Science.gov

Sample records for alternative low-cost precursors

  1. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    utilized an engineering-guided R&D approach, which involved the rapid down-selection of a large number of options (chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4}) to a smaller, more manageable number. The research began by conducting an extensive review of the technical and patent literature to identify all possible options. The down-selection was based on evaluation of the options against a set of metrics, and to a large extent occurred before experimentation was initiated. Given the vast amount of literature and patents that has evolved over the years, this approach helped to focus efforts and resources on the options with the highest technical and commercial probability of success. Additionally, a detailed engineering analysis methodology was developed for conducting the cost and energy-efficiency calculations. The methodology utilized a number of inputs and tools (Aspen PEA{trademark}, FCHTool, and H2A). The down-selection of chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4} identified three options that were subsequently pursued experimentally. Metal reduction of borate was investigated in Dow's laboratories, research on electrochemical routes to NaBH{sub 4} was conducted at Pennsylvania State University, and Idaho National Laboratory researchers examined various carbothermal routes for producing NaBH{sub 4} from borate. The electrochemical and carbothermal studies did not yield sufficiently positive results. However, NaBH{sub 4} was produced in high yields and purities by an aluminum-based metal reduction pathway. Solid-solid reactive milling, slurry milling, and solution-phase approaches to metal reduction were investigated, and while both reactive milling and solution-phase routes point to fully recyclable processes, the scale-up of reactive milling processes to produce NaBH{sub 4} is expected to be difficult. Alternatively, a low-cost solution-phase approach to NaBH{sub 4} has been identified that is based on conventional process unit operations and should be amenable to scale-up. Numerous

  2. A low cost alternative to high performance PCM bit synchronizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshong, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The Code Converter/Clock Regenerator (CCCR) provides a low-cost alternative to high-performance Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) bit synchronizers in environments with a large Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). In many applications, the CCCR can be used in place of PCM bit synchronizers at about one fifth the cost. The CCCR operates at rates from 10 bps to 2.5 Mbps and performs PCM code conversion and clock regeneration. The CCCR has been integrated into a stand-alone system configurable from one to six channels and has also been designed for use in VMEbus compatible systems.

  3. Low cost alternatives to commercial lab kits for physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodejška, Č.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubínek, R.; Říha, J.

    2015-08-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace in the case of professional kits such as Vernier, Pasco or Coach costs around 800 euros. In this paper some physics experiments in which a computer, or a tablet with Microsoft Windows, is used as the measuring device, along with available physical devices such as a laser pointer, a solar cell or an electret microphone, are presented as suitable and alternative ways to carry out lab work. We show that it is possible to perform very simple school experiments (both as a central demonstration and as individual experimentation), in which high accuracy and clear final conclusions can be achieved at a very low cost. Further information is published on the specialized webpage www.sclpx.eu/index.php?lang=en. The worksheets are in Czech, but the English version is in preparation.

  4. Luminescent Solar Concentrators - a low cost photovoltaics alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

    2012-10-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are being developed as a potentially low cost-per-Wp photovoltaic device, suited for applications especially in the built environment. LSCs generally consist of transparent polymer sheets doped with luminescent species, either organic dye molecules or semiconductor nanocrystals. Direct and diffuse incident sunlight is absorbed by the luminescent species and emitted at redshifted wavelengths with high quantum efficiency. Optimum design ensures that a large fraction of emitted light is trapped in the sheet, which travels to the edges where it can be collected by one or more mono- or bifacial solar cells, with minimum losses due to absorption in the sheet and re-absorption by the luminescent species. Today's record efficieny is 7%, however, 10-15% is within reach. Optimized luminescent solar concentrators potentially offer lower cost per unit of power compared to conventional solar cells. Moreover, LSCs have an increased conversion efficiency for overcast and cloudy sky conditions, having a large fraction of diffuse irradiation, which is blueshifted compared to clear sky conditions. As diffuse irradiation conditions are omnipresent throughout mid- and northern-European countries, annual performance of LSCs is expected to be better in terms of kWh/Wp compared to conventional PV.

  5. Uniform nanoparticles by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) of low cost precursors

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, Thomas; Wegner, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    A new flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) reactor design is presented, which allows the use of inexpensive precursors and solvents (e.g., ethanol) for synthesis of nanoparticles (10–20 nm) with uniform characteristics. In this reactor design, a gas-assisted atomizer generates the precursor solution spray that is mixed and combusted with externally fed inexpensive fuel gases (acetylene or methane) at a defined height above the atomizing nozzle. The gaseous fuel feed can be varied to control the combustion enthalpy content of the flame and onset of particle formation. This way, the enthalpy density of the flame is decoupled from the precursor solution composition. Low enthalpy content precursor solutions are prone to synthesis of non-uniform particles (e.g., bimodal particle size distribution) by standard flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) processes. For example, metal nitrates in ethanol typically produce nanosized particles by gas-to-particle conversion along with larger particles by droplet-to-particle conversion. The present FASP design facilitates the use of such low enthalpy precursor solutions for synthesis of homogeneous nanopowders by increasing the combustion enthalpy density of the flame with low-cost, gaseous fuels. The effect of flame enthalpy density on product properties in the FASP configuration is explored by the example of Bi2O3 nanoparticles produced from bismuth nitrate in ethanol. Product powders were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray disk centrifuge, and transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous Bi2O3 nanopowders were produced both by increasing the gaseous fuel content and, most notably, by cutting the air entrainment prior to ignition of the spray. PMID:23408113

  6. Development of low-cost metal oxide pH electrodes based on the polymeric precursor method.

    PubMed

    da Silva, G M; Lemos, S G; Pocrifka, L A; Marreto, P D; Rosario, A V; Pereira, E C

    2008-05-26

    In this work, the polymeric precursor method was used to prepare low-cost solid-state sensors for pH determination based on iridium oxide as the main pH sensitive material. The iridium content was reduced with addition of TiO(2), forming the binary system IrO(x)-TiO(2), whose electroanalytical properties were evaluated in comparison with a commercial glass pH electrode. The minimum iridium content which gave suitable results was 30mol%, and the electrode presented Nernstian and fast response in the pH range from 1 to 13, with no hysteresis effect observed. Besides, the electrode showed high selectivity in the presence of alkali ions as Li(+), Na(+) or K(+). The amount of iridium in the prepared electrodes was very small (<0.1mg), supporting the efficiency of this method on the simple preparation of functional low-cost pH electrodes. PMID:18471481

  7. The Arclight Ophthalmoscope: A Reliable Low-Cost Alternative to the Standard Direct Ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, James; Cleland, Charles R.; Mgaya, Evarista; Furahini, Godfrey; Gilbert, Clare E.; Burton, Matthew J.; Philippin, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Arclight ophthalmoscope is a low-cost alternative to standard direct ophthalmoscopes. This study compared the Arclight ophthalmoscope with the Heine K180 direct ophthalmoscope to evaluate its reliability in assessing the vertical cup disc ratio (VCDR) and its ease of use (EOU). Methods. Eight medical students used both the Arclight and the Heine ophthalmoscopes to examine the optic disc in 9 subjects. An EOU score was provided after every examination (a higher score indicating that the ophthalmoscope is easier to use). A consultant ophthalmologist provided the reference standard VCDR. Results. 288 examinations were performed. The number of examinations that yielded an estimation of the VCDR was significantly higher for the Arclight ophthalmoscope (125/144, 85%) compared to the Heine ophthalmoscope (88/144, 61%) (p < 0.001). The mean difference from the reference standard VCDR was similar for both instruments, with a mean of −0.078 (95% CI: −0.10 to −0.056) for the Arclight and −0.072 (95% CI: −0.097 to −0.046) for Heine (p = 0.69). The overall EOU score was significantly higher for the Arclight ophthalmoscope (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The Arclight ophthalmoscope performs as well as, and is easier to use than, a standard direct ophthalmoscope, suggesting it is a reliable, low-cost alternative. PMID:26457197

  8. Development of Low Cost Gas Atomization of Precursor Powders for Simplified ODS Alloy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2014-08-05

    A novel gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) method was developed in this project to enable production (at our partner’s facility) a precursor Ni-Cr-Y-Ti powder with a surface oxide and an internal rare earth (RE) containing intermetallic compound (IMC) phase. Consolidation and heat-treatment experiments were performed at Ames Lab to promote the exchange of oxygen from the surface oxide to the RE intermetallic to form nano-metric oxide dispersoids. Alloy selection was aided by an internal oxidation and serial grinding experiments at Ames Lab and found that Hf-containing alloys may form more stable dispersoids than Ti-containing alloy, i.e., the Hf-containing system exhibited five different oxide phases and two different intermetallics compared to the two oxide phases and one intermetallic in the Ti-containing alloys. Since the simpler Ti-containing system was less complex to characterize, and make observations on the effects of processing parameters, the Ti-containing system was selected by Ames Lab for experimental atomization trials at our partner. An internal oxidation model was developed at Ames Lab and used to predict the heat treatment times necessary for dispersoid formation as a function of powder size and temperature. A new high-pressure gas atomization (HPGA) nozzle was developed at Ames Lab with the aim of promoting fine powder production at scales similar to that of the high gas-flow and melt-flow of industrial atomizers. The atomization nozzle was characterized using schlieren imaging and aspiration pressure testing at Ames Lab to determine the optimum melt delivery tip geometry and atomization pressure to promote enhanced secondary atomization mechanisms. Six atomization trials were performed at our partner to investigate the effects of: gas atomization pressure and reactive gas concentration on the particle size distribution (PSD) and the oxygen content of the resulting powder. Also, the effect on the rapidly solidified microstructure (as a

  9. The spring-driven implantable pump. A low-cost alternative.

    PubMed

    Wigness, B D; Dorman, F D; Rohde, T D; Buchwald, H

    1992-01-01

    In the current era of cost containment in medicine, manufacturing economics have become increasingly important. The authors devised an implantable pump powered by spring force from an elastomeric Belleville washer, which is also the outer flexible wall of the drug reservoir. Use of formed and injection molded parts provides for low-cost manufacturing, in contrast to the precision welded alternative designs. Additional advantages include insensitivity to changes in ambient temperature and pressure. Finite element modeling of the elastomer spring allows prediction of the effects of parameter changes on performance, so that expansions and reductions of scale can be made without compromising the uniform spring rate of the device. A concern that subcutaneous fibrous encapsulation might markedly alter reservoir pressure was not supported by experimental data. In a unit implanted subcutaneously in a dog, reservoir pressures measured over a 4 year period were stable. This new, simple, implantable infusion pump can serve as an economical vehicle for prolonged parenteral drug treatment of ambulatory subjects in circumstances where continuous single-rate infusion is appropriate. PMID:1457901

  10. Digital HF communications for the polar regions - a low-cost alternative to satellite?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior-Jones, Michael; Warrington, Mike

    2010-05-01

    Digital HF communications for the polar regions - a low-cost alternative to satellite? Prior-Jones, M.R. and Warrington, E. M Communications within the polar regions pose unique technical challenges, due to the physical isolation, lack of infrastructure and extreme weather conditions. Geostationary satellite links are widely used, but they cannot function poleward of 80 degrees due to the curvature of the Earth. Low-earth-orbit systems like Iridium and ARGOS will function all the way to the poles. However, they are expensive, particularly for experiments requiring long time-series. Transferring data by Iridium satellite phone costs of the order of 60USD per megabyte. HF (i.e. 3-30 MHz) radio signals propagate via the ionosphere, allowing long distance transmission beyond the horizon. Ranges of thousands of kilometres can be easily achieved with relatively low transmission powers when propagation is favourable. The polar ionosphere is, however, a challenging environment for radio signals - the signals often reflect from multiple regions of the ionosphere and by multiple hops with intermediate ground reflections producing multipath effects. As the ionosphere is moving, these signals are also subject to very significant Doppler shifts that add to the complexity of the environment. These effects may make data communications at polar latitudes difficult or impossible at times and often only at low data rates. In this paper we discuss our experiments to use modern signal-processing and modulation techniques for digital transmission on HF, offering a similar speed to satellite but without paying the high cost of satellite airtime. Using an HF channel simulator developed by Warrington et al based on measurements of propagation at high latitudes, we have tested the performance of an OFDM-based modem derived from the Digital Radio Mondiale standard used for digital HF broadcasting and found that it outperforms current military modems developed by NATO (STANAG 4285 and 4539

  11. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs). Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions) are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7–11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. PMID:25671019

  12. Low temperature pyrotechnic smokes: A potential low cost alternative to nonpyrotechnic smoke for access delay applications

    SciTech Connect

    Greenholt, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Smokes are frequently used as visual obscurants in access delay applications. A new generation of low temperature pyrotechnic smokes is being developed. Terephthalic Acid (TPA) smoke was developed by the U.S. Army and Sebacic Acid (SA) smoke is being developed by Thiokol Corp. The advantages these smokes offer over traditional pyrotechnic smokes include; low generation temperature (approximately 450{degree}C), lower toxicity, and lower corrosivity. The low generation temperature reduces smoke layering effects and allows the addition of sensory irritants, such as o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS), to the formulation. Some advantages low temperature pyrotechnic smokes offer over nonpyrotechnic smokes include; low cost, simplicity, compactness, light weight, long storage life, and orientation insensitive operation. Low cost permits distribution of multiple units for reduced vulnerability and refill flexibility. Some disadvantages may include the combustibility of the smoke particulate; however, the published lower explosive limit of the mentioned materials is approximately ten times greater than the concentration required for effective obscuration. The TPA smoke cloud contains small quantities of benzene, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide; no benzene or formaldehyde was identified during preliminary SA smoke analyses performed by Thiokol Corp. Sandia performed tests and analyses on TPA smoke to determine the smoke cloud composition, the quantity of particulate produced per canister, and the relationship between airborne particulate concentration and measured optical density values. Current activities include characterization of SA smoke.

  13. Al13Fe4 as a low-cost alternative for palladium in heterogeneous hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbrüster, M.; Kovnir, K.; Friedrich, M.; Teschner, D.; Wowsnick, G.; Hahne, M.; Gille, P.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Feuerbacher, M.; Heggen, M.; Girgsdies, F.; Rosenthal, D.; Schlögl, R.; Grin, Yu.

    2012-08-01

    Replacing noble metals in heterogeneous catalysts by low-cost substitutes has driven scientific and industrial research for more than 100 years. Cheap and ubiquitous iron is especially desirable, because it does not bear potential health risks like, for example, nickel. To purify the ethylene feed for the production of polyethylene, the semi-hydrogenation of acetylene is applied (80 × 106 tons per annum refs , , ). The presence of small and separated transition-metal atom ensembles (so-called site-isolation), and the suppression of hydride formation are beneficial for the catalytic performance. Iron catalysts necessitate at least 50 bar and 100 °C for the hydrogenation of unsaturated C-C bonds, showing only limited selectivity towards semi-hydrogenation. Recent innovation in catalytic semi-hydrogenation is based on computational screening of substitutional alloys to identify promising metal combinations using scaling functions and the experimental realization of the site-isolation concept employing structurally well-ordered and in situ stable intermetallic compounds of Ga with Pd (refs , , , , ). The stability enables a knowledge-based development by assigning the observed catalytic properties to the crystal and electronic structures of the intermetallic compounds. Following this approach, we identified the low-cost and environmentally benign intermetallic compound Al13Fe4 as an active and selective semi-hydrogenation catalyst. This knowledge-based development might prove applicable to a wide range of heterogeneously catalysed reactions.

  14. Low cost alternative of high speed visible light camera for tokamak experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Odstrcil, T.; Grover, O.; Svoboda, V.; Odstrcil, M.; Duran, I.; Mlynar, J.

    2012-10-15

    We present design, analysis, and performance evaluation of a new, low cost and high speed visible-light camera diagnostic system for tokamak experiments. The system is based on the camera Casio EX-F1, with the overall price of approximately a thousand USD. The achieved temporal resolution is up to 40 kHz. This new diagnostic was successfully implemented and tested at the university tokamak GOLEM (R = 0.4 m, a = 0.085 m, B{sub T} < 0.5 T, I{sub p} < 4 kA). One possible application of this new diagnostic at GOLEM is discussed in detail. This application is tomographic reconstruction for estimation of plasma position and emissivity.

  15. Monitoring of Landslides with Mass Market Gps: AN Alternative Low Cost Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cina, A.; Piras, M.; Bendea, H. I.

    2013-01-01

    The territory of Italy is seriously afflicted by hydrological risk, with 82% of its area affected by this phenomenon. In recent years, technologies and advanced research have played an important role in realizing complex automatic systems devoted to landslide monitoring and to alerting the population. Sometimes, the cost of these systems (communications network, sensors, software, technologies) prevents their use, and in particular the cost of sensors has a large impact on the final investment. For example, geodetic GNSS receivers are usually employed to conduct landslide monitoring, but they are costly. Nowadays, new technologies make it possible to use small and efficient low cost single frequency GPS receivers, which are able to achieve a centimetric or better level of accuracy, in static positioning. The rapid development and diffusion of the GNSS network to provide a positioning service has made it possible to use single frequency receivers, thanks to the use of virtual RINEX. This product is generated by a network of permanent stations. In this research, the actual performance of a mass market GPS receiver was tested, with the purpose of verifying if these sensors can be used for landslide monitoring. A special slide was realized, in order to conduct a dedicated test of the detection of displacements. Tests were carried out considering two factors: acquisition time and distance from the Virtual Station. The accuracy and precision of movement determination were evaluated and compared, for each test, considering the different factors. The tests and results are described in this contribution.

  16. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  17. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2016-06-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detector and describe two quantitative assays for detection of detoxified and active AFB1 demonstrating that AFB1 concentration can be measured as intensity of fluorescence. When the assay plate containing increasing concentrations of AFB1 is illuminated with a 366 nm ultraviolet lamp, AFB1 molecules absorb photons and emit blue light with peak wavelength of 432 nm. The fluorescence intensity increased in dose dependent manner. However, this method cannot distinguish between active AFB1 which poses a threat to health, and the detoxified AFB1 which exhibits no toxicity. To measure the toxin activity, we used a cell based assay that makes quantification more robust and is capable of detecting multiple samples simultaneously. It is an alternative to the qualitative duckling bioassay which is the "gold-standard" assay currently being used for quantitative analysis of active AFB1. AFB1 was incubated with transduced Vero cells expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. After excitation with blue light at 475 nm, cells emitted green light with emission peak at 509 nm. The result shows that AFB1 inhibits protein expression in a concentration dependent manner resulting in proportionately less GFP fluorescence in cells exposed to AFB1. The result also indicates strong positive linear relationship with R(2)=0.90 between the low cost CCD camera and a fluorometer, which costs 100 times more than a CCD camera. This new analytical method for measuring active AFB1 is low in cost and combined with in vitro assay, is quantitative. It also does not require the use of animals and may be useful especially for laboratories in regions with limited resources. PMID:26874107

  18. Multi-batch catfish production and economic analysis using alternative low-cost diets with corn gluten feed and traditional diets with meat-and-bone meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted concurrent feeding trials for one growing season with channel catfish in ponds in Mississippi and Arkansas to evaluate the production and economic effects of alternative (low-cost) feeds containing 28 or 32% protein and alternative (corn gluten feed) or traditional (porcine meat, bone a...

  19. Is predictive emission monitoring an acceptable low cost alternative to continuous emission monitoring for complying with enhanced monitoring requirements?

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    Title VII of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (the {open_quotes}Act{close_quotes}) expanded and clarified the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) enforcement capabilities under the Act. Section 702 of the 1990 Amendments clarified EPA`s ability to require sources to provide information. Additionally, Section 702(b) required EPA to promulgate rules on enhanced monitoring and compliance certifications by adding a new section 114(a)(3) of the Act which states in part: {open_quotes}The Administrator shall in the case of any person which is the owner or operator of a major stationary source, and any in the case of any other person, require enhanced monitoring and submission of compliance certifications. Compliance certifications shall include (A) identification of the applicable requirement that is the basis of the certification, (B) the method used for determining the compliance status of the source, (C) the compliance status, (D) whether compliance is continuous or intermittent, (E) such other facts as the Administrator may require...{close_quotes} The 1990 Amendments contained several other changes that either relate directly to section 114(a)(3) or provide additional indications of the intent behind the new section. First, section 504(b) of the Amendments permits the Administrator to promulgate appropriate tests methods and monitoring requirements for determining compliance. That section states that {open_quotes}continuous emissions monitoring need not be required if alternative methods are available that provide sufficiently reliable and timely information for determining compliance.{close_quotes} This paper will describe Predictive Emission Systems (PEMS) and how the applications of PEMS may be a low cost, accurate, and acceptable alternative to Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) for complying with Enhanced Monitoring requirements.

  20. Analysis of the First Year of Operation of the Federal Alternative Financing Program for Individuals with Disabilities: Providing Low Cost Loans for the Purchase of Assistive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Arlington, VA.

    This report analyzes the first year of the Federal Alternative Financing Program (AFP), a program designed to help individuals with disabilities who need to purchase assistive technology (AT) find a way to pay for the equipment. The program receives funding under Title III of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 and provides low-cost financing for…

  1. I Say Try: A Successful Low-Cost Alternative for Housing Rehabilitation with Volunteers and Job Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Hans H.; Phinney, A. W.

    The report gives a brief history of Boston's South End, its housing situation, and the Low Cost Housing Corporation (LCHC), founded in 1965 as a nonprofit organization to provide housing for low income tenants. The rehabilitation process for brickfront row houses is described thoroughly. Details of a training program which utilized volunteers and…

  2. Emulation-Based Virtual Laboratories: A Low-Cost Alternative to Physical Experiments in Control Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, G. C.; Medioli, A. M.; Sher, W.; Vlacic, L. B.; Welsh, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues the case for emulation-based virtual laboratories in control engineering education. It demonstrates that such emulation experiments can give students an industrially relevant educational experience at relatively low cost. The paper also describes a particular emulation-based system that has been developed with the aim of giving…

  3. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detec...

  4. OZONE PRECURSOR EMISSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVELY FUELED VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smog chamber tests were conducted using automobile exhaust gas generated during emission tests with a group of alternatively fueled vehicles. he tests were designed to evaluate the photochemical characteristics of organic emissions from vehicles operating on compressed natural ga...

  5. Solid waste treatment as a high-priority and low-cost alternative for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, O; Avnimelech, Y; Shechter, M

    2001-05-01

    The increased concern about environmental problems caused by inadequate waste management, as well as the concern about global warming, promotes actions toward a sustainable management of the organic fraction of the waste. Landfills, the most common means to dispose of municipal solid waste (MSW), lead to the conversion of the organic waste to biogas, containing about 50% methane, a very active greenhouse gas (GHG). One unit of methane has a global warming potential of 21 computed for a 100-year horizon or 56 computed for 20 years. The waste sector in Israel contributes 13% of total greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions for a time horizon of 100 years (for a time horizon of 20 years, the waste sector contribution equals to more than 25% of total GHG emissions). The ultimate goal is to minimize the amount of methane (CH4) by converting it to CO2. This can be achieved by physicochemical means (e.g., landfill gas flare, incineration) or by biological processes (e.g., composting, anaerobic digestion). Since the waste in Israel has a high organic material content, it was found that the most cost-effective means to treat the degradable organic components is by aerobic composting (investment of less than US$ 10 to reduce emission of one ton CO2 equivalent per year). Another benefit of this technology is the ability to implement it within a short period. The suggested approach, which should be implemented especially in developing countries, could reduce a significant amount of GHG at relatively low cost and short time. The development of a national policy for proper waste treatment can be a significant means to abate GHG emissions in the short term, enabling a gain in time to develop other means for the long run. In addition, the use of CO2 quotas will credit the waste sector and will promote profitable proper waste management. PMID:11334157

  6. Low Cost Processing of Commingled Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiasson, Matthew Lee

    A low cost vacuum consolidation process has been investigated for use with commingled thermoplastic matrix composites. In particular, the vacuum consolidation behaviour of commingled polypropylene/glass fibre and commingled nylon/carbon fibre precursors were studied. Laminates were consolidated in a convection oven under vacuum pressure. During processing, the consolidation of the laminate packs was measured by use of non-contact eddy current sensors. The consolidation curves are then used to tune an empirical consolidation model. The overall quality of the resulting laminates is also discussed. Dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical tensile testing were also performed in order to determine the effects of varying processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the laminates. Through this analysis, it was determined that the nylon/carbon fibre blend was not suitable for vacuum consolidation, while the polypropylene/glass fibre blend is a viable option for vacuum consolidation. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a foundation from which low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) components can be designed and manufactured from thermoplastic matrix composites using a low cost processing technique as an alternative to traditional thermoset composite materials.

  7. Low-cost Negative-pressure Wound Therapy Using Wall Vacuum: A 15 Dollars by Day Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Ignacio; Eburdery, Harold; Grolleau, Jean Louis; Chavoin, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been marketed for about 20 years and remains popular. The only real obstacle to NPWT is the cost; therefore, we designed an inexpensive NPWT connected to a wall vacuum. Here, we report the feasibility and safety of this product, which we call PROVACUUM (Z-Biotech, Saint-Avertin, France). Methods: As a first step, the constraints imposed on the manufacturer were equipment quality similar to that of commercial NPWT systems, with an average treatment cost of $15/d. Then, we conducted a prospective study of patients with indications for NPWT from September 2013 to January 2015. Data collected included ease of use, quality of materials, and occurrence of complications during treatment. Results: We enrolled 23 patients with a mean age of 50.8 years. The average duration of treatment was 8.5 days (range, 3–21 days). The dressings were changed every 3.3 days (range, 2–4 days). Two hematomas occurred that required surgical revision and the transfusion of 2 units after large debridement of pressure ulcer. No other adverse events or infections occurred. The surgeons found that our device was similar to commercial NPWT devices. Conclusions: We developed an inexpensive NPWT that costs an average of $15/d. Our process is not intended to replace portable or stand-alone devices with batteries, but rather offers a less expensive alternative for hospitalized patients and makes NPWT accessible to the most precarious countries and institutions. PMID:26180719

  8. A Low Cost TDRSS Compatible Transmitter Option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Don

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space-based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) program has developed and tested a low cost Ku-Band transmitter alternative for TDRSS applications based on an existing IRIG shaped offset quaternary phase shift keying (SOQPSK) transmitter. This paper presents information related to the implementation of this low cost system, as well as performance measurements of the alternative TDRSS transmitter system compared with an existing QPSK TDRSS transmitter.

  9. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  10. Fish meal lecithin as alternative precursor of docosahexaenoate and choline.

    PubMed

    Dahlan, W; Chatnilbandhu, S; Na-Nagara, B; Carpentier, Y A

    1996-09-01

    Choline and docosahexaenoate (DHA) are essential nutrients for maintaining normal brain function. However, their existence in fish lecithin is ignored and excluded during the degumming step of conventional fish oil manufacturing process. The study aims to introduce fish lecithin as alternative precursor of choline and omega-3 fatty acids especially DHA for nutritional supplements. Four grades of Thai fish meals with protein contents ranging from 60-70% were used. Their lipid characteristics were examined. Fish meal's fats and lecithin were 9-15 and 2-3 g/100 g, respectively. Total fatty acids constitute 23-27% monoenes without erucic acid and 24-28% polyenes including 15-19% DHA. Lecithin with 50% purity was prepared from grade-1 fish meal by means of consecutive methanol/n-hexane/acetone extraction. The obtained lecithin contains choline upto 66-70 mole% with DHA reaches to 20-23%. Its peroxide value of 57 and acid value of 9 are accepted for food grade lecithin preparation, however, the further refinery process is still suggested. Since the world consumption of nutritional supplement foods is increasing steadily, the results of our study implies that fish lecithin is probably a promising source of choline and omega-3 fatty acids especially DHA for such an objective. PMID:8886341

  11. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Rober; Paulauskas, Felix; Naskar, Amit; Kaufman, Michael; Yarborough, Ken; Derstine, Chris

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

  12. An Alternative Low-Cost Process for Deposition of MCrAlY Bond Coats for Advanced Syngas/Hydrogen Turbine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-11

    The objective of this project was to develop and optimize MCrAlY bond coats for syngas/hydrogen turbine applications using a low-cost electrolytic codeposition process. Prealloyed CrAlY-based powders were codeposited into a metal matrix of Ni, Co or Ni-Co during the electroplating process, and a subsequent post-deposition heat treatment converted it to the MCrAlY coating. Our research efforts focused on: (1) investigation of the effects of electro-codeposition configuration and parameters on the CrAlY particle incorporation in the NiCo-CrAlY composite coatings; (2) development of the post-deposition heat treating procedure; (3) characterization of coating properties and evaluation of coating oxidation performance; (4) exploration of a sulfurfree electroplating solution; (5) cost analysis of the present electrolytic codeposition process. Different electro-codeposition configurations were investigated, and the rotating barrel system demonstrated the capability of depositing NiCo-CrAlY composite coatings uniformly on the entire specimen surface, with the CrAlY particle incorporation in the range 37-42 vol.%. Post-deposition heat treatment at 1000-1200 °C promoted interdiffusion between the CrAlY particles and the Ni-Co metal matrix, resulting in β/γ’/γ or β/γ’ phases in the heat-treated coatings. The results also indicate that the post-deposition heat treatment should be conducted at temperatures ≤1100 °C to minimize Cr evaporation and outward diffusion of Ti. The electro-codeposited NiCrAlY coatings in general showed lower hardness and surface roughness than thermal spray MCrAlY coatings. Coating oxidation performance was evaluated at 1000-1100 °C in dry and wet air environments. The initial electro-codeposited NiCoCrAlY coatings containing relatively high sulfur did not show good oxidation resistance. After modifications of the coating process, the cleaner NiCoCrAlY coating exhibited good oxidation performance at 1000 °C during the 2,000 1-h cyclic

  13. Can HIV reverse transcriptase activity assay be a low-cost alternative for viral load monitoring in resource-limited settings?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Soham; Palchaudhuri, Riya; Neogi, Ujjwal; Srinivasa, Hiresave; Ashorn, Per; De Costa, Ayesha; Källander, Clas; Shet, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance and cost of an HIV reverse transcriptase-enzyme activity (HIV-RT) assay in comparison to an HIV-1 RNA assay for routine viral load monitoring in resource limited settings. Design A cohort-based longitudinal study. Setting Two antiretroviral therapy (ART) centres in Karnataka state, South India, providing treatment under the Indian AIDS control programme. Participants A cohort of 327 HIV-1-infected Indian adult patients initiating first-line ART. Outcome measures Performance and cost of an HIV-RT assay (ExaVir Load V3) in comparison to a gold standard HIV-1 RNA assay (Abbott m2000rt) in a cohort of 327 Indian patients before (WK00) and 4 weeks (WK04) after initiation of first-line therapy. Results Plasma viral load was determined by an HIV-1 RNA assay and an HIV-RT assay in 629 samples (302 paired samples and 25 single time point samples at WK00) obtained from 327 patients. Overall, a strong correlation of r=0.96 was observed, with good correlation at WK00 (r=0.84) and at WK04 (r=0.77). Bland-Altman analysis of all samples showed a good level of agreement with a mean difference (bias) of 0.22 log10copies/mL. The performance of ExaVir Load V3 was not negatively affected by a nevirapine/efavirenz based antiretroviral regimen. The per test cost of measuring plasma viral load by the Abbott m2000rt and ExaVir Load V3 assays in a basic lab setting was $36.4 and $16.8, respectively. Conclusions The strong correlation between the HIV-RT and HIV-1 RNA assays suggests that the HIV-RT assay can be an affordable alternative option for monitoring patients on antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. Trial registration number ISRCTN79261738. PMID:26817634

  14. Pyrolysis Pathways of Sulfonated Polyethylene, an Alternative Carbon Fiber Precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, Jarod M; Saito, Tomonori; Hunt, Marcus A; Beste, Ariana; Naskar, Amit K

    2013-01-01

    Sulfonated polyethylene is an emerging precursor for the production of carbon fibers. Pyrolysis of sulfonated polyethylene was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). n-heptane-4-sulfonic acid (H4S) was selected as a model compound for the study of sulfonated polyethylene. Density functional theory and conventional transition state theory were used to determine the rate constants of pyrolysis for H4S from 300-1000 K. Multiple reaction channels from two different mechanisms were explored: 1) internal five-centered elimination (Ei 5) and 2) radical chain reaction. The pyrolysis of H4S was simulated with kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to obtain TGA plots that compared favorably to experiment. We observed that at tem- peratures < 550 K, the radical mechanism was dominant and yielded the trans-alkene, whereas cis-alkene was formed at higher temperatures from the internal elimination. The maximum rates of % mass loss became independent of initial OH radical concentration at 440-480 K. Experimentally, the maximum % mass loss occurred from 440-460 K (heating rate dependent). Activation energies derived from the kMC-simulated TGAs of H4S (26-29 kcal/mol) agreed with experiment for sulfonated polyethylene ( 31 kcal/mol). The simulations revealed that in this region, decomposition of radical HOSO2 became competitive to H abstraction by HOSO2, making OH the carrying radical for the reaction chain. The maximum rate of % mass loss for internal elimination was observed at temperatures > 600 K. Low-scale carbonization utilizes temperatures < 620 K; thus, internal elimination will not be competitive. Ei5 elimination has been studied for sulfoxides and sulfones, but this represents the first study of internal elimination in sulfonic acids. Nonlinear Arrhenius plots were found for all bimolecular reactions. The most significant nonlinear behavior was observed for reactions where the barrier was small. For reactions with low activation barriers, nonlinearity was traced to

  15. Low-cost ladar imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, S.; Lipson, J.

    2008-04-01

    We have developed low-cost LADAR imagers using photon-counting Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, signal amplification and conditioning interface with integrated active quenching circuits (AQCs) and readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays for time to digital conversion (TDC) implemented in FPGA. Our goal is to develop a compact, low-cost LADAR receiver that could be operated with room temperature Si-GPD arrays and cooled InGaAs GPD arrays. We report on architecture selection criteria, integration issues of the GPD, AQC and TDC, gating and programmable features for flexible and low-cost re-configuration, as well as on timing resolution, precision and accuracy of our latest LADAR designs.

  16. Low cost paths to binary optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Arthur; Domash, Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    Application of binary optics has been limited to a few major laboratories because of the limited availability of fabrication facilities such as e-beam machines and the lack of standardized design software. Foster-Miller has attempted to identify low cost approaches to medium-resolution binary optics using readily available computer and fabrication tools, primarily for the use of students and experimenters in optical computing. An early version of our system, MacBEEP, made use of an optimized laser film recorder from the commercial typesetting industry with 10 micron resolution. This report is an update on our current efforts to design and build a second generation MacBEEP, which aims at 1 micron resolution and multiple phase levels. Trails included a low cost scanning electron microscope in microlithography mode, and alternative laser inscribers or photomask generators. Our current software approach is based on Mathematica and PostScript compatibility.

  17. Low-cost commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. The objectives are to develop and validate technology, design tools and methodologies to enable the low cost commercial development and operational uses of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fueled liquid engines, low pressure booster engines and hybrid engines.

  18. Low Cost Graphics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert F.

    This manual describes the CALM TV graphics interface, a low-cost means of producing quality graphics on an ordinary TV. The system permits the output of data in graphic as well as alphanumeric form and the input of data from the face of the TV using a light pen. The integrated circuits required in the interface can be obtained from standard…

  19. Low Cost Sensor Calibration Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-cost sensors ($1 D0-500) represent a unique class of air monitoring devices that may provide for more ubiquitous pollutant monitoring. They vary widely in design and measure pollutants, ranging from ozone, particulate matter, to volatile organic compounds. Many of these senso...

  20. Small, Low Cost, Launch Capability Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, high risk university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed.

  1. Low-cost Flexible Memristor Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilyuk, Inna; Gergel-Hackett, Nadine

    2014-03-01

    Memristors are two-terminal electronic devices that exhibit unique electrical characteristics, including nonvolatile electrical switching between resistive states. These unique electrical characteristics may enable the use of memristors as logic and/or memory components in novel computer architectures. Flexible memristors have been shown to not only exhibit the electrical characteristics unique to the devices, but are also operable after 4,000 flexes, require voltages less than 10 V, show on:off ratios >10,000:1, are nonvolatile for up to 14 days, and are fabricated at room-temperature with sol-gel solution processing. To increase accessibility to the technology and decrease production costs, we are developing methods of flexible memristor fabrication that are low-cost compared to current conventional fabrication. This low-cost fabrication includes exploring alternative materials and processes for device contacts, synthesizing and storing titanium dioxide sol-gel using standard wet chemistry tools without the use of a glove box, and using a low-cost spinner to spin sol-gel onto devices. The fabrication is performed entirely in an undergraduate lab setting by undergraduate students. Research funded in part by the Mary Baldwin College Summer Research Fellows Program and the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges.

  2. Low-cost microsensors program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chen, Chungte W.; Chin, Richard; Jurgelewicz, K.; Radford, William A.; Kennedy, Adam; Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Brown, James C.; Newsome, Gwendolyn W.

    2001-10-01

    The objectives of the Low Cost Microsensors (LCMS) Program are twofold. The first is to develop and deliver a long-range infrared (IR) sensor built upon an uncooled vanadium oxide (VOx) 640 X 512 format focal plane array (FPA) engine. The second is to develop an expendable microsensor built upon a VOx 160 X 128 format FPA engine. The 640 X 480 sensor is applicable to long-range surveillance and targeting missions and is a reusable asset. The 160 X 120 sensor is designed for applications where miniaturization is required as well as low cost and low power. The 160 X 120 is also intended for expendable military applications. The intent of this DUS&T effort is to further reduce the cost, weight, and power of uncooled IR sensors, and to increase the capability of these sensors, thereby expanding their applicability to military and commercial markets never before addressed by thermal imaging.

  3. Low-cost microsensors program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chen, Chungte W.; Chin, Richard; Hegg, Ronald G.; Kennedy, Adam; Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Brown, James C.; Newsome, Gwendolyn W.

    2002-07-01

    The Low Cost Microsensors (LCMS) Program recently demonstrated state-of-the-art imagery in a long-range infrared (IR) sensor built upon an uncooled vanadium oxide (VOx) 640 X 480 format focal plane array (FPA) engine. The 640 X 480 sensor is applicable to long-range surveillance and targeting missions. The intent of this DUS&T effort is to further reduce the cost, weight, and power of uncooled IR sensors, and to increase the capability of these sensors, thereby expanding their applicability to military and commercial markets never before addressed by thermal imaging.

  4. Low-cost inkjet antennas for RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiftçi, T.; Karaosmanoğlu, B.; Ergül, Ö.

    2016-03-01

    We present paper-based inkjet antennas that are fabricated by using silver-based cartridges in standard printers. In addition to their low costs, the produced antennas are flexible, environmentally friendly, and suitable for radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. Among alternative choices, hybrid structures involving loop and parasitic meander parts are preferred and successfully combined with passive RFID chips. We also discuss main challenges in the design and fabrication of low-cost inkjet antennas and the related RFID tags.

  5. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W. Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device. PMID:27110459

  6. Finding Low-Cost Medical Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... costs and insurance requirements before you get care. Free and Low-Cost Clinics and Health Centers If ... in school), you may be able to find free or low-cost health clinics in your neighborhood. ...

  7. Low-cost flight test telemetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogliani, Mario Noriega

    A traditional Flight Test Telemetry system is based on a peer-to-peer architecture where a system of antennae enables a signal to be transmitted between an aircraft and a receiving ground station. Said system generally requires costly infrastructures on the ground and complex antennae components to be installed on the aircraft. Newer approaches may use satellite communications, but the available spectrum is being encroached by commercial wireless networks such as mobile broadband. Given the very fast growth that the mobile broadband technology is experiencing, it might be feasible to utilize this ever-expanding new infrastructure as a low-cost alternative to conventional flight test telemetry systems. This Thesis Work will research on the feasibility and performance of the commercial mobile data networks when employed on-board a small aircraft such as a Cessna 172 for telemetry purposes.

  8. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  9. Low cost Earth Attitude Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberati, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Giorgio; Verzegnassi, Fulvia

    2004-06-01

    A patent-pending, low-cost, moderate performance, Earth Attitude Sensor for LEO satellites is described in this paper. The paper deals with the system concepts, the technology adopted and the simulation results. The sensor comprises three or four narrow field of view mini telescopes pointed towards the Earth edge to detect and measure the variation of the off-nadir angle of the Earth-to-black sky transition using thermopile detectors suitably placed in the foci of the optical min telescopes. The system's innovation consists in the opto-mechanical configuration adopted that is sturdy and has no moving parts being, thus, inherently reliable. In addition, with a view to reducing production costs, the sensor does without hi-rel and is instead mainly based on COTS parts suitably chosen. Besides it is flexible and can be adapted to perform attitude measurement onboard spacecraft flying in orbits other than LEO with a minimum of modifications to the basic design. At present the sensor is under development by IMT and OptoService.

  10. Alternative Splicing in the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Cardiac Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Salomonis, Nathan; Nelson, Brandon; Vranizan, Karen; Pico, Alexander R.; Hanspers, Kristina; Kuchinsky, Allan; Ta, Linda; Mercola, Mark; Conklin, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    The role of alternative splicing in self-renewal, pluripotency and tissue lineage specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is largely unknown. To better define these regulatory cues, we modified the H9 hESC line to allow selection of pluripotent hESCs by neomycin resistance and cardiac progenitors by puromycin resistance. Exon-level microarray expression data from undifferentiated hESCs and cardiac and neural precursors were used to identify splice isoforms with cardiac-restricted or common cardiac/neural differentiation expression patterns. Splice events for these groups corresponded to the pathways of cytoskeletal remodeling, RNA splicing, muscle specification, and cell cycle checkpoint control as well as genes with serine/threonine kinase and helicase activity. Using a new program named AltAnalyze (http://www.AltAnalyze.org), we identified novel changes in protein domain and microRNA binding site architecture that were predicted to affect protein function and expression. These included an enrichment of splice isoforms that oppose cell-cycle arrest in hESCs and that promote calcium signaling and cardiac development in cardiac precursors. By combining genome-wide predictions of alternative splicing with new functional annotations, our data suggest potential mechanisms that may influence lineage commitment and hESC maintenance at the level of specific splice isoforms and microRNA regulation. PMID:19893621

  11. Low-cost periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Slots, Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease that affects low-income individuals disproportionately. Periodontitis is associated with specific bacterial species and herpesviruses, and successful prevention and treatment of the disease is contingent upon effective control of these pathogens. This article presents an efficacious, highly safe, minimally invasive, practical and low-cost periodontal therapy that involves professional and patient-administered mechanical therapy and antimicrobial agents. The major components are scaling for calculus removal, periodontal pocket irrigation with potent antiseptics, and treatment with systemic antibiotics for advanced disease. Povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite have all the characteristics for becoming the first-choice antiseptics in the management of periodontal diseases. Both agents show excellent antibacterial and antiviral properties, are readily available throughout the world, have been safely used in periodontal therapy for decades, offer significant benefits for individuals with very limited financial resources, and are well accepted by most dental professionals and patients. Four per cent chlorhexidine applied with a toothbrush to the most posterior part to the tongue dorsum can markedly reduce or eliminate halitosis in most individuals. Systemic antibiotics are used to treat periodontopathic bacteria that are not readily reached by topical therapy, such as pathogens within gingival tissue, within furcation defects, at the base of periodontal pockets, and on the tongue, tonsils and buccal mucosae. Valuable antibiotic therapies are amoxicillin-metronidazole (250 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of metronidazole, three times daily for 8 days) for young and middle-aged patients, and ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (500 mg of each, twice daily for 8 days) for elderly patients and for patients in developing countries who frequently harbor enteric rods subgingivally. Scaling to remove dental calculus and the prudent

  12. Low Cost Mission to Deimos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik; Püsler, H.; Braukhane, A.; Gülzow, P.; Bauer, W.; Vollhardt, A.; Romberg, O.; Scheibe, K.; Hoffmann, H.; Bürner, A.

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Mars. The developed Mars orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • multispectral line scanner for Martian cloud investigations and Deimos (and Phobos) stereo pictures during close flybys • Deimos framing camera for high resolution pictures of Deimos (and Phobos) including video mode • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of Martian (also Deimos and Phobos) silicates and surface temperature measurements • radio science for research of Deimos ( Phobos) gravity, profiling of Mars ionosphere, occurrence of third meteoritic ionosphere layer; sounding of neutral atmosphere; solar corona activity This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. It promises a low cost mission into a Mars orbit that allows close approaches to Deimos and Phobos.

  13. Low Cost Large Space Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.; Freeland, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The mobile communication community could significantly benefit from the availability of low-cost, large space-deployable antennas. A new class of space structures, called inflatable deployable structures, will become an option for this industry in the near future. This new technology recently made significant progress with respect to reducing the risk of flying large inflatable structures in space. This progress can be attributed to the successful space flight of the Inflatable Antenna Experiment in May of 1996, which prompted the initiation of the NASA portion of the joint NASA/DOD coordinated Space Inflatables Program, which will develop the technology to be used in future mobile communications antennas along with other users. The NASA/DOD coordinated Space Inflatables Program was initiated in 1997 as a direct result of the Inflatable Antenna Experiment. The program adds a new NASA initiative to a substantial DOD program that involves developing a series of ground test hardware, starting with 3 meter diameter units and advancing the manufacturing techniques to fabricate a 25 meter ground demonstrator unit with surface accuracy exceeding the requirements for mobile communication applications. Simultaneously, the program will be advancing the state of the art in several important inflatable technology areas, such as developing rigidizable materials for struts and tori and investigating thin film technology issues, such as application of coatings, property measurement and materials processing and assembly techniques. A very important technology area being addressed by the program is deployment control techniques. The program will sponsor activities that will lead to understanding the effects of material strain energy release, residual air in the stowed structure, and the design of the launch restraint and release system needed to control deployment dynamics. Other technology areas directly applicable to developing inflatable mobile communication antennas in the near

  14. Low cost attitude control system scanwheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William; Selby, Vaughn

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of low cost scanning horizon sensor coupled to a low cost/low power consumption Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. This report addresses the details of the versatile design resulting from this effort. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  15. MOVPE growth of QWIP detectors using tBAs as an alternative arsenic precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, Carl; Malm, Hedda; Martijn, Henk

    2006-05-01

    The use of arsine in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth is well established in the compound semiconductor industry but associated with large potential risks due to its high toxicity. Worldwide efforts are therefore being made to replace it with less hazardous source materials. Acreo, a commercial supplier of quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPA), is working towards an MOVPE process where tertiarybutylarsine (tBAs) instead of arsine is used in the growth of AlGaAs/GaAs n-type QWIP epiwafers. In this paper we investigate the performance of QWIP FPA produced from conventional arsine and alternative tBAs arsenic precursors. We also discuss the two growth processes regarding uniformity, crystalline purity and production cost. The performance of our QWIP structures grown using tBAs and arsine is comparable in terms of response and response-to-the dark current ratio.

  16. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  17. Low-Cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, 0.5-1 meter ground apertures are required for near-Earth laser communications. Low-cost ground apertures with equivalent diameters greater than 10 meters are desired for deep-space communications. This presentation focuses on identifying schemes to lower the cost of constructing networks of large apertures while continuing to meet the requirements for laser communications. The primary emphasis here is on the primary mirror. A slumped glass spherical mirror, along with passive secondary mirror corrector and active adaptive optic corrector show promise as a low-cost alternative to large diameter monolithic apertures. To verify the technical performance and cost estimate, development of a 1.5-meter telescope equipped with gimbal and dome is underway.

  18. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Nichiolas William; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Keffer, David

    2014-01-01

    Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing anodes in Li-ion batteries. Industrially scalable melt-spinning and melt-blowing synthesis methods were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are compatible with industrially viable production. Engineering studies predict that LCFs can be manufactured at $3/lb using these technologies, which compares favorably to $12/lb for battery grade graphite. The physical properties of lignin carbon fibers, specifically the tunable electrochemical and thermal transport, are suitable for energy storage applications as both an active material and current collector. The elimination of inactive components in the slurry-coated electrodes was enabled by LCF processing parameters modifications to produce monolithic mats in which the fibers are electrically interconnected. These mats were several hundreds of micrometers thick, and the fibers functioned as both current collector and active material by virtue of their mixed ionic/electronic conductivities. The LCFs were coated onto copper current collectors with PVDF binder and conductive carbon additive through conventional slurry processing. Galvanostatic cycling of the LCFs against Li revealed reversible capacities greater than 300 mAh/g. The coulombic efficiencies were over 99.8%. The mats were galvanostatically cycled in half cells against Li. Specific capacities as high as 250 mAh/g were achieved approximately 17% lower than the capacities of the same fibers in slurries. However, there were no inactive materials reducing the practical specific capacity of the entire electrode construction. Lithiation and delithiation of the LCFs proceeded with coulombic efficiencies greater than 99.9%, and the capacity retention was greater than 99% over 100 cycles at a rate of 15 mA/g. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for

  19. Low cost way to recover logging residues

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, C.C.; Sinclair, S.A.; Blinn, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Integration of a residue harvesting component into a traditional harvest system can offer a reasonable alternative to whole-tree chipping of existing natural stands in supplying wood to energy conversion facilitites. Initial attempts at integration should focus on a low cost, incremental expansion that minimizes the impact on productivity for the traditional harvest component, is easily adapted into a traditional harvest system, and has application to a wide range of harvesting firms in practice. Two traditional systems are analyzed - three-person and four-person systems - where chainsaws are used to fell, limb, top, and buck and rubber-tired cable skidders move the wood. Residue recovery is introduced through the addition of a 120-horsepower mobile chipper with self-mounted knuckleboom loader and two used chip vans. The productivity and cost of the residue recovery component is analyzed over a range of stand types and factors affecting productivity and costs. In general, residue recovery for a three-person system is economical only in stands of large sized timber while the four-person system becomes economical in medium sized lumber. (Refs. 12).

  20. LOW COST PRODUCTION OF CARBON FIBERS FROM LIGNIN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; Baker, Darren A; Baker, Frederick S

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Vehicle Technologies-funded work at ORNL is directed to the development of processes for the low cost production of carbon fibers. The objective of the project is to develop more energy-efficient, cost-effective processes for production of carbon fibers for use in composite materials for vehicles, which would substantially reduce vehicle weight, increase vehicle fuel economy, and result in lower CO2 emissions. Carbon fibers have the potential for substantial weight saving in vehicles because of their remarkable high strength, high modulus, and low density. However, carbon fibers are currently too expensive for large scale automotive use, which necessitates a large reduction in the cost of commercial grade fiber from about $20/lb to $5-7/lb. Lignin, a renewable resource material, has significant potential as a precursor material for low cost carbon fiber production. In this paper we report on progress to demonstrate the melt-spinning of precursor fibers from various lignin sources, the subsequent processing of the lignin precursor fibers into carbon fibers, and carbon fiber properties.

  1. Thermoplastic rubberlike material produced at low cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Thermoplastic rubberlike material is prepared by blending a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate with asphalt and a petroleum distillate. This low cost material is easily molded or extruded and is compatible with a variety of fillers.

  2. Change Detection Experiments Using Low Cost UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the progress in the development of a low-cost change-detection system. This system is being developed to provide users with the ability to use a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and image processing system that can detect changes in specific fixed ground locations using video provided by an autonomous UAV. The results of field experiments conducted with the US Army at Ft. A.P.Hill are presented.

  3. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  4. Use of talc as low-cost clarifier for wastewater.

    PubMed

    Grafia, Ana L; Castillo, Luciana A; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2014-01-01

    Talc is proposed as a low-cost mineral for wastewater clarification. In this sense, adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions was studied comparatively by using sepiolite (qualified as very good adsorbent) and two talc samples with different particle size and purity degree. The MB adsorption was assessed by determining remnant dye in the supernatant using UV-vis spectroscopy and by detecting dye adsorbed on mineral samples through thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Both isothermal curves and kinetic studies demonstrate that talc is a good dye adsorbent. Particularly, with dye concentrations similar to those of textile wastewater, talc was demonstrated to adsorb the same dye content of sepiolite at similar times. Natural talc could be employed as a low-cost alternative in wastewater treatment for the removal of cationic dyes. PMID:24552739

  5. Fully automated low-cost setup for fringe projection profilometry.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Dirckx, Joris; Meneses-Fabian, Cruz

    2015-02-20

    In this paper an alternative low-cost, easy-to-use, and fully automated profilometry setup is proposed. The setup is based on a phase-shifting fringe projection technique with four projected fringe parameters. It uses the well-known triangulation arrangement and low-cost electronic and image acquisition components such as a data acquisition board, a motor controller board, a printer rail, a CMOS webcam, and an LCD projector. The position of the camera, the generation of the fringe pattern, the acquisition of the images, and the calculation of the wrapped and unwrapped phase are all performed in LabVIEW. The setup is portable and can be perfectly adapted to be used in other profilometry techniques such as electronic speckle pattern interferometry and laser scanning profilometry. PMID:25968198

  6. A LOW-COST THREE-DIMENSIONAL SAMPLE COLLECTION ARRAY TO EVALUATE AND MONITOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificially constructed wetlands are gaining acceptance as a low cost treatment alternative to remove a number of undesirable constituents from water. Wetlands can be used to physically remove compounds such as suspended solids through sedimentation. Dissolved nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, ...

  7. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period January through March 1978 is reported. It includes task reports on silicon material processing, large-area silicon sheet development, encapsulation materials testing and development, project engineering and operations, and manufacturing techniques, plus the steps taken to integrate these efforts.

  8. Low cost techniques for fabricating lobed bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, F. T.

    1968-01-01

    New low cost technique utilizes shims to create the lobes in bearing. Conventional methods of manufacture require accurate off-center grinding of the inside diameter of a bearing in a housing at various arc lengths depending on the number of lobes required.

  9. Low cost silicon solar cell array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, F. T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The technological options available for producing low cost silicon solar cell arrays were examined. A project value of approximately $250/sq m and $2/watt is projected, based on mass production capacity demand. Recommendations are included for the most promising cost reduction options.

  10. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1982-01-01

    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  11. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  12. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  13. Sport for All. Low Cost Sports Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This report of the conference on low-cost sports halls, sponsored by the Council of Europe, is divided into two sections: technical studies and conclusions. The introduction to the report provides an overview of the long-term program of the Council of Europe with regard to sport for all and a discussion of multipurpose sports halls. Sociocultural,…

  14. Low-cost image analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The author has developed an Automatic Target Recognition system based on parallel processing using transputers. This approach gives a powerful, fast image processing system at relatively low cost. This system scans multi-sensor (e.g., several infrared bands) image data to find any identifiable target, such as physical object or a type of vegetation.

  15. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  16. Strategies to fight low-cost rivals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2006-12-01

    Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: focusing on just one or a few consumer segments, delivering the basic product or providing one benefit better than rivals do, and backing low prices with superefficient operations. Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments. Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the 1990s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did. Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the 1990s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy. PMID:17183797

  17. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, Barry L.; Skidmore, Jay A.

    1999-01-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.

  18. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.; Skidmore, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost. 19 figs.

  19. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, L.; Insabella, M.; Bilbao, L.

    2012-06-01

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emmision from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using presurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  20. Experience with low cost jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is given of the results of a NASA program for reducing the cost of turbojet and turbofan engines. The design, construction, and testing of a simple turbojet, designed for use in missiles, is described. Low cost axial stage fabrication, the design of a fan jet engine suitable for propulsion of light aircraft, and application of such engines to provide higher flight speeds, are discussed.

  1. Low cost miniature data collection platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the RF elements of a telecommunications package involved detailed study and analysis of concepts and techniques followed by laboratory testing and evaluation of designs. The design goals for a complete telecommunications package excluding antenna were a total weight of 300 grams, in a total volume of 400 cu cm with a capability of unattended operation for a period of six months. Of utmost importance is extremely low cost when produced in lots of 10,000. Early in the program it became apparent that a single Miniature Data Collection Platform would not satisfy all users. A single high efficiency system would not satisfy a user who had available a large battery capacity but required a low cost system. Conversely, the low cost system would not satisfy the end user who had a very limited battery capacity. A system design to satisfy these varied requirements was implemented by designing several versions of the system building blocks and then constructing three systems from these building blocks.

  2. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  3. Nanoengineered CIGS thin films for low cost photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay; Taylor, Matthew; Sang, Baosheng; McWilliams, Scott; Oswald, Robert; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2008-08-01

    Low cost manufacturing of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films for high efficiency photovoltaic devices by the innovative Field-Assisted Simultaneous Synthesis and Transfer (FASST®) process is reported. The FASST® process is a two-stage reactive transfer printing method relying on chemical reaction between two separate precursor films to form CIGS, one deposited on the substrate and the other on a printing plate in the first stage. In the second stage these precursors are brought into intimate contact and rapidly reacted under pressure in the presence of an applied electrostatic field. The method utilizes physical mechanisms characteristic of anodic wafer bonding and rapid thermal annealing, effectively creating a sealed micro-reactor that ensures high material utilization efficiency, direct control of reaction pressure, and low thermal budget. The use of two independent ink-based or PVD-based nanoengineered precursor thin films provides the benefits of independent composition and flexible deposition technique optimization, and eliminates pre-reaction prior to the second stage FASST® synthesis of CIGS. High quality CIGS with large grains on the order of several microns are formed in just several minutes based on compositional and structural analysis by XRF, SIMS, SEM and XRD. Cell efficiencies of 12.2% have been achieved using this method.

  4. Fast, Dense Low Cost Scintillator for Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, Craig

    2009-07-31

    We have studied the morphology, transparency, and optical properties of SrHfO{sub 3}:Ce ceramics. Ceramics can be made transparent by carefully controlling the stoichiometry of the precursor powders. When fully dense, transparent samples can be obtained. Ceramics with a composition close to stoichiometry (Sr:Hf ~ 1) appear to show good transparency and a reasonable light yield several times that of BGO. The contact and distance transparency of ceramics hot-pressed at about 1450ºC is very good, but deteriorates at increasingly higher hot-press temperatures. If these ceramics can be produced in large quantities and sizes, at low cost, they may be of considerable interest for PET and CT.

  5. CRADA final report: Technical assessment of roll-to-roll operation of lamination process, thermal treatment, and alternative carbon fiber precursors for low-cost, high-efficiency manufacturing of flow battery stacks and other energy devices

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus; Madden, Thomas; Wood, III, David L; Muth, Thomas R.; Warrington, Curtis; Ozcan, Soydan; Manson, Hunter; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Smith, Mark A.; Lu, Yuan; Loretz, Jeremy

    2015-09-23

    Among the various stationary-storage technologies under development, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer the greatest potential to deliver inexpensive, scalable, and efficient grid-scale electrical-energy storage. Unlike traditional sealed batteries, in a flow battery power and energy are decoupled. Cell area and cell count in the stack determine the device power, and the chemical storage volume determines the total energy. Grid-scale energy-storage applications require megawatt-scale devices, which require the assembly of hundreds of large-area, bipolar cells per power plant. The cell-stack is the single system component with the largest impact on capital cost (due to the large number of highly engineered components) and operating costs (determined by overall round-trip efficiency).

  6. Measuring rainfall with low-cost cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allamano, Paola; Cavagnero, Paolo; Croci, Alberto; Laio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In Allamano et al. (2015), we propose to retrieve quantitative measures of rainfall intensity by relying on the acquisition and analysis of images captured from professional cameras (SmartRAIN technique in the following). SmartRAIN is based on the fundamentals of camera optics and exploits the intensity changes due to drop passages in a picture. The main steps of the method include: i) drop detection, ii) blur effect removal, iii) estimation of drop velocities, iv) drop positioning in the control volume, and v) rain rate estimation. The method has been applied to real rain events with errors of the order of ±20%. This work aims to bridge the gap between the need of acquiring images via professional cameras and the possibility of exporting the technique to low-cost webcams. We apply the image processing algorithm to frames registered with low-cost cameras both in the lab (i.e., controlled rain intensity) and field conditions. The resulting images are characterized by lower resolutions and significant distortions with respect to professional camera pictures, and are acquired with fixed aperture and a rolling shutter. All these hardware limitations indeed exert relevant effects on the readability of the resulting images, and may affect the quality of the rainfall estimate. We demonstrate that a proper knowledge of the image acquisition hardware allows one to fully explain the artefacts and distortions due to the hardware. We demonstrate that, by correcting these effects before applying the image processing algorithm, quantitative rain intensity measures are obtainable with a good accuracy also with low-cost modules.

  7. Low-cost microprocessor controlled shadowband radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalsky, J. J.; Lebaron, B. A.; Harrison, L. C.

    1985-06-01

    This paper describes the second phase in the development of a low-cost microprocessor-controlled rotating shadowband radiometer at PNL. The initial work, to develop a solar photometer, resulted in a mechanical design that is adopted for the solar radiometer with only minor changes. The goals of this effort are: (1) to improve the data acquisition system; and (2) to derive corrections for the silicon cell-based pyranometer that would allow measurements of total horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct normal solar radiation approaching first-class instrumentation accuracy at a fraction of the cost. Significant progress on temperature, cosine and spectral corrections is achieved.

  8. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Belen; Espinosa, Julian; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David; Roig, Ana B.

    2014-05-27

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  9. A Low Cost Electrostatically Focused TWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancil, Bernard K.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ring-loop circuits are well known for their simplicity, low cost, compactness, low mass, high gain and efficiency and absence of backward wave oscillations. Peak powers over 20 kw have been achieved. They also have low harmonic output and excellent phase performance. We have developed a double ring-loop circuit that permits electrostatic focusing of an electron beam to at least 0.4 micro pervs. This eliminates the magnet stack and further lowers cost and weight. It permits glass rod fastening of circuit elements as well as gun and collector assemblies, as is done in cathode ray tubes. Using CRT construction techniques, the TWT can be built on automated equipment.

  10. Low cost damage tolerant composite fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J.; Freeman, W. T.

    1988-01-01

    The resin transfer molding (RTM) process applied to composite aircraft parts offers the potential for using low cost resin systems with dry graphite fabrics that can be significantly less expensive than prepreg tape fabricated components. Stitched graphite fabric composites have demonstrated compression after impact failure performance that equals or exceeds that of thermoplastic or tough thermoset matrix composites. This paper reviews methods developed to fabricate complex shape composite parts using stitched graphite fabrics to increase damage tolerance with RTM processes to reduce fabrication cost.

  11. Low cost satellite transportable Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufman, G. E.; Slivkoff, W. J.

    A low cost Transportable Ground Station (TGS) for satellite tracking, telemetry and control (TTC) applications is described. The initial focus of the TGS is to provide S-band space-ground-link-subsystem TTC services for these satellites with compatible transponders. The TGS also has the capability to be expanded to perform mission control station tasks including telemetry data analysis, command formulation, mission analysis and satellite ephemeris generation. The TGS consists of a shelter and a folded 5-m antenna both of which are mounted on a commercial air ride trailer. The TGS size meets requirements for United States highway transportation. The TGS can also be transported via C-130 aircraft.

  12. A low cost LST pointing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, J. R.; Kennel, H. F.; Nurre, G. S.; Seltzer, S. M.; Shelton, H. L.

    1975-01-01

    Vigorous efforts to reduce costs, coupled with changes in LST guidelines, took place in the Fall of 1974. These events made a new design of the LST and its Pointing and Attitude Control System possible. The major design changes are summarized as: an annular Support Systems Module; removal of image motion compensation; reaction wheels instead of CMG's; a magnetic torquer system to also perform the emergency and backup functions, eliminating the previously required mass expulsion system. Preliminary analysis indicates the Low Cost LST concept can meet the newly defined requirements and results in a significantly reduced development cost.

  13. LSA Low-cost Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period October through December, 1977 are reported. The LSSA Project is assigned responsibility for advancing silicon solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  14. Properties Of Low Cost, High Volume Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, M. A.; Hartman, J. S.; Buckwalter, C. Q.

    1980-02-01

    The properties of new and weathered samples of low cost, high volume glasses have been studied to determine their usefulness for solar energy applications. Glasses of varying compositions produced by float, drawn, rolled, fusion, and twin ground techniques were examined. Spectral transmittance and reflectance were measured and solar weighted values calculated. Laser raytrace techniques were used to evaluate surface parallelism and bulk homogeneity. Compositional changes were examined with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and Auger electron spectroscopy. These techniques were used in conjunction with ellipsometry to study the surface effects associated with weathering.

  15. Polymeric MST - high precision at low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elderstig, Håkan; Larsson, Olle

    1997-09-01

    A low-cost production process for fabrication of polymeric microstructures from micromachined silicon is demonstrated in a splice for the splicing of optical fibers and an optical motherboard. Measurements on splices showed less than 0.5 dB insertion losses. The prototype polymeric motherboard concisted of an optical receiver module. The detector that was mounted on the polymeric optical motherboard detected about 70% of the transferred light. Measurements with modulated light indicates an optical bandwidth of 5 GHz at 2 V reverse current on the pin-diode.

  16. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project are described for the period April through June 1978. The Project is assigned responsibility for advancing solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  17. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  18. Low-cost alternative for remedial sand control application

    SciTech Connect

    Peavy, M.A.; Bush, M.E.; Plummer, M.A. Perez, J.I.

    1995-09-01

    During mid-1992, a remedial workover program was implemented offshore within the Gulf of Mexico on low-rate marginal-reserve sand-producing wellbores. A process called through-tubing gravel packing (TTGP) was used on five offshore wells and one US Gulf Coast land well. This technique involved the placement of ceramic beads and prepacked screen within existing completions with coiled tubing (CT) to eliminate sand production. The basic steps of TTGP consist of wellbore cleanup, CT counter correlation, injectivity testing, running a dummy assembly, ceramic bead placement, prepacked screen placement, and installation of an isolation device. The TTGP method demonstrated versatility in adapting to individual well conditions. This remedial sand control technique was successfully applied in highly deviated wellbores, in the upper zones of a dual completion, and within existing gravel packs for screen repair. Throughout the implementation of this program, mechanical problems were addressed that led to improvements in subsequent workover programs. This paper details the TTGP program and recommends mechanical improvements for performing future through-tubing gravel packs.

  19. Passive mine drainage treatment: an effective low-cost alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Two prototype Passive Mine Drainage Treatment Systems have been designed and constructed in Colorado. These projects have addressed acid mine drainage from inactive coal mines. Metal removal for both systems is accomplished using simulated peat bogs composed of sphagnum moss and hypnum moss retained by loose rock check dams. Acid neutralization is accomplished using crushed limestone filled channels. Neutralization and aeration are enhanced with drop structures and waterfalls placed in the drainage channel. Preliminary water quality results show dramatic treatment effects with the PMDT system. This investigation presents cost data for design and construction of the two PMDT systems. Cost projections for periodic maintenance requirements are provided along with a suggested method for financing maintenance costs. Performance data for the first system installed are presented. 14 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  20. Low Cost Alternatives to Commercial Lab Kits for Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodejška, C.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubinek, R.; Ríha, J.

    2015-01-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace…

  1. Low cost approach to Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Anthony J.

    1995-10-01

    Mars Pathfinder, launching in December '96 and landing in July '97, will demo a low cost delivery system to the surface of Mars. Historically, spacecraft that orbit or land on a distant body carry a large amount of fuel for braking. Mars Pathfinder, thrusting only for navigation, enters directly into the Martian atmosphere, aerobrakes with its aeroshell, deploys a parachute at 10 km above the surface and, within 100 m off the surface, ignites solid rockets for final braking prior to deployment of air bags which cushion touchdown. After landing, petals open to upright the lander, exposing solar panels to the sun. Even though the lander and rover are expected to last longer, the major objectives of Mars Pathfinder, demonstrating EDL (Entry, Descent, Landing) and lander-rover surface operations, will occur within the first few days, at which time panoramic images of the surface will be transmitted and the rover will be deployed to conduct both mobility tests and rock composition measurements. While Mars Pathfinder is primarily an engineering demo, it accomplishes a focused, exciting set of science investigations with a stereo, multi-color lander imager; atmospheric instrumentation, used as a weather station after landing; and the rover with cameras and the APXS (Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer). This paper features Mars Pathfinder's approach to innovative and cost effective mission accomplishment, under a development cost cap. Mars Pathfinder is pathfinding a new way of doing business at NASA and JPL for small, low cost, Discovery class missions.

  2. Nasal administration of liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive vehicle as an alternative antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Flávia Chiva; Campos, Michel Leandro; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mucoadhesive stimuli-sensitive drug delivery system for nasal administration of zidovudine (AZT). The system was prepared by formulating a low viscosity precursor of a liquid crystal phase, taking advantage of its lyotropic phase behavior. Flow rheology measurements showed that the formulation composed of PPG-5-CETETH-20, oleic acid and water (55, 30, 15% w/w), denominated P, has Newtonian flow behavior. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed that formulation P is isotropic, whereas its 1:1 (w/w) dilution with artificial nasal mucus (ANM) changed the system to an anisotropic lamellar phase (PD). Oscillatory frequency sweep analysis showed that PD has a high storage modulus (G') at nasal temperatures. Measurement of the mucoadhesive force against excised porcine nasal mucosa or a mucin disk proved that the transition to the lamellar phase tripled the work of mucoadhesion. Ex vivo permeation studies across porcine nasal mucosa exhibited an 18-fold rise in the permeability of AZT from the formulation. The Weibull mathematical model suggested that the AZT is released by Fickian diffusion mechanisms. Hence, the physicochemical characterization, combined with ex vivo studies, revealed that the PPG-5-CETETH-20, oleic acid, and water formulation could form a mucoadhesive matrix in contact with nasal mucus that promoted nasal absorption of the AZT. For an in vivo assessment, the plasma concentrations of AZT in rats were determined by HPLC method following intravenous and intranasal administration of AZT-loaded P formulation (PA) and AZT solution, respectively, at a dose of 8mg/kg. The intranasal administration of PA resulted in a fast absorption process (Tmax=6.7min). Therefore, a liquid crystal precursor formulation administered by the nasal route might represent a promising novel tool for the systemic delivery of AZT and other antiretroviral drugs. In the present study, the uptake of AZT absorption in the nasal mucosa was

  3. High efficiency low cost solar cell power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.; Blocker, W.

    1978-01-01

    A concept for generating high-efficiency, low-cost, solar-cell power is outlined with reference to solar cell parameters, optical concentrators, and thermal control procedures. A design for a 12.5-kw power module for space operation is discussed noting the optical system, spectrum splitter, light conversion system, cell cooling, power conditioner, and tracking mechanism. It is found that for an unconcentrated array, efficiency approaches 60% when ten or more bandgaps are used. For a 12-band system, a computer program distributed bandgaps for maximum efficiency and equal cell currents. Rigid materials and thin films have been proposed for optical components and prisms, gratings, and dichroic mirrors have been recommended for spectrum splitting. Various radiator concepts are noted including that of Weatherston and Smith (1960) and Hedgepeth and Knapp (1978). The concept may be suitable for the Solar Power Satellite.

  4. Low-cost access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayton, Donald K.; Daniels, Mark; Grimes, David

    1992-03-01

    The paper discusses the wide range of orbital launch capabilities of the Conestoga series and the suborbital sounding rocket services of the Starfire family. Both launchers are designed with flight-proven components and offer low cost and a high degree of reliability. Current information on the market for small-sized space payloads and the ability of the above launchers to support these requirements are addressed. The Conestoga orbital launch design embodies the concept of achieving payload growth flexibility without the need to change either the basic vehicle design or the operational approach. Low technical, schedule, and cost risk is achieved with the Conestoga design due to the high degree of previously flight-proven hardware utilized. The Conestoga launch vehicle series performance curves are illustrated. The various Starfire configurations and their microgravity performance are shown.

  5. Low Cost Methods to Accomplish Aeronomy Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Accomplishment of aeronomy science using low cost methods involves a number of innovative considerations. These methods will be discussed. They include making broad use of internet to control and operate distributed sensors. Sensor controls should be simple and most important reliable. Imagers are a common sensor for optical systems and include common computer interfaces and menu driven operations which often don't require special software or engineering development. Small, inexpensive but reliable satellite systems are evolving in the Cubesat community. Effective use of students is invaluable, giving them responsibility to operate instrumentation and to routinely archive the data. Management of students is especially important in the early phase of their training to insure quality performance. These ideas will be elaborated on, and most importantly, the science motive is the most important driver for what is done.

  6. Low-cost photomask inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharpure, Damayanti C.; David, Sunil K.

    1995-12-01

    The competitive demand for increased production rates and tighter quality control in manufacturing integrated circuits requires inspection at higher speeds, finer resolution and at various stages during fabrication, all at an affordable cost. Manual inspection is tedious and entails a degree of concentration that is difficult to maintain over long periods of time. This paper presents a simple, low cost photo mask inspection system based on an IBM compatible PC. Both the reference comparison as well as feature extraction approaches have been implemented for guaranteed defect detection. The defects are further analyzed to obtain details regarding the location, dimension, and type of defect. The system also generates a diagnostic report providing detailed information regarding each defect, that has been detected, for use in on line mask repair. The paper describes configuration of the system along with the image processing algorithms used. The paper also discusses the results obtained, the specifications and over all performance of the system.

  7. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. PMID:23583920

  8. Low-cost solar array structure development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  9. Technology for low cost solid rocket boosters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciepluch, C.

    1971-01-01

    A review of low cost large solid rocket motors developed at the Lewis Research Center is given. An estimate is made of the total cost reduction obtainable by incorporating this new technology package into the rocket motor design. The propellant, case material, insulation, nozzle ablatives, and thrust vector control are discussed. The effect of the new technology on motor cost is calculated for a typical expandable 260-in. booster application. Included in the cost analysis is the influence of motor performance variations due to specific impulse and weight changes. It is found for this application that motor costs may be reduced by up to 30% and that the economic attractiveness of future large solid rocket motors will be improved when the new technology is implemented.

  10. Low cost attitude sensors for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S.; Von Bun, F. O.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of two-low cost attitude sensors developed with existing technology, but with emphasis directed to reducing the unit costs without compromising reliability or quality. The solar aspect sensor was developed to determine the angle of the sun with respect to the optical axis of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Experiment Package. Using sensor readings updated every five milliseconds, signal processing electronics determine the location of the center of the sun's image on the array. An earth horizon sensor was developed to measure the nadir angle with respect to the optical axis of the SSBUV Experiment Package to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 deg. Operation of each of the sensors is described along with flight results obtained when flown onboard Atlantis as part of the SSBUV Experiment Package.

  11. Low Cost Large Core Vehicle Structures Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Boeing Information, Space, and Defense Systems executed a Low Cost Large Core Vehicle Structures Assessment (LCLCVSA) under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) between November 1997 and March 1998. NASA is interested in a low-cost launch vehicle, code named Magnum, to place heavy payloads into low earth orbit for missions such as a manned mission to Mars, a Next Generation Space Telescope, a lunar-based telescope, the Air Force's proposed space based laser, and large commercial satellites. In this study, structural concepts with the potential to reduce fabrication costs were evaluated in application to the Magnum Launch Vehicle (MLV) and the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) shuttle upgrade program. Seventeen concepts were qualitatively evaluated to select four concepts for more in-depth study. The four structural concepts selected were: an aluminum-lithium monocoque structure, an aluminum-lithium machined isogrid structure, a unitized composite sandwich structure, and a unitized composite grid structure. These were compared against a baseline concept based on the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) construction. It was found that unitized composite structures offer significant cost and weight benefits to MLV structures. The limited study of application to LFBB structures indicated lower, but still significant benefits. Technology and facilities development roadmaps to prepare the approaches studied for application to MLV and LFBB were constructed. It was found that the cost and schedule to develop these approaches were in line with both MLV and LFBB development schedules. Current Government and Boeing programs which address elements of the development of the technologies identified are underway. It is recommended that NASA devote resources in a timely fashion to address the specific elements related to MLV and LFBB structures.

  12. Low-cost remote chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen Keith

    The intentional or accidental release of a hazardous chemical, such as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) or a toxic industrial chemical (TIC), could endanger many lives. In domestic chemical release situations, a rapid response, which is critical for casualty minimization, requires that primary and first responders have the ability to rapidly probe the threatened area from a safe distance. First responders require sensors that are portable, remote (stand-off), sensitive, robust, and cost effective. While a number of remote chemical sensors are being developed, none meet the requirements of the first responder community due to their cost, complexity, and size. This work proposes a unique approach to hazardous chemical detection based on low-cost, low-energy, uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors fitted with narrow bandpass filters. Prototype remote differential absorption radiometers (DARs) based on low-cost pyroelectric detectors fitted with relatively broad (30 cm-1) bandpass filters for sensitivity to hazardous chemical simulants, including methanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), were developed and tested. A methanol detection limit of 0.014 atm cm was demonstrated with the prototype sensor. This is well below military prescribed detection limits and demonstrates that sensors based on uncooled pyroelectric detectors can achieve sensitivities exceeding military requirements. Once chemical sensitivity was demonstrated, a prototype multi-spectral sensor comprised of 8 pyroelectric detectors. The measured methanol detection limit for this sensor was 0.033 atm cm. This prototype exhibited a unique response to three hazardous chemical simulants which could be used to detect and to identify the chemical reliably. To improve chemical sensitivity in realistic sensing environments, correction for background effects, such as temperature variations and spectral emissivity characteristics, is required. A simple background

  13. LCX: Proposal for a low-cost commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Troy; Hayatdavoudi, Maziar; Hettinga, Joel; Hooper, Matt; Nguyen, Phong

    1994-01-01

    The LCX has been developed in response to a request for proposal for an aircraft with 153 passenger capacity and a range of 3000 nautical miles. The goals of the LCX are to provide an aircraft which will achieve the stated mission requirements at the lowest cost possible, both for the manufacturer and the operator. Low cost in this request is defined as short and long term profitability. To achieve this objective, modern technologies attributing to low-cost operation without greatly increasing the cost of manufacturing were employed. These technologies include hybrid laminar flow control and the use of developing new manufacturing processes and philosophies. The LCX will provide a competitive alternative to the use of the Airbus A319/320/321 and the Boeing 737 series of aircraft. The LCX has a maximum weight of 150,000 lb. carried by a wing of 1140 ft(exp 2) and an aspect ratio of 10. The selling price of the LCX is 31 million in 1994 US dollars.

  14. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O'Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  15. Low-cost color LCD helmet display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinenwever, Roger; Best, Leonard G.; Ericksen, Bryce J.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this helmet-mounted display (HMD) project was development and demonstration of a low-cost color display incorporating see-through optics. A full field-of-regard visual presentation was to be provided through the use of a head-tracker system and the HMD was to be suitable for use with low-cost cockpit trainers. The color imaging devices selected for the project are commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The LCDs are 3.0 inch (diagonal) thin film transistor (TFT) types using a delta format for the red, green, blue (RGB) matrix. Fiber optic light panels mounted behind the LCDs provide a cool light source of greater than 3400 foot-lamberts (ft-L). Approximately 3 percent of the applied light source is emitted by the LCD image source. The video displayed is in a 3:4 format representing a 30 degree(s) vertical by 40 degree(s) horizontal biocular instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) visual image from a graphic image generation system and is controlled in a full field of regard based on positional information from a head-tracker system. The optical elements of the HMD are designed as an exit pupil forming, see-through system and require the eye to be in a 15 mm volume for viewing the scene. The beam splitting function of the optics allows the user to see through the optics for reading cockpit instrumentation, while viewing outside the cockpit reveals the out-the-window (OTW) scene. The optic design allows for the IFOV to be displayed through a set of field lens, relay lens, folding mirror, beam splitter and spherical mirror system. The beam splitters and spherical mirrors for both optical paths are coated for approximately 50 percent transmission and reflectance. This approach, combined with the losses through the rest of the optical path, provides a theoretical maximum of 10.9 percent of the LCD image source intensity arriving at the eye. Initial tests of image intensity at the eye for a full white scene have measured at approximately 11 ft-L.

  16. Design concepts for low-cost composite turbofan engine frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. C.; Stoffer, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design concepts for low cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of a commercial, high bypass engine. Four alternative composite frame design concepts identified which consisted of generic type components and subcomponents that could be adapted to use in different locations in the engine and the different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were projected with a goal for the lowest number of parts at the lowest possible cost. After a preliminary evaluation of all four frame concepts, two designs were selected for an extended design and evaluation which narrowed the final selection down to one frame that was significantly lower in cost and slighty lighter than the other frame. An implementation plan for this lowest cost frame is projected for future development and includes prospects for reducing its weight with proposed unproven, innovative fabrication techniques.

  17. Low cost flatbed scanner label-free biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygun, Ugur; Avci, Oguzhan; Seymour, Elif; Sevenler, Derin D.; Urey, Hakan; Ünlü, M. Selim; Ozkumur, Ayca Yalcin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate utilization of a commercial flatbed document scanner as a label-free biosensor for highthroughput imaging of DNA and protein microarrays. We implemented an interferometric sensing technique through use of a silicon/oxide layered substrate, and easy to implement hardware modifications such as re-aligning moving parts and inserting a custom made sample plate. With a cost as low as 100USD, powered by a USB cable, and scan speed of 30 seconds for a 4mm x 4 mm area with ~10μm lateral resolution, the presented system offers a super low cost, easy to use alternative to commercially available label-free systems.

  18. A Large Lunar Surface Testbed from Low Cost Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    For users needing to simulate the lunar surface, several distinct avenues have been used. Numerous volcanic areas, including Hawaii, have been used. While providing very large areas and scenic interest, field parties to such an area is expensive and limits testing time. An alternative is to build test facilities locally. This has been done many ways, contrast GRC-1, GSC-1, BP-1 and the KSC Morpheus facility [1-4]. GRC-1 is a mixture of sand and clay; GSC-1 and BP-1 are waste materials created in the process of crushing basaltic rock. The Morpheus field used salvaged concrete and crushed quartz rock [5]. Here I report about a 30 m X 30 m test area at MSFC which was both low cost and relatively high fidelity [6].

  19. Design of a low-cost bamboo well.

    PubMed

    Shakya, S K; Singh, S R; Anjaneyulu, B; Vashisht, A K

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo wells are an economical alternative for water supply wells in developing countries. The design of the bamboo well described in this article was developed based on field tests. Following field experiments, the screen in the bamboo well was fabricated with seven 3-m-long bamboo strips, each 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick. The strips were bolted on 1-cm-wide mild steel rings spaced 30 cm along the length of the bamboo strips, with 9-cm-long galvanized iron pipe end pieces. Pipes used in the bamboo well were fabricated by wrapping polythene sheets on the bamboo screens. Excellent performance, low cost, and good service life justify the use of a bamboo well for ground water withdrawal in developing countries. PMID:19210565

  20. Low cost open data acquisition system for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotny, Wojciech M.; Laniewski-Wollk, Przemyslaw; Zaworski, Wojciech

    2005-09-01

    In the biomedical applications it is often necessary to collect measurement data from different devices. It is relatively easy, if the devices are equipped with a MIB or Ethernet interface, however often they feature only the asynchronous serial link, and sometimes the measured values are available only as the analog signals. The system presented in the paper is a low cost alternative to commercially available data acquisition systems. The hardware and software architecture of the system is fully open, so it is possible to customize it for particular needs. The presented system offers various possibilities to connect it to the computer based data processing unit - e.g. using the USB or Ethernet ports. Both interfaces allow also to use many such systems in parallel to increase amount of serial and analog inputs. The open source software used in the system makes possible to process the acquired data with standard tools like MATLAB, Scilab or Octave, or with a dedicated, user supplied application.

  1. Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Scott N; Yu, Z; Jaworski, A J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

  2. Low cost PC based scanning Kelvin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikie, I. D.; Estrup, P. J.

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a novel, low cost, scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) system that can measure work function (wf) and surface potential (sp) topographies to within 1 meV energy resolution. The control and measurement subcomponents are PC based and incorporate a flexible user interface, permitting software control of major parameters and allowing easy user implementation via automatic setup and scanning procedures. We review the mode of operation and design features of the SKP including the digital oscillator, the compact ambient voice-coil head-stage, and signal processing techniques. This system offers unique tip-to-sample spacing control (to within 40 nm) which provides a method of simultaneously imaging sample height topographies and is essential to avoid spurious or "apparent" wf changes due to scanning-induced spacing changes. We illustrate SKP operation in generating high resolution wf/sp profiles of metal interfaces (as a tip characterization procedure) and operational electronic devices. The SKP potentially has a very wide range of applications ranging from semiconductor quality control thin film and surface analyses to corrosion and biopotential imaging.

  3. Low Cost RF Amplifier for Community TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch, Syafaruddin; Sasongko, Sudi Mariyanto Al; Made Budi Suksmadana, I.; Mustiko Okta Muvianto, Cahyo; Ariessaputra, Suthami

    2016-01-01

    he capability of television to deliver audio video makes this media become the most effective method to spread information. This paper presents an experiment of RF amplifier design having low-cost design and providing sufficient RF power particularly for community television. The RF amplifier consists of two stages of amplifier. The first stage amplifier was used to leverage output of TV modulator from 11dBm to enable to drive next stage amplifier. CAD simulation and fabrication were run to reach optimum RF amplifier design circuit. The associated circuit was made by determining stability circle, stability gain, and matching impedance. Hence, the average power of first stage RF amplifier was 24.68dBm achieved. The second stage used RF modules which was ready match to 50 ohm for both input and output port. The experiment results show that the RF amplifier may operate at frequency ranging from 174 to 230MHz. The average output power of the 2nd stage amplifier was 33.38 Watt with the overall gain of 20.54dB. The proposed RF amplifier is a cheap way to have a stable RF amplifier for community TV. The total budget for the designed RF amplifier is only a 1/5 compared to local design of final TV amplifier.

  4. Performance of several low-cost accelerometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E.S.; Guy, R.; Hellweg, M.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Several groups are implementing low‐cost host‐operated systems of strong‐motion accelerographs to support the somewhat divergent needs of seismologists and earthquake engineers. The Advanced National Seismic System Technical Implementation Committee (ANSS TIC, 2002), managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with other network operators, is exploring the efficacy of such systems if used in ANSS networks. To this end, ANSS convened a working group to explore available Class C strong‐motion accelerometers (defined later), and to consider operational and quality control issues, and the means of annotating, storing, and using such data in ANSS networks. The working group members are largely coincident with our author list, and this report informs instrument‐performance matters in the working group’s report to ANSS. Present examples of operational networks of such devices are the Community Seismic Network (CSN; csn.caltech.edu), operated by the California Institute of Technology, and Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN; Cochran et al., 2009; qcn.stanford.edu; November 2013), jointly operated by Stanford University and the USGS. Several similar efforts are in development at other institutions. The overarching goals of such efforts are to add spatial density to existing Class‐A and Class‐B (see next paragraph) networks at low cost, and to include many additional people so they become invested in the issues of earthquakes, their measurement, and the damage they cause.

  5. A low cost MRI permanent magnet prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Cole, David M.

    1998-08-01

    Here we present the proceedings in designing and constructing a low cost, friendly use, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) prototype magnet; 55 cm×45 cm×30 cm in size scaleable to full body; with a C-shaped assembly to provide open access to the 10 cm C-gap; operational at 0.22 Tesla where the low field increments the tissue contrast; structured with methodically selected and strategically positioned permanent magnets to reach the required field homogeneity as well as to be practically free of maintenance; and having iron flux return to leave an extremely low fringe field. The magnetic flux is funneled through the iron and focused by carefully designed and finely machined iron pole faces of 8.9 cm radius to create a homogeneity of less than 20 parts per million (PPM), without shimming, in a roughly 1.3 cm by 2 cm main axes oval region. An image of an okra plant was taken to test its performance.

  6. A low cost MRI permanent magnet prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Cole, David M.

    1998-08-28

    Here we present the proceedings in designing and constructing a low cost, friendly use, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) prototype magnet; 55 cmx45 cmx30 cm in size scaleable to full body; with a C-shaped assembly to provide open access to the 10 cm C-gap; operational at 0.22 Tesla where the low field increments the tissue contrast; structured with methodically selected and strategically positioned permanent magnets to reach the required field homogeneity as well as to be practically free of maintenance; and having iron flux return to leave an extremely low fringe field. The magnetic flux is funneled through the iron and focused by carefully designed and finely machined iron pole faces of 8.9 cm radius to create a homogeneity of less than 20 parts per million (PPM), without shimming, in a roughly 1.3 cm by 2 cm main axes oval region. An image of an okra plant was taken to test its performance.

  7. LOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Jones, G.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Snodgrass, C.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of LOTUS; a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5x95 arcsec) and wide (5x25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Angstroms with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependant spectral resolution of R=225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is less than 2 Angstroms rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition.

  8. Prototype of a low cost multiparameter probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, K.; Schwingle, R.; Pullin, M.

    2010-12-01

    Commercial multi-parameter probes provide accurate, high-resolution temporal data collection of a variety of water quality parameters, but their cost (>5,000) prohibits more than a few sampling locations. We present a design and prototype for a low cost (<250) probe. The cost of the probe is ~5% of commercially available probes, allowing for data collection from ~20 times more sampling points in a field location. The probe is constructed from a single-board microcontroller, a commercially available temperature sensor, a conductivity sensor, and a fabricated optical rhodamine sensor. Using a secure digital (SD) memory card, the probe can record over a month of data at a user specified interval. Construction, calibration, field deployment and data retrieval can be accomplished by a skilled undergraduate. Initial deployment will take place as part of a tracer test in the Valles Caldera National Preserve in northern New Mexico. Future work includes: addition of commercial ion selective electrodes (pH, bromide, nitrate, and others); construction of optically based sensors (chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, and others); wireless networking between the sensors; and reduction of biofouling.

  9. LOTUS: A low cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Jones, G.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Snodgrass, C.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-05-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of LOTUS; a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependant spectral resolution of R = 225 - 430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition.

  10. LOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Jones, G.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Snodgrass, C.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration, respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependent spectral resolution of R = 225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg, we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition.

  11. Fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their potential precursors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyun; Cousins, Ian T; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-10-01

    Since 2000 there has been an on-going industrial transition to replace long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids(PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their precursors. To date, information on these replacements including their chemical identities, however, has not been published or made easily accessible to the public, hampering risk assessment and management of these chemicals. Here we review information on fluorinated alternatives in the public domain. We identify over 20 fluorinated substances that are applied in [i] fluoropolymer manufacture, [ii] surface treatment of textile, leather and carpets, [iii] surface treatment of food contact materials,[iv] metal plating, [v] fire-fighting foams, and [vi] other commercial and consumer products.We summarize current knowledge on their environmental releases, persistence, and exposure of biota and humans. Based on the limited information available, it is unclear whether fluorinated alternatives are safe for humans and the environment.We identify three major data gaps that must be filled to perform meaningful risk assessments and recommend generation of the missing data through cooperation among all stakeholders (industry, regulators, academic scientists and the public). PMID:24660230

  12. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  13. MPEG-1 low-cost encoder solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueger, Klaus; Schirrmeister, Frank; Filor, Lutz; von Reventlow, Christian; Schneider, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerriet; Sefzik, Nicolai; Fiedrich, Sven

    1995-02-01

    A solution for real-time compression of digital YCRCB video data to an MPEG-1 video data stream has been developed. As an additional option, motion JPEG and video telephone streams (H.261) can be generated. For MPEG-1, up to two bidirectional predicted images are supported. The required computational power for motion estimation and DCT/IDCT, memory size and memory bandwidth have been the main challenges. The design uses fast-page-mode memory accesses and requires only one single 80 ns EDO-DRAM with 256 X 16 organization for video encoding. This can be achieved only by using adequate access and coding strategies. The architecture consists of an input processing and filter unit, a memory interface, a motion estimation unit, a motion compensation unit, a DCT unit, a quantization control, a VLC unit and a bus interface. For using the available memory bandwidth by the processing tasks, a fixed schedule for memory accesses has been applied, that can be interrupted for asynchronous events. The motion estimation unit implements a highly sophisticated hierarchical search strategy based on block matching. The DCT unit uses a separated fast-DCT flowgraph realized by a switchable hardware unit for both DCT and IDCT operation. By appropriate multiplexing, only one multiplier is required for: DCT, quantization, inverse quantization, and IDCT. The VLC unit generates the video-stream up to the video sequence layer and is directly coupled with an intelligent bus-interface. Thus, the assembly of video, audio and system data can easily be performed by the host computer. Having a relatively low complexity and only small requirements for DRAM circuits, the developed solution can be applied to low-cost encoding products for consumer electronics.

  14. Low-cost sustainable wall construction system

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    Houses with no wall cavities, such as those made of adobe, stone, brick, or block, have poor thermal properties but are rarely insulated because of the cost and difficulty of providing wall insulation. A simple, low-cost technique using loose-fill indigenous materials has been demonstrated for the construction of highly insulated walls or the retrofit of existing walls in such buildings. Locally available pumice, in sandbags stacked along the exterior wall of an adobe house in New Mexico, added a thermal resistance (R) of 16 F{sm{underscore}bullet}ft{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}h/Btu (2.8 m{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}K/W). The total cost of the sandbag insulation wall retrofit was $3.76 per square foot ($40.50/m{sup 2}). Computer simulations of the adobe house using DOE 2.1E show savings of $275 per year, corresponding to 50% reduction in heating energy consumption. The savings-to-investment ratio ranges from 1.1 to 3.2, so the cost of conserved energy is lower than the price of propane, natural gas and electric heat, making the system cost-effective. Prototype stand-alone walls were also constructed using fly ash and sawdust blown into continuous polypropylene tubing, which was folded between corner posts as it was filled to form the shape of the wall. Other materials could also be used. The inexpensive technique solves the problem of insulating solid-wall hours and constructing new houses without specialized equipment and skills, thereby saving energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving comfort for people in many countries. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has filed patent applications on this technology, which is part of a DOE initiative on sustainable building envelope materials and systems.

  15. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppa, G. V.; Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    For 60 years the US Defense Department has invested heavily in producing small, low mass, precision-guided vehicles. The technologies matured under these programs include terrain-aided navigation, closed loop terminal guidance algorithms, robust autopilots, high thrust-to-weight propulsion, autonomous mission management software, sensors, and data fusion. These technologies will aid NASA in addressing New Millennium Science and Technology goals as well as the requirements flowing from the Moon to Mars vision articulated in January 2004. Establishing and resupplying a long-term lunar presence will require automated landing precision not yet demonstrated. Precision landing will increase safety and assure mission success. In our lander design, science instruments amount to 10 kg, 16% of the lander vehicle mass. This compares favorably with 7% for Mars Pathfinder and less than 15% for Surveyor. The mission design relies on a cruise stage for navigation and TCMs for the lander's flight to the moon. The landing sequence begins with a solid motor burn to reduce the vehicle speed to 300-450 m/s. At this point the lander is about 2 minutes from touchdown and has 600 to 700 m/s delta-v capability. This allows for about 10 km of vehicle divert during terminal descent. This concept of operations closely mimics missile operational protocol used for decades: the vehicle remains inert, then must execute its mission flawlessly on a moment's notice. The vehicle design uses a propulsion system derived from heritage MDA programs. A redesigned truss provides hard points for landing gear, electronics, power supply, and science instruments. A radar altimeter and a Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. This approach leverages the billions of dollars DoD has invested in these technologies, to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  16. Low-cost respiratory motion tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryawala, Mohammed; Del Valle, Misael; Wang, Jiali; Byrne, James; Franquiz, Juan; McGoron, Anthony

    2008-03-01

    Lung cancer is the cause of more than 150,000 deaths annually in the United States. Early and accurate detection of lung tumors with Positron Emission Tomography has enhanced lung tumor diagnosis. However, respiratory motion during the imaging period of PET results in the reduction of accuracy of detection due to blurring of the images. Chest motion can serve as a surrogate for tracking the motion of the tumor. For tracking chest motion, an optical laser system was designed which tracks the motion of a patterned card placed on the chest by illuminating the pattern with two structured light sources, generating 8 positional markers. The position of markers is used to determine the vertical, translational, and rotational motion of the card. Information from the markers is used to decide whether the patient's breath is abnormal compared to their normal breathing pattern. The system is developed with an inexpensive web-camera and two low-cost laser pointers. The experiments were carried out using a dynamic phantom developed in-house, to simulate chest movement with different amplitudes and breathing periods. Motion of the phantom was tracked by the system developed and also by a pressure transducer for comparison. The studies showed a correlation of 96.6% between the respiratory tracking waveforms by the two systems, demonstrating the capability of the system. Unlike the pressure transducer method, the new system tracks motion in 3 dimensions. The developed system also demonstrates the ability to track a sliding motion of the patient in the direction parallel to the bed and provides the potential to stop the PET scan in case of such motion.

  17. Manufacturing Large Membrane Mirrors at Low Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive processes have been developed for manufacturing lightweight, wide-aperture mirrors that consist mainly of reflectively coated, edge-supported polyimide membranes. The polyimide and other materials in these mirrors can withstand the environment of outer space, and the mirrors have other characteristics that make them attractive for use on Earth as well as in outer space: With respect to the smoothness of their surfaces and the accuracy with which they retain their shapes, these mirrors approach the optical quality of heavier, more expensive conventional mirrors. Unlike conventional mirrors, these mirrors can be stowed compactly and later deployed to their full sizes. In typical cases, deployment would be effected by inflation. Potential terrestrial and outer-space applications for these mirrors include large astronomical telescopes, solar concentrators for generating electric power and thermal power, and microwave reflectors for communication, radar, and short-distance transmission of electric power. The relatively low cost of manufacturing these mirrors stems, in part, from the use of inexpensive tooling. Unlike in the manufacture of conventional mirrors, there is no need for mandrels or molds that have highly precise surface figures and highly polished surfaces. The surface smoothness is an inherent property of a polyimide film. The shaped area of the film is never placed in contact with a mold or mandrel surface: Instead the shape of a mirror is determined by a combination of (1) the shape of a fixture that holds the film around its edge and (2) control of manufacturing- process parameters. In a demonstration of this manufacturing concept, spherical mirrors having aperture diameters of 0.5 and 1.0 m were fabricated from polyimide films having thicknesses ranging from <20 m to 150 m. These mirrors have been found to maintain their preformed shapes following deployment.

  18. Large area low cost processing for CIS photovoltaics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    B. Basol; G. Norsworthy; C. Leidholm; A. Halani; R. Roe; V. Kapur

    1999-07-22

    An ink coating method was developed for CIS absorber deposition. The technique involves four processing steps: (1) preparation of a Cu-In alloy powder, (2) preparation of an ink using this powder, (3) deposition of the ink on a substrate in the form of a precursor layer, and (4) selenization to convert the Cu-In precursor into a fused CIS film. Absorbers grown by this low-cost, large-area method were used in the fabrication of 10.5% efficient solar cells.

  19. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP

  20. Synthesis and characterization of low cost magnetorheological (MR) fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhwani, V. K.; Hirani, H.

    2007-04-01

    Magnetorheological fluids have great potential for engineering applications due to their variable rheological behavior. These fluids find applications in dampers, brakes, shock absorbers, and engine mounts. However their relatively high cost (approximately US600 per liter) limits their wide usage. Most commonly used magnetic material "Carbonyl iron" cost more than 90% of the MR fluid cost. Therefore for commercial viability of these fluids there is need of alternative economical magnetic material. In the present work synthesis of MR fluid has been attempted with objective to produce low cost MR fluid with high sedimentation stability and greater yield stress. In order to reduce the cost, economical electrolytic Iron powder (US 10 per Kg) has been used. Iron powder of relatively larger size (300 Mesh) has been ball milled to reduce their size to few microns (1 to 10 microns). Three different compositions have been prepared and compared for MR effect produced and stability. All have same base fluid (Synthetic oil) and same magnetic phase i.e. Iron particles but they have different additives. First preparation involves organic additives Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Stearic acid. Other two preparations involve use of two environmental friendly low-priced green additives guar gum (US 2 per Kg) and xanthan gum (US 12 per Kg) respectively. Magnetic properties of Iron particles have been measured by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Morphology of Iron particles and additives guar gum and xanthan gum has been examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Particles Size Distribution (PSD) has been determined using Particle size analyzer. Microscopic images of particles, MH plots and stability of synthesized MR fluids have been reported. The prepared low cost MR fluids showed promising performance and can be effectively used for engineering applications demanding controllability in operations.

  1. Low Cost Cryocoolers for High Temperature Superconductor Communication Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Davina

    1998-01-01

    This final report describes the work performed by a consortium of Industry and Government to develop low cost cryocoolers. The specific application was for low cost commercial based high temperature superconductor communication filters. This program was initiated in January 1995 and resulted in the successful demonstration of an HTS filter dewar cooled by a low cost pulse tube cryocooler. Further development of this cryocooler technology is proceeding through various contracts underway and proposed at this time.

  2. Determination of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursor frequencies using europium labeling as a nonradioactive alternative to labeling with chromium-51.

    PubMed

    Bouma, G J; van der Meer-Prins, P M; van Bree, F P; van Rood, J J; Claas, F H

    1992-10-01

    We report on the use of europium (Eu) as a suitable nonradioactive alternative for target cell labeling in limiting dilution analysis (LDA) assays set up to determine cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursor (CTLp) frequencies. A nonradioactive alternative to the commonly used chromium-51 (51Cr) release assay seems desirable because working with radioisotopes has some major disadvantages concerning possible health risks, environmental load, costs of facilities necessary for working with radioisotopes, and shelf life. Some groups have successfully applied the Eu release assay based on detection by time-resolved fluorometry, to tests in which NK- or LAK-cell activity or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte reactions were measured. This led to the investigation whether this method could also be applicable to the more specific determination of CTLp frequencies in LDA assays. After optimal labeling conditions had been established, the sensitivity of the Eu release assay was determined by performing several LDA assays in which the target cells were labeled with either Eu or radioactive 51Cr. When CTLp frequencies were compared, it was shown that the Eu release assay is at least as sensitive and specific as the 51Cr release assay. Moreover, although the labeling procedure takes longer, sample processing is much faster: only 1 second per sample. The fact that the Eu release assay is not radioactive enables the assay to be performed at any laboratory and even--because the frequency of CTLps may have implications for organ graft survival and for donor selection in bone marrow transplantation--to do so on a routine basis. PMID:1286979

  3. Development of Low Cost Soil Stabilization Using Recycled Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, F.; Yahaya, A. S.; Safari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Recycled tyres have been used in many geotechnical engineering projects such as soil improvement, soil erosion and slope stability. Recycled tyres mainly in chip and shredded form are highly compressible under low and normal pressures. This characteristic would cause challenging problems in some applications of soil stabilization such as retaining wall and river bank projects. For high tensile stress and low tensile strain the use of fiberglass would be a good alternative for recycled tyre in some cases. To evaluate fiberglass as an alternative for recycled tyre, this paper focused on tests of tensile tests which have been carried out between fiberglass and recycled tyre strips. Fibreglass samples were produced from chopped strand fibre mat, a very low-cost type of fibreglass, which is cured by resin and hardener. Fibreglass samples in the thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were developed 100 mm x 300 mm pieces. It was found that 3 mm fibreglass exhibited the maximum tensile load (MTL) and maximum tensile stress (MTS) greater than other samples. Statistical analysis on 3 mm fibreglass indicated that in the approximately equal MTL fibreglass samples experienced 2% while tyre samples experienced 33.9% ultimate tensile strain (UTST) respectively. The results also showed an approximately linear relationship between stress and strain for fibreglass samples and Young's modulus (E), ranging from 3581 MPa to 4728 MPa.

  4. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama.

    PubMed

    Ferhat, Onur; Vilariño, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR) technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools. PMID:27034653

  5. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama

    PubMed Central

    Vilariño, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR) technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools. PMID:27034653

  6. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    ) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. DSMAC acquires high-resolution images for real-time correlation with a reference map. This system provides ownship position with a resolution comparable to the map. Since the DSMAC can sample at 1.5 mrad, any imaging acquired below 70 km altitude will surpass the resolution available from previous missions. DSMAC has a mode where image data are compressed and downlinked. This capability could be used to downlink live images during terminal guidance. Approximately 500 kbitps telemetry would be required to provide the first live descent imaging sequence since Ranger. This would provide unique geologic context imaging for the landing site. The development path to produce such a vehicle is that used to develop missiles. First, a pathfinder vehicle is designed and built as a test bed for hardware integration including science instruments. Second, a hover test vehicle would be built. Equipped with mass mockups for the science payload, the vehicle would otherwise be an exact copy of the flight vehicle. The hover vehicle would be flown on earth to demonstrate the proper function and integration of the propulsion system, autopilots, navigation algorithms, and guidance sensors. There is sufficient delta-v in the proposed design to take off from the ground, fly a ballistic arc to over 100 m altitude, then guide to a precision soft landing. Once the vehicle has flown safely on earth, then the validated design would be used to produce the flight vehicle. Since this leverages the billions of dollars DOD has invested in these technologies, it should be possible to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  7. A primer for telemetry interfacing in accordance with NASA standards using low cost FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Jake; Schultz, Ted; Tutt, James; Rogers, Thomas; Miles, Drew; McEntaffer, Randall

    2015-08-01

    Photon counting detector systems on sounding rocket payloads often require interfacing asynchronous outputs with a synchronously clocked telemetry stream. Though this can be handled with an on-board computer, there are several low cost alternatives including custom hardware, microcontrollers, and Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This paper outlines how a telemetry interface for detectors on a sounding rocket with asynchronous parallel digital output can be implemented using low cost FPGAs and minimal custom hardware. It also discusses how this system can be tested with a simulated telemetry chain in the small laboratory setting.

  8. Design study of a low cost civil aviation GPS receiver system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R.; Gilbert, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost Navstar receiver system for civil aviation applications was defined. User objectives and constraints were established. Alternative navigation processing design trades were evaluated. Receiver hardware was synthesized by comparing technology projections with various candidate system designs. A control display unit design was recommended as the result of field test experience with Phase I GPS sets and a review of special human factors for general aviation users. Areas requiring technology development to ensure a low cost Navstar Set in the 1985 timeframe were identified.

  9. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, Scott; Bhandari, Abhinav

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with

  10. Graphene radio frequency and microwave passive components for low cost wearable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Hsin Chang, Kuo; Cing Chen, Jia; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Hu, Zhirun

    2016-06-01

    Graphene RF and microwave passive components such as coplanar waveguide transmission lines, open/short-circuited resonators and wideband antenna on paper substrate were designed, screen printed and characterized in this work. The experimental results demonstrate that the screen printed graphene passive components can be used for RF signal transmitting, processing and radiating/receiving; revealing that graphene ink can be a low cost alternative to much more expensive metal nanoparticle inks, such as silver nanoparticle ink. The screen printed graphene is processed at low temperature so that it is compatible with heat-sensitive flexible materials like papers, PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) and textiles. The screen printed graphene passive components reported here are of high conductivity, high flexibility, light weight and low cost, making them ideal candidate for low cost wearable electronics. This work makes it prospective to manufacture RF and microwave passive components in mass production by screen printing in much lower cost to any other known techniques.

  11. Typical low cost biosorbents for adsorptive removal of specific organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Son; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhang, Xinbo

    2015-04-01

    Specific organic pollutants (SOPs) such as phenolic compounds, PAHs, organic pesticides, and organic herbicides cause health and environmental problems due to their excessive toxic properties and poor biodegradability. Low-cost biosorbents are considered as a promising alternative for conventional adsorbents to remove SOPs from water. These materials have several advantages such as high sorption capacities, good modifiability and recoverability, insensitivity to toxic substances, simple operation in the treatment processes. However, previous reports on various types of biosorbents for removing SOPs are still moderately fragmented. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review on using typical low-cost biosorbents obtained from lignocellulose and chitin/chitosan for SOPs adsorption. Especially, their characteristics, biosorption mechanism together with utilization for eliminating SOPs are presented and discussed. The paper also gives a critical view regarding future applications of low-cost biosorbents in SOPs-contaminated water treatment. PMID:25690682

  12. Low cost attitude control system reaction wheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of a low power and low cost Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. The details of the versatile design resulting from this effort are addressed. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  13. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  14. Adsorption of methylene blue on low-cost adsorbents: a review.

    PubMed

    Rafatullah, Mohd; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Ahmad, Anees

    2010-05-15

    In this article, the use of low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from solution has been reviewed. Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those which are not easily biodegradable. The removal of MB, as a pollutant, from waste waters of textile, paper, printing and other industries has been addressed by the researchers. Currently, a combination of biological treatment and adsorption on activated carbon is becoming more common for removal of dyes from wastewater. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred adsorbent for color removal, its widespread use is restricted due to its relatively high cost which led to the researches on alternative non-conventional and low-cost adsorbents. The purpose of this review article is to organize the scattered available information on various aspects on a wide range of potentially low-cost adsorbents for MB removal. These include agricultural wastes, industrial solid wastes, biomass, clays minerals and zeolites. Agricultural waste materials being highly efficient, low cost and renewable source of biomass can be exploited for MB remediation. It is evident from a literature survey of about 185 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for MB. PMID:20044207

  15. Next generation low cost wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingspor, J.S.; Bresowar, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has been the dominating control technology since the introduction of the clean air act and is projected to be the preferred FGD technology for the foreseeable future. Following the introduction of wet FGD systems in the late `60s, the technology quickly reached maturity with only incremental improvements during recent years. However, deregulation, emission trading, and market forces have demanded significant improvements in capital and operating costs, performance, environmental impact, ease of retrofit and cycle time. In response to market demands, ABB has developed a new generation wet FGD system, named LS-2, based on the traditional open spray tower technology. The development of the LS-2 system has progressed methodically within the ABB R and D community within the last three years and is currently being demonstrated at Ohio Edison`s Niles station. The LS-2 system features cost savings and performance improvements never before demonstrated in wet FGD systems. The cost level of the LS-2 system will make it a clear alternative to fuel switching when applied in a manner similar to the installation at Niles. The economics of the LS-2 system is discussed in some detail.

  16. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bakeer, Mostafa; Abdelgawad, Taha Taha; El-Metwaly, Raed; El-Morsi, Ahmed; El-Badrawy, Mohammad Khairy; El-Sharawy, Solafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR), using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery. Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue. Methods Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients) in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients) in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications. Results In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted) (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively). In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted) (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively). All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality. Conclusion BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. PMID:27536091

  17. Low-cost mirror substrates: manufacturing process evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosala, Francois; Meyer, Michele; Bes de Berc, Jean-Sebastien; Roussel, Andre; Beriot, Emmanuel

    1997-12-01

    In the framework of the Megajoule Laser project driven by the French Atomic Energy Board, one of the most valuable optical programs in term of material volume as well as in term of component size, the actual glasses and production means appear to be inconsistent with the economical objectives. Corning proposed an alternative, based on the use of a low cost glass, together with an evolution of the production process. Combining its experience in quality optical glasses manufacturing and its mastery of forming processes, Corning conducted a production cost reduction program; the objective of this program was to validate the concept of large slab melting (about 2000 kg each), where blocks are cut off, versus the conventional single block (about 100 kg) melting. Economical improvements are based on a reduction of lost time (mold change) and production lead- time by increasing the feeding yield, on a better glass utilization, and a reduced number of molds. The technical issues were: increase the feeding yield maintaining a given glass quality level, reduce the glass allowance, improve the materials of the molds, reinforce the thermal process control, automatism of critical operations, especially at the start-up and at the end of the mold feeding. Despite the long production cycle, about 3 months including melting and annealing, the first results carry the technological options set-up.

  18. Low-cost mirror substrates: manufacturing process evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosala, Francois; Meyer, Michele; Bes de Berc, Jean-Sebastien; Roussel, Andre; Beriot, Emmanuel

    1996-08-01

    In the framework of the megajoule laser project driven by the french atomic energy board, one of the most valuable optical programs in terms of material volume as well as in terms of component size, the actual glasses and production means appear to be inconsistent with the economical objectives. Corning proposed an alternative, based on the use of a low cost glass, together with an evolution of the production process. Combining its experience in quality optical glasses manufacturing and its mastery of forming processes, Corning conducted a production cost reduction program; the objective of this program was to validate the concept of large slab melting, where blocks are cut off, versus the conventional single block melting. Economical improvements are based on a reduction of lost time and production lead-time by increasing the feeding yield, on a better glass utilization, and a reduced number of molds. The technical issues were: increase the feeding yield maintaining a given glass quality level, reduce the glass allowance, improve the materials of the molds, reinforce the thermal process control, automatism of critical operations, especially at the start-up and at the end of the mold feeding.

  19. Mars Relay Spacecraft: A Low-Cost Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SvitekT, .; King, J.; Fulton, R.; McOmber, R.; Hastrup, R.; Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The next phase of Mars exploration will utilize numerous globally distributed small low-cost devices including landers penetrators microrovers and balloons. Direct-to-Earth communications links if required for these landers will drive the lander design for two reasons: a) mass and complexity needed for a steerable high-gain antenna and b) power requirements for a high-power amplifier (i.e. solar panel and battery mass). Total mass of the direct link hardware for several recent small-lander designs exceeded the mass of the scientific payload. Alternatively if communications are via a Mars-orbiting relay spacecraft resource requirements for the local UHF communication link are comparatively trivial: a simple whip antenna and less than 1 watt power. Clearly using a Mars relay spacecraft (MRS) is the preferred option if the MRS mission can be accomplished in an affordable and robust way. Our paper describes a point design for such a mission launched in the s001 or 2003 opportunity.

  20. Biomedical microfluidic devices by using low-cost fabrication techniques: A review.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Vera; Catarino, Susana O; Lima, Rui; Minas, Graça

    2016-07-26

    One of the most popular methods to fabricate biomedical microfluidic devices is by using a soft-lithography technique. However, the fabrication of the moulds to produce microfluidic devices, such as SU-8 moulds, usually requires a cleanroom environment that can be quite costly. Therefore, many efforts have been made to develop low-cost alternatives for the fabrication of microstructures, avoiding the use of cleanroom facilities. Recently, low-cost techniques without cleanroom facilities that feature aspect ratios more than 20, for fabricating those SU-8 moulds have been gaining popularity among biomedical research community. In those techniques, Ultraviolet (UV) exposure equipment, commonly used in the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) industry, replaces the more expensive and less available Mask Aligner that has been used in the last 15 years for SU-8 patterning. Alternatively, non-lithographic low-cost techniques, due to their ability for large-scale production, have increased the interest of the industrial and research community to develop simple, rapid and low-cost microfluidic structures. These alternative techniques include Print and Peel methods (PAP), laserjet, solid ink, cutting plotters or micromilling, that use equipment available in almost all laboratories and offices. An example is the xurography technique that uses a cutting plotter machine and adhesive vinyl films to generate the master moulds to fabricate microfluidic channels. In this review, we present a selection of the most recent lithographic and non-lithographic low-cost techniques to fabricate microfluidic structures, focused on the features and limitations of each technique. Only microfabrication methods that do not require the use of cleanrooms are considered. Additionally, potential applications of these microfluidic devices in biomedical engineering are presented with some illustrative examples. PMID:26671220

  1. A low-cost compact metric adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansell, Justin D.; Henderson, Brian; Wiesner, Brennen; Praus, Robert; Coy, Steve

    2007-09-01

    The application of adaptive optics has been hindered by the cost, size, and complexity of the systems. We describe here progress we have made toward creating low-cost compact turn-key adaptive optics systems. We describe our new low-cost deformable mirror technology developed using polymer membranes, the associated USB interface drive electronics, and different ways that this technology can be configured into a low-cost compact adaptive optics system. We also present results of a parametric study of the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) control algorithm.

  2. Low cost voice compression for mobile digital radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique for low cost rubust voice compression at 4800 bits per second was studied. The approach was based on using a cascade of digital biquad adaptive filters with simplified multipulse excitation followed by simple bit sequence compression.

  3. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOEpatents

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  4. A Low-Cost, Precision Hydrometer for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low cost hydrometer which can be assembled by students using stock laboratory items with a total retail cost of 17 cents. Includes list of required materials (with supplies) and experimental results on the instrument's accuracy. (JM)

  5. Composite hubs for low cost gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed stress analysis was performed using NASTRAN to demonstrate theoretically the adequacy of composite hubs for low cost turbine engine applications. Composite hubs are adequate for this application from the steady state stress view point.

  6. Low-cost orbiting grinder for cutting ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Low-cost, portable machine cuts ducts made from heat-treated alloys. An abrasive wheel, powered by a high-speed air motor mounted on an expandible plug against the inner wall of the duct, gives precise cutting.

  7. Proceedings of the Low-Cost Solar Array Wafering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    The technology and economics of silicon ingot wafering for low cost solar arrays were discussed. Fixed and free abrasive sawing wire, ID, and multiblade sawing, materials, mechanisms, characterization, and innovative concepts were considered.

  8. A Low-Cost Electronic Solar Energy Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blade, Richard A.; Small, Charles T.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the design of a low-cost electronic circuit to serve as a differential thermostat, to control the operation of a solar heating system. It uses inexpensive diodes for sensoring temperature, and a mechanical relay for a switch. (GA)

  9. A Low-Cost and High-Performance Conductivity Meter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Rocha, Rogerio T.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an apparatus that is stable and accurate enough for quantitative conductivity experiments but maintains the simplicity of construction and use as well as low cost. Discusses principles and implementation and the performance of the assembled apparatus. (JRH)

  10. Low-cost optical instrumentation for biomedical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2000-12-01

    Low-cost instruments for measurement in medicine, biotechnology, and environmental monitoring are presented. Recent developments in optoelectronic technology enable practical compact designs. This article presents the available types of light emitters, detectors, and wavelength selection components that are used in low-cost instruments. The main spectroscopic techniques (absorption, reflectance, luminescence intensity, lifetime, and polarization, evanescent wave and surface plasmon resonance) that are used with these instruments are described. Numerous examples of devices for a broad variety of biomedical measurements are presented.

  11. The REFSAT approach to low-cost GPS terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sennott, J. W.; Choudhury, A. K.; Taylor, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A concept utilizing a geostationary reference satellite (REFSAT) that broadcasts navigation aiding signals to low cost civil user terminals which employ the constellation of 24 NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites for position determination is described. The signal acquisition, tracking and position fixing properties of such low cost, dual channel, L-band, civil user receiver designed to receive both GPS navigation and REFSAT navigation aiding signals is presented. REFSAT reduces the cost of user equipment.

  12. Cost Modeling for low-cost planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Eric; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Rosenberg, Leigh

    2005-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the JPL parametric cost models used to estimate flight science spacecrafts and instruments. This material will emphasize the cost model approaches to estimate low-cost flight hardware, sensors, and instrumentation, and to perform cost-risk assessments. This presentation will also discuss JPL approaches to perform cost modeling and the methodologies and analyses used to capture low-cost vs. key cost drivers.

  13. Access control violation prevention by low-cost infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Andrew N.

    2004-09-01

    A low cost 16x16 un-cooled pyroelectric detector array, allied with advanced tracking and detection algorithms, has enabled the development of a universal detector with a wide range of applications in people monitoring and homeland security. Violation of access control systems, whether controlled by proximity card, biometrics, swipe card or similar, may occur by 'tailgating' or 'piggybacking' where an 'approved' entrant with a valid entry card is accompanied by a closely spaced 'non-approved' entrant. The violation may be under duress, where the accompanying person is attempting to enter a secure facility by force or threat. Alternatively, the violation may be benign where staff members collude either through habit or lassitude, either with each other or with third parties, without considering the security consequences. Examples of the latter could include schools, hospitals or maternity homes. The 16x16 pyroelectric array is integrated into a detector or imaging system which incorporates data processing, target extraction and decision making algorithms. The algorithms apply interpolation to the array output, allowing a higher level of resolution than might otherwise be expected from such a low resolution array. The pyroelectric detection principle means that the detection will work in variable light conditions and even in complete darkness, if required. The algorithms can monitor the shape, form, temperature and number of persons in the scene and utilise this information to determine whether a violation has occurred or not. As people are seen as 'hot blobs' and are not individually recognisable, civil liberties are not infringed in the detection process. The output from the detector is a simple alarm signal which may act as input to the access control system as an alert or to trigger CCTV image display and storage. The applications for a tailgate detector can be demonstrated across many medium security applications where there are no physical means to prevent this

  14. A low-cost float method of harnessing wave energy

    SciTech Connect

    George, M.P.

    1983-12-01

    The author proposes in this paper a low-cost and simple method of harnessing wave energy that should enable coastal regions to be self-sufficient in electric power. The method is eminently applicable to India and such developing countries, being simple and involving a small capital investment. The method was evolved after study of the Indian West Coast fronting the Arabian Sea, and can harness about 50% of the wave energy. A log of wood about 5 metres long and 50 cm. in diameter, having a specific gravity of 0.8 to 0.9, is made to float parallel to the beach and about 50 metres away from it. Its movement is restricted to the vertical plane by means of poles. Two roller chains are attached to the ends of the log which pass over two sprocket free-wheels. When the log is lifted with the crest of the wave, the roller chain moves over the free-wheel. When the trough of the wave reaches the log, its weight is applied to the sprocket wheels through the roller chains. Each sprocket wheel rotates and the rotation is multiplied with a gear wheel. The torque from the high speed spindle of the gear is applied to a small alternating current generator. The AC output from the generator is rectified and used either for charging a battery bank, or connected to the lighting system, or supplied to electrolytic tank for producing hydrogen and other chemicals at the site. A chain of such systems along the coast can supply enough power to light the fishermen's hamlets stretching along the coast.

  15. Low-cost resilience schemes for the Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugini, Filippo; Valcarenghi, Luca; Castoldi, Piero; Guglielmucci, Michele

    2005-12-01

    Optical Ethernet (OE) architectures transport IP packets directly over the optical layer by providing a specific Layer 2 framing. Although the architectures represent a simple and low-cost solution, the limiting factor for their widespread deployment is represented by the lack of some efficient operation, administration, and maintenance (OA&M) features, such as resilience. Optical layer protection represents a low-cost resilience scheme for OE links. We present the experimental results of low-cost protection implementations that are based on different failure detection and failure protection activation schemes for IP-over-OE networks. Specifically, a dedicated span protection scheme and an evolution for shared protection based on generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling in transparent domains is presented. Experimental results show that recovery times in the millisecond range are achieved.

  16. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    SciTech Connect

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  17. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1980-01-01

    A winding process utilizing a low-cost E-glass fabric called transverse-filament tape for low-cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG) is described. The process can be carried out continuously at high speed to produce large one-piece parts with tapered wall thicknesses on a tapered mandrel. It is being used to manufacture blades for the NASA/DOE 200-ft-diameter MOD-1 WTG and Rockwell/DOE 40-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS).

  18. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, Giovanni; Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore; Neitzert, Heinz C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  19. Hughes integrated synthetic aperture radar: High performance at low cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bayma, R.W.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the background and development of the low cost high-performance Hughes Integrated Synthetic Aperture Radar (HISAR{trademark}) which has a full range of capabilities for real-time reconnaissance, surveillance and earth resource mapping. HISAR uses advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology to make operationally effective images of near photo quality, day or night and in all weather conditions. This is achieved at low cost by maximizing the use of commercially available radar and signal-processing equipment in the fabrication. Furthermore, HISAR is designed to fit into an executive-class aircraft making it available for a wide range of users. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  1. Geowall: Investigations into Low-Cost Stereo Display Technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Davis, Brian; Weeks, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the combination of new projection technology, fast, low-cost graphics cards, and Linux-powered personal computers has made it possible to provide a stereoprojection and stereoviewing system that is much more affordable than previous commercial solutions. These Geowall systems are low-cost visualization systems built with commodity off-the-shelf components, run on open-source (and other) operating systems, and using open-source applications software. In short, they are ?Beowulf-class? visualization systems that provide a cost-effective way for the U. S. Geological Survey to broaden participation in the visualization community and view stereoimagery and three-dimensional models2.

  2. J3Gen: A PRNG for Low-Cost Passive RFID

    PubMed Central

    Melià-Seguí, Joan; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Pseudorandom number generation (PRNG) is the main security tool in low-cost passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, such as EPC Gen2. We present a lightweight PRNG design for low-cost passive RFID tags, named J3Gen. J3Gen is based on a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) configured with multiple feedback polynomials. The polynomials are alternated during the generation of sequences via a physical source of randomness. J3Gen successfully handles the inherent linearity of LFSR based PRNGs and satisfies the statistical requirements imposed by the EPC Gen2 standard. A hardware implementation of J3Gen is presented and evaluated with regard to different design parameters, defining the key-equivalence security and nonlinearity of the design. The results of a SPICE simulation confirm the power-consumption suitability of the proposal. PMID:23519344

  3. A Primer for Telemetry Interfacing in Accordance with NASA Standards Using Low Cost FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Jake; Schultz, Ted; Tutt, James; Rogers, Thomas; Miles, Drew; McEntaffer, Randall

    2016-03-01

    Photon counting detector systems on sounding rocket payloads often require interfacing asynchronous outputs with a synchronously clocked telemetry (TM) stream. Though this can be handled with an on-board computer, there are several low cost alternatives including custom hardware, microcontrollers and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This paper outlines how a TM interface (TMIF) for detectors on a sounding rocket with asynchronous parallel digital output can be implemented using low cost FPGAs and minimal custom hardware. Low power consumption and high speed FPGAs are available as commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products and can be used to develop the main component of the TMIF. Then, only a small amount of additional hardware is required for signal buffering and level translating. This paper also discusses how this system can be tested with a simulated TM chain in the small laboratory setting using FPGAs and COTS specialized data acquisition products.

  4. Low cost plastic optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Berti, Víctor M.; López-Pérez, Ana C.; Alén, Benito; Costa-Krämer, José Luis; García-Martín, Antonio; Lomer, Mauro; López-Higuera, José Miguel

    2010-09-01

    Surface plasmon excitation using a variation of Kretschmann method based on light guiding through an optical fiber has been extensively studied in the literature. But, due to its particularly bad propagation conditions, plastic optical fiber was not taken into account in documented experiments. We propose a low cost sensor using this type of fiber, in which we try to avoid the problems both through careful design and signal processing. First of all we discuss the sample fabrication and measurement in section 2; then the results obtained are discussed in section 3, including the problems faced because of the multimode character of the fiber, for which we propose alternative sample shapes as a mean of reducing them. As a conclusion we propose a roadmap to design a low cost sensor based in the structures studied in this paper.

  5. Remote detection of mental workload changes using cardiac parameters assessed with a low-cost webcam.

    PubMed

    Bousefsaf, Frédéric; Maaoui, Choubeila; Pruski, Alain

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a new framework for detecting mental workload changes using video frames obtained from a low-cost webcam. Image processing in addition to a continuous wavelet transform filtering method were developed and applied to remove major artifacts and trends on raw webcam photoplethysmographic signals. The measurements are performed on human faces. To induce stress, we have employed a computerized and interactive Stroop color word test on a set composed by twelve participants. The electrodermal activity of the participants was recorded and compared to the mental workload curve assessed by merging two parameters derived from the pulse rate variability and photoplethysmographic amplitude fluctuations, which reflect peripheral vasoconstriction changes. The results exhibit strong correlation between the two measurement techniques. This study offers further support for the applicability of mental workload detection by remote and low-cost means, providing an alternative to conventional contact techniques. PMID:25150821

  6. Low-cost bump bonding activities at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vähänen, S.; Tick, T.; Campbell, M.

    2010-11-01

    Conventional bumping processes used in the fabrication of hybrid pixel detectors for High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments use electroplating for Under Bump Metallization (UBM) and solder bump deposition. This process is laborious, involves time consuming photolithography and can only be performed using whole wafers. Electroplating has been found to be expensive when used for the low volumes which are typical of HEP experiments. In the low-cost bump bonding development work, electroless deposition technology of UBM is studied as an alternative to the electroplating process in the bump size / pitch window beginning from 20 μm / 50 μm. Electroless UBM deposition used in combination with solder transfer techniques has the potential to significantly lower the cost of wafer bumping without requiring increased wafer volumes. A test vehicle design of sensor and readout chip, having daisy chains and Kelvin bump structures, was created to characterize the flip chip process with electroless UBM. Two batches of test vehicle wafers were manufactured with different bump pad metallization. Batch #1 had AlSi(1%) metallization, which is similar to the one used on sensor wafers, and Batch #2 had AlSi(2%)Cu(1%) metallization, which is very similar to the one used on readout wafers. Electroless UBMs were deposited on both wafer batches. In addition, electroplated Ni UBM and SnPb solder bumps were grown on the test sensor wafers. Test assemblies were made by flip chip bonding the solder-bumped test sensors against the test readout chips with electroless UBMs. Electrical yields and individual joint resistances were measured from assemblies, and the results were compared to a well known reference technique based on electroplated solder bumps structures on both chips. The electroless UBMs deposited on AlSi(2%)Cu(1%) metallization showed excellent electrical yields and small tolerances in individual joint resistance. The results from the UBMs deposited on AlSi(1%) metallization were non

  7. Wind turbine generator rotor blade concepts with low cost potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. L.; Cahill, T. P.; Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gewehr, H. W.

    1977-01-01

    Four processed for producing blades are examined. Two use filament winding techniques and two involve filling a mold or form to produce all or part of a blade. The processes are described and a comparison is made of cost, material properties, design and free vibration characteristics. Conclusions are made regarding the feasibility of each process to produce low cost, structurally adequate blades.

  8. Sport for All: Low-Cost Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This report is an outgrowth of discussions held by the Council for Cultural Cooperation (CCC) in Cologne, Germany from September 26-30, 1967 aimed at organizing a systematic exchange of information among European countries for the purpose of providing low-cost sport facilities. Part I deals with fundamental priorities, type, size, and site. The…

  9. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms. PMID:24855446

  10. A low-cost propulsion option for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Jerry Jon; Meerman, Maarten; Paul, Malcolm; Sweeting, Martin

    1995-03-01

    Low-cost satellites require low-cost propulsion systems. This paper starts with a brief history of the University of Surrey Satellite (UoSAT) missions and the on-going efforts to provide affordable access to space. Future mission options are discussed along with the need for low-cost propulsion to make them possible. Following this introduction, a review of the potential propulsion system options available to the satellite designer is presented along with a discussion of the choices that are currently available off-the-shelf and their potentially high cost. Research into low-cost propulsion options at the University of Surrey are then discussed. The ultimate objective of this research is to develop and operate a small satellite propulsion system for a fraction of the cost of traditional systems. Emphasis is given to a hydrogen peroxide/polyethylene hybrit rocket motor option. This system is currently being tested to characterize combustion parameters and assess its long-term potential as a satellite upper-stage. The current status of this research program is discussed fully including a description of the hardware, preliminary test results and future plans.

  11. Leveraging Knowledge: Impact on Low Cost Planetary Mission Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momjian, Jennifer

    This paper discusses innovations developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) librarians to reduce the information query cycle time for teams planning low-cost, planetary missions. The first section provides background on JPL and its library. The second section addresses the virtual information environment, including issues of access, content,…

  12. Reducing High Absenteeism through Low-Cost Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Chaplik, Barbara D.; Engel, Ross A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of a low-cost incentive program--including daily, weekly, and monthly reinforcements such as attention, approval, and inexpensive awards--on the absenteeism of high-absence employees in an urban school district's transportation department. A 20-percent reduction in absenteeism was achieved. (TE)

  13. Low-cost point-focus solar concentrator, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. V.; Derbidge, T. C.; Erskine, D.; Maraschin, R. A.; Niemeyer, W. A.; Matsushita, M. J.; Overly, P. T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the preliminary design study for the low cost point focus solar concentrator (LCPFSC) development program are presented. A summary description of the preliminary design is given. The design philosophy used to achieve a cost effective design for mass production is described. The concentrator meets all design requirements specified and is based on practical design solutions in every possible way.

  14. ADVACATE -- LOW-COST PROCESS FOR SO2 CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses sorbent chemistry and process chemistry of the ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) process, a simple, low-cost add-on technology for S02 control, easily retrofitted on existing utility boilers with minimal disruption. It is considered to be capable of removing 90% of...

  15. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms. PMID:24855446

  16. This Confidential, Low-Cost Counseling Cuts Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier, Terry B.; Crawford, Sherron G.

    1986-01-01

    Confronted with increasing turnover due to burnout and job-related stress, McDowell County Schools (North Carolina) initiated a confidential, voluntary, and low-cost counseling program for teachers. The program, in its second year, is gaining acceptance and proving its worth. Absenteeism is down, working relationships are improving, and principals…

  17. Modular, Easy-to-Assemble, Low-Cost Zebrafish Facility

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongcheol; Carlson, Ryan; Zafreen, Lala; Rajpurohit, Surendra Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We have constructed a standalone, modular, low-cost water recirculation zebrafish facility in our laboratory. This is easy to maintain and will take only approximately $500 and a half a day to build an 80-tank module. The system described here will be useful to even investigators who are new to zebrafish aquaculture. PMID:19694524

  18. Low Cost Coherent Doppler Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Koch, Grady J.

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this paper details the development of a low-cost, short-development time data acquisition and processing system for a coherent Doppler lidar. This was done using common laboratory equipment and a small software investment. This system provides near real-time wind profile measurements. Coding flexibility created a very useful test bed for new techniques.

  19. A Low-Cost, Effective, Fumes Exhaust System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of avoiding welding fumes. The sources of these fumes are presented in a table. Criticizes currently used ventilation systems and reviews the Occupational Safety and Health Act requirements. Describes a low-cost exhaust system developed for agricultural mechanics laboratories. (LRA)

  20. Low-Cost Elimination of Plasma Lines in Raman Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behlow, Herbert W., Jr.; Petersen, John D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a low-cost ($120) device which eliminates plasma lines in Raman spectra. The device consists of two prisms and two mirrors which are held in a symmetrical relationship to one another so that a particular position will allow only one wavelength to pass through on a given axis. (JN)

  1. Low-cost coding techniques for digital fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avizienis, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Published report discusses fault location properties of arithmetic codes. Criterion for effectiveness of given code is detection probability of local fault by application of checking algorithm to results of entire set of algorithms of processor. Report also presents analysis of arithmetic codes with low-cost check algorithm which possesses partial fault-location properties.

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is designed to develop and demonstrate relevant, low-cost, low-burden monitoring strategies that could be used in large longitudinal exposure/epidemiological studies, such as the National Children's Study. The focus of this study is on (1) recruiting and retaining p...

  3. Atmospheric corrosion model and monitor for low cost solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.; Mansfeld, F. B.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M.

    1981-01-01

    An atmospheric corrosion model and corrosion monitoring system has been developed for low cost solar arrays (LSA). The corrosion model predicts that corrosion rate is the product of the surface condensation probability of water vapor and the diffusion controlled corrosion current. This corrosion model is verified by simultaneous monitoring of weather conditions and corrosion rates at the solar array test site at Mead, Nebraska.

  4. Fluorinated Cerium(IV) Enaminolates: Alternative Precursors for Chemical Vapor Deposition of CeO2 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Schläfer, J; Graf, D; Fornalczyk, G; Mettenbörger, A; Mathur, S

    2016-06-01

    High-yield synthesis of four new fluorinated enaminones LH2 (RfC(O)C2H2NH)2C2H4 (Rf = CF3 (2a), C2F5 (2b), C3F7 (2c)) and (F3CC(O)C2H2NH)2C3H6 (2a') as dianionic ligands is described. The ligands were characterized in solution (via nuclear magnetic resoannce (NMR)) as well as in the solid state (via X-ray diffraction (XRD)). The ligating ability of the enaminones was verified by reacting them with [Ce2(O(i)Pr)8(HO(i)Pr)2], which resulted in monomeric cerium(IV) complexes [CeL2] (3a-c, 3a') based on tetradentate chelation of the ligands. Cerium enaminolates were comprehensively analyzed by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and single-crystal XRD studies to verify their monomeric nature. High stability under ambient conditions and high volatility makes them a potential precursor for the gas-phase synthesis of CeO2. Complexes 3a and 3b were applied as precursors in thermal and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to obtain crystalline ceria films with different surface morphologies. The purity and surface states of the films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed a high amount of Ce(3+) on the subsurface of CeO2 films. PMID:27159551

  5. HEB-deficient T-cell precursors lose T-cell potential and adopt an alternative pathway of differentiation.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Marsela; Anderson, Michele K

    2011-03-01

    Early thymocytes possess multilineage potential, which is progressively restricted as cells transit through the double-negative stages of T-cell development. DN1 cells retain the ability to become natural killer cells, dendritic cells, B cells, and myeloid cells as well as T cells, but these options are lost by the DN3 stage. The Notch1 signaling pathway is indispensable for initiation of the T-cell lineage and inhibitory for the B-cell lineage, but the regulatory mechanisms by which the T-cell fate is locked in are largely undefined. Previously, we discovered that the E-protein transcription factor HEBAlt promoted T-cell specification. Here, we report that HEB(-/-) T-cell precursors have compromised Notch1 function and lose T-cell potential. Moreover, reconstituting HEB(-/-) precursors with Notch1 activity enforced fidelity to the T-cell fate. However, instead of becoming B cells, HEB(-/-) DN3 cells adopted a DN1-like phenotype and could be induced to differentiate into thymic NK cells. HEB(-/-) DN1-like cells retained GATA3 and Id2 expression but had lower levels of the Bcl11b gene, a Notch target gene. Therefore, our studies have revealed a new set of interactions between HEB, Notch1, and GATA3 that regulate the T-cell fate choice in developing thymocytes. PMID:21189289

  6. Method: low-cost delivery of the cotton leaf crumple virus-induced gene silencing system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously developed a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector for cotton from the bipartite geminivirusCotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV). The original CLCrV VIGS vector was designed for biolistic delivery by a gene gun. This prerequisite limited the use of the system to labs with access to biolistic equipment. Here we describe the adaptation of this system for delivery by Agrobacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). We also describe the construction of two low-cost particle inflow guns. Results The biolistic CLCrV vector was transferred into two Agrobacterium binary plasmids. Agroinoculation of the binary plasmids into cotton resulted in silencing and GFP expression comparable to the biolistic vector. Two homemade low-cost gene guns were used to successfully inoculate cotton (G. hirsutum) and N. benthamiana with either the CLCrV VIGS vector or the Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) VIGS vector respectively. Conclusions These innovations extend the versatility of CLCrV-based VIGS for analyzing gene function in cotton. The two low-cost gene guns make VIGS experiments affordable for both research and teaching labs by providing a working alternative to expensive commercial gene guns. PMID:22853641

  7. Tandem Microwire Solar Cells for Flexible High Efficiency Low Cost Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-03-10

    This project has developed components of a waferless, flexible, low-cost tandem multijunction III-V/Si microwire array solar cell technology which combines the efficiency of wafered III-V photovoltaic technologies with the process designed to meet the Sunshot object. The project focused on design of lattice-matched GaAsP/SiGe two junction cell design and lattice-mismatched GaInP/Si tandem cell design. Combined electromagnetic simulation/device physics models using realistic microwire tandem structures were developed that predict >22% conversion efficiency for known material parameters, such as tunnel junction structure, window layer structure, absorber lifetimes and optical absorption and these model indicate a clear path to 30% efficiency for high quality III-V heterostructures. SiGe microwire arrays were synthesized via Cu-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with inexpensive chlorosilane and chlorogermance precursors in an atmospheric pressure reactor. SiGe alloy composition in microwires was found to be limited to a maximum of 12% Ge incorporation during chlorogermane growth, due to the melting of the alloy near the solidus composition. Lattice mismatched InGaP double heterostructures were grown by selective epitaxy with a thermal oxide mask on Si microwire substrates using metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirms the growth of individual step graded layers and a high density of defects near the wire/III-V interface. Selective epitaxy was initiated with a low temperature nucleation scheme under “atomic layer epitaxy” or “flow mediated epitaxy” conditions whereby the Ga and P containing precursors are alternately introduced into the reactor to promote layer-bylayer growth. In parallel to our efforts on conformal GaInP heteroepitaxy on selectively masked Si microwires, we explored direct, axial growth of GaAs on Si wire arrays as another route to a tandem junction architecture. We proposed axial

  8. High resolution, low cost solar cell contact development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental work demonstrating the feasibility of the MIDFILM process as a low cost means of applying solar cell collector metallization as reported. Cell efficiencies of above 14% (AMl, 28 C) were achieved with fritted silver metallization. Environmental tests suggest that the metallization is slightly humidity sensitive and degradation is observed on cells with high series resistance. The major yield loss in the fabrication of cells was due to discontinuous grid lines, resulting in high series resitance. Standard lead-tin solder plated interconnections do not appear compatible with the MIDFILM contact. Copper, nickel and molybdemun base powder were investigated as low cost metallization systems. The copper based powder degraded the cell response. The nickel and molybdenum base powders oxidized when sintered in the oxidizing atmosphere necessary to ash the photoresin.

  9. Novel concepts for low-cost IR security sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2005-05-01

    This paper reviews current IR security sensor technology and considers how new developments could impact on this increasingly important field, with relevance to military, industrial and domestic markets. We consider performance specifications for various applications, and investigate how trades can be made to meet market requirements. We address the definition of 'low cost', and suggest what might be acceptable for the various market segments. The paper discusses novel new patented technology, including the active microbolometer, where the IR detector functions as a transistor, and where arrays and readout are fabricated in the same technology on silicon wafer or other suitable substrates. Methods are discussed for achieving the desired performance for imaging and non-imaging 'smart' sensors in low cost packaging, including sealing at atmospheric pressure. We introduce the concept of mosaic pixel focal plane arrays (MP-FPA).

  10. Low-cost, focused-science Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Water Mission (MOWM) is discussed as an example of a low-cost, low-risk focused-science Mars mission which might be implemented in the near term within recently imposed fiscal constraints. MOWM is designed to act as a follow-on to the Viking results in the areas of comparative climatology and water, carbon dioxide and dust inventories. The STS-compatible space vehicle would be based on proven earth-orbiting satellite hardware, fulfilling requirements for both spinning and despun components, operation with nonoptimum solar cell orientation, PAM-A upper stage compatibility, and data storage for delayed transmission. Study results have shown the technical and economic feasibility of missions based on any of four submitted designs which meet these requirements, and of low-cost, well-focused science objective Mars missions in general.

  11. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  12. Process and assembly plans for low cost commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, Stephen; Starkey, Val

    1991-01-01

    Cost and weight reduction for a composite structure is a result of selecting design concepts that can be built using efficient low cost manufacturing and assembly processes. Since design and manufacturing are inherently cost dependent, concurrent engineering in the form of a Design-Build Team (DBT) is essential for low cost designs. Detailed cost analysis from DBT designs and hardware verification must be performed to identify the cost drivers and relationships between design and manufacturing processes. Results from the global evaluation are used to quantitatively rank design, identify cost centers for higher ranking design concepts, define and prioritize a list of technical/economic issues and barriers, and identify parameters that control concept response. These results are then used for final design optimization.

  13. Zero-Net Power, Low-Cost Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.

    2005-04-15

    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified very low-power, low-cost sensors as a critical technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. This research addressed that need by developing an ultra low-power, low-cost sensor platform based on microsensor (MS) arrays that includes MS sensors, very low-power electronics, signal processing, and two-way data communications, all integrated into a single package. MSs were developed to measure carbon dioxide and room occupancy. Advances were made in developing a coating for detecting carbon dioxide and sensing thermal energy with MSs with a low power electrical readout. In addition, robust algorithms were developed for communications within buildings over power lines and an integrated platform was realized that included gas sensing, temperature, humidity, and room occupancy with on-board communications.

  14. Low cost fiber optic sensing of sugar solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuraju, M. E.; Patlolla, Anurag Reddy; Vadakkapattu Canthadai, Badrinath; Pachava, Vengalrao

    2015-03-01

    The demand for highly sensitive and reliable sensors to assess the refractive index of liquid get many applications in chemical and biomedical areas. Indeed, the physical parameters such as concentration, pressure and density, etc., can be found using the refractive index of liquid. In contrast to the conventional refractometer for measurement, optical fiber sensor has several advantages like remote sensing, small in size, low cost, immune to EMI etc., In this paper we have discussed determination of refractive index of sugar solution using optical fiber. An intensity modulated low cost plastic fiber optic refractive index sensor has been designed for the study. The sensor is based on principle of change in angle of reflected light caused by refractive index change of the medium surrounding the fiber. The experimental results obtained for the sugar solution of different refractive indices prove that the fiber optic sensor is cable of measuring the refractive indices as well as the concentrations.

  15. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Abhari, Ramin

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  16. Glass as encapsulation for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this paper, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The desired characteristics of glass encapsulation are (1) low degradation rates, (2) high transmittance, (3) high reliability, (4) low-cost, and (5) high annual production capacity. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources, prices, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings.

  17. Small and Low-Cost GNSS Radio Occultation Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, K.; Dyrud, L. P.; Fentzke, J. T.; Bishop, R. L.; Straus, P. R.; Lightsey, G.; Humphreys, T. E.; Meehan, T.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Several low-cost and small form factor GNSS radio occultation receivers are currently in various stages of development for both hosted payload opportunities like GEOScan onboard Iridium NEXT as well as stand-alone applications such as suborbital platforms and CubeSats. We describe the effects of different receiver designs on the scientific measurements: profiles of electron density in the ionosphere and temperature and pressure in the neutral atmosphere. Trades include different approaches to tracking and onboard processing. We also consider the impact of antenna type, antenna placement, local noise environment, and frequency diversity on the number and quality (signal to noise ratio, vertical extent) of measurements made. We conclude that low-cost and small form factor GNSS radio occultation receivers are well suited to take advantage of hosted payload opportunities and contribute valuable Earth-observing datasets.

  18. Low-cost hydrogen sensors: Technology maturation progress

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Rogers, J.E.; Lauf, R.J.; Egert, C.M.; Haberman, D.P.

    1998-04-01

    The authors are developing a low-cost, solid-state hydrogen sensor to support the long-term goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program to encourage acceptance and commercialization of renewable energy-based technologies. Development of efficient production, storage, and utilization technologies brings with it the need to detect and pinpoint hydrogen leaks to protect people and equipment. The solid-state hydrogen sensor, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is potentially well-suited to meet cost and performance objectives for many of these applications. Under a cooperative research and development Agreement and license agreement, they are teaming with a private company, DCH Technology, Inc., to develop the sensor for specific market applications related to the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. This report describes the current efforts to optimize materials and sensor performance to reach the goals of low-cost fabrication and suitability for relevant application areas.

  19. Lunar Prospector: developing a very low cost planetary mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, G. S.

    Lunar Prospector, the first competitively selected planetary mission in NASA's Discovery Program, is described with emphasis on the lessons learned from managing a very low cost project. Insights into government-industry teaming, project management, contractual arrangements, schedule and budget reserve approach are discussed. The mission is conducting an orbital survey of the Moon's composition and structure. A mission overview and scientific data return is briefly described in the context of low cost mission development. The suite of five instruments is outlined: neutron spectrometer (NS), alpha particle spectrometer (APS), gamma ray spectrometer (GRS), magnetometer (MAG) and an electron reflectometer (ER). Scientific requirements and measurement approaches to detect water ice to a sensitivity of 50 ppm (hydrogen), measure key elemental constituents, detect gas release events and accurately map the Moon's gravitational and magnetic fields are described.

  20. MicroGPS for Low-Cost Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. C.; Bertiger, W. I.; Kuang, D.; Lichten, S. M.; Nandi, S.; Romans, L. J.; Srinivasan, J. M.

    1997-07-01

    This article presents a new technology for satellite orbit determination using a simple Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver (microGPS) with ultra-low cost, power, and mass. The capability of low-cost orbit determination with microGPS for a low Earth-orbiting satellite, Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE), is demonstrated using actual GPS data from the GPS/Meteorology (MET) satellite. The measurements acquired by the microGPS receiver will be snapshots of carrier Doppler and ambiguous pseudorange. Among the challenges in orbit determination are the resolution of the pseudorange ambiguity; the estimation of the measurement time tag drift, which effects the in-track orbit position solution; and the convergence of the orbit solution from a cold start with essentially no knowledge of the orbit. The effects of data gaps and Doppler data quality are investigated. An efficient data acquisition scenario for SNOE is derived.

  1. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amami, M. M.; Smith, M. J.; Kokkas, N.

    2014-03-01

    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  2. WHITE BOX: LOW COST BOX FOR LAPAROSCOPIC TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    MARTINS, João Maximiliano Pedron; RIBEIRO, Roberto Vanin Pinto; CAVAZZOLA, Leandro Totti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic surgery is a reality in almost all surgical centers. Although with initial greater technical difficulty for surgeons, the rapid return to activities, less postoperative pain and higher quality aesthetic stimulates surgeons to evolve technically in this area. However, unlike open surgery where learning opportunities are more accessible, the laparoscopic training represents a challenge in surgeon formation. Aim: To present a low cost model for laparoscopic training box. Methods: This model is based in easily accessible materials; the equipment can be easily found based on chrome mini jet and passes rubber thread and a webcam attached to an aluminum handle. Results: It can be finalized in two days costing R$ 280,00 (US$ 90). Conclusion: It is possible to stimulate a larger number of surgeons to have self training in laparoscopy at low cost seeking to improve their surgical skills outside the operating room. PMID:26537148

  3. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  4. Low-cost digital GPS receiver with software carrier detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M. H.

    1988-08-01

    The satellite navigation system global positioning system (GPS) will play a major role in the field of navigation. It will be able to compete with all previously existing radio navigation systems. Low-cost receivers will be built for a number of civilian users, such as general aviation, sea and land navigation. To permit production at low cost for the civil market, a new technique for a C/A (course and acquisition) code receiver has been developed. All the signal detecting and processing is carried out with the digital signal processing software in a Texas Instruments TMS 320C10. The advantage of this method is that complex functions can be effected in a computer program instead of in analog or digital circuits. This reduces the costs of the parts used in the receiver and also avoids calibration. Taken together, these two features greatly reduce the price of a navigation set. This paper discusses the underlying principles leading to this new receiver.

  5. Low cost integrating cavity for monitoring of environmental toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, Joel N.; Winkler, Chase A.; Mason, John D.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-03-01

    Contamination of the water source and air pollution are two major problems that must be faced in the coming years. The increasing worldwide contamination of freshwater systems with thousands of industrial and natural chemical compounds is one of the key environmental problems facing humanity today. It is estimated that pathogens in water cause more than 2 million deaths annually. Additionally, traditional water quality assessment methods, such as liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy, are expensive and time consuming from sample collection to analysis. Low cost tools are needed which can provide high sensitivity in sensing, while remaining portable and providing near real time analysis. Here, we present a low cost integrating cavity that can be used for highly sensitive environmental sensing.

  6. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, Veera G.; Grant, Georgene E.; Patil, Prafulla D.; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  7. Situational Awareness from a Low-Cost Camera System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Ward, David; Lesage, John

    2010-01-01

    A method gathers scene information from a low-cost camera system. Existing surveillance systems using sufficient cameras for continuous coverage of a large field necessarily generate enormous amounts of raw data. Digitizing and channeling that data to a central computer and processing it in real time is difficult when using low-cost, commercially available components. A newly developed system is located on a combined power and data wire to form a string-of-lights camera system. Each camera is accessible through this network interface using standard TCP/IP networking protocols. The cameras more closely resemble cell-phone cameras than traditional security camera systems. Processing capabilities are built directly onto the camera backplane, which helps maintain a low cost. The low power requirements of each camera allow the creation of a single imaging system comprising over 100 cameras. Each camera has built-in processing capabilities to detect events and cooperatively share this information with neighboring cameras. The location of the event is reported to the host computer in Cartesian coordinates computed from data correlation across multiple cameras. In this way, events in the field of view can present low-bandwidth information to the host rather than high-bandwidth bitmap data constantly being generated by the cameras. This approach offers greater flexibility than conventional systems, without compromising performance through using many small, low-cost cameras with overlapping fields of view. This means significant increased viewing without ignoring surveillance areas, which can occur when pan, tilt, and zoom cameras look away. Additionally, due to the sharing of a single cable for power and data, the installation costs are lower. The technology is targeted toward 3D scene extraction and automatic target tracking for military and commercial applications. Security systems and environmental/ vehicular monitoring systems are also potential applications.

  8. Low Cost Mars Surface Exploration: The Mars Tumbleweed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Calhoun, Philip; Flick, John; Hajos, Gregory; Kolacinski, Richard; Minton, David; Owens, Rachel; Parker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The "Mars Tumbleweed," a rover concept that would utilize surface winds for mobility, is being examined as a low cost complement to the current Mars exploration efforts. Tumbleweeds carrying microinstruments would be driven across the Martian landscape by wind, searching for areas of scientific interest. These rovers, relatively simple, inexpensive, and deployed in large numbers to maximize coverage of the Martian surface, would provide a broad scouting capability to identify specific sites for exploration by more complex rover and lander missions.

  9. Low-cost trigger circuit for sampling oscilloscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, Aleksander; Opalska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a low-cost trigger circuit for use in sampling oscilloscope with bandwidth in order of hundreds of MHz. The presented dual-step trigger circuit provides relatively high bandwidth because of significant reduction of possibility of incorrect turning on in trigger circuit flip-flop (caused by circuit instability called tremor or - describing the same phenomenon by other means - its metastability. The paper presents a circuit structure, principle of operation and its physical realization.

  10. Conestoga 2: A low cost commercial space transport system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    Conestoga 2 is currently under development. It is capable of inserting 500 Kg satellites into 800 Km circular polar orbits. Conestoga 2 makes maximum use of existing (developed) technology and hardware. Its commercial objective is to fill a need for low cost low Earth orbital transport not efficiently served by Shuttle or larger space transport systems. Low Earth orbit markets, foreign participation, and launch site considerations are discussed along with technical and economic trade-offs.

  11. Low cost, radial flow, solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    The Interscience Radial Flow (IRF) SOFC is designed to minimize problems in high-temperature operation, and for low-cost fabrication. The cell has planar, non-sintered construction, uses particulate materials to form porous electrodes, and has internal radial flow. This phase was to demonstrate feasibility of multi-cell stack operation. Performance milestone was 15% DC HHV efficiency with hydrogen at > 50 mW/cm{sup 2} over 100 h.

  12. Low-cost gated system for monitoring phosphorescence lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2003-09-01

    A low-cost, gated system for measurements of phosphorescence lifetimes is presented. An extensive description of the system operating principles and metrological characteristics is given. Remarkably, the system operates without optical filtering of the light emitting diode excitation source. A description of a practical system is also given and its performance is discussed. Because the device effectively suppresses high-level background fluorescence and scattered light, it is expected to find widespread application in bioprocess, environmental, and biomedical fields.

  13. Low cost electrochemical sensor module for measurement of gas concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Strzelczyk, Anna; Koscinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a low cost electrochemical sensor module for gas concentration measurement. A module is universal and can be used for many types of electrochemical gas sensors. Device is based on AVR ATmega8 microcontroller. As signal processing circuit a specialized integrated circuit LMP91000 is used. The proposed equipment will be used as a component of electronic nose system employed for classifying and distinguishing different levels of air contamination.

  14. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  15. Human signatures in urban environments using low cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Mark; Zong, Lei; Calcutt, Wade; Jones, Barry; Houser, Jeff

    2006-05-01

    McQ has produced a family of small (98 cm 3), inexpensive ($100), unattended ground sensors well suited for urban environments. As a result, a broad range of data has been collected in urban settings. This paper discusses human signatures in urban environments using low cost seismic, infrared, acoustic, and magnetic transducers. Transducer performance and the effects of orientation, building construction, and environmental noise will be focused on. Detection methods used to exploit signatures and resulting performance statistics will also be discussed.

  16. A Novel Approach for a Low-Cost Deployable Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amend, Chris; Nurnberger, Michael; Oppenheimer, Paul; Koss, Steve; Purdy, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has designed, built, and fully qualified a low cost, low Passive Intermodulation (PIM) 12-foot (3.66-m) diameter deployable ultra high frequency (UHF) antenna for the Tacsat-4 program. The design utilized novel approaches in reflector material and capacitive coupling techniques. This paper discusses major design trades, unique design characteristics, and lessons learned from the development of the Tacsat 4 deployable antenna. This antenna development was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  17. A Flexible, Low Cost, Beam Loss Monitor Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyes, George Garnet; Pimol, Piti; Juthong, Nawin; Attaphibal, Malee

    2007-01-19

    A flexible, low cost, Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) Evaluation System based on Bergoz BLMs has been developed. Monitors can easily be moved to any location for beam loss investigations and/or monitor usefulness evaluations. Different PC pulse counting cards are compared and tested for this application using the display software developed based on LabVIEW. Beam problems uncovered with this system are presented.

  18. A low cost, portable instrument for measuring emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G.

    1977-01-01

    A low cost, portable instrument has been developed with which emittance can be measured by comparison to a standard. A reflector collects infra-red radiation from a heated sample onto a low mass, black detector and the temperature rise of the black detector is measured with a thermocouple and meter. Graphical examples are presented for determination of emittance from measurements made on a sample at any known temperature.

  19. A low cost, portable instrument for measuring emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G.

    1977-01-01

    A low cost, portable instrument was developed with which emittance can be measured by comparison to a standard. A reflector collects infrared radiation from a heated sample onto a low mass, black detector and the temperature rise of the black detector is measured with a thermocouple and meter. Graphical examples are presented for determination of emittance from measurements made on a sample at any known temperature.

  20. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  1. LSSA (Low-cost Silicon Solar Array) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Methods are explored for economically generating electrical power to meet future requirements. The Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project (LSSA) was established to reduce the price of solar arrays by improving manufacturing technology, adapting mass production techniques, and promoting user acceptance. The new manufacturing technology includes the consideration of new silicon refinement processes, silicon sheet growth techniques, encapsulants, and automated assembly production being developed under contract by industries and universities.

  2. Further development of a low cost solar panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, T.; Torok, R.; Erskine, D.; Short, R.

    1980-07-01

    A full-scale prototype panel section, with emphasis on the unglazed configuration was fabricated and tested. Design refinement, fabrication of full-scale prototypes by hand and semiautomated equipment, subscale and full-scale structural testing, outdoor performance tests, and an assessment of manufacturing requirements and production costs are included. The Low Cost Solar Panel, the project approach, and the more significant accomplishments of this contract are described in detail.

  3. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, W. G.

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin film technology. A thin film solar absorber suited for high speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polmeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested.

  4. Low-cost projection-based virtual reality display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, Dave; Anstey, Josephine; Dawe, Greg

    2002-05-01

    This paper describes the construction of a single screen, projection-based VR display using commodity, or otherwise low-cost components. The display is based on Linus PCs, and uses polarized stereo. Our aim is to create a system that is accessible to the many museums and schools that do not have large budgets for exploring new technology. In constructing this system we have been evaluating a number of options for the screens, projectors, and computer hardware.

  5. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-06-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  6. Securitizing receivables offers low-cost financing option.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Lawler, J P

    1995-05-01

    Securitization began in the 1980s with mortgage payments, auto loans, and credit card debt being pooled and used as collateral for securities offerings. More recently, healthcare providers have securitized accounts receivables to obtain low-cost, off-balance-sheet financing. As the need to both raise capital and contain costs grows in health care, providers likely will make increased use of this financing method. PMID:10142191

  7. A low-cost rugged solution for solar lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathwaj, A. N.; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2009-08-01

    We have explored the use of a low-cost, rugged optical system to collect and distribute natural sunlight for daytime lighting purposes. The sunlight collection and delivery is performed using a simple lens system in combination with a plastic optical fiber bundle. Based on such a system, we have demonstrated the ability to provide diffuse lighting over a 100 sq. ft. area. The work included the optimization of the lens and the fiber bundle according to data collected on the spatial distribution of focused sunlight. A key aspect of our work is the use of mirrors which could be easily maneuvered to maintain optimum coupling of light in the fiber throughout the day. An important issue that we addressed in our work is the devising of a low cost tracking mechanism to ensure nearuniform lighting throughout a day. The tracking system is an open loop system that is based on apriori data on the sun's movement and an initial alignment procedure. We have collected such data by tracking a beam of light reflected from a stationary mirror. Our data shows that the mirror needs to be rotated at the rate of 0.25 degrees/minute to maintain a fixed position at the collection plane. We expect to achieve a scalable, modular low cost lighting solution that works in conjunction with a LED array to illuminate common areas of commercial buildings during the daytime.

  8. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weingart, O.

    1980-01-01

    Structural Composites Industries, Inc. (SCI) is developing new composite filament winding technology for low cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG). During 1977 the SCI TFT process was used to fabricate a 9072 kg (20,000 lb) filament-wound D-spar for a NASA/DOE 46 m (150 ft) composite wind turbine blade. In 1978 SCI designed a composite blade for the 91 m (300 ft) dia. NASA/DOE MOD-2 WTG. For the past year SCI has been under contract to NASA-Lewis Research Center to design and build two low cost 18 m (60 ft) blades for the 38 m (125 ft) dia. MOD-OA and to assess the applicability of the techniques developed for larger and smaller blades. SCI is also developing and constructing a 4-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS) for Rockwell International using low cost composites for the 9 m (31 ft) dia. rotor blades, 15 m (50 ft) tower and nacelle.

  9. Automated Low-Cost Photogrammetry for Flexible Structure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. H.; Mills, J. P.; Miller, P. E.

    2012-07-01

    Structural monitoring requires instruments which can provide high precision and accuracy, reliable measurements at good temporal resolution and rapid processing speeds. Long-term campaigns and flexible structures are regarded as two of the most challenging subjects in monitoring engineering structures. Long-term monitoring in civil engineering is generally considered to be labourintensive and financially expensive and it can take significant effort to arrange the necessary human resources, transportation and equipment maintenance. When dealing with flexible structure monitoring, it is of paramount importance that any monitoring equipment used is able to carry out rapid sampling. Low cost, automated, photogrammetric techniques therefore have the potential to become routinely viable for monitoring non-rigid structures. This research aims to provide a photogrammetric solution for long-term flexible structural monitoring purposes. The automated approach was achieved using low-cost imaging devices (mobile phones) to replace traditional image acquisition stations and substantially reduce the equipment costs. A self-programmed software package was developed to deal with the hardware-software integration and system operation. In order to evaluate the performance of this low-cost monitoring system, a shaking table experiment was undertaken. Different network configurations and target sizes were used to determine the best configuration. A large quantity of image data was captured by four DSLR cameras and four mobile phone cameras respectively. These image data were processed using photogrammetric techniques to calculate the final results for the system evaluation.

  10. The Array Automated Assembly Task for the Low Cost Solar Array Project, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B. (Editor); Farukhi, S. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    During the program a process sequence was proposed and tested for the fabrication of dendritic welb silicon into solar modules. This sequence was analyzed as to yield and cost and these data suggest that the price goals of 1986 are attainable. Specifically, it was shown that a low cost POCL3 is a suitable replacement for the semiconductor grade, and that a suitable CVD oxide can be deposited from a silane/air mixture using a Silox reactor. A dip coating method was developed for depositing an antireflection coating from a metalorganic precursor. Application of photoresist to define contact grids was made cost effective through use of a dip coating technique. Electroplating of both Ag and Cu was shown feasible and cost effective for producing the conductive metal grids on the solar cells. Laser scribing was used to separate the cells from the dendrites without degradation. Ultrasonic welding methods were shown to be feasible for interconnecting the cells. A study of suitable low cost materials for encapsulation suggest that soda lime glass and phenolic filled board are preferred.

  11. Development of processes for the production of low cost silicon dendritic web for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hill, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    High area output rates and continuous, automated growth are two key technical requirements for the growth of low-cost silicon ribbons for solar cells. By means of computer-aided furnace design, silicon dendritic web output rates as high as 27 sq cm/min have been achieved, a value in excess of that projected to meet a $0.50 per peak watt solar array manufacturing cost. The feasibility of simultaneous web growth while the melt is replenished with pelletized silicon has also been demonstrated. This step is an important precursor to the development of an automated growth system. Solar cells made on the replenished material were just as efficient as devices fabricated on typical webs grown without replenishment. Moreover, web cells made on a less-refined, pelletized polycrystalline silicon synthesized by the Battelle process yielded efficiencies up to 13% (AM1).

  12. Synthesis and development of low cost, high temperature N-arylene polybenzimidazole foam material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Polymer (and foam) studies followed two basic routes: (1) formation of high molecular weight uncyclized polyamide followed by subsequent fusion and cyclodehydration to yield NABI (foam) and (2) polymer and foam formation by reaction of diphenyl esters (or anhydrides) with the tetramine. The latter route was found much more attractive since considerable versatility in both basic polymer structure and crosslinkability is achievable. Preliminary studies on BAB, phthalic anhydride (PA), and 3, 3 (prime), 4, 4(prime) benzo pheno netetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) as crosslinked polymer precursors were conducted. Nonmelting rigid char forming foams with densities as low as 2.7 lb/cubic ft. were achieved. The program was successful in the preparation of a potentially low cost, low density, high char yield, high temperature foam material.

  13. Rapid Synthesis of Cobalt Nitride Nanowires: Highly Efficient and Low-Cost Catalysts for Oxygen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqi; Ouyang, Bo; Xu, Jing; Jia, Guichong; Chen, Shi; Rawat, Rajdeep Singh; Fan, Hong Jin

    2016-07-18

    Electrochemical splitting of water to produce hydrogen and oxygen is an important process for many energy storage and conversion devices. Developing efficient, durable, low-cost, and earth-abundant electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great urgency. To achieve the rapid synthesis of transition-metal nitride nanostructures and improve their electrocatalytic performance, a new strategy has been developed to convert cobalt oxide precursors into cobalt nitride nanowires through N2 radio frequency plasma treatment. This method requires significantly shorter reaction times (about 1 min) at room temperature compared to conventional high-temperature NH3 annealing which requires a few hours. The plasma treatment significantly enhances the OER activity, as evidenced by a low overpotential of 290 mV to reach a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) , a small Tafel slope, and long-term durability in an alkaline electrolyte. PMID:27254484

  14. Low-Cost Propellant Launch From a Tethered Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A document presents a concept for relatively inexpensive delivery of propellant to a large fuel depot in low orbit around the Earth, for use in rockets destined for higher orbits, the Moon, and for remote planets. The propellant is expected to be at least 85 percent of the mass needed in low Earth orbit to support the NASA Exploration Vision. The concept calls for the use of many small ( 10 ton) spin-stabilized, multistage, solid-fuel rockets to each deliver 250 kg of propellant. Each rocket would be winched up to a balloon tethered above most of the atmospheric mass (optimal altitude 26 2 km). There, the rocket would be aimed slightly above the horizon, spun, dropped, and fired at a time chosen so that the rocket would arrive in orbit near the depot. Small thrusters on the payload (powered, for example, by boil-off gases from cryogenic propellants that make up the payload) would precess the spinning rocket, using data from a low-cost inertial sensor to correct for small aerodynamic and solid rocket nozzle misalignment torques on the spinning rocket; would manage the angle of attack and the final orbit insertion burn; and would be fired on command from the depot in response to observations of the trajectory of the payload so as to make small corrections to bring the payload into a rendezvous orbit and despin it for capture by the depot. The system is low-cost because the small rockets can be mass-produced using the same techniques as those to produce automobiles and low-cost munitions, and one or more can be launched from a U.S. territory on the equator (Baker or Jarvis Islands in the mid-Pacific) to the fuel depot on each orbit (every 90 minutes, e.g., any multiple of 6,000 per year).

  15. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  16. Contrast in low-cost operational concepts for orbiting satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Reis, James; Bradley, Arthur J.

    2002-12-01

    Older spacecraft missions, especially those in low Earth orbit with telemetry intensive requirements, required round-the-clock control center staffing. The state of technology relied on control center personnel to continually examine data, make decisions, resolve anomalies, and file reports. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a prime example of this description. Technological advancements in hardware and software over the last decade have yielded increases in productivity and operational efficiency, which result in lower cost. The re-engineering effort of HST, which has recently concluded, utilized emerging technology to reduce cost and increase productivity. New missions, of which NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer Satellite (TRACE) is an example, have benefited from recent technological advancements and are more cost-effective than when HST was first launched. During its launch (1998) and early orbit phase, the TRACE Flight Operations Team (FOT) employed continually staffed operations. Yet once the mission entered its nominal phase, the FOT reduced their staffing to standard weekday business hours. Operations were still conducted at night and during the weekends, but these operations occurred autonomously without compromising their high standards for data collections. For the HST, which launched in 1990, reduced cost operations will employ a different operational concept, when the spacecraft enters its low-cost phase after its final servicing mission in 2004. Primarily due to the spacecraft"s design, the HST Project has determined that single-shift operations will introduce unacceptable risks for the amount of dollars saved. More importantly, significant cost-savings can still be achieved by changing the operational concept for the FOT, while still maintaining round-the-clock staffing. It"s important to note that the low-cost solutions obtained for one satellite may not be applicable for other satellites. This paper will contrast the differences between

  17. Low Cost Space Demonstration for a Single-Person Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Dischinger, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept for a single-person spacecraft and presents plans for flying a low-cost, robotic demonstration mission. Called FlexCraft, the vehicle integrates propulsion and robotics into a small spacecraft that enables rapid, shirt-sleeve access to space. It can be flown by astronauts or tele-operated and is equipped with interchangeable manipulators used for maintaining the International Space Station (ISS), exploring asteroids, and servicing telescopes or satellites. Most FlexCraft systems are verified using ground facilities; however, a test in the weightless environment is needed to assess propulsion and manipulator performance. For this, a simplified, unmanned, version of FlexCraft is flown on a low-cost launch vehicle to a 350 km circular orbit. After separation from the upper stage, the vehicle returns to a target box mounted on the stage testing the propulsion and control capability. The box is equipped with manipulator test items that are representative of tasks performed on ISS, asteroid missions, or for satellites servicing. Nominal and off-nominal operations are conducted over 3 days then the vehicle re-enters the atmosphere without becoming a debris hazard. From concept to management to operations, the FlexCraft demonstration is designed to be low cost project that is launched within three years. This is possible using a simplified test configuration that eliminates nine systems unique to the operational version and by designing-to-availability. For example, the propulsion system is the same as the Manned Maneuvering Unit because it capable, simple, human-rated and all components or equivalent parts are available. A description of the launch vehicle options, mission operations, configuration, and demonstrator subsystems is presented.

  18. Development of Low Cost Sensors for Hydrogen Safety Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Holmes, W., Jr.; Lauf, R.J.; Maxey, L.C.; Salter, C.; Walker, D.

    1999-04-07

    We are developing rugged and reliable hydrogen safety sensors that can be easily manufactured. Potential applications also require an inexpensive sensor that can be easily deployed. Automotive applications demand low cost, while personnel safety applications emphasize light-weight, battery-operated, and wearable sensors. Our current efforts involve developing and optimizing sensor materials for stability and compatibility with typical thick-film manufacturing processes. We are also tailoring the sensor design and size along with various packaging and communication schemes for optimal acceptance by end users.

  19. Low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Cinnamon, M.; Hamling, S.; Mahn, K.; Phillips, J.; Westmark, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost approach to the manned exploration of Mars (which involves an unmanned mission followed two years later by a manned mission) based on near-term technologies and in situ propellant production. Particular attention is given to the basic mission architecture and its major components, including the orbital analysis, the unmanned segment, the Earth Return Vehicle, the aerobrake design, life sciences, guidance, communications, power, propellant production, the surface rovers, and Mars science. Also discussed are the cost per mission over an assumed 8-yr initiative.

  20. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution poses a threat to human health, and the WHO has classified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk. In Europe, the majority of the population lives in areas where air quality levels frequently exceed WHO's ambient air quality guidelines. The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms allowing observations at high spatial resolution in near real-time, provides us with new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems as well as enable citizens to engage in more active environmental monitoring (citizen science). However the data sets generated by low-cost sensors show often questionable data quality. For many sensors, neither their error characteristics nor how their measurement capability holds up over time or through a range of environmental conditions, have been evaluated. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the commercial low-cost platform AQMesh (measuring NO, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5) in laboratory and in real-world conditions in the city of Oslo (Norway). Co-locations in field of 24 platforms were conducted over a 6 month period (April to September 2015) allowing to characterize the temporal variability in the performance. Additionally, the field performance included the characterization on different monitoring urban monitoring sites characteristic of both traffic and background conditions. All the evaluations have been conducted against CEN reference method analyzers maintained according to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory quality system. The results show clearly that a good performance in laboratory does not imply similar performance in real-world outdoor conditions. Moreover, laboratory calibration is not suitable for subsequent measurements in urban environments. In order to reduce the errors, sensors require on-site field calibration. Even after such field calibration, the platforms show a significant variability in the performance

  1. A simple low-cost single-crystal NMR setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinding, Mads S.; Kessler, Tommy O.; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost single-crystal NMR kit is presented along with a web-based post-processing software. The kit consists of a piezo-crystal motor and a goniometer for the crystal, both embedded in a standard wide-bore NMR probe with a 3D printed scaffold. The NMR pulse program controls the angle setting automatically, and the post-processing software incorporates a range of orientation-angle discrepancies present in the kit and other single-crystal setups. Results with a NaNO3 single-crystal show a high degree of reproducibility and excellent agreement with previous findings for the anisotropic quadrupolar interaction.

  2. High efficiency, low cost thin GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space-resistant, high efficiency, light-weight, low-cost GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells for space application is demonstrated. This program addressed the optimal preparation of ultrathin GaAs single-crystal layers by AsCl3-GaAs-H2 and OMCVD process. Considerable progress has been made in both areas. Detailed studies on the AsCl3 process showed high-quality GaAs thin layers can be routinely grown. Later overgrowth of GaAs by OMCVD has been also observed and thin FaAs films were obtained from this process.

  3. Low cost coherent demodulation for mobile satellite terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Santanu; Henely, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes some low cost approaches to coherent BPSK demodulation for mobile satellite receivers. The specific application is an Inmarsat-C Land Mobile Earth Station (LMES), but the techniques are applicable to any PSK demodulator. The techniques discussed include combined sampling and quadrature downconversion with a single A/D and novel DSP algorithms for carrier acquisition offering both superior performance and economy of DSP resources. The DSP algorithms run at 5.7 MIPS, and the entire DSP subsystem, built with commercially available parts, costs under $60 at quantity-10,000.

  4. Disposable sensor system: low cost UGS for urban operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcutt, Wade; Houser, Jeff; Winston, Mark; Brady, Steve; Jones, Barry

    2006-05-01

    McQ has developed a family of low cost unattended ground sensors using conventional technology and manufacturing techniques. Intended for small unit operations in an urban environment, these are tactically useful sensors that can be manufactured in large quantities (1M-10M units/year) for a projected production cost of less than $100 each. Secondary characteristics are small size (98 cm 3), light weight (85 gm), moderate lifetime (40 hrs), and moderate communications ranges (100m). An overview of the DSS system: its features, performance, and scenarios for use in urban warfare, is presented.

  5. Low-cost solar room kit. Final grant report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    A low cost solar room kit was developed which would make use of local framing materials, but provide inexperienced builders with a simple joining system and materials - such as glazings - not usually available in local stores. Since solar room applications are proven effective in providing supplementary home heat, a kit would make solar heat more accessible to home owners and tenants. Although a prototype and two working models of the kit were successfully built, commercial development cannot occur until problems in matching the glazing and framing system can be resolved, and more capital to lower production costs on the framing union pieces is available.

  6. Csi-star: a Low-cost CSI Orbital Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, D.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: rationale for an on-orbit control-structurs interaction (CSI) test facility; CSI flight experiment objectives; feasibility study objectives; CSI free-flyer solution; feasibility study technical status summary; CSI-Star - a low-cost CSI free flyer; conceptual experiment design - option 2 configuration; Delta 2 - Quickstar Interface clambband capability; open and closed loop response of baselined truss with active struts; experiment weight baseline (option 1) configuration; experiment weight option 2 configuration; experiment power baseline (option 1) configuration; experiment power option 2 configuration; CSI Quickstar capabilities/requirements; and remaining work.

  7. High resolution image processing on low-cost microcomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in microcomputer technology have resulted in systems that rival the speed, storage, and display capabilities of traditionally larger machines. Low-cost microcomputers can provide a powerful environment for image processing. A new software program which offers sophisticated image display and analysis on IBM-based systems is presented. Designed specifically for a microcomputer, this program provides a wide-range of functions normally found only on dedicated graphics systems, and therefore can provide most students, universities and research groups with an affordable computer platform for processing digital images. The processing of AVHRR images within this environment is presented as an example.

  8. Development of low cost contacts to silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the second phase of the program of developing low cost contacts to silicon solar cells using copper are presented. Phase 1 yielded the development of a plated Pd-Cr-Cu contact system. This process produced cells with shunting problems when they were heated to 400 C for 5 minutes. Means of stopping the identified copper diffusion which caused the shunting were investigated. A contact heat treatment study was conducted with Pd-Ag, Ci-Ag, Pd-Cu, Cu-Cr, and Ci-Ni-Cu. Nickel is shown to be an effective diffusion barrier to copper.

  9. Quantitative low-cost webcam-based microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikesit, Gea Oswah Fatah; Darmawan, Marten; Faisal, Amir

    2010-11-01

    Digital web cameras (popularly known as webcams) have recently gained a significant increase of relevance in the field of optical microscopy, in particular to allow for quick and do-it-yourself methods in developing low-cost and portable microscopes suitable for life sciences and engineering applications in low-resource areas. Unfortunately, these methods were published without any systematic explanation and quantitative assessment of the imaging performances. We reproduce these do-it-yourself methods, discuss the optical considerations that are relevant for them, and quantitatively compare their imaging performances to a commercial digital microscope in order to clarify both the advantages and disadvantages of the webcam-based microscopes.

  10. Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

  11. High efficiency low cost monolithic module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Wendell C.; Siu, Daniel P.

    1992-01-01

    The program objectives were to develop a highly efficient, low cost RF module for SARSAT beacons; achieve significantly lower battery current drain, amount of heat generated, and size of battery required; utilize MMIC technology to improve efficiency, reliability, packaging, and cost; and provide a technology database for GaAs based UHF RF circuit architectures. Presented in viewgraph form are functional block diagrams of the SARSAT distress beacon and beacon RF module as well as performance goals, schematic diagrams, predicted performances, and measured performances for the phase modulator and power amplifier.

  12. A study of power generation from a low-cost hydrokinetic energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Vilchis, Juana Mariel

    The kinetic energy in river streams, tidal currents, or other artificial water channels has been used as a feasible source of renewable power through different conversion systems. Thus, hydrokinetic energy conversion systems are attracting worldwide interest as another form of distributed alternative energy. Because these systems are still in early stages of development, the basic approaches need significant research. The main challenges are not only to have efficient systems, but also to convert energy more economically so that the cost-benefit analysis drives the growth of this alternative energy form. One way to view this analysis is in terms of the energy conversion efficiency per unit cost. This study presents a detailed assessment of a prototype hydrokinetic energy system along with power output costs. This experimental study was performed using commercial low-cost blades of 20 in diameter inside a tank with water flow speed up to 1.3 m/s. The work was divided into two stages: (a) a fixed-pitch blade configuration, using a radial permanent magnet generator (PMG), and (b) the same hydrokinetic turbine, with a variable-pitch blade and an axial-flux PMG. The results indicate that even though the efficiency of a simple blade configuration is not high, the power coefficient is in the range of other, more complicated designs/prototypes. Additionally, the low manufacturing and operation costs of this system offer an option for low-cost distributed power applications.

  13. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  14. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option. PMID:25004152

  15. Low cost sensing technology for type 2 diabetes monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Free, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Alpha-hydroxybutyrate (2-hydroxybutyrate or α-HB) is becoming more widely recognized as an important metabolic biomarker that has been shown to be highly correlated with prediabetes and other metabolic diseases. In 2012 there were 86 million Americans with prediabetes, many of whom are not aware they have prediabetes, but could be diagnosed and treated to prevent type 2 diabetes if a simple, low-cost, convenient test were available. We have developed new, low-cost, accurate α-HB detection methods that can be used for the detection and monitoring of diseases such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, β-cell dysfunction, and early hyperglycemia. The new sensing method utilizes a diol recognition moiety, additives and a photoinitiator to detect α-HB at levels near 1 micro g/l in the presence of serum compounds such as lactic acid, sodium pyruvate, and glucose. The objective of this research is to improve the understanding of the interactions that enhance α-HB detection to enable additional improvements in α-HB detection as well as improvements in other biosensor applications.

  16. Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H.

    1998-08-01

    The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

  17. Low-Cost Experimentation for the Study of Droplet Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Bardin, David; Lee, Abraham P.

    2014-01-01

    The continued growth of microfluidics into industry settings in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics and targeted therapeutics necessitates a workforce trained in microfluidic technologies and experimental methods. Laboratory courses for students at the university and high school levels will require cost-effective in-class demonstrations that instruct in chip design, fabrication, and experimentation at the microscale. We present a hand-operated pressure pumping system to form monodisperse picoliter to nanoliter droplet streams at low cost, and a series of exercises aimed at instructing in the specific art of droplet formation. Using this setup, the student is able to generate and observe the modes of droplet formation in flow-focusing devices, and the effect of device dimensions on the characteristics of formed droplets. Lastly, at ultra-low cost we demonstrate large plug formation in a T-junction using coffee stirrers as a master mold substitute. Our method reduces the cost of experimentation to enable intuitive instruction in droplet formation, with additional implications for creating droplets in the field or at point-of-care. PMID:25133595

  18. Remote Spectral Imaging Using a Low Cost Uav System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvaltsidis, C.; Salem, N. Zaid Al; Benari, G.; Vrekalic, D.; Quine, B.

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.

  19. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-04-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. PMID:24713428

  20. Novel approach for low-cost muzzle flash detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskoboinik, Asher

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost muzzle flash detection based on CMOS sensor technology is proposed. This low-cost technology makes it possible to detect various transient events with characteristic times between dozens of microseconds up to dozens of milliseconds while sophisticated algorithms successfully separate them from false alarms by utilizing differences in geometrical characteristics and/or temporal signatures. The proposed system consists of off-the-shelf smart CMOS cameras with built-in signal and image processing capabilities for pre-processing together with allocated memory for storing a buffer of images for further post-processing. Such a sensor does not require sending giant amounts of raw data to a real-time processing unit but provides all calculations in-situ where processing results are the output of the sensor. This patented CMOS muzzle flash detection concept exhibits high-performance detection capability with very low false-alarm rates. It was found that most false-alarms due to sun glints are from sources at distances of 500-700 meters from the sensor and can be distinguished by time examination techniques from muzzle flash signals. This will enable to eliminate up to 80% of falsealarms due to sun specular reflections in the battle field. Additional effort to distinguish sun glints from suspected muzzle flash signal is made by optimization of the spectral band in Near-IR region. The proposed system can be used for muzzle detection of small arms, missiles and rockets and other military applications.

  1. Particle swarm optimization algorithm based low cost magnetometer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. S.; Siddharth, S., Syed, Z., El-Sheimy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a microprocessor provide inertial digital data from which position and orientation is obtained by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the absolute user heading based on Earth's magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are corrupted by several errors including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometer. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. The estimated bias and scale factor errors from the proposed algorithm improve the heading accuracy and the results are also statistically significant. Also, it can help in the development of the Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with the INS and GPS/Wi-Fi especially in the indoor environments

  2. A Low-Cost Real Color Picker Based on Arduino

    PubMed Central

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J.; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option. PMID:25004152

  3. Low-cost space platforms for detection and tracking technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Robert M.

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and applications of inexpensive satellite platforms capable of carrying dedicated sensor packages into low earth orbit on primary or shared launch services. These satellites permit achievement of rapid operational status by employing standard buses with fixed options for orbit and power. The satellites may be configured for experimental or operational missions with lifetimes up to several years. Low cost satellites can satisfy a range of mission requirements in the areas of surveillance, drug interdiction, environmental and geophysical observations, immigration control, fisheries law enforcement, remote sensing, real-time communications, store-and-forward communications, and technology testing. These satellites may be equipped for location determination missions with ID and homing transponders and tagged objects or persons. The satellites' size, power, and weight budgets are appropriately rated for the types of dedicated mission scenarios noted above. For applications requiring continuous visibility or high availability, constellations of satellites may be both appropriate and cost-effective. Orbital parameters are determined by the launch vehicle and the requirements of the primary payload. Geographical service areas are determined by the orbital footprint, the parameters of which are determined by the mission requirements and the selection of launch vehicle. The satellites' small size permits their launch on any of several launch vehicles in domestic or international inventory. Integral to each satellite is a communications and control package which, when coupled with companion low cost earth terminals, provides programmable mission scenarios under operator control. These satellites permit rapid implementation of operational systems within tight fiscal constraints.

  4. A Low Cost Single Chip VDL Compatible Transceiver ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Recent trends in commercial communications system components have focussed almost exclusively on cellular telephone technology. As many of the traditional sources of receiver components have discontinued non-cellular telephone products, the designers of avionics and other low volume radio applications find themselves increasingly unable to find highly integrated components. This is particularly true for low power, low cost applications which cannot afford the lavish current consumption of the software defined radio approach increasingly taken by certified device manufacturers. In this paper, we describe a low power transceiver chip targeting applications from low VHF to low UHF frequencies typical of avionics systems. The chip encompasses a selectable single or double conversion design for the receiver and a low power IF upconversion transmitter. All local oscillators are synthesized and integrated into the chip. An on-chip I-Q modulator and demodulator provide baseband modulation and demodulation capability allowing the use of low power, fixed point signal processing components for signal demodulation. The goal of this program is to demonstrate a low cost VDL mode-3 transceiver using this chip to receive text weather information sent using 4-slot TDMA with no support for voice. The data will be sent from an experimental ground station. This work is funded by NASA Glenn Research Center.

  5. Low-cost dipole hydrophone for use in towed arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.

    1996-04-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a low-cost acoustic particle velocity sensor are described. The primary design parameters for the dipole hydrophone are low-cost, low-mass, and small size. The sensor uses commercially available geophones to locally measure one or more components of the acoustic particle velocity field. The geophones are encapsulated in a syntactic foam to reduce their average density and hence increase their acoustic sensitivity. This method of fabrication greatly reduces costs compared to conventional methods which use machined cases. The on-axis voltage sensitivity was measured experimentally using two methods. The first used a uniaxial vibration shaker to estimate the intrinsic velocity sensitivity of the encapsulated geophone with the case fixed to the shaker head. The second measured the {ital in} {ital situ} acoustic sensitivity in water. Theoretical models of the voltage sensitivity for these two cases are developed and the results compare very well with the experimental data. Additionally, rotator tests were performed at frequencies of 100, 500, 600, and 1000 Hz to measure the quality of the dipole directivity pattern in water. Near-theoretical dipole patterns, with nulls better than 30 dB, were measured. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  7. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  8. Using a Low Cost Flight Simulation Environment for Interdisciplinary Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; ALi, Syed F.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education is increasingly being emphasized for engineering undergraduates. However, often the focus is on interaction between engineering disciplines. This paper discusses the experience at Tuskegee University in providing interdisciplinary research experiences for undergraduate students in both Aerospace Engineering and Psychology through the utilization of a low cost flight simulation environment. The environment, which is pc-based, runs a low-cost of-the-shelf software and is configured for multiple out-of-the-window views and a synthetic heads down display with joystick, rudder and throttle controls. While the environment is being utilized to investigate and evaluate various strategies for training novice pilots, students were involved to provide them with experience in conducting such interdisciplinary research. On the global inter-disciplinary level these experiences included developing experimental designs and research protocols, consideration of human participant ethical issues, and planning and executing the research studies. During the planning phase students were apprised of the limitations of the software in its basic form and the enhancements desired to investigate human factors issues. A number of enhancements to the flight environment were then undertaken, from creating Excel macros for determining the performance of the 'pilots', to interacting with the software to provide various audio/video cues based on the experimental protocol. These enhancements involved understanding the flight model and performance, stability & control issues. Throughout this process, discussions of data analysis included a focus from a human factors perspective as well as an engineering point of view.

  9. A low cost human computer interface based on eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Jonathan B; Redekopp, Andrew H; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a human computer interface based on eye tracking. Current commercially available systems exist, but have limited use due mainly to their large cost. The system described in this paper was designed to be a low cost and unobtrusive. The technique was video-oculography assisted by corneal reflections. An off-the shelf CCD webcam was used to capture images. The images were analyzed in software to extract key features of the eye. The users gaze point was then calculated based on the relative position of these features. The system is capable of calculating eye-gaze in real-time to provide a responsive interaction. A throughput of eight gaze points per second was achieved. The accuracy of the fixations based on the calculated eye-gazes were within 1 cm of the on-screen gaze location. By developing a low-cost system, this technology is made accessible to a wider range of applications. PMID:17946167

  10. Formed platelets for low cost regeneratively cooled rocket combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Wendel M.

    1992-02-01

    The ongoing work performed to demonstrate the fabrication feasibility of a formed platelet regeneratively cooled combustion chamber liner is described. The combustion chambers are fabricated in three or four axial sections from formed platelet stacks joined together. The platelets are etched, stacked, and bonded into flat panels that contain the regen passages. The flat panels are formed into the final contour with a die. The formed platelet approach takes advantage of the inherent low cost, high accuracy, and thin wall capability of photoetched platelet technology to fabricate long life, low cost rocket combustion chambers. Combustion chamber liner sections were fabricated with extremely thin (tw = 0.20 mm (0.008-in.)) hot gas side walls and very high aspect ratio coolant channels (aspect ratio greater than 10:1). Combustion chamber liner sections were formed of both Zr-Cu and stainless steel. The results of both the forming of individual panels and the joining of panels together are discussed. Work performed demonstrating the feasibility of rocket combustion chamber liners from formed platelets is described. A discussion of the benefits of chamber liners so constructed and of a chamber producing 176,000 N (40 Klbf) of thrust currently fabricated is presented. The results of a study examining the forming of large scale platelet panels for an Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) liner are included.

  11. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Conghua

    2013-05-30

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  12. Engineering a responsive, low cost, tactical satellite, TACSAT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, M.; Duffey, T.; Huffine, Christopher; Weldy, Ken; Clevland, Jeff; Hauser, Joe

    2004-11-01

    The Secretary of Defense's Office of Force Transformation (OFT) is currently undertaking an initiative to develop a low-cost, responsive, operationally relevant space capability using small satellites. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is tasked to be program manger for this initiative, which seeks to make space assets and capabilities available to operational users. TacSat-1 is the first in a series of small satellites that will result in rapid, tailored, and operationally relevant experimental space capabilities for tactical forces. Components of the resulting tactical architecture include a highly automated small satellite bus, modular payloads, common launch and payload interfaces, tasking and data dissemination using the SIPRNET (Secret Internet Protocol Routing Network), and low cost, rapid response launches. The overall goal of TacSat-1 is to demonstrate the utility of a broader complementary business model and provide a catalyst for energizing DoD and industry in the operational space area. This paper first provides a brief overview of the TacSat- 1 experiment and then discusses the engineering designs and practices used to achieve the aggressive cost and schedule goals. Non-standard approaches and engineering philosophies that allowed the TacSat-1 spacecraft to be finished in twelve months are detailed and compared with "normal" satellite programs where applicable. Specific subsystem design, integration and test techniques, which contributed to the successful completion of the TacSat-1 spacecraft, are reviewed. Finally, lessons learned are discussed.

  13. Silicon web process development. [for low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Hopkins, R. H.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, a single crystal ribbon shaped during growth by crystallographic forces and surface tension (rather than dies), is a highly promising base material for efficient low cost solar cells. The form of the product smooth, flexible strips 100 to 200 microns thick, conserves expensive silicon and facilitates automation of crystal growth and the subsequent manufacturing of solar cells. These characteristics, coupled with the highest demonstrated ribbon solar cell efficiency-15.5%-make silicon web a leading candidate to achieve, or better, the 1986 Low Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project cost objective of 50 cents per peak watt of photovoltaic output power. The main objective of the Web Program, technology development to significantly increase web output rate, and to show the feasibility for simultaneous melt replenishment and growth, have largely been accomplished. Recently, web output rates of 23.6 sq cm/min, nearly three times the 8 sq cm/min maximum rate of a year ago, were achieved. Webs 4 cm wide or greater were grown on a number of occassions.

  14. Bamboo composite materials for low-cost housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagilis, Trevor David

    Investigation into the use of bamboo in composite panels for low-cost housing is presented. Information on the housing situation, the state of the forest resources, and the needs for low-cost housing are given for Ecuador, which is seen as representative of countries with a history of bamboo use, and potential for further development. Specifically bamboo particleboard using Guadua angustifolia, Dendrocalamus strictus, Phyllostachys pubescens, and Bambusa vulgaris manufactured with steam injection pressing is presented. High strength panels including waferboard made from randomly placed and oriented Bambusa vulgaris wafers, bamboo particleboard overlaid with woven bamboo mats, and "picada panels" were developed. Emphasis was given to short press times, low resin contents, and low product densities in comparison with previous technology to ensure economic viability. This investigation is a unique contribution to the science of composite products and has developed a number of panel products that are both technically and economically feasible. A discussion of economic, social and environmental issues surrounding bamboo industrialisation is also presented.

  15. COMPASS Final Report: Low Cost Robotic Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    The COllaborative Modeling for the Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team designed a robotic lunar Lander to deliver an unspecified payload (greater than zero) to the lunar surface for the lowest cost in this 2006 design study. The purpose of the low cost lunar lander design was to investigate how much payload can an inexpensive chemical or Electric Propulsion (EP) system deliver to the Moon s surface. The spacecraft designed as the baseline out of this study was a solar powered robotic lander, launched on a Minotaur V launch vehicle on a direct injection trajectory to the lunar surface. A Star 27 solid rocket motor does lunar capture and performs 88 percent of the descent burn. The Robotic Lunar Lander soft-lands using a hydrazine propulsion system to perform the last 10% of the landing maneuver, leaving the descent at a near zero, but not exactly zero, terminal velocity. This low-cost robotic lander delivers 10 kg of science payload instruments to the lunar surface.

  16. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bouquet, F.L.

    1980-02-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

  17. Recent developments in low cost stable structures for space

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.C.; Grastataro, C.; Smith, B.G.

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) is advancing the development of low cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in spacecraft and stable structures. The use of advanced composites is well developed, but the application of an all-composite tracker structure has never been achieved. This paper investigates the application of composite technology to the design and fabrication of an all-composite spacecraft bus for small satellites, using technology directly applicable to central tracking in a high luminosity environment. The satellite program Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is the second in a series of satellites to be launched into orbit for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will discuss recent developments in the area of low cost composites, used for either spacecraft or ultra stable applications in high energy physics (HEP) detectors. The use of advanced composites is a relatively new development in the area of HEP. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) spawned a new generation of Trackers which made extensive use of graphite fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite systems. LANL has designed a structure employing new fabrication technology. This concept will lower the cost of composite structures to a point that they may now compete with conventional materials. This paper will discuss the design, analysis and proposed fabrication of a small satellite structure. Central tracking structures using advanced materials capable of operating in an adverse environment typical of that found in a high luminosity collider could use identical concepts.

  18. a Low Cost Pressure Wave Generator Using Diaphragms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughley, A. J.; Haywood, D. J.; Wang, C.

    2008-03-01

    The high cost of Pressure Wave Generators (PWGs) is a major barrier to the more widespread use of high-efficiency pulse tube and Stirling cryocoolers. This paper describes the development and testing of a low-cost industrial-style PWG which employs metal diaphragms. The use of diaphragms removes the need for rubbing or clearance seals, and eliminates contamination problems by hermetically separating the gas circuit and the lubricated driving mechanism. A conventional low-cost electric motor is used for power input, via a novel high-efficiency kinematic linkage. A first prototype of the diaphragm PWG produced 3.2 kW of PV power with a measured electro-acoustic efficiency of 72%. Accelerated testing predicts a diaphragm life time in excess of 40,000 hours. An additional advantage of the use of diaphragms is the ability to directly cool the gas in the compression space. This eliminates or significantly reduces the requirement for an after cooler, and further decreases the cost of the whole cryocooler system. A pulse tube cryocooler has been successfully run at Industrial Research Ltd to 59K with the diaphragm PWG and no aftercooler. Another pulse tube cryocooler with the diaphragm PWG is undergoing development at Cryomech, the results of which will be given in another presentation.

  19. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the

  20. Algolcam: Low Cost Sky Scanning with Modern Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Martin; Bolton, Dempsey; Doktor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Low cost DSLR cameras running under computer control offer good sensitivity, high resolution, small size, and the convenience of digital image handling. Recent developments in small single board computers have pushed the performance to cost and size ratio to unprecedented values, with the further advantage of very low power consumption. Yet a third technological development is motor control electronics which is easily integrated with the computer to make an automated mount, which in our case is custom built, but with similar mounts available commercially. Testing of such a system under a clear plastic dome at our auroral observatory was so successful that we have developed a weatherproof housing allowing use during the long, cold, and clear winter nights at northerly latitudes in Canada. The main advantage of this housing should be improved image quality as compared to operation through clear plastic. We have improved the driving software to include the ability to self-calibrate pointing through the web API of astrometry.net, and data can be reduced automatically through command line use of the Muniwin program. The mount offers slew in declination and RA, and tracking at sidereal or other rates in RA. Our previous tests with a Nikon D5100 with standard lenses in the focal length range 50-200 mm, operating at f/4 to f/5, allowed detection of 12th magnitude stars with 30 second exposure under very dark skies. At 85 mm focal length, a field of 15° by 10° is imaged with 4928 by 3264 color pixels, and we have adopted an 85 mm fixed focal length f/1.4 lens (as used by Project Panoptes), which we expect will give a limited magnitude approaching 15. With a large field of view, deep limiting magnitude, low cost, and ease of construction and use, we feel that the Algolcam offers great possibilities in monitoring and finding changes in the sky. We have already applied it to variable star light curves, and with a suitable pipeline for detection of moving or varying objects

  1. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  2. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Agudo, J. Enrique; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo

    2013-01-01

    This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%. PMID:23698265

  3. Low-cost laser rangefinder with crystal-controlled accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, James F.

    2005-02-01

    We present a novel laser ranging system that offers improved accuracy and low-cost implementations for short to medium range target distance and velocity measurement. This is accomplished through the emission of an eye-safe amplitude modulated laser beam, whose echo return is processed with a phase-computing discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The data for the DFT are collected directly from the received signal through equivalent time sampling, and the automatic gain control (AGC) function is moved to that part of the system where its varying signal propagation time will not impact measurement accuracy. All emission and data collection signals are derived directly from a single crystal oscillator, which establishes the system's accuracy. The system is also capable of resolving the distance/velocity ambiguity problem inherent in conventional hetero/homodyne laser ranging systems, and, lastly, digital data can be transmitted and received concurrently with the distance measurement process.

  4. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  5. Electricity from sunlight. [low cost silicon for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Miller, J. W.; Lutwack, R.; Hsu, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of new unconventional processes proposed for the low-cost production of silicon for solar cells. Consideration is given to: (1) the Battelle process (Zn/SiCl4), (2) the Battelle process (SiI4), (3) the Silane process, (4) the Motorola process (SiF4/SiF2), (5) the Westinghouse process (Na/SiCl4), (6) the Dow Corning process (C/SiO2), (7) the AeroChem process (SiCl4/H atom), and the Stanford process (Na/SiF4). Preliminary results indicate that the conventional process and the SiI4 processes cannot meet the project goal of $10/kg by 1986. Preliminary cost evaluation results for the Zn/SiCl4 process are favorable.

  6. Low-Cost, Portable Optical Imaging Systems for Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Mark C.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide incidence and mortality rates due to cancer continue to rise, with the burden of disease increasingly shifting to developing countries. Several optical diagnostic methods such as diffuse optical tomography, wide-field autofluorescence imaging, confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography, are currently under development to enable earlier detection of cancer. However, these are primarily intended for use in healthcare facilities in industrialized countries. Using knowledge gained from early clinical studies with these large-scale systems, we have designed and tested low-cost, portable versions of these instruments. We propose that these systems may be used for early diagnosis and screening in developing countries, and that pilot clinical studies are warranted in these low-resource settings. PMID:21096559

  7. High resolution, low cost solar cell contact development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1981-01-01

    The MIDFILM cell fabrication and encapsulation processes were demonstrated as a means of applying low-cost solar cell collector metallization. The average cell efficiency of 12.0 percent (AM1, 28 C) was achieved with fritted silver metallization with a demonstration run of 500 starting wafers. A 98 percent mechanical yield and 80 percent electrical yield were achieved through the MIDFILM process. High series resistance was responsible for over 90 percent of the electrical failures and was the major factor causing the low average cell efficiency. Environmental evaluations suggest that the MIDFILM cells do not degrade. A slight degradation in power was experienced in the MIDFILM minimodules when the AMP Solarlok connector delaminated during the environmental testing.

  8. Design concepts for low cost composite engine frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts for low-cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of commercial, high-bypass turbine engines. The concepts consist of generic-type components and subcomponents that could be adapted for use in different locations in the engine and to different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were assessed with a goal of having the lowest number of parts possible at the lowest possible cost. The evaluation of the design concepts resulted in the identification of a hybrid composite frame which would weigh about 70 percent of the state-of-the-art metal frame and cost would be about 60 percent.

  9. Composite propellant tank study for very low cost space transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. J.; Keith, E. L.

    1992-01-01

    A study of life-cycle cost is conducted to determine acceptable options for composite propellant tanks at low cost and weight and for use at moderate pressures. The review examines all cost issues relevant to the production, mass, applications, and reliability of the tanks for pressure-fed rockets. Specific attention is given to the manufacturing and life-cycle issues relevant to the use of composite materials in this application since composites are effective materials for liquid propellant tanks. Specific costs and parametric considerations are given for several tank candidates with 62,303-lb capacities. The mass sensitivity of the fourth stage for the concept vehicle is shown to be high, and the use of a 325-psi fourth-stage tank is shown to yield the minimum cost/lb for the stage. Wound S-glass/epoxy composites can be employed as cost-effective replacements for steel in the design of liquid-propellant tanks.

  10. Design concepts for low-cost composite engine frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts for low-cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of commercial, high-bypass turbine engines. The concepts consist of generic-type components and subcomponents that could be adapted for use in different locations in the engine and to different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were assessed with a goal of having the lowest number of parts possible at the lowest possible cost. The evaluation of the design concepts resulted in the identification of a hybrid composite frame which would weigh about 70 percent of the state-of-the-art metal frame and cost would be about 60 percent.

  11. Low-Cost Manufacturing of High- Temperature Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.

    1998-01-01

    Major goals of NASA and the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative include improvements in the affordability of propulsion systems, significant increases in the thrust/weight ratio, and increases in the temperature capability of components of gas turbine engines. Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's HITEMP project worked cooperatively with Allison Advanced Development Corporation to develop a manufacturing method to produce low-cost components for gas turbine engines. Affordability for these polymer composites is defined by the savings in acquisition and life-cycle costs associated with engine weight reduction. To lower engine component costs, the Lewis/Allison team focused on chopped graphite fiber/polyimide resin composites. The high-temperature polyimide resin chosen, PMR-II-50, was developed at NASA Lewis.

  12. A Low Cost Grism Spectrometer for Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovici, Dominic

    2016-06-01

    We have designed and built a low cost (appx. $500) low resolution (R ~ 300) grating-prism (grism) spectrometer for the University of Iowa's robotic observatory. Grism spectrometers differ from simple transmission grating systems by partially compensating for the curved focal plane using a wedge prism. The spectrometer has five optical elements, and was designed using a ray tracing program. The collimating and focusing optics are easily modified for other telescope optics. The optics are mounted in an enclosure made with a 3-d printer. The spectrometer was installed in a modified (extended) filter wheel and has been in routine operation since January 2016. I will show sample spectra using this system and discuss spectral calibration, and optical design considerations for other telescopes. I will also discuss how low-resolution spectrometers can be used in undergraduate teaching laboratories.

  13. Synthesis of CZTS Nanoparticles for Low-Cost Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donguk; Kim, Minha; Shim, Joongpyo; Kim, Doyoung; Choi, Wonseok; Park, Yong Seob; Choi, Youngkwan; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, uniformly sized Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles with easy control of chemical composition were synthesized and printable ink containing CZTS nanoparticles was prepared for low-cost-solar cell applications. In addition, we studied the effects of synthesis conditions, such as reaction temperature and time, on properties of the CZTS nanoparticles. For CZTS nanoparticles synthesis process, the reactants were mixed as the 2:1:1:4 molar ratios. The reaction temperature and time was varied from 220 degrees C to 320 degrees C and from 3 hours to 5 hours, respectively. The crystal structure and morphology of CZTS nanoparticles prepared under the various conditions were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used for compositional analysis of the CZTS nanoparticles. PMID:27483876

  14. Fabrication of low cost cutting wheel via thermal spray process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anasyida, A. S.; Nurulakmal, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study is mainly focused on development of metal cutting wheel. The process involved hard particles (abrasives) being bonded on the wheel to enhance the cutting capability by thermal spraying process and followed by polymer bonding. The purpose of this work is to produce low cost cutting wheel and study the performance of cutting behavior. Two different types of powders; silicon carbide (SiC) as bonding agent and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) as abrasives were used. Wear loss and depth of cut as function of load, cutting time and cutting speed were evaluated. The results showed that the speed and load were the main factors that affected the cutting efficiency and the optimum cutting process can be performed at low cutting speed and high load or at high cutting speed and low load.

  15. Low-cost cell-phone-based digital lux meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Somboonkaew, Armote

    2010-11-01

    The amount of light is an important issue in several scenarios ranging from scenic design, light pollution study, illumination engineering, and agriculture. It is typically determined by using a portable digital light or lux meter. By realizing that the proliferation of cell phones is currently tremendous, this paper proposes for the first time a low-cost cell phone based digital light meter. Our innovative idea comes from the fact that the digital camera built into the cell phone is functioned as a two-dimensional light sensitive device and the captured image can be made diffuse. In this way, the diffused image is correlated to the corresponding light level by the built-in microprocessor of the cell phone and our specific algorithm embedded. Our experiment using a typical cell phone embedded with a digital camera and our JAVA program will be discussed.

  16. Low-cost large-angle steering mirror development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassom, Steven R.

    2009-08-01

    The Space Dynamics Laboratory has combined internal funds with its background in space-rated mechanisms to develop a prototype low-cost large-angle 2-axis fine steering mirror (FSM). The FSM has a 75-mm clear aperture, 30-degree mechanical elevation angle, 120-degree mechanical azimuth angle, and a 70-Hertz small-amplitude bandwidth. Key components include a rotary voice coil, unique patent-pending feedback sensor, brushless DC motor and optical encoder. Average error is <1 arcsec and total mechanical mass is <1 kg. Additional accomplishments include a passive launch lock, launch vibration testing, portable demonstration electronics development, and thermal-vacuum testing to pressures down to 1e-7 torr and temperatures down to 164 K.

  17. A simple low-cost single-crystal NMR setup.

    PubMed

    Vinding, Mads S; Kessler, Tommy O; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost single-crystal NMR kit is presented along with a web-based post-processing software. The kit consists of a piezo-crystal motor and a goniometer for the crystal, both embedded in a standard wide-bore NMR probe with a 3D printed scaffold. The NMR pulse program controls the angle setting automatically, and the post-processing software incorporates a range of orientation-angle discrepancies present in the kit and other single-crystal setups. Results with a NaNO3 single-crystal show a high degree of reproducibility and excellent agreement with previous findings for the anisotropic quadrupolar interaction. PMID:27295612

  18. Development of a low-cost heat storage furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, E. )

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the development of a low cost central electric heat storage furnace for residential use in the USA. The heat storage furnace design uses crushed trap rock, a basaltic rock found throughout the USA. Residential furnaces were built and successfully tested both under laboratory conditions and in residences from Minnesota to New England. Although the furnace was developed for residential space heating, applications for commercial and industrial heating are under consideration. Heat storage using off-peak electricity is used as a load management tool in several ways. The specific application considered in this paper is space heating with warm air. In this application, the furnace converts off-peak electric power to heat and stores it for space heating during non-peak periods on a daily cycle basis.

  19. Comprehensive low-cost reliability centered maintenance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rotton, S.J.; Dozier, I.J.; Thow, R.

    1995-09-01

    Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a maintenance optimization approach that all electric utilities can apply to power plant systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and PECO Energy Company jointly sponsored this Comprehensive Low-Cost Reliability Centered Maintenance project to demonstrate that the standard RCM methodology could be streamlined to reduce the cost of analysis while maintaining a high quality product. EPRI`s previous investigation of streamlined RCM methods being pioneered in the nuclear industry indicated that PECO Energy could expect to optimize its maintenance program at reduced cost by carefully controlling the scope without sacrificing documentation or technical quality. Using the insights obtained from these previous studies, three methods were defined in this project and were demonstrated in a large scale application to 60 systems at both the Limerick Generating Station and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station.

  20. Investigations on novel low-cost graphite composite bipolar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholta, J.; Rohland, B.; Trapp, V.; Focken, U.

    PEM fuel cells are viewed as one of the most environmentally friendly propulsion systems for automotive travel in the future. The PEM fuel cell is still too expensive for wide-spread commercialization. To achieve this cost target and at the same time meeting several technical requirements for mass production, a novel type of low-cost bipolar plates has been developed by SGL Technik GmbH. In this paper, test results of novel SGL bipolar plate materials concerning electrical conductivity (including material resistivity and contact resistances), corrosion, chemical compatibility, gas tightness and mechanical strength are presented. Based on the measurements of resistivity and cell performance, the investigated material appears to be a good choice for stable high performance PEMFC bipolar plates.

  1. Development of a low cost potentiostat using ATXMEGA32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muid, Abdul; Djamal, Mitra; Wirawan, Rahadi

    2014-03-01

    Potentiostat is principal devices in modern electrochemical research especially in the investigation of mechanism reaction which associated with the redox chemistry reaction and other chemical phenomena. Several applications measurement is developed based on this tool such as measurement of sample concentrations, quality test of food and medicine, environmental monitoring and biosensors or development of a protein sensor. We have developed a low cost, simple and portable potentiostat with a relatively small dimension. TLC2264 op-amp and ATMEGA32 microcontroller is used to build controller circuit system. Range potential measurement of this tool is between -1600mV and +1600mV within frequency range 1Hz - 1 kHz. The developed instrument has been tested for measuring samples using different voltammetry techniques, like cyclic, square wave, and linear sweep with relative error under 2.5%.

  2. Low-cost directionally-solidified turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sink, L. W.; Hoppin, G. S., III; Fujii, M.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost process of manufacturing high stress rupture strength directionally-solidified high pressure turbine blades was successfully developed for the TFE731-3 Turbofan Engine. The basic processing parameters were established using MAR-M 247 and employing the exothermic directional-solidification process in trial castings of turbine blades. Nickel-based alloys were evaluated as directionally-solidified cast blades. A new turbine blade, disk, and associated components were then designed using previously determined material properties. Engine tests were run and the results were analyzed and compared to the originally established goals. The results showed that the stress rupture strength of exothermically heated, directionally-solidified MAR-M 247 turbine blades exceeded program objectives and that the performance and cost reduction goals were achieved.

  3. Low-cost DH and quantum well laser array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Geoffroy, Leo M.; Pesarcik, Scott F.; Magee, Carl J.

    1989-01-01

    The intial results of a program aimed at developing low-cost diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps are reported. MOCVD is used to demonstrate excellent run-to-run reproducibility in emission wavelength, threshold current density, and quantum efficiency. For this first experimental series, J(th) values of approximately 1310 Amps/sq cm were obtained for broad-area unthinned devices from the growth runs. Differential quantum efficiencies of between 41 percent and 47 percent were measured on the non-facet-coated devices from all four runs. Single quantum well, separate confinement heterostructure lasers fabricated from wafers grown in the same MOCVD reactor exhibited near single-mode emission, with J(th) values of approximately 300 Amps/sq cm. Photoluminescence data confirm quantum well widths of 80 A and 150 A for two different MOCVD growth runs.

  4. Arduino: a low-cost multipurpose lab equipment.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Typical experiments in psychological and neurophysiological settings often require the accurate control of multiple input and output signals. These signals are often generated or recorded via computer software and/or external dedicated hardware. Dedicated hardware is usually very expensive and requires additional software to control its behavior. In the present article, I present some accuracy tests on a low-cost and open-source I/O board (Arduino family) that may be useful in many lab environments. One of the strengths of Arduinos is the possibility they afford to load the experimental script on the board's memory and let it run without interfacing with computers or external software, thus granting complete independence, portability, and accuracy. Furthermore, a large community has arisen around the Arduino idea and offers many hardware add-ons and hundreds of free scripts for different projects. Accuracy tests show that Arduino boards may be an inexpensive tool for many psychological and neurophysiological labs. PMID:22037977

  5. Low cost point focus solar concentrator, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design concepts and plans for mass-production facilities and equipment, field installation, and maintenance were developed and used for cost analysis of a pneumatically stabilized plastic film point focus solar concentrator which has potential application in conjunction with Brayton cycle engines or supply of thermal energy. A sub-scale reflector was fabricated and optically tested by laser ray tracing to determine focal deviations of the surface slope and best focal plane. These test data were then used for comparisons with theoretical concentrator performance modeling and predictions of full-scale design performance. Results of the economic study indicate the concentrator design will have low cost when mass-produced and has cost/performance parameters that fall within current Jet Propulsion Laboratory goals.

  6. Low-cost interferometric TDM technology for dynamic sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Jeff; Cekorich, Allen

    2004-12-01

    A low-cost design approach for Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) fiber-optic interferometric interrogation of multi-channel sensor arrays is presented. This paper describes the evolutionary design process of the subject design. First, the requisite elements of interferometric interrogation are defined for a single channel sensor. The concept is then extended to multi-channel sensor interrogation implementing a TDM multiplex scheme where "traditional" design elements are utilized. The cost of the traditional TDM interrogator is investigated and concluded to be too high for entry into many markets. A new design approach is presented which significantly reduces the cost for TDM interrogation. This new approach, in accordance with the cost objectives, shows promise to bring this technology to within the threshold of commercial acceptance for a wide range of distributed fiber sensing applications.

  7. Low cost composite structures for superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rix, C. ); McColskey, D. ); Acree, R. )

    1994-07-01

    As part of the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage/Engineering Test Model (SMES-ETM) programs, design, analysis, fabrication and test programs were conducted to evaluate the low cost manufacturing of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) beams for usage as major components of the structural and electrical insulation systems. These studies utilized pultrusion process technologies and vinylester resins to produce large net sections at costs significantly below that of conventional materials. Demonstration articles incorporating laminate architectures and design details representative of SMES-ETM components were fabricated using the pultrusion process and epoxy, vinylester, and polyester resin systems. The mechanical and thermal properties of these articles were measured over the temperature range from 4 K to 300 K. The results of these tests showed that the pultruded, vinylester components have properties comparable to those of currently used materials, such as G-10, and are capable of meeting the design requirements for the SMES-ETM system.

  8. Low cost composite structures for superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rix, Craig; McColskey, David; Acree, Robert

    1994-07-01

    As part of the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage/Engineering Test Model (SMES-ETM) program, design, analysis, fabrication and test programs were conducted to evaluate the low cost manufacturing of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) beams for usage as major components of the structural and electrical insulation systems. These studies utilized pultrusion process technologies and vinylester resins to produce large net sections at costs significantly below that of conventional materials. Demonstration articles incorporating laminate architectures and design details representative of SMES-ETM components were fabricated using the pultrusion process and epoxy, vinylester, and polyester resin systems. The mechanical and thermal properties of these articles were measured over the temperature range from 4 K to 300 K. The results of these tests showed that the pultruded, vinylester components have properties comparable to those of currently used materials, such as G-10, and are capable of meeting the design requirements for the SMES-ETM system.

  9. Low-Cost, Large C-SiC Blisk Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowbel, W.; Effinger, M.

    2008-01-01

    C-SiC composites offer unique properties for propulsion applications. However, fabrication of low-cost, thick, large scale C-SiC disk for integrally bladed disk (blisk) applications has not been established yet. MER has demonstrated a new process to address this issue. Polymer-based processing was employed for interfacial coatings, consolidation and densification. Up to 40" O.C., 2" thick C-SiC composite processing was established, yielding in excess of 1.8 g/cu cm density. Computer tomography (CT) scans on the 40" O.D., 2" thick C-SiC disk showed no visible delamination, and good density uniformity. Stress-rupture testing in air was conducted at 2200 F, 2400 F and 2550 F.

  10. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    SciTech Connect

    Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  11. Low cost solar array project 1: Silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewett, D. N.; Bates, H. E.; Hill, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The low cost production of silicon by deposition of silicon from a hydrogen/chlorosilane mixture is described. Reactor design, reaction vessel support systems (physical support, power control and heaters, and temperature monitoring systems) and operation of the system are reviewed. Testing of four silicon deposition reactors is described, and test data and consequently derived data are given. An 18% conversion of trichlorosilane to silicon was achieved, but average conversion rates were lower than predicted due to incomplete removal of byproduct gases for recycling and silicon oxide/silicon polymer plugging of the gas outlet. Increasing the number of baffles inside the reaction vessel improved the conversion rate. Plans for further design and process improvements to correct the problems encountered are outlined.

  12. Small, low cost, expendable turbojet engine. 2: Performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, R. P.; Macioce, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A small experimental axial-flow turbojet engine was tested at sea level static conditions and over a range of simulated flight conditions to evaluate its performance as well as to demonstrate the feasibility of low-cost concepts utilized in its design. Testing was conducted at engine speeds as high as 37,000 rpm and at turbine inlet temperatures as high as 1,272 K. For maximum speed the engine produced a net thrust of 3,118 newtons at sea level static operation and 2,318 newtons at its cruise condition of M0 = 0.8 and 6,096 meters. Data obtained over a range of inlet Reynolds number indexes for nominal M0 of 0.38 revealed similar effects or trends on compressor characteristics of those previously established for much larger engines.

  13. 4273π: Bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. Results We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012–2013. Conclusions 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost. PMID:23937194

  14. Sensor Integration in a Low Cost Land Mobile Mapping System

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Sergio; Gonçalves, José A.; Bastos, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS), the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved. PMID:22736985

  15. MESA - A new approach to low cost scientific spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, G. W.; Case, C. M.

    1982-09-01

    Today, the greatest obstacle to science and exploration in space is its cost. The present investigation is concerned with approaches for reducing this cost. Trends in the scientific spacecraft market are examined, and a description is presented for the MESA space platform concept. The cost drivers are considered, taking into account planning, technical aspects, and business factors. It is pointed out that the primary function of the MESA concept is to provide a satellite system at the lowest possible price. In order to reach this goal an attempt is made to benefit from all of the considered cost drivers. It is to be tried to work with the customer early in the mission analysis stage in order to assist in finding the right compromise between mission cost and return. A three phase contractual arrangement is recommended for MESA platforms. The phases are related to mission feasibility, specification definition, and design and development. Modular kit design promotes flexibility at low cost.

  16. Low cost pavement marking materials based on plasticized sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. M.

    1982-04-01

    Pavement marking was made more cost effective by reducing the cost of the marking materials. A low cost marking material based on sulfur was developed. Elemental sulfur is a hard, brittle, crystalline material which, on heating, melts to a thin liquid that can be spray applied. If molten elemental sulfur is spray applied to the road as markings, it will on application solidify, crack and adhere poorly to the road. The first ten high speed trucks that ride over the markings will remove them. To make a useful sulfur based pavement marking material it was necessary to chemically modify (plasticize) the sulfur and mix it with fillers and pigments such that it had all of the characteristics desired of a pavement marking material. Yellow and white formulations were developed. For identification they were given the names YS-EIGHT and WS-EIGHT for the yellow and white formulations.

  17. Low-cost inertial navigation for moderate-g missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost inertial navigation system (INS) concept is described for flight missions characterized by moderate accelerations and limited attitude variations. These missions involve general aviation aircraft, helicopters, or remotely piloted vehicles. The significance of the moderate acceleration and limited attitude is reviewed with respect to platform mechanization and instrumentation. A hybrid mechanization, partially gimballed and partially strapdown, is presented. The INS is implemented by an unbalanced two axis gimbal system and controlled by a two degree of freedom gyro. The INS provides locally level two axis acceleration information along with pitch and roll measurements. Heading information is provided by a second gyro mounted in the inner gimbal. The system error model is equivalent to that of a conventional platform with a tilt error determined by the integral of the gyro drift rate and an equivalent accelerometer type errors are also cancelled. Rapid gyro-compassing, implemented with opened gimbal control loops, and a strapdown procedure provides calibration of gyro drift rate biases.

  18. UV-LED exposure system for low-cost photolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapici, Murat Kaya; Farhat, Ilyas

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the development of a low-cost, portable, light-emitting diode (LED)-based UV exposure system for photolithography. The major system components include UV-LEDs, microcontroller, digital-to-analog (D/A) converter and LED control circuitry. The UV-LED lithography system is also equipped with a digital user interface (LCD and keypad) and permits accurate electronic control on the exposure time and power. Hence the exposure dose can be varied depending on process requirements. Compared to traditional contact lithography, the UV-LED lithography system is significantly cheaper, simple to construct using off-the shelf components and does not require complex infrastructure to operate. Such reduction in system cost and complexity renders UV-LED lithography as a perfect candidate for micro lithography with large process windows typically suitable for MEMS, microfluidics applications.

  19. Low-cost packaging of high-performance optoelectronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, M.; Lu, Shin-Yee; Pocha, M.; Strand, O.T.

    1994-08-01

    Optoelectronic component costs are often dominated by the costs of attaching fiber optic pigtails--especially for the case of single transverse mode devices. We present early results of our program in low-cost packaging. We are employing machine-vision controlled automated positioning and silicon microbench technology to reduce the costs of optoelectronic components. Our machine vision approach to automated positioning has already attained a positional accuracy of less than 5 microns in less than 5 minutes; accuracies and times are expected to improve significantly as the development progresses. Complementing the machine vision assembly is our manufacturable approach to silicon microbench technology. We will describe our silicon microbench optoelectronic device packages that incorporate built-in heaters for solder bonding reflow.

  20. Low cost lift-off process optimization for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shilpi; Bansal, Deepak; Panwar, Deepak; Shukla, Neha; Kumar, Arvind; Kothari, Prateek; Verma, Seema; Rangra, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    The patterning of thin films play major role in the performance of MEMS devices. The wet etching gives an isotropic profile and etch rate depends on the temperature, size of the microstructures and repetitive use of the solution. Even with the use of selective etchants, it significantly attacks the underlying layer. On the other side, dry etching is expensive process. In this paper, double layer of photoresist is optimized for lift-off process. Double layer lift-off technique offers process simplicity, low cost, over conventional single layer lift-off or bilayer lift-off with LOR. The problem of retention and flagging is resolved. The thickness of double coat photoresist is increased by 2.3 times to single coat photo resist.

  1. Combining advanced imaging processing and low cost remote imaging capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Matthew J.; McQuiddy, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Target images are very important for evaluating the situation when Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) are deployed. These images add a significant amount of information to determine the difference between hostile and non-hostile activities, the number of targets in an area, the difference between animals and people, the movement dynamics of targets, and when specific activities of interest are taking place. The imaging capabilities of UGS systems need to provide only target activity and not images without targets in the field of view. The current UGS remote imaging systems are not optimized for target processing and are not low cost. McQ describes in this paper an architectural and technologic approach for significantly improving the processing of images to provide target information while reducing the cost of the intelligent remote imaging capability.

  2. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  3. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of glass encapsulation that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems are discussed. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the low-cost solar array project goals for arrays: (1) a low degradation rate, (2) high reliability, (3) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (4) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (5) a production capacity of 500,000 kW/yr. The glass design areas discussed include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties, and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings.

  4. Low-cost EEG-based sleep detection.

    PubMed

    Van Hal, Bryan; Rhodes, Samhita; Dunne, Bruce; Bossemeyer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A real-time stage 1 sleep detection system using a low-cost single dry-sensor EEG headset is described. This device issues an auditory warning at the onset of stage 1 sleep using the "NeuroSky Mindset," an inexpensive commercial entertainment-based headset. The EEG signal is filtered into low/high alpha and low/high beta frequency bands which are analyzed to indicate the onset of sleep. Preliminary results indicate an 81% effective rate of detecting sleep with all failures being false positives of sleep onset. This device was able to predict and respond to the onset of drowsiness preceding stage 1 sleep allowing for earlier warnings with the result of fewer sleep-related accidents. PMID:25571009

  5. Low-cost home experiments and demonstrations in optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejías, P. M.; Martínez-Herrero, R.; Serna, J.; Piquero, G.

    2005-10-01

    More than 60 demonstrations and basic experiments in Optics have been compiled. They can be carried out by secondary and university students in the classroom or at home, and have been conceived considering low cost and easy-to-get materials. The goal is to offer didactic resources, showing that Optics can be taught in an attractive and amusing way. The experiments try to stimulate scientific curiosity, and generate interest in the observation of our physical world. The work could be collected as a book, where each demonstration would be contained in one or two pages, including a title, a list of the required materials and a concise explanation about what to do and observe. Associated with the experimental content, we propose a web page, namely, http://www.ucm.es/info/expoptic, that accepts experiments sent by anyone interested in Optics, which can be used as a forum to interchange information on this educational topic.

  6. New low-cost MEMS capacitive pressure sensor concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Cheung, Kin P.; Sheng, Kuang; Pai, Chien-Shing

    2005-01-01

    Capacitive pressure sensors based on surface or bulk MEMS technology have many attributes that make them highly desirable for many applications. The biggest technical challenge of capacitive pressure sensor technology is the creation of a reference cavity. It dictates the packaging approach and therefore the cost of the sensor. In this paper we introduce a new design of capacitive pressure sensor that takes advantage of a novel new wafer level packaging technology - A thin-film sealing technology that allows independent pressure control from high vacuum to high pressure. The new technology seals the vacuum cavity formed by standard surface micro machining technology by a brief melting of a metal layer using a pulsed laser. The ability to form reference vacuum cavity without the need for fusing or bonding with another structure allows the design to be simplified, leading to low cost and high yield.

  7. Simulating low-cost cameras for augmented reality compositing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Georg; Murray, David W

    2010-01-01

    Video see-through Augmented Reality adds computer graphics to the real world in real time by overlaying graphics onto a live video feed. To achieve a realistic integration of the virtual and real imagery, the rendered images should have a similar appearance and quality to those produced by the video camera. This paper describes a compositing method which models the artifacts produced by a small low-cost camera, and adds these effects to an ideal pinhole image produced by conventional rendering methods. We attempt to model and simulate each step of the imaging process, including distortions, chromatic aberrations, blur, Bayer masking, noise, sharpening, and color-space compression, all while requiring only an RGBA image and an estimate of camera velocity as inputs. PMID:20224133

  8. Get away special the low-cost route to orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prouty, C.

    1986-01-01

    NASA has established the Get Away Special (GAS) program as a means for providing anyone who wishes the opportunity to place a small self-contained experimental payload aboard a Space Shuttle mission for a very low cost. The GAS program is now well established, and has a respectable history with 53 payloads flown to date. The GAS experimenters are a diverse group who have demonstrated that people from all walks of life, and from many nations, are interested in working in space. This paper traces the history of the program from its concept through the development phase to the present time, and takes a brief look at the future. It also addresses the steps involved in making a payload reservation and the programmatic and technical relationships that are established between NASA and GAS customers.

  9. Demonstration of the Low-Cost Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, David; Montes, Leticia; Ramos, Angel; Joyce, Brendan; Lumia, Ron

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a low-cost approach of remotely controlling equipment. Our demonstration system consists of a PC, the PUMA 560 robot with Barrett hand, and commercially available controller and teleconferencing software. The system provides a graphical user interface which allows a user to program equipment tasks and preview motions i.e., simulate the results. Once satisfied that the actions are both safe and accomplish the task, the remote user sends the data over the Internet to the local site for execution on the real equipment. A video link provides visual feedback to the remote sight. This technology lends itself readily to NASA's upcoming Mars expeditions by providing remote simulation and control of equipment.

  10. Mercury content in low cost skin lightening cream products.

    PubMed

    Naser, J; Kirm, I

    2012-04-01

    Skin lightening creams were randomly collected from local markets in Sultanate of Oman for analysis of mercury (II) content. All the products collected were of low cost imported materials from different countries. Cream samples were digested in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at elevated temperature using a microwave digester. The mercury content was measured using Flow Injection Atomic Spectroscopy (FIAS)-Mercury Hydride System. Out of forty cream samples analyzed, about one fourth of the samples contained higher levels of mercury which is more than the maximum mercury content of 1 microg/g permitted by the Food and Drug Administration regulation. The mercury level in the analyzed samples is found to be in the range from 0.02 to 25.7 microg/g. Among the analyzed skin lightening cream samples half of the materials did not have any detectable mercury content. PMID:24749377

  11. Low-Cost Peptide Microarrays for Mapping Continuous Antibody Epitopes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Ryan; Head, Steven R; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Law, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for understanding antibody specificity in antibody and vaccine research, pepscan assays provide a rapid method for mapping and profiling antibody responses to continuous epitopes. We have developed a relatively low-cost method to generate peptide microarray slides for studying antibody binding. Using a setup of an IntavisAG MultiPep RS peptide synthesizer, a Digilab MicroGrid II 600 microarray printer robot, and an InnoScan 1100 AL scanner, the method allows the interrogation of up to 1536 overlapping, alanine-scanning, and mutant peptides derived from the target antigens. Each peptide is tagged with a polyethylene glycol aminooxy terminus to improve peptide solubility, orientation, and conjugation efficiency to the slide surface. PMID:26490468

  12. A low cost, high performance remotely controlled backhoe/excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper addresses a state of the art, low cost, remotely controlled backhoe/excavator system for remediation use at hazardous waste sites. The all weather, all terrain, Remote Dig-It is based on a simple, proven construction platform and incorporates state of the art sensors, control, telemetry and other subsystems derived from advanced underwater remotely operated vehicle systems. The system can be towed to a site without the use of a trailer, manually operated by an on board operator or operated via a fiber optic or optional RF communications link by a remotely positioned operator. A proportional control system is piggy backed onto the standard manual control system. The control system improves manual operation, allows rapid manual/remote mode selection and provides fine manual or remote control of all functions. The system incorporates up to 4 separate video links, acoustic obstacle proximity sensors, and stereo audio pickups and an optional differential GPS navigation. Video system options include electronic panning and tilting within a distortion-corrected wide angle field of view. The backhoe/excavator subsystem has a quick disconnect interface feature which allows its use as a manipulator with a wide variety of end effectors and tools. The Remote Dig-It was developed to respond to the need for a low-cost, effective remediation system for use at sites containing hazardous materials. The prototype system was independently evaluated for this purpose by the Army at the Jefferson Proving Ground where it surpassed all performance goals. At the time of this writing, the Remote Dig-It system is currently the only backhoe/excavator which met the Army`s goals for remediation systems for use at hazardous waste sites and it costs a fraction of any known competing offerings.

  13. Investigation of a low cost method to quantify cosmetic defect.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Thomas; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2012-01-01

    For many patients, the motivation in seeking treatment is the improvement of their appearance rather than to correct an underlying skeletal deformity, so cosmetic concerns and the psychosocial impacts of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are important factors in the clinical decision-making process. In the current environment of evidence based medicine there is a growing need to quantify back surface shape and general body asymmetry with the objective of producing an agreed scoring to be used in developing treatment plans and assessing outcomes but to date many clinics continue to rely on qualitative or expensive methods to describe cosmetic deformity. In November 2010, Microsoft® Corporation launched the low cost Kinect™ camera with 18 million units sold (as at January 2012) throughout the world. The device incorporates proprietary light coding technology that reconstructs the three dimensional location of an estimated 50,000 projected points illuminating objects within its field of view in approximately 1/30th of a second. The aim of the research was to investigate the capabilities of a low cost, reliable and inherently safe apparatus based on Kinect depth sensing and video technology to simultaneously acquire back surface shape and the locations of bony landmarks with the goal of providing data to describe cosmetic defect. Work has been completed using both the apparatus and a commercially available optical motion capture system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, U.K.) to acquire data from a test object representing an unaffected human torso. Results were obtained to compare tri-dimensional bony landmark reconstruction accuracy and combined with analyses of point cloud data to describe back shape. Early indications are that the proposed apparatus has potential to be a clinically useful tool. PMID:22744509

  14. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  15. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  16. Low-cost uncooled VOx infrared camera development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George D.; Cook, Grady; Kubala, Kenny; Bates, Robert; Temple, Dorota; Lannon, John; Hilton, Allan; Glukh, Konstantin; Hardy, Busbee

    2013-06-01

    The DRS Tamarisk® 320 camera, introduced in 2011, is a low cost commercial camera based on the 17 µm pixel pitch 320×240 VOx microbolometer technology. A higher resolution 17 µm pixel pitch 640×480 Tamarisk®640 has also been developed and is now in production serving the commercial markets. Recently, under the DARPA sponsored Low Cost Thermal Imager-Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program and internal project, DRS is leading a team of industrial experts from FiveFocal, RTI International and MEMSCAP to develop a small form factor uncooled infrared camera for the military and commercial markets. The objective of the DARPA LCTI-M program is to develop a low SWaP camera (<3.5 cm3 in volume and <500 mW in power consumption) that costs less than US $500 based on a 10,000 units per month production rate. To meet this challenge, DRS is developing several innovative technologies including a small pixel pitch 640×512 VOx uncooled detector, an advanced digital ROIC and low power miniature camera electronics. In addition, DRS and its partners are developing innovative manufacturing processes to reduce production cycle time and costs including wafer scale optic and vacuum packaging manufacturing and a 3-dimensional integrated camera assembly. This paper provides an overview of the DRS Tamarisk® project and LCTI-M related uncooled technology development activities. Highlights of recent progress and challenges will also be discussed. It should be noted that BAE Systems and Raytheon Vision Systems are also participants of the DARPA LCTI-M program.

  17. Using Low Cost Environmental Sensors in Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeman, J.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in process technology have drastically reduced the cost of manufacturing almost every type of sensor and micro-controller, putting low-to-mid grade sensor technology in the reach of educators and hobbyists. We demonstrate how a low cost magnetometer and an Arduino micro-controller can be used in education. Students can easily connect the sensor to the Arduino and collect three-component magnetic field data. Experiments can easily be turned into long-term monitoring projects by connecting sensors to the internet and providing an Internet-of-Things interface to store and to display the data in near-real time. Low-cost sensors are generally much noisier than their research grade counterparts, but can still provide an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental concepts such as signal quality, sampling, averaging, and filtering and to gain hands-on, concrete experience with observations. Sensors can be placed at different locations and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, with an inexpensive magnetometer, students can examine diurnal magnetic field variations and look for magnetic storms. Magnetic field orientation can be calculated and compared to the predicted geomagnetic field orientation at a given location. Data can be stored in simple text files to facilitate analysis with any convenient package. We illustrate the idea using Python notebooks, allowing students to explore the data interactively and to learn the basic principles of programming and reproducible research. Using an Arduino encourages students to interact with open-source data collection hardware and to experiment with ways to quickly, cheaply, and effectively measure the environment. Analysis of these data can lead to a deeper understanding of both geoscience and data processing.

  18. Parametric perfusion imaging based on low-cost ultrasound platform.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaolin; Zhong, Hui; Wan, Mingxi; Hu, Xiaowen; Lv, Dan; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to implement parametric perfusion imaging to quantify blood perfusion based on modified low-cost ultrasound platform. A novel ultrasound contrast-specific imaging method called pulse-inversion harmonic sum-squared-differences (PIHSSD) was proposed for improving the sensitivity for detecting contrast agents and the accuracy of parametric perfusion imaging, which combined pulse-inversion harmonic (PIH) with pulse-inversion sum-squared-differences (PISSD) threshold-based decision. PIHSSD method just involved simple operations including addition and multiplication and was easy to realize. The sequences of contrast images without logarithmic compression were used to acquire time intensity curves (TICs) from numerous equal-sized regions-of-interest (ROI) covering the entire image plane. Parametric perfusion images were obtained based on the parameters extracted from the TICs, including peak value (PV), area under curve (AUC), mean transit time (MTT), peak value time (PVT), peak width (PW) and climbing rate (CR). Flow phantom was used for validation and the results suggested that PIHSSD method provided 9.6 to 20.3 dB higher contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) than PIH method. The results of the experiments of rabbit kidney also showed that the CTR of PIHSSD images was higher than that of PIH images, and the parametric perfusion images based on PIHSSD method provided more accurate quantification of blood perfusion compared with those based on PIH and PISSD methods. It demonstrated that the parametric perfusion imaging achieved good performance though implemented on low-cost ultrasound platform. (E-mail: mxwan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn). PMID:19931972

  19. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets as low-cost, high-performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng-guo; Wu, Zhong; Meng, Fan-lu; Ma, De-long; Huang, Xiao-lei; Wang, Li-min; Zhang, Xin-bo

    2013-01-01

    Between the sheets: Sodium-ion batteries are an attractive, low-cost alternative to lithium-ion batteries. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon sheets are prepared by chemical activation of polypyrrole-functionalized graphene sheets. When using the sheets as anode material in sodium-ion batteries, their unique compositional and structural features result in high reversible capacity, good cycling stability, and high rate capability. PMID:23225752

  20. A facile and low-cost micro fabrication material: flash foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Xiao, Xiao; Wu, Yan; Fu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Although many microfabrication methods have been reported, the preliminary replication templates used in most microfabrication still depend on the expensive and long-period photolithography. This paper explores an alternative replication templates based on a daily used material, flash foam (FF), and proposes a facile microfabrication method, flash foam stamp lithography (FFSL). When FF is exposed with a desired pattern mask, the negative of the pattern is transferred to its surface and micro structures are formed due to the shrinkage of the exposed area. As FF is commonly used in personal stamps, FFSL is very simple and cost-effective. In this paper, we demonstrated that FF is a good and low-cost template for many micro fabrication methods, such as micro casting and soft lithography. Thus, designing and fabricating micro structures at personal office immediately become possible with FFSL. Furthermore, we demonstrated that multi-scale micro structures can be easily fabricated by double exposure with FFSL. Skin textures is used as another case to demonstrate that FFSL can fabricate structures with different depth in a single exposure. As a result, FF shows a promising future in biology, and analytical chemistry, such as rapid fabrication of point of care diagnostics and microfluidic analytical devices with low cost.

  1. Activated carbons and low cost adsorbents for remediation of tri- and hexavalent chromium from water.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Pittman, Charles U

    2006-09-21

    Hexavalent chromium is a well-known highly toxic metal, considered a priority pollutant. Industrial sources of Cr(VI) include leather tanning, cooling tower blowdown, plating, electroplating, anodizing baths, rinse waters, etc. The most common method applied for chromate control is reduction of Cr(VI) to its trivalent form in acid (pH approximately 2.0) and subsequent hydroxide precipitation of Cr(III) by increasing the pH to approximately 9.0-10.0 using lime. Existing overviews of chromium removal only cover selected technologies that have traditionally been used in chromium removal. Far less attention has been paid to adsorption. Herein, we provide the first review article that provides readers an overview of the sorption capacities of commercial developed carbons and other low cost sorbents for chromium remediation. After an overview of chromium contamination is provided, more than 300 papers on chromium remediation using adsorption are discussed to provide recent information about the most widely used adsorbents applied for chromium remediation. Efforts to establish the adsorption mechanisms of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on various adsorbents are reviewed. Chromium's impact environmental quality, sources of chromium pollution and toxicological/health effects is also briefly introduced. Interpretations of the surface interactions are offered. Particular attention is paid to comparing the sorption efficiency and capacities of commercially available activated carbons to other low cost alternatives, including an extensive table. PMID:16904258

  2. Low cost microfluidic device based on cotton threads for electroanalytical application.

    PubMed

    Agustini, Deonir; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz Humberto

    2016-01-21

    Microfluidic devices are an interesting alternative for performing analytical assays, due to the speed of analyses, reduced sample, reagent and solvent consumption and less waste generation. However, the high manufacturing costs still prevent the massive use of these devices worldwide. Here, we present the construction of a low cost microfluidic thread-based electroanalytical device (μTED), employing extremely cheap materials and a manufacturing process free of equipment. The microfluidic channels were built with cotton threads and the estimated cost per device was only $0.39. The flow of solutions (1.12 μL s(-1)) is generated spontaneously due to the capillary forces, eliminating the use of any pumping system. To demonstrate the analytical performance of the μTED, a simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACT) and diclofenac (DCF) was performed by multiple pulse amperometry (MPA). A linear dynamic range (LDR) of 10 to 320 μmol L(-1) for both species, a limit of detection (LOD) and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1.4 and 4.7 μmol L(-1) and 2.5 and 8.3 μmol L(-1) for ACT and DCF, respectively, as well as an analytical frequency of 45 injections per hour were reached. Thus, the proposed device has shown potential to extend the use of microfluidic analytical devices, due to its simplicity, low cost and good analytical performance. PMID:26659997

  3. A facile and low-cost micro fabrication material: flash foam

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Xiao, Xiao; Wu, Yan; Fu, Jian-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Although many microfabrication methods have been reported, the preliminary replication templates used in most microfabrication still depend on the expensive and long-period photolithography. This paper explores an alternative replication templates based on a daily used material, flash foam (FF), and proposes a facile microfabrication method, flash foam stamp lithography (FFSL). When FF is exposed with a desired pattern mask, the negative of the pattern is transferred to its surface and micro structures are formed due to the shrinkage of the exposed area. As FF is commonly used in personal stamps, FFSL is very simple and cost-effective. In this paper, we demonstrated that FF is a good and low-cost template for many micro fabrication methods, such as micro casting and soft lithography. Thus, designing and fabricating micro structures at personal office immediately become possible with FFSL. Furthermore, we demonstrated that multi-scale micro structures can be easily fabricated by double exposure with FFSL. Skin textures is used as another case to demonstrate that FFSL can fabricate structures with different depth in a single exposure. As a result, FF shows a promising future in biology, and analytical chemistry, such as rapid fabrication of point of care diagnostics and microfluidic analytical devices with low cost. PMID:26314247

  4. Natural Iraqi palygorskite clay as low cost adsorbent for the treatment of dye containing industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nassir Taha, Dakhil; Sadi Samaka, Isra'a

    2012-01-01

    In this study, natural Iraqi low- cost locally available clay (palygorskite) was studied for its potential use as an adsorbent for removal Congo red from aqueous solutions. Batch type experiments were conducted to study the effect of contact time, initial pH of the dye solution, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, and particle size of adsorbent on adsorption capacity of Congo red. The adsorption occurred very fast initially and attains equilibrium within 60 min. When the effect of pH of solution dye on the yield adsorption has been carried in a range of 2-10, the adsorption obtained was nearly the same with very slightly effect of pH and it was reported that above 49.07 mg/g of Cong red by palygorskite clay occurred in the pH range 2 to 10. It was observed that the removal of Congo red increase with increasing initial dye concentration and adsorbent dose, but, adsorption capacity decrease with increasing adsorbent dose. The adsorption capacity increase with decreasing particle size of adsorbent. The equilibrium adsorption data were interpreted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The obtained results revealed that the equilibrium data closely followed both models, but the Langmuir isotherm fitted the data better. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 99 mg/g at ambient temperature. Results indicate that Iraqi palygorskite clay could be employed as a low cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of colour and dyes. PMID:23196874

  5. Low-cost formation of bulk and localized polymer-derived carbon nanodomains from polydimethylsiloxane

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Juan Carlos Castro; Cerda Zorrilla, Mariana; Cabriales, Lucia; Rossano, Luis Manuel León

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present two simple alternative methods to form polymer-derived carbon nanodomains in a controlled fashion and at low cost, using custom-made chemical vapour deposition and selective laser ablation with a commercial CD-DVD platform. Both processes presented shiny and dark residual materials after the polymer combustion and according to micro-Raman spectroscopy of the domains, graphitic nanocrystals and carbon nanotubes have successfully been produced by the combustion of polydimethylsiloxane layers. The fabrication processes and characterization of the byproduct materials are reported. We demonstrate that CVD led to bulk production of graphitic nanocrystals and single-walled carbon nanotubes while direct laser ablation may be employed for the formation of localized fluorescent nanodots. In the latter case, graphitic nanodomains and multi-wall carbon nanotubes are left inside microchannels and preliminary results seem to indicate that laser ablation could offer a tuning control of the nature and optical properties of the nanodomains that are left inside micropatterns with on-demand geometries. These low-cost methods look particularly promising for the formation of carbon nanoresidues with controlled properties and in applications where high integration is desired. PMID:25977844

  6. Development and programming of Geophonino: A low cost Arduino-based seismic recorder for vertical geophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler-Llorens, J. L.; Galiana-Merino, J. J.; Giner-Caturla, J.; Jauregui-Eslava, P.; Rosa-Cintas, S.; Rosa-Herranz, J.

    2016-09-01

    The commercial data acquisition systems used for seismic exploration are usually expensive equipment. In this work, a low cost data acquisition system (Geophonino) has been developed for recording seismic signals from a vertical geophone. The signal goes first through an instrumentation amplifier, INA155, which is suitable for low amplitude signals like the seismic noise, and an anti-aliasing filter based on the MAX7404 switched-capacitor filter. After that, the amplified and filtered signal is digitized and processed by Arduino Due and registered in an SD memory card. Geophonino is configured for continuous registering, where the sampling frequency, the amplitude gain and the registering time are user-defined. The complete prototype is an open source and open hardware system. It has been tested by comparing the registered signals with the ones obtained through different commercial data recording systems and different kind of geophones. The obtained results show good correlation between the tested measurements, presenting Geophonino as a low-cost alternative system for seismic data recording.

  7. Case studies: low cost, high-strength, large carbon foam tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.; Danford, H.

    2009-01-15

    A new carbon foam tooling system has been developed that results in a low-cost, high-strength material that has been proving attractive for creation of tooling for composite parts. Composites are stronger; lighter and less subject to corrosion and fatigue than materials that are currently used for fabrication of advanced structures. Tools to manufacture these composite parts must be rigid, durable and able to offer a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) closely matching that of the composites. Current technology makes it difficult to match the CTE of a composite part in the curing cycle with anything other than a carbon composite or a nickel iron alloy such as Invar. Fabrication of metallic tooling requires many, expensive stages of long duration with a large infrastructure investment. Card ban fiber reinforced polymer resin composite tooling has a shorter lead-time but limited production use because of durability concerns. Coal-based carbon foam material has a compatible CTE and strong durability, that make it an attractive alternative for use in tooling. The use of coal-based carbon foam in tooling for carbon composites is advantageous because of its low cost, light weight, machinability , vacuum integrity and compatibility with a wide range of curing processes. Large-scale tooling case studies will be presented detailing carbon foam's potential for tooling applications.

  8. Low Cost and Energy Efficient Methods for the Manufacture of Semi-Solid (SSM) Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Diran Apelian; Qingyue Pan; Makhlouf Makhlouf

    2005-11-07

    The SSM Consortium (now ACRC) at WPI has been carrying out fundamental, pre-competitive research in SSM for several years. Current and past research (at WPI) has generated many results of fundamental and applied nature, which are available to the SSM community. These include materials characterization, yield stress effects, alloy development, rheological properties, process modeling/simulation, semi-solid slurry formation, etc. Alternative method to produce SSM slurries at lower processing costs and with reduced energy consumption is a critical need. The production of low cost SSM feedstock will certainly lead to a dramatic increase in the tonnage of castings produced by SSM, and will provide end users such as the transportation industry, with lighter, cheaper and high performance materials. In this program, the research team has addressed three critical issues in semi-solid processing. They are: (1) Development of low cost, reliable slurry-on-demand approaches for semi-solid processing; (2) Application of the novel permanent grain refining technology-SiBloy for the manufacture of high-quality SSM feedstock, and (3) Development of computational and modeling tools for semi-solid processing to enhance SSM process control. Salient results from these studies are summarized and detailed in our final technical report.

  9. Low-cost formation of bulk and localized polymer-derived carbon nanodomains from polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Juan Carlos Castro; Cerda Zorrilla, Mariana; Cabriales, Lucia; Rossano, Luis Manuel León; Hautefeuille, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    We present two simple alternative methods to form polymer-derived carbon nanodomains in a controlled fashion and at low cost, using custom-made chemical vapour deposition and selective laser ablation with a commercial CD-DVD platform. Both processes presented shiny and dark residual materials after the polymer combustion and according to micro-Raman spectroscopy of the domains, graphitic nanocrystals and carbon nanotubes have successfully been produced by the combustion of polydimethylsiloxane layers. The fabrication processes and characterization of the byproduct materials are reported. We demonstrate that CVD led to bulk production of graphitic nanocrystals and single-walled carbon nanotubes while direct laser ablation may be employed for the formation of localized fluorescent nanodots. In the latter case, graphitic nanodomains and multi-wall carbon nanotubes are left inside microchannels and preliminary results seem to indicate that laser ablation could offer a tuning control of the nature and optical properties of the nanodomains that are left inside micropatterns with on-demand geometries. These low-cost methods look particularly promising for the formation of carbon nanoresidues with controlled properties and in applications where high integration is desired. PMID:25977844

  10. Low-cost EOD robot using off-the-shelf parts: revisions and performance testing results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czop, Andrew; Hacker, Kurt; Murphy, James; Zimmerman, Todd

    2006-05-01

    With the large number of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) being encountered during recent military operations, there exists a need for Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) mobile robots. These robots are predominately used for surveillance and neutralization of these explosive threats from a safe distance. The nature of the mission means that these vehicles are prone to being damaged or destroyed. Current commercially available systems, although capable of performing the mission, are costly and in too short of supply to be lost or damaged in large numbers. At last year's SPIE conference the NAVEODTECHDIV proposed an alternative: a low cost, mobile robot which used commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and was tailored to the types of missions that EOD soldiers commonly perform. The prototype of this low-cost robot, the RAMBOT (Readily Available Maintainable Robot), has been continuously improved over the past year. There have been significant improvements to the original design in the areas of communication, manipulation, and electronics. The result of this work is a final prototype design, which is currently undergoing extensive testing to characterize its capabilities. Some of these tests include vehicle characteristics such as vehicle speed and mobility, vehicle weight and size, as well as maximum effective communication range, susceptibility to temperature, manipulator load limitations, and battery longevity. This conference paper will present the design changes to the robot and fully report on the results from the test series conducted thus far.

  11. Red Dragon: Low-cost Access to the Surface of Mars using Commercial Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, John; Davis, S. M.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Allen, G. A.; Bakhtian, N. M.; Dyakonov, A. A.; Edquist, K. T.; Glass, B. J.; Gonzales, A. A.; Heldmann, J. L.; Lemke, L. G.; Marinova, M. M.; McKay, C. P.; Stoker, C. R.; Wooster, P. D.; Zarchi, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    We will discuss the feasibility of using a minimally-modified variant of a SpaceX Dragon capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander for scientific and human-precursor missions. We have been evaluating such a Red Dragon platform as an option for a Discovery Program mission concept. A Red Dragon lander has the potential to be low cost primarily because it would be derived from a routinely-flying spacecraft. Dragon is being developed to ferry cargo and crew to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The cargo variant is currently undergoing test flights, which will be followed by standard ISS cargo missions and, eventually, crewed flights. The human variant, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, appears to also have most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant Super- Draco engines integrated directly into the capsule which are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters suggest the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface. Concepts for large, human-relevant landers (see, e.g., [1]) also often employ supersonic retro-propulsion; Red Dragon's entry, descent, and landing approach would scale to those landers. Further, SpaceX's Falcon Heavy launch vehicle, currently under development and expected to have its first flight in 2013, will be capable of sending Dragon on a trajectory to Mars. We will discuss our motivation for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the primary technical questions which determine its feasibility, and the current results of our analysis. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface.

  12. Sorption of mercury onto waste material derived low-cost activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Jatindra N.; Rana, Sukanta; Lahiri, Susmita; Munekage, Yukihiro

    2014-11-01

    The present study was performed to develop the low-cost activated carbon (AC) from some waste materials as potential mercury (Hg) sorbent to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. The ACs were prepared from banana peel, orange peel, cotton fiber and paper wastes by pyrolysis and characterized by analyzing physico-chemical properties and Hg sorption capacity. The Brunauer Emmett and Teller surface areas (cotton 138 m2/g; paper 119 m2/g), micropore surface areas (cotton 65 m2/g; paper 54 m2/g) and major constituent carbon contents (cotton 95.04 %; paper 94.4 %) were higher in ACs of cotton fiber and paper wastes than the rest two ACs. The Hg sorption capacities and removal percentages were greater in cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs compared to those of the banana and orange peels. The results revealed that elevated Hg removal ability of cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs is largely regulated by their surface area, porosity and carbon content properties. Therefore, ACs of cotton and paper wastes were identified as potential sorbent among four developed ACs to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. Furthermore, easily accessible precursor material, simple preparation process, favorable physico-chemical properties and high Hg sorption capacity indicated that cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs could be used as potential and low-cost sorbents of Hg for applying in practical field to control the severe effect of Hg contamination in the aquatic environment to avoid its human and environmental health risks.

  13. Broad substrate specificity of phosphotransbutyrylase from Listeria monocytogenes: A potential participant in an alternative pathway for provision of acyl CoA precursors for fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sirobhushanam, Sirisha; Galva, Charitha; Sen, Suranjana; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gatto, Craig

    2016-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative organism of the serious food-borne disease listeriosis, has a membrane abundant in branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs). BCFAs are normally biosynthesized from branched-chain amino acids via the activity of branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (Bkd), and disruption of this pathway results in reduced BCFA content in the membrane. Short branched-chain carboxylic acids (BCCAs) added as media supplements result in incorporation of BCFAs arising from the supplemented BCCAs in the membrane of L. monocytogenes bkd mutant MOR401. High concentrations of the supplements also effect similar changes in the membrane of the wild type organism with intact bkd. Such carboxylic acids clearly act as fatty acid precursors, and there must be an alternative pathway resulting in the formation of their CoA thioester derivatives. Candidates for this are the enzymes phosphotransbutyrylase (Ptb) and butyrate kinase (Buk), the products of the first two genes of the bkd operon. Ptb from L. monocytogenes exhibited broad substrate specificity, a strong preference for branched-chain substrates, a lack of activity with acetyl CoA and hexanoyl CoA, and strict chain length preference (C3-C5). Ptb catalysis involved ternary complex formation. Additionally, Ptb could utilize unnatural branched-chain substrates such as 2-ethylbutyryl CoA, albeit with lower efficiency, consistent with a potential involvement of this enzyme in the conversion of the carboxylic acid additives into CoA primers for BCFA biosynthesis. PMID:27320015

  14. A portable low-cost long-term live-cell imaging platform for biomedical research and education.

    PubMed

    Walzik, Maria P; Vollmar, Verena; Lachnit, Theresa; Dietz, Helmut; Haug, Susanne; Bachmann, Holger; Fath, Moritz; Aschenbrenner, Daniel; Abolpour Mofrad, Sepideh; Friedrich, Oliver; Gilbert, Daniel F

    2015-02-15

    Time-resolved visualization and analysis of slow dynamic processes in living cells has revolutionized many aspects of in vitro cellular studies. However, existing technology applied to time-resolved live-cell microscopy is often immobile, costly and requires a high level of skill to use and maintain. These factors limit its utility to field research and educational purposes. The recent availability of rapid prototyping technology makes it possible to quickly and easily engineer purpose-built alternatives to conventional research infrastructure which are low-cost and user-friendly. In this paper we describe the prototype of a fully automated low-cost, portable live-cell imaging system for time-resolved label-free visualization of dynamic processes in living cells. The device is light-weight (3.6 kg), small (22 × 22 × 22 cm) and extremely low-cost (<€1250). We demonstrate its potential for biomedical use by long-term imaging of recombinant HEK293 cells at varying culture conditions and validate its ability to generate time-resolved data of high quality allowing for analysis of time-dependent processes in living cells. While this work focuses on long-term imaging of mammalian cells, the presented technology could also be adapted for use with other biological specimen and provides a general example of rapidly prototyped low-cost biosensor technology for application in life sciences and education. PMID:25441413

  15. Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Jason; Ritenour, Andrew; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2013-04-29

    Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source GaAs is an attractive material for thin-film photovoltaic applications, but is not widely used for terrestrial power generation due to the high cost of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques typically used for growth. Close space vapor transport is an alternative that allows for rapid growth rates of III-V materials, and does not rely on the toxic and pyrophoric precursors used in MOCVD. We characterize CSVT films of GaAs using photoelectrochemical current-voltage and quantum efficiency measurements. Hole diffusion lengths which exceed 1.5 um are extracted from internal quantum efficiency measurements using the Gartner model. Device physics simulations suggest that solar cells based on these films could reach efficiencies exceeding 24 %. To reach this goal, a more complete understanding of the electrical properties and characterization of defects will be necessary, including measurements on complete solid-state devices. Doping of films is achieved by using source material containing the desired impurity (e.g., Te or Zn). We discuss strategies for growing III-V materials on inexpensive substrates that are not lattice-matched to GaAs.

  16. Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

    2013-08-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight

  17. AIRQino, a low-cost air quality mobile platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaldei, Alessandro; Vagnoli, Carolina; Di Lonardo, Sara; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Martelli, Francesca; Matese, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Recent air quality regulations (Directive 2008/50/EC) enforce the transition from point-based monitoring networks to new tools that must be capable of mapping and forecasting air quality on the totality of land area, and therefore the totality of citizens. This implies new technologies such as models and additional indicative measurements, are needed in addition to accurate fixed air quality monitoring stations, that until now have been taken as reference by local administrators for the enforcement of various mitigation strategies. However, due to their sporadic spatial distribution, they cannot describe the highly resolved spatial pollutant variations within cities. Integrating additional indicative measurements may provide adequate information on the spatial distribution of the ambient air quality, also allowing for a reduction of the required minimum number of fixed sampling points, whose high cost and complex maintenance still remain a crucial concern for local administrators. New low-cost and small size sensors are becoming available, that could be employed in air quality monitoring including mobile applications. However, accurate assessment of their accuracy and performance both in controlled and real monitoring conditions is crucially needed. Quantifying sensor response is a significant challenge due to the sensitivity to ambient temperature and humidity and the cross-sensitivity to others pollutant species. This study reports the development of an Arduino compatible electronic board (AIRQino) which integrates a series of low-cost metal oxide and NDIR sensors for air quality monitoring, with sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, noise, solar radiation and vertical acceleration. A comparative assessment was made for CO2, CO, NO2, CH4, O3, VOCs concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. A controlled climatic chamber study (-80°C / +80°C) was performed to verify temperature and humidity interference using reference gas cylinders and

  18. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully

  19. Orbital Observatory for Planetary Science on Low Cost Autonomous Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavrov, Alexander; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Vedenkin, Nikolay; Korablev, Oleg; Markov, Alexander; Kiselev, Alexander; Kokorich, Mikhail

    The Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science (IKI RAS) and Dauria Aerospace are currently developing the middle class space telescope project aiming to observe Solar system planets by a long term spectroscopy and polarimetry monitoring, as well aiming to extra solar planets (exoplanets) engineering and scientific goals. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in 2017. It is planned first to be delivered on board of the ISS by the Progress spacecraft, then it will be released to the desired orbit approx. 550 km by the Progress in the way to its final destination. The “Planetary monitoring” telescope has a 0.6 meter primary mirror diameter Telescope currently includes 5 science instruments: NIR: 1000..4000 nm high-resolution spectrometer with the spectral resolution of R>10000; Visible Field camera with filters wheel; UV-VIS field resolved Fourier spectrometer; UV-VIS spectropolarimeter; Stellar coronagraph linked with a low-resolution spectrometer. The scientific goals of the “Planetary monitoring” telescope are devoted to explore not yet well studied questions on Mars (methane, ozone, dust and clouds, isotope ratio of HDO/H2O), on Venus (UV absorber, night glow, atmosphere dynamics), icy and gaseous Solar system planets, Jovian moons, Lunar exosphere, comets, meteorites. This telescope aims also for engineering development of exoplanet study by stellar coronagraphy linked with a low-resolution spectrometry. This Orbital Observatory mission uses the first low cost small satellite platform developed by the Dauria Aerospace® - Russian private company and reuses the Progress to elevate the observatory orbit. The Progress launches four times per year to provide supplies and scientific instruments to the ISS. The Progress is capable of raising the height of the orbit for the piggyback scientific missions; therefore, the implementation of the Orbital Observatory mission is considered not just as a development of a successful science mission so it

  20. Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2008-04-02

    Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic

  1. Reliability Assessment for Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Paul Michael

    Existing low-cost unmanned aerospace systems are unreliable, and engineers must blend reliability analysis with fault-tolerant control in novel ways. This dissertation introduces the University of Minnesota unmanned aerial vehicle flight research platform, a comprehensive simulation and flight test facility for reliability and fault-tolerance research. An industry-standard reliability assessment technique, the failure modes and effects analysis, is performed for an unmanned aircraft. Particular attention is afforded to the control surface and servo-actuation subsystem. Maintaining effector health is essential for safe flight; failures may lead to loss of control incidents. Failure likelihood, severity, and risk are qualitatively assessed for several effector failure modes. Design changes are recommended to improve aircraft reliability based on this analysis. Most notably, the control surfaces are split, providing independent actuation and dual-redundancy. The simulation models for control surface aerodynamic effects are updated to reflect the split surfaces using a first-principles geometric analysis. The failure modes and effects analysis is extended by using a high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft simulation. A trim state discovery is performed to identify the achievable steady, wings-level flight envelope of the healthy and damaged vehicle. Tolerance of elevator actuator failures is studied using familiar tools from linear systems analysis. This analysis reveals significant inherent performance limitations for candidate adaptive/reconfigurable control algorithms used for the vehicle. Moreover, it demonstrates how these tools can be applied in a design feedback loop to make safety-critical unmanned systems more reliable. Control surface impairments that do occur must be quickly and accurately detected. This dissertation also considers fault detection and identification for an unmanned aerial vehicle using model-based and model-free approaches and applies those

  2. The Aluminum Falcon: a Low Cost Modern Commercial Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Mark; Hernandez, Estela; King, Gregory; Lor, Alex Choua; Musser, Jana; Trigs, Deanne; Yee, Susan

    1994-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) released a Request For Proposal (RFP) in the form of an undergraduate design competition for a 153 passenger jet transport with a range of 3,000 nautical miles. The primary requirement for this aircraft was low cost, both in acquisition and operation, with a technology availability date of the year 2000. This report presents the Non-Solo Design Group's response to the RFP, the Aluminum Falcon (AF-1). Non-Solo's approach to development was to take the best elements of seven individual preliminary designs, then combine and refine them. The resulting aircraft meets or exceeds all requirements of both the RFP and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Highlights include a revolutionary wing planform, known as an M-wing, which offers many advantages over a conventional aft swept wing. For example, the M-wing lessens the travel in the aircraft center of gravity caused by fuel being stored in the wing. It also reduces the amount of torque imposed on the center wing box because more of the lifting load acts near the fuselage joint, rather than behind it. In essence, the M-wing offers the best of both worlds: using a forward swept wing root places the aerodynamic center of the wing further forward and allows the landing gear to be placed without the use of a yahudi. At the same time, with the outboard section swept backward the tip retains an amount of aeroelastic dampening that is lost on a completely forward swept wing. The result is a wing which has many advantages of a straight, unswept wings without the severe compressibility effects at high Mach numbers. Other highlights include judicious use of composites, giving recognition to the importance of weight and its effect on aircraft cost and performance, and an advanced passenger entertainment system which can be used as a source of revenue for the airlines. This aircraft meets the low-cost doctrine with an acquisition cost of $29 million and a direct

  3. Low Cost Fabrication of 2G Wires for AC Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kodenkandath, T.; List, F.A., III

    2005-09-15

    Ink-jet printing has been demonstrated as an adaptable technology for printing YBCO filaments using a Metal Organic (MO) YBCO precursor. The technology was demonstrated using AMSC's proprietary metal organic TFA-based YBCO precursor and a commercial piezoelectric print-head on RABiTS templates. Filaments with a width of 100 um and spacing of 200 um were successfully printed, decomposed and processed to YBCO. Critical currents of {approx} 200 A/cm-w were achieved in a series of filaments with a 2 mm width. The single nozzle laboratory printer used in the Phase 1 program is capable of printing {approx} 100 um wide single filaments at a rate of 8-10 cm/sec. The electrical stabilization of filaments with a Ag ink was also evaluated using ink-jet printing. The overall objective of the Phase 1 Project was the evaluation and demonstration of inkjet-printing for depositing YBCO filaments on textured templates (RABiTS, IBAD, ISD, etc. substrates) with properties appropriate for low loss ac conductors. Goals of the Phase 1 program included development of an appropriate precursor ink, demonstration of the printing process, processing and characterization of printed YBCO filaments and evaluation of the process for further development.

  4. A low-cost efficient and durable low-temperature solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odonnell, T. P.

    The considered collector utilizes a material made of ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (EPDM). This material has been used in solar systems to heat domestic water, pools, spas, and homes by radiant energy. EPDM or ethylene propylene rubber compounds are synthetic elastomers. EPDM elastomers combine superior ozone, good heat and oxygen resistance, and very good low temperature properties to produce a compound with excellent overall age resistance. The material is extruded into 4.4 inch wide mats. Each mat has six small tubes alternating with thin webbing. The absorber mat will adhere to any clean building surface with the use of thermosetting construction-grade mastic adhesive. Carbon black contained in the mat material acts to increase the solar absorptivity. Their low cost makes the elastomers commercially very attractive. The efficiency and durability of the material are discussed.

  5. Investigation of low-cost ablative heat shield fabrication for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, H. H.

    1972-01-01

    Improvements in the processes and design to reduce the manufacturing costs for low density ablative panels for the space shuttle are discussed. The areas that were studied included methods of loading honeycomb core, alternative reinforcement concepts, and the use of reusable subpanels. A review of previous studies on the fabrication of low-cost ablative panels and on permissible defects that do not affect thermal performance was conducted. Considerable differences in the quoted prices for ablative panels, even though the various contractors had reported similar fabrication times were discovered. How these cost differences arise from different estimating criteria and which estimating assumptions and other costs must be included in order to arrive at a realistic price are discussed.

  6. Ink jet assisted metallization for low cost flat plate solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, K. F.; Vest, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Computer-controlled ink-jet-assisted metallization of the front surface of solar cells with metalorganic silver inks offers a maskless alternative method to conventional photolithography and screen printing. This method can provide low cost, fine resolution, reduced process complexity, avoidance of degradation of the p-n junction by firing at lower temperature, and uniform line film on rough surface of solar cells. The metallization process involves belt furnace firing and thermal spiking. With multilayer ink jet printing and firing, solar cells of about 5-6 percent efficiency without antireflection (AR) coating can be produced. With a titanium thin-film underlayer as an adhesion promoter, solar cells of average efficiency 8.08 percent without AR coating can be obtained. This efficiency value is approximately equal to that of thin-film solar cells of the same lot. Problems with regard to lower inorganic content of the inks and contact resistance are noted.

  7. A low-cost, Nist-traceable, high performance dielectric resonator Master Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Doolittle; C. Hovater; L. Merminga; J. Musson; W. Wiseman

    1999-05-01

    The current CEBAF Master Oscillator (MO) uses a quartz-based 10 MHz reference to synthesize 70 MHz and 499 MHz, which are then distributed to each of the klystron galleries on site. Due to the specialized nature of CEBAF's MO requirements, it has been determined that an in-house design and fabrication would provide a cost-effective alternative to purchasing or modifying vendor equipment. A Global Positioning System (GPS) disciplined, Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) based MO is proposed which incorporates low-cost consumer RF components, designed for cellular communications. A 499 MHz Dielectric Resonant Oscillator (DRO) Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is phase-locked to a GPS-disciplined 10 MHz reference, and micro-tuned via a DDS, in an effort to achieve the lowest phase noise possible.

  8. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H. Felix

    2015-01-01

    The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system’s functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements. PMID:26404270

  9. Multi-100kW: Planar low cost solar array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Seven low cost multi-100 kW planar solar array modules were fabricated and tested. Two different designs were used, demonstrating advanced solar array construction practices. Both module types utilized second generation gridded back cells featuring high efficiency and IR transparency. A silicon dioxide AR coating optimized for transmission at gamma = 1.7 microns was applied to the back surface. Two interconnect types, a single sheet printed circuit and a roll type, with alternate approaches to increasing transparency and reducing cost were designed and fabricated. Hinge stress and electrical power optimization were also examined. Two point designs were studied. The first design used a coilage longeron mast and is autonomously deployable. The second design used a Stac Beam for high natural frequency response and required astronaut assistance and assembly on orbit. It was conclusively demonstrated that planar arrays are the most cost effective design for use on the space station or other high power applications.

  10. Development of a Low Cost Assistive Listening System for Hearing-Impaired Student Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Pan-ngum, Setha; Soonrach, Tharapong; Seesutas, Sangvorn; Noymai, Anukool

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and tests of a low cost ALS. It was designed for hearing-impaired student classrooms. It utilised digital wireless technology and was aimed to be an alternative to a popular FM ALS. Key specifications include transmitting in 2.4 GHz ISM band with eight selectable transmission channels, battery operated and chargeable, pocket size, and ranged up to thirty metres. Audio characteristics and user tests show that it is comparable to a commercial system, currently employed in our partner school. The results also show that wearing an ALS clearly improves hearing of hearing-impaired students. Long-term usage by school children will be monitored to evaluate the system robustness and durability. PMID:23766709

  11. Development of a low cost assistive listening system for hearing-impaired student classroom.

    PubMed

    Pan-ngum, Setha; Soonrach, Tharapong; Seesutas, Sangvorn; Noymai, Anukool; Israsena, Pasin

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and tests of a low cost ALS. It was designed for hearing-impaired student classrooms. It utilised digital wireless technology and was aimed to be an alternative to a popular FM ALS. Key specifications include transmitting in 2.4 GHz ISM band with eight selectable transmission channels, battery operated and chargeable, pocket size, and ranged up to thirty metres. Audio characteristics and user tests show that it is comparable to a commercial system, currently employed in our partner school. The results also show that wearing an ALS clearly improves hearing of hearing-impaired students. Long-term usage by school children will be monitored to evaluate the system robustness and durability. PMID:23766709

  12. Sources and Transportation of Bulk, Low-Cost Lunar Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has built the Lunar Surface Testbed using 200 tons of volcanic cinder and ash from the same source used for the simulant series JSC-1. This Technical Memorandum examines the alternatives examined for transportation and source. The cost of low-cost lunar simulant is driven by the cost of transportation, which is controlled by distance and, to a lesser extent, quantity. Metabasalts in the eastern United States were evaluated due to their proximity to MSFC. Volcanic cinder deposits in New Mexico, Colorado, and Arizona were recognized as preferred sources. In addition to having fewer green, secondary minerals, they contain vesicular glass, both of which are desirable. Transportation costs were more than 90% of the total procurement costs for the simulant material.

  13. Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, K. S.; Ramesh, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Color removal from wastewater has been a matter of concern, both in the aesthetic sense and health point of view. Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.

  14. RTS-ROV operated tie-in system for low cost subsea developments

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, P.O.

    1995-12-31

    A new type pull-in and connection system is developed for very deep waters. The system is called ROV-operated Tie-in System (RTS). Main objectives during the development phase was to make a tool system more or less independent of water depth, use of simple low cost installation vessels, minimum equipment left subsea, minimum support structure sizes, simple control system, various launching methods possible and use of field proven clamp hub and seal assemblies. The result has been a very cost effective tie-in system which is a key factor for reduction of total field development costs. The capacity for the tool is 10 inch 3,000 psi flexible flow lines or alternatively 9 inch 5,000 psi. The RTS replaces divers during tie-in operations and can be used down to at least 1500 m water depth.

  15. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys.

    PubMed

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H Felix

    2015-01-01

    The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system's functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements. PMID:26404270

  16. Low-Cost, Lightweight Pressure Vessel Proof Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanez, Eric

    This experiment seeks to determine the burst strength of the low-cost, lightweight pressure vessel fabricated by the Suborbital Center of Excellence (SCE). Moreover, the test explores the effects of relatively large gage pressures on material strain for ‘pumpkin-shaped' pressure vessels. The SCE team used pressure transducers and analog gauges to measure the gage pressure while a video camera assembly recorded several gores in the shell for strain analysis. The team loaded the vessel in small intervals of pressure until the structure failed. Upon test completion, the pressure readings and video recordings were analyzed to determine the burst strength and material strain in the shell. The analysis yielded a burst pressure of 13.5 psi while the strain analysis reported in the shell. While the results of this proof test are encouraging, the structure's factor of safety must be increased for actual balloon flights. Furthermore, the pressure vessel prototype must be subjected to reliability tests to show the design can sustain gage pressures for the length of a balloon flight.

  17. Low-cost, multiplexed biosensor for disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myatt, Christopher J.; Delaney, Marie; Todorof, Kathryn; Heil, James; Givens, Monique; Schooley, Robert T.; Lochhead, Michael J.

    2009-02-01

    Cost-effective disease diagnosis in resource-limited settings remains a critical global health challenge. Qualitative rapid tests based on lateral flow technology provide valuable screening information, but require relatively expensive confirmatory tests and generally lack quantitation. We report on a fluorescence technology that combines low cost instrumented readout with passive pumping in a disposable cartridge. The detection system utilizes a novel waveguide illumination approach in conjunction with commercial CMOS imagers. Total instrument cost in production are projected to be around $100 This cost structure and instrument ease of use will enable use in point-of-care settings, outside of centralized laboratories. The system has been used for detection and analysis of proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cells. Here we will report first on our development of a multiplexed, array-based serology assay for HIV and common AIDS co-infections. Data will be presented for HIV/HCV antibody testing in human serum samples. In addition, we will present data on the use of the system for sensitive detection of bacterial RNA. Current detection limit for the model multiplexed RNA sandwich assay is 1 femtomolar target RNA. Finally, a high magnification version of the system is used to image immunostained human T cells.

  18. A Low-Cost Device for Automatic Photometric Titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Fábio R. P.; Reis, Boaventura F.

    2000-02-01

    Electronics is an important topic in chemistry courses. However, the introduction of basic concepts is often difficult and the lab instruments are frequently seen as "black boxes". To address this problem, we propose the construction of a simple, low-cost (about $150 U.S.) automatic photometric titrator employing a light-emitting diode (LED) and a phototransistor. The electronic circuit can be assembled by the students themselves. The device was employed to implement a common procedure in chemical labs, making feasible the introduction of concepts related to electronics in undergraduate chemistry courses. The titrator is able to work automatically, since a feedback system permits stopping the addition of titrant solution when the end-point is achieved. With this demonstration, it can be stressed that automatic procedures can be implemented without expensive instruments. Additionally, a classical procedure becomes more attractive to the students and its importance to chemical analysis can be emphasized. The feasibility of the titrator was demonstrated by acid-base titrations of HCl solutions with NaOH in the presence of phenolphthalein and by iodimetric determination of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and lemon juice. Precise results (0.7% relative standard deviation, n = 10) in agreement at the 95% confidence level with those attained by a conventional procedure were obtained.

  19. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Heath, B.; Fujii, M.

    1983-01-01

    The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low cost nonproprietary method for producing single crystal (SC) castings. Casting yields were lower than expected, on the order of 20 percent, but it is felt that the casting yield could be significantly improved with minor modifications to the process. Single crystal Mar-M 247 and two derivative SC alloys were developed. NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3 were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC Mar-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) Mar-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. The 1000 hr/238 MPa (20 ksi) stress rupture capability compared to DS Mar-M 247 was improved over 28 C. Firtree testing, holography, and strain gauge rig testing were used to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single crystal materials. In general, the single crystal material behaved similarly to DS Mar-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined.

  20. Low cost split stirling cryogenic cooler for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Zechtzer, Semeon; Pundak, Nachman; Riabzev, Sergey; Kirckconnel, C.; Freeman, Jeremy

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic coolers are used in association with sensitive electronics and sensors for military, commercial or scientific space payloads. The general requirements are high reliability and power efficiency, low vibration export and ability to survive launch vibration extremes and long-term exposure to space radiation. A long standing paradigm of using exclusively space heritage derivatives of legendary "Oxford" cryocoolers featuring linear actuators, flexural bearings, contactless seals and active vibration cancellation is so far the best known practice aiming at delivering high reliability components for the critical and usually expensive space missions. The recent tendency of developing mini and micro satellites for the budget constrained missions has spurred attempts to adapt leading-edge tactical cryogenic coolers to meet the space requirements. The authors are disclosing theoretical and practical aspects of a collaborative effort on developing a space qualified cryogenic refrigerator based on the Ricor model K527 tactical cooler and Iris Technology radiation hardened, low cost cryocooler electronics. The initially targeted applications are cost-sensitive flight experiments, but should the results show promise, some long-life "traditional" cryocooler missions may well be satisfied by this approach.

  1. Adapting smartphones for low-cost optical medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Vollet-Filho, José D.; Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Blanco, Kate; Inada, Natalia M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Optical images have been used in several medical situations to improve diagnosis of lesions or to monitor treatments. However, most systems employ expensive scientific (CCD or CMOS) cameras and need computers to display and save the images, usually resulting in a high final cost for the system. Additionally, this sort of apparatus operation usually becomes more complex, requiring more and more specialized technical knowledge from the operator. Currently, the number of people using smartphone-like devices with built-in high quality cameras is increasing, which might allow using such devices as an efficient, lower cost, portable imaging system for medical applications. Thus, we aim to develop methods of adaptation of those devices to optical medical imaging techniques, such as fluorescence. Particularly, smartphones covers were adapted to connect a smartphone-like device to widefield fluorescence imaging systems. These systems were used to detect lesions in different tissues, such as cervix and mouth/throat mucosa, and to monitor ALA-induced protoporphyrin-IX formation for photodynamic treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. This approach may contribute significantly to low-cost, portable and simple clinical optical imaging collection.

  2. Assessment of a Low-Cost Ultrasound Pericardiocentesis Model

    PubMed Central

    Campo dell'Orto, Marco; Hempel, Dorothea; Starzetz, Agnieszka; Seibel, Armin; Hannemann, Ulf; Walcher, Felix; Breitkreutz, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The use of ultrasound during resuscitation is emphasized in the latest European resuscitation council guidelines of 2013 to identify treatable conditions such as pericardial tamponade. The recommended standard treatment of tamponade in various guidelines is pericardiocentesis. As ultrasound guidance lowers the complication rates and increases the patient's safety, pericardiocentesis should be performed under ultrasound guidance. Acute care physicians actually need to train emergency pericardiocentesis. Methods. We describe in detail a pericardiocentesis ultrasound model, using materials at a cost of about 60 euros. During training courses of focused echocardiography n = 67, participants tested the phantom and completed a 16-item questionnaire, assessing the model using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results. Eleven of fourteen questions were answered with a mean VAS score higher than 60% and thus regarded as showing the strengths of the model. Unrealistically outer appearance and heart shape were rated as weakness of the model. A total mean VAS score of all questions of 63% showed that participants gained confidence for further interventions. Conclusions. Our low-cost pericardiocentesis model, which can be easily constructed, may serve as an effective training tool of ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis for acute and critical care physicians. PMID:24288616

  3. A Low Cost Weather Balloon Borne Solar Cell Calibration Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, David B.; Wolford, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Calibration of standard sets of solar cell sub-cells is an important step to laboratory verification of on-orbit performance of new solar cell technologies. This paper, looks at the potential capabilities of a lightweight weather balloon payload for solar cell calibration. A 1500 gr latex weather balloon can lift a 2.7 kg payload to over 100,000 ft altitude, above 99% of the atmosphere. Data taken between atmospheric pressures of about 30 to 15 mbar may be extrapolated via the Langley Plot method to 0 mbar, i.e. AMO. This extrapolation, in principle, can have better than 0.1 % error. The launch costs of such a payload arc significantly less than the much larger, higher altitude balloons, or the manned flight facility. The low cost enables a risk tolerant approach to payload development. Demonstration of 1% standard deviation flight-to-flight variation is the goal of this project. This paper describes the initial concept of solar cell calibration payload, and reports initial test flight results. .

  4. Development of metamaterial based low cost passive wireless temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Hasanul; Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaq; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong; Choudhuri, Ahsan; Rumpf, R. C.

    2014-03-01

    Wireless passive temperature sensors are gaining increasing attention due to the ever-growing need of precise monitoring of temperature in high temperature energy conversion systems such as gas turbines and coal-based power plants. Unfortunately, the harsh environment such as high temperature and corrosive atmosphere present in these systems limits current solutions. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper presents the design, simulation, and manufacturing process of a low cost, passive, and wireless temperature sensor that can withstand high temperature and harsh environment. The temperature sensor was designed following the principle of metamaterials by utilizing Closed Ring Resonators (CRR) embedded in a dielectric matrix. The proposed wireless, passive temperature sensor behaves like an LC circuit that has a resonance frequency that depends on temperature. A full wave electromagnetic solver Ansys Ansoft HFSS was used to perform simulations to determine the optimum dimensions and geometry of the sensor unit. The sensor unit was prepared by conventional powder-binder compression method. Commercially available metal washers were used as CRR structures and Barium Titanate (BTO) was used as the dielectric materials. Response of the fabricated sensor at room temperature was analyzed using a pair of horn antenna connected with a network analyzer.

  5. Development of low cost composite plates for humanitarian demining operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabet, L.; Scheppers, J.; Verpoest, I.; Pirlot, M.; Desmet, B.; Gilson, L.; Pirard, P.

    2006-08-01

    Composite plates using flax fabrics and maleic anhydride modified polypropylene were fabricated on laboratory scale. The aim of the current research was to develop a low cost composite plate or a hybrid structure based on those plates and steel sheet, for making humanitarian demining clothes protecting against secondary fragmentation caused by anti-personnel blast mines. Ballistic impact tests according to STANAG 2920 were carried out for determining the v{50}-limit. So called field tests were performed by means of simulated anti-personnel mines using M112 explosive; the repeatability and the spatial distribution of the projected fragments were checked before fixing the final experimental setup. The performance of the bare composite plate was compared with the hybrid structures in terms of v{50} and in terms of damage mechanisms. All tested configurations performed amazingly well during the field tests, which was not the case for the ballistic impact tests. This led to the conclusion that v{50} might not be the best criterion to characterize protective clothing. This conclusion is sustained by energetic considerations and by field tests on plates with half the thickness of the initial plates.

  6. Calibration of Low Cost RGB and NIR Uav Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Grochala, A.; Braula, A.

    2016-06-01

    Non-metric digital cameras are being widely used for photogrammetric studies. The increase in resolution and quality of images obtained by non-metric cameras, allows to use it in low-cost UAV and terrestrial photogrammetry. Imagery acquired with non-metric cameras can be used in 3D modeling of objects or landscapes, reconstructing of historical sites, generating digital elevation models (DTM), orthophotos, or in the assessment of accidents. Non-metric digital camcorders are characterized by instability and ignorance of the interior orientation parameters. Therefore, the use of these devices requires prior calibration. Calibration research was conducted using non-metric camera, different calibration tests and various software. The first part of the paper contains a brief theoretical introduction including the basic definitions, like the construction of non-metric cameras or description of different optical distortions. The second part of the paper contains cameras calibration process, details of the calibration methods and models that have been used. Sony Nex 5 camera calibration has been done using software: Image Master Calib, Matlab - Camera Calibrator application and Agisoft Lens. For the study 2D test fields has been used. As a part of the research a comparative analysis of the results have been done.

  7. Low cost mobile explosive/drug detection devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, T.; Bendahan, J.

    1999-06-01

    Inspection technologies based on Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA®) and/or Fast Neutron Analysis (FNA) are the basis for relatively compact and low-cost, material-sensitive devices for a wide variety of inspection needs. The TNA allows the use of either isotropic neutron sources such as a 252Cf, or electronic neutron generators such as the d-T sealed neutron generator tubes. The latter could be used in a steady state mode or in slow (>μs) pulsing mode, to separate the thermal neutron capture signatures following the pulse from the combination of the FNA plus TNA signatures during the pulse. Over the years, Ancore Corporation has built and is continuing to develop a variety of inspection devices based on its TNA and FNA technologies: SPEDS—an explosive detection device for small parcels, portable electronics, briefcases and other similar carry-on items; MDS—a system for the detection or confirmation of buried mines; VEDS—a system for the detection of varied amounts of explosives and/or drugs concealed in passenger vehicles, pallets, lightly loaded trucks or containers, etc.; ACD—a device to clear alarms from a primary, non-specific explosive detection system for passenger luggage. The principle and performance of these devices will be shown and discussed.

  8. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass with Low-cost Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Gschwend, Florence J V; Brandt, Agnieszka; Chambon, Clementine L; Tu, Wei-Chien; Weigand, Lisa; Hallett, Jason P

    2016-01-01

    A number of ionic liquids (ILs) with economically attractive production costs have recently received growing interest as media for the delignification of a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Here we demonstrate the use of these low-cost protic ILs in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass (Ionosolv pretreatment), yielding cellulose and a purified lignin. In the most generic process, the protic ionic liquid is synthesized by accurate combination of aqueous acid and amine base. The water content is adjusted subsequently. For the delignification, the biomass is placed into a vessel with IL solution at elevated temperatures to dissolve the lignin and hemicellulose, leaving a cellulose-rich pulp ready for saccharification (hydrolysis to fermentable sugars). The lignin is later precipitated from the IL by the addition of water and recovered as a solid. The removal of the added water regenerates the ionic liquid, which can be reused multiple times. This protocol is useful to investigate the significant potential of protic ILs for use in commercial biomass pretreatment/lignin fractionation for producing biofuels or renewable chemicals and materials. PMID:27583830

  9. Low-cost automated fiber pigtailing machine. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, O.T.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this 2-year ARPA-funded project was to design and build 3 low-cost machines to perform sub-micron alignment and attachments of single-mode fibers to different OE devices. These Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machines (AFPMs) are intended to be compatible with a manufacturing environment and have a modular design for maximum flexibility and standardization of parts. Machine vision enables the AFPM to perform sufficient alignment to couple light for maximization. This work was a collaboration among Uniphase Telecommunications Products (formerly United Technologies Photonics, UTP), Ortel, Newport/Klinger, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Manufacturing Institute (MIT), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). UTP and Ortel are the industrial partners for whom two of the AFPMs were built. MIT and LLNL made up the design and assembly team of the project, while Newport/Klinger was a potential manufacturer of the AFPM and provided guidance to ensure that the design of the AFPM is marketable and compatible with a manufacturing environment. The AFPM for UTP pigtails LiNbO{sub 3} waveguide devices and the AFPM for Ortel pigtails photodiodes. Both of these machines contain proprietary information, so the third AFPM, residing at LLNL, pigtails a non-proprietary waveguide device for demonstrations to US industry and further development.

  10. Technical features of a low-cost Earthquake Alert System

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.

    1991-08-01

    The concept and features of an Earthquake Alert System (EAS) involving a distributed network of strong motion sensors is discussed. The EAS analyzes real-time data telemetered to a central facility and issues an areawide warning of a large earthquake in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy. A low-cost solution to high-cost estimates for installation and maintenance of a dedicated EAS is presented that makes use of existing microseismic stations. Using the San Francisco Bay area as an example, we show that existing US Geological Survey microseismic monitoring stations are of sufficient density to form the elements of a prototype EAS. By installing strong motion instrumentation and a specially developed switching device, strong ground motion can be telemetered in real-time to the central microseismic station on the existing communication channels. When a large earthquake occurs, a dedicated real-time central processing unit at the central microseismic station digitizes and analyses the incoming data and issues a warning containing location and magnitude estimations. A 50-station EAS of this type in the San Francisco Bay area should cost under $70,000 to install and less than $5000 annually to maintain.

  11. Automatic orbit ephemeris update in a low cost ground station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. Kim; Ely, Robert J.; Holdaway, Richard

    1997-07-01

    This paper examines a method of updating the orbit ephemeris of low Earth orbit satellites based on antenna tracking error data from a single ground station. The paper describes Satellites International's low cost S-band ground station which utilizes a 2.4 m parabolic dish antenna with full azimuth and elevation drive control. The antenna incorporates a diplexing feed, with a low noise amplifier in the receive path, linked to a receiver/demodulator which downconverts and decodes the received telemetry before passing it to a telemetry depacketizer; and thence to the spacecraft control centre. The uplink telecommand data is packetized and passed to a sub-carrier generator, before being upconverted in an S-band sweeper/modulator, followed by a high power amplifier linked to the antenna feed. The antenna controller drives the antenna in a fine resolution program track mode derived from a 10-point orbit ephemeris. Tracking error data is obtained in real-time during a pass by scanning the antenna across-track and along-track with respect to the nominal satellite position. The error measurements are then fed automatically into the orbit generation software to provide an updated orbit ephemeris. The paper demonstrates that the orbit prediction accuracy obtainable using this method can achieve satisfactory mission performance.

  12. Odometry and Low-Cost Sensor Fusion in Tmm Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzino, A. M.; Taglioretti, C.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the most powerful motion model and filtering technique to represent an urban terrestrial mobile mapping (TMM) survey and ultimately to obtain the best representation of the car trajectory. The authors want to test how far a motion model and a more or less refined filtering technique could bring benefits in the determination of the car trajectory. To achieve the necessary data for the application of the motion models and the filtering techniques described in the article, the authors realized a TMM survey in the urban centre of Turin by equipping a vehicle with various instruments: a low-cost action-cam also able to record the GPS trace of the vehicle even in the presence of obstructions, an inertial measurement system and an odometer. The results of analysis show in the article indicate that the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) technique provides good results in the determination of the vehicle trajectory, especially if the motion model considers more states (such as the positions, the tangential velocity, the angular velocity, the heading, the acceleration). The authors also compared the results obtained with a motion model characterized by four, five and six states. A natural corollary to this work would be the introduction to the UKF of the photogrammetric information obtained by the same camera placed on board the vehicle. These data would permit to establish how photogrammetric measurements can improve the quality of TMM solutions, especially in the absence of GPS signals (like urban canyons).

  13. A Novel and Low Cost Sea Ice Mass Balance Buoy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Keith; Meldrum, David; Wilkinson, Jeremy; Maksym, Ted; Beckers, Justin; Haas, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Understanding of sea ice mass balance processes requires continuous monitoring of the seasonal evolution of ice thickness. While autonomous ice mass balance buoys (IMBs) deployed over the past two decades have contributed to our understanding of ice growth and decay processes, deployment has been limited, in part, by the cost of such systems. Routine, basin-wide monitoring of the ice cover is realistically achievable through a network of reliable and affordable autonomous instrumentation. We describe the development of a novel autonomous platform and sensor that replaces the traditional thermistors string for monitoring temperature profiles in the ice and snow using a chain of inexpensive digital temperature chip sensors linked by a single-wire data bus. By incorporating a heating element on each sensor, the instrument is capable of resolving material interfaces (e.g. air-snow and ice-ocean boundaries) even under isothermal conditions. The instrument is small, low-cost and easy to deploy. Field and laboratory tests of the sensor chain demonstrate that the technology can reliably resolve material boundaries to within a few centimetres and over 50 scientific deployments have been made with encouraging results. The discrimination between different media based on sensor thermal response is weak in some deployments and efforts to optimise the measurement continue.

  14. Low-cost hadron colliders at Fermilab: A discussion paper

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, G.W.; Malamud, E.

    1996-06-21

    New more economic approaches are required to continue the dramatic exponential rise in collider energies as represented by the well known Livingston plot. The old idea of low cost, low field iron dominated magnets in a small diameter pipe may become feasible in the next decade with dramatic recent advances in technology: (1) advanced tunneling technologies for small diameter, non human accessible tunnels, (2) accurate remote guidance systems for tunnel survey and boring machine steering, (3) high T{sub c} superconductors operating at liquid N{sub 2} or liquid H{sub 2} temperatures, (4) industrial applications of remote manipulation and robotics, (5) digitally multiplexed electronics to minimize cables, (6) achievement of high luminosities in p-p and p-{anti P} colliders. The goal of this paper is to stimulate continuing discussions on approaches to this new collider and to identify critical areas needing calculations, construction of models, proof of principle experiments, and full scale prototypes in order to determine feasibility and arrive at cost estimates.

  15. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Wei, George; Worek, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  16. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  17. Printable low-cost sensor systems for healthcare smart textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pratyush; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Smart textiles-based wearable health monitoring systems (ST-HMS) have been presented as elegant solutions to the requirements of individuals across a wide range of ages. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. Business and academic interests, all over the world, have fueled a great deal of work in the development of this technology since 1990. However, two important impediments to the development of ST-HMS are:-integration of flexible electrodes, flexible sensors, signal conditioning circuits and data logging or wireless transmission devices into a seamless garment and a means to mass manufacture the same, while keeping the costs low. Roll-to-roll printing and screen printing are two low cost methods for large scale manufacturing on flexible substrates and can be extended to textiles as well. These two methods are, currently, best suited for planar structures. The sensors, integrated with wireless telemetry, facilitate development of a ST-HMS that allows for unobtrusive health monitoring. In this paper, we present our results with planar screen printable sensors based on conductive inks which can be used to monitor EKG, abdominal respiration effort, blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature. The sensor systems were calibrated, and tested for sensitivity, reliability and robustness to ensure reuse after washing cycles.

  18. A Low Cost Sensor Controller for Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birbas, M.; Petrellis, N.; Gioulekas, F.

    2015-09-01

    Aging population can benefit from health care systems that allow their health and daily life to be monitored by expert medical staff. Blood pressure, temperature measurements or more advanced tests like Electrocardiograms (ECG) can be ordered through such a healthcare system while urgent situations can be detected and alleviated on time. The results of these tests can be stored with security in a remote cloud or database. Such systems are often used to monitor non-life threatening patient health problems and their advantage in lowering the cost of the healthcare services is obvious. A low cost commercial medical sensor kit has been used in the present work, trying to improve the accuracy and stability of the sensor measurements, the power consumption, etc. This Sensor Controller communicates with a Gateway installed in the patient's residence and a tablet or smart phone used for giving instructions to the patient through a comprehensive user interface. A flexible communication protocol has been defined supporting any short or long term sensor sampling scenario. The experimental results show that it is possible to achieve low power consumption by applying apropriate sleep intervals to the Sensor Controller and by deactivating periodically some of its functionality.

  19. Simple low-cost miniaturization approach for pharmaceutical nanocrystals production.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gregori B; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2016-03-30

    Systematic screening for optimal formulation composition and production parameters for nanosuspensions consumes a lot of time and also drug material when performed at lab scale. Therefore, a cost-effective miniaturized scale top down approach for nanocrystals production by wet bead milling was developed. The final set-up consisted of 3 magnetic stirring bars placed vertically one over the other in a 2 mL glass vial and agitated by a common magnetic stirring plate. All of the tested actives (cyclosporin A, resveratrol, hesperitin, ascorbyl palmitate, apigenin and hesperidin) could be converted to nanosuspensions. For 4 of them, the particles sizes achieved were smaller than previously reported on the literature (around 90 nm for cyclosporin A; 50 nm for hesperitin; 160 nm for ascorbyl palmitate and 80 nm for apigenin). The "transferability" of the data collect by the miniaturized method was evaluated comparing the production at larger scale using both wet bead milling and high pressure homogenization. Transferable information obtained from the miniaturized scale is minimum achievable size, improvements in size reduction by reduction of beads size, diminution kinetics and potentially occurring instabilities during processing. The small scale batches also allow identification of optimal stabilizer types and concentrations. The batch size is 0.5 mL, requiring approximately 50 mg or 5 mg of drug (5% and 1% suspension, respectively). Thus, a simple, accessible, low-cost miniaturized scale method for the production of pharmaceutical nanocrystals was established. PMID:26642945

  20. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    SciTech Connect

    Stettenheim, Joel; McBride, Troy O.; Brambles, Oliver J.; Cashin, Emil A.

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  1. Low-Cost WDM-PON With Colorless Bidirectional Transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Jae; Keh, Y. C.; Kwon, J. W.; Lee, E. H.; Lee, J. K.; Park, M. K.; Park, J. W.; Oh, Y. K.; Kim, S. W.; Yun, I. K.; Shin, H. C.; Heo, D.; Lee, J. S.; Shin, H. S.; Kim, H. S.; Park, S. B.; Jung, D. K.; Hwang, Seongtaek; Oh, Y. J.; Jang, D. H.; Shim, C. S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost bidirectional (BiDi) wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) employing colorless uncooled BiDi transceivers (TRxs) and superluminescent diode (SLD)-based broadband light sources (BLSs). The C band is allocated for upstream and the E+ band for downstream in consideration of BiDi packaging, SLD development, and wavelength alignment of dual-window arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs). The BiDi TRx integrates an uncooled Fabry-Pérot laser diode (FP-LD), a p-i-n photodiode (PD), and a 45°-angled thin-film filter in a small-form-factor (SFF) package. The SLD-based BLSs provide 13-dBm amplified spontaneous emissions (ASEs) with spectral ripples of < 3 dB and polarization dependencies of < 1 dB. Colorless operations over 32 100-GHz-spaced channels are demonstrated from -20 to 80°C in 155-Mb/s BiDi transmissions over 25 km.

  2. Low-cost infrared glass for IR imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Amy G.; LeBlanc, Richard A.; Hilton, Ray A., Sr.

    2003-09-01

    With the advent of the uncooled detectors, the fraction of infrared (IR) imaging system cost due to lens elements has risen to the point where work was needed in the area of cost. Since these IR imaging systems often have tight packaging requirements which drive the optical elements to have complex surfaces, typical IR optical elements are costly to manufacture. The drive of our current optical material research is to lower the cost of the materials as well as the element fabrication for IR imaging systems. A low cost, moldable amorphous material, Amtir-4, has been developed and characterized. Ray Hilton Sr., Amorphous Materials Inc., Richard A. LeBlanc, Amy Graham and Others at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control Orlando (LMMFC-O) and James Johnson, General Electric Global Research Center (GE-GRC), along with others have been doing research for the past three years characterizing and designing IR imaging systems with this material. These IR imaging systems have been conventionally fabricated via diamond turning and techniques required to mold infrared optical elements have been developed with this new material, greatly reducing manufacturing costs. This paper will outline efforts thus far in incorporating this new material into prototype IR imaging systems.

  3. Low Cost Geothermal Separators BLISS Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Douglas; Wai, King

    2000-05-26

    A new compact, low cost, and high performance separator is being developed to help reduce the installed and O and M cost of geothermal power generation. This device has been given the acronym ''BLISS'' that stands for ''Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber''. The device is the first of a series of separators, and in the case of injectates, scrubbers to address the cost-reduction needs of the industry. The BLISS is a multi-positional centrifugal separator primarily designed to be simply installed between pipe supports, in a horizontal position. This lower profile reduces the height safety concern for workers, and significantly reduces the total installation cost. The vessel can demand as little as one-quarter (25%) the amount of steel traditionally required to fabricate many large vertical separators. The compact nature and high separating efficiency of this device are directly attributable to a high centrifugal force coupled with boundary layer control. The pseudo isokinetic flow design imparts a self-cleaning and scale resistant feature. This polishing separator is designed to remove moderate amounts of liquid and entrained solids.

  4. Low Cost CE-NMR with Microcoils for Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K; Klunder, G; Demas, V; Malba, V; Bernhardt, A; Evan, L; Harvey, C; Maxwell, R; Herberg, J L

    2009-01-08

    Understanding speciation in solids and solutions is important for environmental and toxicological purposes. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a simple rapid separation technique that can be used to identify species in solution. CE is particularly is well suited for rapid separations of metal containing samples. Direct on-capillary measurement of metal compound speciation can be obtained with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The development of a low-cost microcoil CE-NMR system for in situ characterization of samples of interest is discussed. High precision laser lithography is used to produce copper sputtered microcoils that have comparable resistivity and quality factors to that of hand wound microcoils. A portable NMR system coupled with a CE system has the potential to identify chemical species in aqueous solutions. In addition, transient isotachophoresis can separate and pre-concentrate samples of interest to obtain separate chemical peaks for speciation by online NMR analysis. We are developing separation assays to determine the speciation of chemical complexes in solutions with minimal perturbation to the original sample equilibrium. On-line NMR measurements will be made downstream of the UV detector.

  5. Low Cost CE-NMR with Microcoils for Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K L; Klunder, G; Demas, V; Malba, V; Bernhardt, A; Evan, L; Harvey, C; Maxwell, R; Herberg, J

    2008-07-25

    Understanding speciation in solids and solutions is important for environmental and toxicological purposes. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a simple rapid separation technique that can be used to identify species in solution. CE is particularly is well suited for rapid separations of metal containing samples. Direct on-capillary measurement of metal compound speciation can be obtained with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The development of a low-cost microcoil CE-NMR system for in situ characterization of samples of interest is discussed. High precision laser lithography is used to produce copper sputtered microcoils that have comparable resistivity and quality factors to that of hand wound microcoils. A portable NMR system coupled with a CE system has the potential to identify chemical species in aqueous solutions. In addition, transient isotachophoresis can separate and pre-concentrate samples of interest to obtain separate chemical peaks for speciation by online NMR analysis. We are developing separation assays to determine the speciation of chemical complexes in solutions with minimal perturbation to the original sample equilibrium. On-line NMR measurements will be made downstream of the UV detector.

  6. Low-cost solar selective absorbers from Indian galena

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, S. . Research and Development Div.); Pal, U. )

    1993-11-01

    The main thrust of the research is to prepare a low-cost solar-selective absorber from an indigenous semiconducting mineral, galena (galena aggregate and galena concentrate), for a solar thermoelectric generator. The authors report the results of preparation and characterization of solar-selective coatings made from galena aggregate and galena concentrate collected from the Zawar mines in Rajasthan, India. The coatings of galena are prepared by a thermal evaporation technique and exhibit high absorptivity ([alpha] [approximately] 0.95 and 0.97) in the solar spectral range and low emissivity ([epsilon]375[approximately]0.21 and 0.27) in the thermal range. Finally, these coatings were compared with synthesized PbS coating prepared in the laboratory and found to be quite comparable. The structure and composition of the coatings were studied by x-ray diffraction and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. Reflectance and absorption studies were made in the 0.3- to 3.1-[mu]m spectral range.

  7. Measurement of luminescence decays: High performance at low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulkes, Mark; Sulkes, Zoe

    2011-11-01

    The availability of inexpensive ultra bright LEDs spanning the visible and near-ultraviolet combined with the availability of inexpensive electronics equipment makes it possible to construct a high performance luminescence lifetime apparatus (˜5 ns instrumental response or better) at low cost. A central need for time domain measurement systems is the ability to obtain short (˜1 ns or less) excitation light pulses from the LEDs. It is possible to build the necessary LED driver using a simple avalanche transistor circuit. We describe first a circuit to test for small signal NPN transistors that can avalanche. We then describe a final optimized avalanche mode circuit that we developed on a prototyping board by measuring driven light pulse duration as a function of the circuit on the board and passive component values. We demonstrate that the combination of the LED pulser and a 1P28 photomultiplier tube used in decay waveform acquisition has a time response that allows for detection and lifetime determination of luminescence decays down to ˜5 ns. The time response and data quality afforded with the same components in time-correlated single photon counting are even better. For time-correlated single photon counting an even simpler NAND-gate based LED driver circuit is also applicable. We also demonstrate the possible utility of a simple frequency domain method for luminescence lifetime determinations.

  8. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Wright, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger. PMID:23783738

  9. Low cost energy storage flywheels from structural sheet molding compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, J. F.

    Compression molded structural sheet molding compound (SMC) composed of S-2 Glass and polyester resin has been used to fabricate energy storage flywheel rotors. This technique has the potential of low cost, high throughput production of rotors for the automobile industry. An isophthalic polyester resin and chopped S-2 Glass were used to mold flat, constant cross section discs 53.3 cm (21 innches) in diameter, 2.54 cm (1.0 inches) thick, and 49.5 kg (22.5 pounds) in weight. Materials characterizations have shown a tensile strength of 337 MPa (49 ksi) for the S-2 Glass reinforced rotors, which would allow the rotor to store 28.6 watt-hours per kilogram (13 watt-hours per pound) at 330 hertz when a filament wound carbon fiber/epoxy ring is fitted around the SMC core. A dynamic test of an SMC flywheel has shown an energy storage density of 27.7 watt-hours per kilogram (12.6 watt-hours per pound) at 330 hertz.

  10. Printable low-cost, sustained and dynamic cell stretching apparatus.

    PubMed

    Toume, Samer; Gefen, Amit; Weihs, Daphne

    2016-05-24

    Deformations that are applied on body tissues during daily activities, as a result of morbid conditions, or during various medical treatments, affect cell viability and biological function. Such mechanobiological phenomena are often studied in vitro, in monolayer cultures. To facilitate such studies cost effectively, we have developed a novel, printable cell stretching apparatus. The apparatus is used to apply tensile strains on cells cultured on elastic, stretchable substrata, either by sustained or by dynamic-cyclic application. Most of the apparatus parts are three-dimensionally printed (excluding motors), and stretching is automatically performed by two direct current geared motors that are controlled by a programmable microcontroller platform. To demonstrate functionality of this novel printable device, which can be produced in multiple copies in research labs at a cost of under 100 US$ per unit, including motors and controller, we performed cell culture studies monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Specifically, we have applied sustained and cyclic, radial stretching at large strains to NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts, and have demonstrated that cell viability, adhesion and morphology were maintained following stretching. Our apparatus is designed to be low-cost, rapidly manufactured at a university or small-company setting, and simple to use and control, where its flexible, versatile design allows users to experimentally induce different stretching regimes with varying amplitudes and frequencies. PMID:27038541

  11. Producing optical (contact) lenses by a novel low cost process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipper, Richard S.; Spencer, Ian D.

    2005-09-01

    The rapid and impressive growth of China has been achieved on the back of highly labour intensive industries, often in manufacturing, and at the cost of companies and jobs in Europe and America. Approaches that worked well in the 1990's to reduce production costs in the developed countries are no longer effective when confronted with the low labour costs of China and India. We have looked at contact lenses as a product that has become highly available to consumers here but as an industry that has reduced costs by moving to low labour cost countries. The question to be answered was, "Do we have the skill to still make the product in the UK, and can we make it cheap enough to export to China?" if we do not, then contact lens manufacture will move to China sooner or later. The challenge to enter the markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries is extremely exciting as here is the new money, high growth and here is a product that sells to those with disposable incomes. To succeed we knew we had to be radical in our approach; the radical step was very simple: to devise a process in which each step added value to the customer and not cost to the product. The presentation examines the processes used by the major producers and how, by applying good manufacturing practice sound scientific principles to them, the opportunity to design a new low cost patented process was identified.

  12. Modernizing Plunger Control with Low-Cost Digital Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, Patrick; Kuta, Trenton; Aprahamian, Ani

    2014-09-01

    The plunger technique provides a valuable tool for measuring lifetimes of excited states in the 1-100 ps range. The plunger consists of a thin foil target and stopper foil separated by some controllable distance; beam-induced reactions occur in the target and the resulting nucleus of interest leaves the target foil and is completely stopped by the stopper foil. The Notre Dame Nuclear Science Laboratory has a plunger device which is approximately 30 years old. In the Notre Dame plunger apparatus, the separation between foils is measured via capacitance between the foils and is used to control the position of three servo motors. Our work this summer focused on a complete rebuild of the plunger control electronics including two major upgrades: (1) a precision capacitance-measuring circuit based on the phase-shift of a sinusoidal signal which follows a development in the mid 1990's, (2) and a low-cost microcontroller-based feedback loop for precisely controlling servo motors with quadrature encoder outputs. After demonstrating that the upgrades are successful, we will carry out reactions in the Nuclear Science Laboratory and measure the lifetimes of excited states in several rare earth nuclei.

  13. Potential contribution of low cost materials in clean technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smail, Heman A.; Shareef, Kafia M.; Ramli, Zainab

    2016-03-01

    As the world's population approaches more than 9 billion, the strain on the planet's resources is steadily increasing. This demand can only be met by improving production methods to reduce the use of chemicals and the amount of chemical waste. Zeolites are among the least-known products for environmental pollution control, separation science and technology. This study investigates whether the use of geological sources as low-cost materials are suitable for zeolite synthesis and future applications. In this investigation natural montmorillonite clay, locally available in Erbil-Kurdistan, was used as raw material. The experiments were carried out in the presence of ultrasound 30KHz at 60°C and for different crystallization times (5, 10 &15 hours) and the results were compared with those obtained by performing conventional alkaline hydrothermal static syntheses under similar conditions and crystallization time of (90 hours). The raw material as well as the products was analyzed using; Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental data were ascertained the formation of Zeolite successfully. Crystallization by ultrasound has been demonstrated to offer the possibilities of increasing the nucleation and crystallization rates of zeolites, improving the yield and directing the synthesis towards different crystal phases.

  14. Low cost vee-trough evacuated tube collector module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost solar collector capable of operating at 150-200 C is described. An evacuated tube receiver is combined with asymmetric vee-trough concentrators. Peak efficiencies of about 40% at 120 C and 30% at 180 C are expected. Predicted future collector cost is $70/sq m which yields an energy cost of $4.20/GJ at 120 C. During the development of the vee trough/evacuated tube collector both mathematical models to predict thermal and optical performance were developed and tests run to verify theory. The asymmetric vee trough concentrator increases the solar flux intensity for an average value of 2 for year-round performance. Optimized collector module has reflector angles of 55 deg/85 deg. The aperture plane is tilted to the latitude. The reflector is made of electropolished aluminum. The supporting frame is formed by bending sheet metal. Evacuated tube receivers are Pyrex, 15 cm diam and 2.4 m long. The module has 12 tubes on right and left sides altogether. Attainable operation at temperatures on the order of 150-200 C are suitable for absorption refrigeration and power generation via Rankine engines.

  15. Low-cost OP-FTIR spectrometer for workplace monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentz, Julia H.; Engel, James R.; Carlson, David L.; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert M.; Genetti, George J.; Griffiths, Peter R.; Yang, Husheng

    2004-03-01

    OPTRA has developed a low-cost, extremely compact, rugged open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for workplace air quality monitoring. This research was funded under a United States Air Force ABIR Phase II contract. The goal of the program has been to identify and alleviate all aspects of currently available OP-FTIR systems which result in high-cost and complex user requirements. This low-resolution ssytem (Δσ = 8 cm-1) employs an uncooled DLATGS detector and a novel encoder-based reference metrology. Other design economies include a plastic injection-molded retroreflector array to return the open-path beam. This effort has included the development of a set of algorithms based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) and partial least squares (PLS) by the University of Idaho; these algorithms are specifically tailored to low-resolution systems applied to multi-component analysis of large, organic molecules characterized by broad infrared resonance bands. The algorithms, coupled with our OP-FTIR, are designed to autonomously identify and quantify a list of 105 common industrial organic molecules in the presence of varying humidity levels. Our system includes two PCI boards which host all OP-FTIR processing and servo electronics; the boards reside in a small suit-case PC along with a user-friendly Graphical User Interface.

  16. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Dennis, R. E.; Heath, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objectives of Project 3 were to develop the exothermic casting process to produce uncooled single-crystal (SC) HP turbine blades in MAR-M 247 and higher strength derivative alloys and to validate the materials process and components through extensive mechanical property testing, rig testing, and 200 hours of endurance engine testing. These Program objectives were achieved. The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low-cost nonproperietary method for producing single-crystal castings. Single-crystal MAR-M 247 and two derivatives DS alloys developed during this project, NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3, were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC MAR-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) MAR-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. Firtree testing, holography, and strain-gauge rig testing were used to determine the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single-crystal materials. No undesirable characteristics were found. In general, the single-crystal material behaved similarly to DS MAR-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined. These blades were successfully engine-tested.

  17. Design and construction of a low-cost nose poke system for rodents.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Giorgio; Lodge, Meredith E; Tan, Kelly R

    2016-01-01

    Operant behavioral tasks for animals have long been used to probe the function of multiple brain regions (i.e., understanding the role of dopamine in electrical brain stimulation reward [1], or determining the rewarding properties of feeding oriented brain pathways [2]). The recent development of tools and techniques has opened the door to refine the answer to these same questions with a much higher degree of specificity and accuracy, both in biological and spatial-temporal terms [3], [4]. A variety of systems designed to test operant behavior are now commercially available, but have prohibitive costs. Here, we provide a low-cost alternative to a nose poke system for mice. Adapting a freely available sketch for ARDUINO boards, in combination with an in-house built PVC box and inexpensive electronic material we constructed a four-port nose poke system that detects and counts port entries. To verify the applicability and validity of our system we tested the behavior of DAT-CRE transgenic mice injected with an adeno-associated virus to express ChannelRhodopsin 2 in the Ventral tegmental area (VTA) and used the BNC output to drive a blue laser coupled to a fiber implanted above the VTA. Over 6 days, mice perform as it has been reported previously [5] exhibiting a remarkable preference for the port that triggers optogenetic stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons. •We provide a low cost alternative to commercially available nose poke system.•Our custom made apparatus is open source and TTL compatible.•We validate our system with optogenetic self-stimulation of dopamine neurons. PMID:27222822

  18. Design and construction of a low-cost nose poke system for rodents

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Giorgio; Lodge, Meredith E.; Tan, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Operant behavioral tasks for animals have long been used to probe the function of multiple brain regions (i.e., understanding the role of dopamine in electrical brain stimulation reward [1], or determining the rewarding properties of feeding oriented brain pathways [2]). The recent development of tools and techniques has opened the door to refine the answer to these same questions with a much higher degree of specificity and accuracy, both in biological and spatial-temporal terms [3], [4]. A variety of systems designed to test operant behavior are now commercially available, but have prohibitive costs. Here, we provide a low-cost alternative to a nose poke system for mice. Adapting a freely available sketch for ARDUINO boards, in combination with an in-house built PVC box and inexpensive electronic material we constructed a four-port nose poke system that detects and counts port entries. To verify the applicability and validity of our system we tested the behavior of DAT-CRE transgenic mice injected with an adeno-associated virus to express ChannelRhodopsin 2 in the Ventral tegmental area (VTA) and used the BNC output to drive a blue laser coupled to a fiber implanted above the VTA. Over 6 days, mice perform as it has been reported previously [5] exhibiting a remarkable preference for the port that triggers optogenetic stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons. • We provide a low cost alternative to commercially available nose poke system. • Our custom made apparatus is open source and TTL compatible. • We validate our system with optogenetic self-stimulation of dopamine neurons. PMID:27222822

  19. Low-cost uncooled infrared detector arrays in standard CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Tanrikulu, M. Y.; Akin, Tayfun

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a low-cost 128 x 128 uncooled infrared focal plane array (FPA) based on suspended and thermally isolated CMOS p+-active/n-well diodes. The FPA is fabricated using a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process followed by simple post-CMOS bulk micromachining that does not require any critical lithography or complicated deposition steps; and therefore, the cost of the uncooled FPA is almost equal to the cost of the CMOS chip. The post-CMOS fabrication steps include an RIE etching to reach the bulk silicon and an anisotropic silicon etching to obtain thermally isolated pixels. During the RIE etching, CMOS metal layers are used as masking layers, and therefore, narrow openings such as 2 μm can be defined between the support arms. This approach allows achieving small pixel size of 40 μm x 40 μm with a fill factor of 44%. The FPA is scanned at 30 fps by monolithically integrated multi-channel parallel readout circuitry which is composed of low-noise differential transconductance amplifiers, switched capacitor (SC) integrators, sample-and-hold circuits, and various other circuit blocks for reducing the effects of variations in detector voltage and operating temperature. The fabricated detector has a temperature coefficient of -2 mV/K, a thermal conductance value of 1.8 x 10-7 W/K, and a thermal time constant value of 36 msec, providing a measured DC responsivity (R) of 4970 V/W under continuous bias. Measured detector noise is 0.69 μV in 8 kHz bandwidth at 30 fps scanning rate, resulting a measured detectivity (D*) of 9.7 x 108 cm√HzW. Contribution of the 1/f noise component is found to be negligible due to the single crystal nature of the silicon n-well and its low value at low bias levels. The noise of the readout circuit is measured as 0.76 μV, resulting in an expected NETD value of 1 K when scanned at 30 fps using f=1 optics. This NETD value can be decreased below 350 mK by decreasing the electrical bandwidth with the help of increased

  20. A very low-cost and adaptable DIY seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez Chazara, Nahum; Castiñeiras, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    With the advent of prototyping platforms and low-cost computers, geological do-it-yourself components and sensors can be quickly and inexpensively built. The design of the prototype can also be improved over several iterations, from high-resolution magnetometers to vertical electrical sounding instruments, opening new opportunities to gather data in the field or in the lab. One of the possibilities in the field of DIY geology is seismological research, because the availability and diversity of the parts used can come in handy when developing an instrument. Also, they are really easy to build without a very deep electronics background. Although the range in low-cost seismometers is usually restricted to local seismology, induced seismology or human activities, our approach is able to record data with sampling rates up to 500 Hz. It can record and analyze data with a resolution of 16-bit, but it can be regulated to reach 24-bit if needed. Data transfer can operate all-day with low power consumption, using around 1-Amp per hour, or even less, depending on the final setup chosen. Our first seismograph (<100€) consists of a vertical geophone with a natural frequency of 10 Hz, an Arduino or similar board, a 16-bit ADC capable of amplify and convert the output signal of the geophone. The latter, connected to a Raspberry Pi, gathers the data from the geophone using a Python script, slices it in 1-hour intervals and draws waveform and frequency spectrum graph for quick analysis with Matplotlib, a common graphing library in Python. The data can be gathered using several methods: If a Wi-Fi network is available, the instrument can be directly connected to the Internet and the data uploaded in real time. If there is no such connection available, a GSM shield can be used to upload the data, and in the worst-case scenario, the data can be accessed directly on the field via Wi-Fi or Ethernet connection if the location of the sensor make unable to connect via WiFi or GSM

  1. A Low Cost Spacecraft Architecture for Robotic Lunar Exploration Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Lawrence G.; Gonzales, Andrew A.

    2006-01-01

    constitute the majority of spacecraft mass; saving development and integration cost on these elements is critical to controlling cost. Therefore, a low cost, modular design for spacecraft structure and propulsion subsystems is presented which may be easily scaled up or down for either insertion into lunar orbit or braking for landing on the lunar surface. In order to effectively use the approx.3 Mt mass-to-TLI of the EELV, two low cost spacecraft will be manifested on the same launch. One spacecraft will be located on top of the other for launch and the two will have to be released in sequence in order to achieve all mission objectives. The two spacecraft could both be landers, both orbiters, or one lander and one orbiter. In order to achieve mass efficiency, the body of the spacecraft will serve the dual purposes of carrying launch loads and providing attachment points for all the spacecraft subsystems. In order to avoid unaffordable technology development costs, small liquid propulsion components and autonomous, scene-matching navigation cameras may be adapted from military missile programs in order to execute precision soft landings.

  2. Low-cost small satellites for astrophysical missions

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    A miniature satellite is a low-cost platform to support a small space experiment. Space astrophysics has been hindered by decades-long delays in important experiments. With miniature satellites, one hopes to reduce both experiment cost and lead time to an affordable level. Miniature satellites are not a new idea. The first scientific satellites, including Explorer I, were small and developed on a timescale of months. Important science was done by these pioneer missions. Though the easy discoveries have been made, important missions in exploration and follow-up can still be carried out from small platforms. Successful small satellite programs continue to this day. These include the OSCAR amateur radio satellite program, in which 12 small satellites, built by amateurs, have been flown over 25 years with no satellite failures (Fleeter, 1988). Two small free-flyers, GLOMAR and NUSAT, were ejected from the Shuttle in 1985. GLOMAR, a radio-relay experiment, was built in less than a year for under $1 million, and operated over a year in orbit. Small satellite projects continue to this day. Approaching launch are the Air Force STACKSAT array of 3 small satellites (P87-2), a number of other small satellites under Department of Defense auspices. The Air Force Space Test Program is developing a standard small experiment platform called STEP (Space Test Experiment Platform). NASA has started a small explorer program, beginning with SAMPEX, a solar and magnetospheric particle explorer, FAST, a fast auroral snapshot experiment, and SWAS, a submillimeter astronomy experiment. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A novel low-cost sodium–zinc chloride battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-19

    The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar β"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

  4. Low-Cost Approaches to Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squibb, G. F.; Edwards, C. D.; Schober, W. R.; Hooke, A. J.; Tai, W. S.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    The past decade has brought about a radical transformation in NASA's planetary exploration program. At the beginning of this decade, NASA was focused on the Cassini mission to Saturn. Following on the heels of the successful Voyager and Galileo missions, Cassini represents the culmination of an evolution towards successively larger, more complex, and more expensive spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft weighs in at over 5 metric tons, and carries an entry probe and a sophisticated suite of sensors supporting 27 different science investigations enabling a comprehensive scientific investigation of Saturn with a single spacecraft. The cost of this spacecraft exceeded $2B, including the cost of the large Titan IV launch vehicle. During Cassini development, NASA realized that it could no longer afford these "flagship" missions, and the agency moved aggressively towards a "faster, better, cheaper" design philosophy of focused science goals and simpler, rapidly-developed spacecraft, allowing much more frequent launches of smaller, lower-cost missions. The Mars Global Surveyor, launched in November 1996, is an example of this new paradigm. Developed in less than 3-years, MGS is only one-fifth the mass of Cassini, and only cost on the order of $220M. The reduced spacecraft mass allows use of the smaller, lower cost Delta launch vehicle. Currently in orbit about Mars, MGS carries a focused suite of six science instruments that are currently returning high-resolution remote sensing of the Martian surface. The future calls for continued even more aggressive mass and cost targets. Examples of these next-generation goals are embodied in the Mars Micromission spacecraft concept, targeted for launch in 2003. With a mass of only 200kg, this lightweight bus can be tailored to carry a variety of payloads to Mars or other inner-planet destinations. The design of the Micromission spacecraft enable them to be launched at extremely low cost as a secondary "piggyback" payload.

  5. A Robust, Low-Cost Virtual Archive for Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Vollmer, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Despite their expense tape silos are still often the only affordable option for petabytescale science data archives, particularly when other factors such as data reliability, floor space, power and cooling load are accounted for. However, the complexity, management software, hardware reliability and access latency of tape silos make online data storage ever more attractive. Drastic reductions in low-cost mass-market PC disk drivers help to make this more affordable (approx. 1$/GB), but are challenging to scale to the petabyte range and of questionable reliability for archival use, On the other hand, if much of the science archive could be "virtualized", i.e., produced on demand when requested by users, we would need store only a fraction of the data online, perhaps bringing an online-only system into in affordable range. Radiance data from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument provides a good opportunity for such a virtual archive: the raw data amount to 140 GB/day, but these are small relative to the 550 GB/day making up the radiance products. These data are routinely processed as inputs for geophysical parameter products and then archived on tape at the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive (GES DAAC) for distributing to users. Virtualizing them would be an immediate and signifcant reduction in the amount of data being stored in the tape archives and provide more customizable products. A prototype of such a virtual archive is being developed to prove the concept and develop ways of incorporating the robustness that a science data archive requires.

  6. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, Monjid

    2013-08-29

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at forecourt stations as a critical technology for transition to the hydrogen economy; however, the cost of hydrogen produced by present commercially available electrolysis systems is considerably higher than the DOE 2015 and 2020 cost targets. Analyses of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer systems indicate that reductions in electricity consumption and electrolyzer stack and system capital cost are required to meet the DOE cost targets. The primary objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective energy-based system for electrolytic generation of hydrogen. The goal is to increase PEM electrolyzer efficiency and to reduce electrolyzer stack and system capital cost to meet the DOE cost targets for distributed electrolysis. To accomplish this objective, work was conducted by a team consisting of Giner, Inc. (Giner), Virginia Polytechnic Institute & University (VT), and domnick hunter group, a subsidiary of Parker Hannifin (Parker). The project focused on four (4) key areas: (1) development of a high-efficiency, high-strength membrane; (2) development of a long-life cell-separator; (3) scale-up of cell active area to 290 cm2 (from 160 cm²); and (4) development of a prototype commercial electrolyzer system. In each of the key stack development areas Giner and our team members conducted focused development in laboratory-scale hardware, with analytical support as necessary, followed by life-testing of the most promising candidate materials. Selected components were then scaled up and incorporated into low-cost scaled-up stack hardware. The project culminated in the fabrication and testing of a highly efficient electrolyzer system for production of 0.5 kg/hr hydrogen and validation of the stack and system in testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  7. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  8. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Arun

    1997-12-01

    The invention relates to a low-cost process for insulating walls comprising: (a) stacking bags filled with insulating material next to the exterior surface of a wall until the wall is covered, the stack of bags thus formed having fasteners to attach to a wire mesh (e.g., straps looped between the bags and fastened to the wall); (b) stretching a wire mesh (e.g., chicken wire or stucco netting) over the stack of bags, covering the side of the bags which is not adjacent to the wall; (c) fastening the wire mesh to stationary objects; (d) attaching the wire mesh to said fasteners on said stack of bags; and (e) applying a cemetitious material (e.g., stucco) to the wire mesh and allowing it to harden. Stacking the bags against the wall is preferably preceded by laying a base on the ground at the foot of the wall using a material such as cement or crushed stone wrapped in a non-woven fabric (e.g., geosynthetic felt). It is also preferred to erect stationary corner posts at the ends of the wall to be insulated, the top ends of the posts being tied to each other and/or tied or otherwise anchored to the wall. The invention also includes the structure made by this process. The structure comprises a stack of bags of insulating material next to the exterior wall of a building, said stack of bags of insulating material being attached to said wall and having a covering of cementitious material on the side not adjacent to said wall.

  9. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  11. Improved Recharge Estimation from Portable, Low-Cost Weather Stations.

    PubMed

    Holländer, Hartmut M; Wang, Zijian; Assefa, Kibreab A; Woodbury, Allan D

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater recharge estimation is a critical quantity for sustainable groundwater management. The feasibility and robustness of recharge estimation was evaluated using physical-based modeling procedures, and data from a low-cost weather station with remote sensor techniques in Southern Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada. Recharge was determined using the Richards-based vadose zone hydrological model, HYDRUS-1D. The required meteorological data were recorded with a HOBO(TM) weather station for a short observation period (about 1 year) and an existing weather station (Abbotsford A) for long-term study purpose (27 years). Undisturbed soil cores were taken at two locations in the vicinity of the HOBO(TM) weather station. The derived soil hydraulic parameters were used to characterize the soil in the numerical model. Model performance was evaluated using observed soil moisture and soil temperature data obtained from subsurface remote sensors. A rigorous sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the model. Recharge during the short observation period was estimated at 863 and 816 mm. The mean annual recharge was estimated at 848 and 859 mm/year based on a time series of 27 years. The relative ratio of annual recharge-precipitation varied from 43% to 69%. From a monthly recharge perspective, the majority (80%) of recharge due to precipitation occurred during the hydrologic winter period. The comparison of the recharge estimates with other studies indicates a good agreement. Furthermore, this method is able to predict transient recharge estimates, and can provide a reasonable tool for estimates on nutrient leaching that is often controlled by strong precipitation events and rapid infiltration of water and nitrate into the soil. PMID:26011672

  12. Low-cost commercial glass beads as dosimeters in radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, S. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Gouldstone, C. A.; Sharpe, P. H. G.; Alalawi, A.; Jordan, T. J.; Clark, C. H.; Nisbet, A.; Spyrou, N. M.

    2014-04-01

    Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size (<5 mm), low cost, reusability and inert nature. This study investigated the dosimetric characteristics of glass beads. The beads were irradiated by 6 MV photons using a medical linear-accelerator and 60Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500 cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1 cGy using the TL system while that for the EPR system was approximately 1000 cGy. The fading rate was found to be 10% 30 days after irradiation with both readout systems. The dose response is linear with measured dose over the dose range 1 to 2500 cGy, with an R2 correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of a set of dosimeters after a single irradiation was found to be 3% (1 SD). The reproducibility of individual dosimeters was found to be 1.7%. No measurable angular dependence was found (results agreed within 1%). Dose rate response was found to agree within 1% for dose rates of 100 to 600 cGy/min. These results demonstrate the potential use of glass beads as TL dosimeters over the dose range commonly applied in radiotherapy.

  13. Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process

  14. A Low-Cost "Stationary Eye" in the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Lande, K.; Mitchell, R.; Wildenhain, P.; Hoang, N.; Langford, J.

    1997-12-01

    We are developing a stationary, near the top of the atmosphere, astronomical observing system. The platform is a high altitude robotic aircraft (THESEUS) flying in anti-sense to Earth's rotation at a latitude where the plane's speed closely matches the local ground spin velocity. Thus, either an extended day or night viewing program of a given object can be achieved. Our intention here concentrates on astronomical targets. The system consists of the following components. (1) A low cost robotic aircraft that can fly at an altitude of about 25 km. for 30 to 40 hours with differential GPS navigation. Real time control of the aircraft and the observing instruments is either by on-board computer or from the ground via low altitude, commercial satellite communications systems (Iridium, Teledesic, etc.). (2) A siderostat-fed telescope of small f-ratio is attached to the aircraft via critically damped mechanical isolators. An electronic camera at the prime focus looks at a chosen astronomical target. (3) Image smear due to aircraft engine vibration will be eliminated by a combination of critically damped mechanical isolators and electronic CCD pixel jogging. Very precise piezo- electric driven transverse translation of the CCD camera will be used to compensate for wind induced drift of the image on the focal plane. Bright field stars will be used to drive the stabilizing system. (4) Data are stored on high capacity ruggedized hard drives similar to that used by the Mars Lander. The Aurora THESEUS aircraft, whose design is based upon earlier models, is under development. The image stabilizing system components have been identified. An off-the-shelf data-storage device has been chosen. A first prototype telescope has been built and tested. Other optical configurations are possible and collaborators will be welcomed.

  15. Design, development and manufacture of high-efficiency low-cost solar modules based on CIGS PVICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2010-02-01

    We describe the design, development and manufacture of solar power panels based on photovoltaic integrated circuits (PVICs) with high-quality high-uniformity Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) thin films produced with the unique combination of low-cost ink-based and physical vapor deposition (PVD) based nanoengineered precursor thin films and a reactive transfer printing method. Reactive transfer is a two-stage process relying on chemical reaction between two separate precursor films to form CIGS, one deposited on the substrate and the other on a printing plate in the first stage. In the second stage, these precursors are brought into intimate contact and rapidly reacted under pressure in the presence of an electrostatic field while heat is applied. The use of two independent thin films provides the benefits of independent composition and flexible deposition technique optimization, and eliminates pre-reaction prior to the synthesis of CIGS. High quality CIGS with large grains on the order of several microns, and of preferred crystallographic orientation, are formed in just several minutes based on compositional and structural analysis by XRF, SIMS, SEM and XRD. Cell efficiencies of 14% and module efficiencies of 12% have been achieved using this method. When atmospheric pressure deposition of inks is utilized for the precursor films, the approach additionally provides lower energy consumption, higher throughput, and further reduced capital equipment cost with higher uptime.

  16. Design and performance analysis of a low-cost aided dead reckoning navigator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebre-Egziabher, Demoz

    The Federal Aviation Administration is leading the National Airspace System (NAS) modernization effort, in part, by supplanting traditional air traffic services with the Global Positioning System (GPS) aided by the Wide and Local Area Augmentation Systems (WAAS & LAAS). Making GPS the primary-means of navigation will enhance safety, flexibility and efficiency of operations for all aircraft ranging from single engine general aviation aircraft to complex commercial jet-liners. This transformation of the NAS will be gradual and the build-up to a primary-means GPS capability is expected to occur concurrently with the de-commissioning of a significant number of existing ground-based navigational facilities. If an alternate means of navigation is not available during this transition period, temporary interruptions of GPS services due to intentional or unintentional interference could present significant problems for aircraft lacking backup navigation capability. To successfully deal with such outage scenarios, a NAS architecture consisting of a skeletal network of Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) transponders to provide a redundant navigation capability alongside GPS/WAAS during this transition period is proposed. DME range measurements fused with a low cost dead-reckoning system can provide a navigation performance comparable to VOR and LORAN. This navigation scheme allows reducing the number of operational radio-navigation aids while maintaining an adequate coverage for navigation during the transition to a primary-means GPS NAS. The dead-reckoning navigation system is based on the fusion of a single low-end DME receiver with low cost inertial, air-data and magnetic sensors. These sensors are already part of the newer general aviation aircraft's suite of navigation sensors. Estimator architectures for fusing the information from the various sensors is presented. The performance of this navigator depends on the calibration and on-line estimation of sensor errors

  17. A sounding rocket attitude determination algorithm suitable for implementation using low cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, Mark Christopher

    performance of this UKF-based algorithm is evaluated under other-than-nominal conditions and proves robust with respect to data dropouts, motion other than predicted and over a wide range of sensor accuracies. This UKF-based algorithm provides a viable low cost alternative to the expensive attitude determination systems currently employed on sounding rockets.

  18. Testing low cost OEM CO2 sensors for outdoor ecological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintyre, C. M.; Risk, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    environment suiting their tolerance limits, most of the tested sensors would be suitable as low-cost alternatives to sensors currently being sold for outdoor ecological studies.

  19. A low-cost, ultraflexible cloth-based microfluidic device for wireless electrochemiluminescence application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Liu, Rui; Wang, Dan; Liu, Cuiling; Zhang, Chunsun

    2016-08-01

    The rising need for low-cost diagnostic devices has led to the search for inexpensive matrices that allow performing alternative analytical assays. Cloth is a viable material for the development of analytical devices due to its low material and manufacture costs, ability to wick assay fluids by capillary forces, and potential for patterning multiplexed channel geometries. In this paper, we describe the construction of low-cost, ultraflexible microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) for wireless electrochemiluminescence based on closed bipolar electrodes (C-WL-ECL), employing extremely cheap materials and a manufacturing process. The C-WL-ECL μCADs are built with wax-screen-printed cloth channels and carbon ink screen-printed electrodes, and the estimated cost per device is only $0.015. To demonstrate the performance of C-WL-ECL μCADs, the two most commonly used ECL systems - tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(ii)/tri-n-propylamine (Ru(bpy)3(2+)/TPA) and 3-aminophthalhydrazide/hydrogen peroxide (luminol/H2O2) - are applied. Under optimized conditions, the C-WL-ECL method has successfully fulfilled the quantitative determination of TPA with a detection limit of 0.085 mM. In addition, on the bent μCADs (bending angle (θ) = 180°), the luminol/H2O2-based ECL system can detect H2O2 as low as 0.024 mM. Based on such an ECL system, the bent μCADs are further used for determination of glucose in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS), with the detection limit of 0.195 mM. Finally, the applicability and validity, anti-interference ability, and storage stability of the C-WL-ECL μCADs are investigated. The results indicate that the proposed device has shown potential to extend the use of microfluidic analytical devices, due to its simplicity, low cost, ultraflexibility, and acceptable analytical performance. PMID:27356231

  20. Low-cost water supplies and their contribution to health.

    PubMed

    Watts, R

    1992-11-01

    The importance of low cost water supplies and sanitation facilities is heightened in drought conditions such as occurred in Zimbabwe during 1991-92. A summary of water and toilet systems is given. Zimbabwe must recognize that it is a dry country and adopt water and sanitation services appropriate to the climate. Since 1980, 10,000 water sources have been protected. The Blair Latrine has been installed in 300,000 locations and uses little or no flush system, is odorless, free of insects, and doubles as a bathroom. The target is to install 1.4 million Blair toilets, 576 piped water supplies, and 36,000 primary water supplies between 1985-2005. When piped water supplies are used in conjunction with the Blair toilet, a tank replaces the soil-lined pit. A Harare based company is currently manufacturing a 1-liter flush toilet instead of a 10-liter one. The Vonder Rig is another technological improvement being tested by the Blair Research Institute, which is effective in drilling through soils and rocky areas in the Epworth area which has a high water table. However, Epworth water supplies were installed in just a few homes; wells currently in use are placed too close to pit latrines and are dry due to the drought. Save the Children Fund (SCF) has been involved with rural water programs, but finds hauling water to rural areas too expensive. People must move into the city with friends and relatives. A SCF engineer has upgraded and dug 1000 wells in the past year, and finds that the Vonder Rig is suitable only where the water is near the surface and soil conditions are right. The SCF has improved existing wells by reinforcing the well lining and headworks and adding a long-lasting windlass plus an apron and cover for prevention of contamination. The SCF develops ways of obtaining water through rural participation. Africare, a US nongovernmental organization, prefers digging boreholes and has completed 800 at a cost of $10 million. However, boreholes dry out, suffer

  1. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect

    Chobot, Anthony; Das, Debarshi; Mayer, Tyler; Markey, Zach; Martinson, Tim; Reeve, Hayden; Attridge, Paul; El-Wardany, Tahany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of

  2. Accurate, low-cost 3D-models of gullies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnen, Nils; Gronz, Oliver; Ries, Johannes B.; Brings, Christine

    2015-04-01

    are able to produce accurate and low-cost 3D-models of gullies.

  3. Low-cost Triangular Lattice Towers for Small Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Ram Chandra

    This thesis focuses on the study of low-cost steel and bamboo triangular lattice towers for small wind turbines. The core objective is to determine the material properties of bamboo and assess the feasibility of bamboo towers. Using the experimentally determined buckling resistance, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, a 12 m high triangular lattice tower for a 500W wind turbine has been modeled as a tripod to formulate the analytical solutions for the stresses and tower deflections, which enables design of the tower based on buckling strength of tower legs. The tripod formulation combines the imposed loads, the base distance between the legs and tower height, and cross-sectional dimensions of the tower legs. The tripod model was used as a reference for the initial design of the bamboo tower and extended to finite element analysis. A 12 m high steel lattice tower was also designed for the same turbine to serve as a comparison to the bamboo tower. The primary result of this work indicates that bamboo is a valid structural material. The commercial software package ANSYS APDL was used to carry out the tower analysis, evaluate the validity of the tripod model, and extend the analysis for the tower design. For this purpose, a 12 m high steel lattice tower for a 500 W wind turbine was examined. Comparison of finite element analysis and analytical solution has shown that tripod model can be accurately used in the design of lattice towers. The tower designs were based on the loads and safety requirements of international standard for small wind turbine safety, IEC 61400-2. For connecting the bamboo sections in the lattice tower, a steel-bamboo adhesive joint combined with conventional lashing has been proposed. Also, considering the low durability of bamboo, periodic replacement of tower members has been proposed. The result of this study has established that bamboo could be used to construct cost-effective and lightweight lattice towers for wind turbines of 500 Watt

  4. Low-Cost, Rugged High-Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A need exists for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other analytical instruments such as scanning electron microscopes. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was developed based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive-to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by a miniature, very-high-speed (200,000 rpm), rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. The key advantages of the pump are reduced cost and improved ruggedness compared to other mechanical hig-hvacuum pumps. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate rotor and stator blades for other pump designs. Also, the symmetry of the rotor is such that dynamic balancing of the rotor will likely not be necessary. Finally, the number of parts in the unit is cut by nearly a factor of three over competing designs. The new pump forms the heart of a complete vacuum system optimized to support analytical instruments in terrestrial applications and on spacecraft and planetary landers. The MDP achieves high vacuum coupled to a ruggedized diaphragm rough pump. Instead of the relatively complicated rotor and stator blades used in turbomolecular pumps, the rotor in the MDP consists of a simple, smooth cylinder of aluminum. This will turn at approximately 200,000 rpm inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the

  5. Satellite Attitude Determination with Low-Cost Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, John C.

    This dissertation contributes design and data processing techniques to maximize the accuracy of low-cost attitude determination systems while removing pre-flight calibration requirements. This enables rapid development of small spacecraft to perform increasingly complex missions. The focus of this work is magnetometers and sun sensors, which are the two most common types of attitude sensors. Magnetometer measurements are degraded by the magnetic fields of nearby electronics, which traditionally limit their utility on satellites unless a boom is used to provide physical separation between the magnetometer and the satellite. This dissertation presents an on-orbit, attitude-independent method for magnetometer calibration that mitigates the effect of nearby electronics. With this method, magnetometers can be placed anywhere within the spacecraft, and as demonstrated through application to flight data, the accuracy of the integrated magnetometer is reduced to nearly that of the stand-alone magnetometer. Photodiodes are light sensors that can be used for sun sensing. An individual photodiode provides a measurement of a single sun vector component, and since orthogonal photodiodes do not provide sufficient coverage due to photodiode field-of-view limitations, there is a tradeoff between photodiode orientation and sun sensing angular accuracy. This dissertation presents a design method to optimize the photodiode configuration for sun sensing, which is also generally applicable to directional sensors. Additionally, an on-orbit calibration method is developed to estimate the photodiode scale factors and orientation, which are critical for accurate sun sensing. Combined, these methods allow a magnetometer to be placed anywhere within a spacecraft and provide an optimal design technique for photodiode placement. On-orbit calibration methods are formulated for both types of sensors that correct the sensor errors on-orbit without requiring pre-flight calibration. The calibration

  6. Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Roger; David Mountz; Wensheng He; Tao Zhang

    2011-03-17

    The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) that operate under reduced relative humidity (RH) conditions remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the fuel cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted of using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. In the traditional approach to polyelectrolytes for proton exchange membranes (PEM), all the required properties are “packaged” in one macromolecule. The properties of interest include proton conductivity, mechanical properties, durability, and water/gas transport. This is the case, for example, for perfluorosulfonic acid-containing (PFSA) membranes. However, the cost of these materials is high, largely due to the complexity and the number of steps involved in their synthesis. In addition, they suffer other shortcomings such as mediocre mechanical properties and insufficient durability for some applications. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® PVDF provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix (Kynar® is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.). It exhibits outstanding chemical resistance in highly oxidative and acidic environments. In work with a prior grant, a membrane known as M41 was developed by Arkema. M41 had many of the properties needed for a high performance PEM, but had a significant deficiency in conductivity at low RH. In the first phase of this work, the processing parameters of M41 were explored as a means to increase its proton

  7. A Low Cost Approach to Simultaneous Orbit, Attitude, and Rate Estimation Using an Extended Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Harman, Rick; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1998-01-01

    An innovative approach to autonomous attitude and trajectory estimation is available using only magnetic field data and rate data. The estimation is performed simultaneously using an Extended Kalman Filter, a well known algorithm used extensively in onboard applications. The magnetic field is measured on a satellite by a magnetometer, an inexpensive and reliable sensor flown on virtually all satellites in low earth orbit. Rate data is provided by a gyro, which can be costly. This system has been developed and successfully tested in a post-processing mode using magnetometer and gyro data from 4 satellites supported by the Flight Dynamics Division at Goddard. In order for this system to be truly low cost, an alternative source for rate data must be utilized. An independent system which estimate spacecraft rate has been successfully developed and tested using only magnetometer data or a combination of magnetometer data and sun sensor data, which is less costly than a gyro. This system also uses an Extended Kalman Filter. Merging the two systems will provide an extremely low cost, autonomous approach to attitude and trajectory estimation. In this work we provide the theoretical background of the combined system. The measurement matrix is developed by combining the measurement matrix of the orbit and attitude estimation EKF with the measurement matrix of the rate estimation EKF, which is composed of a pseudo-measurement which makes the effective measurement a function of the angular velocity. Associated with this is the development of the noise covariance matrix associated with the original measurement combined with the new pseudo-measurement. In addition, the combination of the dynamics from the two systems is presented along with preliminary test results.

  8. A low cost approach to simultaneous orbit, attitude, and rate estimation using an extended Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Harman, Rick; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1998-01-01

    An innovative approach to autonomous attitude and trajectory estimation is available using only magnetic field data and rate data. The estimation is performed simultaneously using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), a well known algorithm used extensively in onboard applications. The magnetic field is measured on a satellite by a magnetometer, an inexpensive and reliable sensor flown on virtually all satellites in low earth orbit. Rate data is provided by a gyro, which can be costly. This system has been developed and successfully tested in a post-processing mode using magnetometer and gyro data from 4 satellites supported by the Flight Dynamics Division at Goddard. In order for this system to be truly low cost, an alternative source for rate data must be utilized. An independent system which estimates spacecraft rate has been successfully developed and tested using only magnetometer data or a combination of magnetometer data and sun sensor data, which is less costly than a gyro. This system also uses an EKF. Merging the two systems will provide an extremely low cost, autonomous approach to attitude and trajectory estimation. In this work we provide the theoretical background of the combined system. The measurement matrix is developed by combining the measurement matrix of the orbit and attitude estimation EKF with the measurement matrix of the rate estimation EKF, which is composed of a pseudo-measurement which makes the effective measurement a function of the angular velocity. Associated with this is the development of the noise covariance matrix associated with the original measurement combined with the new pseudo-measurement. In addition, the combination of the dynamics from the two systems is presented along with preliminary test results.

  9. Nanomembranes and soft fabrication methods for high performance, low cost energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-09-01

    The production of integrated electronic circuits provides examples of the most advanced fabrication and assembly approaches that are generally characterized by large-scale integration of high-performance compact semiconductor elements that rely on rigid and essentially planar form factors. New methods of fabricating semiconductor membranes of nanoscale thickness with intrinsic mechanical flexible features are beginning to provide a set of means to lift these constraints by engendering deformable, three-dimensional device configurations that are difficult to achieve with bulkscale materials while retaining capacities for high (or altogether new forms of) electronic and/or optoelectronic performance. Together with enabling means of deterministic assembly realized via the advancing technology of transferprinting, these light-weight nanomembrane elements can be distributed over large areas on a soft, bendable, and even biocompatible secondary substrates with high throughput and yields to realize interesting new functionalities in technology. Exemplary cases include: large-area integrated electro-optical systems laminated onto curvilinear or other 3-D surfaces for use in sensing and imaging with capacities for accommodating demanding forms of mechanical flexure; and unconventional hybrid systems for lighting and photovoltaic energy conversion that provide a potentially transformational approach to supplant current technologies with high performance, low cost alternatives. Taken together, the results of recent research efforts illustrate important opportunities for exploiting advances in materials in synergy with physical means of patterning, fabrication and assembly. In this review, we explore several exemplary applications taken from this work, and specifically highlight scalable approaches to high performance integrated systems for low cost energy technologies.

  10. Low-Cost Avionics Simulation for Aircrew Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Bernell J.

    This report documents an experiment to determine the training effectiveness of a microcomputer-based avionics system trainer as a cost-effective alternative to training in the actual aircraft. Participants--26 operationally qualified C-141 pilots with no prior knowledge of the Fuel Saving Advisory System (FSAS), a computerized fuel management…

  11. Step-feed biofiltration: a low cost alternative configuration for off-gas treatment.

    PubMed

    Estrada, José M; Quijano, Guillermo; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    Clogging due to biomass accumulation and the loss of structural stability of the packing media are common operational drawbacks of standard gas biofiltration inherent to the traditional biofilter design, which result in prohibitive pressure drop buildups and media channeling. In this work, an innovative step-feed biofilter configuration, with the air emission supplied in either two or three locations along the biofilter height, was tested and compared with a standard biofilter using toluene as a model pollutant and two packing materials: compost and perlite. When using compost, the step-feed biofilter supported similar elimination capacities (EC ≈ 80 g m(-3) h(-1)) and CO2 production rates (200 g m(-3) h(-1)) to those achieved in the standard biofilter. However, while the pressure drop in the step-feed system remained below 300 Pa m bed(-1) for 61 days, the standard biofilter reached this value in only 14 days and 4000 Pa m bed(-1) by day 30, consuming 75% more compression energy throughout the entire operational period. Operation with perlite supported lower ECs compared to compost in both the step-feed and standard biofilters (≈ 30 g m(-3) h(-1)), probably due to the high indigenous microbial diversity present in this organic packing material. The step-feed biofilter exhibited 65% lower compression energy requirements than the standard biofilter during operation with perlite, while supporting similar ECs. In brief, step-feed biofiltration constitutes a promising operational strategy capable of drastically reducing the operating costs of biofiltration due to a reduced energy consumption and an increased packing material lifespan. PMID:23764582

  12. High SO{sub 2} removal duct injection: A low-cost FGD alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    Sorbent Technologies Corporation, of the United States, is currently developing and demonstrating a new waste free, retrofitable, high-SO{sub 2} removal duct-injection process. Up to 85 percent SO{sub 2} removal is achieved by simply injecting a new dry lime-based sorbent into the flue-gas duct, collecting the sorbent downstream in a particulate collector, and then recycling the sorbent. By avoiding large, expensive components, the process can have low capital costs, making it especially appropriate for smaller, older, less-utilized plants. The key to the new technology is the use of sorbent supports. Supported sorbents are produced by coating hydrated lime onto inexpensive mineral supports, such as exfoliated vermiculite or perlite. Consequently, there are no liquid, sludge, or solid wastes with the new technology. Once saturated with SO{sub 2}, the spent sorbent can be easily pelletized into a valuable soil-conditioning agricultural by-product, for the sustainable development that the future requires. This paper describes Sorbent Technologies` pilot demonstration of supported sorbent injection at the Ohio Edison Company`s R.E. Burger station. The Burger effort is also the first demonstration of the Electric Power Research Institute`s new {open_quotes}COHPAC{close_quotes} baghouse technology in a sorbent-injection desulfurization application.

  13. Low-cost alternative to GPS for determining coordinates of large sensor nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogler, Kent J.; Stefanek, George; Kozak, Edward M., Jr.; Petrovic, Joseph

    1997-07-01

    In many applications, sensors can be precisely placed to optimally achieve their intended monitoring function. However circumstances arise in which sensors must be delivered to a remote location by air drop or from gun launched projectiles due to presence of hostile forces and environments or unavailability of resources for their accurate placement. Consequently, sensors are distributed in a random pattern. This paper presents an approach to locating each sensor in the net from a remote location. It further describes an approach to propagating the coordinates to a remote control point and identifying the coordinates of sensors activated by intrusion.

  14. Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Umer, Masood; Umer, Hafiz Muhammad; Qadir, Irfan; Rashid, Haroon; Awan, Rabia; Askari, Raza; Ashraf, Shamvil

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1) wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2) curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3) autoclaving for 8 minutes (4) bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used); (5) reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months), 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries. PMID:24455717

  15. The performance of low-cost commercial cloud computing as an alternative in computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Thackston, Russell; Fortenberry, Ryan C

    2015-05-01

    The growth of commercial cloud computing (CCC) as a viable means of computational infrastructure is largely unexplored for the purposes of quantum chemistry. In this work, the PSI4 suite of computational chemistry programs is installed on five different types of Amazon World Services CCC platforms. The performance for a set of electronically excited state single-point energies is compared between these CCC platforms and typical, "in-house" physical machines. Further considerations are made for the number of cores or virtual CPUs (vCPUs, for the CCC platforms), but no considerations are made for full parallelization of the program (even though parallelization of the BLAS library is implemented), complete high-performance computing cluster utilization, or steal time. Even with this most pessimistic view of the computations, CCC resources are shown to be more cost effective for significant numbers of typical quantum chemistry computations. Large numbers of large computations are still best utilized by more traditional means, but smaller-scale research may be more effectively undertaken through CCC services. PMID:25753841

  16. Artificial lift alternatives offer operators options for best production at low cost

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-03-01

    An operator can produce wells cheaper and make equipment last longer with the right artificial lift combination for the task at hand. This paper describes beam pumps, long stroke pumping units, electric submersible pumps, a plunger lift, progressive cavity pumps, hydraulic pumps.

  17. Open-source hardware is a low-cost alternative for scientific instrumentation and research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientific research requires the collection of data in order to study, monitor, analyze, describe, or understand a particular process or event. Data collection efforts are often a compromise: manual measurements can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, resulting in data being collected at a low f...

  18. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Thomas, Ph.D., President Franklin D. Lomax, Ph.D, CTO & Principal Investigator, and Maxim Lyubovski, Ph.D.

    2011-03-10

    costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

  19. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Steven

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  20. Low Cost Remediation of Mining Sites with Biosolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Walter; Evanylo, Gregory; Stuczynski, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    ) sites in eastern Virginia indicated that non C-amended biosolids could be applied at loading rates of up to 75 Mg/ha without significant local ground-water effects, but that significant elevation of nitrate-N in shallow root-zone (75 cm) percolates was observed the first winter after application. Addition of palatable C (as sawdust) to adjust the applied biosolids C:N ratio to 25:1 significantly reduced nitrate-N in root-zone percolates and would allow for higher loading rates where indicated. Lime-stabilized biosolids (100 Mg/ha; 15 to 25% CCE) have also been used to permanently stabilize and revegetate large areas (> 100 ha) acid-sulfate (pH < 3.5) soils disturbed by construction in eastern Virginia with minimal local water quality effects. Parallel studies at our sites in the USA have indicated no significant heavy metal leaching or plant uptake risks as long as sludge quality and soil pH are controlled. Finally, long-term (10 yr) results from Katowice, Poland, indicate that high rates (> 250 Mg/ha) of biosolids co-applied with waste limes can be utilized to permanently stabilize and revegetate a wide range of phytotoxic and heavily contaminated Pb/Zn smelter slags and processing tailings. Biosolids are generally available at very low cost for land rehabilitation since their cost of transport and application is usually born by the producer or source municipality. Their use is particularly cost-effective when lime-stabilized materials are applied to strongly acidic or metalliferous sites.

  1. A low cost ERT prototype in the Cultural Heritage monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Loperte, A.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is a well-established geophysical technique useful in geology and environmental studies. Its low intrusivity, which is a key feature for its success in the above-mentioned fields, can be a strong limitation for the systematic application of the ERT in the Cultural Heritage and civil infrastructures monitoring application fields. In fact, usually, the injection of the electric current in the structure (or ground) is realized through stainless steel electrodes, which have to be fixed into the medium so to achieve a good electric contact with a low electrode resistance. However, Geophysical characterization of Cultural Heritage needs more stringent requirements in terms of minimal or not-intrusivity. To comply with this requirement, in this work an ERT system has been developed, which is based on the use of medical Ag/AgCl electrodes located on the structure also thanks to the help of and conductive gel so to keep low the electric contact resistance; the electrodes are excited by a classical DC georesistivimeter. Such a type of low cost electrodes makes it possible to perform non invasive diagnostics by also ensuring a stability of measurement in a time period comparable with the ones required for the survey in cultural heritage. In addition, the use of Ag/AgCl minimizes electrode polarization phenomena. This work is concerned with the set-up and the testing of a prototypical ERT system, where the Ag/AgCl electrodes are commanded by the IRIS Syscal Junior georesistivimeter, which is of interest Cultural Heritage and civil infrastructures characterization and monitoring. Preliminary test have demonstrated the possibility to inject electrical current (10-30 mA) into reinforced concrete and marble and measure an induced voltage of the order of ranging from 0.1 to 10 mV; also the electrodes exhibit a good stability even if they are used as current electrodes. The use of an electroconductive material such as a water based gel, which

  2. Substrate effects on the electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum from a liquid precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donev, Eugenii U.; Schardein, Gregory; Wright, John C.; Hastings, J. Todd

    2011-07-01

    Focused electron-beam-induced deposition using bulk liquid precursors (LP-EBID) is a new nanofabrication technique developed in the last two years as an alternative to conventional EBID, which utilizes cumbersome gaseous precursors. Furthermore, LP-EBID using dilute aqueous precursors has been demonstrated to yield platinum (Pt) nanostructures with as-deposited metal content that is substantially higher than the purity achieved by EBID with currently available gaseous precursors. This advantage of LP-EBID--along with the ease of use, low cost, and relative innocuousness of the liquid precursors--holds promise for its practical applicability in areas such as rapid device prototyping and lithographic mask repair. One of the feasibility benchmarks for the LP-EBID method is the ability to deposit high-fidelity nanostructures on various substrate materials. In this study, we report the first observations of performing LP-EBID on bare and metal-coated silicon-nitride membranes, and compare the resulting Pt deposits to those obtained by LP-EBID on polyimide membranes in terms of nucleation, morphology, size dependence on electron dose, and purity.

  3. Substrate effects on the electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum from a liquid precursor.

    PubMed

    Donev, Eugenii U; Schardein, Gregory; Wright, John C; Hastings, J Todd

    2011-07-01

    Focused electron-beam-induced deposition using bulk liquid precursors (LP-EBID) is a new nanofabrication technique developed in the last two years as an alternative to conventional EBID, which utilizes cumbersome gaseous precursors. Furthermore, LP-EBID using dilute aqueous precursors has been demonstrated to yield platinum (Pt) nanostructures with as-deposited metal content that is substantially higher than the purity achieved by EBID with currently available gaseous precursors. This advantage of LP-EBID--along with the ease of use, low cost, and relative innocuousness of the liquid precursors--holds promise for its practical applicability in areas such as rapid device prototyping and lithographic mask repair. One of the feasibility benchmarks for the LP-EBID method is the ability to deposit high-fidelity nanostructures on various substrate materials. In this study, we report the first observations of performing LP-EBID on bare and metal-coated silicon-nitride membranes, and compare the resulting Pt deposits to those obtained by LP-EBID on polyimide membranes in terms of nucleation, morphology, size dependence on electron dose, and purity. PMID:21373685

  4. Polycrystalline silicon study: Low-cost silicon refining technology prospects and semiconductor-grade polycrystalline silicon availability through 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Ferber, R.; Lutwack, R.; Lorenz, J. H.; Pellin, R.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays that convert solar energy into electrical energy can become a cost effective bulk energy generation alternative, provided that an adequate supply of low cost materials is available. One of the key requirements for economic photovoltaic cells is reasonably priced silicon. At present, the photovoltaic industry is dependent upon polycrystalline silicon refined by the Siemens process primarily for integrated circuits, power devices, and discrete semiconductor devices. This dependency is expected to continue until the DOE sponsored low cost silicon refining technology developments have matured to the point where they are in commercial use. The photovoltaic industry can then develop its own source of supply. Silicon material availability and market pricing projections through 1988 are updated based on data collected early in 1984. The silicon refining industry plans to meet the increasing demands of the semiconductor device and photovoltaic product industries are overviewed. In addition, the DOE sponsored technology research for producing low cost polycrystalline silicon, probabilistic cost analysis for the two most promising production processes for achieving the DOE cost goals, and the impacts of the DOE photovoltaics program silicon refining research upon the commercial polycrystalline silicon refining industry are addressed.

  5. Low cost satellite land mobile service for nationwide applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A satellite land mobile system using mobile radios in the UHF band, and Ku-band Communications Routing Terminals (earth stations) for a nationwide connection from any mobile location to any fixed or mobile location, and from any fixed location to any mobile location is proposed. The proposed nationwide satellite land mobile service provides: telephone network quality (1 out of 100 blockage) service, complete privacy for all the users, operation similar to the telephone network, alternatives for data services up to 32 Kbps data rates, and a cost effective and practical mobile radio compatible with system sizes ranging from 10,000 to 1,000,000 users. Seven satellite alternatives (ranging from 30 ft diameter dual beam antenna to 210 ft diameter 77 beam antenna) along with mobile radios having a sensitivity figure of merit (G/T) of -15 dB/deg K are considered. Optimized mobile radio user costs are presented as a function of the number of users with the satellite and mobile radio alternatives as system parameters.

  6. Reducing natural organic matter and disinfection by-product precursors by alternating oxic and anoxic conditions during engineered short residence time riverbank filtration: A laboratory-scale column study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Farré, Maria José; Keller, Jurg; Gernjak, Wolfgang

    2016-09-15

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) with days to months of residence time has been successfully used as treatment or pre-treatment process to improve water quality for decades. However, its feasibility depends on the local hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, for sites unsuitable to traditional RBF, a smaller engineered RBF may be an option. This study evaluates the performance of engineered short residence time RBF on improving water quality, focusing on the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and the reduction of precursors of carbon and nitrogen disinfection by-products (DBP). Lab-scale experiments were conducted with surface feed water from a drinking water plant. The results showed that within 6days hydraulic retention time (HRT), 60-70% dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 70-80% ultraviolet absorbance at 254nm (UV254) could be removed. During the whole filtration process, biodegradation was responsible for the removal of organic matter, and it was found that alternating redox condition between oxic and anoxic was beneficial for the overall performance of the RBF. Dissolved oxygen (DO) had a substantial impact on the removal of DBP precursors. For carbon-containing DBP (C-DBP) precursors' removal, re-aeration after a sequence of oxic and anoxic conditions could further increase the removal efficiencies from 50%, 60%, and 60% to 80%, 90%, and 80% for trihalomethanes (THMs), chloral hydrate (CH), and haloketones (HKs). Prolonged anoxic conditions were however beneficial for the removal of nitrogen-containing DBP (N-DBP) precursors. PMID:27203522

  7. 8.01% CuInGaSe2 solar cells fabricated by air-stable low-cost inks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Han, Seung-Yeol; Sung, Shi-Joon; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Chang, Chih-Hung

    2012-08-21

    CuInGaSe(2) (CIGS), a promising thin film solar cell material, has gained lots of attention in decades due to its high energy conversion efficiency and potential lower manufacture cost over conventional Si solar cells. As a cheaper processing method compared to vacuum-based techniques, solution-based deposition has been successfully applied to fabricate electronic devices, such as transistors and solar cells. In this paper, we reported CIGS thin film solar cells with an energy conversion efficiency reaching up to 8.01% using air-stable, low-cost inks. The newly developed inks consist of commercially available, low-cost compounds and solvents and can be processed using a variety of printing and coating techniques. More importantly, the inks can produce CIGS films free of copper selenides and amorphous carbon, two common by-products from solution-based CIGS processes. The mechanism for the transformation from metal salt precursor films to CIGS absorber thin films and the influence of selenium vapour pressure on absorber film quality and photovoltaic device performance were investigated and discussed. High-quality CIGS films with micrometer-sized crystals were obtained by using higher selenization partial pressure. PMID:22782084

  8. Devices, components, and applications of low cost using polymer optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomer, Mauro; Baldwin-Olguin, Guillermo

    2004-10-01

    Low-cost optical devices, components a polymer optical fiber (POF) are demonstrated using technical of polished. Potentially low-cost components fabrication processes are described. Several components and devices are proposed for applications in comunications or industrial applications. Experimental results obtained with POF and diffraction grating are presented.

  9. Development of low-cost modular designs for photovoltaic array fields

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, G.T.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1985-05-01

    A low-cost modular photovoltaic array field design developed for commercial/industrial installations is discussed. Key features of the design include minimum site preparation requirements, circuit designs which result in low life-cycle maintenance costs, low cost easily installed support structures, and economical approaches to lightning protection, grounding and electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression.

  10. Low cost sensors for PM and related air pollutants in the US and India

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging air quality sensors have a variety of possible applications. If accurate and reliable, they have a number of benefits over conventional monitors. They are low-cost, lightweight, and have low power consumption. Because of their low cost, a dense array of sensors instal...

  11. A Low-Cost, In Situ Resistivity and Temperature Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a low-cost, reliable method for long-term in situ autonomous monitoring of subsurface resistivity and temperature in a shallow, moderately heterogeneous subsurface. Probes, to be left in situ, were constructed at relatively low cost with close electrode spacing. Once i...

  12. 10 CFR 440.20 - Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities. 440.20 Section 440.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.20 Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities. (a) An eligible dwelling unit may...

  13. Cuprous Oxide as a Potential Low-Cost Hole-Transport Material for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Ahmadi, Vahid; Gharibzadeh, Saba; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Inorganic hole-transport materials are commercially desired to decrease the fabrication cost of perovskite solar cells. Here, Cu2O is introduced as a potential hole-transport material for stable, low-cost devices. Considering that Cu2O formation is highly sensitive to the underlying mixture of perovskite precursors and their solvents, we proposed and engineered a technique for reactive magnetron sputtering. The rotational angular deposition of Cu2O yields high surface coverage of the perovskite layer for high rate of charge extraction. Deposition of this Cu2O layer on the pinhole-free perovskite layer produces devices with power conversion efficiency values of up to 8.93%. The engineered Cu2O layers showed uniform, compact, and crack-free surfaces on the perovskite layer without affecting the perovskite structure, which is desired for deposition of the top metal contact and for surface shielding against moisture and mechanical damages. PMID:26748959

  14. Purification of drinking water by low cost method in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatneh, Yasabie; Sahu, Omprakash; Yimer, Seid

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, water treatment is a big issue in rural areas especially in African country. Due to lack of facilities available in those areas and the treatment are expensive. In this regard's an attempt has been made to find alternative natural way to treat the rural drinking water. The experiment trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were used to treat contaminated water obtained from a number of wells. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera can considerably improve the quality of drinking water. A 100 % improvement both in turbidity and reduction in Escherichia coli was noted for a number of the samples, together with significant improvements in colour.

  15. Low-cost conformable storage to maximize vehicle range

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) are currently the leading fuel contenders for converting vehicles from gasoline and diesel to alternative fuels. Two factors that inhibit conversion are additional vehicle costs and reduced range compared to gasoline. In overcoming these barriers, a key element of the alternative fuel system becomes the storage tank for these pressurized fuels. Using cylindrical pressure vessels is the conventional approach, but they do not package well in the available vehicle volume. Thiokol Corporation has developed and is now producing a conformable (non-cylindrical) aluminum storage system for LPG vans. This system increases fuel storage in a given rectangular envelope. The goal of this project was to develop the technology for a lower cost conformable tank made of injection-molded plastic. Much of the cost of the aluminum conformable tank is in the fabrication because several weld seams are required. The injection-molding process has the potential to greatly reduce the fabrication costs. The requirements of a pressurized fuel tank on a vehicle necessitate the proper combination of material properties. Material selection and tank design must be optimized for maximum internal volume and minimum material use to be competitive with other technologies. The material and the design must also facilitate the injection-molding process. Prototype tanks must be fabricated to reveal molding problems, prove solutions, and measure results. In production, efficient fabrication will be key to making these tanks cost competitive. The work accomplished during this project has demonstrated that conformable LPG tanks can be molded with thermoplastics. However, to achieve a competitive tank, improvements are needed in the effective material strength. If these improvements can be made, molded plastics should produce a lower cost tank that can store more LPG on a vehicle than conventional cylinders.

  16. A Low Cost Automated Monitoring System for Landslides Using Dual Frequency GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, H.; Edwards, S.

    2006-12-01

    Landslides are an existing and permanent threat to societies across the globe, generating financial and human losses whenever and wherever they occur. Drawing together the strands of science that provide increased understanding of landslide triggers through accurate modelling is therefore vital for the development of mitigation and management strategies. Together with climatic and geomorphological data a key input here is information on the precise location and timing of landslide events. However, the detailed monitoring of landslides and precursor movements is generally limited to episodic campaigns where limiting factors include equipment and mobilisation costs, time constraints and spatial resolution. This research has developed a geodetic tool of benefit to scientists involved in the development of closely coupled models that seek to explain trigger mechanisms such as rainfall duration and intensity and changes in groundwater pressure to actual real land movements. A fully automated low cost dual frequency GPS station for the continuous in-situ monitoring of landslide sites has been developed. System configuration combines a dual frequency GPS receiver, PC board with a GPRS modem and power supply to deliver 24hr/365day operation capability. Individual components have been chosen to provide the highest accuracies while minimising power consumption resulting in a system around half that of equivalent commercial systems. Measurement point-costs can be further reduced through the use of antenna switching and multi antenna arrays. Continuous data is delivered via mobile phone uplink and processed automatically using geodetic software. The developed system has been extensively tested on a purpose built platform capable of simulating ground movements. Co-mounted antennas have allowed direct comparisons with more expensive geodetic GPS receivers. The system is capable of delivering precise 3D coordinates with a 9 mm rms. The system can be up-scaled resulting in the

  17. Design of a low cost spinneret assembly for coaxial electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheja, Anant; Chandra, T. S.; Natarajan, T. S.

    2015-06-01

    Coaxial electrospinning makes use of a concentric arrangement of spinneret orifices for synthesis of core-shell polymer nanofibers. Most laboratories purchase the spinneret from commercial manufacturers at a significant expense, or design it indigenously to save costs but compromise on manufacturing precision. Therefore, the present work suggests the use of a relatively lower priced McIntyre cannula needle, conventionally used for ophthalmic surgeries, as a coaxial spinneret for electrospinning. The McIntyre cannula needle was modified to synthesize hollow fibers of nylon 6, which acted as sheath with hydrogen peroxide as core during electrospinning. In addition, encapsulation of bioactives, viz., red blood cells, bacterial cells, and lysozyme (enzyme protein) was attempted, using their aqueous suspensions as core, with polycaprolactone solution as sheath. Resulting fibers had an integral core-shell structure with the bioactives encapsulated in the core. This indicated that the modified McIntyre cannula functions suitably as a spinneret for coaxial electrospinning. Thus, apart from being a clinical device, the modified McIntyre cannula needle provides an economic alternative to conventional coaxial spinneret assemblies.

  18. High-performance low-cost antibody microarrays using enzyme-mediated silver amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gina; Bergeron, Sebastien; Juncker, David

    2015-04-01

    Antibody microarrays can detect multiple proteins simultaneously, but the need for bulky and expensive fluorescence scanners limits their adaptation in clinical settings. Here we introduce a 15-plex enzyme-mediated silver enhanced sandwich immunoassay (SENSIA) on a microarray as an economic alternative to conventional fluorescence microarray assays. We compared several gold and silver amplification schemes, optimized HRP-mediated silver amplification, and evaluated the use of flatbed scanners for microarray quantification. Using the optimized assay condition, we established binding curves for 15 proteins using both SENSIA and conventional fluorescence microarray assays and compared their limits of detection (LODs) and dynamic ranges (DRs). We found that the LODs for all proteins are in the pg/mL range, with LODs for 12 proteins below 10 pg/mL. All but two proteins (ENDO and IL4) have similar LODs (less than 10-fold difference) and all but two proteins (IL1b and MCP1) are similar in DR (less than 1.5-log difference). Furthermore, we spiked six proteins in diluted serum and measured them by both silver enhancement and fluorescence detection and found a good agreement (R(2) > 0.9) between the two methods, suggesting that a complex matrix such as serum has a minimal effect on the measurement. By combining enzyme-mediated silver enhancement and consumer electronics for optical detection, SENSIA presents a new opportunity for low-cost high-sensitivity multiplex immunoassays for clinical applications. PMID:25668573

  19. Steerable Space Fed Lens Array for Low-Cost Adaptive Ground Station Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Popovic, Zoya; Rondineau, Sebastien; Miranda, Felix A.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Fed Lens Array (SFLA) is an alternative to a phased array antenna that replaces large numbers of expensive solid-state phase shifters with a single spatial feed network. SFLA can be used for multi-beam application where multiple independent beams can be generated simultaneously with a single antenna aperture. Unlike phased array antennas where feed loss increases with array size, feed loss in a lens array with more than 50 elements is nearly independent of the number of elements, a desirable feature for large apertures. In addition, SFLA has lower cost as compared to a phased array at the expense of total volume and complete beam continuity. For ground station applications, both of these tradeoff parameters are not important and can thus be exploited in order to lower the cost of the ground station. In this paper, we report the development and demonstration of a 952-element beam-steerable SFLA intended for use as a low cost ground station for communicating and tracking of a low Earth orbiting satellite. The dynamic beam steering is achieved through switching to different feed-positions of the SFLA via a beam controller.

  20. Iodine Propulsion Advantages for Low Cost Mission Applications and the Iodine Satellite (ISAT) Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Science and Technology Office is continuously exploring technology options to increase performance or reduce cost and risk to future NASA missions including science and exploration. Electric propulsion is a prevalent technology known to reduce mission costs by reduction in launch costs and spacecraft mass through increased post launch propulsion performance. The exploration of alternative propellants for electric propulsion continues to be of interest to the community. Iodine testing has demonstrated comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density resulting in higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's unique properties also allow for unpressurized storage yet sublimation with minimal power requirements to produce required gas flow rates. These characteristics make iodine an ideal propellant for secondary spacecraft. A range of mission have been evaluated with a focus on low-cost applications. Results highlight the potential for significant cost reduction over state of the art. Based on the potential, NASA has been developing the iodine Satellite for a near-term iodine Hall propulsion technology demonstration. Mission applications and progress of the iodine Satellite project are presented.