily removed via the inserted fingers. The following conditions contraindicate the use of the cervical cap: cervical erosion or laceration; cervical malformation; Nabothian cysts; inflammation of the adnexa or inability of the woman to place and remove the cap correctly. The only reported side effect of the cap is the presence of a malodorous secretion if the cap is left in place

  9. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    PubMed

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  10. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  11. Geospatial methods for monitoring alternative control technology sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring alternative feedlot runoff control technology effectiveness, especially vegetative treatment systems (VTS), is of interest to both cattlemen and regulatory agencies. Producers have constructed VTS in several mid-western states under an agreement with the Iowa Cattlemen Association and the...

  12. Alternatives in Medical Education: Non-Animal Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Peggy, Ed.

    The technology explosion in medical education has led to the use of computer models, videotapes, interactive videos, and state-of-the-art simulators in medical training. This booklet describes alternatives to using animals in medical education. Although it is mainly intended to describe products applicable to medical school courses, high-quality,…

  13. Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Dentistry: An Experimental Teaching Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vann, William F., Jr.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A traditional method of teaching psychomotor skills in a preclinical restorative dentistry laboratory course was compared with an experimental method. The experimental group was taught using a guided systematic approach that relied on detailed checklists and exhaustive faculty feedback. (Author/MLW)

  14. Administrative Support and Alternatively Certified Teachers: A Mixed Methods Study on New Teacher Support and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Erin M.

    2012-01-01

    A non-experimental study was conducted to examine the perceived administrative support needs of alternatively certified teachers and determine their impact on teacher retention. The study sought to identify the most valued administrative support needs of alternatively-certified teachers; to compare those needs by gender and tier teaching level;…

  15. Joint Data Filtering and Labeling Using Gaussian Processes and Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pablo; Molina, Rafael; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K

    2016-07-01

    Sequence labeling aims at assigning a label to every sample of a signal (or pixel of an image) while considering the sequentiality (or vicinity) of the samples. To perform this task, many works in the literature first filter and then label the data. Unfortunately, the filtering, which is performed independently from the labeling, is far from optimal and frequently makes the latter task harder. In this paper, a novel approach that trains a Gaussian process classifier and estimates the coefficients of an optimal filter jointly is presented. The new approach, based on Bayesian modeling and alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMMs) optimization, performs both tasks simultaneously. All unknowns are treated as stochastic variables, which are estimated using variational inference and filtering and labeling are linked with the use of ADMM. In the experimental section, synthetic and real experiments are presented to compare the proposed method with other existing approaches. PMID:27214879

  16. 48 CFR 6302.30 - Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule 30).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.30 Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule... Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): Settlement Judges and Mini-Trials. These procedures are designed to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative...

  17. 48 CFR 6302.30 - Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule 30).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.30 Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule... Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): Settlement Judges and Mini-Trials. These procedures are designed to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative...

  18. Dynamic analysis of free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator-load system - Experimentally validated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. D.; Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Santiago, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of a variations in system parameters on the dynamic behavior of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine/Linear Alternator (FPSE/LA)-load system. The mathematical formulations incorporates both the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the FPSE, as well as the electrical equations of the connected load. State-space technique in the frequency domain is applied to the resulting system of equations to facilitate the evaluation of parametric impacts on the system dynamic stability. Also included is a discussion on the system transient stability as affected by sudden changes in some key operating conditions. Some representative results are correlated with experimental data to verify the model and analytic formulation accuracies. Guidelines are given for ranges of the system parameters which will ensure an overall stable operation.

  19. Multicriteria methods for resource planning: An experimental comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, B.F. . Dept. of Systems Engineering); Meier, P.M. )

    1994-11-01

    Multicriteria decision making (MCDM) methods are widely used for comparing alternatives when there are multiple objectives. For instance, utilities use them for resource bidding, externality quantification, facility siting, and resource planning. There are many alternative methods, differing in their ease of use, validity, results, and appropriateness to resource planning. Several MCDM methods are compared in an experiment involving the choice of resource portfolio for Seattle City Light. Planners and interest group representatives applied direct weight assessment, tradeoff weight assessment, additive value functions, and goal programming. Most of the participants concluded that MCDM methods could promote insight and confidence in decision making. However, they also confirmed the existence of method biases previously identified by psychologists. No single method emerged as best. Thus, application of two or more methods as consistency checks is recommended to guard against bias, and to stimulate insight.

  20. Alternative Splicing and Transcriptome Profiling of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Using Genome-Wide Exon Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Alan; Maratou, Klio; Fewings, Chris; Harris, Robert A.; Jagodic, Maja; Aitman, Tim; Olsson, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease causing demyelination and nerve loss in the central nervous system. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of MS that is widely used to investigate complex pathogenic mechanisms. Transcriptional control through isoform selection and mRNA levels determines pathway activation and ultimately susceptibility to disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We have studied the role of alternative splicing and differential expression in lymph node cells from EAE-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) and EAE-resistant Piebald Virol Glaxo.AV1 (PVG) inbred rat strains using Affymetrix Gene Chip Rat Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Comparing the two strains, we identified 11 differentially spliced and 206 differentially expressed genes at day 7 post-immunization, as well as 9 differentially spliced and 144 differentially expressed genes upon autoantigen re-stimulation. Functional clustering and pathway analysis implicate genes for glycosylation, lymphocyte activation, potassium channel activity and cellular differentiation in EAE susceptibility. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that alternative splicing occurs during complex disease and may govern EAE susceptibility. Additionally, transcriptome analysis not only identified previously defined EAE pathways regulating the immune system, but also novel mechanisms. Furthermore, several identified genes overlap known quantitative trait loci, providing novel causative candidate targets governing EAE. PMID:19915720

  1. Modelling alternative states of an ombrotrophic bog with experimentally deposed nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuanqiao; Keller, Philipp; Blodau, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution of peatlands alters their vegetation composition and carbon (C) sequestration. We applied a coupled carbon and nitrogen wetland model (PEATBOG) to analyse alternative steady states of an ombrotrophic bog exposed to experimentally deposited N at 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 gN m-2 yr-1. The study predicted discontinuous responses of the peatland ecosystem to differing N deposition and a lack of recovery after 15 years of fertilization with 6.4 gN m-2 yr-1, which indicated a regime shift of the modelled ecosystem. In combination drought, as concurrent disturbance, reduced the resilience of the system and contributed to the regime shift. Internal feedbacks may interact with the direct feedback of the external disturbances from nitrogen and climatic drivers and alter the responses of the ecosystem. The result suggested that the state of a peatland exposed to N deposition may be highly uncertain due to a dominant feedback loop that emerged from all disturbances. The finding highlighted the need for systematically quantifying the relative importance of multiple disturbances to predict the potential shift of a peatland ecosystem to alternative states as response to N deposition in a changing environment.

  2. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David A; Jones, Scott B; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L; Marshall, Miles R; Emmett, Bridget A

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction. PMID:26804897

  3. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David. A.; Jones, Scott B.; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T.; Smith, Andrew R.; Jones, Davey L.; Marshall, Miles R.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction.

  4. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David. A.; Jones, Scott B.; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T.; Smith, Andrew R.; Jones, Davey L.; Marshall, Miles R.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction. PMID:26804897

  5. Alternative Methods for Field Corrections in Helical Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.

    2015-05-01

    Helical cooling channels have been proposed for highly efficient 6D muon cooling. Helical solenoids produce solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical gradient field components. Previous studies explored the geometric tunability limits on these main field components. In this paper we present two alternative correction schemes, tilting the solenoids and the addition of helical lines, to reduce the required strength of the anti-solenoid and add an additional tuning knob.

  6. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM... Activation Test Method for Endocrine Disruptor Chemical Screening Federal Agency Research, Development... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods B Appendix... FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. B Appendix B to Part 178—Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods In addition to the method prescribed in § 178.604 of this subchapter, the following leakproofness test...

  8. An Alternative Field Method for Screening Soybean Genotypes for Resistance to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, N. E.; Mauro, A. O.; Tihohood, D.

    1998-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) has become an increasingly severe problem in soybean production areas in Brazil. The development and use of resistant cultivars is the most efficient method of minimizing losses due to this pathogen. Our objective was to test the efficiency of an alternative method for screening soybean genotypes for resistance to H. glycines in field plots. The alternative method was compared to the standard method of sowing the test genotypes in fields found to be infested during the previous crop season. In the alternative method, the test genotypes are sown in the furrow following the uprooting of 45-day-old infected plants. The alternative method resulted in twice the cyst population and fewer escapes, and more consistent results than the standard method. The major advantage of the alternative method is that it permits screening in a more homogeneous distribution of H. glycines in the soil. PMID:19274244

  9. Method of evaluating thermal diffusivity near lossy boundaries as an alternative to the Parker method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringermacher, Harry I.

    2013-04-01

    We describe an analysis of a flash thermographic method to measure thermal diffusivity that is particularly insensitive to heat loss mechanisms near thermal boundaries. This approach is an alternative to the "Parker method" which requires that a plate-like region subject to a uniform energy flux must reach a maximum constant temperature in order to obtain an accurate measurement of thermal diffusivity at the half-temperature point in time. The present approach relies on evaluating another unique point, the inflection point, of the same back-side thermal response curve as Parker's or, from the front side, using a contrast versus time curve in the sample region of interest. This inflection point occurs so early in the response history that little heat loss, for example, near heat-sink boundaries or surface convection, is expressed. Since the method is insensitive to the achieved temperature, it is also insensitive to surface emissivity variations.

  10. Experimental study of artificial recharge alternatives in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinclair, William C.

    1977-01-01

    Extensive water withdrawal from the Floridan aquifer in the urban Tampa Bay area has induced leakage from the overlying surficial aquifer adversely effecting the water table and lake levels. Artificial recharge could reduce the impact of these effects. Four experiments were conducted to investigate possible recharge alternatives; sinkhole recharge, water-spreading, connector wells, and subsurface-tile drainage to a deep well. Experiments indicate that all four methods can be effective. However, the sink-hole recharge experiment moved the greatest volume of water into the Floridan aquifer. The drain-tile experiment indicated greatest potential for draining the surficial aquifer. Combinations of the four methods could be used where potential exists for downward movement of water and sufficient unsaturated aquifer for water storage. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. An Alternative Method To Measure MIS Faculty Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Judith C.; Soliman, Khalid S.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a method of measuring a professor's performance using student evaluations in the field of information systems by measuring differences in student perceptions and knowledge. Findings for 328 students show the usefulness of this method in assessing teacher performance. (SLD)

  12. An Alternative Method to the Classical Partial Fraction Decomposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherif, Chokri

    2007-01-01

    PreCalculus students can use the Completing the Square Method to solve quadratic equations without the need to memorize the quadratic formula since this method naturally leads them to that formula. Calculus students, when studying integration, use various standard methods to compute integrals depending on the type of function to be integrated.…

  13. Consensus methods: review of original methods and their main alternatives used in public health

    PubMed Central

    Bourrée, Fanny; Michel, Philippe; Salmi, Louis Rachid

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Consensus-based studies are increasingly used as decision-making methods, for they have lower production cost than other methods (observation, experimentation, modelling) and provide results more rapidly. The objective of this paper is to describe the principles and methods of the four main methods, Delphi, nominal group, consensus development conference and RAND/UCLA, their use as it appears in peer-reviewed publications and validation studies published in the healthcare literature. Methods A bibliographic search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE, Banque de Données Santé Publique (BDSP), The Cochrane Library, Pascal and Francis. Keywords, headings and qualifiers corresponding to a list of terms and expressions related to the consensus methods were searched in the thesauri, and used in the literature search. A search with the same terms and expressions was performed on Internet using the website Google Scholar. Results All methods, precisely described in the literature, are based on common basic principles such as definition of subject, selection of experts, and direct or remote interaction processes. They sometimes use quantitative assessment for ranking items. Numerous variants of these methods have been described. Few validation studies have been implemented. Not implementing these basic principles and failing to describe the methods used to reach the consensus were both frequent reasons contributing to raise suspicion regarding the validity of consensus methods. Conclusion When it is applied to a new domain with important consequences in terms of decision making, a consensus method should be first validated. PMID:19013039

  14. Design of an Acoustic Array for Comparison with an Alternative Source Localization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, Deshawn; Lewalle, Jacques; Glauser, Mark; Wang, Guannan

    2013-11-01

    We report on the design, testing and construction of a conventional acoustic array, and document an alternate method of signal processing. The purpose of the new algorithm is to improve the spatial localization of acoustic sources. The reference results are obtained using the beamforming algorithm. The array design includes 60 microphones with a maximum aperture diameter of 39 inches. The arrays target frequency range is 500-5000 Hz. The new algorithm uses fewer microphones. We will show results with simulated signals and with jet noise experimental data. Details of the array calibration and representative data from measurements will be presented along with data post-processing procedures. Support from Syracuse University MAE department and LSAMP.

  15. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  16. An alternating minimization method for blind deconvolution from Poisson data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, Marco; La Camera, Andrea; Bonettini, Silvia

    2014-10-01

    Blind deconvolution is a particularly challenging inverse problem since information on both the desired target and the acquisition system have to be inferred from the measured data. When the collected data are affected by Poisson noise, this problem is typically addressed by the minimization of the Kullback-Leibler divergence, in which the unknowns are sought in particular feasible sets depending on the a priori information provided by the specific application. If these sets are separated, then the resulting constrained minimization problem can be addressed with an inexact alternating strategy. In this paper we apply this optimization tool to the problem of reconstructing astronomical images from adaptive optics systems, and we show that the proposed approach succeeds in providing very good results in the blind deconvolution of nondense stellar clusters.

  17. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  18. Update and Improve Subsection NH –– Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tai Asayama

    2009-10-26

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  19. Turf wars: experimental tests for alternative stable states in a two-phase coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Gretchen; Lee, William G; Pritchard, Daniel W; Wilson, J Bastow

    2014-02-01

    Alternative stable states have long been thought to exist in natural communities, but direct evidence for their presence and for the environmental switches that cause them has been scarce. Using a combination of greenhouse and field experiments, we investigated the environmental drivers associated with two distinctive herbaceous communities in coastal ecosystems in New Zealand. In a mosaic unrelated to micro-topography, a community dominated largely by native turf species (notably Leptinella dioica, Samolus repens, and Selliera radicans) alternates with vegetation comprising exotic (i.e., nonnative) pasture species (notably Agrostis stolonifera, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, and Trifolium repens). The species of these two communities differ in functional characters related to leaf longevity and growth rate, and occupy soils of differing nitrogen levels. Both spatial and environmental factors influenced the species composition locally. Reciprocal transplants of soil, with and without associated vegetation, showed that a native turf community developed when sward or soil from either community was bounded by turf, and a pasture community developed when sward or soil from either community was surrounded by pasture. In artificial mixed communities in the greenhouse, turf was able to invade the pasture community where the vegetation was clipped to simulate grazing, and also where Trifolium was removed and/or salt spray was applied. The pasture community invaded the turf where Trifolium was present or nitrogen was added. These results were supported by trends in experimentally manipulated field plots, where the amount of turf cover increased when nitrogen was kept low and when salt spray was applied, whereas pasture cover increased in the absence of salt spray. Thus, persistence of the native turf community is dependent on grazing, both directly and via its effect on keeping nitrogen levels low by excluding the exotic, nitrogen-fixing Trifolium, and by exposing the

  20. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250.1504 Section 250.1504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT... Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may...

  2. 27 CFR 19.666 - Application for and use of an alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application for and use of an alternate method or procedure. 19.666 Section 19.666 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use General § 19.666 Application for and use of an alternate method or...

  3. 78 FR 11174 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... alternative test methods are outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). We will continue to announce approvals... published at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt... AGENCY Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  4. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  5. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Production Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250.1504 Section 250.1504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Production Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250.1504 Section 250.1504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Production Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250.1504 Section 250.1504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  9. ECVAM's approach to intellectual property rights in the validation of alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Linge, Jens P; Hartung, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    In this article, we discuss how intellectual property rights affect the validation of alternative methods at ECVAM. We point out recent cases and summarise relevant EU and OECD documents. Finally, we discuss guidelines for dealing with intellectual property rights during the validation of alternative methods at ECVAM. PMID:17850189

  10. 40 CFR 211.206-3-211.206-10 - Alternative test methods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alternative test methods. 211.206-3-211.206-10 Section 211.206-3-211.206-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-10 Alternative test methods....

  11. 40 CFR 211.206-3-211.206-10 - Alternative test methods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative test methods. 211.206-3-211.206-10 Section 211.206-3-211.206-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-10 Alternative test methods....

  12. 40 CFR 211.206-3-211.206-10 - Alternative test methods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative test methods. 211.206-3-211.206-10 Section 211.206-3-211.206-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-10 Alternative test methods....

  13. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 22.22 Section 22.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.22 Alternate methods or...

  14. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 22.22 Section 22.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.22 Alternate methods or...

  15. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 22.22 Section 22.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.22 Alternate methods or...

  16. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 22.22 Section 22.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.22 Alternate methods or...

  17. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  18. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... determined the energy efficiency of the basic model, either from testing the basic model or from applying...

  19. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. Link to an amendment... such equipment in commerce unless the manufacturer has determined the energy efficiency of the...

  20. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... determined the energy efficiency of the basic model, either from testing the basic model or from applying...

  1. Effectiveness of Alternative Extension Methods through Radio Broadcasting in West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Bokar; Otoo, Miriam; Fulton, Joan; Lowenberg-DeBoer, James

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify which extension methods are most effective in Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of alternative extension methods on adoption of the triple bagging cowpea storage technology in Niger and Burkina Faso. This study was designed as a quasi-experiment with two alternative extension…

  2. 27 CFR 19.666 - Application for and use of an alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for and use of an alternate method or procedure. 19.666 Section 19.666 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use General § 19.666 Application for and use of an alternate method or...

  3. 27 CFR 19.666 - Application for and use of an alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for and use of an alternate method or procedure. 19.666 Section 19.666 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use General § 19.666 Application for and use of an alternate method or...

  4. 27 CFR 19.666 - Application for and use of an alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for and use of an alternate method or procedure. 19.666 Section 19.666 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use General § 19.666 Application for and use of an alternate method or...

  5. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ..., industry, and academia to review the current state of the science and validation status of methods and... Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), and its international partners identified rabies vaccines as one of the three highest priorities for future research, development, and validation of alternative...

  6. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  7. Alternative Methods of the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett. Adam C.; Omidvar, Kazem; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. [1991] was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70's to the mid-80's In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  8. Alternative Method for the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, A. C.; Omidvar, K.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter)-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70s to the mid-80s. In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  9. Multidimensional Programming Methods for Energy Facility Siting: Alternative Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, B. D.; Haynes, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of multidimensional optimization methods in solving power plant siting problems, which are characterized by several conflicting, noncommensurable objectives is addressed. After a discussion of data requirements and exclusionary site screening methods for bounding the decision space, classes of multiobjective and goal programming models are discussed in the context of finite site selection. Advantages and limitations of these approaches are highlighted and the linkage of multidimensional methods with the subjective, behavioral components of the power plant siting process is emphasized.

  10. Evaluation of alternative methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evapotranspiration is an important component in water-balance and irrigation scheduling models. While the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method has become the de facto standard for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo), it is a complex method requiring several weather parameters. Required weather ...

  11. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  12. Methods for the evaluation of alternative disaster warning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Anderson, R. J., Jr.; Lanen, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    For each of the methods identified, a theoretical basis is provided and an illustrative example is described. The example includes sufficient realism and detail to enable an analyst to conduct an evaluation of other systems. The methods discussed in the study include equal capability cost analysis, consumers' surplus, and statistical decision theory.

  13. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Ebadi, Ahmad; Talaeizadeh, Abdolhassan; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method. PMID:26634155

  14. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Ebadi, Ahmad; Talaeizadeh, Abdolhassan; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method. PMID:26634155

  15. An alternative method to screen for pepper spray residue.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Trevor D; Kubic, Thomas A; De Forest, Peter R

    2003-01-01

    A method was developed to screen for pepper spray residue using instruments and methods other than those techniques commonly employed to analyze chemical residue (i.e.. gas chromatography mass spectrometry-GCMS or liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-LCMS). The method employed gas chromatography (GC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to screen for dried pepper spray stains. Pepper sprays from nine different manufacturers were investigated. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were identified and unique IR reflectance spectra are presented. An additional five compounds were presumptively found. Results showed that a particular stain could be characterized as a pepper-based stain. PMID:12570209

  16. Alternate methods for high level pyrotechnic shock simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Phillip J., Sr.

    Two effective methods to recreate a realistic pyrotechnic shock are presented. The first method employs a resonant beam and is used for SRS levels of 12,000 G or more. The test unit is at one end of the beam and a hammer strikes the opposite end causing a shock to be transmitted to the other end of the fixture. The second method is based on a standard shaker system with a resonant beam to amplify the input signal. The engineer defines the duration of the shock signal induced to the vibration amplifier using the GenRad 2514 controller. The shock signal is then input via the shaker to the resonant beam, which amplifies the signal to produce the desired response at the end of the fixture. The shock response spectrum stays within a +/-6 dB tolerance with levels as high as 3000 G peak. These methods are repeatable, reliable, cost-effective, and consistent with a real pyroevent.

  17. An experimental investigation into cavitation behaviour and pressure characteristics of alternative blade sections for propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkut, Emin; Atlar, Mehmet; Wang, Dazheng

    2013-03-01

    During the final quarter of the last century considerable efforts have been spent to reduce the hull pressure fluctuations caused by unsteady propeller cavitation. This has resulted in further changes in propeller design characteristics including increased skew, tip unloading and introduction of "New Blade Sections" (NBS) designed on the basis of the so-called Eppler code. An experimental study was carried out to investigate flow characteristics of alternative two-dimensional (2-D) blade sections of rectangular planform, one of which was the New Blade Section (NBS) developed in Newcastle University and other was based on the well-known National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) section. The experiments comprised the cavitation observations and the measurements of the local velocity distribution around the blade sections by using a 2-D Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system. Analysis of the cavitation tests demonstrated that the two blade sections presented very similar bucket shapes with virtually no width at the bottom but relatively favourable buckets arms at the suction and pressure sides for the NACA section. Similarly, pressure analysis of the sections displayed a slightly larger value for the NBS pressure peak. The comparative overall pressure distributions around the sections suggested that the NBS might be more susceptible to cavitation than the NACA section. This can be closely related to the fundamental shape of the NBS with very fine leading edge. Therefore a further investigation into the modification of the leading edge should be considered to improve the cavitation behaviour of the NBS.

  18. New sources for alternative methods on the Internet: the objectives of databases and web sites.

    PubMed

    Grune, Barbara; Dörendahl, Antje; Köhler-Hahn, Dorothea; Feuerstein, Céline; Box, Rainer; Wohlgemuth, Heinz; Spielmann, Horst

    2004-06-01

    One of the main requirements of the current animal welfare legislation in Europe is to prove the necessity of performing a given experiment with animals. Thus, a study using animals should not proceed, if another scientifically reliable method is available to obtain the desired results that either avoids animal experiments altogether, minimises pain and suffering of animals or reduces the number of animals needed. Scientists are legally required to search the literature and other relevant sources for alternatives prior to any experimental study with animals. Access to information has become much easier since the introduction of the Internet as a standard tool. Today, a variety of online sources is available, e.g. web-based bibliographic databases and specialised web sites providing details about alternatives to animal studies. However, scientists still need to determine the most appropriate searching strategies, depending on the objectives of the relevant web sites and their own line of research. A critical discussion of this issue takes into account the objectives of both the information providers and the information retrieval systems. PMID:23581139

  19. Feasibility and acceptability of alternate methods of postnatal data collection.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey A; Friedrich, Christa; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Specker, Bonny

    2014-05-01

    This study was done in preparation for the launch of the National Children's Study (NCS) main study. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility (completion rates and completeness of data), acceptability, staff time and cost-effectiveness of three methods of data collection for the postnatal 3- and 9-month questionnaires completed as part of NCS protocol. Eligible NCS participants who were scheduled to complete a postnatal questionnaire at three and nine months were randomly assigned to receive either: (a) telephone data collection (b) web-based data collection, or (c) self-administered (mailed) questionnaires. Event completion rates and satisfaction across the three data collection methods were compared and the influence of socio-demographic factors on completion rates and satisfaction rates was examined. Cost data were compared to data for completion and satisfaction for each of the delivery methods. Completion rates and satisfaction did not differ significantly by method, but completeness of data did, with odds of data completeness higher among web than phone (p < 0.001) or mail (p < 0.001). Costs were highest for the phone, followed by mail and web methods (p < 0.001). No significant differences in participant time (i.e. burden) across the three data collection methods were seen. Mail and phone data collection were the least complete of the three methods and were the most expensive. Mailed data collection was neither complete nor exceptionally economical. Web-based data collection was the least costly and provided the most complete data. Participants without web access could complete the questionnaire over the phone. PMID:23793486

  20. Evaluation of Alternate Stainless Steel Surface Passivation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  1. An alternative simple method in laryngoscope blade decontamination.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Mehmet Emin; Saygun, Onur; Güzeldemir, M Erdal

    2002-06-01

    The cleaning and disinfection of laryngoscope blades is controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of two different chemical disinfectant agents and tap water where the laryngoscope blades were contaminated by different microorganisms and try to create a simple, effective and easy decontamination method. The results of our study demonstrate that the decontamination of the laryngoscope blades, which are cleansed with tap water, is not a reliable approach. In conclusion, mechanical cleaning of blades with water and the immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or 10% polyvinyl pyrrolidine iodine for 10 minutes is an effective method for decontamination of laryngoscope blades. PMID:12138517

  2. Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

  3. Geospatial methods for monitoring alternative control technology sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils data can be used to establish nutrient distribution at a selected site; however, soil sampling is labor intensive, costly, and selection of sampling sites may be difficult. This study was conducted to determine if methods developed for the management of saline soils can be applied to a vegetat...

  4. Micro-computed tomography: an alternative method for shark ageing.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, P T; Jones, A S; Stewart, J; Macbeth, W G

    2012-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (microCT) produced 3D reconstructions of shark Carcharhinus brevipinna vertebrae that could be virtually sectioned along any desired plane, and upon which growth bands were readily visible. When compared to manual sectioning, it proved to be a valid and repeatable means of ageing and offers several distinct advantages over other ageing methods. PMID:22497384

  5. Evaluation of Alternative Difference-in-Differences Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Difference-in-differences (DID) strategies are particularly useful for evaluating policy effects in natural experiments in which, for example, a policy affects some schools and students but not others. However, the standard DID method may produce biased estimation of the policy effect if the confounding effect of concurrent events varies by…

  6. FMEA, the alternative process hazard method. [Failure Mode Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, R.K. )

    1993-05-01

    Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) is an old reliability/assurance tool finding its way into the HPI. Not popular yet, this hazard technique has some viable applications that can improve hazard assessment data. Notably, FMEA studies can identify possible areas for improvement that may have not been discovered using other methods. Also, FMEA is not as labor intensive and costly as other process hazard analysis (PHA) methods. PSHA 1910.119 set in place an informational structure whose main purpose is the reduction of potential accidents and minimizing risks in the event of an accident. Consequently, HPI operators must evaluate their process systems and identify potential major hazards, such as fires, explosions and accidental release of toxic/hazardous chemicals, and protect their facilities, employees, the public and the environment. But, which PHA method(s) apply to a particular plant or process still remains a difficult question. This paper describes what FMEA is; types of FMEA; how to conduct a FMEA study; comparison with HAZOP (hazard and operability study); computer software; applicability of FMEA; and examples of its use.

  7. 40 CFR 35.6315 - Alternative methods for obtaining property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... document a cost comparison analysis to determine which of these methods of obtaining equipment is the most... comparison analysis to EPA for approval. The recipient must obtain the equipment through the most cost..., the recipient may hire the services of a contractor. (ii) The recipient must obtain award...

  8. 40 CFR 35.6315 - Alternative methods for obtaining property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... document a cost comparison analysis to determine which of these methods of obtaining equipment is the most... comparison analysis to EPA for approval. The recipient must obtain the equipment through the most cost..., the recipient may hire the services of a contractor. (ii) The recipient must obtain award...

  9. The alternative methods for disinfection of E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetim, Tuba; Görmez, Arzu; Gürkök, Sümeyra

    2016-04-01

    Recently, advanced oxidation processes have gained significant interest for bacterial inactivation. In the present study, the efficacy of sonolysis, photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis was evaluated for disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain. Sonophotocatalysis proved to be the most effective disinfection methods by generating greater amount of •OHradical.

  10. An Alternative Method Of Specifying Shock Test Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.; Clayton, J.; Alldredge, D.; Irvine, T.

    2008-01-01

    Shock testing of aerospace vehicle hardware has presented many challenges over the years due to the high magnitude and short duration of the specifications. Recently, component structural failures have occurred during testing that have not manifested themselves on over 200 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) flights (two boosters per flight). It is suspected that the method of specifying shock test criteria may be leaving important information out of the test process. The traditional test criteria specification, the shock response spectrum, can be duplicated by any number of waveforms that may not resemble the actual flight test recorded time history. One method of overcoming this limitation is described herein, which may prove useful for qualifying hardware for the upcoming Constellation Program.