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Sample records for alternative multi-attribute utility

  1. Multi-Attribute Utility Theory and Adaptive Techniques for Intelligent Web-Based Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabassi, K.; Virvou, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory can be combined with adaptive techniques to improve individualised teaching in an Intelligent Learning Environment (ILE). The ILE is called Web F-SMILE, it operates over the Web and is meant to help novice users learn basic skills of computer use. Tutoring is dynamically adapted to the…

  2. Measurement of patient-derived utility values for periodontal health using a multi-attribute scale.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, C A; Brickley, M R; McAndrew, R

    1996-09-01

    Periodontal health states are difficult to quantify and no formal scale quantifying patients' utilities for periodontal health states exits. Multi-attribute utility (MAU) techniques were used to develop such a scale. The MAU scale may be used to quantify patients' assessment of their current periodontal health and that of possible treatment outcomes. Such data, combined with probability values in formal decision analysis techniques would result in improved rationality of treatment planning for periodontal disease. 20 patients attending for routine undergraduate care were interviewed. Data from these interviews were sorted into groups of common interest (domains). Intra-domain health statements were complied from the interview content. 21 patients ranked the intra-domain statements on a scale of 0-100. This same group of patients also performed an inter-domain weighting. Mean results showed that patients were 2X as concerned with how they felt and with the prognosis of possible outcomes, than with how they looked and what facts they knew about their oral health. However, the real value of utilities research lies in application of individual results to treatment planning as there is a wide range of opinion regarding outcome health states. PMID:8891929

  3. EXPERIMENTING WITH MULTI-ATTRIBUTE UTILITY SURVEY METHODS IN A MULTI-DIMENSIONAL VALUATION PROBLEM. (R824699)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The use of willingness-to-pay (WTP) survey techniques based on multi-attribute utility (MAU) approaches has been recommended by some authors as a way to deal simultaneously with two difficulties that increasingly plague environmental valuation. The first of th...

  4. Use of Multi-attribute Utility Functions in Evaluating Security Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C; Lamont, A; Sicherman, A

    2008-06-13

    In analyzing security systems, we are concerned with protecting a building or facility from an attack by an adversary. Typically, we address the possibility that an adversary could enter a building and cause damage resulting in an immediate loss of life, or at least substantial disruption in the operations of the facility. In response to this setting, we implement security systems including devices, procedures, and facility upgrades designed to (a) prevent the adversary from entering, (b) detect and neutralize him if he does enter, and (c) harden the facility to minimize damage if an attack is carried out successfully. Although we have cast this in terms of physical protection of a building, the same general approach can be applied to non-physical attacks such as cyber attacks on a computer system. A rigorous analytic process is valuable for quantitatively evaluating an existing system, identifying its weaknesses, and proposing useful upgrades. As such, in this paper we describe an approach to assess the degree of overall protection provided by security measures. Our approach evaluates the effectiveness of the individual components of the system, describes how the components work together, and finally assesses the degree of overall protection achieved. This model can then be used to quantify the amount of protection provided by existing security measures, as well as to address proposed upgrades to the system and help identify a robust and cost effective set of improvements. Within the model, we use multiattribute utility functions to perform the overall evaluations of the system.

  5. How Well Do the Generic Multi-attribute Utility Instruments Incorporate Patient and Public Views Into Their Descriptive Systems?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Katherine J

    2016-02-01

    Multi-attribute utility instruments (MAUIs) are increasingly being used to generate utility data, which can be used to calculate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). These QALY data can then be incorporated into a cost-utility analysis as part of an economic evaluation, to inform health care resource allocation decisions. Many health care decision-making bodies around the world, such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, require the use of generic MAUIs. Recently, there has been a call for greater input of patients into the development of patient-reported outcome measures, and this is now actively encouraged. By incorporating the views of patients, greater validity of an instrument is expected and it is more likely that patients will be able to self-complete the instrument, which is the ideal when obtaining information about a patient's health-related quality of life. This paper examines the stages of MAUI development and the scope for patient and/or public involvement at each stage. The paper then reviews how much the main generic MAUIs have incorporated the views of patients/the public into the development of their descriptive systems at each of these stages, and the implications of this. The review finds that the majority of MAUIs had very little input from patients/the public. Instead, existing literature and/or the views of experts were used. If we wish to incorporate patient/public views into future development of MAUIs, qualitative methods are recommended. PMID:25663152

  6. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  7. Multi-attribute decision analysis for the protection of groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C. S.; Ingram, J. W.

    1981-05-01

    Decision analysis is a powerful management tool for situations involving a complex set of alternatives for a particular set of objectives. Decision analysis, coupled with multi-attribute utility assessments, is shown to be a viable problem solving method for a complex water-resource management problem. The City of San Antonio is faced with the difficult decision of how to protect its sole water source, the Edwards aquifer, from the threat of pollution resulting from urban sprawl over the aquifer recharge zone. This decision problem has been structured as a decision analysis model in an effort to provide local decision-makers with a highly objective and easily-documented means of deciding among alternative management policies. Multi-attribute utility functions were used as the measure of effectiveness for the various alternatives. The necessary judgmental information was gathered from a group of local water-resource decision-makers through a series of cyclic opinion surveys. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to illustrate the degree to which the solution of the problem was dependent upon the identified uncertain events.

  8. Multi-Attribute Consensus Building Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyyan, Vitaliy; Christensen, Laurene; Thurlow, Martha; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Attribute Consensus Building (MACB) method is a quantitative approach for determining a group's opinion about the importance of each item (strategy, decision, recommendation, policy, priority, etc.) on a list (Vanderwood, & Erickson, 1994). This process enables a small or large group of participants to generate and discuss a set…

  9. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  10. Hierarchical competitions subserving multi-attribute choice.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Laurence T; Dolan, Raymond J; Behrens, Timothy E J

    2014-11-01

    Valuation is a key tenet of decision neuroscience, where it is generally assumed that different attributes of competing options are assimilated into unitary values. Such values are central to current neural models of choice. By contrast, psychological studies emphasize complex interactions between choice and valuation. Principles of neuronal selection also suggest that competitive inhibition may occur in early valuation stages, before option selection. We found that behavior in multi-attribute choice is best explained by a model involving competition at multiple levels of representation. This hierarchical model also explains neural signals in human brain regions previously linked to valuation, including striatum, parietal and prefrontal cortex, where activity represents within-attribute competition, competition between attributes and option selection. This multi-layered inhibition framework challenges the assumption that option values are computed before choice. Instead, our results suggest a canonical competition mechanism throughout all stages of a processing hierarchy, not simply at a final choice stage. PMID:25306549

  11. LineUp: Visual Analysis of Multi-Attribute Rankings

    PubMed Central

    Gratzl, Samuel; Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Pfister, Hanspeter; Streit, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Rankings are a popular and universal approach to structuring otherwise unorganized collections of items by computing a rank for each item based on the value of one or more of its attributes. This allows us, for example, to prioritize tasks or to evaluate the performance of products relative to each other. While the visualization of a ranking itself is straightforward, its interpretation is not, because the rank of an item represents only a summary of a potentially complicated relationship between its attributes and those of the other items. It is also common that alternative rankings exist which need to be compared and analyzed to gain insight into how multiple heterogeneous attributes affect the rankings. Advanced visual exploration tools are needed to make this process efficient. In this paper we present a comprehensive analysis of requirements for the visualization of multi-attribute rankings. Based on these considerations, we propose LineUp - a novel and scalable visualization technique that uses bar charts. This interactive technique supports the ranking of items based on multiple heterogeneous attributes with different scales and semantics. It enables users to interactively combine attributes and flexibly refine parameters to explore the effect of changes in the attribute combination. This process can be employed to derive actionable insights as to which attributes of an item need to be modified in order for its rank to change. Additionally, through integration of slope graphs, LineUp can also be used to compare multiple alternative rankings on the same set of items, for example, over time or across different attribute combinations. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed multi-attribute visualization technique in a qualitative study. The study shows that users are able to successfully solve complex ranking tasks in a short period of time. PMID:24051794

  12. Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration in Space System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A. M.; Hastings, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity inherent in space systems necessarily requires intense expenditures of resources both human and monetary. The high level of ambiguity present in the early design phases of these systems causes long, highly iterative, and costly design cycles. This paper looks at incorporating decision theory methods into the early design processes to streamline communication of wants and needs among stakeholders and between levels of design. Communication channeled through formal utility interviews and analysis enables engineers to better understand the key drivers for the system and allows a more thorough exploration of the design tradespace. Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration (MATE), an evolving process incorporating decision theory into model and simulation- based design, has been applied to several space system case studies at MIT. Preliminary results indicate that this process can improve the quality of communication to more quickly resolve project ambiguity, and enable the engineer to discover better value designs for multiple stakeholders. MATE is also being integrated into a concurrent design environment to facilitate the transfer knowledge of important drivers into higher fidelity design phases. Formal utility theory provides a mechanism to bridge the language barrier between experts of different backgrounds and differing needs (e.g. scientists, engineers, managers, etc). MATE with concurrent design couples decision makers more closely to the design, and most importantly, maintains their presence between formal reviews.

  13. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  14. Detecting Hotspot Information Using Multi-Attribute Based Topic Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Li; Tan, Feng; Zhu, Ying; Feng, Weisi

    2015-01-01

    Microblogging as a kind of social network has become more and more important in our daily lives. Enormous amounts of information are produced and shared on a daily basis. Detecting hot topics in the mountains of information can help people get to the essential information more quickly. However, due to short and sparse features, a large number of meaningless tweets and other characteristics of microblogs, traditional topic detection methods are often ineffective in detecting hot topics. In this paper, we propose a new topic model named multi-attribute latent dirichlet allocation (MA-LDA), in which the time and hashtag attributes of microblogs are incorporated into LDA model. By introducing time attribute, MA-LDA model can decide whether a word should appear in hot topics or not. Meanwhile, compared with the traditional LDA model, applying hashtag attribute in MA-LDA model gives the core words an artificially high ranking in results meaning the expressiveness of outcomes can be improved. Empirical evaluations on real data sets demonstrate that our method is able to detect hot topics more accurately and efficiently compared with several baselines. Our method provides strong evidence of the importance of the temporal factor in extracting hot topics. PMID:26496635

  15. Detecting Hotspot Information Using Multi-Attribute Based Topic Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Li, Li; Tan, Feng; Zhu, Ying; Feng, Weisi

    2015-01-01

    Microblogging as a kind of social network has become more and more important in our daily lives. Enormous amounts of information are produced and shared on a daily basis. Detecting hot topics in the mountains of information can help people get to the essential information more quickly. However, due to short and sparse features, a large number of meaningless tweets and other characteristics of microblogs, traditional topic detection methods are often ineffective in detecting hot topics. In this paper, we propose a new topic model named multi-attribute latent dirichlet allocation (MA-LDA), in which the time and hashtag attributes of microblogs are incorporated into LDA model. By introducing time attribute, MA-LDA model can decide whether a word should appear in hot topics or not. Meanwhile, compared with the traditional LDA model, applying hashtag attribute in MA-LDA model gives the core words an artificially high ranking in results meaning the expressiveness of outcomes can be improved. Empirical evaluations on real data sets demonstrate that our method is able to detect hot topics more accurately and efficiently compared with several baselines. Our method provides strong evidence of the importance of the temporal factor in extracting hot topics. PMID:26496635

  16. Multi-Attribute Decision Theory methodology for pollution control measure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera Roldan, A.S.; Corona Juarez, A.; Hardie, R.W.; Thayer, G.R.

    1992-12-31

    A methodology based in Multi-Attribute Decision Theory was developed to prioritize air pollution control measures and strategies (a set of measures) for Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). We have developed a framework that takes into account economic, technical feasibility, environmental, social, political, and institutional factors to evaluate pollution mitigation measures and strategies utilizing a decision analysis process. In a series of meetings with a panel of experts in air pollution from different offices of the mexican government we have developed General and Specific criteria for a decision analysis tree. With these tools the measures or strategies can be graded and a figure of merit can be assigned to each of them, so they can be ranked. Two pollution mitigation measures were analyzed to test the methodology, the results are presented. This methodology was developed specifically for Mexico City, though the experience gained in this work can be used to develop similar methodologies for other metropolitan areas throughout the world.

  17. Multi-Attribute Decision Theory methodology for pollution control measure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera Roldan, A.S.; Corona Juarez, A. ); Hardie, R.W.; Thayer, G.R. )

    1992-01-01

    A methodology based in Multi-Attribute Decision Theory was developed to prioritize air pollution control measures and strategies (a set of measures) for Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). We have developed a framework that takes into account economic, technical feasibility, environmental, social, political, and institutional factors to evaluate pollution mitigation measures and strategies utilizing a decision analysis process. In a series of meetings with a panel of experts in air pollution from different offices of the mexican government we have developed General and Specific criteria for a decision analysis tree. With these tools the measures or strategies can be graded and a figure of merit can be assigned to each of them, so they can be ranked. Two pollution mitigation measures were analyzed to test the methodology, the results are presented. This methodology was developed specifically for Mexico City, though the experience gained in this work can be used to develop similar methodologies for other metropolitan areas throughout the world.

  18. Impact of alternative energy forms on public utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, F. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of alternative energy sources by the electric utility industry is discussed. Research projects are reviewed in each of the following areas; solar energy, wind energy conversion, photosynthesis of biomass, ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal energy, fusion, and the environmental impact of alternative energy sources.

  19. A Generalized Measurement Model to Quantify Health: The Multi-Attribute Preference Response Model

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, Paul F. M.

    2013-01-01

    After 40 years of deriving metric values for health status or health-related quality of life, the effective quantification of subjective health outcomes is still a challenge. Here, two of the best measurement tools, the discrete choice and the Rasch model, are combined to create a new model for deriving health values. First, existing techniques to value health states are briefly discussed followed by a reflection on the recent revival of interest in patients’ experience with regard to their possible role in health measurement. Subsequently, three basic principles for valid health measurement are reviewed, namely unidimensionality, interval level, and invariance. In the main section, the basic operation of measurement is then discussed in the framework of probabilistic discrete choice analysis (random utility model) and the psychometric Rasch model. It is then shown how combining the main features of these two models yields an integrated measurement model, called the multi-attribute preference response (MAPR) model, which is introduced here. This new model transforms subjective individual rank data into a metric scale using responses from patients who have experienced certain health states. Its measurement mechanism largely prevents biases such as adaptation and coping. Several extensions of the MAPR model are presented. The MAPR model can be applied to a wide range of research problems. If extended with the self-selection of relevant health domains for the individual patient, this model will be more valid than existing valuation techniques. PMID:24278141

  20. Alternative utilization of wheat starch, Grafton, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In 1978, North Dakota State University (NDSU), in cooperation with the Economic Development Administration, completed a study of the feasibility of a vital wheat gluten starch processing plant in North Dakota. The overall objective of this study is to determine the most feasible alternatives for utilizing the by-product starch slurry from a vital wheat gluten processing plant.

  1. Application of the Multi-Attribute Value Theory for engaging stakeholders in groundwater protection in the Vosvozis catchment in Greece.

    PubMed

    Stefanopoulos, Kyriakos; Yang, Hong; Gemitzi, Alexandra; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2014-02-01

    Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) was used to investigate stakeholders' preferences and beliefs in ameliorating a deteriorating ecosystem, i.e. Vosvozis River and Ismarida Lake in Northeastern Greece. Various monetary and environmental criteria were evaluated with scores and weights by different stakeholder groups and key individuals such as farmers, fishermen, entrepreneurs, residents and ecologists to elicit their preferences concerning alternative protection scenarios. The ultimate objective was to propose policy recommendations for a sustainable water resources management for the case study area. The analysis revealed an overwhelming agreement among stakeholders regarding the dire need for immediate actions in order to preserve and enhance Vosvozis ecosystem. With a two stage evaluation process, the MAVT analysis led to a high consensus among the stakeholders on the alternative that favors water recycling from the wastewater treatment plant combined with small dams for rainwater harvesting. PMID:24121661

  2. Genomics of alternative sulfur utilization in ascomycetous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Linder, Tomas

    2012-10-01

    Thirteen ascomycetous yeast strains with sequenced genomes were assayed for their ability to grow on chemically defined medium with 16 different sulfur compounds as the only significant source of sulfur. These compounds included sulfoxides, sulfones, sulfonates, sulfamates and sulfate esters. Broad utilization of alternative sulfur sources was observed in Komagataella pastoris (syn. Pichia pastoris), Lodderomyces elongisporus, Millerozyma farinosa (syn. Pichia sorbitophila), Pachysolen tannophilus, Scheffersomyces stipitis (syn. Pichia stipitis), Spathaspora passalidarum, Yamadazyma tenuis (syn. Candida tenuis) and Yarrowia lipolytica. Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were mainly able to utilize sulfonates and sulfate esters, while Lachancea thermotolerans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe were limited to aromatic sulfate esters. Genome analysis identified several candidate genes with bacterial homologues that had been previously shown to be involved in the utilization of alternative sulfur sources. Analysis of candidate gene promoter sequences revealed a significant overrepresentation of DNA motifs that have been shown to regulate sulfur metabolism in Sacc. cerevisiae. PMID:22790398

  3. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  4. MAT - MULTI-ATTRIBUTE TASK BATTERY FOR HUMAN OPERATOR WORKLOAD AND STRATEGIC BEHAVIOR RESEARCH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    MAT, a Multi-Attribute Task battery, gives the researcher the capability of performing multi-task workload and performance experiments. The battery provides a benchmark set of tasks for use in a wide range of laboratory studies of operator performance and workload. MAT incorporates tasks analogous to activities that aircraft crew members perform in flight, while providing a high degree of experiment control, performance data on each subtask, and freedom to use non-pilot test subjects. The MAT battery primary display is composed of four separate task windows which are as follows: a monitoring task window which includes gauges and warning lights, a tracking task window for the demands of manual control, a communication task window to simulate air traffic control communications, and a resource management task window which permits maintaining target levels on a fuel management task. In addition, a scheduling task window gives the researcher information about future task demands. The battery also provides the option of manual or automated control of tasks. The task generates performance data for each subtask. The task battery may be paused and onscreen workload rating scales presented to the subject. The MAT battery was designed to use a serially linked second computer to generate the voice messages for the Communications task. The MATREMX program and support files, which are included in the MAT package, were designed to work with the Heath Voice Card (Model HV-2000, available through the Heath Company, Benton Harbor, Michigan 49022); however, the MATREMX program and support files may easily be modified to work with other voice synthesizer or digitizer cards. The MAT battery task computer may also be used independent of the voice computer if no computer synthesized voice messages are desired or if some other method of presenting auditory messages is devised. MAT is written in QuickBasic and assembly language for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The

  5. Weight sensitivity measurement, analysis, and application in multi-attribute evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Huang, Chongyin; Chen, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Weights are used to measure relative importance of multiple attributes or objectives, which influence evaluation or decision results to a great degree. Thus, analyzing weight sensitivity is an important work for a multi-attribute evaluation or decision. A measuring method based on the inclined angle of two vectors is proposed in this paper in order to solve the weight sensitivity of a multi-attribute evaluation with isotonicity characteristic. This method uses the cosine of the inclined angle to measure the weight sensitivity based on preferences or preference combinations. Concepts of sensitivity space, degree, and angle are given, and the relevant measurement method is discussed and proved. Also, this method is used for the choice of the water environment protection projects in Heyuan City.

  6. Alternative approach for cavitation damage study utilizing repetitive laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Cavitation is a common phenomenon in fluid systems that can lead to dramatic degradation of solid materials surface in contact with the cavitating media. Study of cavitation damage has great significance in many engineering fields. Current techniques for cavitation damage study either require large scale equipments or tend to introduce damages from other mechanisms. In this project, we utilized the cavitation phenomenon induced by laser optical breakdown and developed a prototype apparatus for cavitation damage study. In our approach, cavitation was generated by the repetitive pressure waves induced by high-power laser pulses. As proof of principal study, stainless steel and aluminum samples were tested using the novel apparatus. Surface characterization via scanning electron microscopy revealed damages such as indentation and surface pitting, which were similar to those reported in literature using other state-of-the-art techniques. These preliminary results demonstrated the new device was capable of generating cavitation damages and could be used as an alternative method for cavitation damage study.

  7. Production Task Queue Optimization Based on Multi-Attribute Evaluation for Complex Product Assembly Workshop.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian-Hui; Mo, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The production task queue has a great significance for manufacturing resource allocation and scheduling decision. Man-made qualitative queue optimization method has a poor effect and makes the application difficult. A production task queue optimization method is proposed based on multi-attribute evaluation. According to the task attributes, the hierarchical multi-attribute model is established and the indicator quantization methods are given. To calculate the objective indicator weight, criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC) is selected from three usual methods. To calculate the subjective indicator weight, BP neural network is used to determine the judge importance degree, and then the trapezoid fuzzy scale-rough AHP considering the judge importance degree is put forward. The balanced weight, which integrates the objective weight and the subjective weight, is calculated base on multi-weight contribution balance model. The technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) improved by replacing Euclidean distance with relative entropy distance is used to sequence the tasks and optimize the queue by the weighted indicator value. A case study is given to illustrate its correctness and feasibility. PMID:26414758

  8. Production Task Queue Optimization Based on Multi-Attribute Evaluation for Complex Product Assembly Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lian-hui; Mo, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The production task queue has a great significance for manufacturing resource allocation and scheduling decision. Man-made qualitative queue optimization method has a poor effect and makes the application difficult. A production task queue optimization method is proposed based on multi-attribute evaluation. According to the task attributes, the hierarchical multi-attribute model is established and the indicator quantization methods are given. To calculate the objective indicator weight, criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC) is selected from three usual methods. To calculate the subjective indicator weight, BP neural network is used to determine the judge importance degree, and then the trapezoid fuzzy scale-rough AHP considering the judge importance degree is put forward. The balanced weight, which integrates the objective weight and the subjective weight, is calculated base on multi-weight contribution balance model. The technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) improved by replacing Euclidean distance with relative entropy distance is used to sequence the tasks and optimize the queue by the weighted indicator value. A case study is given to illustrate its correctness and feasibility. PMID:26414758

  9. Decision support for personalized cloud service selection through multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuai; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Xia, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Kai-Le; Yang, Shan-Lin; Shang, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Facing a customer market with rising demands for cloud service dependability and security, trustworthiness evaluation techniques are becoming essential to cloud service selection. But these methods are out of the reach to most customers as they require considerable expertise. Additionally, since the cloud service evaluation is often a costly and time-consuming process, it is not practical to measure trustworthy attributes of all candidates for each customer. Many existing models cannot easily deal with cloud services which have very few historical records. In this paper, we propose a novel service selection approach in which the missing value prediction and the multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation are commonly taken into account. By simply collecting limited historical records, the current approach is able to support the personalized trustworthy service selection. The experimental results also show that our approach performs much better than other competing ones with respect to the customer preference and expectation in trustworthiness assessment. PMID:24972237

  10. Application of Choquet integral in solving multi-attribute decision making problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anath Rau; Mat Kasim, Maznah; Engku Abu Bakar, Engku Muhammad Nazri

    2011-10-01

    Aggregation is one of the imperative phases in solving a multi-attribute decision making (MADM) problems where the performance values of each choice will be composed into single score. Based on these final scores, the decision maker (DM) will make the decision by selecting, ranking or sorting the choices. The major issue in aggregation phase is most of the DMs are being ignorant or insensitive to the aspect of interaction between evaluation criteria while aggregating the performance values. Therefore, this paper intended to offer an appraisal on definition and several properties of aggregation operator, types of aggregation operator, and finally suggests Choquet integral operator and its associated fuzzy measure as the most appropriate tool in solving MADM problems. The suggested operator considers the interaction among evaluation criteria during aggregation. A simple numerical example is presented to emphasize the advantage of Choquet integral. However, the complexity of applying Choquet integral is discussed as well to provide some indications for future study.

  11. Supporting Nurses’ Decisions with a Multi-Attribute Model for Patient Health Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rajkovič, Uroš; Dinevski, Dejan; Šušteršič, Olga; Prijatelj, Vesna; Rajkovič, Vladislav

    2012-01-01

    Nurses are required to make many important decisions, for instance on determining the level of the nursing problem, setting nursing diagnoses and interventions. The model presented in this paper is a tool for better and easier decision making is such situations. Multi-attribute modeling of patients’ basic living activities is used for evaluation and explanation of their health status. It offers also visualization and quantification of the data which facilitate decision making in the framework of the process work method. The model can be viewed as an active check-list as it helps us reduce the possibility of “overlooking the queen on the chess board”. The model was critically evaluated in practice. PMID:24199115

  12. Research on the Comparability of Multi-attribute Evaluation Methods for Academic Journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liping, Yu

    This paper first constructs a classification framework for multi-attribute evaluation methods oriented to academic journals, and then discusses the comparability of the vast majority of non-linear evaluation methods and the majority of linear evaluation methods theoretically, taking the TOPSIS method as an example and the evaluation data on agricultural journals as an exercise of validation. The analysis result shows that we should attach enough importance to the comparability of evaluation methods for academic journals; the evaluation objectives are closely related to the choice of evaluation methods, and also relevant to the comparability of evaluation methods; the specialized organizations for journal evaluation had better release the evaluation data, evaluation methods and evaluation results to the best of their abilities; only purely subjective evaluation method is of broad comparability.

  13. Decision Support for Personalized Cloud Service Selection through Multi-Attribute Trustworthiness Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shuai; Xia, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Kai-Le; Yang, Shan-Lin; Shang, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    Facing a customer market with rising demands for cloud service dependability and security, trustworthiness evaluation techniques are becoming essential to cloud service selection. But these methods are out of the reach to most customers as they require considerable expertise. Additionally, since the cloud service evaluation is often a costly and time-consuming process, it is not practical to measure trustworthy attributes of all candidates for each customer. Many existing models cannot easily deal with cloud services which have very few historical records. In this paper, we propose a novel service selection approach in which the missing value prediction and the multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation are commonly taken into account. By simply collecting limited historical records, the current approach is able to support the personalized trustworthy service selection. The experimental results also show that our approach performs much better than other competing ones with respect to the customer preference and expectation in trustworthiness assessment. PMID:24972237

  14. Evaluating patients' health using a hierarchical multi-attribute decision model.

    PubMed

    Sustersic, O; Rajkovic, U; Dinevski, D; Jereb, E; Rajkovic, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of a patient's health status is an essential part of the healthcare process. For this purpose, Henderson's model of basic living activities (BLA) is often proposed as a set of criteria to be used in nursing. Despite its clarity and theoretical background, the model is only partially used in clinical practice. In this paper, we present the methodology for a hierarchical multi-attribute decision model to increase the practical efficiency of the BLA model. The result is a computerized model for the evaluation of a patient's health status. This model was tested in clinical practice by 17 nurses in two health centres in Slovenia and a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was carried out. The strengths included providing a holistic understanding of the nature and level of the nursing problems, enriching the documentation and reducing the possibility of overlooking something important. As a part of electronic documentation, this computerized model supports systematic patient data gathering and evaluation. PMID:19930874

  15. Visual analytics techniques for large multi-attribute time series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Keim, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Time series data commonly occur when variables are monitored over time. Many real-world applications involve the comparison of long time series across multiple variables (multi-attributes). Often business people want to compare this year's monthly sales with last year's sales to make decisions. Data warehouse administrators (DBAs) want to know their daily data loading job performance. DBAs need to detect the outliers early enough to act upon them. In this paper, two new visual analytic techniques are introduced: The color cell-based Visual Time Series Line Charts and Maps highlight significant changes over time in a long time series data and the new Visual Content Query facilitates finding the contents and histories of interesting patterns and anomalies, which leads to root cause identification. We have applied both methods to two real-world applications to mine enterprise data warehouse and customer credit card fraud data to illustrate the wide applicability and usefulness of these techniques.

  16. Recognition of human-vehicle interactions in group activities via multi-attributed semantic message generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2015-05-01

    Improved Situational awareness is a vital ongoing research effort for the U.S. Homeland Security for the past recent years. Many outdoor anomalous activities involve vehicles as their primary source of transportation to and from the scene where a plot is executed. Analysis of dynamics of Human-Vehicle Interaction (HVI) helps to identify correlated patterns of activities representing potential threats. The objective of this paper is bi-folded. Primarily, we discuss a method for temporal HVI events detection and verification for generation of HVI hypotheses. To effectively recognize HVI events, a Multi-attribute Vehicle Detection and Identification technique (MVDI) for detection and classification of stationary vehicles is presented. Secondly, we describe a method for identification of pertinent anomalous behaviors through analysis of state transitions between two successively detected events. Finally, we present a technique for generation of HVI semantic messages and present our experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of semantic messages for discovery of HVI in group activities.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of water resources security in the Yellow River basin based on a Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. K.; Li, C. H.; Cai, Y. P.; Xu, M.; Xia, X. H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis Approach (FMADAA) was adopted in water resources security evaluation for the nine provinces in the Yellow River basin in 2006. A numerical approximation system and a modified left-right scoring approach were adopted to cope with the uncertainties in the acquired information. Four multi-attribute decision making methods were implemented in the evaluation model for impact evaluation, including simple weighted addition (SWA), weighted product (WP), cooperative game theory (CGT) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) which could be used for helping rank the water resources security in those nine provinces as well as the criteria alternatives. Moreover, several aggregation methods including average ranking procedure, borda and copeland methods were used to integrate the ranking results. The ranking results showed that the water resources security of the entire basin is in critical, insecurity and absolute insecurity state, especially in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia provinces in which water resources were lower than the average quantity in China. Hence, future planning of the Yellow River basin should mainly focus on the improvement of water eco-environment status in the provinces above.

  18. Integration of alternative feedstreams for biomass treatment and utilization

    DOEpatents

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Elander, Richard T.; Hames, Bonnie

    2011-03-22

    The present invention provides a method for treating biomass composed of integrated feedstocks to produce fermentable sugars. One aspect of the methods described herein includes a pretreatment step wherein biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream and the resulting integrated feedstock, at relatively high concentrations, is treated with a low concentration of ammonia relative to the dry weight of biomass. In another aspect, a high solids concentration of pretreated biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream for saccharifiaction.

  19. Utilization of alternate chirality enantiomers in microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-09-01

    Our previous study of chirality led to interesting findings for some anaerobic extremophiles: the ability to metabolize substrates with alternate chirality enantiomers of amino acids and sugars. We have subsequently found that not just separate microbial species or strains but entire microbial communities have this ability. The functional division within a microbial community on proteo- and sugarlytic links was also reflected in a microbial diet with L-sugars and D-amino acids. Several questions are addressed in this paper. Why and when was this feature developed in a microbial world? Was it a secondary de novo adaptation in a bacterial world? Or is this a piece of genetic information that has been left in modern genomes as an atavism? Is it limited exclusively to prokaryotes, or does this ability also occur in eukaryotes? In this article, we have used a broader approach to study this phenomenon using anaerobic extremophilic strains from our laboratory collection. A series of experiments were performed on physiologically different groups of extremophilic anaerobes (pure and enrichment cultures). The following characteristics were studied: 1) the ability to grow on alternate chirality enantiomers - L-sugars and D- amino acids; 2) Growthinhibitory effect of alternate chirality enantiomers; 3) Stickland reaction with alternate chirality amino acids. The results of this research are presented in this paper.

  20. Utilization of Alternate Chirality Enantiomers in Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous study of chirality led to interesting findings for some anaerobic extremophiles: the ability to metabolize substrates with alternate chirality enantiomers of amino acids and sugars. We have subsequently found that not just separate microbial species or strains but entire microbial communities have this ability. The functional division within a microbial community on proteo- and sugarlytic links was also reflected in a microbial diet with L-sugars and D-amino acids. Several questions are addressed in this paper. Why and when was this feature developed in a microbial world? Was it a secondary de novo adaptation in a bacterial world? Or is this a piece of genetic information that has been left in modern genomes as an atavism? Is it limited exclusively to prokaryotes, or does this ability also occur in eukaryotes? In this article, we have used a broader approach to study this phenomenon using anaerobic extremophilic strains from our laboratory collection. A series of experiments were performed on physiologically different groups of extremophilic anaerobes (pure and enrichment cultures). The following characteristics were studied: 1) the ability to grow on alternate chirality enantiomers -- L-sugars and D- amino acids; 2) Growth-inhibitory effect of alternate chirality enantiomers; 3) Stickland reaction with alternate chirality amino acids. The results of this research are presented in this paper.

  1. Alternative fuels utilization and the automotive emission certification process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1977 requires that commercially offered automotive fuels and fuel additives be substantially similar to fuels used in certifying model year 1975 and later vehicles. Procedures for certifying that vehicles perform with emissions that meet the Clean Air Act specifications and the impact of this emissions certification process on the use of alternative fuels, such as alcohols, alcohol-gasoline blends and synthetic fuels, in highway vehicles is discussed. (LCL)

  2. The multi-attribute task battery for human operator workload and strategic behavior research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Arnegard, Ruth J.

    1992-01-01

    The Multi-Attribute Task (MAT) Battery provides a benchmark set of tasks for use in a wide range of lab studies of operator performance and workload. The battery incorporates tasks analogous to activities that aircraft crewmembers perform in flight, while providing a high degree of experimenter control, performance data on each subtask, and freedom to use nonpilot test subjects. Features not found in existing computer based tasks include an auditory communication task (to simulate Air Traffic Control communication), a resource management task permitting many avenues or strategies of maintaining target performance, a scheduling window which gives the operator information about future task demands, and the option of manual or automated control of tasks. Performance data are generated for each subtask. In addition, the task battery may be paused and onscreen workload rating scales presented to the subject. The MAT Battery requires a desktop computer with color graphics. The communication task requires a serial link to a second desktop computer with a voice synthesizer or digitizer card.

  3. A visual analysis of multi-attribute data using pixel matrix displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Keim, Daniel; Schreck, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Charts and tables are commonly used to visually analyze data. These graphics are simple and easy to understand, but charts show only highly aggregated data and present only a limited number of data values while tables often show too many data values. As a consequence, these graphics may either lose or obscure important information, so different techniques are required to monitor complex datasets. Users need more powerful visualization techniques to digest and compare detailed multi-attribute data to analyze the health of their business. This paper proposes an innovative solution based on the use of pixel-matrix displays to represent transaction-level information. With pixelmatrices, users can visualize areas of importance at a glance, a capability not provided by common charting techniques. We present our solutions to use colored pixel-matrices in (1) charts for visualizing data patterns and discovering exceptions, (2) tables for visualizing correlations and finding root-causes, and (3) time series for visualizing the evolution of long-running transactions. The solutions have been applied with success to product sales, Internet network performance analysis, and service contract applications demonstrating the benefits of our method over conventional graphics. The method is especially useful when detailed information is a key part of the analysis.

  4. MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC/ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mavko

    2000-10-01

    This project consists of three key interrelated Phases, each focusing on the central issue of imaging and quantifying fractured reservoirs, through improved integration of the principles of rock physics, geology, and seismic wave propagation. This report summarizes the results of Phase I of the project. The key to successful development of low permeability reservoirs lies in reliably characterizing fractures. Fractures play a crucial role in controlling almost all of the fluid transport in tight reservoirs. Current seismic methods to characterize fractures depend on various anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. We are pursuing an integrated study that relates to high-resolution seismic images of natural fractures to the rock parameters that control the storage and mobility of fluids. Our goal is to go beyond the current state-of-the art to develop and demonstrate next generation methodologies for detecting and quantitatively characterizing fracture zones using seismic measurements. Our study incorporates 3 key elements: (1) Theoretical rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, including up scaling analysis and rock-fluid interactions to define the factors relating fractures in the lab and in the field. (2) Modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of travel time, amplitude, impedance and spectral signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. We will quantify the information content of combinations of seismic attributes, and the impact of multi-attribute analyses in reducing uncertainty in fracture interpretations. (3) Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating field geologic fracture characterization and the theoretical results of items 1 and 2 above. The focal point for this project is the demonstration of these methodologies in the Marathon Oil Company Yates Field in West Texas.

  5. Contribution of the Multi Attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apperl, B.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.

    2014-09-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have been often identified as an impediment to the realization and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholders preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), what facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation in the different stages of the planning process to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes were defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resources availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes of preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties of the results were notable but did not influence heavily on the alternative ranking. The expected

  6. Contribution of the multi-attribute value theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management - application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have often been identified as an impediment to the realisation and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires the clarification of stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholder preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards the definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), which facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi-attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation into the different stages of the planning process, to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes was defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resource availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes in preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the approval of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties in the results were notable, but did not influence the alternative ranking heavily. The

  7. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

  8. The Multi-Attribute Task Battery II (MATB-II) Software for Human Performance and Workload Research: A User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Espada, Yamira; Myer, Robert R.; Latorella, Kara A.; Comstock, James R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MAT Battery). is a computer-based task designed to evaluate operator performance and workload, has been redeveloped to operate in Windows XP Service Pack 3, Windows Vista and Windows 7 operating systems.MATB-II includes essentially the same tasks as the original MAT Battery, plus new configuration options including a graphical user interface for controlling modes of operation. MATB-II can be executed either in training or testing mode, as defined by the MATB-II configuration file. The configuration file also allows set up of the default timeouts for the tasks, the flow rates of the pumps and tank levels of the Resource Management (RESMAN) task. MATB-II comes with a default event file that an experimenter can modify and adapt

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine utilization in Texas hospices: prevalence, importance, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Olotu, Busuyi S; Brown, Carolyn M; Lawson, Kenneth A; Barner, Jamie C

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, importance, and challenges of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in Texas hospices. Mail surveys were sent to 369 hospices in Texas, and 110 useful surveys were returned. Results showed that a majority (n = 62, 56.4%) of hospices offer CAM to their clients, with the most popularly offered CAMs being massage, music, and relaxation therapies. Despite the availability of CAM services in most hospices, and that the utilization of CAM has the potential to improve overall quality of life of patients, our results showed that a sizeable proportion of patients in these hospices are not utilizing the provided CAMs. Funding and personnel constraints were substantial obstacles to offering CAM. PMID:23625931

  10. Alternatives for management of wastes generated by the formerly utilized sites remedial action program and supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Vocke, R.W.; Alexander, J.K.

    1983-03-01

    Alternatives for disposal or stabilization of the wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) are identified and compared, with emphasis on the long-term aspects. These wastes consist of soil material and rubble containing trace amounts of radionuclides. A detailed pathway analysis for the dose to the maximally exposed individual is carried out using an adaptation of the natural analogue method. Comparisons of the different alternatives, based on the results of the pathway analysis and qualitative cost considerations, indicate that, if the hazard is such that the wastes must be removed and disposed of rather than stabilized in place, disposal by immediate dispersal is preferable to containment, and containment followed by slow planned dispersal is preferable to containment without dispersal. The Supplement presents refinements of work that was reported at the 1982 International Decommissioning Symposium. The new material consists of revisions of the estimates of the predicted potential dose to the maximally exposed individual and a more detailed comparative assessment of the radiological impacts of alternatives for management of wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP).

  11. Utilization and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Junker, Judith; Oberwittler, Christoph; Jackson, Didi; Berger, Klaus

    2004-02-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing worldwide, especially by patients with chronic diseases. To date, no data are available about utilization and perceived effectiveness of CAM in patients with dystonia. A questionnaire survey on utilization and costs of CAM was completed by 180 members of the German Dystonia Society, a patient advocate group. In total, 131 dystonia patients (73%) were current or former users of CAM, 55 patients used CAM in addition to botulinum toxin A injections, and 86 patients had experience with three or more CAM methods. The options used most widely were acupuncture (56%), relaxation techniques (44%), homeopathy (27%), and massages (26%). Among users of specific CAM methods, breathing therapy, Feldenkrais, massages, and relaxation techniques were perceived as most effective. On average, patients spent 1,513 Euro on CAM without reimbursement. There was no correlation between costs and perceived effectiveness of different methods. In line with other studies on chronically ill patients, our results show that dystonia patients frequently utilize CAM methods, often in addition to conventional treatment. There is a growing need to evaluate scientifically the effect of CAM methods on symptom severity and quality of life in dystonia, to prevent utilization of costly and ineffective CAM treatments. PMID:14978670

  12. Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics Technology Evaluation and Selection Using a Multi-Attribute Decision Making Process and Non-Deterministic Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Cecile M.; Hill, Geoffrey A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Geiselhart, Karl A.

    2004-01-01

    The Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has investigated revolutionary Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics (PAA) technologies and configurations for a Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) type aircraft as part of its research for NASA s Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project. Within the context of the long-term NASA goal of reducing the perceived aircraft noise level by a factor of 4 relative to 1997 state of the art, major configuration changes in the propulsion airframe integration system were explored with noise as a primary design consideration. An initial down-select and assessment of candidate PAA technologies for the BWB was performed using a Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM) process consisting of organized brainstorming and decision-making tools. The assessments focused on what effect the PAA technologies had on both the overall noise level of the BWB and what effect they had on other major design considerations such as weight, performance and cost. A probabilistic systems analysis of the PAA configurations that presented the best noise reductions with the least negative impact on the system was then performed. Detailed results from the MADM study and the probabilistic systems analysis will be published in the near future.

  13. Development of a quantitative mass spectrometry multi-attribute method for characterization, quality control testing and disposition of biologics

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Richard S; Nightlinger, Nancy S; Livingston, Brittney; Campbell, Phil; Bailey, Robert; Balland, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory agencies have recently recommended a Quality by Design (QbD) approach for the manufacturing of therapeutic molecules. A QbD strategy requires deep understanding at the molecular level of the attributes that are crucial for safety and efficacy and for insuring that the desired quality of the purified protein drug product is met at the end of the manufacturing process. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based approach to simultaneously monitor the extensive array of product quality attributes (PQAs) present on therapeutic molecules has been developed. This multi-attribute method (MAM) uses a combination of high mass accuracy / high resolution MS data generated by Orbitrap technology and automated identification and relative quantification of PQAs with dedicated software (Pinpoint). The MAM has the potential to replace several conventional electrophoretic and chromatographic methods currently used in Quality Control to release therapeutic molecules. The MAM represents an optimized analytical solution to focus on the attributes of the therapeutic molecule essential for function and implement QbD principles across process development, manufacturing and drug disposition. PMID:26186204

  14. Suggested alternative starch utilization system from the human gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    PubMed

    Chaudet, Marcia M; Rose, David R

    2016-06-01

    The human digestive system is host to a highly populated ecosystem of bacterial species that significantly contributes to our assimilation of dietary carbohydrates. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is a member of this ecosystem, and participates largely in the role of the gut microbiome by breaking down dietary complex carbohydrates. This process of acquiring glycans from the colon lumen is predicted to rely on the mechanisms of proteins that are part of a classified system known as polysaccharide utilization loci (PUL). These loci are responsible for binding substrates at the cell outer membrane, internalizing them, and then hydrolyzing them within the periplasm into simple sugars. Here we report our investigation into specific components of a PUL, and suggest an alternative starch utilization system in B. thetaiotaomicron. Our analysis of an outer membrane binding protein, a SusD homolog, highlights its contribution to this PUL by acquiring starch-based sugars from the colon lumen. Through our structural characterization of two Family GH31 α-glucosidases, we reveal the flexibility of this bacterium with respect to utilizing a range of starch-derived glycans with an emphasis on branched substrates. With these results we demonstrate the predicted function of a gene locus that is capable of contributing to starch hydrolysis in the human colon. PMID:27093479

  15. Alternative dispute resolution programs in health care: a study of organizational utilization.

    PubMed

    Rotarius, T M; Liberman, A; Osterman, K C; Putnam, P

    1999-03-01

    The hyperturbulence in today's health care environment acts as a primer that escalates the frequency and severity of business conflicts. Several alternative dispute resolution (ADR) programs are described, with ADR suggested as a viable approach in assisting organizations in resolving conflicts. The data indicate that all of the health care organizations surveyed utilize some form of ADR to resolve conflict. The most common conflict resolution objective found is win/win, and respondents felt that ADR effectively met intended objectives. While the data gathered for this study are from a limited geographic region in Central Florida, the results can likely be generalized to many socially and ethnically diverse regions of the country. PMID:10351047

  16. Adaptive Dimensionality Reduction with Semi-Supervision (AdDReSS): Classifying Multi-Attribute Biomedical Data

    PubMed Central

    Romo Bucheli, David Edmundo; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Medical diagnostics is often a multi-attribute problem, necessitating sophisticated tools for analyzing high-dimensional biomedical data. Mining this data often results in two crucial bottlenecks: 1) high dimensionality of features used to represent rich biological data and 2) small amounts of labelled training data due to the expense of consulting highly specific medical expertise necessary to assess each study. Currently, no approach that we are aware of has attempted to use active learning in the context of dimensionality reduction approaches for improving the construction of low dimensional representations. We present our novel methodology, AdDReSS (Adaptive Dimensionality Reduction with Semi-Supervision), to demonstrate that fewer labeled instances identified via AL in embedding space are needed for creating a more discriminative embedding representation compared to randomly selected instances. We tested our methodology on a wide variety of domains ranging from prostate gene expression, ovarian proteomic spectra, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and breast histopathology. Across these various high dimensional biomedical datasets with 100+ observations each and all parameters considered, the median classification accuracy across all experiments showed AdDReSS (88.7%) to outperform SSAGE, a SSDR method using random sampling (85.5%), and Graph Embedding (81.5%). Furthermore, we found that embeddings generated via AdDReSS achieved a mean 35.95% improvement in Raghavan efficiency, a measure of learning rate, over SSAGE. Our results demonstrate the value of AdDReSS to provide low dimensional representations of high dimensional biomedical data while achieving higher classification rates with fewer labelled examples as compared to without active learning. PMID:27421116

  17. Religiosity and Utilization of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Foreign-Born Hispanics in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heathcote, John D.; West, Joshua H.; Hall, P. Cougar; Trinidad, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between religiosity and utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a sample of foreign-born Hispanic adults, even when excluding prayer as a form of CAM. Data were collected using a self-report Spanish-language survey. Study participants consisted of 306 respondents between…

  18. Carbon utilization by fruit limits shoot growth in alternate-bearing citrus trees.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Iglesias, Domingo J; Reig, Carmina; Mesejo, Carlos; Agustí, Manuel; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2015-03-15

    Fruit load in alternate-bearing citrus trees is reported to alter shoot number and growth during spring, summer, and autumn flushes, and the source-sink balance, which affects the storage and mobilization of reserve nutrients. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of shoot growth inhibition resulting from the presence of fruits in 'Moncada' mandarin trees loaded with fruit (ON) or with very light fruit load (OFF), and to identify the role of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds in the competition between fruits and shoots. Growth of reproductive and vegetative organs was measured on a monthly basis. (13)C- and (15)N-labeled compounds were supplied to trace the allocation of reserve nutrients and subsequent translocation from source to sink. At the end of the year, OFF trees produced more abundant flushes (2.4- and 4.9-fold higher in number and biomass, respectively) than ON trees. Fruits from ON trees accumulated higher C amounts at the expense of developing flushes, whereas OFF trees exhibited the opposite pattern. An inverse relationship was identified between the amount of C utilized by fruits and vegetative flush growth. (13)C-labeling revealed an important role for mature leaves of fruit-bearing branches in supporting shoot/fruit growth, and the elevated sink strength of growing fruits on shoots. N availability for vegetative shoots was not affected by the presence or absence of fruits, which accumulated important amounts of (15)N. In conclusion, our results show that shoot growth is resource-limited as a consequence of fruit development, and vegetative-growth inhibition is caused by photoassimilate limitation. The competence for N is not a decisive factor in limiting vegetative growth under the experimental conditions of this study. PMID:25588695

  19. Can an Alternative Outflow Strategy be Utilized for High-Risk Bridged Patients with Previous Cardiac Surgery?

    PubMed

    Danish, Timothy F; Davis, Mary E; Xu, Meng; Djunaidi, Monica; Danter, Matthew R; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Stulak, John M; Haglund, Nicholas A; Maltais, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The HeartWare ventricular assist device (HVAD) is an implantable continuous-flow centrifugal pump that has allowed the development of sternal-sparing techniques, with the use of alternative outflow strategies. We compared early outcomes for patients bridged with the conventional versus alternative outflow graft strategy. From January 2013 to October 2014, 89 patients with HVAD implantation were identified. Survival was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier methods, and a log-rank test was used to compare outcomes between groups. Thirty patients (34%) had ≥1 previous sternotomy before HVAD implantation. Eight patients (27%) were approached using an alternative outflow graft technique with outflow graft connection to the descending aorta (n = 4, 50%) or left subclavian artery (n = 4, 50%), whereas 22 (73%) were implanted via a conventional sternotomy approach with the outflow graft to the ascending aorta. Preoperative characteristics (age, Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support [INTERMACS], and Lietz-Miller score) were comparable between groups (all p > 0.05). Median follow-up was 4.7 (2.8-9.3) months of support. Outcomes were comparable between conventional and alternative outflow groups; survival at 6 months was 74% for the conventional group and 83% in the alternative outflow group. An alternative outflow graft strategy can be utilized to support bridged patients with a history of prior sternotomy. PMID:27111737

  20. Comparison of Sorghum and Wheat Tillage Systems in the Texas Blackland Prairie using Fuzzy Multi Attributive Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in cropping systems such as conservation-tillage, however, determining the best alternative between cropping system options is often complicated by disparities in research results due to seasonal variability. The economic cost of the systems further co...

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of water resources security in the Yellow River basin based on a fuzzy multi-attribute decision analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. K.; Li, C. H.; Cai, Y. P.; Xu, M.; Xia, X. H.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy multi-attribute decision analysis approach (FMADAA) was developed for supporting the evaluation of water resources security in nine provinces within the Yellow River basin. A numerical approximation system and a modified left-right scoring approach were adopted to cope with the uncertainties in the acquired information. Also, four conventional multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) methods were implemented in the evaluation model for impact evaluation, including simple weighted addition (SWA), weighted product (WP), cooperative game theory (CGT) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). Moreover, several aggregation methods including average ranking procedure, Borda and Copeland methods were used to integrate the ranking results, helping rank the water resources security in those nine provinces as well as improving reliability of evaluation results. The ranking results showed that the water resources security of the entire basin was in critical condition, including the insecurity and absolute insecurity states, especially in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia provinces in which water resources were lower than the average quantity in China. Hence, the improvement of water eco-environment statuses in the above-mentioned provinces should be prioritized in the future planning of the Yellow River basin.

  2. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  3. Utilizing alternative developmental and neurotoxicity screening methods to prioritize compounds for further mammalian testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are being phased out of commercial use, leading to the increased use of alternative chemicals such as the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). Due to the structural similarity of th...

  4. Evaluation of amendments to decrease high strength in southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy multi-attributive comparison of alternatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity of many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils is reduced by cemented subsurface layers that restrict root growth. Though tillage is the usual way to reduce cementation, if soil amendments can develop aggregation, they offer a more permanent solution. To improve soil physical properties a...

  5. Utilization of alternative marine fuels for gas turbine power plant onboard ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gohary, M. Morsy; Seddiek, Ibrahim Sadek

    2013-03-01

    Marine transportation industry is undergoing a number of problems. Some of these problems are associated with conventional marine fuel-oils. Many researchers have showed that fuel-oil is considered as the main component that causes both environmental and economic problems, especially with the continuous rising of fuel cost. This paper investigates the capability of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuel instead of diesel oil for marine gas turbine, the effect of the alternative fuel on gas turbine thermodynamic performance and the employed mathematical model. The results showed that since the natural gas is categorized as hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using the natural gas was found to be close to the diesel case performance. The gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be 1% less in the case of hydrogen compared to the original case of diesel.

  6. Survey on utility of yoga as an alternative therapy for occupational hazards among dental practioners

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Ananthalakshmi; Jeevakarunyam, Sathiya Jeeva; Janardhanan, Sunitha; Jeddy, Nadeem; Vasan, Srikaanth Aranmanai; Raja, Arundayanadhi; Ikram, Parvez

    2015-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic potential of yoga are often considered complementary to various forms of medical practice. Very few studies have evaluated the effects of yoga in the treatment of occupational hazards among dentists. Hence, this cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the adoption of yoga techinques as an alternative therapy in treatment of physical and psychological occupational hazards among dental general practitioners in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: A validated closed-ended questionnaire was circulated to 500 dental general practitioners in Chennai, India and we received 394 completed questionnaires. The questionnaire documented demographic data, occupational hazards and the type of treatment taken for the hazards. Results: Musculoskeletal pain with stress (47%) was the most common occupational hazard reported, followed by only stress (27.4%), and only musculoskeletal pain (25.6%). Only 9.6% of practitioners adopted yoga as an alternative treatment for these occupational hazards. Interestingly, majority (46.4%) of them did exercise, gym, massage, walking and heard music. Surprisingly, 43.9% did not take any measures to treat these occupational hazards. However 53.3% of the dentists who did not consider yoga as an alternative therapy, stated lack of time as a reason for not practicing yoga while 17.6% of them don’t believe yoga as a therapy. Conclusion: Despite musculoskeletal pain and stress being the most common occupational hazard prevalent among dentists, over 50% of the subjects surveyed didn’t seek any measure to treat these occupational hazards and only 10% of them practiced yoga as the alternative therapy. PMID:25810653

  7. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 5 Utilizes Alternative Translation Initiation To Encode a Small Rep40-Like Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Farris, K. David; Pintel, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) P19-generated pre-mRNAs generates the small Rep proteins Rep52 and Rep40, which differ in their carboxyl termini. Both proteins are required for optimal packaging of AAV2 genomes. AAV5 Rep-encoding P19-generated transcripts are primarily polyadenylated within the central intron and not efficiently spliced; however, surprisingly, AAV5 was found to generate high levels of a Rep40-like protein. The AAV5 Rep40-like protein was generated by internal initiation and has the same C terminus as Rep52. Although precluded from using alternative splicing to generate multiple Rep isoforms, AAV5 ensures the production of a Rep40-like protein by utilizing a novel internal translation initiation event. PMID:19889770

  8. The Impact of Global Budgets on Pharmaceutical Spending and Utilization: Early Experience from the Alternative Quality Contract

    PubMed Central

    Afendulis, Christopher C.; Fendrick, A. Mark; Song, Zirui; Landon, Bruce E.; Safran, Dana Gelb; Mechanic, Robert E.; Chernew, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts implemented a global budget-based payment system, the Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), in which provider groups assumed accountability for spending. We investigate the impact of global budgets on the utilization of prescription drugs and related expenditures. Our analyses indicate no statistically significant evidence that the AQC reduced the use of drugs. Although the impact may change over time, early evidence suggests that it is premature to conclude that global budget systems may reduce access to medications. PMID:25500751

  9. Allopathic, complementary, and alternative medical treatment utilization for pain among methadone-maintained patients: An exploratory study1

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Declan T.; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J.; Garnet, Brian; Joshi, Dipa; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 150 methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) patients about pain, pain treatment utilization, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in pursuing pain treatment at the MMTP. Respondents with chronic severe pain (CSP) (i.e., pain lasting at least 6 months with moderate to severe pain intensity or significant pain interference) and “some pain” (i.e., pain reported in the previous week but not CSP) endorsed similar rates of past-week and lifetime allopathic or standard medical (with the exception of lifetime medical use of non-opiate medication) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization for pain reduction. Prior pain treatments were perceived to be less effective by CSP than SP patients but both groups had equivalent high rates of interest in pain treatment associated with the MMTP. These findings may have implications for resource and program planning in MMT programs. PMID:19874157

  10. Multi-attribute mate choice decisions and uncertainty in the decision process: a generalized sequential search strategy.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Weinersmith, Kelly L; Seubert, Steven M

    2010-04-01

    The behavior of females in search of a mate determines the likelihood that high quality males are encountered and adaptive search strategies rely on the effective use of available information on the quality of prospective mates. The sequential search strategy was formulated, like most models of search behavior, on the assumption that females obtain perfect information on the quality of encountered males. In this paper, we modify the strategy to allow for uncertainty of male quality and we determine how the magnitude of this uncertainty and the ability of females to inspect multiple male attributes to reduce uncertainty influence mate choice decisions. In general, searchers are sensitive to search costs and higher costs lower acceptance criteria under all versions of the model. The choosiness of searchers increases with the variability of the quality of prospective mates under conditions of the original model, but under conditions of uncertainty the choosiness of searchers may increase or decrease with the variability of inspected male attributes. The behavioral response depends on the functional relationship between observed male attributes and the fitness return to searchers and on costs associated with the search process. Higher uncertainty often induces searchers to pay more for information and under conditions of uncertainty the fitness return to searchers is never higher than under conditions of the original model. Further studies of the performance of alternative search strategies under conditions of uncertainty may consequently be necessary to identify search strategies likely to be used under natural conditions. PMID:19499223

  11. Species Differences in Alternative Substrate Utilization by the Antibacterial Target Undecaprenyl Pyrophosphate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS) is a critical enzyme required for the biosynthesis of polysaccharides essential for bacterial survival. In this report, we have tested the substrate selectivity of UPPS derived from the mammalian symbiont Bacteroides fragilis, the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, and the typically benign but opportunistic pathogen Escherichia coli. An anthranilamide-containing substrate, 2-amideanilinogeranyl diphosphate (2AA-GPP), was an effective substrate for only the B. fragilis UPPS protein, yet replacing the amide with a nitrile [2-nitrileanilinogeranyl diphosphate (2CNA-GPP)] led to a compound that was fully functional for UPPS from all three target organisms. These fluorescent substrate analogues were also found to undergo increases in fluorescence upon isoprenoid chain elongation, and this increase in fluorescence can be utilized to monitor the activity and inhibition of UPPS in 96-well plate assays. The fluorescence of 2CNA-GPP increased by a factor of 2.5-fold upon chain elongation, while that of 2AA-GPP increased only 1.2-fold. The 2CNA-GPP compound was therefore more versatile for screening the activity of UPPS from multiple species of bacteria and underwent a larger increase in fluorescence that improved its ability to detect increases in chain length. Overall, this work describes the development of new assay methods for UPPS and demonstrates the difference in substrate utilization between forms of UPPS from different species, which has major implications for UPPS inhibitor development, assay construction, and the development of polysaccharide biosynthesis probes. PMID:25020247

  12. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Liyi; Lin, Ziyin; Song, Bo; Li, Zhuo; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Wong, Ching-Ping; Bai, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The as-fabricated device shows a phase angle of −75.4° at 120 Hz with a specific capacitance of 316 µF/cm2 and a RC time constant of 0.35 ms. In addition, it retains 97.2% of the initial capacitance after 10000 charge/discharge cycles. These outstanding performance characteristics of our device demonstrate its promising to replace the conventional AECs for ac line filtering. PMID:26084051

  13. The Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Endometriosis: A Review of Utilization and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Sai; Zhang, Yue-Hui; Liu, Chen-Fang; Tsui, Ilene; Guo, Ying; Ai, Bei-Bei; Han, Feng-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis (EM) is one of the common gynecological conditions causing menstrual and pelvic pain and affects 10%–15% of women of reproductive age. In recent years, the complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatment for EM has become popular due to the few adverse reactions reported. The CAM therapy for EM includes several different treatments such as herbs (herbal prescription, extract, and patent), acupuncture, microwave physiotherapy, and Chinese herb medicine enema (CHM enema). These CAM therapies are effective at relieving dysmenorrhoea, shrinking adnexal masses, and promoting pregnancy, with less unpleasant side effects when compared to hormonal and surgical treatments. In this review, we focus on the status quo of CAM on EM and try to identify therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms based on some clinical and experimental studies. We hope to provide some instructive suggestions for clinical treatment and experimental research in the future. PMID:24701237

  14. Imaging MALDI MS of Dosed Brain Tissues Utilizing an Alternative Analyte Pre-extraction Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiason, Cristine M.; Shahidi-Latham, Sheerin K.

    2015-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry has been adopted in the pharmaceutical industry as a useful tool to detect xenobiotic distribution within tissues. A unique sample preparation approach for MALDI imaging has been described here for the extraction and detection of cobimetinib and clozapine, which were previously undetectable in mouse and rat brain using a single matrix application step. Employing a combination of a buffer wash and a cyclohexane pre-extraction step prior to standard matrix application, the xenobiotics were successfully extracted and detected with an 8 to 20-fold gain in sensitivity. This alternative approach for sample preparation could serve as an advantageous option when encountering difficult to detect analytes.

  15. Imaging MALDI MS of Dosed Brain Tissues Utilizing an Alternative Analyte Pre-extraction Approach.

    PubMed

    Quiason, Cristine M; Shahidi-Latham, Sheerin K

    2015-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry has been adopted in the pharmaceutical industry as a useful tool to detect xenobiotic distribution within tissues. A unique sample preparation approach for MALDI imaging has been described here for the extraction and detection of cobimetinib and clozapine, which were previously undetectable in mouse and rat brain using a single matrix application step. Employing a combination of a buffer wash and a cyclohexane pre-extraction step prior to standard matrix application, the xenobiotics were successfully extracted and detected with an 8 to 20-fold gain in sensitivity. This alternative approach for sample preparation could serve as an advantageous option when encountering difficult to detect analytes. PMID:25840813

  16. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Liyi; Lin, Ziyin; Song, Bo; Li, Zhuo; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Wong, Ching-Ping; Bai, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The as-fabricated device shows a phase angle of -75.4° at 120 Hz with a specific capacitance of 316 µF/cm(2) and a RC time constant of 0.35 ms. In addition, it retains 97.2% of the initial capacitance after 10000 charge/discharge cycles. These outstanding performance characteristics of our device demonstrate its promising to replace the conventional AECs for ac line filtering. PMID:26084051

  17. The multi-year cumulative effects of alternative stocking rate and grazing management practices on pasture productivity and utilization efficiency.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, B; Delaby, L; Pierce, K M; McCarthy, J; Fleming, C; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2016-05-01

    The production and utilization of increased quantities of high quality pasture is of paramount importance in pasture-based milk production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cumulative effects of alternative integrated grazing strategies, incorporating alternative stocking rate (SR) and grazing severities, on pasture productivity and grazing efficiency over multiple years within farm systems using perennial ryegrass dominant pastures. Three whole-farm SR treatments were compared over 4 complete grazing seasons (2009 to 2012 inclusive): low (2.51 cows/ha; LSR), medium (2.92 cows/ha; MSR), and high (3.28 cows/ha; HSR). Each system had its own farmlet containing 18 paddocks and remained on the same treatment for the duration of the study. Stocking rate had a significant effect on all grazing variables with the exception of soil fertility status and sward density. Increased SR resulted in increased total annual net pasture accumulation, improved sward nutritive value, and increased grazed pasture utilization. Total annual net pasture accumulation was greatest in HSR [15,410kg of dry matter (DM)/ha], intermediate for MSR (14,992kg of DM/ha), and least for LSR (14,479kg of DM/ha) during the 4-yr study period. A linear effect of SR on net pasture accumulation was detected with an increase in net pasture accumulation of 1,164.4 (SE=432.7) kg of DM/ha for each 1 cow/ha increase in SR. Pregrazing pasture mass and height and postgrazing residual pasture mass and height were greatest for LSR, intermediate for the MSR, and lowest for the HSR. In comparison with the LSR, the imposition of a consistently increased grazing severity coupled with increased whole farm SR in MSR and HSR treatments arrested the decline in sward nutritive value, typically observed during mid-season. Incorporating the individual beneficial effects of SR on pasture accumulation, nutritive value, and utilization efficiency, total proportional energy (unité fourragère lait

  18. The influence of alternative pathways of respiration that utilize branched-chain amino acids following water shortage in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Marcel V; Pereira Júnior, Adilson A; Medeiros, David B; Daloso, Danilo M; Pham, Phuong Anh; Barros, Kallyne A; Engqvist, Martin K M; Florian, Alexandra; Krahnert, Ina; Maurino, Veronica G; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-06-01

    During dark-induced senescence isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) act as alternate electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via the electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) pathway. However, the role of this pathway in response to other stresses still remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that this alternative pathway is associated with tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis. In comparison with wild type (WT) and lines overexpressing D-2GHDH, loss-of-function etfqo-1, d2hgdh-2 and ivdh-1 mutants displayed compromised respiration rates and were more sensitive to drought. Our results demonstrated that an operational ETF/ETFQO pathway is associated with plants' ability to withstand drought and to recover growth once water becomes replete. Drought-induced metabolic reprogramming resulted in an increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and total amino acid levels, as well as decreases in protein, starch and nitrate contents. The enhanced levels of the branched-chain amino acids in loss-of-function mutants appear to be related to their increased utilization as substrates for the TCA cycle under water stress. Our results thus show that mitochondrial metabolism is highly active during drought stress responses and provide support for a role of alternative respiratory pathways within this response. PMID:26616144

  19. Malaria parasites utilize both homologous recombination and alternative end joining pathways to maintain genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Laura A.; Lawrence, Elizabeth A.; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria parasites replicate asexually within their mammalian hosts as haploid cells and are subject to DNA damage from the immune response and chemotherapeutic agents that can significantly disrupt genomic integrity. Examination of the annotated genome of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum identified genes encoding core proteins required for the homologous recombination (HR) pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but surprisingly none of the components of the canonical non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ) pathway were identified. To better understand how malaria parasites repair DSBs and maintain genome integrity, we modified the yeast I-SceI endonuclease system to generate inducible, site-specific DSBs within the parasite’s genome. Analysis of repaired genomic DNA showed that parasites possess both a typical HR pathway resulting in gene conversion events as well as an end joining (EJ) pathway for repair of DSBs when no homologous sequence is available. The products of EJ were limited in number and identical products were observed in multiple independent experiments. The repair junctions frequently contained short insertions also found in the surrounding sequences, suggesting the possibility of a templated repair process. We propose that an alternative end-joining pathway rather than C-NHEJ, serves as a primary method for repairing DSBs in malaria parasites. PMID:24089143

  20. Utilization of toxic and vapors as alternate electron acceptors in biofilters

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.D.; Apel, W.A.; Walton, M.R.

    1997-08-01

    Conceptually, biofilters are vapor phase bioreactors that rely on microorganisms in the bed medium to oxidize contaminants in off-gases flowing through the bed to less hazardous compounds. In the most studied and utilized systems reduced compounds such as fuel hydrocarbons are enzymatically oxidized to compounds such as carbon dioxide and water. In these types of reactions the microorganisms in the bed oxidize the contaminant and transfer the electrons to oxygen which is the terminal electron acceptor in the process. In essence the contaminant is the carbon and energy source for the microorganisms in the bed medium and through this catabolic process oxygen is reduced to water. An example of this oxidation process can be seen during the degradation of benzene and similar aromatic compounds. Aromatics are initially attacked by a dioxygenase enzyme which oxidizes the compounds to a labile dihydrodiole which is spontaneously converted to a catechol. The dihydroxylated aromatic rings is then opened by oxidative {open_quotes}ortho{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}meta{close_quotes} cleavage yielding cis, cis-muconic acid or 2-hydroxy-cis, cis-muconic semialdehyde, respectively. These organic compounds are further oxidized to carbon dioxide or are assimilated for cellular material. This paper describes the conversion of carbon tetrachloride using methanol as the primary carbon and energy source.

  1. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Comparing the decision-relevance and utility of alternative ensembles of climate projections in water management and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempert, R. J.; Tingstad, A.

    2015-12-01

    Decisions to manage the risks of climate change hinge, among many other things, on deeply uncertain and imperfect climate projections. Improving the decision relevance and utility of climate projections requires navigating a trade-off between increasing the physical realism of the model (often by improving the spatial resolution) and increasing the representation of decision-relevant uncertainties. This talk will examine the decision-relevance and utility of alternative ensembles of climate information by comparing two decision support applications, in water management and biodiversity perseveration, both in California. The climate ensembles will consist of different combinations of high and medium resolution projections from NARCCAP (North American Regional Climate Assessment Program) as well as low resolution, but more numerous, projections from the CMIP3 and CMIP5 ensembles. The decision support applications will use the same ensembles of climate projections in different contexts. Workshops with decision makers examine the extent to which the different ensembles lead to different decisions, the extent to which considering a wider range of uncertainty affects decisions, the extent to which decision makers' confidence in the projections and the decisions based on them will be sensitive to the resolution at which they are communicated and the resolution dependent skill, and how the answers to these questions varies with the water management and biodiversity contexts. This study aims to provide empirical evidence to support judgments on how best to use uncertainty climate information in water management and other decision support applications.

  3. Hydrogen utilization and alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Caputo, R.; Fujita, T.

    1975-01-01

    The historical uses of hydrogen are described along with potential new uses which could develop as a result of the diminishing supply of conventional fossil fuels such as natural gas. A perspective view of hydrogen, both as a chemical feedstock and as a fuel, is necessary to understand its relationship to the overall national energy projections. These projections, which show energy usage in terms of use sectors, forms of energy, and sources of energy, do not specifically identify hydrogen as a component of the energy system. By superimposing the traditional roles upon the new opportunities for hydrogen on the energy projections, the role of hydrogen and future projections is developed within the context of the national energy projections. Use, supply, and other factors affecting application are interrelated and are discussed.

  4. Battlefield Utility of Antipersonnel Landmines and Proposed Alternatives (Analysis in Support of the NATO SAS-023 APM Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Crandley, J F; Greenwalt, R J; Magnoli, D E; Randazzo, A S

    2002-02-05

    This study consists of work done in support of the U.S. delegation to the NATO SAS-023 Antipersonnel Landmine Study Group, supplemented by additional work done for the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense Antipersonnel Landmine Alternative Concept Exploration Program (Track III). It explores the battlefield utility of current antipersonnel landmines (APL) in both pure and mixed APL/antitank minefields and evaluates the value of military suggested non-materiel alternatives. The historical record is full of examples where the presence (or absence) of antipersonnel landmines made a critical difference in battle. The current generation of military thinkers and writers lack any significant combat experience employing either mixed or antipersonnel minefields, which leaves a critical gap in available expert advice for policy and decision-makers. Because of this lack of experienced-based professional military knowledge, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed the employment of antipersonnel landmines in tactical mixed minefields and in protective antipersonnel minefields. The scientific method was employed where hypotheses were generated from the tactics and doctrine of the antipersonnel landmine era and tested in a simulation laboratory. A high-resolution, U.S. Joint Forces Command combat simulation model (the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation--JCATS) was used as the laboratory instrument. A realistic European scenario was obtained from a multi-national USAREUR exercise and was approved by the SAS-023 panel members. Additional scenarios were provided by U.S. CINC conferences and were based on Southwest Asia and Northeast Asia. Weapons data was obtained from the U.S. family of Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manuals. The U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency conducted a limited verification and validation assessment of JCATS for purposes of this study.

  5. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Meena S.; Ma Shuangge; Jagsi, Reshma; Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan; Higgins, Susan A.; Weidhaas, Joanne B.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Lloyd, Shane; Peschel, Richard; Gaudreau, Bryant; Rockwell, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  6. Frequency of complementary and alternative medicine utilization in hypertensive patients attending an urban tertiary care centre in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amira, Oluwatoyin C; Okubadejo, Njideka U

    2007-01-01

    Background To study the frequency and pattern of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patients with essential hypertension attending a tertiary hypertension clinic. Methods Two hundred and twenty-five consecutive hypertensive patients attending the hypertension clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 3-month period were interviewed. Socio-demographic data, duration of hypertension, clinic attendance, current blood pressure, and compliance to conventional medications was documented. CAM utilization was explored using both structured and open-ended questions. Results There were 90 (40%) male and 135 (60%) female patients with mean age ± SD overall was 55.1 ± 12.4 years. 88 (39.1%) of the respondents used CAM. Herbal products were the most commonly used CAM type. Amongst the CAM users, the most common herbal product used was garlic (69.3%). Others were native herbs (25%), ginger (23.9%), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) (9.1%), and aloe vera (4.5%). 2.5% used spiritual therapy. There was no difference in the clinical characteristics, socio-economic status, and blood pressure control of CAM users and non-users. Patients who utilized CAM had higher BMI compared with those who did not, but the difference was not statistically significant (mean BMI ± SD of 29.1 ± 5.6 vs 27.1 ± 5.9 kg/m2; P = 0.05). Conclusion A significant proportion of hypertensive patients attending our tertiary facility and receiving conventional treatment also use CAM therapies. Clinicians need to be aware of this practice, understand the rationale for this health-seeking behaviour, proactively enquire about their use, and counsel patients regarding the potential of some of the therapies for adverse reactions and drug interactions. PMID:17903257

  7. Effect of Risk Adjustment Method on Comparisons of Health Care Utilization Between Complementary and Alternative Medicine Users and Nonusers

    PubMed Central

    Gerkovich, Mary M.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Deyo, Richard A.; Sherman, Karen J.; Lafferty, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers are becoming more integrated into the United States health care system. Because patients self-select CAM use, risk adjustment is needed to make the groups more comparable when analyzing utilization. This study examined how the choice of risk adjustment method affects assessment of CAM use on overall health care utilization. Design and subjects Insurance claims data for 2000–2003 from Washington State, which mandates coverage of CAM providers, were analyzed. Three (3) risk adjustment methods were compared in patients with musculoskeletal conditions: Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG), Diagnostic Cost Groups (DCG), and the Charlson Index. Relative Value Units (RVUs) were used as a proxy for expenditures. Two (2) sets of median regression models were created: prospective, which used risk adjustments from the previous year to predict RVU in the subsequent year, and concurrent, which used risk adjustment measures to predict RVU in the same year. Results The sample included 92,474 claimants. Prospective models showed little difference in the effect of CAM use on RVU among the three risk adjustment methods, and all models had low predictive power (R2 ≤0.05). In the concurrent models, coefficients were similar in direction and magnitude for all risk adjustment methods, but in some models the predicted effect of CAM use on RVU differed by as much as double between methods. Results of DCG and ACG models were similar and were stronger than Charlson models. Conclusions Choice of risk adjustment method may have a modest effect on the outcome of interest. PMID:23036140

  8. University Students and Faculty Have Positive Perceptions of Open/Alternative Resources and Their Utilization in a Textbook Replacement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delimont, Nicole; Turtle, Elizabeth C.; Bennett, Andrew; Adhikari, Koushik; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    The Kansas State University Open/Alternative Textbook Initiative provides grants to faculty members to replace textbooks with open/alternative educational resources (OAERs) that are available at no cost to students. Open educational resources are available for anyone to access, while alternative educational resources are not open. The objective of…

  9. The Utility of Statistical Significance Testing in Psychological and Educational Research: A Review of Recent Literature and Proposed Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes the post-1994 literature in psychology and education regarding statistical significance testing, emphasizing limitations and defenses of statistical testing and alternatives or supplements to statistical significance testing. (SLD)

  10. Experimental analysis of multi-attribute decision-making based on Atanassov intuitionistic fuzzy sets: a discussion of anchor dependency and accuracy functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting-Yu

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a useful method for relating anchor dependency and accuracy functions to multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) problems in the context of Atanassov intuitionistic fuzzy sets (A-IFSs). Considering anchored judgement with displaced ideals and solution precision with minimal hesitation, several auxiliary optimisation models have proposed to obtain the optimal weights of the attributes and to acquire the corresponding TOPSIS (the technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution) index for alternative rankings. Aside from the TOPSIS index, as a decision-maker's personal characteristics and own perception of self may also influence the direction in the axiom of choice, the evaluation of alternatives is conducted based on distances of each alternative from the positive and negative ideal alternatives, respectively. This article originates from Li's [Li, D.-F. (2005), 'Multiattribute Decision Making Models and Methods Using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets', Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 70, 73-85] work, which is a seminal study of intuitionistic fuzzy decision analysis using deduced auxiliary programming models, and deems it a benchmark method for comparative studies on anchor dependency and accuracy functions. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods are illustrated by a numerical example. Finally, a comparative analysis is illustrated with computational experiments on averaging accuracy functions, TOPSIS indices, separation measures from positive and negative ideal alternatives, consistency rates of ranking orders, contradiction rates of the top alternative and average Spearman correlation coefficients.

  11. Contribution of the Multi-attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental system (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Llopis-Albert, C.

    2012-04-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, with consideration of environmental, economic and social objectives, claims for participatory water resource management methods. To deal with different conflicting objectives it is necessary to apply a method for clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying values and opinions of stakeholders, and quantifying their valuations), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from alternatives towards fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach) and valuing trade-offs, facilitating negotiation. The method allows the incorporation of stakeholders in the planning process, which should guarantee a higher acceptance of the policies to be implemented. This research has been conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system Spain, subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. The main goals according to the WFD are: a good qualitative and quantitative status of the aquifer and a good quantitative and ecological status of related surface water resources (mainly the Jucar river and dependent ecosystems). The aim is to analyze the contribution of the MAVT for conflict resolution and a sustainable groundwater management, involving the stakeholders in the valuation process. A complex set of objectives and attributes has been defined. The alternatives have been evaluated according to the compliance of ecological, economic and social interests. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation status. A high conflict potential is expected from alternatives consisting of one unique measure. Uncertainties of the results are notable, but do not influence heavily on the alternative ranking. Different future scenarios also influence on the preference of alternatives. For instance, an expected reduction of future groundwater resources by climate change increases the conflict potential, with two

  12. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing low reluctance rims

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and rollers including low reluctance rim structures. The magnetic field and the rollers help contain the molten metal from leaking out of the containment structure.

  13. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing a ferromagnetic dam

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and a ferromagnetic dam. The magnetic field and the ferromagnetic dam contain the molten metal from leaking out side portions of the open side of the containment structure.

  14. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing a ferromagnetic dam

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1997-02-11

    An apparatus is disclosed for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and a ferromagnetic dam. The magnetic field and the ferromagnetic dam contain the molten metal from leaking out side portions of the open side of the containment structure. 25 figs.

  15. COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

  16. Free vascularized fibular grafts for femoral head osteonecrosis: alternative technique utilizing a buttress plate for graft fixation.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Andrew G; Drake, Matthew L; Lee, Gwo Chin; Levin, L Scott; Tintle, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Core decompression with free vascularized fibular grafting is an effective hip preservation treatment for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. This procedure has traditionally utilized a single Kirschner wire to secure the fibular strut within the femoral neck. While this method has proven effective, migration of the Kirschner wire remains the most common recipient site complication. Additionally the presence of the Kirschner wire traversing the intramedullary canal can also complicate future hip arthroplasty. Therefore, this article describes a simple graft fixation technique utilizing a buttress plate that obviates migration problems. Ten patients are presented with at least 6 months of follow-up who have been treated with this technique without complications. This fixation method is simple and eliminates a major potential complication and allows for easier conversion to total hip arthroplasty. PMID:25988699

  17. A Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey-Based Investigation of Alternative Primary Care Models in Nursing Homes: Cost and Utilization Differences.

    PubMed

    Lee, A James; Gautam, Ramraj; Melillo, Karen Devereaux; Abdallah, Lisa M; Remington, Ruth; Van Etten, Deborah; Gore, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    The current study used the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey-Based (MCBS) Cost and Use files for 2006-2008 to investigate whether health care costs and service utilization of nursing home residents varied with nurse practitioner (NP) and physician assistant (PA) involvement, compared to the use of medical doctors (MDs) only. The sample included Medicare beneficiaries 65 and older residing in a nursing home for the entire study year (433 annual observations). A generalized estimating equations procedure was used to assess whether health care cost and utilization measures varied by cohort. Point estimates indicated that the annual per-person cost of non-institutional services (total medical cost less the cost of the nursing home itself) was $3,847 and $3,170 more for individuals in the MD-only and MD-dominant cohorts, respectively, compared to those in the NP/PA-dominant cohort. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(3):115-122.]. PMID:27054369

  18. Zoning of an agricultural field using a fuzzy indicator model in combination with tool for multi-attributed decision-making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. This paper extends previously published work entitled “Zoning of an agricultural field using a fuzzy indicator model” to a general case where there is disagreement between groups of managers or expert...

  19. A virtual repository approach to clinical and utilization studies: application in mammography as alternative to a national database.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, L; Boxwala, A A; Ehresman, J; Smith, D N; Greenes, R A

    1997-01-01

    A national mammography database was proposed, based on a centralized architecture for collecting, monitoring, and auditing mammography data. We have developed an alternative architecture relying on Internet-based distributed queries to heterogeneous databases. This architecture creates a "virtual repository", or a federated database which is constructed dynamically, for each query and makes use of data available in legacy systems. It allows the construction of custom-tailored databases at individual sites that can serve the dual purposes of providing data (a) to researchers through a common mammography repository and (b) to clinicians and administrators at participating institutions. We implemented this architecture in a prototype system at the Brigham and Women's Hospital to show its feasibility. Common queries are translated dynamically into database-specific queries, and the results are aggregated for immediate display or download by the user. Data reside in two different databases and consist of structured mammography reports, coded per BIRADS Standardized Mammography Lexicon, as well as pathology results. We prospectively collected data on 213 patients, and showed that our system can perform distributed queries effectively. We also implemented graphical exploratory analysis tools to allow visualization of results. Our findings indicate that the architecture is not only feasible, but also flexible and scaleable, constituting a good alternative to a national mammography database. PMID:9357650

  20. Workshop on the utilization of coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels in the Andean region. Volume 2. Contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-28

    Since the advent of the petroleum crisis in the mid-seventies, with its escalating fuel-oil prices, coal production has shown a substantial increase. Worldwide coal reserves are large, and the technology exists to exploit these reserves. Andean countries, especially Peru, are known to have significant underutilized coal reserves, which could prove socially and economically attractive for energy policy and planning and for long-term self-sufficiency. At present, many industrial operations and electric-generating facilities in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru are dependent on fuel-oil from diminishing domestic reserves or from imports. With current prices of coal generally about half those for residual petroleum fuels (based on energy content), the potential exists for exploitation of Andean coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels. Greater use of coal resources would help meet the demand for increased energy needed to improve living standards and for increased industrialization in the area.

  1. Medical students' participation in the 2009 Novel H1N1 influenza vaccination administration: policy alternatives for effective student utilization to enhance surge capacity in disasters.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Heather E; Barnett, Daniel J; Hayanga, Awori J; Brown, Meghan E; Filak, Andrew T

    2011-06-01

    As cases of 2009 novel H1N1 influenza became prevalent in Cincinnati, Ohio, Hamilton County Public Health called upon the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine to enhance its surge capacity in vaccination administration. Although the collaboration was well organized, it became evident that a system should exist for medical students' involvement in disaster response and recovery efforts in advance of a disaster. Therefore, 5 policy alternatives for effective utilization of medical students in disaster-response efforts have been examined: maintaining the status quo, enhancing the Medical Reserve Corps, creating medical school-based disaster-response units, using students within another selected disaster-response organization, or devising an entirely new plan for medical students' utilization. The intent of presenting these policy alternatives is to foster a policy dialogue around creating a more formalized approach for integrating medical students into disaster surge capacity-enhancement strategies. Using medical students to supplement the current and future workforce may help substantially in achieving goals related to workforce requirements. Discussions will be necessary to translate policy into practice. PMID:21482704

  2. Feasibility study of utilization of degummed soybean oil as a substitute for diesel fuel. Biomass alternative fuels program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the economic and technological feasibility of producing a diesel oil substitute or extender from soybean oil. Existing technology was reviewed, to determine the minimum modification necessary for production of an acceptable fuel product. The information developed indicated that the degummed soybean oil produced by existing processing plants is theoretically suitable for use as a diesel fuel extender. This situation is very favorable to early commercialization of degummed soybean oil as a diesel fuel extender during the 1980's. Moreover, a large energy gain is realized when the soybean oil is utilized as fuel. Its heat of combustion is reported as 16,920 Btu per pound, or 130,000 Btu per gallon. Production of soybean oil consumes between 3000 and 5000 Btu per pound or 23,000 and 39,000 Btu per gallon. A resource availability study disclosed that the southeastern region of the United States produces approximately 260 million bushels of soybeans per year. In the same general area, fourteen extraction plants are operating, with a combined annual capacity of approximately 200 million bushels. Thus, regional production is sufficient to support the extraction capacity. Using an average figure of 1.5 gallons of oil per bushel of soybeans gives annual regional oil production of approximately 300 million gallons. An engine test plan was developed and implemented in this project. Data provide a preliminary indication that the blend containing one-third degummed soybean oil and two-thirds No. 2 diesel oil performed satisfactorily. Long term operation on the 50-50 blend is questionable. Detailed data and observations appear in the body of the report. The study also presents detailed engineering, financial, marketing, management and implementation plans for production of the proposed fuel blend, as well as a complete analysis of impacts. 4 references, 55 figures, 56 tables.

  3. Solid tumor models for the assessment of different treatment modalities. XXII. The alternate utilization of radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, W.B.; Hopkins, H.A.; Carter, W.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Major increases in the time between administration of two modalities, radiation and cyclophosphamide (CP), from 1 to 7 days and in the overall time of delivery of 3 courses of combined therapy from 24 to 35 days were carried out in rats with hepatoma 3924A without major loss of therapeutic effectiveness. Cure rates of 50% or greater could be maintained even though treatment was given over much longer time periods. The radiation was given as hyperfractionated, split-course schedules which were devised by increasing the number of 250 rad fractions over a 2-day period. Increasing the total radiation dose from 6000 to 7500 rad in the series given CP 1 day after each of three courses of radiation results in an increase in total tumor cure rates from 50% to 60%. The tumor cure rate in the series given CP 7 days after radiation increased from 10% to 70% when the total radiation dose was increased from 6000 to 7500 rad. Increasing the total radiation dose from 6000 to 7500 rad increased the magnitude of the acute skin reaction as well as the duration of recovery. However, the skin reactions for both the 6000 and 7500 rad were acceptable. Host toxicity and normal tissue reaction were within acceptable limits for both modalities. The results of these studies, therefore, indicate that excessive toxicity, one of the major deterrents to the effective combined utilization of these two primary means of cancer management, may be avoided by temporal separation of delivery while maintaining tumor cure rates of 50% or greater.

  4. Use of multi-criteria decision analysis in regulatory alternatives analysis: a case study of lead free solder.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy F; Sinsheimer, Peter J; Blake, Ann; Linkov, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Regulators are implementing new programs that require manufacturers of products containing certain chemicals of concern to identify, evaluate, and adopt viable, safer alternatives. Such programs raise the difficult question for policymakers and regulated businesses of which alternatives are "viable" and "safer." To address that question, these programs use "alternatives analysis," an emerging methodology that integrates issues of human health and environmental effects with technical feasibility and economic impact. Despite the central role that alternatives analysis plays in these programs, the methodology itself is neither well-developed nor tailored to application in regulatory settings. This study uses the case of Pb-based bar solder and its non-Pb-based alternatives to examine the application of 2 multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods to alternatives analysis: multi-attribute utility analysis and outranking. The article develops and evaluates an alternatives analysis methodology and supporting decision-analysis software for use in a regulatory context, using weighting of the relevant decision criteria generated from a stakeholder elicitation process. The analysis produced complete rankings of the alternatives, including identification of the relative contribution to the ranking of each of the highest level decision criteria such as human health impacts, technical feasibility, and economic feasibility. It also examined the effect of variation in data conventions, weighting, and decision frameworks on the outcome. The results indicate that MCDA can play a critical role in emerging prevention-based regulatory programs. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods offer a means for transparent, objective, and rigorous analysis of products and processes, providing regulators and stakeholders with a common baseline understanding of the relative performance of alternatives and the trade-offs they present. PMID:23703936

  5. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin; Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia; Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell; Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester .

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and enzymatic

  6. Utilization Patterns of Conventional and Complementary/Alternative Treatments in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities in a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Akins, CDR Roger Scott; Krakowiak, Paula; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hansen, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compared the utilization of conventional treatments to utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Methods Participants were 578 children who were part of an ongoing population-based, case-control study of 2 to 5 year-olds with ASD, DD, and the general population. Parents completed an interview on past and current services. Results Four hundred fifty-three children with ASD and 125 DD children were included. ASD families received more hours of conventional services compared to DD (17.8 vs. 11; p<0.001). The use of psychotropic medications was low in both groups (~3%). CAM use overall was not significantly different in ASD (39%) versus DD (30%). Hispanic families in both groups used CAM less often than non-Hispanics. Variables such as level of function, immunization status, and presence of an identified neurogenetic disorder were not predictive of CAM use. A higher level of parental education was associated with increased CAM use in ASD and DD. Families who utilized >20 hours per week of conventional services were more likely to use CAM, including potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Under-immunized children were marginally more likely to use CAM, but not more likely to have received potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Conclusion CAM use is common in families of young children with neurodevelopmental disorders and is predicted by higher parental education and non-Hispanic ethnicity but not developmental characteristics. Further research should address how healthcare providers can support families in making decisions about CAM use. PMID:24399100

  7. Collocated cokriging and neural-network multi-attribute transform in the prediction of effective porosity: A comparative case study for the Second Wall Creek Sand of the Teapot Dome field, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Seonghoon; Lee, Gwang H.; Kim, Hyeonju; Choi, Yosoon; Kim, Han-Joon

    2016-08-01

    Collocated cokriging (CCK) and neural-network multi-attribute transform (NN-MAT) are widely used in the prediction of reservoir properties because they can integrate sparsely-distributed, high-resolution well-log data and densely-sampled, low-resolution seismic data. CCK is a linear-weighted averaging method based on spatial covariance model. NN-MAT, based on a nonlinear relationship between seismic attributes and log values, treats data as spatially independent observations. In this study, we analyzed 3-D seismic and well-log data from the Second Wall Creek Sand of the Teapot Dome field, Wyoming, USA to investigate: (1) how CCK and NN-MAT perform in the prediction of porosity and (2) how the number of wells affects the results. Among a total of 64 wells, 25 wells were selected for CCK and NN-MAT and 39 wells were withheld for validation. We examined four cases: 25, 20, 15, and 10 wells. CCK overpredicted the porosity in the validation wells for all cases likely due to the strong influence of high values, but failed to predict very large porosities. Overprediction of CCK porosity becomes more pronounced with decreasing number of wells. NN-MAT largely underpredicted the porosity for all cases probably due to the band-limited nature of seismic data. The performance of CCK appears to be not affected significantly by the number of wells. Overall, NN-MAT performed better than CCK although its performance decreases continuously with decreasing number of wells.

  8. Utility of spatially-resolved atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques as alternatives to mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) in drug metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Blatherwick, Eleanor Q.; Van Berkel, Gary J; Pickup, Kathryn; Johansson, Maria K.; Beaudoin, Marie-Eve; Cole, Roderic; Day, Jennifer M.; Iverson, Suzanne; Wilson, Ian D.; Scrivens, James H.; Weston, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tissue distribution studies of drug molecules play an essential role in the pharmaceutical industry and are commonly undertaken using quantitative whole body autoradiography (QWBA) methods. 2. The growing need for complementary methods to address some scientific gaps around radiography methods has led to increased use of mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) technology over the last 5 to 10 years. More recently, the development of novel mass spectrometric techniques for ambient surface sampling has redefined what can be regarded as fit-for-purpose for MSI in a drug metabolism and disposition arena. 3. Together with a review of these novel alternatives, this paper details the use of two liquid microjunction (LMJ)- based mass spectrometric surface sampling technologies. These approaches are used to provide qualitative determination of parent drug in rat liver tissue slices using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and to assess the performance of a LMJ surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP) interface for quantitative assessment of parent drug in brain, liver and muscle tissue slices. 4. An assessment of the utility of these spatially-resolved sampling methods is given, showing interdependence between mass spectrometric and QWBA methods, in particular there emerges a reason to question typical MSI workflows for drug metabolism; suggesting the expedient use of profile or region analysis may be more appropriate, rather than generating time-intensive molecular images of the entire tissue section.

  9. A Multivariate Test of an Expanded Andersen Health Care Utilization Model for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Jamie; Bohman, Tom; Richards, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objectives of this study were (1) to determine which Andersen Model variables [predisposing, enabling, and need (PEN)] are related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by African Americans in the past 12 months; and (2) to determine whether the addition of disease states to the Model will explain significant variation in CAM use in the past 12 months. Design The 2002 National Health Interview Survey was used with 4256 African American adults (n = 23,828,268 weighted) selected as the study population. The dependent variable, CAM Past 12 Months, represented participants' use of at least 1 of 17 CAM modalities during the past 12 months. The Andersen Model variables [predisposing (e.g., age); enabling (e.g., insurance); and need (e.g., medical conditions)] and prevalent disease states (≥10%) comprised the independent variables. Logistic regression analyses, incorporating the sampling weights, were employed. Results Among predisposing factors, CAM use was associated with middle-aged to older, more educated, and female African Americans. Region (Northeast less likely than South) was the only significant enabling factor. Need factors had the most frequent relationships, with more medical conditions, more physician visits, better health status, prescription and over-the-counter medication use, more frequent exercise, and having activities of daily living limitations being associated with CAM use. After adjusting for PEN factors, the disease states of pain/aching joints, recurring pain, and migraine were related to CAM use. Conclusions African American CAM users are middle-aged to older, female, educated, and have more medical conditions (especially pain-related). Users report higher utilization of “traditional” care (e.g., physician visits), indicating that CAM is likely a complement to conventional treatment in this population. Health care providers should use these factors as prompts for inquiring about CAM use in African

  10. Controlling Your Utility Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucht, Ray; Dembowski, Frederick L.

    1985-01-01

    A cost-effective alternative to high utility bills for middle-sized and smaller utility users is the service of utility rate consultants. The consultants analyze utility invoices for the previous 12 months to locate available refunds or credits. (MLF)

  11. Workshop on the utilization of coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels in the Andean Region. Volume 1. Summary report. Held in Lima, Peru on June 24-28, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    1985-12-31

    The Workshop on the Utilization of Coal as an Alternative to Petroleum Fuels in the Andean Region was one regional effort to examine issues involved in developing coal as a major energy source. Held in Lima, Peru, June 24-28, 1985, and funded by the Government of Peru and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), the workshop examined technological measures and economic policy initiatives needed to promote coal development, particularly in Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador.

  12. An exploration of an alternative rate structure as a means of integrating equity and efficiency in a municipally owned natural gas distribution utility

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    After two decades of a somewhat golden age for gas utilities and regulators, the 1970's saw a changing energy market characterized by curtailments and allocations in the natural gas industry. The Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 provided incentives for new supplies but at increased prices. During a period of rapidly calculating natural gas prices (1979-1984), municipal owned public utility operators were criticized for not meeting the needs of the poor and other deprived members of society. The thesis of this paper is that this criticism of operators of municipal owned natural gas utilities stemmed from the observer conceiving of the utility as a social agency of government. This paper investigates the background of the problem and public utilities' obligations because of their status as regulated monopolies. The municipal owned natural gas utility's responsibility in meeting the social functions of government are considered. This paper argues that such a utility should be viewed as a business not a societal agency. Use of a utility's rate structure for satisfying the dictates of a system of distributive justice is investigated. The attempts made by state and local governments (moratoriums on delinquent shutoffs, lifeline rates, etc.) have been ineffective and counter productive. The utility's duty to offer service to all who request it; without discrimination among people similarly situated; to the limit of its capacity is considered with consumers duty to pay just bills. Arguments show that the rate structure, not quantity delivered, is the crucial factor in assuring distributive justice. Pricing is viewed from a philosophical perspective also an economic perspective. The only need identified for equity and economic efficiency is in rate structures.

  13. The Development and Utilization of a Scale to Measure Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ann R.; Thompson, James R.; Kosuwan, Kullaya; Prochnow, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Study 1 developed the Assessment of Attitudes Toward Augmentative and Alternative Communication-2 (AATAAC-2) to assess adolescents' attitudes toward peers who use AAC. Study 2 used the AATAAC-2 to examine influences of familiarity with people with disabilities; type of AAC device; and various combinations of gender of rater, AAC user, and…

  14. Utilizing TEMPO surface estimates to determine changes in emissions, community exposure and environmental impacts from cement kilns across North America using alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, M. J.; Gibson, M. D.; Asamany, E.

    2015-12-01

    A major problem faced by all North American (NA) Governments is managing solid waste from residential and non-residential sources. One way to mitigate the need to expand landfill sites across NA is waste diversion for use as alternative fuel in industries such as cement manufacture. Currently, waste plastic, tires, waste shingles and other high carbon content waste destined for landfill are being explored, or currently used, as an alternative supplemental fuels for use in cement kilns across NA. While this is an attractive, environmentally sustainable solution, significant knowledge gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of whether these alternative fuels may lead to increased air pollution emissions from cement kilns across NA. The long-term objective of using TEMPO is to advance fundamental understanding of uncharacterized air pollution emissions and to assess the actual or potential environmental and health impacts of these emissions from cement kilns across NA. TEMPO measurements will be made in concert with in-situ observations augmented by air dispersion, land-use regression and receptor modelling. This application of TEMPO follows on from current research on a series of bench scale and pilot studies for Lafarge Canada Inc., that investigated the change in combustion emissions from various mixtures of coal (C), petroleum coke (PC) and non-recyclable alternative fuels. From our work we demonstrated that using an alternative fuel mixture in a cement kiln has potential to reduce emissions of CO2 by 34%; reduce NOx by 80%, and reduce fuel SO2 emissions by 98%. We also provided evidence that there would be a significant reduction in the formation of secondary ground-level ozone (O3) and secondary PM2.5 in downwind stack plumes if alternative waste derived fuels are used. The application of air dispersion, source apportionment, land use regression; together with remote sensing offers a powerful set of tools with the potential to improve air pollution

  15. Development and field testing of an alternative latrine design utilizing basic oxygen furnace slag as a treatment media for pathogen removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimson, J.; Suhogusoff, A. V.; Blowes, D. W.; Hirata, R. A.; Ptacek, C. J.; Robertson, W. D.; Emelko, M. B.

    2009-05-01

    In densely-populated communities in developing countries, appropriate setback distances for pit latrines often cannot be met. An alternative latrine was designed that incorporates two permeable reactive media to treat pathogens and nitrate from effluent. Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag in contact with wastewater effluent elevates pH to levels (> 11) that inactivate pathogens. Saturated woodchip creates reducing conditions that encourage the growth of denitrifying bacteria which remove NO3-. The field application was constructed in Santo Antônio, a peri-urban community located 25 km south of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A 2-m diameter pit was excavated to a depth of 4 m into the sandy-clay unsaturated zone. A geotextile liner was emplaced to create saturated conditions in the 0.5-m thick woodchip barrier. Above the woodchip barrier, a 1-m thick layer of BOF slag mixed with pea gravel and sand was emplaced. A series of filter layers, grading upward from coarse sand to fine gravel, where placed above the BOF layer, and gravel was also infilled around the outer perimeter of the excavation, to ensure O2 diffusion into the design, the formation of biofilm, and degradation of organic material. A control latrine, constructed with similar hydraulic characteristics and nonreactive materials, was constructed at a locality 100 m away, in the same geological materials. Total coliform, thermotolerant coliform, and E. coli are removed by approximately 4-5 log concentration units in less than one meter of vertical transport through the BOF slag media. In the control latrine, comparable reductions in these pathogenic indicators are observed over three meters of vertical transport. Removal of sulphur-reducing Clostridia, Clostridium perfrigens and somatic coliphage are also achieved in the alternative design, but initial concentrations in effluent are low. Some measurable concentrations of pathogen indicators are measured in lysimeters below the BOF layer, but are associated

  16. Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses of the Oil-Accumulating Basidiomycete Yeast Trichosporon oleaginosus: Insights into Substrate Utilization and Alternative Evolutionary Trajectories of Fungal Mating Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bracharz, Felix; Lorenzen, Jan; Kracht, Octavia N.; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Deshpande, Shweta; Lipzen, Anna; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Sun, Sheng; Heitman, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial fermentation of agro-industrial waste holds great potential for reducing the environmental impact associated with the production of lipids for industrial purposes from plant biomass. However, the chemical complexity of many residues currently prevents efficient conversion into lipids, creating a high demand for strains with the ability to utilize all energy-rich components of agricultural residues. Here, we present results of genome and transcriptome analyses of Trichosporon oleaginosus. This oil-accumulating yeast is able to grow on a wide variety of substrates, including pentoses and N-acetylglucosamine, making it an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications. Transcriptomics shows specific changes in gene expression patterns under lipid-accumulating conditions. Furthermore, gene content and expression analyses indicate that T. oleaginosus is well-adapted for the utilization of chitin-rich biomass. We also focused on the T. oleaginosus mating type, because this species is a member of the Tremellomycetes, a group that has been intensively analyzed as a model for the evolution of sexual development, the best-studied member being Cryptococcus neoformans. The structure of the T. oleaginosus mating-type regions differs significantly from that of other Tremellomycetes and reveals a new evolutionary trajectory paradigm. Comparative analysis shows that recruitment of developmental genes to the ancestral tetrapolar mating-type loci occurred independently in the Trichosporon and Cryptococcus lineages, supporting the hypothesis of a trend toward larger mating-type regions in fungi. PMID:26199329

  17. High-level production of recombinant trypsin in transgenic rice cell culture through utilization of an alternative carbon source and recycling system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nan-Sun; Yu, Hwa-Young; Chung, Nguyen-Duc; Kwon, Tae-Ho; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2014-09-01

    Productivity of recombinant bovine trypsin using a rice amylase 3D promoter has been studied in transgenic rice suspension culture. Alternative carbon sources were added to rice cell suspension cultures in order to improve the production of recombinant bovine trypsin. It was demonstrated that addition of alternative carbon sources such as succinic acid, fumaric acid and malic acid in the culture medium could increase the productivity of recombinant bovine trypsin 3.8-4.3-fold compared to those in the control medium without carbon sources. The highest accumulated trypsin reached 68.2 mg/L on day 5 in the culture medium with 40 mM fumaric acid. The feasibility of repeated use of the cells for recombinant trypsin production was tested in transgenic rice cell suspension culture with the culture medium containing the combination of variable sucrose concentration and 40 mM fumaric acid. Among the used combinations, the combination of 1% sucrose and 40 mM fumaric acid resulted in a yield of up to 53 mg/L five days after incubation. It also increased 31% (W/W) of dry cell weight and improved 43% of cell viability compared to that in control medium without sucrose. Based on these data, recycling of the trypsin production process with repeated 1% sucrose and 40 mM fumaric acid supplying-harvesting cycles was developed in flask scale culture. Recombinant bovine trypsin could be stably produced with a yield of up to 53-39 mg/L per cycle during five recycling cycles. PMID:25039055

  18. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

    2014-01-01

    Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a

  19. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue part 3: issues of utility and alternative approaches in psychiatric diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In face of the multiple controversies surrounding the DSM process in general and the development of DSM-5 in particular, we have organized a discussion around what we consider six essential questions in further work on the DSM. The six questions involve: 1) the nature of a mental disorder; 2) the definition of mental disorder; 3) the issue of whether, in the current state of psychiatric science, DSM-5 should assume a cautious, conservative posture or an assertive, transformative posture; 4) the role of pragmatic considerations in the construction of DSM-5; 5) the issue of utility of the DSM – whether DSM-III and IV have been designed more for clinicians or researchers, and how this conflict should be dealt with in the new manual; and 6) the possibility and advisability, given all the problems with DSM-III and IV, of designing a different diagnostic system. Part 1 of this article took up the first two questions. Part 2 took up the second two questions. Part 3 now deals with Questions 5 & 6. Question 5 confronts the issue of utility, whether the manual design of DSM-III and IV favors clinicians or researchers, and what that means for DSM-5. Our final question, Question 6, takes up a concluding issue, whether the acknowledged problems with the earlier DSMs warrants a significant overhaul of DSM-5 and future manuals. As in Parts 1 & 2 of this article, the general introduction, as well as the introductions and conclusions for the specific questions, are written by James Phillips, and the responses to commentaries are written by Allen Frances. PMID:22621419

  20. Approximating pollution abatement costs via alternative specifications of a multi-output production technology: a case of the US electric utility industry.

    PubMed

    Vardanyan, Michael; Noh, Dong-Woon

    2006-07-01

    Using a panel of observations from the US electric utility industry, we analyze the output set frontiers that are produced by modeling the technology with different functional forms. Our specifications rely on a series of mapping regimes, based on the paths in which the outputs are scaled toward the frontier, and their outcomes are assessed against the general axiomatic framework of the production model. We demonstrate that different parameterization methodologies produce different empirical analogues of the output set and, as a consequence, can generate rather different estimates of the shadow prices of socially undesirable outputs, or 'bads,' as well. We benchmark our results by assessing the shadow price estimates, often interpreted as the opportunity cost of pollution reduction, against the market prices of pollution permits. The outcomes of our analysis suggest that the estimate of the output set boundary varies with the choice of a parameterization technique, which provides a possible explanation for the sizeable differences between the shadow prices of bads reported in the literature. We also demonstrate that among a variety of existing parametric methodologies no single technique is superior to all others. PMID:16377071

  1. SU-E-J-271: A Feasibility Study to Utilize XR-QA2 Radiochromic Films as An Alternative Tool for Measuring Beam Parameters of Kilovoltage CBCT Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Paliza, M; Ding, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The beam parameters of the x-ray beams used in image guidance are difficult to measure in water due to the low exposure. This study is to investigate if XR-QA2 radiochromic films can be used in obtaining beam parameters, such as beam profiles and outputs for kV-CBCT systems. Methods: The kV-CBCT beams were from a Varian OBI system. The films used were XR-QA2-GAFCHROMICTM films placed in the middle of two Plastic -Water slab phantoms at isocenter. The scanner used to analyze the films was an Epson Expression 1680 flat-bed scanner. Pre and 24 h-post-irradiated scans of films were obtained by using the reflective mode. The corresponding pixel-by-pixel dose in the films was obtained using a dose calibration equation as a function of net reflectance from the literature. Beam profiles of different scan protocols with and without bow-tie filters were measured. Monte Carlo simulations were used to compare the accuracy of the measured dose profiles. Results: The beam profiles measured from XR-QA2 films for different clinical default kV-CBCT scan protocols were benchmarked against Monte Carlo simulated profiles which have been validated by measurements performed in water phantom. We confirmed that a minimum post-irradiated time of 24 hours is necessary to pass to scan the films to account for light scatter stability. We found that the uncertainties of the results depend on the scan orientation of the film when analyzed in different directions. Conclusion: The XR-QA2 radiochromic films are sensitive to measure the x-ray beam profiles with irradiated dose ranging 1–5 cGy. The film measurements can be performed with an easy setup compared to ion chamber measurements in a water phantom. These films provide an alternative method to obtain the beam profiles for kV-CBCT beams.

  2. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  3. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  4. The nature of undergraduates' conceptual understanding of oxygen transport and utilization in humans: Can cardiopulmonary simulation software enhance learning of propositional knowledge and/or diagnose alternative conceptions in novices and intermediates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissing, Dennis Robert

    The purpose of the this research was to explore undergraduates' conceptual development for oxygen transport and utilization, as a component of a cardiopulmonary physiology and advanced respiratory care course in the allied health program. This exploration focused on the student's development of knowledge and the presence of alternative conceptions, prior to, during, and after completing cardiopulmonary physiology and advanced respiratory care courses. Using the simulation program, SimBioSysTM (Samsel, 1994), student-participants completed a series of laboratory exercises focusing on cardiopulmonary disease states. This study examined data gathered from: (1) a novice group receiving the simulation program prior to instruction, (2) a novice group that experienced the simulation program following course completion in cardiopulmonary physiology, and (3) an intermediate group who experienced the simulation program following completion of formal education in Respiratory Care. This research was based on the theory of Human Constructivism as described by Mintzes, Wandersee, and Novak (1997). Data-gathering techniques were based on theories supported by Novak (1984), Wandersee (1997), and Chi (1997). Data were generated by exams, interviews, verbal analysis (Chi, 1997), and concept mapping. Results suggest that simulation may be an effective instructional method for assessing conceptual development and diagnosing alternative conceptions in undergraduates enrolled in a cardiopulmonary science program. Use of simulation in conjunction with clinical interview and concept mapping may assist in verifying gaps in learning and conceptual knowledge. This study found only limited evidence to support the use of computer simulation prior to lecture to augment learning. However, it was demonstrated that students' prelecture experience with the computer simulation helped the instructor assess what the learner knew so he or she could be taught accordingly. In addition, use of computer

  5. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2010-06-30

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels. Thailand is of particular interest since it introduced E20 to its commercial market in 2007 and the US is now considering introducing E20 into the US market.

  6. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO4) as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Won, Seung-Gun; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4) as an alternative phosphorus (P) source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus) in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE) significantly higher (p<0.05) than those fed DCP. Fish groups fed control and TCP showed the lower FE than the other groups which was significantly different (p<0.05) from those of fish fed the other diets. Survival rate was not significantly different (p>0.05) among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (p<0.05) from that of fish fed MHP. Fish fed MCP and MHP had plasma P higher (p<0.05) than fish fed the other diets. Relative efficiencies of MCP, DCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish. PMID:25083108

  7. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO4) as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus)

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Won, Seung-Gun; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4) as an alternative phosphorus (P) source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus) in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE) significantly higher (p<0.05) than those fed DCP. Fish groups fed control and TCP showed the lower FE than the other groups which was significantly different (p<0.05) from those of fish fed the other diets. Survival rate was not significantly different (p>0.05) among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (p<0.05) from that of fish fed MHP. Fish fed MCP and MHP had plasma P higher (p<0.05) than fish fed the other diets. Relative efficiencies of MCP, DCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish. PMID:25083108

  8. Alternate Alternates: A Medley of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Paula J.; Olsen, Ken

    This paper highlights eight states that have implemented alternate assessments for children with disabilities who cannot participate in their state and district-wide assessment programs. The alternate assessment systems in Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia are briefly described, along with their…

  9. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  10. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  11. Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 μm) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ≤ 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of

  12. Alternative/complementary therapies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J W; Landis, J

    1997-02-01

    The national trends and our regional experience of the utilization of complementary therapies suggest that a significant number of our patients will continue to employ remedies that are outside the mainstream of what has been defined as conventional Western medicine. The data obtained from our survey is very consistent with the national survey published in 1993. Indeed the national interest in alternative/complementary therapies seems to be growing. A recent newspaper article from Minneapolis noted that Allina, one of Minnesota's largest hospital and HMO systems, found, in a 1995 survey, that two-thirds of surveyed households had a least one member who had used some type of alternative or holistic care over the prior two year period. Certainly continued study of the safety and efficacy of alternative/complementary therapies is warranted. This work is being done on many fronts, including the Office of Alternative Medicine at the National Institutes of Health. A most important aspect of such investigations is to improve the understanding of why patients choose these unconventional remedies. For many patients, the answer is simple. They believe these alternative treatments work. For such patients, alternative therapies may constitute a practical way to move from the sterile "high tech" realm of traditional medicine to a more intimate, "high touch" intervention offered by non-physicians. In the end, physicians' most pressing mandate is "to be of use" to patients in their struggles with illness, disability, and impending death. None of us have all the answers, and the studies alluded to in this essay suggest that a significant segment of the population yearns for interventions that have been traditionally outside the practice of most physicians and nurses. The data from our survey corroborates the high utilization rate of alternative/complementary therapies, regionally and is consistent with national data. Our challenge, as caregivers, is to appropriately respond to the

  13. Labview utilities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-30

    The software package provides several utilities written in LabView. These utilities don't form independent programs, but rather can be used as a library or controls in other labview programs. The utilities include several new controls (xcontrols), VIs for input and output routines, as well as other 'helper'-functions not provided in the standard LabView environment.

  14. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  15. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Stork, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. Thailand has continued to work to promote increased consumption of gasohol especially for highethanol content fuels like E85. The government has confirmed its effort to draw up incentives for auto makers to invest in manufacturing E85-compatible vehicles in the country. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels.

  16. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  17. Cosmic alternatives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  18. ALTERNATIVE OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study chloramines, chlorine dioxide and ozone as alternative oxidants/disinfectants to chlorine for the control of disinfection by-rpdocuts (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes and haloa...

  19. Alternative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

  20. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

  1. Alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W.; Worthen, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    The escalating oil prices and shortages of petroleum based fuels for transportation have made research work on various fuel alternatives, especially for transportation engines, a priority of both the private and public sectors. This book contains 18 papers on this subject. The range of options from the development of completely non-petroleum-based fuels and engines to the use of various non-petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel extenders and improvers are discussed.

  2. Alternative Financing of Alternative Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Higher Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The University of San Francisco financed conversion of three dormitories to solar heat by having private investors purchase and install equipment through a limited partnership. A public utilities rebate and eventual donation of the equipment also resulted. Available from California Higher Education, P.O. Box 26541, Sacramento, CA 95826, $2.00.…

  3. Fixed pitch wind turbine system utilizing aerodynamic stall

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, A.; Humphrey, J.; Midyette, J. III

    1984-01-24

    A fixed-pitch wind turbine system utilizing a permanent magnet alternator. Optimum output power is achieved by controlling the load on the stator output armature of the permanent magnet alternator. Energy is stored in the ac utility grid utilizing a synchronous inverter which couples energy from the alternator for storage in the ac utility grid in a controlled manner to regulate the rotational speed of the wind turbine and thereby extract a substantially optimum amount of output power from the wind turbine.

  4. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  5. Lighting Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with lighting utilization. Its objective is for the student to be able to outline the development of lighting use and conservation and identify major types and operating characteristics of lamps used in electric lighting. Some topics…

  6. BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...

  7. Squaring the Circle: A New Alternative to Alternative-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Many quality assurance systems rely on high-stakes assessment for course certification. Such methods are not as objective as they might appear; they can have detrimental effects on student motivation and may lack relevance to the needs of degree courses increasingly oriented to vocational utility. "Alternative assessment" methods can…

  8. Alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, L.

    1988-11-01

    We want to get untreated waste out of our landfills, and to do this we want to entice technologies into our state, preferably in the source reduction mode. This is a thumbnail description of the purpose of the Alternative Technologies section (ATS) of the California Department of Health Services (DHS). This paper reports on the ATS program which was initially conceived in recognition that California's relatively strict environmental regulations might be scaring off businesses possessing technologies with the potential to reduce the state's toxic wastes. There are also a lot of great inventors out there and one thing they don't know how to do is move technology into the marketplace. It was hoped that ATS would help shape technologies and move them into appropriate market niches.

  9. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems: Evaluating the Rationale for the Utility-Accessible External Disconnect Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M.; Margolis, R.M.; Aabakken, J.

    2008-01-01

    The utility-accessible alternating current (AC) external disconnect switch (EDS) for distributed generators, including photovoltaic (PV) systems, is a hardware feature that allows a utility?s employees to manually disconnect a customer-owned generator from the electricity grid. This paper examines the utility-accessible EDS debate in the context of utility-interactive PV systems for residential and small commercial installations. It also evaluates the rationale for EDS requirements.

  10. Redeveloping utility plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, J.W. )

    1994-01-01

    In 1987, Adirondack Hydro Development Corp., a Glens Falls, NY-based developer of independent hydropower projects, successfully won Niagara Mohawk's bid for proposals to redevelop the Middle Falls project. The benefits Adirondack Hydro offered Niagara Mohawk included savings in revenue requirements for the utility and its ratepayers, savings in avoided cost payments, avoidance of the risk associated with redeveloping the project, an increase in the generation and capacity of the project, and additional revenues for the utility through payments for the lease of the site. In return, Adirondack received a 40-year power purchase contract at competitive prices for any electricity generated by the project and a long-term source of income for the company and its shareholders. The redeveloped Middle Falls project has been generating electricity and providing benefits to Adirondack Hydro, Niagara Mohawk and its ratepayers since 1990. This example demonstrates an alternative for hydropower developers who are finding new project development problematic at best - especially in the United States. Federal regulatory initiatives and new state activism are combining to make greenfield development more difficult. Nevertheless, developers and utilities are exploring market niches for the deployment of new technologies and the opportunities for redevelopment and expanded operation of existing hydroelectric projects. At the same time, the new competitive utility marketplace has caused investor-owned utilities to explore ways to reduce or eliminate operating expenses on their systems in an effort to increase shareholder earnings while decreasing the cost of service. These elements have combined to create opportunities for the redevelopment of utility-owned hydroelectric projects such as was done with the Middle Falls Project.

  11. Peat as an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.

    1980-07-01

    The importance of developing alternative energy sources to augment supplies of fossil fuels is growing all over the world. Coal, oil shale, tar sands, biomass, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power have received considerable attention as alternative energy sources. One large energy resource, however, has received little attention until recently. That resource is peat. Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries including the United States. This paper provides an understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization.

  12. Acceptability of Alternatives to Traditional Emergency Care: Patient Characteristics, Alternate Transport Modes, and Alternate Destinations.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Shah, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    alternative transport modes and alternative destinations acceptable. We identified patient-level characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternatives; however, the predictive ability and clinical utility of these factors is limited. Future research should further explore the acceptability and effectiveness of these alternative care delivery options. PMID:25998167

  13. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  14. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  15. User-Friendly Materials and Alternate Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, Austin, TX. National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research.

    This booklet offers guidance for increasing the dissemination and utilization of information (especially federally funded disability research) through development of user-friendly materials and alternate formats. Individual sections address: the distinction between alternate formats and accessibility, suggested policies to help define approaches…

  16. Alternative Learning Environments in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Eugene D.

    This paper outlines a program utilized in the Countryside School which offers alternative learning environments in the elementary school. The program includes (1) semi-departmentalization; (2) team teaching; and (3) an open-alternatives program. Each of these areas is outlined and fully discussed in terms of student and parent needs. (YRJ)

  17. ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

  18. Performance of an alternative HIV diagnostic algorithm using the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay and potential utility of sample-to-cutoff ratio to discriminate primary from established infection☆

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Eric M.; Harb, Socorro; Dragavon, Joan; Swenson, Paul; Stekler, Joanne D.; Coombs, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay has a wide dynamic range for determining the sample-to-cutoff ratio (S/CO) values compared to other diagnostic HIV antibody assays. Objectives Determine the performance of an HIV testing algorithm that uses the ARCHITECT combo assay in the clinical setting and explore the utility of the signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) ratio to predict acute HIV-1 infection status. Study design A retrospective analysis of clinical samples from a hospital and referral population screened for HIV-1 infection between May 2011 and March 2013. Repeatedly reactive samples were tested using the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid test and depending on that result, confirmatory orthogonal testing used the Western blot (WB) for HIV-1, Immunoblot for HIV-2 and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) for HIV RNA. Results A total of 21,317 test results were evaluated of which 509 were ARCHITECT repeatedly reactive; of these, 422 were Multispot-reactive only for HIV-1 (413 WB-positive; 9 indeterminate), 4 were Multispot-reactive for both HIV-1 and HIV-2 (one HIV-2 immunoblot-positive with 17 HIV-2 RNA copies/mL) and 83 were Multispot-non-reactive of which 15 were HIV-1 RNA positive and represented acute HIV-1 infection. There was an association among the ARCHITECT S/CO (median; IQR) values for antibody-negative (0.14; 0.11–0.16), acute infection (33; 2.1–76) and established HIV-1 infection (794; 494–1,029) (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.0001). Conclusions The ARCHITECT combo assay with Multispot confirmation and reserved use of HIV-1 WB, HIV-2 Immunoblot and HIV NAAT for Multispot dual HIV-1/2 infection, and NAAT alone for Multispot-negative specimens, had a suitable test performance for detecting acute and established HIV infection. PMID:24029686

  19. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  20. Laboratory utility of coproscopy, copro immunoassays and copro nPCR assay targeting Hsp90 gene for detection of Cryptosporidium in children, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ghallab, Marwa M I; Aziz, Inas Z Abdel; Shoeib, Eman Y; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2016-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is a significant cause of diarrhea worldwide especially in children. Infection may end fatally in immunocompromised patients. Multi-attribute analysis was used to determine the lab utility of 4 diagnostics; coproscopy of AF stained fecal smear, fecal immunoassays by ICT and ELISA and copro-nPCR assay targeting Hsp90 gene, for detection of Cryptosporidium in stool of 250 Egyptian children (150 diarrheic and 100 non-diarrhaeic children). Also, to determine Cryptosporidium molecular prevalence. Cryptosporidium was an important enteric pathogen among both diarrheic and non-diarrheic study children with a clearly high prevalence of 16.4 % (n = 41). Conventional methods had perfect specificity (100 %) but couldn`t be used as a consistent single detection method due to their lowered sensitivities. Multi-attribute analysis ranked nPCR the highest test for lab use. Being the test with the best diagnostic yield, nPCR is a reliable diagnostic test and is going to replace conventional methods for reliable detection of Cryptosporidium. PMID:27605806

  1. Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

  2. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L. W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G. F.; Goodyear, C. P.; Christensen, S. W.; Cannon, J. B.; Lee, D. W.

    1982-04-01

    This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits contain, respectively, a detailed assessment of the impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population and estimates of conditional impingement mortality rates for seven Hudson River fish populations. The fourth exhibit is an evaluation of the engineering feasibility and potential biological effectiveness of several types of modified intake structures proposed as alternatives to cooling towers for reducing impingement impacts. The remainder of Volume II consists of critical evaluations of the utilities' empirical evidence for the existence of density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year striped bass and white perch, of their estimate of the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock in the Hudson River, and of their use of the Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly (LMS) Real-Time Life Cycle Model to estimate the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population.

  3. 7 CFR 1794.12 - Consideration of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Consideration of alternatives. 1794.12 Section 1794.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Policy Act § 1794.12 Consideration of alternatives. In determining what are reasonable alternatives,...

  4. Virtue vs utility: Alternative foundations for computer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Artz, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Ethical decisions within the field of computers and information systems are made at two levels by two distinctly different groups of people. At the level of general principles, ethical issues are debated by academics and industry representatives in an attempt to decide what is proper behavior on issues such as hacking, privacy, and copying software. At another level, that of particular situations, individuals make ethical decisions regarding what is good and proper for them in their particular situation. They may use the general rules provided by the experts or they may decide that these rules do not apply in their particular situation. Currently, the literature on computer ethics provides some opinions regarding the general rules, and some guidance for developing further general rules. What is missing is guidance for individuals making ethical decisions in particular situations. For the past two hundred years, ethics has been dominated by conduct based ethical theories such as utilitarianism which attempt to describe how people must be behave in order to be moral individuals. Recently, weaknesses in conduct based approaches such as utilitarianism have led moral philosophers to reexamine character based ethical theories such as virtue ethics which dates back to the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. This paper will compare utilitarianism and virtue ethics with respect to the foundations they provide for computer ethics. It will be argued that the very nature of computer ethics and the need to provide guidance to individuals making particular moral decisions points to the ethics of virtue as a superior philosophical foundation for computer ethics. The paper will conclude with the implications of this position for researchers, teachers and writers within the field of computer ethics.

  5. The predictive validity of prospect theory versus expected utility in health utility measurement.

    PubMed

    Abellan-Perpiñan, Jose Maria; Bleichrodt, Han; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis

    2009-12-01

    Most health care evaluations today still assume expected utility even though the descriptive deficiencies of expected utility are well known. Prospect theory is the dominant descriptive alternative for expected utility. This paper tests whether prospect theory leads to better health evaluations than expected utility. The approach is purely descriptive: we explore how simple measurements together with prospect theory and expected utility predict choices and rankings between more complex stimuli. For decisions involving risk prospect theory is significantly more consistent with rankings and choices than expected utility. This conclusion no longer holds when we use prospect theory utilities and expected utilities to predict intertemporal decisions. The latter finding cautions against the common assumption in health economics that health state utilities are transferable across decision contexts. Our results suggest that the standard gamble and algorithms based on, should not be used to value health. PMID:19833400

  6. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal.

  7. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    MedlinePlus

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of ... Acupuncture involves stimulating certain acupoints on the body ...

  8. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine. Considering the alternatives.

    PubMed

    Weber, D O

    1998-01-01

    Therapies variously described as alternative, complementary, or unconventional because they lie outside the realm of scientific medicine practiced by graduates of orthodox U.S. medical schools are gaining mainstream respectability despite many questions about their efficacy and safety. Depending on definitions, surveys indicate that fewer than 10 percent to nearly 40 percent of Americans supplement or substitute for conventional health care with alternative systems of medical practice. Spending for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) nationwide has been estimated at up to $14 billion a year. Establishment of an Office of Alternative Medicine in the National Institutes of Health in 1992 has heartened advocates of CAM, increased interest and government funding for research into unorthodox therapies, and lent credibility to CAM modalities. Embracing marginal therapies may represent an opportunity for physicians and health systems to reduce inappropriate consumption, offer a wider range of choices to patients, and profit from a lucrative market. PMID:10351720

  10. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  11. Alternative Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Carol; Thomas, Kay

    This paper examines issues related to alternative teacher certification, discussing teacher certification in Texas and noting that most researchers agree that both traditional and alternative routes to teacher preparation need improvement. For over a decade, alternative certification has become increasingly available in Texas. This paper…

  12. Chicano Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicia, H. Homero; Almaguer, Clementina

    Alternative schooling is challenging some basic notions of curriculum, operation, and structure of traditional schools; it is not challenging the basic concept of schooling. Chicano alternative education, an elusive concept, lacks a precise definition. Chicano alternative schools reflect a vast diversity in structure, focus, and goals. The Chicano…

  13. Assessment "Honest Alternatives".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Susan Glazer

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the challenge of finding or creating alternatives to tests and traditional grading systems. Reflects on and describes the experience of creating an assessment tool and cautions against choosing alternatives that merely camouflage the grades. Encourages educators to find authentic alternatives to describe children's growth. (BAC)

  14. Mapping between Visual Analogue Scale and Standard Gamble data; results from the UK Health Utilities Index 2 valuation survey.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Katherine J; McCabe, Christopher J; Brazier, John E

    2006-05-01

    We examine the relationship between Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Standard Gamble (SG) assumed in the development of the multiplicative multi-attribute utility functions (M-MAUFs) for the Health Utilities Index (HUI) Mark 2 and Mark 3, using data from a UK valuation study of the HUI2. A range of functional forms are considered, and are compared on the basis of their explanatory power and predictive ability.A restricted cubic function fits the data better than a power curve with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.025 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.029 compared to a MAE of 0.135 and RMSE of 0.135 for the power curve. The use of a cubic mapping function instead of a power function leads to different predicted health state values. We question the reliance on the assumption of a power curve relationship between VAS and SG data, in the Health Utilities Index valuation framework. Our results demonstrate that further work is required to examine the appropriateness of the published M-MAUFs for the Health Utilities Indices. PMID:16389651

  15. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  16. Extended Kinship Ties and Some Modern Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempler, Hyman L.

    1976-01-01

    The author contends close relationships with extended kin have provided the nuclear family psychological and instrumental support. With the waning of kin ties three alternative family structures--family networks, communes, and the affiliated family--are evaluated as to their potential utility as substitutes for kin ties. He concludes none are…

  17. Alternative Dryland Cropping Systems to Wheat Fallow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat-summer fallow (W-F) in the Central Great Plains of the U.S.A. is not a long-term sustainable dryland system due to a high potential for erosion and associated soil degradation. Utilizing no-till and more intensive cropping we have developed several alternative rotations to wheat fallow....

  18. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  19. Alternative Training Using Selected Program Planning Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappala, John

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study to determine the extent that Michigan Adult Education Alternative Training (AEAT) providers used selected concepts of systematic planning in developing training programs. Finds that 55.6% of 65 responding AEAT planners utilized the concepts. Suggests that planners should also incorporate political and practical considerations.…

  20. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  1. Poultry Industry Trends for Litter Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter utilization falls primarily into two broad categories, as fertilizer or in litter-to-energy processes. Without economic, environmentally sound litter uses, potential or real regional litigation may force alternative management that can be detrimental to the grower’s bottom line as wel...

  2. Decision analysis: a tool to guide the R and D selection of alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, T.

    1980-05-01

    The array of alternative energy sources which are vying for the federal government's R and D dollar is formidable when compared to the politically acceptable amount which can be used to fund the research. To guide how these funds should be dispersed, a rational, defensible procedure is needed which can repeatedly be applied as new technologies and new information become available. The procedure advanced in this paper is a decision analysis technique known as multi attribute decision analysis (MADA) and its use is illustrated in an evaluation and ranking of solar thermal electric power generating systems. Since the ultimate purchase decision is made in the market place, the preferences of potential users have been sampled and brought to bear on the ranking. The focus of this description is on the formulation of the problem structure and the decision model, the treatment of uncertainty, and how the results relate to the questions asked by and of the Department of Energy, which funded the study. A final note proposes how decision analysis can be used to address the broader questions of choice among competing technologies with cautions concerning misuse of the procedure.

  3. Alternative Certification Isn't Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Jacobs, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    While nearly all states now have something on their books labeled "alternate route to certification," these programs defy standard definition due to their enormous variability. States differ in the types of candidates allowed to apply (e.g., career changers or recent college graduates) and in the academic backgrounds these individuals must…

  4. Alternate drop pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

  5. Photovoltaics Program: utility interface southwest regional workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    This was the first of a series of regional workshops that will focus on the photovoltaic and utility interface, and the use of photovoltaics as a cogeneration option by utilities. The needs and constraints of the utilities are defined and an understanding is established of the capabilities and limitations of photovoltaic systems as an alternative electricity generation option by utilities. Utilities' viewpoints regarding large-scale central systems and small-scale, interconnected, distributed systems are given. The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act and other economic, legislative, and regulatory factors affecting photovoltaic systems are discussed. Current status of photovoltaic systems with respect to the Department of Energy Photovoltaic Program is given. (LEW)

  6. Alternator insulation evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

  7. Functional consequences of developmentally regulated alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Kalsotra, Auinash; Cooper, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses of metazoan transcriptomes have revealed an unexpected level of mRNA diversity that is generated by alternative splicing. Recently, regulatory networks have been identified through which splicing promotes dynamic remodeling of the transcriptome to promote physiological changes, which involve robust and coordinated alternative splicing transitions. The regulation of splicing in yeast, worms, flies and vertebrates affects a variety of biological processes. The functional classes of genes that are regulated by alternative splicing include both those with widespread homeostatic activities and genes with cell-type-specific functions. Alternative splicing can drive determinative physiological change or can have a permissive role by providing mRNA variability that is utilized by other regulatory mechanisms. PMID:21921927

  8. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-09-29

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen.

  9. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  10. Utilities Expense Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Deborah P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines how deregulation has affected school district utility costs. Offers ideas that can help school districts save money and energy. Provides several examples of state-wide initiatives intended to help school districts control utility costs. (GR)

  11. Alternatives: Project Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brier, Norman

    Alternatives is a project designed for youngsters, ages 11-15, who display serious conduct problems and severe learning deficiencies. The primary goal of the project is to prevent the development of a chronic antisocial orientation among youngsters who are at high risk for such an outcome. The interventions employed at Alternatives are based on…

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  13. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  14. Alternative Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Estimates suggest that there are more than 20,000 alternative schools in operation in the United States. The number of alternative schools as well as the number of students educated in these schools has increased significantly over recent years. Oftentimes these schools serve students who are not successful in the traditional school setting, and…

  15. Alternative Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Kerri L.

    2004-01-01

    Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and…

  16. CBE Views the Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mortimer

    1973-01-01

    The Council for Basic Education reviews briefly the history of educational change in the U.S. since the 1950's and examines the attitudes underlying these changes. Suggests that alternative schools are good insofar as they represent alternatives to conventional arrangements rather than to the historic function of schools. (Author/DN)

  17. Funding an Alternative School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alternate Learning Project, Providence, RI.

    Several types of funding for alternative schools such as list books on Federal grants, foundations, and other sources of money are described in this paper, along with explanations about some of the ways in which an alternative school budget differs from that of a traditional school. Probably the best option from the point of view of stability is…

  18. ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants. [Foreign Trip Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

  19. Sourcebook on Research Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen, Ed.; Rosenblatt, Aaron, Ed.

    Major papers presented at the Conference on Research Utilization in Social Work Education are compiled in this sourcebook. The conference focused on six topics that reviewed the state of the art of research utilization and suggested directions for the future. The papers included are: Understanding Research Utilization in Social Work (Stuart A.…

  20. Research Utilization in Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    In terms of its attention to research utilization, vocational rehabilitation today may be where agriculture was in 1913. One reason for this is an inadequate understanding of the process of research utilization. Scattered studies of research utilization have occurred, but suffer from a lack of integration. Among propositions that may be postulated…

  1. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  2. Alternatives to blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Donat R; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2013-05-25

    The use of alternatives to allogeneic blood continues to rest on the principles that blood transfusions have inherent risks, associated costs, and affect the blood inventory available for health-care delivery. Increasing evidence exists of a fall in the use of blood because of associated costs and adverse outcomes, and suggests that the challenge for the use of alternatives to blood components will similarly be driven by costs and patient outcomes. Additionally, the risk-benefit profiles of alternatives to blood transfusion such as autologous blood procurement, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and haemostatic agents are under investigation. Nevertheless, the inherent risks of blood, along with the continued rise in blood costs are likely to favour the continued development and use of alternatives to blood transfusion. We summarise the current roles of alternatives to blood in the management of medical and surgical anaemias. PMID:23706802

  3. Alternative fuel information: Alternative fuel vehicle outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Major automobile manufacturers continue to examine a variety of alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) options in an effort to provide vehicles that meet the fleet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The current generation of AFVs available to consumers is somewhat limited as the auto industry attempts to respond to the presently uncertain market. At the same time, however, the automobile industry must anticipate future demand and is therefore engaged in research, development, and production programs on a wide range of alternative fuels. The ultimate composition of the AFV fleet may be determined by state and local regulations which will have the effect of determining demand. Many state and regional groups may require vehicles to meet emission standards more stringent than those required by the federal government. Therefore, a significant impact on the market could occur if emission classifications begin serving as the benchmark for vehicles, rather than simply certifying a vehicle as capable of operating on an ``alternative`` to gasoline. Vehicles classified as Zero-Emissions, or even Inherently Low-Emissions, could most likely be met only by electricity or natural gas, thereby dictating that multi-fuel vehicles would be unable to participate in some clean air markets. In the near-term, the Clinton Administration desires to accelerate the use of alternative fuels as evidenced by an executive order directing the federal government to increase the rate of conversion of the federal fleet beyond that called for in EPACT. The Administration has expressed particular interest in using more compressed natural gas (CNG) as a motor fuel, which has resulted in the auto industry`s strong response of concentrating short-term efforts on CNG vehicles. For the 1994 model year, a number of CNG cars and trucks will be available from major automobile manufacturers.

  4. Consider the Alternative: The Effects of Causal Knowledge on Representing and Using Alternative Hypotheses in Judgments under Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Brett K.; Hawkins, Guy E.; Newell, Ben R.

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments examined the locus of impact of causal knowledge on consideration of alternative hypotheses in judgments under uncertainty. Two possible loci were examined; overcoming neglect of the alternative when developing a representation of a judgment problem and improving utilization of statistics associated with the alternative…

  5. Photovoltaics: alternative energy opportunities in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomski, C.R.

    1987-10-01

    Government subsidies for electricity have discouraged the growth of an alternative energy market, but economic problems and high utility bills are changing the market as the demand for electricity expands. Although the past five-year plan only called for five percent of Egypt's energy to come from renewable sources, the development of solar power plants, wind power, and resource recovery could raise that to seven percent. Planners are looking to joint ventures and technology transfers to get the stagnant alternative energy industry moving. 2 figures.

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Sandra M; Briscoe, Jessica; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a complex, chronic, multifactorial inflammatory disorder of the digestive tract. Standard therapies include immunosuppressive and biological treatments, but there is increasing interest in the potential benefit of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Given the high prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine among inflammatory bowel disease patients, gastroenterologists must remain knowledgeable regarding the risks and benefits of these treatment options. This article reviews the updated scientific data on the use of biologically based complementary and alternative therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27057686

  7. An improvement of multi-attribute decision model of grey target with interval number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-li

    2013-10-01

    In view of the limits of existing decision model of grey target with interval number, a new formula for normalizing decision matrix is given based on range transformation. At the same time, on the basis of the principle of TOPSIS, a new decision model of grey target is set up considering not only the distance from positive bulls eye but also from negative one. An example is given to show the application of the method, and the results are compared with other methods. The results verify the validity and practicability of the method.

  8. Multi-Attribute Seismic/Rock Physics Approach to Characterizing Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mavko

    2004-11-30

    Most current seismic methods to seismically characterize fractures in tight reservoirs depend on a few anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. While seismic anisotropy can be a powerful fracture diagnostic, a number of situations can lessen its usefulness or introduce interpretation ambiguities. Fortunately, laboratory and theoretical work in rock physics indicates that a much broader spectrum of fracture seismic signatures can occur, including a decrease in P- and S-wave velocities, a change in Poisson's ratio, an increase in velocity dispersion and wave attenuation, as well as well as indirect images of structural features that can control fracture occurrence. The goal of this project was to demonstrate a practical interpretation and integration strategy for detecting and characterizing natural fractures in rocks. The approach was to exploit as many sources of information as possible, and to use the principles of rock physics as the link among seismic, geologic, and log data. Since no single seismic attribute is a reliable fracture indicator in all situations, the focus was to develop a quantitative scheme for integrating the diverse sources of information. The integrated study incorporated three key elements: The first element was establishing prior constraints on fracture occurrence, based on laboratory data, previous field observations, and geologic patterns of fracturing. The geologic aspects include analysis of the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic environments of the field sites. Field observations and geomechanical analysis indicates that fractures tend to occur in the more brittle facies, for example, in tight sands and carbonates. In contrast, strain in shale is more likely to be accommodated by ductile flow. Hence, prior knowledge of bed thickness and facies architecture, calibrated to outcrops, are powerful constraints on the interpreted fracture distribution. Another important constraint is that fracturing is likely to be more intense near faults--sometimes referred to as the damaged zone. Yet another constraint, based on world-wide observations, is that the maximum likely fracture density increases with depth in a well-defined way. Defining these prior constrains has several benefits: they lead to a priori probability distributions of fractures, that are important for objective statistical integration; they limit the number of geologic hypotheses that need to be theoretically modeled; they provide plausible models for fracture distributions below the seismic resolution. The second element was theoretical rock physics modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of traveltime, amplitude, and impedance signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. The suggested workflow is to begin with an elastic earth model, based on well logs, theoretically add fractures to the likely facies as defined by the geologic prior information, and then compute synthetic seismic traces and attributes, including variations in P and S-wave velocities, Poisson's ratio, reflectivity, travel time, attenuation, and anisotropies of these parameters. This workflow is done in a Monte-Carlo fashion, yielding ranges of expected fracture signatures, and allowing realistic assessments of uncertainty to be honored. The third element was statistical integration of the geophysical data and prior constraints to map fracture intensity and orientations, along with uncertainties. A Bayesian framework was developed that allowed systematic integration of the prior constraints, the theoretical relations between fractures and their seismic signatures, and the various observed seismic observations. The integration scheme was successfully applied on an East Texas field site. The primary benefit from the study was the optimization and refinement of practical workflows for improved geophysical characterization of natural fractures and for quantifying the uncertainty of these interpretations. By presenting a methodology for integrating various types of information, the workflow will

  9. A multi-attribute decision analysis for decommissioning offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Henrion, Max; Bernstein, Brock; Swamy, Surya

    2015-10-01

    The 27 oil and gas platforms off the coast of southern California are reaching the end of their economic lives. Because their decommissioning involves large costs and potential environmental impacts, this became an issue of public controversy. As part of a larger policy analysis conducted for the State of California, we implemented a decision analysis as a software tool (PLATFORM) to clarify and evaluate decision strategies against a comprehensive set of objectives. Key options selected for in-depth analysis are complete platform removal and partial removal to 85 feet below the water line, with the remaining structure converted in place to an artificial reef to preserve the rich ecosystems supported by the platform's support structure. PLATFORM was instrumental in structuring and performing key analyses of the impacts of each option (e.g., on costs, fishery production, air emissions) and dramatically improved the team's productivity. Sensitivity analysis found that disagreement about preferences, especially about the relative importance of strict compliance with lease agreements, has much greater effects on the preferred option than does uncertainty about specific outcomes, such as decommissioning costs. It found a near-consensus of stakeholders in support of partial removal and "rigs-to-reefs" program. The project's results played a role in the decision to pass legislation enabling an expanded California "rigs-to-reefs" program that includes a mechanism for sharing cost savings between operators and the state. PMID:26415010

  10. Multi-attribute subjective evaluations of manual tracking tasks vs. objective performance of the human operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siapkaras, A.

    1977-01-01

    A computational method to deal with the multidimensional nature of tracking and/or monitoring tasks is developed. Operator centered variables, including the operator's perception of the task, are considered. Matrix ratings are defined based on multidimensional scaling techniques and multivariate analysis. The method consists of two distinct steps: (1) to determine the mathematical space of subjective judgements of a certain individual (or group of evaluators) for a given set of tasks and experimental conditionings; and (2) to relate this space with respect to both the task variables and the objective performance criteria used. Results for a variety of second-order trackings with smoothed noise-driven inputs indicate that: (1) many of the internally perceived task variables form a nonorthogonal set; and (2) the structure of the subjective space varies among groups of individuals according to the degree of familiarity they have with such tasks.

  11. Multi-attribute integrated measurement of node importance in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shibo; Zhao, Jinlou

    2015-11-01

    The measure of node importance in complex networks is very important to the research of networks stability and robustness; it also can ensure the security of the whole network. Most researchers have used a single indicator to measure the networks node importance, so that the obtained measurement results only reflect certain aspects of the networks with a loss of information. Meanwhile, because of the difference of networks topology, the nodes' importance should be described by combining the character of the networks topology. Most of the existing evaluation algorithms cannot completely reflect the circumstances of complex networks, so this paper takes into account the degree of centrality, the relative closeness centrality, clustering coefficient, and topology potential and raises an integrated measuring method to measure the nodes' importance. This method can reflect nodes' internal and outside attributes and eliminate the influence of network structure on the node importance. The experiments of karate network and dolphin network show that networks topology structure integrated measure has smaller range of metrical result than a single indicator and more universal. Experiments show that attacking the North American power grid and the Internet network with the method has a faster convergence speed than other methods.

  12. A Stochastic Multi-Attribute Assessment of Energy Options for Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, L.; Madani, K.; Mokhtari, S.; Hanks, C. L.; Sheets, B.

    2012-12-01

    Many competing projects have been proposed to address Interior Alaska's high cost of energy—both for electricity production and for heating. Public and private stakeholders are considering the costs associated with these competing projects which vary in fuel source, subsidy requirements, proximity, and other factors. As a result, the current projects under consideration involve a complex cost structure of potential subsidies and reliance on present and future market prices, introducing a significant amount of uncertainty associated with each selection. Multi-criteria multi-decision making (MCMDM) problems of this nature can benefit from game theory and systems engineering methods, which account for behavior and preferences of stakeholders in the analysis to produce feasible and relevant solutions. This work uses a stochastic MCMDM framework to evaluate the trade-offs of each proposed project based on a complete cost analysis, environmental impact, and long-term sustainability. Uncertainty in the model is quantified via a Monte Carlo analysis, which helps characterize the sensitivity and risk associated with each project. Based on performance measures and criteria outlined by the stakeholders, a decision matrix will inform policy on selecting a project that is both efficient and preferred by the constituents.

  13. Multi-attribute integrated measurement of node importance in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibo; Zhao, Jinlou

    2015-11-01

    The measure of node importance in complex networks is very important to the research of networks stability and robustness; it also can ensure the security of the whole network. Most researchers have used a single indicator to measure the networks node importance, so that the obtained measurement results only reflect certain aspects of the networks with a loss of information. Meanwhile, because of the difference of networks topology, the nodes' importance should be described by combining the character of the networks topology. Most of the existing evaluation algorithms cannot completely reflect the circumstances of complex networks, so this paper takes into account the degree of centrality, the relative closeness centrality, clustering coefficient, and topology potential and raises an integrated measuring method to measure the nodes' importance. This method can reflect nodes' internal and outside attributes and eliminate the influence of network structure on the node importance. The experiments of karate network and dolphin network show that networks topology structure integrated measure has smaller range of metrical result than a single indicator and more universal. Experiments show that attacking the North American power grid and the Internet network with the method has a faster convergence speed than other methods. PMID:26627565

  14. Multi-attribute criteria applied to electric generation energy system analysis LDRD.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuswa, Glenn W.; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Drennen, Thomas E.; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Paananen, Orman Henrie; Jones, Scott A.; Ortner, Juergen G.; Brewer, Jeffrey D.; Valdez, Maximo M.

    2005-10-01

    This report began with a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve Sandia National Laboratories multidisciplinary capabilities in energy systems analysis. The aim is to understand how various electricity generating options can best serve needs in the United States. The initial product is documented in a series of white papers that span a broad range of topics, including the successes and failures of past modeling studies, sustainability, oil dependence, energy security, and nuclear power. Summaries of these projects are included here. These projects have provided a background and discussion framework for the Energy Systems Analysis LDRD team to carry out an inter-comparison of many of the commonly available electric power sources in present use, comparisons of those options, and efforts needed to realize progress towards those options. A computer aid has been developed to compare various options based on cost and other attributes such as technological, social, and policy constraints. The Energy Systems Analysis team has developed a multi-criteria framework that will allow comparison of energy options with a set of metrics that can be used across all technologies. This report discusses several evaluation techniques and introduces the set of criteria developed for this LDRD.

  15. Seasonal to Interannual Hydroclimatic Prediction: From Identification of Dynamics to Multi-Attribute Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2004-12-01

    Dynamical and Statistical Models for seasonal to interannual forecasts of key hydroclimatic state variables have been explored in recent years. Many authors report success based on typical performance metrics. Thus, a casual external observer may feel that we are at the verge of a breakthrough in hydrologic prediction, and hence in water resource management. This talk explores this notion, with particular regard to the multi-scale (time and space) nature of hydrologic fluxes, and of the management variables and styles that the water resources community has become accustomed to. A conceptual framework for the nascent predictive science of hydroclimatology is developed and exemplified. Aspects of the dynamics that need to be understood, and a unifying estimation/inference framework are proposed.

  16. Seasonal to Interannual Hydroclimatic Prediction: From Identification of Dynamics to Multi-Attribute Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2004-05-01

    Dynamical and Statistical Models for seasonal to interannual forecasts of key hydroclimatic state variables have been explored in recent years. Many authors report success based on typical performance metrics. Thus, a casual external observer may feel that we are at the verge of a breakthrough in hydrologic prediction, and hence in water resource management. This talk explores this notion, with particular regard to the multi-scale (time and space) nature of hydrologic fluxes, and of the management variables and styles that the water resources community has become accustomed to. A conceptual framework for the nascent predictive science of hydroclimatology is developed and exemplified. Aspects of the dynamics that need to be understood, and a unifying estimation/inference framework are proposed.

  17. Feature Integration in the Mapping of Multi-Attribute Visual Stimuli to Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ishizaki, Takuya; Morita, Hiromi; Morita, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    In the human visual system, different attributes of an object, such as shape and color, are separately processed in different modules and then integrated to elicit a specific response. In this process, different attributes are thought to be temporarily “bound” together by focusing attention on the object; however, how such binding contributes to stimulus-response mapping remains unclear. Here we report that learning and performance of stimulus-response tasks was more difficult when three attributes of the stimulus determined the correct response than when two attributes did. We also found that spatially separated presentations of attributes considerably complicated the task, although they did not markedly affect target detection. These results are consistent with a paired-attribute model in which bound feature pairs, rather than object representations, are associated with responses by learning. This suggests that attention does not bind three or more attributes into a unitary object representation, and long-term learning is required for their integration. PMID:25762010

  18. Fuzzy Multi Attributive Comparison of Roller Designs used to Terminate a Cover Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are a vital part of conservation tillage systems, but they have to be managed appropriately to get their full benefits. These benefits include weed pressure reduction caused by alleopathy, improving soil properties due to mulch effects and increased soil organic matter. In recent years,...

  19. Multi-attributed tagged big data exploitation for hidden concepts discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2014-06-01

    Analysts who are using visualization methods for big data concept exploration increasingly expect to comprehend more distinct relationships and prominent concepts in support of their hypotheses or decisions. To expedite this knowledge discovery process, Vector Space Modeling (VSM) in conjunction with probabilistic analysis enables rapid knowledgebased relationship discovery while allowing for exploration of multi-embedded concepts than otherwise it is difficult to perceive. In this paper, we present a technique for intrinsic ontology concepts similarity matching based on VSM for exploitation and knowledge discovery from multimodality sensors metadata generated in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS). To reduce data dimensionality, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is applied to arrive at more abstract concepts. The proposed technique is able to reveal intrinsic concept relationships from multi-dimensional metadata structures. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of this approach for analytical ontological patterns exploitation. In this paper, the expediency of this technique for Visual Analytics application is demonstrated. The result indicates that the newly developed system can significantly enhance situation awareness and expedite actionable decision making.

  20. The Application of a Multi-Attribute Decision-Making Algorithm to Learning Management Systems Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2011-01-01

    Recently, because of the rapid increase in the popularity of the Internet, the delivery of learning programmes has gradually shifted from local desktop to online-based applications. As more and more technological tools become available for online education, there is an increasing interest among educators and other professionals in the application…

  1. Reduced oxygen utilization in septic shock: disorder or adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Alexandre A

    2015-01-01

    A fall in oxygen utilization during septic or endotoxic shock is thought to reflect circulatory hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, but these pathology-oriented hypotheses do not explain all clinical observations. Here we discuss an alternative hypothesis of how oxygen utilization could fall as the result of a physiological thermometabolic adaptation. PMID:27227060

  2. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  3. Alternative and Complementary Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... always designed to treat a particular illness: Some alternative therapies treat the whole person, not an illness. They might restore harmony, balance, or normal energy flow. Acupuncturists, for example, use the pulse to ...

  4. Cancer Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... be thinking about is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM is the term for medical products and practices ... are not part of standard care. Examples of CAM therapies are acupuncture, chiropractic, and herbal medicines. People ...

  5. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  6. GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

  7. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  8. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  9. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  10. Cogeneration and utility diversification

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, M.M.

    1985-08-01

    Niagara Mohawk saw cogeneration and utility diversification as an opportunity to break away from the traditional model of a public utility and avoid the fate of the railroads. The author reviews how HYDRA-CO Enterprises evaluated the risks and opportunities of diversification and the steps it took to diversify, which included a joint venture cogeneration project. The company sees a future with ever expanding opportunities for utility subsidiaries for those with courage and imagination.

  11. DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

  12. Utilities weather the storm

    SciTech Connect

    Lihach, N.

    1984-11-01

    Utilities must restore power to storm-damaged transmission and distribution systems, even if it means going out in ice storms or during lightning and hurricane conditions. Weather forecasting helps utilities plan for possible damage as well as alerting them to long-term trends. Storm planning includes having trained repair personnel available and adjusting the system so that less power imports are needed. Storm damage response requires teamwork and cooperation between utilities. Utilities can strengthen equipment in storm-prone or vulnerable areas, but good data are necessary to document the incidence of lighning strikes, hurricanes, etc. 2 references, 8 figures.

  13. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moritomi, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  14. R/sub x/ for utilities: management

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, D.P.

    1982-02-04

    While an adequate level of earnings is absolutely essential to the well-being of the electric power industry in this country, there is an even more important, and prerequisite, ingredient that must be present to assure the economic health of this key industry, the writer states. A close observer of the industry in his role as a state regulator, he sees effective management as the single factor most determinative of the utilities' future. The test of managerial ability will be its ability to find alternatives to ways of doing business in the past as required by drastically changed circumstances in which the utilities now operate.

  15. Primer on electric-utility deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This primer on deregulation of the electric utility industry presents material on various subjects that are important for assessing the merits and weaknesses of alternative proposals and for generally understanding the meaning and implications of deregulation. It reviews: (a) the structure of the utility industry, its operation and its technology, with an emphasis placed on economies of scale and the benefits/problems of increased competition; (b) economic regulation, its criticisms and its prospects for improvement; and (c) the host of deregulation proposals and the few analytic studies of deregulation.

  16. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  17. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; McAtee, James L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  18. Electric utilities and telecommunications

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Part I of this article will provide some background on the involvement of electric utilities in telecommunications. It will discuss the Power Radio Services, under which the FCC regulates radio communications of electric utilities, the pole attachment statute of the Communications Act, which authorized the FCC to regulate attachments of cable television cables to electric utility poles, and a recent Department of Energy (DOE) report on the need for a demonstration on the use of telecommunications for DSM. Part I will also discuss several recent developments relative to the Power Radio Services and the pole attachment statute. Part II will discuss electric utilities and telecommunications under PUHCA. It will outline the extensive and complex requirements of PUHCA that are applicable to public utility holding companies, as well as the specific requirements of PUHCA for the formation by public utility holding companies of subsidiaries to engage in telecommunications activities. It will also discuss the seven instances in the past decade in which the SEC has approved the formation by public utility holding companies of such subsidiaries. Part III of this article will discuss a principal obstacle to expanded electric utility involvement in telecommunications activities-a series of administrative and judicial decisions that illustrate the potential for dual regulation by the SEC and the FERC to result in confusion and inefficiencies. It will also discuss proposals in Congress to minimize this potential. Part IV will discuss House Bill 3636 and Senate Bill 1822 and their proposals to amend PUHCA to facilitate the formation or acquisition by public utility holding companies of non-utility subsidiaries to engage in telecommunications activities. It will also discuss their proposals to address the potential consequences of dual regulation by the SEC and the FERC of electric utilities involved in telecommunications.

  19. Microbial Cellulose Utilization: Fundamentals and Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Lynd, Lee R.; Weimer, Paul J.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Pretorius, Isak S.

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental features of microbial cellulose utilization are examined at successively higher levels of aggregation encompassing the structure and composition of cellulosic biomass, taxonomic diversity, cellulase enzyme systems, molecular biology of cellulase enzymes, physiology of cellulolytic microorganisms, ecological aspects of cellulase-degrading communities, and rate-limiting factors in nature. The methodological basis for studying microbial cellulose utilization is considered relative to quantification of cells and enzymes in the presence of solid substrates as well as apparatus and analysis for cellulose-grown continuous cultures. Quantitative description of cellulose hydrolysis is addressed with respect to adsorption of cellulase enzymes, rates of enzymatic hydrolysis, bioenergetics of microbial cellulose utilization, kinetics of microbial cellulose utilization, and contrasting features compared to soluble substrate kinetics. A biological perspective on processing cellulosic biomass is presented, including features of pretreated substrates and alternative process configurations. Organism development is considered for “consolidated bioprocessing” (CBP), in which the production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass, and fermentation of resulting sugars to desired products occur in one step. Two organism development strategies for CBP are examined: (i) improve product yield and tolerance in microorganisms able to utilize cellulose, or (ii) express a heterologous system for cellulose hydrolysis and utilization in microorganisms that exhibit high product yield and tolerance. A concluding discussion identifies unresolved issues pertaining to microbial cellulose utilization, suggests approaches by which such issues might be resolved, and contrasts a microbially oriented cellulose hydrolysis paradigm to the more conventional enzymatically oriented paradigm in both fundamental and applied contexts. PMID:12209002

  20. Alternative Videodisc Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Ted

    1981-01-01

    Discusses consumer and industrial videodisc systems for information storage including cost, technology utilized, formats, and features. Reflective and transmissive laser optical systems are described, as well as the grooved and grooveless mechanical systems. Tables containing product data are included. (JJD)

  1. Instructional Facility Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalamazoo Valley Community Coll., MI.

    Data describing campus facility use for instructional and related purposes for one week of activity in Fall 1978 were collected and evaluated at Kalamazoo Valley Community College. Four measures of space utilization were used: (1) percent of available time used; (2) percent of available space used; (3) percent of scheduled space utilized; and (4)…

  2. Teuchos Utility Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    Teuchos is designed to provide portable, object-oriented tools for Trillnos developers and users. This includes templated wrappers to BLAS/LAPACK, a serial dense matrix class, a parameter list, XML parsing utilities, reference counted pointer (smart pointer) utilities, and more. These tools are designed to run on both serial and parallel computers.

  3. Algorithmic problems of nontransitive (SSB) utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosheleva, O. M.; Kreinovich, V. YA.

    1991-01-01

    The standard utility theory is based on several natural axioms including transitivity of preference; however, real preference is often not transitive. To describe such preferences, Fishburn (1988) introduced a new formalism (SSB-utilities), in which preference is described by a skew-symmetric function F:M x M - R, where M is the set of all alternatives. He also showed that it is in principle possible to reconstruct this function F by asking the person to compare different alternatives and lotteries. In the present paper we propose a new algorithm for reconstructing F that is asymptotically optimal in the sense that the number of binary (yes-no) questions that one has to ask to determine the values of F with given precision is of minimal possible order.

  4. Overview of waste heat utilization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The heavy truck diesel engine rejects a significant fraction of its fuel energy in the form of waste heat. Historically, the Department of Energy has supported technology efforts for utilization of the diesel exhaust heat. Specifically, the Turbocompound and the Organic Rankine Cycle System (ORCS) have demonstrated that meaningful improvements in highway fuel economy can be realized through waste heat utilization. For heat recovery from the high temperature exhaust of future adiabatic diesel engines, the DOE/NASA are investigating a variety of alternatives based on the Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling power cycles. Initial screening results indicate that systems of this type offer a fuel savings advantage over the turbocompound system. Capital and maintenance cost projections, however, indicate that the alternative power cycles are not competitive on an economic payback basis. Plans call for continued analysis in an attempt to identify a cost effective configuration with adequate fuel savings potential.

  5. FEMP (Federal Energy Management Program) presents alternative financing guidance memoranda

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Utility financing of energy efficient measures becomes easier to accomplish with the two new alternative financing guidance memoranda, released April 17, 1998, that address the use of utility incentives for Federal facilities. The memoranda have been approved by the Alternative Financing Guidance Committee on the Interagency Energy Management Task Force. The memoranda include: (1) Policy Statement No. 001: Authority to Sole Source Utility Service Contracts as Referenced in Section 152 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 1992; and (2) Policy Statement No. 002: Congressional Notification for Utility Projects Under the Authority of Section 152 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 1992. The purpose for developing the financing memoranda was to address specific issues within current Federal procurement regulations that require clarification or guidance. This new guidance will allow for increased use of utility incentives as a means of financing energy efficient and life cycle cost-effective projects in Federal facilities.

  6. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  7. Bouncing alternatives to inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, Marc; Peter, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Although the inflationary paradigm is the most widely accepted explanation for the current cosmological observations, it does not necessarily correspond to what actually happened in the early stages of our Universe. To decide on this issue, two paths can be followed: first, all the possible predictions it makes must be derived thoroughly and compared with available data, and second, all the imaginable alternatives must be ruled out. Leaving the first task to all other contributors of this volume, we concentrate here on the second option, focusing on the bouncing alternatives and their consequences. xml:lang="fr"

  8. Solvent alternatives guide

    SciTech Connect

    Elion, J.M.; Monroe, K.R.; Hill, E.A.

    1996-06-01

    It is no longer legal to manufacture or import chlorofluorocarbon 113 or methyl chloroform solvents, and companies that currently clean their parts with either material are now required to implement environmentally safe substitutes. To help find alternative methods, Research Triangle Institute`s Surface Cleaning Technology Program has designed a Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE), an online tool that enables access to practical information and recommendations for acceptable solvents. Developed in partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency, SAGE is available free of charge on the Internet`s World Wide Web.

  9. Electric Utility Observers' Forum

    SciTech Connect

    Smartt, L.E.

    1982-05-13

    This second Observers' Forum of Public Utilities Fortnightly includes invited comments from 19 key legislators, utility consultants, and recognized figures in service industries on any subject to which the contributor wished to direct the attention of the industry leadership and which has a public-interest aspect. Participants were free to point to what they think the industry is doing, either right or wrong, and to areas where the industry might improve its performance. There is no single overriding message, but there is a prevalent mood that the electric-utility industry may have turned a corner despite some remaining problems.

  10. 46 CFR 502.411 - Mediation and other alternative means of dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Alternative Dispute Resolution § 502.411 Mediation and other alternative means of dispute resolution. (a) Parties are encouraged to utilize mediation or other forms of alternative dispute resolution in all formal proceedings. The Commission also encourages those with...