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Sample records for alternative phosphorus sources

  1. Phosphorus Availability Coefficients from Various Organic Sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Availability Coefficients (PACs) for a variety of organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PACs measured in simulated rainfall runoff and alternative soil incubations. PAC is an important parameter in the P-Ind...

  2. Chemical Beam Epitaxial Growth of Indium Phosphide Using Alternative, Safer Phosphorus Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chungwoo

    1995-11-01

    Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) is a relatively new III-V semiconductor growth technique that combines important advantages of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). Although CBE grown-InP using phosphine (PH_3) combined with trimethylindium (TMIn) or triethylindium (TEIn) has produced high quality material comparable to OMVPE-and gas source MBE-grown InP, the highly hazardous and toxic nature of PH_3 is becoming a main obstacle to mass production of semiconductor devices. In this dissertation, InP epilayers were grown using tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) and bisphosphinoethane (BPE) as possible replacements for PH_3, together with ethyldimethylindium (EDMIn) as the indium source. For the first time, InP epilayers have been grown using TBP and EDMIn by CBE. The surface morphology and the electrical and optical properties improved with increasing substrate and cracker cell temperatures and input V/III ratio. High quality n-type InP epilayers with electron mobilities of up to 3830 cm^2/Vs and net carrier concentrations of approximately 6 times 10^{14} cm^{-3} at room temperature were achieved at a growth temperature of 500^ circC using a V/III ratio of 70 and a TBP cracker cell temperature of 900^circ C. Strong band-edge emission was observed at growth temperatures between 460 and 500^circ C. The bound exciton halfwidth of the sample grown at 500^circC was as narrow as 3.6 meV at 14 K with a barely observable acceptor related peak indicating a very low concentration of acceptors. For growth of InP using BPE and EDMIn, good surface morphologies were obtained at a substrate temperature of 485^circC using V/III ratios of >=q53. At fixed growth and cracker cell temperatures of 485 and 800^circ C, respectively, the net carrier concentration at a V/III ratio of 53 was 7.8 times 10 ^{15} at room temperature and 3.2 times 10^{15} cm^{-3} at 77 K with respective electron mobilities of 3,630 and 21,800 cm^2 /Vs. The 14 K PL spectra were

  3. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  4. Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

    2012-02-15

    This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

  5. Evaluation of Phosphorus Source Coefficients as Predictors of Runoff Phosphorus Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Source Coefficients (PSC) for organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PSCs and P concentrations measured in simulated rainfall runoff. The PSC is an important parameter in the P Site Index (PSI). An incubatio...

  6. Characterization of phosphorus sources in rural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Withers, P J A; Jarvie, H P; Hodgkinson, R A; Palmer-Felgate, E J; Bates, A; Neal, M; Howells, R; Withers, C M; Wickham, H D

    2009-01-01

    Correct identification of P sources in rural watersheds is critical for the development of cost-effective measures to combat agriculturally-driven eutrophication. The chemical composition of various storm runoff types (field surface runoff, field drain outfalls, roads, farmyards, and septic tanks) and the receiving streams in three micro (<10 km(2)) watersheds of varying agricultural intensity were monitored over a 2-yr period. Mean weekly stream soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations increased from 29 and 69 microg L(-1), respectively in the watershed with the lowest intensity agriculture to 382 and 503 microg L(-1), respectively in the watershed with high intensity agriculture and a village sewage treatment works. Concentrations of TP in storm runoff varied by up to two orders of magnitude reflecting the complex origins, routing, and composition of contributing source areas. Application of the DESPRAL test suggested field runoff TP concentrations were influenced by both P and organic matter in soil. However, runoff from impervious surfaces (farmyard and roads), and/or influenced by septic tank discharges, was significantly more concentrated (0.08-16 mg TP L(-1), mean >1 mg L(-1)) than surface and subsurface runoff from cultivated land and pasture (0.02-3.6 mg TP L(-1), mean <1 mg L(-1)), and/or contained a significantly greater proportion (>50% vs. <50%) of P in dissolved forms. It is concluded that P sources associated with the functioning of rural communities (impervious surfaces, detergents, and wastewater) may be more ecologically relevant than those associated with agriculture and should be better quantified and controlled to avoid localized eutrophication impacts. PMID:19704143

  7. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake.

    PubMed

    Caione, Gustavo; Prado, Renato de Mello; Campos, Cid Naudi Silva; Rosatto Moda, Leandro; de Lima Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Pizauro Júnior, João Martins

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate) and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360 kg ha(-1) of P2O5) in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5 t ha(-1), dry basis). The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix), the juice sucrose content (Pol), and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer. PMID:26078993

  8. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Renato de Mello; Campos, Cid Naudi Silva; Rosatto Moda, Leandro; de Lima Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Pizauro Júnior, João Martins

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate) and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360 kg ha−1 of P2O5) in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5 t ha−1, dry basis). The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix), the juice sucrose content (Pol), and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer. PMID:26078993

  9. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO4) as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Won, Seung-Gun; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4) as an alternative phosphorus (P) source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus) in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE) significantly higher (p<0.05) than those fed DCP. Fish groups fed control and TCP showed the lower FE than the other groups which was significantly different (p<0.05) from those of fish fed the other diets. Survival rate was not significantly different (p>0.05) among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (p<0.05) from that of fish fed MHP. Fish fed MCP and MHP had plasma P higher (p<0.05) than fish fed the other diets. Relative efficiencies of MCP, DCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish. PMID:25083108

  10. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO4) as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus)

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Won, Seung-Gun; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4) as an alternative phosphorus (P) source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus) in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE) significantly higher (p<0.05) than those fed DCP. Fish groups fed control and TCP showed the lower FE than the other groups which was significantly different (p<0.05) from those of fish fed the other diets. Survival rate was not significantly different (p>0.05) among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (p<0.05) from that of fish fed MHP. Fish fed MCP and MHP had plasma P higher (p<0.05) than fish fed the other diets. Relative efficiencies of MCP, DCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish. PMID:25083108

  11. Determination of phosphorus source coefficients for organic phosphorus sources: laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Leytem, A B; Sims, J T; Coale, F J

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorus losses in runoff from application of manures and biosolids to agricultural land are implicated in the degradation of water quality in the Chesapeake and Delaware Inland Bays. We conducted an incubation study to determine the relative P solubility and bioavailability, referred to as P source coefficients (PSCs), for organic P sources, which are typically land-applied in the Mid-Atlantic USA. Nine organic and one inorganic (KH2PO4) P amendments were applied to an Evesboro loamy sand (mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments) at a rate of 60 mg P kg(-1) and incubated for 8 wk with subsamples analyzed at 2 and 8 wk. There was an increase in Mehlich-3 P (M3-P), water-soluble P (WS-P), iron-oxide strip extractable P (FeO-P), and Mehlich-3 P saturation ratio (M3-PSR) with P additions, which varied by P source. The trend of relative extractable WS-P, FeO-P, and M3-P generally followed the pattern: inorganic P > liquid and deep pit manures > manures and biosolids treated with metal salts or composted. We found significant differences in the availability of P from varying organic P sources. The use of PSCs may be beneficial when determining the risk of P losses from land application of manures and other organic P sources and could be used in risk assessments such as a P site index. These PSCs may also be useful for determining P application rates when organic P sources are applied to P deficient soils for use as a fertilizer source. PMID:14964394

  12. Wood ash as a magnesium source for phosphorus recovery from source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, S Ramesh; Tilley, Elizabeth; Udert, Kai M

    2012-03-01

    Struvite precipitation is a simple technology for phosphorus recovery from source-separated urine. However, production costs can be high if expensive magnesium salts are used as precipitants. Therefore, waste products can be interesting alternatives to industrially-produced magnesium salts. We investigated the technical and financial feasibility of wood ash as a magnesium source in India. In batch experiments with source-separated urine, we could precipitate 99% of the phosphate with a magnesium dosage of 2.7 mol Mg mol P(-1). The availability of the magnesium from the wood ash used in our experiment was only about 50% but this could be increased by burning the wood at temperatures well above 600 °C. Depending on the wood ash used, the precipitate can contain high concentrations of heavy metals. This could be problematic if the precipitate were used as fertilizer depending on the applicable fertilizer regulations. The financial study revealed that wood ash is considerably cheaper than industrially-produced magnesium sources and even cheaper than bittern. However, the solid precipitated with wood ash is not pure struvite. Due to the high calcite and the low phosphorus content (3%), the precipitate would be better used as a phosphorus-enhanced conditioner for acidic soils. The estimated fertilizer value of the precipitate was actually slightly lower than wood ash, because 60% of the potassium dissolved into solution during precipitation and was not present in the final product. From a financial point of view and due to the high heavy metal content, wood ash is not a very suitable precipitant for struvite production. Phosphate precipitation from urine with wood ash can be useful if (1) a strong need for a soil conditioner that also contains phosphate exists, (2) potassium is abundant in the soil and (3) no other cheap precipitant, such as bittern or magnesium oxide, is available. PMID:22297249

  13. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal with different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Shen, Nan; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is one of the most economical and sustainable methods for phosphorus removal from wastewater. However, the performance of EBPR can be affected by available carbon sources types in the wastewater that may induce different functional microbial communities in the process. Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly found by coexisting in the EBPR process. Predominance of GAO population may lead to EBPR failure due to the competition on carbon source with PAO without contributing phosphorus removal. Carbon sources indeed play an important role in alteration of PAOs and GAOs in EBPR processes. Various types of carbon sources have been investigated for EBPR performance. Certain carbon sources tend to enrich specific groups of GAOs and/or PAOs. This review summarizes the types of carbon sources applied in EBPR systems and highlights the roles of these carbon sources in PAO and GAO competition. Both single (e.g., acetate, propionate, glucose, ethanol, and amino acid) and complex carbon sources (e.g., yeast extract, peptone, and mixed carbon sources) are discussed in this review. Meanwhile, the environmental friendly and economical carbon sources that are derived from waste materials, such as crude glycerol and wasted sludge, are also discussed and compared. PMID:27087523

  14. Phosphorus Recycling from an Unexplored Source by Polyphosphate Accumulating Microalgae and Cyanobacteria-A Step to Phosphorus Security in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Chandan; Chowdhury, Rajojit; Ray, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P), an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50-100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp., and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale. PMID:26733966

  15. Phosphorus Recycling from an Unexplored Source by Polyphosphate Accumulating Microalgae and Cyanobacteria—A Step to Phosphorus Security in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Chandan; Chowdhury, Rajojit; Ray, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P), an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50–100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp., and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale. PMID:26733966

  16. Alternative nitrogen sources for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several alternative nitrogen (N) sources, rates of N, and amendments were evaluated at Prattville, Alabama, on cotton in 2008. Nitrogen rates reported are for sidedress application only. Dry urea produced the highest yield, averaging 1100 pounds lint per acre. Ammonia volatilization was measured fr...

  17. Alternative energy sources for agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, D.

    1981-05-01

    The following energy systems are discussed as alternative sources of energy for agriculture and potential demonstration projects in vocational agriculture programs: solar water heating, solar greenhouse heating, solar crop drying, gasification of wood or crop residues, and methane generation from livestock wastes. 13 references.

  18. Phosphorus from wastewater to crops: An alternative path involving microalgae.

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Verschoor, Antonie M; Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Nedbal, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource, a major plant nutrient that is essential for modern agriculture. Currently, global food and feed production depends on P extracted from finite phosphate rock reserves mainly confined to a small number of countries. P limitation and its potential socio-economic impact may well exceed the potential effects of fossil fuel scarcity. The efficiency of P usage today barely reaches 20%, with the remaining 80% ending up in wastewater or in surface waters as runoff from fields. When recovered from wastewater, either chemically or biologically, P is often present in a form that does not meet specifications for agricultural use. As an alternative, the potential of microalgae to accumulate large quantities of P can be a way to direct this resource back to crop plants. Algae can acquire and store P through luxury uptake, and the P enriched algal biomass can be used as bio-fertilizer. Technology of large-scale algae cultivation has made tremendous progress in the last decades, stimulated by perspectives of obtaining third generation biofuels without requiring arable land or fresh water. These new cultivation technologies can be used for solar-driven recycling of P and other nutrients from wastewater into algae-based bio-fertilizers. In this paper, we review the specifics of P uptake from nutrient-rich waste streams, paying special attention to luxury uptake by microalgal cells and the potential application of P-enriched algal biomass to fertilize crop soils. PMID:26795876

  19. Distributed and dynamic modelling of hydrology, phosphorus and ecology in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes: evaluating alternative strategies to meet WFD standards.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Jin, L; Crossman, J; Comber, S; Johnes, P J; Daldorph, P; Flynn, N; Collins, A L; Butterfield, D; Mistry, R; Bardon, R; Pope, L; Willows, R

    2014-05-15

    The issues of diffuse and point source phosphorus (P) pollution in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes are explored using a catchment model of the river system. A multibranch, process based, dynamic water quality model (INCA-P) has been applied to the whole river system to simulate water fluxes, total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations and ecology. The model has been used to assess impacts of both agricultural runoff and point sources from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) on water quality. The results show that agriculture contributes approximately 40% of the phosphorus load and point sources the other 60% of the load in this catchment. A set of scenarios have been investigated to assess the impacts of alternative phosphorus reduction strategies and it is shown that a combined strategy of agricultural phosphorus reduction through either fertiliser reductions or better phosphorus management together with improved treatment at WWTPs would reduce the SRP concentrations in the river to acceptable levels to meet the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements. A seasonal strategy for WWTP phosphorus reductions would achieve significant benefits at reduced cost. PMID:24594744

  20. [Pollution and alternative energy sources].

    PubMed

    Melino, C

    1989-01-01

    In order to reach higher standards of living, man has always been interested in searching new energy sources. Natural energy from sun, wind and water has been overcame by more sophisticated resources such as coal, vapour, hydroelectricity, natural gas, petroleum, and, at least, nuclear energy. However all these resources present unwanted effects, namely various hazards to man and environment. On this matter society is quering the risk-benefit balance of some energy choices and optimum performance with new safety means to limit dangerousness are being pursued and developed. It is necessary to evaluate carefully every aspect of safety without under-estimating or over-evaluating problems. For each energy source a "real price" has to be paired, even more in the future, since more energy will be required to guarantee the necessary technological progress linked to a better quality of life. In the present review all risks related to different energy sources are described and discussed aiming at defining: 1) specific risks for different sources 2) benefit from their utilization 3) means of defence guaranteeing security for man and environment. Italy is strictly dependent for energy production, which comes for 80% from abroad. An appropriate balance is required considering economical and social factors and real availability of energy. This balance needs therefore to be clearly evaluated hoping in a better future for an alternative energy, less dangerous and more clear, such as that from nuclear fusion. PMID:2483087

  1. ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT AND RECOVERY OF PHOSPHORUS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure nutrients in excess of the assimilative capacity of land available on farms are an environmental concern often associated with confined animal feeding operations (CAFO). The ability to extract phosphorus (P) from lagoon wastewater is critical to accomplish CAFO's comprehensive nutrient manage...

  2. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  3. Sources of phosphorus to the Carson River upstream from Lahontan Reservoir, Nevada and California, Water Years 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, Nancy L.; Seiler, Ralph L.

    2004-01-01

    -sediment concentrations are high. Downstream from Carson Valley, almost all samples exceed the water-quality standard, with the greatest concentrations observed during spring and summer months. Estimated annual total-phosphorus loads ranged from 1.33 tons at the West Fork Carson River at Woodfords to 43.41 tons at the Carson River near Carson City during water years 2001-02. Loads are greatest during spring runoff, followed by fall and winter, and least during the summer, which corresponds to the amount of streamflow in the Carson River. The estimated average annual phosphorus load entering Carson Valley was 21.9 tons; whereas, the estimated average annual phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley was 37.8 tons, for an annual gain in load across Carson Valley of 15.9 tons. Thus, about 58 percent of the total-phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley on an annual basis could be attributed to headwater reaches upstream from Carson Valley. During spring and summer (April 1-September 30) an average of 85 percent of the total-phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley could be attributed to headwater reaches. During fall and winter (October 1-March 31) only 17 percent of the phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley could be attributed to headwater reaches. The composition of the phosphorus changes during summer from particulate phosphorus entering Carson Valley to dissolved orthophosphate leaving Carson Valley. Particulate phosphorus entering Carson Valley could be settling out when water is applied to fields and be replaced by dissolved orthophosphate from other sources. Alternatively, the particulate phosphorus could be converted to dissolved orthophosphate as it travels across Carson Valley. Data collected during the study are not sufficient to distinguish between the two possibilities. Eagle Valley and Dayton-Churchill Valleys may act as sinks for phosphorus. On an annual basis, during water years 2001-02, about 90 percent of the phosphorus entering Eagle Valley left the

  4. Evaluation of phosphorus source coefficients as predictors of runoff phosphorus concentrations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matt C; White, John W; Coale, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Many states have adopted a P site index (PSI) as a risk assessment tool to determine when P-based nutrient management is required for a given agricultural field. Some PSIs use a weighting factor, the phosphorus source coefficient (PSC), to account for differences in P solubility between organic P sources. Information relating to appropriate values of PSC for various organic P sources is limited. The objectives of this study were to determine PSCs for organic P sources and to examine the relationship between PSCs and P concentrations measured in simulated rainfall runoff. An incubation study was used to calculate PSCs based on the extractability of P from organic P sources (separated and unseparated liquid dairy manure, digested dairy manure, dairy manure solids, poultry litter, and compost) relative to P from triple superphosphate fertilizer. The PSCs from the 14-d incubations were the best predictors of runoff P after 14 d soil equilibration in the runoff boxes. The values for iron-oxide strip phosphorus (FeO-P) PSC ranged from 78% for compost to 28% for poultry litter and were significantly related to runoff DR-P (r(2) = 0.80***) and FeO-P (r(2) = 0.76***) during the 14-d runoff event. Mehlich 3 PSCs ranged from 59% for compost to 30% for unseparated dairy manure and were better predictors of DR-P and FeO-P during the 56-d event (r(2) = 0.73*** and 0.65***, respectively). The results of this study indicate that PSCs based on soil incubations may improve the ability of PSCs to predict the risk of runoff transport, particularly after manure incorporation. PMID:19202029

  5. Impact of phosphorus control measures on in-river phosphorus retention associated with point source pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demars, B. O. L.; Harper, D. M.; Pitt, J.-A.; Slaughter, R.

    2005-01-01

    In-river phosphorus retention alters the quantity and timings of phosphorus delivery to downstream aquatic systems. Many intensive studies of in-river phosphorus retention have been carried out but generally on a short time scale (2-4 years). In this paper, monthly water quality data, collected by the Environment Agency of England and Wales over 12 years (1990-2001), were used to model daily phosphorus fluxes and monthly in-river phosphorus retention in the lowland calcareous River Wensum, Norfolk, UK. The effectiveness of phosphorus stripping at two major sewage treatment works was quantified over different hydrological conditions. The model explained 78% and 88% of the observed variance before and after phosphorus control, respectively. During relatively dry years, there was no net export of phosphorus from the catchment. High retention of phosphorus occurred, particularly during the summer months, which was not compensated for, by subsequent higher flow events. The critical discharge (Q) above which net remobilisation would occur, was only reached during few, high flow events Q25-Q13. Phosphorus removal from the effluent at two major STWs (Sewage Treatment Works) reduced the phosphorus catchment mass balance variability by 20-24% under the Q99-Q1. range of flow conditions. Although the absorbing capacity of the catchment against human impact was remarkable, further phosphorus remedial strategies will be necessary to prevent downstream risks of eutrophication occuring independently of the unpredictable variability in weather conditions.

  6. Heterotrophic bacteria from an extremely phosphate-poor lake have conditionally reduced phosphorus demand and utilize diverse sources of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Yao, Mengyin; Elling, Felix J; Jones, CarriAyne; Nomosatryo, Sulung; Long, Christopher P; Crowe, Sean A; Antoniewicz, Maciek R; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Maresca, Julia A

    2016-02-01

    Heterotrophic Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were isolated from Lake Matano, Indonesia, a stratified, ferruginous (iron-rich), ultra-oligotrophic lake with phosphate concentrations below 50 nM. Here, we describe the growth of eight strains of heterotrophic bacteria on a variety of soluble and insoluble sources of phosphorus. When transferred to medium without added phosphorus (P), the isolates grow slowly, their RNA content falls to as low as 1% of cellular dry weight, and 86-100% of the membrane lipids are replaced with amino- or glycolipids. Similar changes in lipid composition have been observed in marine photoautotrophs and soil heterotrophs, and similar flexibility in phosphorus sources has been demonstrated in marine and soil-dwelling heterotrophs. Our results demonstrate that heterotrophs isolated from this unusual environment alter their macromolecular composition, which allows the organisms to grow efficiently even in their extremely phosphorus-limited environment. PMID:26415900

  7. Phosphorus source alters host plant response to ectomycorrhizal diversity.

    PubMed

    Baxter, James W; Dighton, John

    2005-11-01

    We examined the influence of phosphorus source and availability on host plant (Pinus rigida) response to ectomycorrhizal diversity under contrasting P conditions. An ectomycorrhizal richness gradient was established with equimolar P supplied as either inorganic phosphate or organic inositol hexaphosphate. We measured growth and N and P uptake of individual P. rigida seedlings inoculated with one, two, or four species of ectomycorrhizal fungi simultaneously and without mycorrhizas in axenic culture. Whereas colonization of P. rigida by individual species of ectomycorrhizal fungi decreased with increasing fungal richness, colonization of all species combined increased. Plant biomass and N content increased across the ectomycorrhizal richness gradient in the organic but not the inorganic P treatment. Plants grown under organic P conditions had higher N concentration than those grown under inorganic P conditions, but there was no effect of richness. Phosphorus content of plants grown in the organic P treatment increased with increasing ectomycorrhizal richness, but there was no response in the inorganic P treatment. Phosphorus concentration was higher in plants grown at the four-species richness level in the organic P treatment, but there was no effect of diversity under inorganic P conditions. Overall, few ectomycorrhizal composition effects were found on plant growth or nutrient status. Phosphatase activities of individual ectomycorrhizal fungi differed under organic P conditions, but there was no difference in total root system phosphatase expression between the inorganic or organic P treatments or across richness levels. Our results provide evidence that plant response to ectomycorrhizal diversity is dependent on the source and availability of P. PMID:15809869

  8. Impact of phosphorus control measures on in-river phosphorus retention associated with point source pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demars, B. O. L.; Harper, D. M.; Pitt, J.-A.; Slaughter, R.

    2005-06-01

    In-river phosphorus retention alters the quantity and timings of phosphorus delivery to downstream aquatic systems. Many intensive studies of in-river phosphorus retention have been carried out but generally on a short time scale (2-4 years). In this paper, monthly water quality data, collected by the Environment Agency of England and Wales over 12 years (1990-2001), were used to model daily phosphorus fluxes and monthly in-river phosphorus retention in the lowland calcareous River Wensum, Norfolk, UK. The calibrated model explained 79% and 89% of the observed variance before and after phosphorus control, respectively. A split test revealed that predicted TP loads were in good agreement with observed TP loads (r2=0.85), although TP loads were underestimated under high flow conditions. During relatively dry years, there was no net export of phosphorus from the catchment. High retention of phosphorus occurred, particularly during the summer months, which was not compensated for, by subsequent higher flow events. This was despite a relatively modest critical discharge (Q) above which net remobilisation occur. Phosphorus removal from the effluent at two major STWs (Sewage Treatment Works) reduced phosphorus retention but not the remobilisation. This may indicate that the presence of impoundments and weirs, or overbank flows may have more control on the phosphorus dynamics under high flow conditions. Further phosphorus remedial strategies will be necessary to prevent downstream risks of eutrophication occurring independently of the unpredictable variability in weather conditions. More research is also needed to quantify the impact of the weir and overbank flows on phosphorus dynamics.

  9. Evaluating phosphorus loss from a Florida spodosol as affected by phosphorus-source application methods.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; O'Connor, G A; Brinton, S R

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating applied phosphorus (P) sources can reduce P runoff losses and is a recommended best management practice. However, in soils with low P retention capacities, leaching can be a major mechanism for off-site P loss, and the P-source application method (surface or incorporation) may not significantly affect the total amount of off-site P loss. We utilized simulated rainfall protocols to investigate effects of P-source characteristics and application methods on the forms and amounts of P losses from six P sources, including five biosolids materials produced and/or marketed in Florida, and one inorganic fertilizer (triple superphosphate). A typical Florida Spodosol (Immokalee fine sand; sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) was used for the study, to which the P sources were each applied at a rate of 224 kg P ha(-1) (approximately the P rate associated with N-based biosolids applications). The P sources were either surface-applied to the soil or incorporated into the soil to a depth of 5 cm. Amended soils were subjected to three simulated rainfall events, at 1-d intervals. Runoff and leachate were collected after each rainfall event and analyzed for P losses in the form of soluble reactive P (SRP), total dissolved P (TDP), total P (TP), and bioavailable P (BAP) (in runoff only). Cumulative masses (runoff + leachate for the three rainfall events) of P losses from all the P sources were similar, whether the amendments were surface-applied or incorporated into the soil. The solubility of the amendment, rather than application method, largely determines the P loss potential in poorly P-sorbing Florida Spodosols. PMID:18453437

  10. Analysis of lake-bottom sediment to estimate historical nonpoint-source phosphorus loads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    Bottom sediment in Hillsdale Lake, Kansas, was analyzed to estimate the annual load of total phosphorus deposited in the lake from nonpoint sources. Topographic, bathymetric, and sediment-core data were used to estimate the total mass of phosphorus in the lake-bottom sediment. Available streamflow and water-quality data were used to compute the mean annual mass of phosphorus (dissolved plus suspended) exiting the lake. The mean annual load of phosphorus added to the lake from point sources was estimated from previous studies. A simple mass balance then was used to compute the mean annual load of phosphorus from nonpoint sources. The total mass of phosphorus in the lake-bottom sediment was estimated to be 924,000 kg, with a mean annual load of 62,000 kg. The mean annual mass of phosphorus exiting in the lake outflow was estimated to be about 8,000 kg. The mean annual loads of phosphorus added to the lake from point and nonpoint sources were estimated to be 5,000 and 65,000 kg, respectively. Thus, the contribution to the total mean annual phosphorus load in Hillsdale Lake is about 7 percent from point sources and about 93 percent from nonpoint sources.

  11. Enhanced phosphorus recovery and biofilm microbial community changes in an alternating anaerobic/aerobic biofilter.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qing; Ong, Say Kee; Xie, Xuehui; Li, Fang; Zhu, Yanbin; Wang, Feng Rui; Yang, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The operation of an alternating anaerobic/aerobic biofilter (AABF), treating synthetic wastewater, was modified to enhance recovery of phosphorus (P). The AABF was periodically fed with an additional carbon source during the anaerobic phase to force the release of biofilm-sequestered P which was then harvested and recovered. A maximum of 48% of the total influent P was found to be released in the solution for recovery. Upon implementation of periodic P bio-sequestering and P harvesting, the predominant bacterial communities changed from β-Proteobacteria to γ-Proteobacteria groups. The genus Pseudomonas of γ-Proteobacteria was found to enrich greatly with 98% dominance. Dense intracellular poly-P granules were found within the cells of the biofilm, confirming the presence of P accumulating organisms (PAOs). Periodic addition of a carbon source to the AABF coupled with intracellular P reduction during the anaerobic phase most probably exerted environmental stress in the selection of Pseudomonas PAOs over PAOs of other phylogenic types. Results of the study provided operational information on the selection of certain microbial communities for P removal and recovery. This information can be used to further advance P recovery in biofilm systems such as the AABFs. PMID:26524149

  12. A Regional Modeling Framework of Phosphorus Sources and Transport in Streams of the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, A.M.; Hoos, A.B.; Terziotti, S.

    2011-01-01

    We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p<0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables - soil organic matter and soil pH - are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  14. Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pasek, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus is a key biologic element, and a prebiotic pathway leading to its incorporation into biomolecules has been difficult to ascertain. Most potentially prebiotic phosphorylation reactions have relied on orthophosphate as the source of phosphorus. It is suggested here that the geochemistry of phosphorus on the early Earth was instead controlled by reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds such as phosphite (HPO32−), which are more soluble and reactive than orthophosphates. This reduced oxidation state phosphorus originated from extraterrestrial material that fell during the heavy bombardment period or was produced during impacts, and persisted in the mildly reducing atmosphere. This alternate view of early Earth phosphorus geochemistry provides an unexplored route to the formation of pertinent prebiotic phosphorus compounds, suggests a facile reaction pathway to condensed phosphates, and is consistent with the biochemical usage of reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in life today. Possible studies are suggested that may detect reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in ancient Archean rocks. PMID:18195373

  15. Phosphorus in groundwater discharge - A potential source for lake eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinikmann, Karin; Hupfer, Michael; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    Lake eutrophication has long been mainly associated with phosphorus (P) inputs from overland flow. The present study gives evidence that also groundwater can carry significant loads of dissolved P. We quantified P loads from groundwater to Lake Arendsee using near-shore measurements of P concentrations at a high spatial resolution and volume fluxes of lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD) derived from a previous study. Results show that LGD accounts for more than 50% of the overall external P load, thus fuelling the eutrophication of the lake. Several different approaches of groundwater sampling (groundwater observation wells, temporary piezometers, and domestic wells) reveal a broad spatial heterogeneity of P concentrations in the subsurface catchment of the lake. The highest P concentrations (above 4 mg l-1) were found below a settled area along the southern lake shore. Contrary to expectations, other parameters (dissolved iron, ammonium, etc.) were not correlated with P, indicating that natural processes are superimposed by heavy contaminations. Both the intensity of the contamination and its proximity to the lake inhibit nutrient retention within vadose zone and aquifer and allow significant P loads to be discharged into the lake. Although the groundwater quality was investigated intensely, the results eventually give no clear evidence of the location and sources of the pollution. As a consequence, measures to decrease LGD-derived P loads cannot target the contamination at its source in the catchment. They need to be implemented in the riparian area to eliminate groundwater P directly before it enters the lake.

  16. Utilization of Glyphosate as Phosphate Source: Biochemistry and Genetics of Bacterial Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase

    PubMed Central

    Zechel, David L.; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a large group of chemicals, phosphonic acids or phosphonates, which are characterized by a carbon-phosphorus bond. This is in contrast to the general phosphorus compounds utilized and metabolized by microorganisms. Here phosphorus is found as phosphoric acid or phosphate ion, phosphoric acid esters, or phosphoric acid anhydrides. The latter compounds contain phosphorus that is bound only to oxygen. Hydrolytic, oxidative, and radical-based mechanisms for carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage have been described. This review deals with the radical-based mechanism employed by the carbon-phosphorus lyase of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway, which involves reactions for activation of phosphonate, carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage, and further chemical transformation before a useful phosphate ion is generated in a series of seven or eight enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The phn genes, encoding the enzymes for this pathway, are widespread among bacterial species. The processes are described with emphasis on glyphosate as a substrate. Additionally, the catabolism of glyphosate is intimately connected with that of aminomethylphosphonate, which is also treated in this review. Results of physiological and genetic analyses are combined with those of bioinformatics analyses. PMID:24600043

  17. Utilization of glyphosate as phosphate source: biochemistry and genetics of bacterial carbon-phosphorus lyase.

    PubMed

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Zechel, David L; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-03-01

    After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a large group of chemicals, phosphonic acids or phosphonates, which are characterized by a carbon-phosphorus bond. This is in contrast to the general phosphorus compounds utilized and metabolized by microorganisms. Here phosphorus is found as phosphoric acid or phosphate ion, phosphoric acid esters, or phosphoric acid anhydrides. The latter compounds contain phosphorus that is bound only to oxygen. Hydrolytic, oxidative, and radical-based mechanisms for carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage have been described. This review deals with the radical-based mechanism employed by the carbon-phosphorus lyase of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway, which involves reactions for activation of phosphonate, carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage, and further chemical transformation before a useful phosphate ion is generated in a series of seven or eight enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The phn genes, encoding the enzymes for this pathway, are widespread among bacterial species. The processes are described with emphasis on glyphosate as a substrate. Additionally, the catabolism of glyphosate is intimately connected with that of aminomethylphosphonate, which is also treated in this review. Results of physiological and genetic analyses are combined with those of bioinformatics analyses. PMID:24600043

  18. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

  19. Phosphorus Treated Coal Combustion Products (CCP-bottom ash) as an Agricultural Source of Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junfeng, Shen; Powell, M. A.; Hayden, D. B.

    Coal combustion products (CCP or "ash") have been seen to be beneficial for improving soil quality and increasing vegetative yields. Owing to their structure with more holes, they are also potential carriers of plant nutrients. The bottom ash from the Lambton Generating Station, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada was treated for 66 hours in 0.10 mol/L P solutions prepared from NaH 2PO 4, which resulted in the ash adsorbing 784 µg/g of phosphorus. The ash was mixed with quartz sand and/or non P-loaded ash from the same source to provide a set of growth media that contained 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the recommended dose of P (50 µg/g) for maize. Biomass yields at 26, 34, and 46 days after planting were compared with control (non-doped ash) and fertilized with 0-20-0 fertilizer. In general, growth media containing between 25% and 100% of the recommended P dose performed as well or better than the fertilized trials. 46 days after planting, the shoot fresh weight for the 50%, 75%, and 100% doped media were 39.46%, 42.73%, and 46.13%, respectively, greater compared to fertilized trials. The shoot dry weight increased by 29.71%, 13.39%, and 28.87%, respectively. Also, root fresh and dry weight increased averagely by 16.62% and 14.03%. These results implied that coal ashes are a better carrier for P uptaking, and P-loaded ash can be a good additive for sand soil improvement.

  20. Modeling Hydrology, Phosphorus and Ecology in the Hampshire Avon Catchment to Assess Alternative Strategies to Improve Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Whitehead, P. G.; Crossman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) enrichment is a worldwide issue of fresh river systems that causes algae blooms, oxygen decline and eutrophication. Therefore, controlling the input of nutrients especially P into aquatic ecosystems is a crucial management focus across much of the world. For example, approximately 70% of water bodies in the Hampshire Avon catchment (UK) are considered not in a good ecological condition due to excess soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in the water. In this work, we explored the issues of diffuse and point source P pollution in the Hampshire Avon catchment using an integrated catchment model (INCA) and further we used the model to assess different management options for P reduction. A multi-branch, process based, dynamic water quality model (INCA-P) has been applied to the whole Hampshire Avon river system to simulate water fluxes, concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and SRP, and ecology. The model has been used to assess impacts of both agricultural runoff and point sources from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) on water quality. The results showed that agriculture contributes approximately 40% of the P load and point sources contribute the other 60%. A set of scenarios have been investigated to assess the impacts of alternative P reduction strategies and results suggest that a combined strategy of agricultural P reduction through either fertilizer reductions or better P management together with improved treatment at WWTPs would reduce the SRP concentrations in the river to acceptable levels to meet the European legislation e.g. Water Framework Directive requirements. A seasonal strategy for P reductions from WWTPs would achieve significant benefits at reduced cost.

  1. Growth of Escherichia coli Coexpressing Phosphotriesterase and Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterase, Using Paraoxon as the Sole Phosphorus Source

    PubMed Central

    McLoughlin, Sean Yu; Jackson, Colin; Liu, Jian-Wei; Ollis, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Phosphotriesterases catalyze the hydrolytic detoxification of phosphotriester pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents with various efficiencies. The directed evolution of phosphotriesterases to enhance the breakdown of poor substrates is desirable for the purposes of bioremediation. A limiting factor in the identification of phosphotriesterase mutants with increased activity is the ability to effectively screen large mutant libraries. To this end, we have investigated the possibility of coupling phosphotriesterase activity to cell growth by using methyl paraoxon as the sole phosphorus source. The catabolism of paraoxon to phosphate would occur via the stepwise enzymatic hydrolysis of paraoxon to dimethyl phosphate, methyl phosphate, and then phosphate. The Escherichia coli strain DH10B expressing the phosphotriesterase from Agrobacterium radiobacter P230 (OpdA) is unable to grow when paraoxon is used as the sole phosphorus source. Enterobacter aerogenes is an organism capable of growing when dimethyl phosphate is the sole phosphorus source. The enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing dimethyl phosphate has been previously characterized as a nonspecific phosphohydrolase. We isolated and characterized the genes encoding the phosphohydrolase operon. The operon was identified from a shotgun clone that enabled E. coli to grow when dimethyl phosphate is the sole phosphorus source. E. coli coexpressing the phosphohydrolase and OpdA grew when paraoxon was the sole phosphorus source. By constructing a short degradative pathway, we have enabled E. coli to use phosphotriesters as a sole source of phosphorus. PMID:14711669

  2. Effectiveness of biochar as a phosphorus fertilizer source for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When processed via pyrolysis, livestock manures have the potential of providing energy and biochar. The biochars are high in nutrient content, especially potassium and phosphorus. Thus, they must be applied in accordance with their nutrient supplying capacity. This capacity will be affected by fa...

  3. Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: Six Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Ed; McPherson, Michael R.; Vaughan, Joseph; Rowe, Theresa; Pickett, Michael P.; Bielec, John A.

    2011-01-01

    IT leaders today must not only provide but also decide: which tools and services should they continue to supply, which are better delivered by others, and perhaps most critically, which methods from among the bewildering array of alternative sourcing strategies will best serve their faculty, staff, and students. In 2009, the EDUCAUSE Center for…

  4. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  5. Alternative Funding Sources for Migrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Eugene

    Despite 1983 Elementary and Secondary Education ACT (ESEA) Title I federal funding of over $255 million for more than 3,000 projects for some 600,000 migrant children and youth, there is still need for alternate funding sources to overcome spiraling inflation and increasing program costs and numbers of eligible children. Other federal, state,…

  6. Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    1981-01-01

    Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

  7. Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

    Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

  8. Non-mass-analyzed ion implantation from a solid phosphorus source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Bunker, S. N.

    1982-01-01

    A phosphorus ion beam, extracted from a Freeman ion source charged with elemental phosphorus, has been investigated for use in solar cell fabrication. Mass spectroscopy of the beam indicates the absence of both minority-carrier lifetime degrading impurities and hydrogen. The ion beam, without mass analysis, was used for ion implantation of solar cells, and performance for all cells was found to be equivalent to mass-analyzed controls.

  9. [Effects of carbon sources, temperature and electron acceptors on biological phosphorus removal].

    PubMed

    Han, Yun; Xu, Song; Dong, Tao; Wang, Bin-Fan; Wang, Xian-Yao; Peng, Dang-Cong

    2015-02-01

    Effects of carbon sources, temperature and electron acceptors on phosphorus uptake and release were investigated in a pilot-scale oxidation ditch. Phosphorus uptake and release rates were measured with different carbon sources (domestic sewage, sodium acetate, glucose) at 25 degrees C. The results showed that the minimum phosphorus uptake and release rates of glucose were 5.12 mg x (g x h)(-1) and 6.43 mg x (g x h)(-1), respectively, and those of domestic sewage are similar to those of sodium acetate. Phosphorus uptake and release rates increased with the increase of temperature (12, 16, 20 and 25 degrees C) using sodium acetate as carbon sources. Anoxic phosphorus uptake rate decreased with added COD. Electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, nitrite) had significant effects on phosphorus uptake rate and their order was in accordance with oxygen > nitrate > nitrite. The mass ratio of anoxic P uptake and N consumption (P(uptake)/N (consumption)) of nitrate and nitrite were 0.96 and 0.65, respectively. PMID:26031087

  10. MONITORING AND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER NEAR A LARGE PHOSPHORUS PRODUCTION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A source apportionment study was conducted to identify sources within a large elemental phosphorus plant that contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for 24-h PM10. Ambient data were collected at three monitoring sites from October 1996 through Ju...

  11. Critical source area management of agricultural phosphorus: experiences, challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of critical source areas of phosphorus (P) loss produced by coinciding source and transport factors has been studied since the mid 1990s. It is widely recognized that identification of such areas has led to targeting of management strategies and conservation practices that more effectiv...

  12. An in-situ phosphorus source for the synthesis of Cu3P and the subsequent conversion to Cu3PS4 nanoparticle clusters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sheets, Erik J.; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Wei -Chang; Balow, Robert B.; Wang, Yunjie; Walker, Bryce C.; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-09-20

    The search for alternative earth abundant semiconducting nanocrystals for sustainable energy applications has brought forth the need for nanoscale syntheses beyond bulk synthesis routes. Of particular interest are metal phosphides and derivative I-V-VI chalcogenides including copper phosphide (Cu3P) and copper thiophosphate (Cu3PS4). Herein, we report a one-pot, solution-based synthesis of Cu3P nanocrystals utilizing an in-situ phosphorus source: phosphorus pentasulfide (P2S5) in trioctylphosphine (TOP). By injecting this phosphorus source into a copper solution in oleylamine (OLA), uniform and size controlled Cu3P nanocrystals with a phosphorous-rich surface are synthesized. The subsequent reaction of the Cu3P nanocrystals with decomposing thiourea forms nanoscale Cu3PS4more » particles having p-type conductivity and an effective optical band gap of 2.36 eV.« less

  13. Influence of phosphorus sources and rates on soil pH, extractable phosphorus, and DTPA-extractable micronutrients

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Showk, A.M.; Westerman, R.L.; Weeks, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    Two soils (McLain sicl-fine, mixed, thermic, Pachic Argiustoll and Quinlan cl-loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow Typic Ustocrept) that differed in micronutrient content and chemical characteristics were collected from western Oklahoma. Soils were passed through a 2-mm screen and placed in plastic Petri dishes, and five P levels (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg ha/sup -1/) were applied using monocalcium phosphate (MCP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and ammonium polyphosphate (APP); the soils were then mixed uniformly. Soils were moistened to approximately 0.33 MPa and incubated for 2 mo at room temperature. Application of P decreased soil pH in both soils, and MAP and APP had a greater effect than MCP, which was attributed to the nitrification of the added ammonium. Bray and Kurtz no. 1 P increased with P application in both soils. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu in McLain soil. However, high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn in McLain soil. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Mn in the Quinlan soil; however; high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn and -Cu in Quinlan soil.

  14. Analysis of bottom sediment to estimate nonpoint-source phosphorus loads for 1981-96 in Hillsdale Lake, northeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Bottom sediment in Hillsdale Lake, northeast Kansas, was analyzed as a means of estimating the annual load of total phosphorus deposited in the lake from nonpoint sources. Topographic, bathymetric, and sediment-core data were used to estimate the total mass of phosphorus in the lake-bottom sediment. Available streamflow and water-quality data were used to compute the mean annual mass of phosphorus (dissolved plus suspended) exiting the lake as well as the mean annual load of phosphorus added to the lake from point sources. A simple mass balance then was used to compute the mean annual load of phosphorus from nonpoint sources. Mean annual sediment deposition from 1981 through 1996 was estimated to be 265 million pounds (120 million kilograms). The total mass of phosphorus in the lake-bottom sediment was estimated to be 924,000 kilograms, with a mean annual load of 62,000 kilograms. The mean annual mass of phosphorus exiting in the lake out-flow was estimated to be about 8,000 kilograms. The mean annual loads of phosphorus added to the lake from point and nonpoint sources were estimated to be 5,000 and 65,000 kilograms, respectively. Thus, the contribution to the total mean annual phosphorus load in Hillsdale Lake from point sources is about 7 percent and from nonpoint sources, about 93 percent.

  15. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  16. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  17. Emerging technologies to remove nonpoint phosphorus sources from surface water and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New innovative remediation practices are currently being developed that address phosphorus transfers from soils and applied sources to surface and ground waters. These practices include reactive barriers placed along field ditches and drainage ways, retention filters at the end of tile drains, mater...

  18. SWAT modeling of Critical Source Area for Runoff and Phosphorus losses: Lake Champlain Basin, VT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, exhibits eutrophication due to continuing phosphorus (P) inputs mainly from upstream nonpoint source areas. To address the Lake's eutrophication problem and as part of total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, a state-level P reducti...

  19. A Regional Modeling Framework of Phosphorus Sources and Transport in Streams of the Southeastern United States1

    PubMed Central

    García, Ana María; Hoos, Anne B; Terziotti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p<0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables – soil organic matter and soil pH – are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity. PMID:22457579

  20. Organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth of InP using new phosphorus sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C. A.; Chen, C. H.; Kitamura, M.; Stringfellow, G. B.; Brown, D. W.; Robertson, A. J.

    1986-06-01

    Two organophosphorus compounds, isobutylphosphine and tertiarybutylphosphine, have been investigated for their possible use as precursors in the organometallic vapor phase epitaxy process. They are the first nonhydride compounds to be used as phosphorus sources. Pyrolysis studies show that the first decomposition products are phosphine and various organic compounds. The phosphine then pyrolyzes to give phosphorus. The materials are less pyrophoric and less toxic than phosphine, and so are safer to use. The compounds have been used to grow epitaxial layers of InP on InP and GaAs substrates. The layers exhibit photoluminescence and electrical properties which are similar to those of layers grown with phosphine.

  1. Great lakes eutrophication: the effect of point source control of total phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Chapra, S C; Robertson, A

    1977-06-24

    A mathematical model of the Great Lakes total phosphorus budgets indicates that a 1 milligram per liter effluent restriction for point sources would result in significant improvement in the trophic status of most of the system. However, because large areas of their drainage basins are devoted to agriculture or are urbanized, western Lake Erie, lower Green Bay, and Saginaw Bay may require non-point source controls to effect significant improvements in their trophic status. PMID:17776924

  2. Relative bioavailability of phosphorus in inorganic phosphorus sources fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, G I; Pedersen, C; Lindemann, M D; Stein, H H

    2011-02-01

    The relative bioavailability of P in 5 sources of inorganic P was determined using growing pigs. The 5 sources of inorganic P were dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) containing 50% MCP (MCP50), MCP containing 70% MCP (MCP70), MCP containing 100% MCP (MCP100), and monosodium phosphate (MSP). A total of 11 diets were formulated. The basal diet was formulated to contain 0.10% P, and 10 additional diets were formulated by adding 0.07 or 0.14% P from each of the 5 P sources to the basal diet. Growing pigs (n = 44; initial BW: 16.8 ± 4.3 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to the 11 experimental diets. Feed was provided on an ad libitum basis throughout the 28-d experimental period. At the conclusion of the experiment, all pigs were killed, and 4 bones (i.e., the third and fourth metacarpals on both front feet) were harvested. Bone-breaking strength, bone ash, and Ca and P concentrations were determined. The concentration of bone ash increased (P < 0.05) as MCP50, MCP70, MCP100, or MSP were added to the basal diet, and the concentration of bone P also increased (P < 0.05) as MCP70, MCP100, or MSP were added to the basal diet. The relative bioavailability of P in each of the feed phosphates was determined using slope ratio methodologies based on breaking strength, and expressed relative to MSP. The slope of the regression line for diets containing MSP or MCP100 was steeper (P < 0.05) than the slope for pigs fed the diet containing DCP, but not different (P > 0.05) from that of pigs fed diets supplemented with MCP50 or MCP70. In conclusion, P in MSP and MCP100 is more bioavailable than P in DCP, but there were no differences within MCP sources. PMID:20952526

  3. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An alternative source of power that meets the requirements of § 193.2445 must be provided for security lighting...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An alternative source of power that meets the requirements of § 193.2445 must be provided for security lighting...

  5. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, D.M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm constants and prediction of phosphorus bioavailability as affected by different phosphorus sources in two Kansas soils.

    PubMed

    Shafqat, Mustafa N; Pierzynski, Gary M

    2014-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) adsorption onto soil constituents influences P bioavailability from both agronomic and environmental perspectives. In this study, the P availability from different P sources along with utility of Freundlich adsorption coefficients on the predictability of various crop growth parameters were assessed. Two soils were amended with 150mgPkg(-1) each from six different P sources comprised of manures from two types of ruminants animals, three types of monogastric animals, and inorganic P fertilizer. Corn (Zea mays) was grown and harvested seven times under greenhouse conditions to remove P from the P amended treatments. The application of all P sources reduced the value of Freundlich K and increased the value of Freundlich 1/n and equilibrium P concentration (EPC0) in both soils compared to the un-amended control before cropping. The swine (Sus scrofa) manure (HM) resulted in significant smaller values of Freundlich K and larger values of 1/n in the P deficient Eram-Lebo soil compared to other P sources while, the opposite was true for the turkey (Meleagris gallopava) litter (TL) in the Ulysses soil. The corn biomass, tissue P concentration and P uptake were significantly influenced by all P sources during the first harvest and the total P uptake during seven harvests in both soils compared to the control treatment. Both Freundlich coefficients had strong relationships with the aforementioned corn parameters in the P deficient Eram-Lebo soil while, strength of the association was weak or missing in the Ulysses soil which had optimum levels of antecedent P. PMID:24238913

  7. Sources and bioavailability of phosphorus fractions in freshwaters: a British perspective.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C S; Davies, P S

    2001-02-01

    This paper seeks a perspective on the forms of phosphorus which promote aquatic eutrophication, with the particular quest of establishing their sources. A short background traces the development of understanding of nutrient enrichment and the suppositions about the relative contributions of agriculture, sewage and detergent residues. Most aquatic systems, and their primary producers, are naturally deficient in biologically-available phosphorus. Aquatic plants have evolved very efficient phosphorus uptake mechanisms. The biomass responses to an increase in the supply of phosphorus are stoichiometrically predictable. The most bioavailable forms of phosphorus are in solution, as orthophosphate ions, or are readily soluble or elutable from loose combinations. Ready bioavailability coincides well with what is measurable as molybdate-reactive (MRP) or soluble-reactive phosphorus (SRP). Most other forms, including phosphates of the alkaline earth metals, aluminium and iron are scarcely available at all. Orthophosphate ions sorbed to metal oxides and hydroxides are normally not biologically available either, except through weak dissociation ('desorption'). The production of alkaline phosphatase provides organisms with an additional mechanism for accelerating the sequestration of phosphate from organic compounds. Bioavailable phosphate is liberated when redox- or alkali-sensitive metal hydroxides dissolve but these processes are minor contributors to the biological responses to nutrient enrichment. Most of the familiar eutrophication is attributable to the widespread application of secondary sewage treatment methods to the wastes emanating from a burgeoning and increasingly urbanised human population. The use of polyphosphate-based detergents, now in decline, has contributed to the problem. In aquatic systems, the additional phosphorus raises the biological supportive capacity, sometimes to the capacity of the next limiting factor (carbon, light, hydraulic retention or of

  8. Phosphinate chemistry in the 21st century: a viable alternative to the use of phosphorus trichloride in organophosphorus synthesis.

    PubMed

    Montchamp, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-21

    Organophosphorus compounds are important in everyday applications ranging from agriculture to medicine and are used in flame retardants and other materials. Although organophosphorus chemistry is known as a mature and specialized area, researchers would like to develop new methods for synthesizing organophosphorus compounds to improve the safety and sustainability of these chemical processes. The vast majority of compounds that contain a phosphorus-carbon bond are manufactured using phosphorus trichloride (PCl3) as an intermediate. However, these reactions require chlorine, and researchers would like to avoid the use of PCl3 and develop safer chemistry that also decreases energy consumption and minimizes waste. Researchers have already proposed and discussed two primary strategies based on elemental phosphorus (P4 or Pred) or on phosphine (PH3) as alternatives to PCl3. However, phosphinates, an important class of phosphorus compounds defined as any compound with a phosphorus atom attached to two oxygens, R(1)R(2)P(O)(OR) (R(1)/R(2) = hydrogen/carbon), offer another option. This Account discusses the previously neglected potential of these phosphinates as replacements of PCl3 for the preparation of organophosphorus compounds. Because of their strong reductive properties, industry currently uses the simplest members of this class of compounds, hypophosphites, for one major application: electroless plating. In comparison with other proposed PCl3 surrogates, hypophosphorous derivatives can offer improved stability, lower toxicity, higher solubility, and increased atom economy. When their reducing power is harnessed to form phosphorus-carbon or phosphorus-oxygen bonds, these compounds are also rich and versatile precursors to organophosphorus compounds. This Account examines the use of transition metal-catalyzed reactions such as cross-coupling and hydrophosphinylation for phosphorus-carbon bond formation. Because the most important industrial organophosphorus compounds

  9. SOURCES AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF NITROGEN, CARBON, AND PHOSPHORUS IN THE POTOMAC RIVER ESTUARY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S.

    2009-12-01

    Global transport of nitrogen (N), carbon (C), and phosphorus (P) in river ecosystems has been dramatically altered due to urbanization. We examined the capacity of a major tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac River, to transform carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus inputs from the world’s largest advanced wastewater treatment facility (Washington D.C. Water and Sewer Authority). Surface water and effluent samples were collected along longitudinal transects of the Potomac River seasonally and compared to long-term interannual records of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Water samples from seasonal longitudinal transects were analyzed for dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, total organic carbon, and particulate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The source and quality of organic matter was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, excitation emission matrices (EEMs), and PARAFAC modeling. Sources of nitrate were tracked using stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen. Along the river network stoichiometric ratios of C, N, and P were determined across sites and related to changes in flow conditions. Land use data and historical water chemistry data were also compared to assess the relative importance of non-point sources from land-use change versus point-sources of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Preliminary data from EEMs suggested that more humic-like organic matter was important above the wastewater treatment plant, but more protein-like organic matter was present below the treatment plant. Levels of nitrate and ammonia showed increases within the vicinity of the wastewater treatment outfall, but decreased rapidly downstream, potentially indicating nutrient uptake and/or denitrification. Phosphate levels decreased gradually along the river with a small increase near the wastewater treatment plant and a larger increase and decrease further downstream near the high salinity zone. Total organic carbon levels show a small decrease

  10. An alternative animal protein source: cultured beef.

    PubMed

    Post, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    Alternative sources of animal proteins are needed that can be produced efficiently, thereby providing food security with diminished ecological burden. It is feasible to culture beef from bovine skeletal muscle stem cells, but the technology is still under development. The aim is to create a beef mimic with equivalent taste, texture, and appearance and with the same nutritional value as livestock-produced beef. More specifically, there is a need for optimization of protein content and fat content. In addition, scalability of production requires modification of current small-scale bioreactors to the largest possible scale. The necessary steps and current progress suggest that this aim is achievable, but formal evidence is still required. Similarly, we can be optimistic about consumer acceptance based on initial data, but detailed studies are needed to gain more insight into potential psychological obstacles that could lead to rejection. These challenges are formidable but likely surmountable. The severity of upcoming food-security threats warrants serious research and development efforts to address the challenges that come with bringing cultured beef to the market. PMID:25376889

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods using pyridoxal-5′-phosphate as a phosphorus source

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhu, Ying-Jie Lu, Bing-Qiang; Chen, Feng; Qi, Chao; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Jin

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Hydroxyapatite nanorods are synthesized using biocompatible biomolecule pyridoxal-5′-phosphate as a new organic phosphorus source by the hydrothermal method. - Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods is reported. • Biocompatible pyridoxal-5′-phosphate is used as an organic phosphorus source. • This method is simple, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite nanorods are synthesized by the hydrothermal method using biocompatible biomolecule pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) as a new organic phosphorus source. In this method, PLP biomolecules are hydrolyzed to produce phosphate ions under hydrothermal conditions, and these phosphate ions react with pre-existing calcium ions to form hydroxyapatite nanorods. The effects of experimental conditions including hydrothermal temperature and time on the morphology and crystal phase of the products are investigated. This method is simple, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly. The products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis.

  12. Entrapped Sediments as a Source of Phosphorus in Epilithic Cyanobacterial Proliferations in Low Nutrient Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Susanna A.; Depree, Craig; Brown, Logan; McAllister, Tara; Hawes, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Proliferations of the benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria Phormidium have been reported in rivers worldwide. Phormidium commonly produces natural toxins which pose a health risk to animal and humans. Recent field studies in New Zealand identified that sites with Phormidium proliferations consistently have low concentrations of water column dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP). Unlike other river periphyton, Phormidium mats are thick and cohesive, with water and fine sediment trapped in a mucilaginous matrix. We hypothesized that daytime photosynthetic activity would elevate pH inside the mats, and/or night time respiration would reduce dissolved oxygen. Either condition could be sufficient to facilitate desorption of phosphates from sediment incorporated within mats, thus allowing Phormidium to utilize it for growth. Using microelectrodes, optodes and pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry we demonstrated that photosynthetic activity results in elevated pH (>9) during daytime, and that night-time respiration causes oxygen depletion (<4 mg L-1) within mats. Water trapped within the mucilaginous Phormidium mat matrix had on average 320-fold higher DRP concentrations than bulk river water and this, together with elevated concentrations of elements, including iron, suggest phosphorus release from entrapped sediment. Sequential extraction of phosphorus from trapped sediment was used to investigate the role of sediment at sites on the Mangatainoka River (New Zealand) with and without Phormidium proliferations. Deposition of fine sediment (<63 μm) was significantly higher at the site with the most extensive proliferations and concentrations of biological available phosphorus were two- to four- fold higher. Collectively these results provide evidence that fine sediment can provide a source of phosphorus to support Phormidium growth and proliferation. PMID:26479491

  13. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  14. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  15. Apparent phosphorus availabilities of selected traditional and alternative feedstuffs for channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A digestibility trial with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was conducted to determine apparent availability coefficients (AACs) of phosphorus for selected common feedstuffs: soybean meal, cottonseed meal, wheat middlings, corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DD...

  16. Earth's Phosphides in Levant and insights into the source of Archean prebiotic phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Britvin, Sergey N.; Murashko, Michail N.; Vapnik, Yevgeny; Polekhovsky, Yury S.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    Natural phosphides - the minerals containing phosphorus in a redox state lower than zero – are common constituents of meteorites but virtually unknown on the Earth. Herein we present the first rich occurrence of iron-nickel phosphides of terrestrial origin. Phosphide-bearing rocks are exposed in three localities in the surroundings of the Dead Sea, Levant: in the northern Negev Desert, Israel and Transjordan Plateau, south of Amman, Jordan. Seven minerals from the ternary Fe-Ni-P system have been identified with five of them, NiP2, Ni5P4, Ni2P, FeP and FeP2, previously unknown in nature. The results of the present study could provide a new insight on the terrestrial origin of natural phosphides – the most likely source of reactive prebiotic phosphorus at the times of the early Earth. PMID:25667163

  17. Effects of different phosphorus sources in the diet on bone composition and stability (breaking strength) in broilers.

    PubMed

    Hemme, A; Spark, M; Wolf, P; Paschertz, H; Kamphues, J

    2005-01-01

    In two fattening trials (in each 100 broilers kept in four groups with 25 animals) as well as in a balance trial (four groups with four broilers in a group) the effects of inorganic phosphorus sources [monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (dihydrate; DCP) and defluorinated phosphate (DFP)] in broiler diets were examined. The four diets contained up to 9 g calcium and 6 g phosphorus per kg and comparable energy and nutrient contents. Controls were fed a commercial diet with Ca-Na-phosphate as inorganic phosphorus source supplemented by phytase. In both fattening trials body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion were proved as well as the calcium and phosphorus levels in serum, the breaking strength of tibia or humerus and the femur mineralization (ash content in the fat free dry matter). Furthermore, in the balance trial the retention of calcium and phosphorus was determined by calculation (intake minus excretion) as well as by analysis of body composition. On a high performance level (that was only slightly influenced by the different treatments), the addition of DFP resulted in significantly reduced phosphorus availability (estimated by analysis of the whole carcass: control/MCP/DCP/DFP: 48.6/46.0/45.7/35.5%). The significantly reduced phosphorus level in serum (1.77 +/- 0.20/1.77 +/- 0.24/1.73 +/- 0.28 1.34 +/- 0.33 mmol/l) indicates the lower phosphorus retention in broilers given DFP. Furthermore, the crude ash content (582 +/- 17.6/580 +/- 18.6/563 +/- 15.2/547 +/- 29.7 g/kg fat free DM) and the breaking strength of bones (in right tibia in trial 2: 232 +/- 82.4/227 +/- 51.5/232 +/- 41.7/196 +/- 655 N) were lowest when given DFP. For diagnostic purposes it is of special interest that the phosphorus levels in the serum reflected markedly the different concentrations of available phosphorus in the diet. PMID:15787983

  18. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  19. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  20. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  1. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  2. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  3. Variable Source Watershed Model for Reducing Dissolved Phosphorus Concentrations in Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Hoang, L.; Schneiderman, E. M.; Pacenka, S.; Vermeulen, P. J.; Moore, K. E.; Owens, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although established procedures for treatment of point sources have been available for the last fifty years, effective and efficient management procedures for reducing non-point source pollution are still being developed. One of the reasons for the slow development is that the various management practices need to be tailored to the landscape in order to be optimal. Water quality simulation models for watersheds would be ideal for designing these effective practices but in many cases are only validated at the watershed outlet where the monitored data are available which does not guarantee that the spatial distribution of runoff and pollution sources inside the watershed are simulated correctly. Especially, in rural, humid regions where runoff is associated with saturation-excess processes from variable source areas our modeling of the hydrology and water quality is limiting. Recently, we adapted successfully a watershed model El-SWAT that realistically can simulate saturation excess surface runoff and interflow by introducing a perched water table reservoir that can transfer water via the subsurface to the wet areas in the watershed and thereby overcomes one of the major limitation of the SWAT model. For this presentation, we have combined El-SWAT with a set of spatially dependent phosphorus sub routines developed by us for simulating spatially dependent phosphorus losses in upstate New York State. In this presentation we will show its application in designing effective best management practices in the New York City Source Watersheds in the Catskill Mountains.

  4. 49 CFR 7.46 - Alternative sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative sources of information. 7.46 Section 7.46 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Fees § 7.46 Alternative sources of information. In the interest of making documents of general...

  5. 49 CFR 7.46 - Alternative sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative sources of information. 7.46 Section 7.46 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Fees § 7.46 Alternative sources of information. In the interest of making documents of general...

  6. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... facilities are set forth in 7 CFR part 1712. (h) At the request of a borrower, RUS, in its sole discretion... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a)...

  7. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... facilities are set forth in 7 CFR part 1712. (h) At the request of a borrower, RUS, in its sole discretion... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a)...

  8. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... facilities are set forth in 7 CFR part 1712. (h) At the request of a borrower, RUS, in its sole discretion... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a)...

  9. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... facilities are set forth in 7 CFR part 1712. (h) At the request of a borrower, RUS, in its sole discretion... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a)...

  10. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... facilities are set forth in 7 CFR part 1712. (h) At the request of a borrower, RUS, in its sole discretion... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a)...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193.2915 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An...

  12. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative source selection procedures. 715.370 Section 715.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR....370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used,...

  13. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative source selection procedures. 715.370 Section 715.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR....370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used,...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193.2915 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An...

  15. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative source selection procedures. 715.370 Section 715.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR....370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used,...

  16. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative source selection procedures. 715.370 Section 715.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR....370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used,...

  17. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  18. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  19. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  20. Impact of legacy phosphorus sources on diffuse phosphorus pollution from agriculture: lessons from the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legacy phosphorus (P), the accumulation of P in soils and sediments due to past agricultural management activities, represents an emerging challenge to ongoing efforts to mitigate diffuse P pollution from agriculture. Nutrient management programs, already tasked with minimizing the effects of today...

  1. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... particular source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternative source or sources...) Increase or maintain competition and likely result in reduced overall costs for the acquisition, or for any anticipated acquisition; (2) Be in the interest of national defense in having a facility (or a...

  2. The Phosphorus, Sulfur, Argon, and Calcium Isotopic Composition of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogliore, R. C.; Stone, E. C.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Moskalenko, I. V.

    2009-04-01

    Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) measurements of the phosphorus, sulfur, argon, and calcium isotopes made by the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer are reported over the energy range from ~100 to ~400 MeV nucleon-1. The propagation of cosmic rays through the Galaxy and heliosphere is modeled with constraints imposed by measurements. Isotopic source abundance ratios 31P/32S, 34S/32S, 38Ar/36Ar, and 44Ca/40Ca are deduced. The derived 31P/32S ratio is 2.34 ± 0.34 times larger than the solar system value, lending further credence to the suggestion that refractory elements are enriched in the GCRs due to the sputtering of ions off grains in the cores of superbubbles. By determining the GCR source abundances of argon (a noble gas) and calcium (a refractory), it is determined that material in grains is accelerated to GCR energies a factor of 6.4 ± 0.3 more efficiently than gas-phase material in this charge range. With this information, the dust fraction of phosphorus and sulfur in the interstellar material that is mixed with stellar ejecta to form the GCR seed material is found to be consistent with astronomical observations.

  3. Using oxygen isotopes of phosphate to trace phosphorus sources and cycling in lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsbury, K.E.; Paytan, A.; Ostrom, N.E.; Kendall, C.; Young, M.B.; McLaughlin, K.; Rollog, M.E.; Watson, S.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples collected during three sampling trips to Lake Erie displayed oxygen isotopic values of dissolved phosphate (??18O p) that were largely out of equilibrium with ambient conditions, indicating that source signatures may be discerned. ??18O p values in the Lake ranged from +10??? to +17???, whereas the equilibrium value was expected to be around +14???. The riverine weighted average ??18Op value was +11??? and may represent one source of phosphate to the Lake. The lake ?? 18Op values indicated that there must be one or more as yet uncharacterized source(s) of phosphate with a high ?? 18Op value. Potential sources other than rivers are not yet well-characterized with respect to ??18O of phosphate, but we speculate that a likely source may be the release of phosphate from sediments under reducing conditions created during anoxic events in the hypolimnion of the central basin of Lake Erie. Identifying potential phosphorus sources to the Lake is vital for designing effective management plans for reducing nutrient inputs and associated eutrophication. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Using oxygen isotopes of phosphate to trace phosphorus sources and cycling in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Elsbury, Katy E; Paytan, Adina; Ostrom, Nathaniel E; Kendall, Carol; Young, Megan B; McLaughlin, Karen; Rollog, Mark E; Watson, Sue

    2009-05-01

    Water samples collected during three sampling trips to Lake Erie displayed oxygen isotopic values of dissolved phosphate (delta18Op) that were largely out of equilibrium with ambient conditions, indicating that source signatures may be discerned. delta18Op, values in the Lake ranged from +10% per hundred to +17% per hundred, whereas the equilibrium value was expected to be around +14% per hundred. The riverine weighted average delta18Op, value was +11% per hundred and may represent one source of phosphate to the Lake. The lake delta18Op, values indicated that there must be one or more as yet uncharacterized source(s) of phosphate with a high delta18Op value. Potential sources other than rivers are not yet well-characterized with respectto delta18Op of phosphate, but we speculate that a likely source may be the release of phosphate from sediments under reducing conditions created during anoxic events in the hypolimnion of the central basin of Lake Erie. Identifying potential phosphorus sources to the Lake is vital for designing effective management plans for reducing nutrient inputs and associated eutrophication. PMID:19534121

  5. Safety's impact on an alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Our ability to make underground mines a safe place to work will be a major concern to those seeking to use coal as an energy source. Increased production will stimulate a heightened concern for making mining a more effective energy resource. This effectiveness means that unless safe performance is achieved, the cost of poor safety, such as loss of lives and costly delays due to breakdowns and other failures, will greatly reduce productivity of underground mining operations. As such, coal companies and miners must be prepared to safely manage their operation before underground mining makes a significant effect on energy independence.

  6. Monitoring and source apportionment of particulate matter near a large phosphorus production facility.

    PubMed

    Willis, R D; Ellenson, W D; Conner, T L

    2001-08-01

    A source apportionment study was conducted to identify sources within a large elemental phosphorus plant that contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for 24-hr PM10. Ambient data were collected at three monitoring sites from October 1996 through July 1999, and included the following: 24-hr PM10 mass, 24-hr PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 mass and chemistry, continuous PM10 and PM2.5 mass, continuous meteorological data, and wind-direction-resolved PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemistry. Ambient-based receptor modeling and wind-directional analysis were employed to help identify major sources or source locations and source contributions. Fine-fraction phosphate was the dominant species observed during PM10 exceedances, though in general, resuspended coarse dusts from raw and processed materials at the plant were also needed to create an exceedance. Major sources that were identified included the calciners, the CO flares, process-related dust, and electric-arc furnace operations. PMID:11518289

  7. Differential expression of genes involved in alternative glycolytic pathways, phosphorus scavenging and recycling in response to aluminum and phosphorus interactions in Citrus roots.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Qi, Yi-Ping; Chen, Li-Song

    2012-05-01

    The objective was to determine the possible links between the expression levels of genes involved in alternative glycolytic pathways, phosphorus (P) scavenging and recycling and Citrus tolerance to aluminum (Al) and/or P-deficiency. 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis) and 'Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) seedlings were irrigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.2 mM AlCl(3)·6H(2)O × 0, 50 and 200 μM KH(2)PO(4). C. sinensis displayed more tolerant to Al and P-deficiency than C. grandis. Under Al stress, C. sinensis accumulated more Al in roots and less Al in shoots than C. grandis. P concentration was higher in C. sinensis shoots and roots than in C. grandis ones. C. sinensis roots secreted more malate and citrate than C. grandis ones when exposed to Al. Al-induced-secretion of malate and citrate by excised roots from Al-treated seedlings decreased with increasing P supply. Al-induced-secretion of malate and citrate from roots and Al precipitation by P in roots might be responsible for Al-tolerance of C. sinensis. qRT-PCR analysis showed that Al-activated malate transporter (ALMT1), ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (ATP-PFK), pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK), tonoplast adenosine-triphosphatase subunit A (V-ATPase A), tonoplast pyrophosphatase (V-PPiase), pyruvate kinase (PK), acid phosphatase (APase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), malic enzyme (ME) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) genes might contribute to the tolerance of Citrus to Al and/or P-deficiency, but any single gene could not explain the differences between the two species. Citrus tolerance to Al and/or P-deficiency might be caused by the coordinated regulation of gene expression involved in alternative glycolytic pathways, P scavenging and recycling. PMID:22307782

  8. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, renewable biomass energy sources comprise forests, agriculture and other large vegetation units. With the increasing demand on those landscape elements, including conflicts of interest to nature conservation and food production, the research focus should also incorporate smaller vegetation entities. In this study, we highlight the availability of small-scale features like roadside vegetation or hedges, which are rarely featured in maps. Roadside vegetation, however, is well known and regularly trimmed to allow the passing of traffic but the cut material is rarely harvested. Here, we combine a remote-sensing-based approach to quantify the seasonal biomass harvests with a GIS-based method to outline optimal transportation routes to, and the location of, storage units and power plants. Our main data source will be ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 optical satellite. Spatial resolution of 10 meters in the visible and near infrared requires the use of spectral unmixing to derive end member spectra of the targeted biomass objects. Additional stereo-matching and LIDAR measurements allow the accompanying height estimate to derive the biomass volume and its changes over time. GIS data bases from the target areas allow the discrimination between traditional, large features (e.g. forests and agriculture) as well as previously unaccounted for, smaller vegetation units. With the mapped biomass occurrence and additional, GIS-based infrastructure information, we can outline transport routes that take into account local restrictions like nature reserve areas, height or weight limitations as well as transport costs in relation to potential gains. This information can then be processed to outline optimal places for power plants. To simulate the upcoming Sentinel-2 data sets, we use airborne data from the AISA Eagle, spatially and spectrally down-sampled to match Sentinel 2's resolution. Our test scenario is an area in western Germany, the Kirchheller Heide, close to the city

  9. Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus sources on mycorrhizal lettuces under organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Seguel, Alex; Cornejo, Pablo; Rao, Maria A.; Borie, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) develop symbiotic associations with plants roots. These associations are very common in the natural environment and can provide a range of benefits to the host plant. AMF improve nutrition, enhance resistance to soil-borne pests and disease, increase resistance to drought and tolerance to heavy metals, and contribute to a better soil structure. However, agricultural intensive managements, such as the use of mineral fertilizes, pesticides, mouldboard tillage, monocultures and use of non-mycorrhizal crops, are detrimental to AMF. As a consequence, agroecosystems are impoverished in AMF and may not provide the full range of benefits to the crop. Organic farming systems may be less unfavourable to AMF because they exclude the use of water-soluble fertilisers and most pesticides, and generally they plan diverse crop rotations. The AMF develop the most common type of symbiosis in nature: about 90% of the plants are mycorrhizal and many agricultural crops are mycorrhizal. One of more mycorrhizal crops is lettuce, that is very widespread in intensive agricultural under greenhouse. Therefore, cultivated lettuce is know to be responsive to mycorrhizal colonization which can reach 80% of root length and contribute to phosphorus and nitrogen absorption by this plant specie. For this work four different lettuce cultivars (Romana, Milanesa, Grande Lagos and Escarola) were used to study mycorrhization under organic agricultural system, supplying compost from agricultural waste (1 kg m-2) as background fertilization for all plots, red guano as phosphorus source (75 U ha-1 and 150 U ha-1 of P2O5), lupine flour as nitrogen source (75 and 150 U/ha of N) and a combination of both. Lettuce plants were cultivated under greenhouse and after two months of growing, plants were harvested and dried and fresh weight of lettuce roots and shoots were evaluated. The number of spores, percentage of colonization, total mycelium and glomalin content were also

  10. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 206.202 Section 206.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources...

  11. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 306.202 Establishing...

  12. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 306.202 Establishing...

  13. 48 CFR 2406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 2406.202 Section 2406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources...

  14. Alternative Energy Sources. Experiments You Can Do...from Edison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benrey, Ronald M.; Schultz, Robert F.

    Eight experiments dealing with alternative energy sources are presented. Each experiment includes an introductory section which provides background information and discusses the promises and problems of the particular energy source, a list of materials needed to complete the experiment, and the procedures to be used. The experiments involve:…

  15. Combining sources in stable isotope mixing models: alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Donald L; Newsome, Seth D; Gregg, Jillian W

    2005-08-01

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants; or water bodies, and many others. A common problem is having too many sources to allow a unique solution. We discuss two alternative procedures for addressing this problem. One option is a priori to combine sources with similar signatures so the number of sources is small enough to provide a unique solution. Aggregation should be considered only when isotopic signatures of clustered sources are not significantly different, and sources are related so the combined source group has some functional significance. For example, in a food web analysis, lumping several species within a trophic guild allows more interpretable results than lumping disparate food sources, even if they have similar isotopic signatures. One result of combining mixing model sources is increased uncertainty of the combined end-member isotopic signatures and consequently the source contribution estimates; this effect can be quantified using the IsoError model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isotopes/isoerror1_04.htm). As an alternative to lumping sources before a mixing analysis, the IsoSource mixing model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isosource/isosource.htm) can be used to find all feasible solutions of source contributions consistent with isotopic mass balance. While ranges of feasible contributions for each individual source can often be quite broad, contributions from functionally related groups of sources can be summed a posteriori, producing a range of solutions for the aggregate source that may be considerably narrower. A paleo-human dietary analysis example illustrates this method, which involves a terrestrial meat food source, a combination of three terrestrial plant foods, and a combination of three marine foods. In this case, a posteriori aggregation of sources allowed

  16. Assessment of alternative power sources for mobile mining machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Tomazic, W. A.; Evans, D. G.; Klann, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Alternative mobile power sources for mining applications were assessed. A wide variety of heat engines and energy systems was examined as potential alternatives to presently used power systems. The present mobile power systems are electrical trailing cable, electrical battery, and diesel - with diesel being largely limited in the United States to noncoal mines. Each candidate power source was evaluated for the following requirements: (1) ability to achieve the duty cycle; (2) ability to meet Government regulations; (3) availability (production readiness); (4) market availability; and (5) packaging capability. Screening reduced the list of candidates to the following power sources: diesel, stirling, gas turbine, rankine (steam), advanced electric (batteries), mechanical energy storage (flywheel), and use of hydrogen evolved from metal hydrides. This list of candidates is divided into two classes of alternative power sources for mining applications, heat engines and energy storage systems.

  17. Changes in phosphorus fractions during organic wastes composting from different sources.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Wei, Zimin; Li, Xue; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the changes in different fractions of phosphorus (P) and the relationship between different P fractions and their corresponding physicochemical parameters during organic wastes composting. There were distinct differences in the concentration of P fractions for the composts generated from different sources, highest in chicken manure and pig manure. The availability P (including water soluble P, Olsen P and citric acid P) declined from 44% to 36% in all composts, except for KW, following the thermophilic phase during composting, while moderately available P and non-available P increased from 48% to 59%. Different P fractions (inorganic P, organic P, Olsen P, water soluble P and citric acid P) were positively correlated with each other. The composts were clustered into two groups in our hierarchical cluster analysis. Conclusively, we suggested an optimized mode of composting based on the characteristics of the P fractions from different raw materials. PMID:25912971

  18. Distribution, sources and budgets of particulate phosphorus and nitrogen in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Ning

    2012-07-01

    Suspended particles were collected from the northern East China Sea (ECS) in four spring and autumn cruises to study the sources and biogeochemical behavior of particulate inorganic and organic phosphorus and nitrogen (PIP, POP, PIN, and PON). PIP and PON were dominant forms of particulate P and N, accounting for 57.2% of TPP and 78.2% of TPN, respectively. PIP and POP concentrations decreased seaward from the estuary, and had high values near Zhoushan Islands and in the northern ECS. It was indicated that the Changjiang dilute water (CDW) and the Jiangsu coastal currents (JCC), which were rich in particulate phosphorus were the major sources of PIP and POP. PIN and PON concentrations exhibited decreasing trend from the middle shelf toward land and offshore, suggesting the dilution effect of N-depleted riverine particles on particulate nitrogen in coastal waters. The highest concentrations of PIN and PON were observed in the coast of Zhejiang and in the northern ECS, which were two productive areas in the ECS. PON and PIN were primarily of marine source and POP was also influenced by phytoplankton productivity. The concentrations, compositions and distribution of particulate nutrients varied between spring and autumn, in response to the seasonal variations of phytoplankton productivity and terrestrial input. Budget calculation demonstrated that the sediment flux of Changjiang accounted for 88% of total input flux in spring and summer, indicating that the Changjiang River was the major particle source in the ECS. Particulate P was mainly from phytoplankton and the input of the Changjiang River, while the major source of particulate N was phytoplankton. Phytoplankton production contributed 70% of TPP input flux and 95% of TPN input flux in spring and summer, while 64% of TPP input and 89% of TPN input in autumn and winter. It was shown that riverine particles were enriched in inorganic P, whereas marine particles had high organic P and N content, which suggested that

  19. [Shortcut Nitrosation-Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal Based on High-quality Carbon Source in Combined Process of CAMBR].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ji-hui; Wu, Peng; Cheng, Chao-yang; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-12-01

    The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are high-quality carbon source which can be utilized in the process of denitrifying phosphorus removal. Therefore, a combined process of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) with microbial phase separation and membrane bioreactor (MBR), i. e. CAMBR, with high-quality effluent was investigated in this experiment for highly efficient denitrifying phosphorus removal through providing high-quality carbon source by optimizing operational conditions such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the ABR. The results indicated that sufficient high-quality carbon source VFA could be acquired when the HRT of ABR was 4.8 h. The consumption of VFA was 56. 1 mg · L⁻¹ while the release of phosphorus was 10.43 mg · L⁻¹ showing that 5.38 mg of VFA was required to release 1 mg PO₄³⁻-P. Meanwhile, the uptake of phosphorus was 12. 35 mg · L⁻¹, while the uptake of phosphorus of MBR tank was 1.33 mg · L⁻¹. In the process of shortcut nitrification, 0.62 mg NOx⁻-N was needed when 1 mg PO₄³⁻-P was taken up, and 1.67 to 2.04 mg NO₂⁻-N was required when 1 mg PO₄³⁻-P was taken up, and the combined system achieved stable effluent quality. The average removal rates of COD, TN and soluble PO₄³⁻-P were 91%, 84% and 93%, respectively, correspondingly the average effluent concentrations were 30, 7.15 and 0.55 mg · L⁻¹, respectively. The results stated that the CAMBR achieved stable and highly efficient denitrifying phosphorus removal in domestic sewage treatment. PMID:27011991

  20. Nonpoint-source nitrogen and phosphorus behavior and modeling in cold climate: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Cheng-Wei; Xu, Shi-Guo; Liu, Jian-Wei; Lian, Jian-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Pollution from nonpoint-source (NPS) nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the main causes of eutrophication in lotic, lentic and coastal systems. The climate of cold regions might play an important role in disturbing environmental behavior of NPS N and P, influencing simulation of watershed scale hydrologic and nonpoint-source pollution models. The losses of NPS N and P increase in regions of cold climate. In cold seasons, accumulations of N and P are accelerated in soil with increasing fine root and aboveground biomass mortality, decreasing plant nutrient uptake, as well as freezing soil. N and P transformation is disturbed by soil frost and snow. Moreover, factors such as physical disruption of soil aggregates, pollutant accumulation in snowpack, and snow melting can all increase the NPS N and P losses to the waterbody. Therefore, NPS N and P in first flush are more serious in cold climate. All these effects, especially frozen soil and snowpack, make great challenges to watershed scale hydrologic and nonpoint-source pollution models simulation in cold climate. Model improvements of snowmelt runoff, nutrient losses in frozen soil, as well as N and P behavior have been initiated and will be continued to evaluate in terms of their performances and suitability with different scale, hydrologic and geologic conditions in the future. PMID:21076213

  1. p-type ZnO films with solid-source phosphorus doping by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu, F.X.; Yang, Z.; Mandalapu, L.J.; Liu, J.L.; Beyermann, W. P.

    2006-01-30

    Phosphorus-doped p-type ZnO films were grown on r-plane sapphire substrates using molecular-beam epitaxy with a solid-source GaP effusion cell. X-ray diffraction spectra and reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns indicate that high-quality single crystalline (1120) ZnO films were obtained. Hall and resistivity measurements show that the phosphorus-doped ZnO films have high hole concentrations and low resistivities at room temperature. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements at 8 K reveal a dominant acceptor-bound exciton emission with an energy of 3.317 eV. The acceptor energy level of the phosphorus dopant is estimated to be 0.18 eV above the valence band from PL spectra, which is also consistent with the temperature dependence of PL measurements.

  2. Greenhouse evaluation and environmental impact assessment of different urine-derived struvite fertilizers as phosphorus sources for plants.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Samantha; Arias, Maria Alejandra; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    A selection of six urine-derived struvite fertilizers generated by innovative precipitation technologies was assessed for their quality and their effectiveness as phosphorus sources for crops. Struvite purity was influenced by drying techniques and magnesium dosage. In a greenhouse experiment, the urine fertilizers led to biomass yields and phosphorus uptakes comparable to or higher than those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Heavy metal concentrations of the different struvite fertilizers were below the threshold limits specified by the German Fertilizer and Sewage Sludge Regulations. The computed loading rates of heavy metals to agricultural land were also below the threshold limits decreed by the Federal Soil Protection Act. Urine-derived struvite contributed less to heavy metal inputs to farmland than other recycling products or commercial mineral and organic fertilizers. When combined with other soil conditioners, urine-derived struvite is an efficient fertilizer which covers the magnesium and more than half of the phosphorus demand of crops. PMID:22901433

  3. Soil organic phosphorus flows to water via critical and non-critical hydrological source areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Surridge, Ben; Haygarth, Phil

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic phosphorus flows to water via critical and non-critical hydrological source areas Ying Wang, Ben W.J. Surridge, Philip M. Haygarth Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, LA1 4YQ, UK Critical source areas (CSAs) are zones in the landscape where easily connected hydrology coincides with a phosphorus (P) sources in the soil. The P export risks in CSAs are hypothesised to be higher compared with non-critical source areas (Non-CSAs) and specifically that the magnitudes of P forms in CSA areas were higher than Non-CSAs. Past research on CSAs has often neglected forms of organic P, such as DNA and phospholipids which are among the most potentially biodegradable organic P compounds. The objectives of this study were i) to quantify the magnitude of organic P compounds in agricultural soils and specifically determine whether these magnitudes differed significantly between CSAs and Non-CSAs; ii) determine the variation of P magnitude between and within individual fields; iii) identify the P delivery concentrations in soil solution after raining events in CSAs. The study focussed on soils collected from the Morland sub-catchment of the River Eden catchment in Cumbria, northern England. CSA and Non-CSA pairs were identified using the SCIMAP modelling and field assessment providing five CSA - Non-CSA pairs in total. The results showed that there are significant differences in the total P (TP) concentrations, the proportions of DNA-P, WETP (water extractable total P), WERP (water extractable reactive P) and WEUP (water extractable unreactive P) between CSA and Non-CSA. We also found that the concentrations of all the P forms showed distribution variation between fields or even within the same field. Liable organic P such as DNA-P and PLD-P was presented considerable proportions of total P in soil, especially DNA-P which had a good correlation with TP. DNA-P in the ten areas accounted for a considerable proportion of soil TP (4.9 to 16.6%). Given the

  4. Adaptation of maize source leaf metabolism to stress related disturbances in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus balance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abiotic stress causes disturbances in the cellular homeostasis. Re-adjustment of balance in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism therefore plays a central role in stress adaptation. However, it is currently unknown which parts of the primary cell metabolism follow common patterns under different stress conditions and which represent specific responses. Results To address these questions, changes in transcriptome, metabolome and ionome were analyzed in maize source leaves from plants suffering low temperature, low nitrogen (N) and low phosphorus (P) stress. The selection of maize as study object provided data directly from an important crop species and the so far underexplored C4 metabolism. Growth retardation was comparable under all tested stress conditions. The only primary metabolic pathway responding similar to all stresses was nitrate assimilation, which was down-regulated. The largest group of commonly regulated transcripts followed the expression pattern: down under low temperature and low N, but up under low P. Several members of this transcript cluster could be connected to P metabolism and correlated negatively to different phosphate concentration in the leaf tissue. Accumulation of starch under low temperature and low N stress, but decrease in starch levels under low P conditions indicated that only low P treated leaves suffered carbon starvation. Conclusions Maize employs very different strategies to manage N and P metabolism under stress. While nitrate assimilation was regulated depending on demand by growth processes, phosphate concentrations changed depending on availability, thus building up reserves under excess conditions. Carbon and energy metabolism of the C4 maize leaves were particularly sensitive to P starvation. PMID:23822863

  5. Processes Affecting Phosphorus and Copper Concentrations and Their Relation to Algal Growth in Two Supply Reservoirs in the Lower Coastal Plain of Virginia, 2002-2003, and Implications for Alternative Management Strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speiran, Gary K.; Simon, Nancy S.; Mood-Brown, Maria L.

    2007-01-01

    Elevated phosphorus concentrations commonly promote excessive growth of algae in waters nationwide. When such waters are used for public supply, the algae can plug filters during treatment and impart tastes and odors to the finished water. This increases treatment costs and results in finished water that may not be of the quality desired for public supply. Consequently, copper sulfate is routinely applied to many reservoirs to control algal growth but only is a 'temporary fix' and must be reapplied at intervals that can range from more than 30 days in the winter to less than 7 days in the summer. Because copper has a maximum allowable concentration in public drinking water and can be toxic to aquatic life, water suppliers commonly seek to develop alternative, long-term strategies for managing reservoirs. Because these are nationwide issues and part of the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to define and protect the quality of the Nation's water resources and better understand the physical, chemical, and biological processes in wetlands, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries, investigations into these issues are important to the fulfillment of the mission of the USGS. The City of Newport News, Virginia, provides 50 million gallons per day of treated water for public supply from Lee Hall and Harwoods Mill Reservoirs (terminal reservoirs) to communities on the lower York-James Peninsula. About 3,500 pounds of copper sulfate are applied to each reservoir at 3- to 99-day intervals to control algal growth. Consequently, the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Newport News, investigated the effects of management practices and natural processes on phosphorus (the apparent growth-limiting nutrient), copper, and algal concentrations in the terminal reservoirs to provide information that can be used to develop alternative management strategies for the terminal reservoirs. Initial parts of the research evaluated circulation and stratification in the reservoirs

  6. Estimation of nonpoint source loadings of phosphorus for lakes in the Puget Sound region, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Control of eutrophication of lakes in watersheds undergoing development is facilitated by estimates of the amounts of phosphorus (P) that reach the lakes from areas under various types of land use. Using a mass-balance model, the author calculated P loadings from present-day P concentrations measured in lake water and from other easily measured physical characteristics in a total of 28 lakes in drainage basins that contain only forest and residential land. The loadings from background sources (forest-land drainage and bulk precipitation) to each of the lakes were estimated by methods developed in a previous study. Differences between estimated present-day P loadings and loadings from background sources were attributed to changes in land use. The mean increase in annual P yield resulting from conversion of forest to residential land use was 7 kilograms per square kilometer, not including septic tank system contributions. Calculated loadings from septic systems were found to correlate best with the number of near-shore dwellings around each lake in 1940. The regression equation expressing this relationship explained 36 percent of the sample variance. There was no significant correlation between estimated septic tank system P loadings and number of dwellings present in 1960 or 1970. The evidence indicates that older systems might contribute more phosphorus to lakes than newer systems, and that there may be substantial time lags between septic system installation and significant impacts on lake-water P concentrations. For lakes in basins that contain agricultural land, the P loading attributable to agriculture can be calculated as the difference between the estimated total loading and the sum of estimated loadings from nonagricultural sources. A comprehensive system for evaluating errors in all loading estimates is presented. The empirical relationships developed allow preliminary approximations of the cumulative impact development has had on P loading and the amounts

  7. Temporal Variation in Atmospheric Phosphorus Transport and Deposition to the Yucatan Peninsula: Local and Remote Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, R.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric phosphorus (P) inputs are rarely considered in models of terrestrial P cycling, but may be critical in balancing losses of P from ecosystems over the long-term, especially in the tropics. Several authors have suggested that forests in the Amazon basin, Hawaiian and Caribbean islands may be sustained by atmospheric P inputs from long-distance dust transport and other sources, but relatively few studies combine field measurements in a region with remote sensing or modeling approaches to quantify atmospheric P inputs. We use measurements of P in atmospheric bulk deposition collected periodically between 2006 and 2011 in a tropical dry forest in the southern Yucatan peninsula and compare these with remote sensing and atmospheric transport modeling estimates. There is a seasonal pattern in P deposition, with the greatest deposition occurring between April and August, when local biomass burning is greatest. Saharan dust transport to the region occurs between June and August, and is an important contributor to atmospheric P deposition. There is also interannual variation in atmospheric P deposition that is driven by variations in biomass burning and dust transport. We evaluate the importance of long-distance dust transport to the Yucatan as a source of P relative to other atmospheric inputs and losses, and its importance to ecosystem productivity.

  8. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  9. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  10. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  11. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  12. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open...

  13. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open...

  14. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After...

  15. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After...

  16. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After...

  17. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After...

  18. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open...

  19. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  20. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  1. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  2. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  3. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  4. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  5. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  6. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  7. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  8. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  9. Alternative Funding Sources. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, James L., Ed.; Arnold, Allen D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to identify and tap new sources of funds for community colleges, this monograph presents a series of descriptive articles on the most successful alternative funding ventures. In addition, the sourcebook provides a sense of where and how new ventures have aided two-year colleges and how other institutions might follow in this pursuit.…

  10. Using Alternate Energy Sources. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with using alternate energy sources. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons:…

  11. Assessment of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium uptake capacity and root growth in mature alternate-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees.

    PubMed

    Rosecrance, R. C.; Weinbaum, S. A.; Brown, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    We examined interrelationships between crop load, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) uptake, and root growth in mature, alternate-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees. Pistachio trees bear heavy (on-year) and light (off-year) fruit crops in alternate years. Uptake and partitioning of N, P, and K among tree parts were determined during (a) spring flush (mid-March to late May), (b) nut fill (late May to early September), and (c) postharvest-leaf senescence (late September to early December). Nutrient uptake occurred primarily during nut fill in both on-year and off-year trees. In on-year trees, N and K uptake increased by 35 and 112%, respectively, during nut fill compared with off-year trees. During this period, nutrients were allocated largely to embryo development in on-year trees and to storage in perennial tissues in off-year trees. Nutrient uptake was negligible between harvest and leaf senescence. Although root growth was reduced during nut fill in on-year trees compared with off-year trees, there was no relationship between root growth and the uptake of N, P or K from the soil. Our data support the hypothesis that sink demand regulates the uptake and distribution of N, P, and K in pistachio trees. PMID:14871788

  12. Virus production in phosphorus-limited Micromonas pusilla stimulated by a supply of naturally low concentrations of different phosphorus sources, far into the lytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Maat, Douwe S; van Bleijswijk, Judith D L; Witte, Harry J; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-09-01

    Earlier studies show that the proliferation of phytoplankton viruses can be inhibited by depletion of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP; orthophosphate). In natural marine waters, phytoplankton phosphorus (P) availability is, however, largely determined by the supply rate of SRP (e.g. through remineralization) and potentially by the source of P as well (i.e. the utilization of soluble non-reactive P; SNP). Here we show how a steady low supply of P (mimicking natural P recycling) to virally infected P-limited Micromonas pusilla stimulates virus proliferation. Independent of the degree of P limitation prior to infection (0.32 and 0.97μmax chemostat cultures), SRP supply resulted in 2-fold higher viral burst sizes (viruses lysed per host cell) as compared with no addition (P starvation). Delaying these spikes during the infection cycle showed that the added SRP was utilized for extra M. pusilla virus (MpV) production far into the lytic cycle (18 h post-infection). Moreover, P-limited M. pusilla utilized several SNP compounds with high efficiency and with the same extent of burst size stimulation as for SRP. Finally, addition of virus-free MpV lysate (representing a complex SNP mixture) to newly infected cells enhanced MpV production, implicating host-associated alkaline phosphatase activity, and highlighting its important role in oligotrophic environments. PMID:27316561

  13. Reducing future non-point source sediment and phosphorus loading under intensifying agricultural production in the Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogus, Mamaru; Schmitter, Petra; Tilahun, Seifu; Steenhuise, Tammo

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture will bring along non-point source pollution in the Ethiopian highlands resulting in eutrophication of lakes. The first signs of eutrophication have been observed already in Lake Tana. The lake it supports the lives of millions in the surrounding through fishing, tourism, transportation and hydropower.Presently, information on non-point source pollution is lacking in the Ethiopian highlands. There are few studies carried out in the highlands on the extent and the source areas of pollution, and models are not available for predicting sediment and phosphorus loading other than those developed for temperate climates. The objective of this chapter is to review existing non-point source studies, report on our findings of sediment and phosphorus sources that are related the non-point source pollution of Lake Tana and to present a non-point source model for the Ethiopian highland based on the Parameter Efficient Semi-distributed Watershed Hydrology Model (PED-WHM).In our research we have found that the saturation excess runoff from valley bottoms and from degraded lands are prevalent in the Ethiopia highlands. The periodically runoff source areas are also the sources for the non-point source pollution and by concentrating best management practices in these source areas we expect that we can reduce pollution without affecting the profitability of the existing farms. The water balance component of the non-point source model has been performing well in predicting both the discharge and the location of the runoff source areas. Sediment and phosphorus prediction models have been developed and are currently being tested for the 7km2Awramba watershed and the 1350 km2Gumara basin. Initial results indicate that 11.2 ton/ha/year sediment load and an accumulation rate of 17.3 mg/kg/year of dissolved phosphorus from Gumara watershed joining the lake. By developing best management practices at this time before non-point source pollution is rampant and

  14. AN ALTERNATIVE LATTICE FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER,C.J.; LEE,Y.Y.; TSOUPAS,N.; WEI,J.

    1999-03-29

    As a key component of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project, the Accumulator Ring will collect the proton beam from the SNS LINAC at an intensity of 2 x 10{sup 14} per pulse at 60 Hz for a total power of 2 MW, exceeding present performance value of existing facilities. Requirements of minimum beam loss for hands-on maintenance and flexibility for future upgrade are essential for the lattice design. In this paper, we study an alternative lattice emphasizing various injection schemes and flexibility for future upgrade. Working points, sextupole families for chromaticity control, and alternate extraction schemes are also considered.

  15. Response of carbon assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence to soybean leaf phosphorus across CO2: Alternative electron sink, nutrient efficiency and critical phosphorus concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the response of CO2 assimilation (PN) and various chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) parameters to phosphorus (P) nutrition soybean plants were grown in controlled environment growth chambers with sufficient (0.50 mM) and deficient (0.10 and 0.01 mM) P supply under ambient and elevated CO2 (a...

  16. Using Soluble Reactive Phosphorus and Ammonia to Identify Point Source Discharge from Large Livestock Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrello, M. C.; Scribner, M.; Chessin, K.

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of research draws attention to the negative environmental impacts on surface water from large livestock facilities. These impacts are mostly in the form of excessive nutrient loading resulting in significantly decreased oxygen levels. Over-application of animal waste on fields as well as direct discharge into surface water from facilities themselves has been identified as the main contributor to the development of hypoxic zones in Lake Erie, Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Some regulators claim enforcement of water quality laws is problematic because of the nature and pervasiveness of non-point source impacts. Any direct discharge by a facility is a violation of permits governed by the Clean Water Act, unless the facility has special dispensation for discharge. Previous research by the principal author and others has shown runoff and underdrain transport are the main mechanisms by which nutrients enter surface water. This study utilized previous work to determine if the effects of non-point source discharge can be distinguished from direct (point-source) discharge using simple nutrient analysis and dissolved oxygen (DO) parameters. Nutrient and DO parameters were measured from three sites: 1. A stream adjacent to a field receiving manure, upstream of a large livestock facility with a history of direct discharge, 2. The same stream downstream of the facility and 3. A stream in an area relatively unimpacted by large-scale agriculture (control site). Results show that calculating a simple Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and ammonia over time as well as temperature and DO, distinguishes non-point source from point source discharge into surface water. The r value for SRP and ammonia for the upstream site was 0.01 while the r value for the downstream site was 0.92. The control site had an r value of 0.20. Likewise, r values were calculated on temperature and DO for each site. High negative correlations

  17. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Maria R. C.; Kerr, Katherine R.; Fahey, George C.

    2013-01-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  18. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  19. Distribution, source and chemical speciation of phosphorus in surface sediments of the central Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jianyu; Lin, Peng; Zhen, Yang; Yao, Xuying; Guo, Laodong

    2015-11-01

    The abundance of five forms of phosphorus (P) in surface sediments from the central Pacific Ocean (4.5-15ºN, 154-143ºW) was determined using a sequential extraction procedure (SEDEX) to examine the distribution and source of different P species. Total P (TP) concentrations ranged from 13.2 to 119 μmol-P/g with an average of 48.6±27.4 μmol-P/g. Within the TP pool, total inorganic P (TIP) concentrations varied from 11.1 to 121 μmol-P/g, while total organic P (TOP) concentrations ranged from undetectable to 4.8 μmol-P/g. Inorganic P was generally the predominant form in surface sediments, comprising on average up to 93% of sedimentary TP, leaving <16% as TOP. Among the five P species, the authigenic or CaCO3-bound P and detrital P were the two major P species (comprising on average 43.4±13.5% and 45.7±14.8% of TP, respectively), followed by the refractory organic P, representing 6.7±2.4% of TP. Fe-bound P accounted for 3.3±1.3% of TP, and exchangeable or adsorbed P made up less than 1% of TP. The spatial distribution of different sedimentary P species showed that higher concentrations of detrital P and Fe-bound P were both found at around 11°N, suggesting similar sources for these two P species. Much of the detrital P was derived from atmospheric sources in the study area, where heavy rainfall in the intertropical convergence zone between 3°N and 11°N has been widely reported. Compared with other marine environments, the central Pacific Ocean had relatively higher detrital P, but lower abundance of adsorbed-P and Fe-bound P. These unquine results suggested that most of the labile P could have been released into the water column during its settling from the surface to the seafloor, or that atmospheric inputs of refractory P were an important source for sedimentary P, accounting for an average of 63% of the TP, in the central Pacific Ocean. High proportions of authigenic P in deep-sea sediments, on the other hand, implied that oceanic sediments are an

  20. Alternative nutrient sources for biotechnological use of Sporosarcina pasteurii.

    PubMed

    Cuzman, Oana Adriana; Richter, Katharina; Wittig, Linda; Tiano, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The potential use of Sporosarcina pasteurii in possible biotechnological applications on a large scale (ground improvement, consolidation of building structures and ornamental stone, or in developing bio-materials for the building industry), is based on its ability to produce high amounts of carbonate in a short period of time via urea hydrolysis. Industrial biomass production would have a low environmental impact and would be most economical if the standard growth media could be replaced with alternative nutrient sources, such as byproducts or wastes from other industries, or other low cost ingredients. The use of cost effective ingredients must guarantee ureolytic activities and growth conditions that are comparable to those resulting from the standard nutrient medium. In this work, three types of alternative media were tested for growing the ureolytic active bacteria S. pasteurii: (1) alternative nutrient sources such as industrial wastes resulting from the dairy and brewery industries, (2) fertilizer urea as an alternative urea substitute, and (3) different types of poultry manure based fertilizers as nutrient and urea substitutes. The comparison between the standard media, the nutrient alternatives and urea substitutes was possible by taking the protein concentration and nitrogen content into account. Bacterial activity was evaluated in terms of biomass changes over time (CFU, optical density, ATP measurements) and indirect estimation of the enzyme production (Nessler assay, conductivity measurement). The results revealed that some of the dairy wastes tested, such as whey and buttermilk, are potential alternative nutrients for bacterial development, while the urea fertilizer is perfectly suitable as an economical substitute for pure laboratory grade urea. PMID:25813200

  1. Quantifying atmospheric processing of mineral dust as a source of bioavailable phosphorus to the open oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Ross; Stockdale, Anthony; Carslaw, Ken; Krom, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The transport and deposition of mineral dust is known to be the dominant source of phosphorus (P) to the surface waters of the open oceans. However, the fraction of this P that is deemed available for primary productivity remains a key uncertainty due to a limited understanding of the processes occurring during transport of the dust. Through a series of detailed laboratory experiments using desert dust and dust precursors, we show that the dissolution behaviour of P in these samples is controlled by a surface-bound labile pool, and an additional mineral pool primarily consisting of apatite. The acid dissolution of the apatite occurs rapidly and is controlled by the absolute number of H+ ions present in the solution surrounding the dust. Using these results we develop a new conceptual model that reproduces the major processes controlling P dissolution in the atmosphere. We then use a global aerosol microphysics model with a global soil database to quantify the deposition of bioavailable P to the open oceans and ice sheets. We show that, globally, the labile pool contributes 2.4 Gg P a‑1 to the oceans and, from a potential pool of 11.5 Gg P a‑1, the dissolved apatite pool contributes 0.24 Gg P a‑1. A series of sensitivity studies identifying sources of acid in the atmosphere show that anthropogenic emissions of SO2 contribute 61% of the global mass of dissolved apatite, volcanic events contribute 11%, and DMS emissions contribute 10%. Finally, we show that the fraction of mineral dust P that is available for primary productivity varies, regionally, from <20% in the North Atlantic Ocean to >50% in the South Pacific Ocean; this explains the variability in the fraction of bioavailable P commonly observed in important oceanic regions.

  2. The Effect of Hydraulic Loading Rate and Influent Source on the Binding Capacity of Phosphorus Filters

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Inga; Jourak, Amir; Hedström, Annelie; Lundström, T. Staffan; Viklander, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Sorption by active filter media can be a convenient option for phosphorus (P) removal and recovery from wastewater for on-site treatment systems. There is a need for a robust laboratory method for the investigation of filter materials to enable a reliable estimation of their longevity. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate and (2) quantify the effect of hydraulic loading rate and influent source (secondary wastewater and synthetic phosphate solution) on P binding capacity determined in laboratory column tests and (3) to study how much time is needed for the P to react with the filter material (reaction time). To study the effects of these factors, a 22 factorial experiment with 11 filter columns was performed. The reaction time was studied in a batch experiment. Both factors significantly (α = 0.05) affected the P binding capacity negatively, but the interaction of the two factors was not significant. Increasing the loading rate from 100 to 1200 L m−2 d−1 decreased P binding capacity from 1.152 to 0.070 g kg−1 for wastewater filters and from 1.382 to 0.300 g kg−1 for phosphate solution filters. At a loading rate of 100 L m−2 d−1, the average P binding capacity of wastewater filters was 1.152 g kg−1 as opposed to 1.382 g kg−1 for phosphate solution filters. Therefore, influent source or hydraulic loading rate should be carefully controlled in the laboratory. When phosphate solution and wastewater were used, the reaction times for the filters to remove P were determined to be 5 and 15 minutes, respectively, suggesting that a short residence time is required. However, breakthrough in this study occurred unexpectedly quickly, implying that more time is needed for the P that has reacted to be physically retained in the filter. PMID:23936313

  3. Central airport energy systems using alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop the concept of a central airport energy system designed to supply energy for aircraft ground support and terminal complex utility systems using municipal waste as a fuel. The major task was to estimate the potential for reducing aircraft and terminal fuel consumption by the use of alternate renewable energy sources. Additional efforts included an assessment of indirect benefits of reducing airport atmospheric and noise pollution.

  4. The use of hydrazine as an alternate source of energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Bressan, C.; Ferreira, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The potentials of using hydrazine as an alternative source of energy was studied. Three chemical reactions are considered: oxidation with air, oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, and thermocatalytic decomposition. Performance data of gasoline, ethylic alcohol, and propane are compared. An item about the NO(x) emissions by the various investigated reactions is included. Promising results are shown, mainly those regarding the available energy per unit volume of unburned gases (vaporized fuel and oxidizer).

  5. Alternative power sources for remote sensors: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewan, Alim; Ay, Suat U.; Karim, M. Nazmul; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review is to assess renewable power sources as alternatives to the batteries traditionally used for remote environmental monitoring. In this review, we first discuss remote sensors and then we: 1) review the power requirements and traditionally used power sources for remote sensors, 2) describe the working principles of the renewable power sources used for powering remote sensors, 3) evaluate the challenges and potentials of the renewable power sources, and 4) review the power management systems developed for remote power generation and discuss how to use them to generate reliable power. In the description of each of the renewable power sources, we include the current status and future directions of the research. We believe that hybrid systems using more than a single renewable power source can provide more reliable renewable power. We conclude that renewable power sources have been demonstrated to be able to generate sufficient power for remote sensors. Because of the environmental risks and cost of operation associated with batteries, renewable energy sources will need to be used to power remote sensors in the near future.

  6. Streambanks: A net source of sediment and phosphorus to streams and rivers.

    PubMed

    Fox, Garey A; Purvis, Rebecca A; Penn, Chad J

    2016-10-01

    Sediment and phosphorus (P) are two primary pollutants of surface waters. Many studies have investigated loadings from upland sources or even streambed sediment, but in many cases, limited to no data exist to determine sediment and P loading from streambanks on a watershed scale. The objectives of this paper are to review the current knowledge base on streambank erosion and failure mechanisms, streambank P concentrations, and streambanks as P loading sources and then also to identify future research needs on this topic. In many watersheds, long-term loading of soil and associated P to stream systems has created a source of eroded soil and P that may interact with streambank sediment and be deposited in floodplains downstream. In many cases streambanks were formed from previously eroded and deposited alluvial material and so the resulting soils possess unique physical and chemical properties from adjacent upland soils. Streambank sediment and P loading rates depend explicitly on the rate of streambank migration and the concentration of P stored within bank materials. From the survey of literature, previous studies report streambank total P concentrations that consistently exceeded 250 mg kg(-1) soil. Only a few studies also reported water soluble or extractable P concentrations. More research should be devoted to understanding the dynamic processes between different P pools (total P versus bioavailable P), and sorption or desorption processes under varying hydraulic and stream chemistry conditions. Furthermore, the literature reported that streambank erosion and failure and gully erosion were reported to account for 7-92% of the suspended sediment load within a channel and 6-93% of total P. However, significant uncertainty can occur in such estimates due to reach-scale variability in streambank migration rates and future estimates should consider the use of uncertainty analysis approaches. Research is also needed on the transport rates of dissolved and sediment

  7. Identifying critical source areas for phosphorus loss in Ireland using field and catchment scale ranking schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, K. J.; Magette, W. L.; Kurz, I.

    2005-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) in agricultural runoff is a major pollutant in many of Ireland's surface waters. Identification of areas that are at a high risk for P loss to surface waters is a critical component of river basin management. Two P ranking schemes (PRS's) were developed for Ireland, based on multi-criteria analysis approaches proposed in both the US and Europe, to predict the relative likelihood of P loss at both the field and catchment scales. The Field PRS was evaluated by comparing predicted rankings of potential P loss and transport against measured edge-of-field Dissolved Reactive P (DRP) loss for three fields with varying soil P levels. Qualitatively, results indicated that the Field PRS rankings corresponded to the magnitudes of measured P loss for the field sites, as well as to a reasoned evaluation of the relative likelihood that the fields would lose P that would subsequently make its way to surface water. The Catchment PRS was evaluated on a total of 31 catchments and sub-catchments by comparing predicted rankings of potential P loss and transport against measured in-stream median Molybdate Reactive P (MRP). Rankings of the relative likelihood of P loss and transport predicted by the Catchment PRS were positively correlated with median in-stream MRP ( r=0.51, P<0.05). Although the data available for these evaluations were limited, especially at field scale, and further research may identify the opportunity for modifications, both field and catchment scale P ranking schemes demonstrated a potential for identifying critical P source areas within catchments dominated by grass-based agricultural production systems, such as those in Ireland.

  8. Defining the sources of low-flow phosphorus transfers in complex catchments.

    PubMed

    Arnscheidt, J; Jordan, P; Li, S; McCormick, S; McFaul, R; McGrogan, H J; Neal, M; Sims, J T

    2007-08-15

    Nutrient transfers from the land to rivers have the potential to cause persistent eutrophic impacts at low flows even though the transfers may constitute a minor percentage of total annual fluxes. In rural catchments, the contribution from agricultural soils during storm events can be particularly large and untangling the relative contributions from multiple sources that vary in time and space is especially problematic. In this study, the potential for domestic septic tank system pollution during low flows was investigated in 3 small catchments (3 to 5 km(2)) using an integrated series of methods. These included septic system surveys, continuous (10 min) total phosphorus (TP) monitoring at the outlet of each catchment, repeated low-flow water quality surveys in sub-catchments upstream of the catchment outlets and single day river-walk water quality surveys. A series of faecal matter and grey-water fingerprinting techniques were also employed. These included determining sterol ratios in stream sediments, monitoring the presence of proteins, E. coli and enterococci bacterial signatures and boron. The total density and density of poorly maintained septic systems mirrored the magnitude of frequent TP concentrations in the catchments although this relationship was less apparent in the nested sub-catchments. The exception was possibly related to the simple hydraulics in one particular catchment and indicated temporary effluent attenuation in the other catchments. Repeated low-flow and river-walk water quality surveys highlighted discrete areas and reaches where stepped changes in nutrient concentration occurred. Bio-chemical fingerprinting showed that between 7% and 27% of sediments were contaminated with human faecal material and correlation matrices indicated that, at least during low flows, P fractions were positively correlated with some markers of faecal and grey-water contamination. PMID:17512972

  9. A watershed modeling framework for phosphorus loading from residential and agricultural sources.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Andrew; Jamieson, Rob; Madani, Ali; Gordon, Robert J; Hart, William; Hebb, Dale

    2014-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) loading from residential onsite wastewater systems (OWSs) into neighboring surface waters is a poorly understood process in rural watersheds; this can be further challenged when rural residential dwellings are intermixed with agricultural land use. The objectives of this research were (i) to design a P onsite wastewater simulator (POWSIM) to assess P loads from individual or clusters of residential OWSs typically used in Nova Scotia, Canada; and (ii) to simulate OWS P loads in a mixed agricultural watershed (Thomas Brook Watershed [TBW], NS) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in conjunction with POWSIM, to predict and compare P loading from agricultural and residential sources. The POWSIM loading tool has three computational components: (i) disposal field selection and treatment media mass calculation, (ii) disposal field P treatment dynamics, and (iii) soil subsurface plume P treatment dynamics. The combination TBW POWSIM and SWAT modeling approach produced a better simulation of baseflow total P (TP) loads in both a predominantly residential subcatchment and one dominated by agriculture than the SWAT model without POWSIM. The residential subcatchment had 48% of its average annual land use TP load (simulated) contributed by OWSs, whereas the agricultural subcatchment had 39%. Watershed-scale sensitivity analyses of POWSIM input parameters for 18- and 50-yr OWS operation periods found the P loading rate into the disposal field, long-term P removal rates in the disposal field and soil systems, soil maximum P sorption capacity, and mass of native soil involved in P treatment to be most sensitive. PMID:25603083

  10. Estimates of diffuse phosphorus sources in surface waters of the United States using a spatially referenced watershed model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The statistical watershed model SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) was used to estimate the sources and transport of total phosphorus (TP) in surface waters of the United States. We calibrated the model using stream measurements of TP from 336 watersheds of mixed land use and spatial data on topography, soils, stream hydrography, and land use (agriculture, forest, shrub/grass, urban). The model explained 87% of the spatial variability in log transformed stream TP flux (kg yr-1). Predictions of stream yield (kg ha-1 yr-1) were typically within 45% of the observed values at the monitoring sites. The model identified appreciable effects of soils, streams, and reservoirs on TP transport, The estimated aquatic rates of phosphorus removal declined with increasing stream size and rates of water flushing in reservoirs (i.e. areal hydraulic loads). A phosphorus budget for the 2.9 million km2 Mississippi River Basin provides a detailed accounting of TP delivery to streams, the removal of TP in surface waters, and the stream export of TP from major interior watersheds for sources associated with each land-use type. ?? US Government 2004.

  11. Estimates of diffuse phosphorus sources in surface waters of the United States using a spatially referenced watershed model.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R B; Smith, R A; Schwarz, G E

    2004-01-01

    The statistical watershed model SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) was used to estimate the sources and transport of total phosphorus (TP) in surface waters of the United States. We calibrated the model using stream measurements of TP from 336 watersheds of mixed land use and spatial data on topography, soils, stream hydrography, and land use (agriculture, forest, shrub/grass, urban). The model explained 87% of the spatial variability in log transformed stream TP flux (kg yr(-1)). Predictions of stream yield (kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) were typically within 45% of the observed values at the monitoring sites. The model identified appreciable effects of soils, streams, and reservoirs on TP transport. The estimated aquatic rates of phosphorus removal declined with increasing stream size and rates of water flushing in reservoirs (i.e. areal hydraulic loads). A phosphorus budget for the 2.9 million km2 Mississippi River Basin provides a detailed accounting of TP delivery to streams, the removal of TP in surface waters, and the stream export of TP from major interior watersheds for sources associated with each land-use type. PMID:15053093

  12. Source and Fate of Phosphorus in a Constructed Wetland in the Northern Everglades: Evidence From Oxygen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wang, Y.

    2005-05-01

    High phosphorus influx into wetland ecosystems in the Florida Everglades continues to be a problem. Although the effects of phosphorus (P) loading on plant communities have been well documented, relatively little is know about how those changes affect the biogeochemical processes regulating the nutrient availability and cycling in aquatic cosystems. It has been suggested that oxygen isotopes in phosphate may provide a useful tool for tracing the source of phosphorus in aquatic systems. In this study, we measured the oxygen isotopic composition of total phosphate in sediments collected from an artificial wetland constructed to remove phosphorus from runoff water in the northern Everglades. The d18O values of total phosphate in sediment samples range from 8.3 to 13.3%. These values are very different from those of the phosphate in fertilizers commonly used in this area. These initial data suggest that biologically recycled phosphate is significantly depleted in oxygen-18 compared to the fertilizers and that these sediments are dominated by organic P. Analyses of oxygen isotopic composition of total phosphate in soil samples collected from the Everglades Agricultural Area about 10-12 months after fertilization also indicate the dominance of organic P in the soil, suggesting rapid removal of fertilizer P from the soil through plant uptake and leaching. These data show: 1)d18O decreases from the inflow area (i.e., highly polluted area) to a less polluted area in the constructed wetland; and 2) d18O decreases with depth in the same sediment core. This trend may be explained by less influence of fertilizer at depth and also farther away from the source of P.

  13. Isotopic Evidence for the Source and Fate of Phosphorus in Everglades Wetland Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Yang; Stern, Jennifer; Gu, Binhe

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus has historically been a limiting nutrient in the Florida Everglades. Increased P loading to the Everglades over the past several decades has led to significant changes in water quality and plant communities. Stormwater runoff that drains agricultural lands and enters the Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) are known to contain elevated levels of P, but the exact source of this P has not been fully determined. Here the results of an O isotope study of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) in both polluted and relatively pristine (or reference) areas of the Everglades are reported. The data reveal spatial and temporal variations in the delta 18O signature of DIP, reflecting the source and the degree of cycling of P. The delta 18O values of DIP collected from the Everglades National Park were close or equal to the predicted delta 18O values of DIP formed in situ in equilibrium with ambient water, indicating that P is quickly cycled in the water column in oligotrophic ecosystems with very low P concentrations. However, most DIP samples collected from areas impacted by agricultural runoff yielded delta 18O values that deviated from the predicted equilibrium DIP delta 18O values based on the delta 18O of water and water temperature, suggesting that biological cycling of P was not rapid enough to remove the fertilizer ?18O signature in the DIP pool from areas receiving high P loading. The delta 18O signature of DIP in impacted areas reflects a mixing of fertilizer P and biologically cycled P, where the relative proportions of biologically cycled vs. fertilizer DIP are controlled by both biological (microbial activities and plant uptake) and hydrologic factors (loading rate and residence time). Using a two-end-member (i.e., fertilizer P and biologically cycled P) mixing model, fertilizers were estimated to contribute about 15 100% of the DIP pool in the highly impacted areas of the northern Everglades, whereas the DIP pool in the reference (i.e., relatively pristine

  14. Source and transport factors influencing storm phosphorus losses in agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, Mairead; Jordan, Phil; Mellander, Per-Erik; kelly-quinn, Mary; Wall, David; Murphy, Paul; Melland, Alice

    2014-05-01

    The relative risk of diffuse phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural land was assessed in a well-drained arable catchment and a poorly-drained grassland catchment and in two nested basins within each catchment. This research investigated the relative control of hydrology and soil P on P losses between basins. Quick flow (QF) P losses (defined here as both concentrations and loads), monitored in stream flow during four storm events, were compared with a dynamic metric of transport risk (QF magnitude) and a static metric of critical source area (CSA) risk (extent of highly-connected poorly-drained soils with excess plant-available soil P). The potential for static transport metrics of soil connectivity and soil drainage class, to predict relative QF magnitudes and P losses between basins was also investigated. In basins with similar CSA risk but with contrasting QF magnitudes, mean TRP (total molybdate-reactive P) losses were consistently higher in the basins which had the highest QF magnitudes. This suggests that basin hydrology, rather than hydrology of high-P soils only, determined relative TRP losses between hydrologically contrasting basins. Furthermore, static transport metrics of soil connectivity and soil drainage class reliably discerned relative QF magnitudes and TRP losses between these basins. However, for two of the storm events (both occurring during the hydrologically active season), PP (particulate P) concentrations were frequently higher in basins which had the lowest QF magnitudes and may be attributed to a higher proportion of bare soil in these basins at these times as a result of their predominantly arable nature. In basins with similar hydrology, relative TRP and PP losses did not reflect trends in CSA risk or QF magnitude. The dynamics of TRP and PP losses and QF magnitude between these basins varied across storms, thus could not be predicted using static metrics. Where differences in hydrological dynamics were large, storm TRP losses were well

  15. Comparison of soil phosphorus tests for assessing plant availability of phosphorus in an ultisol amended with water-soluble and phosphate rock sources.

    PubMed

    Gikonyo, Esther W; Zaharah, Abdul R; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Anuar, Rahim A

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of different soil tests in assessing soil phosphorus (P) in soils amended with phosphate rocks (PRs) is uncertain. We evaluated the effects of triple superphosphate (TSP) and PRs on extractable P by conventional soil tests (Mehlich 3 [Meh3] and Bray-1 [B1]) and a nonconventional test (iron oxide-impregnated paper, strip). Extracted amounts of P were in the order: Meh3 >B1 > strip. All the tests were significantly correlated (p = 0.001). Acidic reagents extracted more P from TSP than PRs, while the strip removed equal amounts from the two sources. The P removed by the three tests was related significantly to dry matter yield (DMY), but only in the first harvest, except for B1. Established critical P levels (CPLs) differed for TSP and PRs. In PR-fertilized soils, CPLs were 27, 17, and 12 mg P kg(-1) soil for Meh3, B1, and strip, respectively, and 42, 31, and 12 mg P kg(-1) soil, respectively, in TSP-fertilized soils. Thus, the strip resulted in a common CPL for TSP and PRs (12 mg P kg(-1) soil). This method can be used effectively in soils where integrated nutrient sources have been used, but there is need to establish CPLs for different crops. For cost-effective fertilizer P recommendations based on conventional soil tests, there is a need to conduct separate calibrations for TSP- and PR-fertilized soils. PMID:20842313

  16. Denitrification of high nitrate concentration wastewater using alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; Soons, J; Castrillón, L

    2010-01-15

    The use of different organic carbon sources in the denitrification of wastewater containing 2500 mg nitrates/L in a SBR was studied. Three alternative sources of carbon were tested: wastewater from a sweet factory, a residue from a soft drinks factory and a residue from a dairy plant. The first two are sugar-rich, whereas the third presents a high content in lactic acid. Maximum specific denitrification rates of between 42 and 48 mg NO(3)-N/g VSS h were obtained. The effluents were nitrate-free and very low COD concentrations were obtained in 4-6h reaction time, especially with the sugar-rich carbon sources. The values of the denitrifier net yield coefficient were higher than when using methanol (0.93-1.75 g VSS(formed)/g NO(x)-N(reduced)). The lowest value was obtained using the lactic acid-rich residue. The optimum COD/N ratios varied between 4.6 for the lactic acid-rich carbon source and 5.5-6.5 for the sugar-rich carbon sources. PMID:19782470

  17. Improved biological phosphorus removal performance driven by the aerobic/extended-idle regime with propionate as the sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yan; Zeng, Tianjing; Zeng, Guangming

    2012-08-01

    Our previous studies proved that biological phosphorus removal (BPR) could be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process employing two typical substrates of glucose and acetate as the carbon sources. This paper further evaluated the feasibility of another important substrate, propionate, serving as the carbon source for BPR in the AEI process, and compared the BPR performance between the AEI and anaerobic/oxic (A/O) processes. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, respectively, as the AEI and A/O regimes for BPR using propionate as the sole substrate. The results showed that the AEI-reactor removed 2.98 ± 0.04-4.06 ± 0.06 mg of phosphorus per g of total suspended solids during the course of the steady operational trial, and the phosphorus content of the dried sludge was reached 8.0 ± 0.4% after 56-day operation, demonstrating the good performance of phosphorus removal. Then, the efficiencies of BPR and the transformations of the intracellular storages were compared between two SBRs. It was observed that the phosphorus removal efficiency was maintained around 95% in the AEI-reactor, and about 83% in the A/O-reactor, although the latter showed much greater transformations of both polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen. The facts clearly showed that BPR could be enhanced by the AEI regime using propionate as the carbon source. Finally, the mechanisms for the propionate fed AEI-reactor improving BPR were investigated. It was found that the sludge cultured by the AEI regime had more polyphosphate containing cells than that by the A/O regime. Further investigation revealed that the residual nitrate generated in the last aerobic period was readily deteriorated BPR in the A/O-SBR, but a slight deterioration was observed in the AEI-SBR. Moreover, the lower glycogen transformation measured in the AEI-SBR indicated that the biomass cultured by the AEI regime contained less glycogen accumulating organisms activities than that by the A/O regime. PMID

  18. Heated blends of phosphate waste: Microstructure characterization, effects of processing factors and use as a phosphorus source for alfalfa growth.

    PubMed

    Loutou, M; Hajjaji, M; Mansori, M; Favotto, C; Hakkou, R

    2016-07-15

    Microstructure of expandable lightweight aggregates (LWAs), which was composed of phosphate waste (PW), cement kiln dust (CKD) and raw clay (RC) was investigated, and the effects of processing factors (temperature, waste content, soaking time) on their physical properties were quantified by using response surface methodology (RSM). The potential use of LWAs as a phosphorus source was assessed through the use of seeds of alfalfa. It was found that the main minerals of the waste, namely carbonates and fluorapatite, were involved in the formation of labradorite/anorthite and melt respectively. Stability of mullite- the main constituent of CKD- was sensitive to the melt content. The assemblage of the identified phases was discussed based on the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 phase diagram. The results of RSM showed that the change of compressive strength, firing shrinkage and water absorption of LWAs versus processing factors was well described with a polynomial model and the weights of the effects of the factors increased in the following order: sintering temperature > waste content (in the case of PW-RC) > soaking time. On the other hand, it was found that due to the release of phosphorus by soil-embedded pellets, the growth of alfalfa plants improved, and the rate enhanced in this order: PW-RC > PW-CKD > PW-CKD-RC. The absorbed quantity of phosphorus (0.12%) was still lower than the common uptake amount. PMID:27100329

  19. The Behavior of Organic Phosphorus under Non-Point Source Wastewater in the Presence of Phototrophic Periphyton

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haiying; Yang, Linzhang; Zhang, Shanqing; Wu, Yonghong

    2014-01-01

    To understand the role of ubiquitous phototrophic periphyton in aquatic ecosystem on the biogeochemical cycling of organic phosphorus, the conversion and removal kinetic characteristics of organic phosphorus (Porg) such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were investigated in the presence of the periphyton cultured in artificial non-point source wastewater. The preliminary results showed that the periphyton was very powerful in converting Porg evidenced by the fact that inorganic phosphorus (Pinorg) content in solution increased from about 0.7 to 14.3 mg P L−1 in 48 hours in the presence of 0.6 g L−1 periphyton. This was because the periphyton could produce abundant phosphatases that benefited the conversion of Porg to Pinrog. Moreover, this conversion process was described more suitable by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The periphyton was also effective in removing Porg, which showed that the Porg can be completely removed even when the initial Porg concentration was as high as 13 mg P L−1 in 48 hours in the presence of 1.6 g L−1 periphyton. Furthermore, it was found that biosorption dominated the Porg removal process and exhibited the characteristics of physical adsorption. However, this biosorption process by the periphyton was significantly influenced by biomass (absorbent dosage) and temperature. This work provides insights into Porg biogeochemical circulation of aquatic ecosystem that contained the periphyton or similar microbial aggregates. PMID:24465782

  20. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Predicting phosphorus dynamics in complex terrains using a variable source area hydrology model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prediction of phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural watersheds depends on accurately representing the processes governing P loss from agricultural watersheds and the particular transport factors facilitating loss. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a model commonly used to predict runoff an...

  2. FILTRATION OF AGRICULTURAL NON-POINT SOURCE PHOSPHORUS POLLUTION WITH INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of phosphorus (P) from agricultural lands to water bodies is an environmental concern. Ditch drainage from lands with heavy poultry manure application on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay provides a pathway to deliver dissolved P to the bay. Best management practices designed to reduce ...

  3. Using SWAT to target critical source sediment and phosphorus areas in the Wister Lake Basin, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wister Lake is located in the San Bois Mountains in southeastern Oklahoma, USA. The reservoir is primarily used as a water supply and flood storage to over 40,000 residents in the area. Due to high levels of phosphorus and sediment, Wister Lake is listed as a high priority basin for the State of Okl...

  4. Land application of spent gypsum from ditch filters: phosphorus source or sink?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches can provide a direct connection between fields and surface waters, and some have been shown to deliver high loads of phosphorus (P) to sensitive water bodies. A potential way to reduce nutrient loads in drainage ditches is to install filter structures containing P sorbi...

  5. Endolithic algae: an alternative source of photoassimilates during coral bleaching.

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Maoz; Loya, Yossi

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of worldwide coral bleaching events leading to devastating coral mortality have caused alarm among scientists and resource managers. Differential survival of coral species through bleaching events has been widely documented. We suggest that among the possible factors contributing to survival of coral species during such events are endolithic algae harboured in their skeleton, providing an alternative source of energy. We studied the dynamics of photosynthetic pigment concentrations and biomass of endoliths in the skeleton of the encrusting coral Oculina patagonica throughout a bleaching event. During repeated summer bleaching events these endolithic algae receive increased photosynthetically active radiation, increase markedly in biomass, and produce increasing amounts of photoassimilates, which are translocated to the coral. Chlorophyll concentrations and biomass of endoliths were 4.6 +/- 1.57 and 1570 +/- 427 microg cm(-2) respectively, in skeletons of relatively healthy colonies (0-40% bleaching) but up to 14.8 +/- 2.5 and 4036 +/- 764 microg cm(-2) endolith chlorophyll and biomass respectively, in skeletons of bleached colonies (greater than 40% bleaching). The translocation dynamics of (14)C-labelled photoassimilates from the endoliths to bleached coral tissue showed significantly higher 14C activity of the endoliths harboured within the skeletons of bleached corals than that of the endoliths in non-bleached corals. This alternative source of energy may be vital for the survivorship of O. patagonica, allowing gradual recruitment of zooxanthellae and subsequent recovery during the following winter. PMID:12065035

  6. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    PubMed

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  7. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  8. 77 FR 41873 - In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc. because...

  9. [Ecosystem service and economic valuation in the upper reaches of Xin' an River, Anhui, China for mitigating phosphorus nonpoint source pollution].

    PubMed

    He, Fang; Wu, Nan; Fang, Xiang-long; Gao, Ji-xi; Zhou, Xiao-tie; Feng, Chao-yang

    2015-04-01

    A model of phosphorus purification in a watershed was established based on the export coefficient and purification index of phosphorus in different types of land cover. The model was employed to simulate the economic value of the ecosystem service with the expected water quality standard and marginal cost of pollutant purification of the upper reaches of Xin' an River of Anhui, China. The results revealed that from 2000 to 2010, some farmland outside the Tunxi, Jixi, Shexian, Yixian and Xiuning was converted to built-up land. The total amount of phosphorus exported to the upper Xin' an River decreased a little, and the main source of phosphorus pollution was farmland and built-up land. More than half of the exported phosphorus was efficiently purified by different types of land cover via flow accumulation. The pattern of purification and export of highly concentrated phosphorus showed the same trend which occurred in the northern part of the watershed including the Yangzhi River, Fengle River and Hengjiang River. Forestland and grassland did not efficiently purify phosphorus in the watershed owing to the irrational distribution of existing land cover. The total service value was 3.80 and 3.31 million Yuan in 2000 and 2010, respectively. PMID:26259471

  10. Proceedings of the conference on alternative energy sources for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, I.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four primary areas of study for alternative energy sources for Texas are considered. These are: energy demand supply and economics; prospects for energy resources (oil, lignite, coal, nuclear, goethermal and solar) and conservation; financial and technical constraints; and future planning. The following papers are presented: US energy outlook to 1990; energy supply and demand projections; comparative economics of solar energy in the generation of big power; gas present and future prospects; prospects for enhanced recovery of oil in Texas; the outlook for coal in USA; implementation of nuclear power in Texas; future outlook - geopressured-geothermal energy for Texas; future prospects for conservation and solar energy; financing and money supply constraints; technical constraints to energy supply increase; planning for the future - the crisis that drones on. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  11. local alternative sources for cogeneration combined heat and power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer

    Global demand for energy continues to grow while countries around the globe race to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions by implementing policy measures and advancing technology. Sustainability has become an important issue in transportation and infrastructure development projects. While several agencies are trying to incorporate a range of sustainability measures in their goals and missions, only a few planning agencies have been able to implement these policies and they are far from perfect. The low rate of success in implementing sustainable policies is primarily due to incomplete understanding of the system and the interaction between various elements of the system. The conventional planning efforts focuses mainly on performance measures pertaining to the system and its impact on the environment but seldom on the social and economic impacts. The objective of this study is to use clean and alternative energy can be produced from many sources, and even use existing materials for energy generation. One such pathway is using wastewater, animal and organic waste, or landfills to create biogas for energy production. There are three tasks for this study. In topic one evaluated the energy saving that produced from combined hydrogen, heat, and power and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using local sustainable energy at the Missouri S&T campus to reduce energy consumption and fossil fuel usage. Second topic aimed to estimate energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source by using Rankin steam cycle from municipal solid waste at Benghazi-Libya. And the last task is in progress. The results for topics one and two have been presented.

  12. Anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment for phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge: Release of carbon source and phosphorus as well as hydrogen production potential.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinte; Li, Yongmei

    2016-10-01

    Releases of organic compounds and phosphorus from phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge (PGS) and phosphorus-accumulating flocculent sludge (PFS) during low-temperature thermal pretreatment and anaerobic fermentation were investigated. Meanwhile, biogas production potential and microbial community structures were explored. The results indicate that much more soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and phosphorus were released from PGS than from PFS via low-temperature thermal pretreatment because of the higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in PGS and higher ratio of phosphorus reserved in EPS. Furthermore, PGS contains more anaerobes and dead cells, resulting in much higher SCOD and volatile fatty acids release from PGS than those from PFS during fermentation. PGS fermentation facilitated the n-butyric acid production, and PGS exhibited the hydrogen production potential during fermentation due to the presence of hydrogen-producing bacteria. Therefore, anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment can facilitate the recovery of carbon and phosphorus as well as producing hydrogen from PGS. PMID:27344244

  13. An in-situ phosphorus source for the synthesis of Cu3P and the subsequent conversion to Cu3PS4 nanoparticle clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Sheets, Erik J.; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Wei -Chang; Balow, Robert B.; Wang, Yunjie; Walker, Bryce C.; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-09-20

    The search for alternative earth abundant semiconducting nanocrystals for sustainable energy applications has brought forth the need for nanoscale syntheses beyond bulk synthesis routes. Of particular interest are metal phosphides and derivative I-V-VI chalcogenides including copper phosphide (Cu3P) and copper thiophosphate (Cu3PS4). Herein, we report a one-pot, solution-based synthesis of Cu3P nanocrystals utilizing an in-situ phosphorus source: phosphorus pentasulfide (P2S5) in trioctylphosphine (TOP). By injecting this phosphorus source into a copper solution in oleylamine (OLA), uniform and size controlled Cu3P nanocrystals with a phosphorous-rich surface are synthesized. The subsequent reaction of the Cu3P nanocrystals with decomposing thiourea forms nanoscale Cu3PS4 particles having p-type conductivity and an effective optical band gap of 2.36 eV.

  14. Dioxins, furans, biphenyls, arsenic, thorium and uranium in natural and anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium used in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Avelar, A C; Ferreira, W M; Pemberthy, D; Abad, E; Amaral, M A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of dioxins, furans and biphenyls, and the inorganic contaminants such as arsenic (As), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in three main products used in Agriculture in Brazil: feed grade dicalcium phosphate, calcined bovine bone meal and calcitic limestone. The first two are anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium, while calcitic limestone is a natural unprocessed mineral. Regarding to dioxin-like substances, all samples analyzed exhibited dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) concentrations below limit of detection (LOD). In general, achieved is in accordance with regulation in Brazil where is established a maximum limit in limestone used in the citric pulp production (0.50pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). In addition, reported data revealed very low levels for limestone in comparison with similar materials reported by European legislation. As result for toxic metals, achieved data were obtained using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). On one hand, limestone sample exhibits the largest arsenic concentration. On another hand, dicalcium phosphate exhibited the largest uranium concentration, which represents a standard in animal nutrition. Therefore, it is phosphorus source in the animal feed industry can be a goal of concern in the feed field. PMID:26901743

  15. Sources and sinks of nitrogen and phosphorus to a deep, oligotrophic lake, Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, P.W.; Cox, S.E.; Embrey, S.S.; Huffman, R.L.; Olsen, T.D.; Fradkin, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Crescent, in Olympic National Park in the northwest corner of Washington State is a deep-water lake renowned for its pristine water quality and oligotrophic nature. To examine the major sources and sinks of nutrients (as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved nitrate), a study was conducted in the Lake Crescent watershed. The study involved measuring five major inflow streams, the Lyre River as the major outflow, recording weather and climatic data, coring lake bed sediment, and analyzing nutrient chemistry in several relevant media over 14 months. Water samples for total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and dissolved nitrate from the five inflow streams, the outlet Lyre River, and two stations in the lake were collected monthly from May 2006 through May 2007. Periodic samples of shallow water from temporary sampling wells were collected at numerous locations around the lake. Concentrations of nutrients detected in Lake Crescent and tributaries were then applied to the water budget estimates to arrive at monthly and annual loads from various environmental components within the watershed. Other sources, such as leaf litter, pollen, or automobile exhaust were estimated from annual values obtained from various literature sources. This information then was used to construct a nutrient budget for total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The nitrogen budget generally highlights vehicle traffic-diesel trucks in particular-along U.S. Highway 101 as a potential major anthropogenic source of nitrogen compounds in the lake. In contrast, contribution of nitrogen compounds from onsite septic systems appears to be relatively minor related to the other sources identified.

  16. Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo . E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

  17. Placenta--an alternative source of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications. PMID:15990135

  18. Eutrophication Study at the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir System, Northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China: Chlorophyll-a Model and Sources of Phosphorus and Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, J.; Lin, C.; Luo, Y.; Kang, J.; Wang, S.; Brown, L.; Munn, M.

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations, loads, and sources of nitrate and total phosphorus were investigated at the Panjiakou and Daheiting Reservoir system in northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The Luan He River is the primary source of water to these reservoirs, and the upstream watershed has a mix of land uses including agriculture, forest, with one large urban center. The reservoirs have a primary use for storage of drinking water and partially supply Tianjin City with its annual needs. Secondary uses include flood control and aqua culture (fish cages). The response of the reservoir system from phosphorus input, with respect to chlorophyll-a production from algae, was fitted to a model of normalized phosphorus loading that regresses the average summer-time chlorophyll-a concentration to the average annual phosphorus concentration of the reservoir. Comparison of the normalized phosphorus loading and chlorophyll-a response of this system to other reservoirs throughout the world indicate a level of eutrophication that will require up to an approximate 10-fold decrease in annual phosphorus load to bring the system to a more acceptable level of algal productivity. Isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate were measured from the headwater streams and at various locations along the major rivers that provide the majority of water to these reservoirs. Those isotopic measurements indicate that the sources of nitrate change from natural background in the rivers to animal manure and septic waste upstream of the reservoir. Although the isotopic measurements suggest that animal and septic wastes are a primary source of nutrients, measurements of the molar ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus are more indicative of row-cropping practices. Options for reduction of nutrient loads include changing the management practices of the aqua culture, installation of new sewage treatment systems, especially in the one major urbanized area of the upper watershed, and agricultural

  19. Eutrophication study at the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China: Chlorophyll-a model and sources of phosphorus and nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, J.; Lin, C.; Luo, Y.; Kang, Jie; Wang, Shaoming; Brown, L.R.; Munn, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations, loads, and sources of nitrate and total phosphorus were investigated at the Panjiakou and Daheiting Reservoir system in northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The Luan He River is the primary source of water to these reservoirs, and the upstream watershed has a mix of land uses including agriculture, forest, and one large urban center. The reservoirs have a primary use for storage of drinking water and partially supply Tianjin City with its annual needs. Secondary uses include flood control and aqua culture (fish cages). The response of the reservoir system from phosphorus input, with respect to chlorophyll-a production from algae, was fitted to a model of normalized phosphorus loading that regresses the average summer-time chlorophyll-a concentration to the average annual phosphorus concentration of the reservoir. Comparison of the normalized phosphorus loading and chlorophyll-a response of this system to other reservoirs throughout the world indicate a level of eutrophication that will require up to an approximate 5-10-fold decrease in annual phosphorus load to bring the system to a more acceptable level of algal productivity. Isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate were measured from the headwater streams and at various locations along the major rivers that provide the majority of water to these reservoirs. Those isotopic measurements indicate that the sources of nitrate change from natural background in the rivers to animal manure and septic waste upstream of the reservoir. Although the isotopic measurements suggest that animal and septic wastes are a primary source of nutrients, measurements of the molar ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus are more indicative of row-cropping practices. Options for reduction of nutrient loads include changing the management practices of the aqua culture, installation of new sewage treatment systems in the large urbanized area of the upper watershed, and agricultural management practices

  20. Alternative sources of gametes: reality or science fiction?

    PubMed

    Tsai, M C; Takeuchi, T; Bedford, J M; Reis, M M; Rosenwaks, Z; Palermo, G D

    2000-05-01

    Although great progress has been made in both the investigation and treatment of infertility, a considerable number of patients still fail to conceive. Spermatogenic failure and/or oocyte ageing appear to be responsible for a large proportion of cases. The use of donor gametes may bring legal, ethical and even social problems of acceptance that can discourage infertile couples from the donor route. Fortunately, emerging reproductive technologies and preliminary results from animal experiments provide some hope for alternative sources of gametes through which these infertile patients can finally conceive their own genetic child. In conjunction with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), fertilization of human oocytes with immature sperm precursors, e.g. spermatids and even secondary spermatocytes, has resulted in healthy babies. Pregnancies have also resulted from the use of spermatids derived from in-vitro spermatogenesis. In the mouse, even primary spermatocytes appear able to participate in normal embryogenesis. In view of the possibility for transplantation and even xenotransplantation of spermatogonia to a host testis in animals, a similar use of human male stem cells might provide an attractive source for the treatment of males with arrested spermatogenesis, as well as male cancer patients. Transplantation of somatic cell nuclei and their haploidization within oocytes may prove to be a practical way of eradicating age-related aneuploidy and so constitute an innovative source of healthy oocytes. Most importantly, however, the safety of the procedures described here needs to be proven before their application to the human arena. Finally, we discuss the implications of cytoplasmic quality and of genetic imprinting in the context of these manipulations. PMID:10783340

  1. Utilization of DNA as a Sole Source of Phosphorus, Carbon, and Energy by Shewanella spp.: Ecological and Physiological Implications for Dissimilatory Metal Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Ammons, Christine G.; Culley, David E.; Li, Shu-Mei; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Romine, Margaret F.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2008-02-15

    As a constituent of dissolved organic matter, DNA may be consumed by microorganisms inhabiting various freshwater and marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that dissolved extracellular DNA can serve as a sole source of carbon, energy, nitrogen, and phosphorus for microorganisms residing in the upper layer of Columbia River (WA, USA) water column as well as a sole source of phosphorus for the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobacter sulfurreducens and for Bacillus subtilis ATCC 49760. Our results suggest that DNA assimilation by S. oneidensis is linked to the activity of Ca2+-dependent nuclease(s) and extracellular phosphatase(s). The ability to use DNA as the sole source of phosphorus may be of particular ecological advantage for microorganisms living under Fe(III)-reducing conditions where bioavailability of inorganic phosphate may be limited by the formation of vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2•8H20].

  2. Can alternative sugar sources buffer pollinators from nectar shortages?

    PubMed

    Gardner-Gee, Robin; Dhami, Manpreet K; Paulin, Katherine J; Beggs, Jacqueline R

    2014-12-01

    Honeydew is abundant in many ecosystems and may provide an alternative food source (a buffer) for pollinators during periods of food shortage, but the impact of honeydew on pollination systems has received little attention to date. In New Zealand, kānuka trees (Myrtaceae: Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich) Joy Thompson) are often heavily infested by the endemic honeydew-producing scale insect Coelostomidia wairoensis (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coelostomidiidae) and the period of high honeydew production can overlap with kānuka flowering. In this study, we quantified the sugar resources (honeydew and nectar) available on kānuka and recorded nocturnal insect activity on infested and uninfested kānuka during the flowering period. Insects were abundant on infested trees, but flowers on infested trees received fewer insect visitors than flowers on uninfested trees. There was little evidence that insects had switched directly from nectar-feeding to honeydew-feeding, but it is possible that some omnivores (e.g., cockroaches) were distracted by the other honeydew-associated resources on infested branches (e.g., sooty molds, prey). Additional sampling was carried out after kānuka flowering had finished to determine honeydew usage in the absence of adjacent nectar resources. Moths, which had fed almost exclusively on nectar earlier, were recorded feeding extensively on honeydew after flowering had ceased; hence, honeydew may provide an additional food source for potential pollinators. Our results show that honeydew resources can impact floral visitation patterns and suggest that future pollinator studies should consider the full range of sugar resources present in the study environment. PMID:25368982

  3. Evaluating spatial interaction of soil property with non-point source pollution at watershed scale: the phosphorus indicator in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Haobo; Hao, Fanghua; Shan, Yushu; Guo, Bobo

    2012-08-15

    To better understand the spatial dynamics of non-point source (NPS) phosphorus loading with soil property at watershed scale, integrated modeling and soil chemistry is crucial to ensure that the indicator is functioning properly and expressing the spatial interaction at two depths. Developments in distributed modeling have greatly enriched the availability of geospatial data analysis and assess the NPS pollution loading response to soil property over larger area. The 1.5 km-grid soil sampling at two depths was analyzed with eight parameters, which provided detailed spatial and vertical soil data under four main types of landuses. The impacts of landuse conversion and agricultural practice on soil property were firstly identified. Except for the slightly bigger total of potassium (TK) and cadmium (Cr), the other six parameters had larger content in 20-40 cm surface than the top 20 cm surface. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was employed to simulate the loading of NPS phosphorus. Overlaying with the landuse distribution, it was found that the NPS phosphorus mainly comes from the subbasins dominated with upland and paddy rice. The linear correlations of eight soil parameters at two depths with NPS phosphorus loading in the subbasins of upland and paddy rice were compared, respectively. The correlations of available phosphorus (AP), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and TK varied in two depths, and also can assess the loading. The soil with lower soil organic carbon (SOC) presented a significant higher risk for NPS phosphorus loading, especially in agricultural area. The Principal Component Analysis showed that the TP and zinc (Zn) in top soil and copper (Cu) and Cr in subsurface can work as indicators. The analysis suggested that the application of soil property indicators is useful for assessing NPS phosphorus loss, which is promising for water safety in agricultural area. PMID:22771816

  4. Don't forget alternate energy sources: biomass, geothermal, wind

    SciTech Connect

    Miskell, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The United States is probably the most fortunate country in the world in terms of potential energy resources, and that is part of the problem in developing alternate sources. Which ones should be given preference, and which ones will give the quickest, most economic return on investment. The exploration of converting potential plant life to energy is already underway. One such plant is the milkweed. The milky latex substance of the weed contains 30% hydrocarbon and 70% water. About 7% to 10% of the plant weight is extractable crude oil. The unused plant residue can be processed to produce alcohol. In Utah, a milkweed project yielded 2.5 pounds of oil from 35 lbs. of milkweed. The California Commission is looking into the possibility of using two million tons of rice straw, now left in the fields to be burned. The basic thrust of geothermal activity is still the dry steam plants in the Geyser field in California, but the movement to develop more prevalent hot water persists. Binary production and the use of moderate hot water are gaining in acceptance. The government's goal for wind for the year 2000 is 2% of total energy usage. Both utility and consumer participation will be required to meet that goal. Utilities will have to install 20,000 to 30,000 large-scale machines and nearly 1 million would have to be installed by consumers for homes and farms. Movement is already underway.

  5. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: technical section

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Eighteen different alternative fuels were considered in the preliminary screening, from three basic resource bases. Coal can be used to provide 13 of the fuels; oil shale was the source for three of the fuels; and biomass provided the resource base for two fuels not provided from coal. In the case of biomass, six different fuels were considered. Nuclear power and direct solar radiation were also considered. The eight prime movers that were considered in the preliminary screening are boiler/steam turbine; open and closed cycle gas turbines; low and medium speed diesels; spark ignited and stratified charge Otto cycles; electric motor; Stirling engine; free piston; and fuel cell/electric motor. Modes of transport considered are pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft. Section 2 gives the overall summary and conclusions, the future outlook for each mode of transportation, and the R and D suggestions by mode of transportation. Section 3 covers the preliminary screening phase and includes a summary of the data base used. Section 4 presents the methodology used to select the fuels and prime movers for the detailed study. Sections 5 through 8 cover the detailed evaluation of the pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft modes of transportation. Section 9 covers the demand related issues.

  6. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  7. [Optimization Study on the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal of Modified Two- sludge System Under the Condition of Low Carbon Source].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-qiang; Wang, Dong-bo; Li, Xiao-ming; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiu-xiang; Zhang, Zhi-bei; Li, Zhi-jun; Xiang, Hai-hong; Wang, Ya-li; Sun, Jian

    2016-04-15

    This paper explored the method of resolving insufficient carbon source in urban sewage by comparing and analyzing denitrification and phosphorus removal (NPR) effect between modified two-sludge system and traditional anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic process under the condition of low carbon source wastewater. The modified two-sludge system was the experimental reactor, which was optimized by adding two stages of micro-aeration (aeration rate 0.5 L · mm⁻¹) in the anoxic period of the original two-sludge system, and multi-stage anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic SBR was the control reactor. When the influent COD, ammonia nitrogen, SOP concentration were respectively 200, 35, 10 mg · L⁻¹, the NPR effect of the experimental reactor was hetter than that of thecontrol reactor with the removal efficiency of TN being 94.8% vs 60.9%, and TP removal being 96.5% vs 75%, respectively. The effluent SOP, ammonia, TN concentration of the experimental reactor were 0.35, 0.50, 1.82 mg · L⁻¹, respectively, which could fully meet the first class of A standard of the Pollutants Emission Standard of Urban Wastewater Treatment Firm (GB 18918-2002). Using the optimized treatment process, the largest amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus removal per unit carbon source (as COD) were 0.17 g · g⁻¹ and 0.048 g · g⁻¹ respectively, which could furthest solve the lower carbon concentration in current municipal wastewater. PMID:27548974

  8. Assessing the Risk of Phosphorus Loss and Identifying Critical Source Areas in the Chaohu Lake Watershed, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiping; Gao, Chao

    2011-11-01

    Agricultural nonpoint phosphorus (P) pollution is a primary cause of eutrophication in many freshwater systems. Identifying areas that are at high risk for P loss in a watershed and concentrating management efforts on these smaller sections is a more effective method for limiting P loss than implementing general strategies over a broad area. A modified P index scheme was used to assess the risk of P loss and identify critical source areas in the Chaohu Lake watershed on a regional scale. In the new P ranking scheme, soil P sorption index (PSI) and degree of P saturation (DPS) were introduced as source factors to represent the inherent ability of P transport in the soil-water interface. Distance from P sources to Chaohu Lake was also considered as a transport factor to take into account P degradation from source to the final receiving water. The ranking scheme was modified to use available data on the regional scale. P index calculation results showed high spatial variation of P loss risk in the Chaohu Lake watershed. The highest risk areas focused on the downstream parts of the main rivers that discharge into Chaohu Lake. The induction of new components into the P index calculation makes it possible to identify critical source areas of nonpoint P loss on a regional scale, thus allowing decision makers to implement best management practices (BMPs) in such a manner as to minimize P loss to sensitive watercourses.

  9. Interaction between phosphorus removal and hybrid granular sludge formation under low hydraulic selection pressure at alternating anaerobic/aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lang, Longqi; Wan, Junfeng; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jie; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The hybrid granular sludge (HGS) formation and its performances on phosphorus removal were investigated in a sequencing batch airlift reactor. Under conditions of low superficial air velocity (SAV = 0.68 cm s(-1)) and relatively long settling time (15-30 min), aerobic granules appeared and coexisted with bio-flocs after 120 days operation. At the stable phase, 54% of total suspended solid (m/m) was granular sludge with the two typical sizes (D(mean) = 1.77 ± 0.33 and 0.89 ± 0.11 mm) in the reactor, where the settling velocity was 98.7 ± 12.4 and 37.8 ± 0.9 m h(-1) for the big and small granules. With progressive extension of anaerobic time from 15 to 60 min before aerobic condition per cycle during the whole experiment, the HGS system can be maintained at a high total phosphorus removal efficiency (ca. 99%) since Day-270. The phosphorus content (wt %) in biomass was respectively 9.54 ± 0.29, 7.60 ± 0.48 and 6.15 ± 0.59 for the big granules, small granules and flocs. PMID:25921951

  10. Phosphate Starvation-Inducible Gene ushA Encodes a 5′ Nucleotidase Required for Growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on Media with Nucleotides as the Phosphorus Source

    PubMed Central

    Rittmann, Doris; Sorger-Herrmann, Ulrike; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential component of macromolecules, like DNA, and central metabolic intermediates, such as sugar phosphates, and bacteria possess enzymes and control mechanisms that provide an optimal supply of phosphorus from the environment. UDP-sugar hydrolases and 5′ nucleotidases may play roles in signal transduction, as they do in mammals, in nucleotide salvage, as demonstrated for UshA of Escherichia coli, or in phosphorus metabolism. The Corynebacterium glutamicum gene ushA was found to encode a secreted enzyme which is active as a 5′ nucleotidase and a UDP-sugar hydrolase. This enzyme was synthesized and secreted into the medium when C. glutamicum was starved for inorganic phosphate. UshA was required for growth of C. glutamicum on AMP and UDP-glucose as sole sources of phosphorus. Thus, in contrast to UshA from E. coli, C. glutamicum UshA is an important component of the phosphate starvation response of this species and is necessary to access nucleotides and related compounds as sources of phosphorus. PMID:16085822

  11. Sewage sludge ash--A promising secondary phosphorus source for fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Herzel, Hannes; Krüger, Oliver; Hermann, Ludwig; Adam, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Sewage sludge incineration is extensively practiced in some European countries such as the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. A survey of German sewage sludge ash showed that the recovery potential is high, approx. 19,000 t of phosphorus per year. However, the survey also discovered that the bioavailability of phosphorus in the sewage sludge ash is poor and that more than half of the ashes cannot be used as fertilizers due to high heavy metal content. A new thermochemical process for sewage sludge ash treatment was developed that transforms the ash into marketable fertilizer products. Sewage sludge ash was thermochemically treated with sodium and potassium additives under reducing conditions, whereby the phosphate-bearing mineral phases were transformed into plant available phosphates. High P-bioavailability was achieved with a molar Na/P ratio >1.75 in the starting materials. Sodium sulfate, carbonate and hydroxide performed comparably as additives for this calcination process. Potassium carbonate and -hydroxide have to be added in a molar K/P ratio >2.5 to achieve comparable P-solubility. The findings of the laboratory scale investigations were confirmed by an industrial demonstration trial for an ash treatment with sodium sulfate. Simultaneously, the volatile transition metal arsenic (61% removal) as well as volatile heavy metals such as cadmium (80%), mercury (68%), lead (39%) and zinc (9%) were removed via the off-gas treatment system. The product of the demonstration trial is characterized by high bioavailability and a toxic trace element mass fraction below the limit values of the German fertilizer ordinance, thus fulfilling the quality parameters for a P-fertilizer. PMID:26321235

  12. Controlled synthesis of uniform cobalt phosphide hyperbranched nanocrystals using tri-n-octylphosphine oxide as a phosphorus source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Hovden, Robert; Kourkoutis, Lena Fitting; Robinson, Richard D

    2011-01-12

    A new method to produce hyperbranched Co(2)P nanocrystals that are uniform in size, shape, and symmetry was developed. In this reaction tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) was used as both a solvent and a phosphorus source. The reaction exhibits a novel monomer-saturation-dependent tunability between Co metal nanoparticle (NP) and Co(2)P NP products. The morphology of Co(2)P can be controlled from sheaflike structures to hexagonal symmetric structures by varying the concentration of the surfactant. This unique product differs significantly from other reported hyperbranched nanocrystals in that the highly anisotropic shapes can be stabilized as the majority shape (>84%). This is the first known use of TOPO as a reagent as well as a coordinating background solvent in NP synthesis. PMID:21141992

  13. Trends of nitrogen and phosphorus input into Lake Neusiedl from wastewater treatment plants and non-point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinner, Paul; Heiss, Gerhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    nitrogen load amounted to 304 tons in 2010, compared to 47 tons in 2001. In the period 1992-2010 the nitrogen load caused by diffuse sources was 4.3 times higher than the point source nitrogen load (2 wastewater treatment plants). The proportion of total discharge, of inorganic nitrogen load and of phosphorus load caused by the two wastewater treatment plants depended on the discharge rate of the river Wulka (monitoring station Schützen). In 2001 (low precipitation year: 578 mm annual sum) point sources contributed about 47% of the discharge, 51% of the nitrogen load and 65% of the phosphorus load of the river Wulka. In 2010 (high precipitation year: 945 mm annual sum) point sources contributed 25% of the discharge, 11% of the nitrogen load and 31% of the total phosphorus load. In the period 1992 to 2010 the inorganic nitrogen load caused by surface water (Wulka, WWTP, creeks and channels) varied from 65 t/a to 675 t/a (mean:233 t/a).

  14. Controlled Synthesis of Uniform Cobalt Phosphide Hyperbranched Nanocrystals Using Tri-n-octylphosphine Oxide as a Phosphorus Source

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Hovden, Robert; Fitting Kourkoutis, Lena; Robinson, Richard D.

    2011-01-12

    A new method to produce hyperbranched Co{sub 2}P nanocrystals that are uniform in size, shape, and symmetry was developed. In this reaction tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) was used as both a solvent and a phosphorus source. The reaction exhibits a novel monomer-saturation-dependent tunability between Co metal nanoparticle (NP) and Co{sub 2}P NP products. The morphology of Co{sub 2}P can be controlled from sheaflike structures to hexagonal symmetric structures by varying the concentration of the surfactant. This unique product differs significantly from other reported hyperbranched nanocrystals in that the highly anisotropic shapes can be stabilized as the majority shape (>84%). This is the first known use of TOPO as a reagent as well as a coordinating background solvent in NP synthesis.

  15. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  16. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  17. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  18. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  19. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  20. Differential effect of coal combustion products on the bioavailability of phosphorus between inorganic and organic nutrient sources.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Balaji; Bolan, Nanthi; Choppala, Girish; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-10-15

    In farming systems, all the applied phosphorus (P) is not available to plants because they are either adsorbed in soil or lost to the environment through leaching or runoff. The effect of coal combustion products (CCPs) for enhancing the bioavailability of applied phosphorus (P) in soil was examined separately for inorganic (KH2PO4 - PP) and organic (poultry manure - PM) P treatments, where fluidised bed combustion (FBC) ash emerged as the most effective amendment. Greenhouse study was conducted by growing mustard plants on FBC amended soils under leaching and non-leaching setups. The FBC increased the biomass yield for organic P treatments in the first crop and increased for both inorganic and organic P in the second cropping. The increase in cumulative yield was highest in leached PP and unleached PM treatments. Field experiment assessed the effectiveness of FBC on inorganic (single super phosphate - SSP) and organic P (biosolids - BS) uptake by mustard and sunflower plants. In the first cropping, the yield was higher in crops treated with SSP alone. In the second crop, yields were higher in the presence than absence of FBC, as reflected by the high relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) exhibited by BS+FBC (462%) combination. Overall, FBC used in these experiments enhanced bioavailability of P in soil through adsorption and mineralisation of inorganic and organic P, respectively as evident from phosphatase activity and Olsen P relationship. Hence the differential effect of CCPs has not only decreased the loss of applied P (from inorganic and organic sources) to the environment, but also enhanced the P bioavailability in the soil. Among the three CCPs used in the preliminary experiments, FBC proved to perform better than the other two and hence can be recommended for agricultural and environmental applications targeting P issues. PMID:23755844

  1. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  2. Valorisation of ferric sewage sludge ashes: Potential as a phosphorus source.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazaré; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Mateus, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2016-06-01

    Sewage sludge ashes (SSA), although a waste, contain elements with socio-economic and environmental potential that can be recovered. This is the case of phosphorus (P). SSA from two Danish incinerators were collected during two years and characterized. The sampling was done immediately after incineration (fresh SSA) or from an outdoor deposit (deposited SSA). Although morphology and mineral composition were similar, physico-chemical and metal concentration differences were found between incinerator plants and sampling periods. No differences were observed between deposited and fresh SSA, except for the parameters directly influenced by disposal conditions (e.g. moisture content). All the SSAs had high concentrations of P (up to 16wt%), but they all exceeded Danish EPA Cd and Ni thresholds for direct application at agricultural soil. Fresh and deposited SSA were acid washed aiming P extraction, achieving 50gP/kg (approx. 37% of total P), but metals were also co-extracted to the liquid phase. To avoid and/or minimize the metals pollution of the extracted P, selective P recovery from the SSA was tested, using the electrodialytic (ED) process. ED laboratory cells, with 3 compartments (3c) and 2 compartments (2c), and two acid concentrations (H2SO4, 0.08M and 0.19M) were used for 7days. The most concentrated acid solution increased P solubilization. The 2c-cell combined with the higher acid concentration resulted in higher P recoveries, 125g of P/kg of SSA in the anolyte. The obtained results showed that the ED process is a valuable tool for the SSA valorisation as it promotes simultaneous P recovery and metals extraction from the SSA. PMID:27033993

  3. Investigation into cyclic utilization of carbon source in an advanced sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal (SIPER) wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Ji, Fang-Ying; Wang, Jing; Chen, You-Peng; Shen, Yu; Fang, Fang; Guo, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    An advanced wastewater treatment process (SIPER) was developed to simultaneously reduce sludge production, prevent the accumulation of inorganic solids, recover phosphorus, and enhance nutrient removal. The ability to recover organic substance from excess sludge to enhance nutrient removal (especially nitrogen) and its performance as a C-source were evaluated in this study. The chemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (COD/TN) and volatile fatty acids/total phosphorus (VFA/TP) ratios for the supernatant of the alkaline-treated sludge were 3.1 times and 2.7 times those of the influent, respectively. The biodegradability of the supernatant was much better than that of the influent. The system COD was increased by 91 mg/L, and nitrogen removal was improved by 19.6% (the removal rate for TN reached 80.4%) after the return of the alkaline-treated sludge as an internal C-source. The C-source recovered from the excess sludge was successfully used to enhance nitrogen removal. The internal C-source contributed 24.1% of the total C-source, and the cyclic utilization of the system C-source was achieved by recirculation of alkaline-treated sludge in the sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery (SIPER) process. PMID:26524455

  4. Relationship Between Hydrologic Connectivity of Phosphorus Source Areas to Lakes and the Occurrence of Cyanobacteria in Forested Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorichetti, R. J.; Creed, I. F.; Trick, C. G.

    2009-05-01

    In unmanaged lakes, where there are no obvious point sources of phosphorus (P) loading, little is known about controls on formation of cyanobacteria blooms. This study contributes to our understanding of P controls on cyanobacteria blooms by building a landscape perspective of P sources and transport to lakes and relating this to cyanobacteria occurrence in lakes. Wetlands are P stores and may influence P loading to lakes. We hypothesize that landscapes with a large proportion of wetlands that are hydrologically connected to lakes via surface flow pathways will have a higher probability of cyanobacteria bloom formation compared to landscapes with little to no hydrologically connected wetlands. We test this hypothesis in natural forested landscapes in the Algoma Highlands of Central Ontario characterized by glaciated lakes in the Canadian Shield. We quantified the proportion of wetlands and their hydrologic connectivity via surface flow pathways to a lake and relate this to estimates of the origin and concentration of P within the lake, and in turn the structure and function of the microbial community in the euphotic zone of the lake. The microbial community was characterized using emerging techniques in flow cytometry and FlowCAM imagery. This study paves the way for improving our ability to predict where cyanobacteria blooms are likely to occur, particularly with altered hydrologic flow regimes as a result of climate change.

  5. Source identification and health risk assessment of metals in indoor dust in the vicinity of phosphorus mining, Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Chen, Huaguo; Li, Baizhan

    2015-01-01

    An investigation was performed to identify the sources of arsenic (As) and heavy metals in house dust and to assess the associated human health risks in the vicinity of phosphorus (P) mining in Guizhou, China. The concentrations and spatial distributions of mercury (Hg), As, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and P in 23 house dust samples from the study area were determined. Greater concentrations of As and Pb were found compared with values in other investigations in various countries. Pollution sources were identified using multivariate statistical analysis. As, Pb, Mn, and Hg pollution was mainly attributed to mining activities, and Mn and Cd levels were largely associated with automobile emissions. The dominant wind direction and the distance of the residence from the mining region were found to play an important role in element distributions. A health risk assessment showed that As and Pb should be paid more attention, although the noncancer risks of the studied elements were within the safe range and the cancer risks of As and Cd are within the acceptable range under present conditions. PMID:25038721

  6. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  7. Sources, fate, and transport of nitrogen and phosphorus in the Chesapeake Bay watershed-An empirical model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Brakebill, John W.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient fate and transport through the Chesapeake Bay watershed to the bay reflect the diferent physical and chemical properties of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Groundwater is an important pathway for nitrogen transport (as nitrate), and TN flux is greatest in areas with greater groundwater flow and in areas of the Piedmont underlain by carbonate rocks. TN flux decreases with increasing vegetative growth (likely indicative of plant uptake) and soil available water capacity (likely indicative of reducing conditions). Phosphorus transport to streams, conversely, is greatest in areas most likely to generate overland runoff and related erosion, including those with less permeable and more erodible soils and greater precipitation. Phosphorus transport also is greater in the Coastal Plain than in other areas, possibly due to saturation of soils with historical phosphorus applications. Both nitrogen and phosphorus are lost within watershed impoundments (lakes, ponds, or reservoirs), and nitrogen is also lost significantly along flowing reaches, particularly in small streams and in larger streams in warmer areas.

  8. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as applicable, and any other information that may be pertinent, in the supporting documentation. ...) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract...

  9. Recruiting Source Effects: A Test of Two Alternative Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breaugh, James A.; Mann, Rebecca B.

    The source of employee recruitment has been related to numerous important work outcomes (e.g., turnover, performance), but reasons for this relationship are not known. To test the viability of two possible explanations for recruiting source effects, i.e., employee level of realistic expectation, or individual differences, information was gathered…

  10. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  11. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin

    2004-01-21

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist. PMID:15083674

  12. Alternative N sources for corn and cotton in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of high fertilizer N prices, growers are interested in using less expensive sources of N and using fertilizer additives to reduce ammonia volatilization losses from urea sources. An experiment on a Lucedale fine sandy loam in Central Alabama (Prattville Research Unit) was conducted in 2007 ...

  13. Examining Alternatives to Wavelet Denoising for Astronomical Source Finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurek, R.; Brown, S.

    2012-08-01

    The Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders ASKAP and MeerKAT will produce prodigious amounts of data that necessitate automated source finding. The performance of automated source finders can be improved by pre-processing a dataset. In preparation for the WALLABY and DINGO surveys, we have used a test HI datacube constructed from actual Westerbork Telescope noise and WHISP HI galaxies to test the real world improvement of linear smoothing, the Duchamp source finder's wavelet denoising, iterative median smoothing and mathematical morphology subtraction, on intensity threshold source finding of spectral line datasets. To compare these pre-processing methods we have generated completeness-reliability performance curves for each method and a range of input parameters. We find that iterative median smoothing produces the best source finding results for ASKAP HI spectral line observations, but wavelet denoising is a safer pre-processing technique. In this paper we also present our implementations of iterative median smoothing and mathematical morphology subtraction.

  14. A critical source area phosphorus index with topographic transport factors using high resolution LiDAR digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Ian; Murphy, Paul; Fenton, Owen; Shine, Oliver; Mellander, Per-Erik; Dunlop, Paul; Jordan, Phil

    2015-04-01

    A new phosphorus index (PI) tool is presented which aims to improve the identification of critical source areas (CSAs) of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land to surface waters. In a novel approach, the PI incorporates topographic indices rather than watercourse proximity as proxies for runoff risk, to account for the dominant control of topography on runoff-generating areas and P transport pathways. Runoff propensity and hydrological connectivity are modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and Network Index (NI) respectively, utilising high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to capture the influence of micro-topographic features on runoff pathways. Additionally, the PI attempts to improve risk estimates of particulate P losses by incorporating an erosion factor that accounts for fine-scale topographic variability within fields. Erosion risk is modelled using the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition (USPED) model, which integrates DEM-derived upslope contributing area and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) factors. The PI was developed using field, sub-field and sub-catchment scale datasets of P source, mobilisation and transport factors, for four intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland representing different agri-environmental conditions. Datasets included soil test P concentrations, degree of P saturation, soil attributes, land use, artificial subsurface drainage locations, and 2 m resolution LiDAR DEMs resampled from 0.25 m resolution data. All factor datasets were integrated within a Geographical Information System (GIS) and rasterised to 2 m resolution. For each factor, values were categorised and assigned relative risk scores which ranked P loss potential. Total risk scores were calculated for each grid cell using a component formulation, which summed the products of weighted factor risk scores for runoff and erosion pathways. Results showed that the new PI was able to predict

  15. Greenhouse evaluation of struvite and sludges from municipal wastewater treatment works as phosphorus sources for plants.

    PubMed

    Plaza, César; Sanz, Rafael; Clemente, Cristina; Fernández, José M; González, Ricardo; Polo, Alfredo; Colmenarejo, Manuel F

    2007-10-01

    Sewage sludge obtained by a conventional aerobic activated sludge process (CSS), P-rich sewage sludge from an enhanced biological P removal process (PRS), and struvite (MgNH 4PO 4 x 6H 2O) recovered from an anaerobic digester supernatant using a low-grade MgO byproduct from the calcination of natural magnesite as a Mg source (STR) were evaluated as P sources for plant growth. For this purpose, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted using a P-deficient loamy sand soil and perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) as the test crop. The P sources were applied at rates equivalent to 0, 9, 17, 26, 34, and 44 mg/kg P. Single superphosphate (SUP) was used as reference for comparison with the other P sources. The results obtained indicated that STR was as effective as SUP in increasing the dry matter yield and supplying P to ryegrass. Compared to SUP and STR, PRS and especially CSS exhibited less agronomic effectiveness as P sources, which may be attributed, at least partially, to greater soil P fixation because of the larger amount of Fe incorporated with these materials. PMID:17877411

  16. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. In the near term (present-1985), there is unlikely to be any major change in the fuels used in any of the four modes of transportation except that the average quality of the marine fuel is likely to get worse. In the mid-term period (1985-2000), there will be a transition to non-petroleum fuels, based primarily on shale oil derived liquids assuming a shale oil industry is started during this time.

  17. Phosphorus Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Phosphorus Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... else I should know? How is it used? Phosphorus tests are most often ordered along with other ...

  18. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

  19. Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R.; Richard, Jr., James

    2011-03-22

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The system may include an intermittent power source; a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source, and a tap controller coupled to the transformer. The transformer may be configured to transform power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters. The tap controller may be configured to monitor and control the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters from the transformer regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  20. Evaluating the critical source area concept of phosphorus loss from soils to water-bodies in agricultural catchments.

    PubMed

    Shore, M; Jordan, P; Mellander, P-E; Kelly-Quinn, M; Wall, D P; Murphy, P N C; Melland, A R

    2014-08-15

    Using data collected from six basins located across two hydrologically contrasting agricultural catchments, this study investigated whether transport metrics alone provide better estimates of storm phosphorus (P) loss from basins than critical source area (CSA) metrics which combine source factors as well. Concentrations and loads of P in quickflow (QF) were measured at basin outlets during four storm events and were compared with dynamic (QF magnitude) and static (extent of highly-connected, poorly-drained soils) transport metrics and a CSA metric (extent of highly-connected, poorly-drained soils with excess plant-available P). Pairwise comparisons between basins with similar CSA risks but contrasting QF magnitudes showed that QF flow-weighted mean TRP (total molybdate-reactive P) concentrations and loads were frequently (at least 11 of 14 comparisons) more than 40% higher in basins with the highest QF magnitudes. Furthermore, static transport metrics reliably discerned relative QF magnitudes between these basins. However, particulate P (PP) concentrations were often (6 of 14 comparisons) higher in basins with the lowest QF magnitudes, most likely due to soil-management activities (e.g. ploughing), in these predominantly arable basins at these times. Pairwise comparisons between basins with contrasting CSA risks and similar QF magnitudes showed that TRP and PP concentrations and loads did not reflect trends in CSA risk or QF magnitude. Static transport metrics did not discern relative QF magnitudes between these basins. In basins with contrasting transport risks, storm TRP concentrations and loads were well differentiated by dynamic or static transport metrics alone, regardless of differences in soil P. In basins with similar transport risks, dynamic transport metrics and P source information additional to soil P may be required to predict relative storm TRP concentrations and loads. Regardless of differences in transport risk, information on land use and

  1. Modeling phosphorus in the upper Etowah River basin: identifying sources under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Radcliffe, D E; Beck, M B; Risse, L M

    2007-01-01

    The Uniform Covering by Probabilistic Rejection (UCPR) algorithm was used, in conjunction with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, to identify P loads from point source and nonpoint source polluters in the upper Etowah River basin (UERB) in Georgia. The key findings of the research are as follows. The mean absolute error was preferred over the root mean square error as a search criterion for the UCPR algorithm when water quality observations are scarce. The undocumented P load from point sources in the UERB was consistently estimated as about 43 kg/d by the proposed method; but the method was not able to identify the broiler litter application rate to the poultry/beef operation pastures. Point sources (both documented and undocumented), poultry/beef operation pastures, and forests are the three major contributors of P. During 1992-1996, on average they accounted for 36.4, 31.7, and 17.2% of P load from the UERB, respectively. PMID:17898441

  2. Managing acute phosphorus loss with fertilizer source and placement: Proof of concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface water eutrophication is a pervasive global problem, with P losses from agriculture often identified as a contributor. This study was conducted to evaluate the implications of fertilizer source and placement on potential soluble P (SP) runoff. National P Runoff Project protocols were used f...

  3. Spatial and temporal variations of loads and sources of total and dissolved Phosphorus in a set of rivers (Western France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Pierre-Louis; Moatar, Florentina; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-04-01

    In intensive agricultural regions with important livestock farming, long-term land application of Phosphorus (P) both as chemical fertilizer and animal wastes, have resulted in elevated P contents in soils. Since we know that high P concentrations in rivers is of major concern, few studies have been done at to assess the spatiotemporal variability of P loads in rivers and apportionment of point and nonpoint source in total loads. Here we focus on Brittany (Western France) where even though P is a great issue in terms of human and drinking water safety (cyano-toxins), environmental protection and economic costs for Brittany with regards to the periodic proliferations of cyanobacteria that occur every year in this region, no regional-scale systematic study has been carried out so far. We selected a set of small rivers (stream order 3-5) with homogeneous agriculture and granitic catchment. By gathering data from three water quality monitoring networks, covering more than 100 measurements stations, we provide a regional-scale quantification of the spatiotemporal variability of dissolved P (DP) and total P (TP) interannual loads from 1992 to 2012. Build on mean P load in low flows and statistical significance tests, we developed a new indicator, called 'low flow P load' (LFP-load), which allows us to determine the importance of domestic and industrial P sources in total P load and to assess their spatiotemporal variability compared to agricultural sources. The calculation and the map representation of DP and TP interannual load variations allow identification of the greatest and lowest P contributory catchments over the study period and the way P loads of Brittany rivers have evolved through time. Both mean DP and TP loads have been divided by more than two over the last 20 years. Mean LFDP-load decreased by more than 60% and mean LFTP-load by more than 45% on average over the same period showing that this marked temporal decrease in total load is largely due to the

  4. Effect of fiber and phytate source and of calcium and phosphorus level on phytate hydrolysis in the chick.

    PubMed

    Ballam, G C; Nelson, T S; Kirby, L K

    1984-02-01

    Broiler chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet or a corn-soybean meal diet containing either 15% rice bran, 15% wheat bran, 15% alfalfa meal, 10% cellulose, or 10% cottonseed hulls. All diets contained 3190 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, 22.8% protein, and either 1.0% calcium and .5% nonphytate phosphorus (Pnp) or .85% calcium and .42% Pnp. The diets were fed for 3 weeks at which time a digestion trial was conducted to determine the amount of phytate hydrolyzed. Chicks consuming diets containing the lower levels of calcium and Pnp hydrolyzed more phytate than those fed the higher levels of calcium and Pnp except when the diet contained rice bran. Less phytate was hydrolyzed in the rice bran diet at the lower calcium and Pnp levels. Phytate hydrolysis was not affected by wheat bran but was reduced by cottonseed hulls. At the lower levels of calcium and Pnp, alfalfa meal and cellulose significantly increased phytate hydrolysis by chicks. The hydrolysis of phytate was influenced more by calcium and by source than by fiber or by level of phytate fed. PMID:6324157

  5. Influencing factor analysis of phosphorus loads from non-point source: a case study in central China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yanhua; Hong, Song; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zhang, Liang

    2015-11-01

    The influence factor analysis for non-point source (NPS) pollution is very important to taking effective water pollution control measures. In this study, the self-organizing map (SOM) and linear model analysis were used to analyze the relationships between total phosphorus (TP) loads and influencing factors, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The land-use type, topography, and vegetation coverage were the main factors influencing the export of TP loads in Tangxun watershed. Slope and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were chosen as characteristic indices of topography and vegetation coverage, respectively. For the whole watershed, the high TP loads were mainly distributed in areas with high slope and low vegetation coverage for a specific land-use type. For different land types, the slope significantly influenced the export of TP loads in waste/bare land and forest/green land while NDVI influenced the export of TP loads in forest/green land and farmland. In terms of multi-factor analysis, the comprehensive influence of slope and NDVI on TP loads showed as waste/bare land>forest/green land>farmland>rural/urban construction land. PMID:26514801

  6. Direct Discharges of Domestic Wastewater are a Major Source of Phosphorus and Nitrogen to the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Powley, Helen R; Dürr, Hans H; Lima, Ana T; Krom, Michael D; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2016-08-16

    Direct discharges of treated and untreated wastewater are important sources of nutrients to coastal marine ecosystems and contribute to their eutrophication. Here, we estimate the spatially distributed annual inputs of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) associated with direct domestic wastewater discharges from coastal cities to the Mediterranean Sea (MS). According to our best estimates, in 2003 these inputs amounted to 0.9 × 10(9) mol P yr(-1) and 15 × 10(9) mol N yr(-1), that is, values on the same order of magnitude as riverine inputs of P and N to the MS. By 2050, in the absence of any mitigation, population growth plus higher per capita protein intake and increased connectivity to the sewer system are projected to increase P inputs to the MS via direct wastewater discharges by 254, 163, and 32% for South, East, and North Mediterranean countries, respectively. Complete conversion to tertiary wastewater treatment would reduce the 2050 inputs to below their 2003 levels, but at an estimated additional cost of over €2 billion yr(-1). Management of coastal eutrophication may be best achieved by targeting tertiary treatment upgrades to the most affected near-shore areas, while simultaneously implementing legislation limiting P in detergents and increasing wastewater reuse across the entire basin. PMID:27409146

  7. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...

  8. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...

  9. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...

  10. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...