Science.gov

Sample records for alternative test methods

  1. Alternative Test Methods for Electronic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    It is common practice within NASA to test electronic parts at the manufacturing lot level to demonstrate, statistically, that parts from the lot tested will not fail in service using generic application conditions. The test methods and the generic application conditions used have been developed over the years through cooperation between NASA, DoD, and industry in order to establish a common set of standard practices. These common practices, found in MIL-STD-883, MIL-STD-750, military part specifications, EEE-INST-002, and other guidelines are preferred because they are considered to be effective and repeatable and their results are usually straightforward to interpret. These practices can sometimes be unavailable to some NASA projects due to special application conditions that must be addressed, such as schedule constraints, cost constraints, logistical constraints, or advances in the technology that make the historical standards an inappropriate choice for establishing part performance and reliability. Alternate methods have begun to emerge and to be used by NASA programs to test parts individually or as part of a system, especially when standard lot tests cannot be applied. Four alternate screening methods will be discussed in this paper: Highly accelerated life test (HALT), forward voltage drop tests for evaluating wire-bond integrity, burn-in options during or after highly accelerated stress test (HAST), and board-level qualification.

  2. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  3. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) is developing a U.S. plan for the evaluation of alternative skin sensitization test methods and testing strategies. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) requests information that ICCVAM might use to develop this plan and......

  4. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories. PMID:26626125

  5. Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeonji; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential. PMID:26191378

  6. Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuri; Park, Hyeonji; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-06-01

    The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential. PMID:26191378

  7. An Alternative Method Of Specifying Shock Test Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.; Clayton, J.; Alldredge, D.; Irvine, T.

    2008-01-01

    Shock testing of aerospace vehicle hardware has presented many challenges over the years due to the high magnitude and short duration of the specifications. Recently, component structural failures have occurred during testing that have not manifested themselves on over 200 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) flights (two boosters per flight). It is suspected that the method of specifying shock test criteria may be leaving important information out of the test process. The traditional test criteria specification, the shock response spectrum, can be duplicated by any number of waveforms that may not resemble the actual flight test recorded time history. One method of overcoming this limitation is described herein, which may prove useful for qualifying hardware for the upcoming Constellation Program.

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods B Appendix... FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. B Appendix B to Part 178—Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods In addition to the method prescribed in § 178.604 of this subchapter, the following leakproofness test...

  9. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  10. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...-type volumetric field standards and associated test procedures) widely used by weights and measures officials and service companies to test commercial measuring devices as well as proposed alternatives...

  11. 78 FR 11174 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... alternative test methods are outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). We will continue to announce approvals... published at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt... AGENCY Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  12. 40 CFR 211.206-3-211.206-10 - Alternative test methods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alternative test methods. 211.206-3-211.206-10 Section 211.206-3-211.206-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-10 Alternative test methods....

  13. 40 CFR 211.206-3-211.206-10 - Alternative test methods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative test methods. 211.206-3-211.206-10 Section 211.206-3-211.206-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-10 Alternative test methods....

  14. 40 CFR 211.206-3-211.206-10 - Alternative test methods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative test methods. 211.206-3-211.206-10 Section 211.206-3-211.206-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-10 Alternative test methods....

  15. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): Promoting Alternative Methods in Europe and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public–private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives. PMID:25836968

  16. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives. PMID:25836968

  17. Evaluation Standards for the Assessment of Alternative Testing Methods: An Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, David; Shohamy, Elana

    1986-01-01

    This study tested the validity and applicability of the Standards for Evaluation of Education Programs, Projects and Materials (Joint Committee, 1981) by applying them to four alternative methods of testing oral proficiency in English as a Foreign Language. (BS)

  18. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  19. 76 FR 9777 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...This notice announces the broadly applicable alternative test method approval decisions that EPA has made under and in support of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) in...

  20. 77 FR 8865 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt.html... outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). We will continue to announce approvals for broadly applicable... AGENCY Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  1. 40 CFR 211.206-3-211.206-10 - Alternative test methods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative test methods. 211.206-3-211.206-10 Section 211.206-3-211.206-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices §§...

  2. 40 CFR 211.206-3-211.206-10 - Alternative test methods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative test methods. 211.206-3-211.206-10 Section 211.206-3-211.206-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices §§...

  3. 75 FR 7593 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt... alternative test methods are outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). EPA will continue to announce... Determination of Metal CFR part 63, subpart hydrochloric acid in Emissions from EEE, National the digestate...

  4. The Continuized Log-Linear Method: An Alternative to the Kernel Method of Continuization in Test Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    Von Davier, Holland, and Thayer (2004) laid out a five-step framework of test equating that can be applied to various data collection designs and equating methods. In the continuization step, they presented an adjusted Gaussian kernel method that preserves the first two moments. This article proposes an alternative continuization method that…

  5. Glossary of reference terms for alternative test methods and their validation.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Daniele; Brustio, Roberta; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This glossary was developed to provide technical references to support work in the field of the alternatives to animal testing. It was compiled from various existing reference documents coming from different sources and is meant to be a point of reference on alternatives to animal testing. Giving the ever-increasing number of alternative test methods and approaches being developed over the last decades, a combination, revision, and harmonization of earlier published collections of terms used in the validation of such methods is required. The need to update previous glossary efforts came from the acknowledgement that new words have emerged with the development of new approaches, while others have become obsolete, and the meaning of some terms has partially changed over time. With this glossary we intend to provide guidance on issues related to the validation of new or updated testing methods consistent with current approaches. Moreover, because of new developments and technologies, a glossary needs to be a living, constantly updated document. An Internet-based version based on this compilation may be found at http://altweb.jhsph.edu/, allowing the addition of new material. PMID:24819604

  6. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  7. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Testing the Bioefficacy of Household Ambient Insecticide Products Against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Rudi; Scremin, Mara; Contiero, Barbara; Drago, Andrea; Vettorato, Christian; Marcer, Federica; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane

    2016-06-01

    Ambient insecticides are receiving increasing attention in many developed countries because of their value in reducing mosquito nuisance. As required by the European Union Biocidal Products Regulation 528/2012, these devices require appropriate testing of their efficacy, which is based on estimating the knockdown and mortality rates of free-flying (free) mosquitoes in a test room. However, evaluations using free mosquitoes present many complexities. The performances of 6 alternative methods with mosquitoes held in 2 different cage designs (steel wire and gauze/plastic) with and without an operating fan for air circulation were monitored in a test room through a closed-circuit television system and were compared with the currently recommended method using free mosquitoes. Results for caged mosquitoes without a fan showed a clearly delayed knockdown effect, whereas outcomes for caged mosquitoes with a fan recorded higher mortality at 24 h, compared to free mosquitoes. Among the 6 methods, cages made of gauze and plastic operating with fan wind speed at 2.5-2.8 m/sec was the only method without a significant difference in results for free mosquitoes, and therefore appears as the best alternative to assess knockdown by ambient insecticides accurately. PMID:27280352

  8. Alternator insulation evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

  9. 75 FR 71155 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product: ``Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' AGENCY: Postal... Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' experimental product on January 2, 2011. The Postal...

  10. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ..., industry, and academia to review the current state of the science and validation status of methods and... Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), and its international partners identified rabies vaccines as one of the three highest priorities for future research, development, and validation of alternative...

  11. Analysis of partially penetrating slug tests in a stratified formation by alternating piezometer and tube methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yoshitaka; Imai, Toshikazu; Ikeda, Ryuji; Nishigaki, Makoto

    2015-09-01

    In partially penetrating slug tests, hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates might not necessarily be valid because of vertical flows in heterogeneous formations. We assess the error in hypothetical stratified formations by numerical sensitivity analysis, and propose an effective method for compensation by incorporating two types of casing configuration (piezometer and tube). The hypothetical stratified formation consists of completely horizontal layers, each 1 m thick; the permeability is different between, but not within, layers. In this study, conductivity estimates in the piezometer and tube methods are calculated by assigning various patterns of conductivity to the test, upper, and lower layers: KT, KU, and KL. The effect of vertical flow becomes significant when KT is small relative to KU or KL, and KL is more important than KU because the base of the borehole is open to the lower formation. The conductivity ratios (estimate over actual value) are treated as approximately linearly dependent on logarithms of KT/KU and KT/KL, so that conductivity estimates can be straightforwardly derived from one piezometer measurement and two tube measurements at the top and bottom of the screen. The linear relations are evaluated and constant parameters are determined under specific conditions. This study also recommends alternating piezometer and tube methods in the drilling procedure because the actual variation of K with depth is larger than that found using isolated measurements, as shown in a field study of alluvial fan gravel deposits in Sapporo, Japan.

  12. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3) Organism Methodology SM 21st edition 1 Other Total Coliforms Total... Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(6) Organism Methodology SM 20thedition 6 SM... Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.23(k)(1) Contaminant Methodology EPA...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3) Organism Methodology SM 21st edition 1 Other Total Coliforms Total... Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(6) Organism Methodology SM 20thedition 6 SM... Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.23(k)(1) Contaminant Methodology EPA...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3) Organism Methodology SM 21st Edition 1 SM 22nd Edition 28 SM Online... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(5) Organism Methodology SM 22nd Edition 28 SM Online 3 Fecal Coliforms Fecal Coliform Procedure 9221 E 9221 E-06 Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Listed at 40 CFR 141.132(b)(3)(ii)(B) Contaminant Methodology EPA method Bromate Two-Dimensional Ion... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3) Organism Methodology SM 21stEdition 1 SM 22ndEdition 28 Other Total... ColitagTM 13 Alternative Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(5)...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... from non-leaking drums and the leaking area determined according to the method prescribed in § 178.604... test may be used for metal drums: The packaging must be restrained while an internal air pressure of 48... no leakage of air from the packaging. Chime cuts must be made on the initial drum at the beginning...

  18. The weighted walking test as an alternative method of assessing aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Andrzej T; Klimek, Adam

    2007-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) directly during uphill walking exercise and to compare these values with those achieved during running and cycling exercise. Forty untrained students (20 males and 20 females) took part in three exercise tests. The running test was performed on a horizontal treadmill and the speed was gradually increased by 0.3 m . s(-1) every 3 min. The walking test was conducted on a treadmill inclined at 12% (speed of 1.8 m . s(-1)). The load was further increased every 3 min by the addition of a mass of one-twentieth of the body mass of the participant (plastic containers filled with water and added to a backpack carried by the participant). During the bicycle ergometry test, the workload was increased by 20 W every 2 min. All tests were performed until volitional exhaustion. During all tests, oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, tidal volume, respiratory frequency, heart rate, hydrogen ion concentration, base excess, and blood lactate concentration were analysed. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the weighted walking test and the commonly applied running and bicycle ergometry tests indicate a strong association with the new test in evaluating maximal oxygen uptake. The negligible differences in VO2max between the three tests for the male participants (running: 61.0 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); walking: 60.4 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); cycling: 60.2 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1)), and the fact that the females achieved better results on the walking test than the cycle ergometer test (running: 45.0 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); walking: 42.6 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1); cycling: 40.1 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1)), confirm the suitability of the new method for evaluating aerobic power. The weighted walking test could be useful in the assessment of aerobic power in individuals for whom running is not advised or is difficult. In addition, the new test allows for determination of VO2max on small treadmills with a limited speed regulator

  19. Testing an Alternative Method for Estimating the Length of Fungal Hyphae Using Photomicrography and Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.; Hedley, Mike J.; Camps Arbestain, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and test an unbiased and rapid methodology to estimate the length of external arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in soil. The traditional visual gridline intersection (VGI) method, which consists in a direct visual examination of the intersections of hyphae with gridlines on a microscope eyepiece after aqueous extraction, membrane-filtration, and staining (e.g., with trypan blue), was refined. For this, (i) images of the stained hyphae were taken by using a digital photomicrography technique to avoid the use of the microscope and the method was referred to as “digital gridline intersection” (DGI) method; and (ii), the images taken in (i) were processed and the hyphal length was measured by using ImageJ software, referred to as the “photomicrography–ImageJ processing” (PIP) method. The DGI and PIP methods were tested using known grade lengths of possum fur. Then they were applied to measure the hyphal lengths in soils with contrasting phosphorus (P) fertility status. Linear regressions were obtained between the known lengths (Lknown) of possum fur and the values determined by using either the DGI (LDGI) (LDGI = 0.37 + 0.97 × Lknown, r2 = 0.86) or PIP (LPIP) methods (LPIP = 0.33 + 1.01 × Lknown, r2 = 0.98). There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the LDGI and LPIP values. While both methods provided accurate estimation (slope of regression being 1.0), the PIP method was more precise, as reflected by a higher value of r2 and lower coefficients of variation. The average hyphal lengths (6.5–19.4 m g–1) obtained by the use of these methods were in the range of those typically reported in the literature (3–30 m g–1). Roots growing in P-deficient soil developed 2.5 times as many hyphae as roots growing in P-rich soil (17.4 vs 7.2 m g–1). These tests confirmed that the use of digital photomicrography in conjunction with either the grid–line intersection principle or image processing is a suitable

  20. Accelerated test methods for life prediction of hermetic motor insulation systems exposed to alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, P. F., II; Ferguson, A. F.

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc. (ARTI) contracted Radian Corporation to ascertain whether an improved accelerated test method or procedure could be developed that would allow prediction of the life of motor insulation materials used in hermetic motors for air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment operated with alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Phase 1 of the project, Conceptual Design of an accelerated test method and apparatus, was successfully completed in June 1993. The culmination of that effort was the concept of the Simulated Stator Unit (SSU) test. The objective of the Phase 2 limited proof-of-concept demonstration was to: answer specific engineering/design questions; design and construct an analog control sequencer and supporting apparatus; and conduct limited tests to determine the viability of the SSU test concept. This report reviews the SSU test concept, and describes the results through the conclusion of the proof-of-concept prototype tests in March 1995. The technical design issues inherent in transforming any conceptual design to working equipment have been resolved, and two test systems and controllers have been constructed. Pilot tests and three prototype tests have been completed, concluding the current phase of work. One prototype unit was tested without thermal stress loads. Twice daily insulation property measurements (IPM's) on this unit demonstrated that the insulation property measurements themselves did not degrade the SSU.

  1. Accelerated test methods for life prediction of hermetic motor insulation systems exposed to alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II; Ferguson, A.F.

    1995-04-19

    In 1992, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc. (ARTI) contracted Radian Corporation to ascertain whether an improved accelerated test method or procedure could be developed that would allow prediction of the life of motor insulation materials used in hermetic motors for air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment operated with alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Phase 1 of the project, Conceptual Design of an accelerated test method and apparatus, was successfully completed in June 1993. The culmination of that effort was the concept of the Simulated Stator Unit (SSU) test. The objective of the Phase 2 limited proof-of-concept demonstration was to: answer specific engineering/design questions; design and construct an analog control sequencer and supporting apparatus; and conduct limited tests to determine the viability of the SSU test concept. This report reviews the SSU test concept, and describes the results through the conclusion of the proof-of-concept prototype tests in March 1995. The technical design issues inherent in transforming any conceptual design to working equipment have been resolved, and two test systems and controllers have been constructed. Pilot tests and three prototype tests have been completed, concluding the current phase of work. One prototype unit was tested without thermal stress loads. Twice daily insulation property measurements (IPMs) on this unit demonstrated that the insulation property measurements themselves did not degrade the SSU.

  2. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  3. Accelerated test methods for life prediction of hermetic motor insulation systems exposed to alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Phase 3: Reproducibility and discrimination testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II; Ferguson, A.F.; Fuentes, K.T.

    1996-05-06

    In 1992, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc. (ARTI) contracted Radian Corporation to ascertain whether an improved accelerated test method or procedure could be developed that would allow prediction of the life of motor insulation materials used in hermetic motors for air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment operated with alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. This report presents the results of phase three concerning the reproducibility and discrimination testing.

  4. Quantitative Differences in Retest Effects across Different Methods Used to Construct Alternate Test Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Allowing respondents to retake a cognitive ability test has shown to increase their test scores. Several theoretical models have been proposed to explain this effect, which make distinct assumptions regarding the measurement invariance of psychometric tests across test administration sessions with regard to narrower cognitive abilities and general…

  5. Utilizing alternative developmental and neurotoxicity screening methods to prioritize compounds for further mammalian testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are being phased out of commercial use, leading to the increased use of alternative chemicals such as the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). Due to the structural similarity of th...

  6. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules. PMID:23577488

  7. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... rulemaking (Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558). \\2\\ See Air Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558-0002. \\3\\ 73 FR 74350, December 8, 2008. \\4\\ 73 FR 74403, December 8, 2008. \\5\\ See Air Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558-0005. \\6\\ 74 FR 6233, February 6, 2009. EPA is proposing to allow ASTM D6550-05 (SFC) as an alternative...

  8. Using Computer-Based Testing as Alternative Assessment Method of Student Learning in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapriati, Amalia; Zuhairi, Aminudin

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: (1) students' inability to sit for the scheduled test; (2) conflicting…

  9. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... authorized: (1) Helium test. The packaging must be filled with at least 1 L inert helium gas, air tight... be analyzed for traces of helium gas by means of a mass spectrograph. The test must be conducted for... of the packaging. If helium gas is detected, the leaking packaging must be automatically...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... authorized: (1) Helium test. The packaging must be filled with at least 1 L inert helium gas, air tight... be analyzed for traces of helium gas by means of a mass spectrograph. The test must be conducted for... of the packaging. If helium gas is detected, the leaking packaging must be automatically...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... authorized: (1) Helium test. The packaging must be filled with at least 1 L inert helium gas, air tight... be analyzed for traces of helium gas by means of a mass spectrograph. The test must be conducted for... of the packaging. If helium gas is detected, the leaking packaging must be automatically...

  12. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  13. The lateral flow card test: an alternative method for the detection of Trichinella infection in swine.

    PubMed

    Patrascu, I; Gamble, H R; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, L; Radulescu, R; Andrei, A; Ionescu, V; Timoceanu, V; Boireau, P; Cuperlovic, K; Djordjevic, M; Murrell, K D; Noeckler, K; Pozio, E

    2001-06-01

    A novel lateral flow card (TS-Card pork) test was developed for the serological detection of Trichinella infected pigs. Based on extensive studies performed in Romania during 1999-2000 this test proved to be highly specific sensitive, rapid (3-12 minutes) and easy to use (no need for laboratory facilities). It can be used both for the detection of Trichinella infection in carcasses and for epizooliological studies using a variety of samples including whole or dried blood, serum, or tissue fluids. The TS-Card pork test, used as a screening test, can be the foundation of an on-farm or field based inspection system to significantly improve food safety in countries with a high prevalence of Trichinella in pigs or other food animal species. The results presented are also promising for application of the test in an on-line laboratory based inspection system since the speed of the test allows sufficient time to rail out suspected hog carcasses during the slaughter process. PMID:11484368

  14. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report*.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Clewell, Harvey; Kimber, Ian; Rossi, Annamaria; Blaauboer, Bas; Burrier, Robert; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; Hasiwa, Nina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Jaworska, Joanna; Knudsen, Thomas B; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Locke, Paul; Maxwell, Gavin; McKim, James; McVey, Emily A; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Patlewicz, Grace; Pelkonen, Olavi; Roggen, Erwin; Rovida, Costanza; Ruhdel, Irmela; Schwarz, Michael; Schepky, Andreas; Schoeters, Greet; Skinner, Nigel; Trentz, Kerstin; Turner, Marian; Vanparys, Philippe; Yager, James; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. Based on a major analysis of the status of alternative methods (Adler et al., 2011) and its independent review (Hartung et al., 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. Five whitepapers were commissioned addressing toxicokinetics, skin sensitization, repeated-dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity testing. An expert workshop of 35 participants from Europe and the US discussed and refined these whitepapers, which were subsequently compiled to form the present report. By prioritizing the many options to move the field forward, the expert group hopes to advance regulatory science. PMID:22307314

  15. THE MURINE LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY: AN ALTERNATIVE TEST METHOD FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CHEMICALS TO ELICIT ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The process that a new toxicology test method must undergo to attain acceptance and regulatory implementation may seem daunting. As the first test method to undergo Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) review, the local...

  16. A step forward in the quality control testing of inactivated rabies vaccines - extensive evaluation of European vaccines by using alternative methods to the in vivo potency tests.

    PubMed

    Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice. PMID:25802995

  17. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  18. Testing multiple hypotheses with skewed alternatives.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Naveen K; Hamedani, Gholamhossein G; Maadooliat, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    In many practical cases of multiple hypothesis problems, it can be expected that the alternatives are not symmetrically distributed. If it is known a priori that the distributions of the alternatives are skewed, we show that this information yields high power procedures as compared to the procedures based on symmetric alternatives when testing multiple hypotheses. We propose a Bayesian decision theoretic rule for multiple directional hypothesis testing, when the alternatives are distributed as skewed, under a constraint on a mixed directional false discovery rate. We compare the proposed rule with a frequentist's rule of Benjamini and Yekutieli (2005) using simulations. We apply our method to a well-studied HIV dataset. PMID:26536168

  19. Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-04-08

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

  20. Report on the international workshop on alternative methods for human and veterinary rabies vaccine testing: state of the science and planning the way forward.

    PubMed

    Stokes, William; McFarland, Richard; Kulpa-Eddy, Jodie; Gatewood, Donna; Levis, Robin; Halder, Marlies; Pulle, Gayle; Kojima, Hajime; Casey, Warren; Gaydamaka, Alexander; Miller, Timothy; Brown, Karen; Lewis, Charles; Chapsal, Jean-Michel; Bruckner, Lukas; Gairola, Sunil; Kamphuis, Elisabeth; Rupprecht, Charles E; Wunderli, Peter; McElhinney, Lorraine; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Gamoh, Koichiro; Hill, Richard; Reed, David; Doelling, Vivian; Johnson, Nelson; Allen, David; Rinckel, Lori; Jones, Brett

    2012-09-01

    Potency testing of most human and veterinary rabies vaccines requires vaccination of mice followed by a challenge test using an intracerebral injection of live rabies virus. NICEATM, ICCVAM, and their international partners organized a workshop to review the availability and validation status of alternative methods that might reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals for rabies vaccine potency testing, and to identify research and development efforts to further advance alternative methods. Workshop participants agreed that general anesthesia should be used for intracerebral virus injections and that humane endpoints should be used routinely as the basis for euthanizing animals when conducting the mouse rabies challenge test. Workshop participants recommended as a near-term priority replacement of the mouse challenge with a test validated to ensure potency, such as the mouse antibody serum neutralization test for adjuvanted veterinary rabies vaccines for which an international collaborative study was recently completed. The workshop recommended that an in vitro antigen quantification test should be a high priority for product-specific validation of human and non-adjuvanted veterinary rabies vaccines. Finally, workshop participants recommended greater international cooperation to expedite development, validation, regulatory acceptance, and implementation of alternative test methods for rabies vaccine potency testing. PMID:22884673

  1. Position of Totally Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation in the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation: An Alternative Method of Conduction Testing

    PubMed Central

    Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Haldar, Shouvik; Soliman, Rafik F.B.; Fatullayev, Javid; Jones, David; Hussain, Wajid; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Markides, Vias; Wong, Tom; Bahrami, Toufan

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in surgical techniques and understanding of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation has led to the development of a less invasive thoracoscopic surgical treatment including video-assisted bilateral pulmonary vein isolation using bipolar radiofrequency ablation clamps. More recently, the same operation became possible via a totally thoracoscopic approach. In this paper we describe technical aspects of the thoracoscopic approach to surgical treatment of AF and discuss its features, benefits and limitations. Furthermore, we present a new alternative technique of conduction testing using endoscopic multi-electrode recording catheters. An alternative electrophysiological mapping strategy involves a multi-electrode recording catheter designed primarily for percutaneous endocardial electrophysiologic mapping procedure. According to our initial experience, the recordings obtained from the multi-electrode catheters positioned around the pulmonary veins are more accurate than the recordings obtained from the multifunctional ablation and pacing pen. The totally thoracoscopic surgical ablation approach is a feasible and efficient treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation. The conduction testing can be easily and rapidly performed using a multifunctional pen or multi-electrode recording catheter. PMID:25904211

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 141.132(b)(3)(ii)(B) Contaminant Methodology EPA method Bromate Two-Dimensional Ion... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3) Organism Methodology SM 21st edition 1 Other Total Coliforms Total... Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(6) Organism Methodology SM 20thedition 6...

  3. Report on the international workshop on alternative methods for Leptospira vaccine potency testing: state of the science and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Stokes, William; Srinivas, Geetha; McFarland, Richard; Kulpa-Eddy, Jodie; Casey, Warren; Walker, Angela; Draayer, Hans; Sebring, Randy; Brown, Karen; Balks, Elisabeth; Stirling, Catrina; Klaasen, Eric; Hill, Richard; Rippke, Byron; Ruby, Kevin; Alt, David; Mukhopadhyay, Suman; Kojima, Hajime; Johnson, Nelson; Rinckel, Lori; Doelling, Vivian; Jones, Brett

    2013-09-01

    Routine potency testing of Leptospira vaccines is mostly conducted using a vaccination-challenge test that involves large numbers of hamsters and unrelieved pain and distress. NICEATM, ICCVAM, and their international partners organized a workshop to review the state of the science of alternative methods that might replace, reduce, and refine the use of animals for veterinary Leptospira vaccine potency testing and to identify ways to advance improved alternative methods. Vaccine manufacturers were encouraged to initiate or continue product-specific validation using in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as replacements for potency testing of four common Leptospira serogroups. Participants discussed the potential for eliminating the back-titration procedure in the hamster challenge assay, which could reduce animal use by 50% for each individual potency test. Further animal reduction may also be possible by using cryopreserved Leptospira stock to replace continual passaging through hamsters. Serology assays were identified as a way to further reduce and refine animal use but should be considered only after attempting in vitro assays. Workshop participants encouraged consideration of analgesics and use of earlier humane endpoints when the hamster vaccination-challenge potency assay is used. International harmonization of alternative potency methods was recommended to avoid duplicative potency testing to meet regionally different requirements. PMID:23890729

  4. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  5. t-Test at the Probe Level: An Alternative Method to Identify Statistically Significant Genes for Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Boareto, Marcelo; Caticha, Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Microarray data analysis typically consists in identifying a list of differentially expressed genes (DEG), i.e., the genes that are differentially expressed between two experimental conditions. Variance shrinkage methods have been considered a better choice than the standard t-test for selecting the DEG because they correct the dependence of the error with the expression level. This dependence is mainly caused by errors in background correction, which more severely affects genes with low expression values. Here, we propose a new method for identifying the DEG that overcomes this issue and does not require background correction or variance shrinkage. Unlike current methods, our methodology is easy to understand and implement. It consists of applying the standard t-test directly on the normalized intensity data, which is possible because the probe intensity is proportional to the gene expression level and because the t-test is scale- and location-invariant. This methodology considerably improves the sensitivity and robustness of the list of DEG when compared with the t-test applied to preprocessed data and to the most widely used shrinkage methods, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) and Linear Models for Microarray Data (LIMMA). Our approach is useful especially when the genes of interest have small differences in expression and therefore get ignored by standard variance shrinkage methods.

  6. 76 FR 21673 - Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ...-substantiation of an AEDM or ARM as a result of a change in standard or test procedure. 76 FR 12492 (March 7...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy....

  7. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  8. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  9. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    PubMed

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments. PMID:26106269

  10. Alternatives to animal testing: A review

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Sonali K.; Dhawale, Shashikant C.

    2013-01-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments. PMID:26106269

  11. Towards fully automated genotyping: use of an X linked recessive spastic paraplegia family to test alternative analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Matise, T C; Perlin, M W; Marks, H G; Hoffman, E P

    1995-05-01

    Advances in dinucleotide-based genetic maps open possibilities for large scale genotyping at high resolution. The current rate-limiting steps in use of these dense maps is data interpretation (allele definition), data entry, and statistical calculations. We have recently reported automated allele identification methods. Here we show that a 10-cM framework map of the human X chromosome can be analyzed on two lanes of an automated sequencer per individual (10-12 loci per lane). We use this map and analysis strategy to generate allele data for an X-linked recessive spastic paraplegia family with a known PLP mutation. We analyzed 198 genotypes in a single gel and used the data to test three methods of data analysis: manual meiotic breakpoint mapping, automated concordance analysis, and whole chromosome multipoint linkage analysis. All methods pinpointed the correct location of the gene. We propose that multipoint exclusion mapping may permit valid inflation of LOD scores using the equation max LOD-(next best LOD). PMID:7759066

  12. Binding and cleavage (BINACLE) assay for the functional in vitro detection of tetanus toxin: applicability as alternative method for the safety testing of tetanus toxoids during vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, Heike A; Bonifas, Ursula; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Krämer, Beate; Weißer, Karin

    2013-12-16

    Tetanus toxoids (i.e. chemically inactivated preparations of tetanus neurotoxin) are used for the production of tetanus vaccines. In order to exclude the risk of residual toxicity or of a "reversion to toxicity", each batch of tetanus toxoid is subject to strict safety testing. Up to now, these prescribed safety tests have to be performed as in vivo toxicity tests in guinea pigs. However, as animal tests are generally slow, costly and ethically disputable, a replacement by an in vitro method would be desirable. A suitable alternative method would have to be able to sensitively detect already low concentrations of active tetanus neurotoxin in matrices containing large amounts of inactivated toxoid molecules. We have developed a method which detects active tetanus neurotoxin molecules based on their specific receptor-binding capacity as well as their proteolytic activity. By taking into account two relevant functional characteristics, this combined "BINding And CLEavage" (BINACLE) assay more reliably discriminates between toxic and detoxified molecules than other in vitro assays which solely rely on one single toxin function (e.g. endopeptidase assays). Data from an in-house validation show that the BINACLE assay is able to detect active tetanus neurotoxin with a detection limit comparable to the in vivo test. The sensitive detection of active toxin which has been spiked into toxoid samples from different manufacturers could also be demonstrated. Specificity and precision of the method have been shown to be satisfactory. The presented data indicate that for toxoid batches from some of the most relevant European vaccine manufacturers, the BINACLE assay may represent a potential alternative to the prescribed animal safety tests. In addition, this novel method may also provide a convenient tool for monitoring batch-to-batch consistency during toxoid production. PMID:24156922

  13. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...

  14. Alternative Approaches to Retirement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, John C.

    It has been proposed that the same type of aptitude and ability tests required for initial job entry be used to indicate whether an individual can continue to perform effectively in that job. A review of the nature of such tests indicates that they would be inappropriate for use in retirement decisions. A proficiency test of the kind used at the…

  15. Alternatives to Traditional Testing in ESL Reading Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Charlotte

    Alternatives to traditional testing techniques are proposed for use in the adult English as a second language classroom. It is argued that traditional testing does not place responsibility for achievement on the learner as is appropriate with adult students. The suggested alternative methods are: the language experience approach, sustained silent…

  16. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing. (DLC)

  17. A more robust predictor of ideomotor dyspraxia: study on an alternative scoring method of the Bergès-Lézine's Imitation of Gestures test.

    PubMed

    Vaivre-Douret, L

    2002-01-01

    Use of the traditional Bergès-Lézine standardization [Test d'imitation de gestes (1963).] allowed us to confirm praxic disorders in children who are encountering obvious motor difficulties. However, in comparison to other neuropsychological assessments carried out on these children, it does not enable us to precociously pinpoint disorders in praxic organization. By means of a newly evaluated method (1997) developed on the basis of the Bergès-Lézine Imitation of Gestures test (1963), we retroactively assessed a group of children (N=10) who had been observed in a longitudinal study at the age of 3-5 years and at 7-8 years and assessed with the Bergès-Lézine version (1963) of the Imitation of Gestures test. Our revised test (1997) takes into account the quantitative factor of success, as well as the qualitative factor of movement planning. It facilitates the early detection of motor organization disorders, in correlation with other neuropsychological assessments carried out on these children. Comparative clinical findings with the same group of children tested using the Bergès-Lézine version and ours indicate that our version detects, more robustly, children encountering difficulties resulting from ideomotor dyspraxia, not identified by the Bergès-Lézine test (1963). Our alternative scoring method of Bergès-Lézine's test contributes largely to early detection of instrumental difficulties in children. Additionally, its predictive capacity makes it possible to apprehend disorders in distal and digital neuromotor functions. PMID:14589751

  18. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  19. Meeting report: alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Lein, Pamela; Locke, Paul; Goldberg, Alan

    2007-05-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternatives to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. To address this need, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Toxicology Program are collaborating in a program called TestSmart DNT, the goals of which are to: (a) develop alternative methodologies for identifying and prioritizing chemicals and exposures that may cause developmental neurotoxicity in humans; (b) develop the policies for incorporating DNT alternatives into regulatory decision making; and (c) identify opportunities for reducing, refining, or replacing the use of animals in DNT. The first TestSmart DNT workshop was an open registration meeting held 13-15 March 2006 in Reston, Virginia. The primary objective was to bring together stakeholders (test developers, test users, regulators, and advocates for children's health, animal welfare, and environmental health) and individuals representing diverse disciplines (developmental neurobiology, toxicology, policy, and regulatory science) from around the world to share information and concerns relating to the science and policy of DNT. Individual presentations are available at the CAAT TestSmart website. This report provides a synthesis of workgroup discussions and recommendations for future directions and priorities, which include initiating a systematic evaluation of alternative models and technologies, developing a framework for the creation of an open database to catalog DNT data, and devising a strategy for harmonizing the validation process across international jurisdictional borders. PMID:17520065

  20. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, Esther de; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-06-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  1. Examining alternative scoring rubrics on a statewide test: The impact of different scoring methods on science and social studies performance assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creighton, Susan Dabney

    There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the

  2. 77 FR 43827 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ...The NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) announces an ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward.'' This workshop, the second in a series of specialized vaccine workshops, will review recent advances and innovations in science and technology that can be......

  3. Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of…

  4. Towards a strategic approaches in alternative tests for pesticide safety.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yoonjeong; Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-09-01

    Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory animals is inevitable in scientific evaluation and alternative approaches have limitations in the whole coverage, continuous effort is necessary to minimize animal use and to develop reliable alternative tests for pesticide evaluation. This review discusses alternative approaches for pesticide toxicity tests and hazard evaluation that have been used in peer-reviewed reports and could be applied in future studies based on the critical animal research principles of reduction, replacement, and refinement. PMID:25343009

  5. Towards a Strategic Approaches in Alternative Tests for Pesticide Safety

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yoonjeong; Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Sang-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory animals is inevitable in scientific evaluation and alternative approaches have limitations in the whole coverage, continuous effort is necessary to minimize animal use and to develop reliable alternative tests for pesticide evaluation. This review discusses alternative approaches for pesticide toxicity tests and hazard evaluation that have been used in peer-reviewed reports and could be applied in future studies based on the critical animal research principles of reduction, replacement, and refinement. PMID:25343009

  6. An Examination of Alternative Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Peggy D.

    2004-01-01

    Demographic shifts, advances in technology, and changing student perceptions and expectations have influenced the development of alternative means and methods for offering and delivering traditional college courses. This study reports student perceptions of four alternatives at one university where students were asked to rate course offerings…

  7. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  8. Satellite Seminars: An Alternative Method for Extension Educators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, N. E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Satellite seminars in grain and forage crop production and pest management were conducted for a large, geographically dispersed audience of farmers and agribusiness persons to test the feasibility of an alternative delivery method in extension. Results of a formative evaluation revealed it is feasible to create an alternative model. (LZ)

  9. Two Alternative Methods for Height Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin

    2008-03-01

    Geodesists have always been dealing with coordinate transformations. There exist various kinds of transformations, like three-dimensional (spatial datum) transformations, two-dimensional (horizontal datum) transformations and one-dimensional (eg, height) transformations. In this article we discuss height transformations. Height data is usually obtained by levelling. The problematic side of levelling is that this technique is very labour intensive and costly. Nowadays as well GPS measurements can be used, which are much faster and cheaper, but in order to use GPS measurements for height determination, we need a precise geoid model to transform GPS heights to heights above sea level. In this article two different approaches to this transformation are presented. At first, the affine transformation is discussed. The method is by nature linear, and employs the barycentric coordinates of the point, the height of which is going to be computed. Secondly, the method of fuzzy modelling is used. By these methods, the transformation surface is determined and the heights of desired points can be determined. As the input data, height information from the precise levelling campaign in Estonia is used. The computed values are tested against height information, gathered from the reference geoid model. The objectives of this research are acquiring insight into using alternative methods for height transformation as well as to statistically characterise the suitability of the proposed methods.

  10. Alternative method of retesting UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, R.

    1991-12-31

    The paper describes an alternative method to perform the periodic inspection of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The hydraulic test is replaced by ultrasonic checking of wall thickness and by magnetic particle testing of all the weld seams. Information about the legal background, the air leak test and the qualification of inspectors is also given.

  11. Validation of an alternative microbiological method for tissue products.

    PubMed

    Suessner, Susanne; Hennerbichler, Simone; Schreiberhuber, Stefanie; Stuebl, Doris; Gabriel, Christian

    2014-06-01

    According to the European Pharmacopoeia sterility testing of products includes an incubation time of 14 days in thioglycollate medium and soya-bean casein medium. In this case a large period of time is needed for product testing. So we designed a study to evaluate an alternative method for sterility testing. The aim of this study was to reduce the incubation time for the routinely produced products in our tissue bank (cornea and amnion grafts) by obtaining the same detection limit, accurateness and recovery rates as the reference method described in the European Pharmacopoeia. The study included two steps of validation. Primary validation compared the reference method with the alternative method. Therefore eight bacterial and two fungi test strains were tested at their preferred milieu. A geometric dilution series from 10 to 0.625 colony forming unit per 10 ml culture media was used. Subsequent to the evaluation the second part of the study started including the validation of the fertility of the culture media and the parallel testing of the two methods by investigating products. For this purpose two product batches were tested in three independent runs. Concerning the validation we could not find any aberration between the alternative and the reference method. In addition, the recovery rate of each microorganism was between 83.33 and 100 %. The alternative method showed non-inferiority regarding accuracy to the reference method. Due to this study we reduced the sterility testing for cornea and amniotic grafts to 9 days. PMID:24810914

  12. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Samuel E.; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing “minigene” in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest. PMID:26721495

  13. Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  14. Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  15. Solar System Test for Alternative Gravity Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Over the past year I've worked with Dr. Biswas and Dr.Brans from Loyola University, on different aspects of General relativity. More recently we have been focusing on particle and photon orbits in Schwarzschild-like metric which is relevant to understand observations such as photon deflection and perihelion precession of Mercury. These observations can be used to test alternative gravity theories, such as f(R) Theories. Such solar system tests have proved extremely useful to constrain alternative theories of gravity, such as f(R) theories that try to solve the dark energy problem. While so far most theorists have focused on the simplest f(R) type of modification of gravity to realize the phase of late time cosmic speed-up that we are observing, there are several other viable candidates. In particular, many ``effective'' approaches to gravity gives rise to f(R,G) type of modifications, where G is the Gauss Bonnet term. Accordingly, we are currently trying to understand how solar system tests can constrain this more general class of f(R,G) dark energy models. In my talk I will present our progress in this direction. NSF Grant

  16. Inter-laboratory study of human in vitro toxicogenomics-based tests as alternative methods for evaluating chemical carcinogenicity: a bioinformatics perspective.

    PubMed

    Herwig, R; Gmuender, H; Corvi, R; Bloch, K M; Brandenburg, A; Castell, J; Ceelen, L; Chesne, C; Doktorova, T Y; Jennen, D; Jennings, P; Limonciel, A; Lock, E A; McMorrow, T; Phrakonkham, P; Radford, R; Slattery, C; Stierum, R; Vilardell, M; Wittenberger, T; Yildirimman, R; Ryan, M; Rogiers, V; Kleinjans, J

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals with alternative, human-based in vitro systems has become a major goal of toxicogenomics. The central read-out of these assays is the transcriptome, and while many studies exist that explored the gene expression responses of such systems, reports on robustness and reproducibility, when testing them independently in different laboratories, are still uncommon. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge about variability induced by the data analysis protocols. We have conducted an inter-laboratory study for testing chemical carcinogenicity evaluating two human in vitro assays: hepatoma-derived cells and hTERT-immortalized renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, representing liver and kidney as major target organs. Cellular systems were initially challenged with thirty compounds, genome-wide gene expression was measured with microarrays, and hazard classifiers were built from this training set. Subsequently, each system was independently established in three different laboratories, and gene expression measurements were conducted using anonymized compounds. Data analysis was performed independently by two separate groups applying different protocols for the assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and for the prediction of carcinogenic hazard. As a result, both workflows came to very similar conclusions with respect to (1) identification of experimental outliers, (2) overall assessment of robustness and inter-laboratory reproducibility and (3) re-classification of the unknown compounds to the respective toxicity classes. In summary, the developed bioinformatics workflows deliver accurate measures for inter-laboratory comparison studies, and the study can be used as guidance for validation of future carcinogenicity assays in order to implement testing of human in vitro alternatives to animal testing. PMID:26525393

  17. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  18. High Power Alternator Test Unit (ATU) Electrical System Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and it s interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the JIMO AC Power System Requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. Results of these tests will be used for the development and validation of analytical models for performance and lifetime prediction.

  19. Alternative Therapies and Methods of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    When her daughter was almost two years old, the author realized that she had never crawled. Reluctant to depend on someone else to lead her daughter's therapies and learning, she began to search for alternative developmental therapy approaches and learning methods that would allow her to become more informed and take a more active role. She found…

  20. Alternative Methods of Determining Teacher Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, Fred E.; O'Neil, Roy J.

    This publication consists of two papers that examine different topics related to collective bargaining for school personnel and alternative methods of determining teachers' and principals' salaries. The papers were originally prepared to serve as a basis for discussion at a 1976 meeting sponsored by the Canadian School Trustees' Association for…

  1. The Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM), a Simple and Low-Cost Alternative for the Carba NP Test to Assess Phenotypic Carbapenemase Activity in Gram-Negative Rods

    PubMed Central

    van der Zwaluw, Kim; de Haan, Angela; Pluister, Gerlinde N.; Bootsma, Hester J.; de Neeling, Albert J.; Schouls, Leo M.

    2015-01-01

    A new phenotypic test, called the Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM), was developed to detect carbapenemase activity in Gram-negative rods within eight hours. This method showed high concordance with results obtained by PCR to detect genes coding for the carbapenemases KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP and OXA-23. It allows reliable detection of carbapenemase activity encoded by various genes in species of Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae), but also in non-fermenters Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. The CIM was shown to be a cost-effective and highly robust phenotypic screening method that can reliably detect carbapenemase activity. PMID:25798828

  2. OPEC behavior: a test of alternative hypotheses

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    Since interpretations of past and future oil price patterns depends on the model chosen, the author tests and compares alternative theories of OPEC as a first step in validating the choice on any one model. The results show that among OPEC countries, the partial market-sharing cartel model is the only model not rejected by at least some of the 11 members and gives the best explanation of production. In comparison with 11 non-OPEC countries, the competitive model could not be rejected for 10 of the 11 non-OPEC producers. This raises the question of why, if OPEC is a cartel, Friedman's predictions have not come true, and introduces new questions for future research. 19 references, 3 tables.

  3. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  4. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Otto

    2003-04-11

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which we get as many data as possible in order to obtain the most extensive database for the toxicological evaluation of a chemical. Consequently, the society has decided that certain group of chemicals should be tested accordingly. However, realising that, this idea is not obtainable in practice because there are more than 100000 chemicals which are potential for human exposure, so the development of alternative testing and assessment strategies has taken place in the recent years. The toxicological evaluation should enable the society to cope with the simultaneous requirement of many chemicals for different uses and of the absence of health problems involved with their use. Thus, the regulatory toxicology is a cocktail of science and pragmatism added a crucial concern for animal welfare. Test methods are most often used in a testing sequence as bricks in a testing strategy. The main key driving forces for introducing assessment and testing strategies e.g. using a limited number of tests and/or alternative test methods are: (a) animal welfare considerations; (b) new scientific knowledge i.e. introducing tests for new endpoints and tests for better understanding of mode of action; and (c) lack of testing capacity/reduction of required resources economically as well as time wise. PMID:12676447

  5. Chemical flood testing method

    SciTech Connect

    Davis Jr., L. A.; Brost, D. F.; Haskin, H. K.

    1984-11-13

    A method of testing a chemical for use in an enhanced recovery of oil from an earth formation includes obtaining a test core of an earth formation. The test core is cleaned and then subjected to a predetermined sequence of events similar to that which the reservoir has experienced. The test core is flooded with a chemical to be tested and the chemical is then driven from the test core with a drive liquid. The test core is irradiated with a beam of electromagnetic energy at a microwave frequency. An indication representative of the effectiveness of the chemical in the test core is derived in accordance with the electromagnetic energy that has passed through the test core.

  6. 77 FR 40358 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM..., revised, and alternative safety testing methods with regulatory applicability and promotes the scientific..., provides scientific and operational support for ICCVAM-related activities, and conducts...

  7. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. PMID:24548737

  8. Testing equivalency of an alternative method based on portable FTIR to the European Standard Reference Methods for monitoring emissions to air of CO, NOx, SO₂, HCl, and H₂O.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Marc D; Render, Simon; Dimopoulos, Chris; Lilley, Adam; Robinson, Rod A; Smith, Thomas O M; Camm, Richard; Standring, Rupert

    2015-08-01

    We compare the performance of an alternative method based on portable Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy described in TGN M22, "Measuring Stack Gas Emissions Using FTIR Instruments," to the Standard Reference Methods (SRMs) for CO (EN 15058), NOx (EN 14792), SO₂(EN 14791), HCl (EN 1911), and H₂O (EN 14790). Testing was carried out using a Stack Simulator facility generating complex gas matrices of the measurands across concentration ranges of 0-75 mg m⁻³ and 0-100 mg m⁻³ CO, 0-200 mg m⁻³ and 0-300 mg m⁻³ NO, 0-75 mg m⁻³ and 0-200 mg m⁻³ SO₂, 0-15 mg m⁻³ and 0-60 mg m⁻³ HCl, and 0-14 vol% H₂O. The former values are the required monitoring range for each measurand as described in the European Union (EU) Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU) for waste incineration processes, and the latter are supplementary ranges representative of emissions from some large combustion plant processes. Test data were treated in accordance with CEN/TS 14793, and it was found that equivalency test criteria could be met across all concentration ranges with the exception of the NO supplementary range. The results demonstrated in principle where TGN M22/FTIR could be used in place of the existing SRMs to provide, as required under the Industrial Emissions Directive, annual validation/calibration of automated measuring systems (AMSs being permanently installed on industrial stacks to provide continuous monitoring of emissions to air). These data take a step toward the wider regulatory acceptance of portable FTIR providing the advantages of real-time calibration and quantification of all measurands on a single technique. PMID:26067946

  9. Modern Methods of Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, F

    1939-01-01

    After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

  10. An alternative method on quadratic programming problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasril, Y.; Mohd, I. B.; Mustaffa, I.; Aminuddin, MMM.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we proposed an alternative approach to find the optimum solution of quadratic programming problems (QPP) in its original form without additional information such as slack variable, surplus variable or artificial variable as done in other favourite methods. This approached is based on the violated constraints by the unconstrained optimum. The optimal solution of QPP obtained by searching from initial point to another point alongside of feasible region.

  11. LEAKAGE TESTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.

    1958-08-12

    A method of testing containers for leaks is described, particularly the testing of containers or cans in which the uranium slugs for nuelear reactors are jacketed. This method involves the immersion of the can in water under l50 pounds of pressure, then removing, drying, and coating the can with anhydrous copper sulfate. Amy water absorbed by the can under pressure will exude and discolor the copper sulfate in the area about the leak.

  12. 40 CFR 85.1414 - Alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative test procedures. 85.1414... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1414 Alternative... request that the Agency approve an alternative test procedure, other than the heavy-duty engine...

  13. 40 CFR 85.1414 - Alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative test procedures. 85.1414... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1414 Alternative... request that the Agency approve an alternative test procedure, other than the heavy-duty engine...

  14. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  15. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM... Activation Test Method for Endocrine Disruptor Chemical Screening Federal Agency Research, Development... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods...

  16. Ignitability test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

  17. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  18. Standard environmental test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D R

    1983-12-01

    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  19. The use of alternatives to animal tests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hong, H A; Hendriks, J

    1999-01-01

    Consideration of alternative methods for animal tests in developing countries is important because good quality laboratory animals and proper animal facilities are not always sufficiently available to perform the currently required quality control tests. In vitro methods have been implemented at the National Institute of Vaccines and Biological Substances (IVAC) in Vietnam. These include serological tests (such as the Toxin Binding Inhibition test and the VERO Cell test) for the estimation of potency of Tetanus and Diphtheria toxoid vaccines and for the evaluation of vaccine field trials. Currently, an inhibition ELISA test to determine anti-rabies activity in equine rabies immunoglobulin preparations is being developed with the long-term goal of its introduction in Vietnam. The results from validation studies are promising and have contributed to decisions made by the National Control Authority to replace imported DPT vaccines in the EPI program with Vietnamese-produced DPT vaccines. This paper summarizes IVAC's experience in introducing alternatives in Vietnam over the last 10 years and reports on the various local validation studies which were performed during this period. PMID:10566795

  20. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  1. Alternate Methods to Experimentally Investigate Shock Initiation Properties of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svingala, Forrest; Lee, Richard; Sutherland, Gerrit; Samuels, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Reactive flow models are desired for many new explosives early in the formulation development stage. Traditionally, these models are parameterized by carefully-controlled 1-D shock experiments, including gas-gun testing with embedded gauges and wedge testing with explosive plane wave lenses (PWL). These experiments are easy to interpret, due to their 1-D nature, but are generally expensive to perform, and cannot be performed at all explosive test facilities. We investigate alternative methods to probe shock-initiation behavior of new explosives using widely-available pentolite gap test donors and simple time-of-arrival type diagnostics. These methods can be performed at a low cost at virtually any explosives testing facility, which allows experimental data to parameterize reactive flow models to be collected much earlier in the development of an explosive formulation. However, the fundamentally 2-D nature of these tests may increase the modeling burden in parameterizing these models, and reduce general applicability. Several variations of the so-called modified gap test were investigated and evaluated for suitability as an alternative to established 1-D gas gun and PWL techniques. At least partial agreement with 1-D test methods was observed for the explosives tested, and future work is planned to scope the applicability and limitations of these experimental techniques.

  2. 40 CFR 136.4 - Application for alternate test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alternate testing procedure is being requested. (3) Provide justification for using testing procedures other... procedure to the effluents in question. (d) An application for approval of an alternate test procedure for... paragraph (d) shall: (1) Provide the name and address of the responsible person or firm making...

  3. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternative tests. 53.4942(b)-2 Section 53.4942....4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets test—(1) In general. A private foundation will satisfy the assets test under the provisions of this paragraph if substantially more than half of the...

  4. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research: Alternative Methods To Demolition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone alternative... the minimum procedures that you must use to validate an alternative test method to meet 40 CFR part...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone alternative... the minimum procedures that you must use to validate an alternative test method to meet 40 CFR part...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone alternative... the minimum procedures that you must use to validate an alternative test method to meet 40 CFR part...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone alternative... the minimum procedures that you must use to validate an alternative test method to meet 40 CFR part...

  9. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Methods and Alternative Rating Methods: Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed modifications to the regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products...

  10. Alternative Inspection Methods for Single Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Timothy J.; Alzheimer, James M.; Hurley, David E.

    2010-01-19

    This document was prepared to provide evaluations and recommendations regarding nondestructive evaluation methods that might be used to determine cracks and bowing in the ceiling of waste storage tanks on the Hanford site. The goal was to determine cracks as small as 1/16 in. wide in the ceiling, and bowing as small as 0.25 in. This report describes digital video camera methods that can be used to detect a crack in the ceiling of the dome, and methods for determining the surface topography of the ceiling in the waste storage tanks to detect localized movements in the surface. A literature search, combined with laboratory testing, comprised this study.

  11. An Alternative Method to Project Wind Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadillioglu, Cagla; Kiyisuren, I. Cagatay; Collu, Kamil; Turp, M. Tufan; Kurnaz, M. Levent; Ozturk, Tugba

    2016-04-01

    Wind energy is one of the major clean and sustainable energy sources. Beside its various advantages, wind energy has a downside that its performance cannot be projected very accurately in the long-term. In this study, we offer an alternative method which can be used to determine the best location to install a wind turbine in a large area aiming maximum energy performance in the long run. For this purpose, a regional climate model (i.e. RegCM4.4) is combined with a software called Winds on Critical Streamline Surfaces (WOCSS) in order to identify wind patterns for any domains even in a changing climate. As a special case, Çanakkale region is examined due to the terrain profile having both coastal and mountainous features. WOCSS program was run twice for each month in the sample years in a double nested fashion, using the provisional RegCM4.4 wind data between years 2020 and 2040. Modified version of WOCSS provides terrain following flow surfaces and by processing those data, it makes a wind profile output for certain heights specified by the user. The computational time of WOCSS is also in reasonable range. Considering the lack of alternative methods for long-term wind performance projection, the model used in this study is a very good way for obtaining quick indications for wind performance taking the impact of the terrain effects into account. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  12. 29 CFR 4211.23 - Approval of alternative method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of alternative method. 4211.23 Section 4211.23... Subject to PBGC Approval § 4211.23 Approval of alternative method. (a) General. The PBGC shall approve an alternative allocation method or modification to an allocation method if the PBGC determines that adoption...

  13. 29 CFR 4211.23 - Approval of alternative method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of alternative method. 4211.23 Section 4211.23... Subject to PBGC Approval § 4211.23 Approval of alternative method. (a) General. The PBGC shall approve an alternative allocation method or modification to an allocation method if the PBGC determines that adoption...

  14. 29 CFR 4211.23 - Approval of alternative method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of alternative method. 4211.23 Section 4211.23... Subject to PBGC Approval § 4211.23 Approval of alternative method. (a) General. The PBGC shall approve an alternative allocation method or modification to an allocation method if the PBGC determines that adoption...

  15. 29 CFR 4211.23 - Approval of alternative method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of alternative method. 4211.23 Section 4211.23... Subject to PBGC Approval § 4211.23 Approval of alternative method. (a) General. The PBGC shall approve an alternative allocation method or modification to an allocation method if the PBGC determines that adoption...

  16. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  17. Alternative Method of Removing Otoliths from Sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths. PMID:27403646

  18. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternative tests. 53.4942(b)-2 Section 53.4942(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Failure To Distribute Income § 53.4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets...

  19. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative tests. 53.4942(b)-2 Section 53.4942(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Failure To Distribute Income § 53.4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets...

  20. An alternative method for cultivation of Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Fabio A; Wattanaphansak, Suphot; Gebhart, Connie J

    2012-03-01

    An alternative method for the cultivation of Lawsonia intracellularis, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of proliferative enteropathy, was developed using an Original Space Bag inflated with a mixture of gas containing 10% hydrogen, 10% carbon dioxide, and 80% nitrogen. The flexibility of this protocol allows the testing of various environmental conditions for static cultivation of this bacterium and the development of diagnostic techniques. PMID:22219308

  1. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  2. 40 CFR 60.1790 - What test methods must I use to stack test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrogen chloride emissions, and the reduction efficiency for mercury emissions. See the individual test... equivalent method, use an alternative method the results of which the Administrator has determined...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1790 - What test methods must I use to stack test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrogen chloride emissions, and the reduction efficiency for mercury emissions. See the individual test... equivalent method, use an alternative method the results of which the Administrator has determined...

  4. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  5. Maggot Debridement: An Alternative Method for Debridement

    PubMed Central

    Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Debridement is an essential component to promote healing in a problem wound. Several techniques are available including maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Objective: To describe the efficacy of MDT for treating problem wound especially diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: The topic is elucidated from different points of view: the mode of action, when to use, use in a practice, clinical results, and discussing the problem of creating evidence for the clinical effect. Results: Literature and own results demonstrate that MDT is a safe method with few side effects. Maggot debridement therapy is as good as or better than conventional often surgical debridement, is more selective than surgical debridement, decreases time to healing and stay of patients in the ward, and may decrease the risk of major amputations. However, the evidence of these effects of MDT on the highest level is presently lacking. A detailed description of how to use MDT in practice is provided including a visual demonstration in a video. Conclusion: In spite of lacking clinical evidence, MDT clinical experience strongly suggests that this technique is effective and safe. It can be used for most types of problem wounds, but our indication is primarily diabetic foot ulcers, because of its selectivity for debriding necrotic dead tissue. It may be a valuable alternative surgical/sharp debridement. PMID:21776326

  6. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of research is currently targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. It is important that the information gained from the alternative tests pr...

  7. Alternative methods to determine headwater benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.S.; Perlack, R.D.; Sale, M.J.

    1997-11-10

    In 1992, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) began using a Flow Duration Analysis (FDA) methodology to assess headwater benefits in river basins where use of the Headwater Benefits Energy Gains (HWBEG) model may not result in significant improvements in modeling accuracy. The purpose of this study is to validate the accuracy and appropriateness of the FDA method for determining energy gains in less complex basins. This report presents the results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) validation of the FDA method. The validation is based on a comparison of energy gains using the FDA method with energy gains calculated using the MWBEG model. Comparisons of energy gains are made on a daily and monthly basis for a complex river basin (the Alabama River Basin) and a basin that is considered relatively simple hydrologically (the Stanislaus River Basin). In addition to validating the FDA method, ORNL was asked to suggest refinements and improvements to the FDA method. Refinements and improvements to the FDA method were carried out using the James River Basin as a test case.

  8. Alternative Evaluation Study: Methods to Mitigate/Accommodate Subsidence for the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County Nevada, with Special Focus on Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, L.

    1997-09-01

    An Alternative Evaluation Study is a type of systematic approach to problem identification and solution. An Alternative Evaluation Study was convened August 12-15, 1997, for the purpose of making recommendations concerning closure of Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl and other disposal cells and mitigation/accommodation of waste subsidence at the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. This report includes results of the Alternative Evaluation Study and specific recommendations.

  9. Demagnetization Tests Performed on a Linear Alternator for a Stirling Power Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    2011-01-01

    Demagnetization temperature of a linear alternator (LA) can be accurately predicted through an analytical Maxwell model. The M-H characteristics of the alternator magnets must be known. Vendor data are given for cube-shaped magnets, and the shape of a LA magnet may affect its magnetic properties. At GRC, M-H data are directly measured for each LA magnet. This method was validated using TDC alternator tests on the Alternator Test Rig. The analytical Maxwell modeling was utilized on a different style linear alternator to predict demagnetization temperatures for the Advanced Stirling Convertor.

  10. Bioconvective Assay As Alternative To Draize Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.

    1993-01-01

    Protocol to determine toxicities of chemicals implemented relatively cheaply by use of equipment and materials packaged in convenient kit form. Tests involve observation of macroscopic patterns formed at high concentrations of free-swimming protozoan species Tetrahymena pyriformis in liquid media. Provides more-sensitive indication of toxicity and costs less. Given that there are no data on toxicities of 70 to 80 percent of commercial chemicals, high cost of, and current opposition to, testing on higher animals, new protocol helps meet pressing need.

  11. Alternating direction method for balanced image restoration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shoulie; Rahardja, Susanto

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for solving a balanced regularization problem in the frame-based image restoration. The balanced regularization is usually formulated as a minimization problem, involving an l(2) data-fidelity term, an l(1) regularizer on sparsity of frame coefficients, and a penalty on distance of sparse frame coefficients to the range of the frame operator. In image restoration, the balanced regularization approach bridges the synthesis-based and analysis-based approaches, and balances the fidelity, sparsity, and smoothness of the solution. Our proposed algorithm for solving the balanced optimal problem is based on a variable splitting strategy and the classical alternating direction method. This paper shows that the proposed algorithm is fast and efficient in solving the standard image restoration with balanced regularization. More precisely, a regularized version of the Hessian matrix of the l(2) data-fidelity term is involved, and by exploiting the related fast tight Parseval frame and the special structures of the observation matrices, the regularized Hessian matrix can perform quite efficiently for the frame-based standard image restoration applications, such as circular deconvolution in image deblurring and missing samples in image inpainting. Numerical simulations illustrate the efficiency of our proposed algorithm in the frame-based image restoration with balanced regularization. PMID:22752137

  12. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  13. An Alternate Method to Springback Compensation for Sheet Metal Forming

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Badrul; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) is conducted by firstly employing DA method followed by the SF method instead of either DA or SF method individually. The springback shape and the target part are used to optimize the die surfaces compensating springback. The hybrid method (HM) algorithm has been coded in Fortran and tested in two- and three-dimensional models. By implementing the HM, the springback error can be decreased and the dimensional deviation falls in the predefined tolerance range. PMID:25165738

  14. An alternate method to springback compensation for sheet metal forming.

    PubMed

    Siswanto, Waluyo Adi; Anggono, Agus Dwi; Omar, Badrul; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) is conducted by firstly employing DA method followed by the SF method instead of either DA or SF method individually. The springback shape and the target part are used to optimize the die surfaces compensating springback. The hybrid method (HM) algorithm has been coded in Fortran and tested in two- and three-dimensional models. By implementing the HM, the springback error can be decreased and the dimensional deviation falls in the predefined tolerance range. PMID:25165738

  15. Alternative methods for the design of jet engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Leake, R. J.; Basso, R.; Gejji, R.; Maloney, A.; Seshadri, V.

    1976-01-01

    Various alternatives to linear quadratic design methods for jet engine control systems are discussed. The main alternatives are classified into two broad categories: nonlinear global mathematical programming methods and linear local multivariable frequency domain methods. Specific studies within these categories include model reduction, the eigenvalue locus method, the inverse Nyquist method, polynomial design, dynamic programming, and conjugate gradient approaches.

  16. An Alternative Field Method for Screening Soybean Genotypes for Resistance to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, N. E.; Mauro, A. O.; Tihohood, D.

    1998-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) has become an increasingly severe problem in soybean production areas in Brazil. The development and use of resistant cultivars is the most efficient method of minimizing losses due to this pathogen. Our objective was to test the efficiency of an alternative method for screening soybean genotypes for resistance to H. glycines in field plots. The alternative method was compared to the standard method of sowing the test genotypes in fields found to be infested during the previous crop season. In the alternative method, the test genotypes are sown in the furrow following the uprooting of 45-day-old infected plants. The alternative method resulted in twice the cyst population and fewer escapes, and more consistent results than the standard method. The major advantage of the alternative method is that it permits screening in a more homogeneous distribution of H. glycines in the soil. PMID:19274244

  17. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes. PMID:27478491

  18. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing. PMID:11955681

  19. Alternative haplotype construction methods for genomic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jónás, Dávid; Ducrocq, Vincent; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Croiseau, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Genomic evaluation methods today use single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) as genomic markers to trace quantitative trait loci (QTL). Today most genomic prediction procedures use biallelic SNP markers. However, SNP can be combined into short, multiallelic haplotypes that can improve genomic prediction due to higher linkage disequilibrium between the haplotypes and the linked QTL. The aim of this study was to develop a method to identify the haplotypes, which can be expected to be superior in genomic evaluation, as compared with either SNP or other haplotypes of the same size. We first identified the SNP (termed as QTL-SNP) from the bovine 50K SNP chip that had the largest effect on the analyzed trait. It was assumed that these SNP were not the causative mutations and they merely indicated the approximate location of the QTL. Haplotypes of 3, 4, or 5 SNP were selected from short genomic windows surrounding these markers to capture the effect of the QTL. Two methods described in this paper aim at selecting the most optimal haplotype for genomic evaluation. They assumed that if an allele has a high frequency, its allele effect can be accurately predicted. These methods were tested in a classical validation study using a dairy cattle population of 2,235 bulls with genotypes from the bovine 50K SNP chip and daughter yield deviations (DYD) on 5 dairy cattle production traits. Combining the SNP into haplotypes was beneficial with all tested haplotypes, leading to an average increase of 2% in terms of correlations between DYD and genomic breeding value estimates compared with the analysis when the same SNP were used individually. Compared with haplotypes built by merging the QTL-SNP with its flanking SNP, the haplotypes selected with the proposed criteria carried less under- and over-represented alleles: the proportion of alleles with frequencies <1 or >40% decreased, on average, by 17.4 and 43.4%, respectively. The correlations between DYD and genomic breeding value

  20. Alternative Test Criteria in Covariance Structure Analysis: A Unified Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satorra, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Within covariance structural analysis, a unified approach to asymptotic theory of alternative test criteria for testing parametric restrictions is provided. More general statistics for addressing the case where the discrepancy function is not asymptotically optimal, and issues concerning power analysis and the asymptotic theory of testing-related…

  1. Methods for generating hydroelectric power development alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shoou-yuh; Liaw, Shu-liang; Sale, M.J.; Railsback, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Hydropower development on large rivers can result in a number of environmental impacts, including potential reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. This study presents a methodology for generating different hydropower development alternatives for evaluation. This methodology employs a Streeter-Phelps model to simulate DO, and the Bounded Implicit Enumeration algorithm to solve an optimization model formulated to maximize hydroelectric energy production subject to acceptable DO limits. The upper Ohio River basin was used to illustrate the use and characteristics of the methodology. The results indicate that several alternatives which meet the specified DO constraints can be generated efficiently, meeting both power and environmental objectives. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Demagnetization Tests Performed on a Linear Alternator for a Stirling Power Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is conducting in-house research on rare-earth permanent magnets and linear alternators to assist in developing free-piston Stirling convertors for radioisotope space power systems and for developing advanced linear alternator technology. This research continues at GRC, but, with the exception of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator references, the work presented in this paper was conducted in 2005. A special arc-magnet characterization fixture was designed and built to measure the M-H characteristics of the magnets used in Technology Demonstration Convertors developed under the 110-W Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) project. This fixture was used to measure these characteristics of the arc magnets and to predict alternator demagnetization temperatures in the SRG110 application. Demagnetization tests using the TDC alternator on the Alternator Test Rig were conducted for two different magnet grades: Sumitomo Neomax 44AH and 42AH. The purpose of these tests was to determine the demagnetization temperatures of the magnets for the alternator under nominal loads. Measurements made during the tests included the linear alternator terminal voltage, current, average power, magnet temperatures, and stator temperatures. The results of these tests were found to be in good agreement with predictions. Alternator demagnetization temperatures in the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-developed under the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator project) were predicted as well because the prediction method had been validated through the SRG110 alternator tests. These predictions led to a specification for maximum temperatures of the ASC pressure vessel.

  3. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...

  4. 27 CFR 26.331 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... into the United States from Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands who desires to use an alternate method or procedure in lieu of a method or procedure prescribed by this part shall file application, in triplicate... use such alternate method or procedure, a separate application shall be submitted for each....

  5. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars in accordance with § 218.75 or § 218.77, the following methods of protection may be used: (a) When occupied...

  6. 49 CFR 218.29 - Alternate methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate methods of protection. 218.29 Section....29 Alternate methods of protection. Instead of providing blue signal protection for workers in accordance with § 218.27, the following methods for blue signal protection may be used: (a) When workers...

  7. Searching for Alternatives to Standardized Tests: Whys, Whats, and Whithers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Walter; Madaus, George

    1989-01-01

    The continuing interest in standardized testing alternatives suggests that the make-a-better-mousetrap mentality still flourishes in education and employment assessment circles. Some promising new testing technologies might broaden the range of human talents assessed. However, educators must refuse to accept bondage to any single technology, no…

  8. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  9. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Failure To Distribute Income § 53.4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets test—(1) In general. A private foundation will satisfy the assets test under the provisions of this paragraph if substantially more than half of the...

  10. An Alternative Approach to Test Analysis and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This reflection paper challenges current test scoring practices on the grounds that most wrong-answer selections are thoughtful not random, presenting research supporting this proposition. An alternative test scoring system is presented, described and its outcomes discussed. This new scoring system increases the number of variables considered,…

  11. Purposeful Language Assessment: Selecting the Right Alternative Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Language teachers are often faced with the responsibility of selecting or developing language tests for their classrooms and programs. However, deciding which testing alternatives are the most appropriate for a particular language education context can be daunting, especially given the increasing variety of instruments, procedures, and practices…

  12. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... determined the energy efficiency of the basic model, either from testing the basic model or from applying...

  13. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... determined the energy efficiency of the basic model, either from testing the basic model or from applying...

  14. Towards an alternative testing strategy for nanomaterials used in nanomedicine: lessons from NanoTEST.

    PubMed

    Dusinska, M; Boland, S; Saunders, M; Juillerat-Jeanneret, L; Tran, L; Pojana, G; Marcomini, A; Volkovova, K; Tulinska, J; Knudsen, L E; Gombau, L; Whelan, M; Collins, A R; Marano, F; Housiadas, C; Bilanicova, D; Halamoda Kenzaoui, B; Correia Carreira, S; Magdolenova, Z; Fjellsbø, L M; Huk, A; Handy, R; Walker, L; Barancokova, M; Bartonova, A; Burello, E; Castell, J; Cowie, H; Drlickova, M; Guadagnini, R; Harris, G; Harju, M; Heimstad, E S; Hurbankova, M; Kazimirova, A; Kovacikova, Z; Kuricova, M; Liskova, A; Milcamps, A; Neubauerova, E; Palosaari, T; Papazafiri, P; Pilou, M; Poulsen, M S; Ross, B; Runden-Pran, E; Sebekova, K; Staruchova, M; Vallotto, D; Worth, A

    2015-05-01

    In spite of recent advances in describing the health outcomes of exposure to nanoparticles (NPs), it still remains unclear how exactly NPs interact with their cellular targets. Size, surface, mass, geometry, and composition may all play a beneficial role as well as causing toxicity. Concerns of scientists, politicians and the public about potential health hazards associated with NPs need to be answered. With the variety of exposure routes available, there is potential for NPs to reach every organ in the body but we know little about the impact this might have. The main objective of the FP7 NanoTEST project ( www.nanotest-fp7.eu ) was a better understanding of mechanisms of interactions of NPs employed in nanomedicine with cells, tissues and organs and to address critical issues relating to toxicity testing especially with respect to alternatives to tests on animals. Here we describe an approach towards alternative testing strategies for hazard and risk assessment of nanomaterials, highlighting the adaptation of standard methods demanded by the special physicochemical features of nanomaterials and bioavailability studies. The work has assessed a broad range of toxicity tests, cell models and NP types and concentrations taking into account the inherent impact of NP properties and the effects of changes in experimental conditions using well-characterized NPs. The results of the studies have been used to generate recommendations for a suitable and robust testing strategy which can be applied to new medical NPs as they are developed. PMID:25923349

  15. Evaluation of modal testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-C.

    1984-01-01

    Modal tests are playing an increasingly important role in structural dynamics efforts which are in need of analytical model verification or trouble shootings. In the meantime, the existing modal testing methods are undergoing great changes as well as new methods are being created. Although devoted advocates of each method can be found to argue the relative advantages and disadvantages, the general superiority, if any, of one or the other is not yet evident. The Galileo spacecraft, a realistic, complex structural system, will be used as a test article for performing modal tests by various methods. The results will be used to evaluate the relative merits of the various modal testing methods.

  16. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Miscellaneous Provisions § 27.221 Alternate methods or procedures. (a) Application. An importer who desires to... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods...

  17. 7 CFR 3565.455 - Alternative disposition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative disposition methods. 3565.455 Section 3565.455 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....455 Alternative disposition methods. The Agency, in its sole discretion, may choose to obtain...

  18. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale....

  19. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section 218.79 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars...

  20. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale....

  1. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section 218.79 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars...

  2. 26 CFR 403.55 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 403.55 Section 403.55 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Alternative methods of sale. When personal property forfeited administratively is to be sold, the...

  3. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section 218.79 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars...

  4. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section 218.79 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars...

  5. 7 CFR 3565.455 - Alternative disposition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative disposition methods. 3565.455 Section 3565.455 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....455 Alternative disposition methods. The Agency, in its sole discretion, may choose to obtain...

  6. 7 CFR 3565.455 - Alternative disposition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative disposition methods. 3565.455 Section 3565.455 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....455 Alternative disposition methods. The Agency, in its sole discretion, may choose to obtain...

  7. 26 CFR 403.55 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 403.55 Section 403.55 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Alternative methods of sale. When personal property forfeited administratively is to be sold, the...

  8. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale. (a) Sale by...

  9. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale....

  10. 7 CFR 3565.455 - Alternative disposition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative disposition methods. 3565.455 Section 3565.455 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....455 Alternative disposition methods. The Agency, in its sole discretion, may choose to obtain...

  11. Alternate Conceptions of Preservice Elementary Teachers: The Itakura Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effectiveness of the inquiry-based Itakura method for mediating alternate conceptions of preservice elementary teachers (N = 38) in an integrated mathematics, science, and technology methods course. We investigated alternate conceptions in the expansion of solids due to heating. There was a significant increase in…

  12. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  13. Methods for Scaling Icing Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests at NASA Lewis to evaluate several methods to establish suitable alternative test conditions when the test facility limits the model size or operating conditions. The first method was proposed by Olsen. It can be applied when full-size models are tested and all the desired test conditions except liquid-water content can be obtained in the facility. The other two methods discussed are: a modification of the French scaling law and the AEDC scaling method. Icing tests were made with cylinders at both reference and scaled conditions representing mixed and glaze ice in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Reference and scale ice shapes were compared to evaluate each method. The Olsen method was tested with liquid-water content varying from 1.3 to .8 g/m(exp3). Over this range, ice shapes produced using the Olsen method were unchanged. The modified French and AEDC methods produced scaled ice shapes which approximated the reference shapes when model size was reduced to half the reference size for the glaze-ice cases tested.

  14. Alternative Testing Strategies for Nanomaterials: State of the Science and Considerations for Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, K J

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry has warranted equal progress in the nanotoxicology and risk assessment fields. In vivo models have traditionally been used to determine human and environmental risk for chemicals; however, the use of these tests has limitations, and there are global appeals to develop reliable alternatives to animal testing. Many have investigated the use of alternative (nonanimal) testing methods and strategies have quickly developed and resulted in the generation of large toxicological data sets for numerous nanomaterials (NMs). Due to the novel physicochemical properties of NMs that are related to surface characteristics, the approach toward toxicity test development has distinct considerations from traditional chemicals, bringing new requirements for adapting these approaches for NMs. The methodical development of strategies that combine multiple alternative tests can be useful for predictive NM risk assessment and help screening-level decision making. This article provides an overview of the main developments in alternative methods and strategies for reducing uncertainty in NM risk assessment, including advantages and disadvantages of in vitro, ex vivo, and in silico methods, and examples of existing comprehensive strategies. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified toward improvements for experimental and strategy design, specifically highlighting the need to represent realistic exposure scenarios and to consider NM-specific concerns such as characterization, assay interferences, and standardization. Overall, this article aims to improve the reliability and utility of alternative testing methods and strategies for risk assessment of manufactured NMs. PMID:27273523

  15. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  16. 40 CFR 136.4 - Application for alternate test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Office of Science and Technology (4303), Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200... procedures. 136.4 Section 136.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... the alternate test procedure to the pollutant(s) or parameter(s) in waste water discharges...

  17. 40 CFR 205.167 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of alternative test procedures. 205.167 Section 205.167 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust...

  18. 40 CFR 205.167 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Consideration of alternative test procedures. 205.167 Section 205.167 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust...

  19. 40 CFR 205.167 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration of alternative test procedures. 205.167 Section 205.167 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust...

  20. 40 CFR 205.167 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consideration of alternative test procedures. 205.167 Section 205.167 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust...

  1. 40 CFR 205.167 - Consideration of alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consideration of alternative test procedures. 205.167 Section 205.167 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust...

  2. 40 CFR 85.1414 - Alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative test procedures. 85.1414 Section 85.1414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1414...

  3. Alternative Structures and Methods in Teacher Education. Report of a Technical Working Group (Kathmandu, Nepal, October 21-30, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Asian Inst. for Teacher Educators.

    The technical working group meeting on alternative structures and methods in teacher education met to: 1) examine case studies prepared on alternative structures and methods in teacher education and other relevant materials; 2) prepare models of alternative structures and methods in teacher training; and 3) make suggestions on field-testing of…

  4. PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Va'vra, J.

    2011-05-01

    In this review article we discuss the recent progress in PID techniques other than the RICH methods. In particular we mention the recent progress in the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), d E/d x cluster counting, and Time of Flight (TOF) techniques. Invited talk at RICH 2010, May 5, Cassis, France

  5. ALTERNATIVE IONIZATION METHODS FOR PARTICLE MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to enhance the capabilities of a real-time airborne particle mass spectrometer by implementing matrix-independent methods for sample ionization. The enhancements should result in improved sensitivity for trace substances and, more importantly, per...

  6. Creating Alternative Methods for Educational Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nick L.

    1981-01-01

    A project supported by the National Institute of Education is adapting evaluation procedures from such areas as philosophy, geography, operations research, journalism, film criticism, and other areas. The need for such methods is reviewed, as is the context in which they function, and their contributions to evaluation methodology. (Author/GK)

  7. Invertebrates in testing of environmental chemicals: are they alternatives?

    PubMed Central

    Lagadic, L; Caquet, T

    1998-01-01

    An enlarged interpretation of alternatives in toxicology testing includes the replacement of one animal species with another, preferably a nonmammalian species. This paper reviews the potential of invertebrates in testing environmental chemicals and provides evidence of their usefulness in alternative testing methodologies. The first part of this review addresses the use of invertebrates in laboratory toxicology testing. Problems in extrapolating results obtained in invertebrates to those obtained from vertebrates are noted, suggesting that invertebrates can essentially be used in addition to rather than as replacements for vertebrates in laboratory toxicity tests. However, evaluation of the ecologic impact of environmental chemicals must include defining end points that may frequently differ from those classically used in biomedical research. In this context, alternative approaches using invertebrates may be more pertinent. The second part of the review therefore focuses on the use of invertebrates in situ to assess the environmental impact of pollutants. Advantages of invertebrates in ecotoxicologic investigation are presented for their usefulness for seeking mechanistic links between effects occurring at the individual level and consequences for higher levels of biologic organization (e.g., population and community). In the end, it is considered that replacement of vertebrates by invertebrates in ecotoxicity testing is likely to become a reality when basic knowledge of metabolic, physiologic, and developmental patterns in the latter will be sufficient to assess the effect of a given chemical through end points that could be different between invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:9599707

  8. An update on testing of CFC alternatives for electronics manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Higbie, E.

    1995-12-31

    The Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF) is a U.S. Navy Center of Excellence tasked to do research in electronics manufacturing. The EMPF has performed extensive research on various cleaning materials and processes for printed circuit board assemblers. The flagship of the EMPF cleaning projects has been a joint effort with other Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits (IPC) to find alternatives to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based solvents for cleaning electronics. The group established a 3-phase test plan that is used to evaluate new alternative materials and processes. Phase 1 characterizes the cleaning ability of a CFC-based solvent and establishes the cleanliness results as a benchmark to which alternative candidates are compared. Phase 2 uses the same manufacturing processes and procedures that were established in Phase 1, changing only the cleaning process to the alternative candidate. Phase 3 examines the potential use of alternative manufacturing processes such as, water soluble fluxes with aqueous cleaning, low residue fluxes with no cleaning and Controlled Atmosphere Soldering (CAS) using adipic and formic acids as a {open_quotes}flux{close_quotes} with no cleaning. This paper is an update on the ongoing study and description of some of the alternative processes.

  9. ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD (AACM) RESEARCH - BALTIMORE, MD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  10. Alternative methods for characterization of extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Balaj, Leonora; Alian, Sara; Tigges, John; Toxavidis, Vasilis; Ericsson, Maria; Distel, Robert J; Ivanov, Alexander R; Skog, Johan; Kuo, Winston Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (ECVs) are nano-sized vesicles released by all cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Their role has been implicated mainly in cell-cell communication, but also in disease biomarkers and more recently in gene delivery. They represent a snapshot of the cell status at the moment of release and carry bioreactive macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. A major limitation in this emerging new field is the availability/awareness of techniques to isolate and properly characterize ECVs. The lack of gold standards makes comparing different studies very difficult and may potentially hinder some ECVs-specific evidence. Characterization of ECVs has also recently seen many advances with the use of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, flow cytometry, cryo-electron microscopy instruments, and proteomic technologies. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in translational technologies involving characterization methods including the facts in their support and the challenges they face. PMID:22973237

  11. Alternative Methods for Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Balaj, Leonora; Alian, Sara; Tigges, John; Toxavidis, Vasilis; Ericsson, Maria; Distel, Robert J.; Ivanov, Alexander R.; Skog, Johan; Kuo, Winston Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (ECVs) are nano-sized vesicles released by all cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Their role has been implicated mainly in cell–cell communication, but also in disease biomarkers and more recently in gene delivery. They represent a snapshot of the cell status at the moment of release and carry bioreactive macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. A major limitation in this emerging new field is the availability/awareness of techniques to isolate and properly characterize ECVs. The lack of gold standards makes comparing different studies very difficult and may potentially hinder some ECVs-specific evidence. Characterization of ECVs has also recently seen many advances with the use of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, flow cytometry, cryo-electron microscopy instruments, and proteomic technologies. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in translational technologies involving characterization methods including the facts in their support and the challenges they face. PMID:22973237

  12. Superitem Test: An Alternative Assessment Tool to Assess Students' Algebraic Solving Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam; Idris, Noraini

    2010-01-01

    Superitem test based on the SOLO model (Structure of the Observing Learning Outcome) has become a powerful alternative assessment tool for monitoring the growth of students' cognitive ability in solving mathematics problems. This article focused on developing a superitem test to assess students' algebraic solving ability through interview method.…

  13. A Simple Alternative to the IMViC Test in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a singular alternative to the Indole Methyl-red Voges-Proskauer Citrate (IMViC) test that uses bile-esculin agar to distinguish between the Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria. Includes materials and methods, results, and conclusions for the test. (MDH)

  14. Bending fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes under alternating stress at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a testing method for fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes containing a small amount of SiC filaments under alternating stress is reported. The fatigue strength curves resulting for this composite are discussed. They permit an estimate of its behavior under continuous stress and in combination with various other matrices, especially metal matrices.

  15. An Alternative Method for Multiplication of Rhotrices. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, an alternative multiplication method for rhotrices is proposed. The method establishes some relationships between rhotrices and matrices. This article has discussed a modified multiplication method for rhotrices. The method has a direct relationship with matrix multiplication, and so rhotrices under this multiplication procedure…

  16. Alternative methods of conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Zarzycka, Maja; Rozek, Karina; Zarzycki, Michał

    2009-01-01

    Scoliosis is a deformity of the spine known since Hippocrates times. The value of certain methods of conservative treatment remains controversial. Some of them have only a psychological value both for the physician and his or her caregivers. Based on current literature and the Scoliosis Research Society Report of Alternative Methods of Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis, we describe the effectiveness of various alternative methods, such as exercise, Dobosiewicz technique, Karski method, SEAS 02, acupuncture, Alexander technique, aromatherapy, ayurveda, ASCO treatment, biofeedback, chiropractic, Yoga, Feldenkrais method, Pilates method, massage therapy, rolfing, magnet therapy, surface electrical stimulation, PNF, Copes system, and bracing. PMID:19920282

  17. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Zaihuan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387

  18. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zaihuan; Shen, Wei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387

  19. PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vavra, J.; /SLAC

    2011-03-01

    In this review article we discuss the recent progress in PID techniques other than the RICH methods. In particular we mention the recent progress in the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), dE/dx cluster counting, and Time Of Flight (TOF) techniques. The TRD technique is mature and has been tried in many hadron colliders. It needs space though, about 20cm of detector radial space for every factor of 10 in the {pi}/e rejection power, and this tends to make such detectors large. Although the cluster counting technique is an old idea, it was never tried in a real physics experiment. Recently, there are efforts to revive it for the SuperB experiment using He-based gases and waveform digitizing electronics. A factor of almost 2 improvement, compared to the classical dE/dx performance, is possible in principle. However, the complexity of the data analysis will be substantial. The TOF technique is well established, but introduction of new fast MCP-PMT and G-APD detectors creates new possibilities. It seems that resolutions below 20-30ps may be possible at some point in the future with relatively small systems, and perhaps this could be pushed down to 10-15ps with very small systems, assuming that one can solve many systematic issues. However, the cost, rate limitation, aging and cross-talk in multi-anode devices at high BW are problems. There are several groups working on these issues, so progress is likely. Table 6 summarizes the author's opinion of pros and cons of various detectors presented in this paper based on their operational capabilities. We refer the reader to Ref.40 for discussion of other more general limits from the PID point of view.

  20. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  1. A Modified Alternating Direction Method for Variational Inequality Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.

    2002-07-01

    The alternating direction method is an attractive method for solving large-scale variational inequality problems whenever the subproblems can be solved efficiently. However, the subproblems are still variational inequality problems, which are as structurally difficult to solve as the original one. To overcome this disadvantage, in this paper we propose a new alternating direction method for solving a class of nonlinear monotone variational inequality problems. In each iteration the method just makes an orthogonal projection to a simple set and some function evaluations. We report some preliminary computational results to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  2. Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vineyard, E. A.; Sand, J. R.; Miller, W. A.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising, changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve performance.

  3. 77 FR 32038 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... the Federal Register on April 18, 2011. 76 FR 21673. The RFI requested suggestions, comments, and... ;dct=FR%252BPR%252BN%252BO%252BSR%252BPS;rpp=25;po=0;D=EER E-2011-BT-TP-0024. Table II.1--Stakeholders... Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  4. Development of an in vitro antigen-detection test as an alternative method to the in vivo plaque reduction neutralization test for the quality control of Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Keun; Kim, Hye-Youn; Kim, Joo-Young; Ye, Michael B; Park, Kee-Bum; Han, Euiri; Kim, Jaeok; Ja Ban, Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa; Park, Yong Keun; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2012-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes diseases that attack the human central nervous system. Traditionally, the quality control for JEV vaccines, in which the plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) titer is measured by the national control laboratories before the vaccine batches are marketed, has required laboratory animal testing. However, classical animal tests have inherent problems, including the very fact that animals are used, ethical issues, and the possibility of error. In this study, JEV antigen was measured in an in vitro assay to assess the feasibility of replacing in vivo assays that measure the PRN titers of JEV vaccines. We constructed a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DS-ELISA) that could detect JEV envelope (E). Initially, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the JEV E protein were generated and characterized. We isolated 18 mAbs against JEV E protein, and most were the IgG1 or IgG2a isotype. The mAbs (5F15 and 7D71) were selected as the most suitable mAb pair to detect JEV E protein. DS-ELISA with this pair detected as little as approximately 3 μg/mL JEV E protein and demonstrated a relationship between the amount of JEV E protein and the PRN titer. From these results, we surmise that this DS-ELISA may be useful, not only in terms of measuring the amount of JEV E protein, but also as a substitute for the PRN test for JEV vaccine evaluation. PMID:22486472

  5. Alternate bearing design fabrication and test program, exhibit B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A 50 ft-lb-sec (FPS) reaction wheel was modified with an ironless armature brushless dc motor and a magnetic bearing suspension. The purpose was to demonstrate the performance of an alternate bearing concept, i.e., a magnetic bearing suspension, which could be used in Skylab type CMG's to meet the attitude control requirements of long term space stations. A magnetic suspension was built, installed and tested in the 50 FPS reaction wheel. A secondary effort included the build and test of a compatible reaction wheel motor. Performance characteristics of both are presented and discussed.

  6. Test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minguet, Pierre J.; Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian K.

    1994-01-01

    Various test methods commonly used for measuring properties of tape laminate composites were evaluated to determine their suitability for the testing of textile composites. Three different types of textile composites were utilized in this investigation: two-dimensional (2-D) triaxial braids, stitched uniweave fabric, and three-dimensional (3-D) interlock woven fabric. Four 2-D braid architectures, five stitched laminates, and six 3-D woven architectures were tested. All preforms used AS4 fibers and were resin-transfer-molded with Shell RSL-1895 epoxy resin. Ten categories of material properties were investigated: tension, open-hole tension, compression, open-hole compression, in-plane shear, filled-hole tension, bolt bearing, interlaminar tension, interlaminar shear, and interlaminar fracture toughness. Different test methods and specimen sizes were considered for each category of test. Strength and stiffness properties obtained with each of these methods are documented in this report for all the material systems mentioned above.

  7. Alternatives to ozone depleting refrigerants in test equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Richard L.; Johnson, Madeleine R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the initial results of a refrigerant retrofit project at the Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center (AGMC) at Newark Air Force Base, Ohio. The objective is to convert selected types of test equipment to properly operate on hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) alternative refrigerants, having no ozone depleting potential, without compromising system reliability or durability. This paper discusses the primary technical issues and summarizes the test results for 17 different types of test equipment: ten environmental chambers, two ultralow temperature freezers, two coolant recirculators, one temperature control unit, one vapor degreaser, and one refrigerant recovery system. The postconversion performance test results have been very encouraging: system capacity and input power remained virtually unchanged. In some cases, the minimum operating temperature increased by a few degrees as a result of the conversion, but never beyond AGMC's functional requirements.

  8. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to simulate expected ranges of mercury

  9. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods.

    PubMed

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion and the bacterial density cannot be estimated separately, not even in a multiple dilution experiment. Only the product can be estimated, changing the interpretation of the most probable number estimator. The asymptotic power of the likelihood ratio statistic for comparing an alternative method with the compendial method, is optimal for a single dilution experiment. The bacterial density should either be close to two CFUs per test unit or equal to zero, depending on differences in the model parameters between the two test methods. The proposed strategy for method validation is to use these two dilutions and test for differences in the two model parameters, addressing the validation parameters specificity and accuracy. Robustness of these two parameters might still be required, but all other validation parameters can be omitted. A confidence interval-based approach for the ratio of the detection proportions for the two methods is recommended, since it is most informative and close to the power of the likelihood ratio test. PMID:25412584

  10. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - St. Louis, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  11. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Wisconsin Dells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  12. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  13. 27 CFR 24.22 - Alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate method or procedure. 24.22 Section 24.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... purpose of, and consistent with the effect intended by, the specifically prescribed method or...

  14. 49 CFR 218.29 - Alternate methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.29 Alternate methods of protection. Instead of providing blue signal protection for workers in accordance with § 218.27, the following methods for blue signal protection may be used: (a) When workers...

  15. An alternative calibration method for counting P-32 reactor monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, T.J.; Vehar, D.W.

    2011-07-01

    Radioactivation of sulfur is a common technique used to measure fast neutron fluences in test and research reactors. Elemental sulfur can be pressed into pellets and used as monitors. The {sup 32}S(n, p) {sup 32}P reaction has a practical threshold of about 3 MeV and its cross section and associated uncertainties are well characterized [1]. The product {sup 32P} emits a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1710 keV [2]. This energetic beta particle allows pellets to be counted intact. ASTM Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32 (E265) [3] details a method of calibration for counting systems and subsequent analysis of results. This method requires irradiation of sulfur monitors in a fast-neutron field whose spectrum and intensity are well known. The resultant decay-corrected count rate is then correlated to the known fast neutron fluence. The Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia has traditionally performed calibration irradiations of sulfur pellets using the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron source at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) [4] as a transfer standard. However, decay has reduced the intensity of NIST's source; thus lowering the practical upper limits of available fluence. As of May 2010, neutron emission rates have decayed to approximately 3 e8 n/s. In practice, this degradation of capabilities precludes calibrations at the highest fluence levels produced at test reactors and limits the useful range of count rates that can be measured. Furthermore, the reduced availability of replacement {sup 252}Cf threatens the long-term viability of the NIST {sup 252}Cf facility for sulfur pellet calibrations. In lieu of correlating count rate to neutron fluence in a reference field the total quantity of {sup 32}P produced in a pellet can be determined by absolute counting methods. This offers an attractive alternative to extended {sup 252}Cf exposures because it

  16. Operational Results From a High Power Alternator Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and its interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the current Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. These results successfully demonstrated excellent ATU power bus characteristics and rectified user load power quality during steady state and transient conditions. Information gained from this work could be used to assist the design and primary power quality considerations for a possible future FSPS. This paper describes the LPSF components and some preliminary test results.

  17. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36

  18. 77 FR 47361 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test... series of projects and tests throughout the decade. Contact involving cellular telephone numbers, text... mail, landline telephone, and internet modes. The 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test is the...

  19. 77 FR 41370 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test... series of projects and tests throughout the decade. Contact involving cellular telephone numbers, text... mail, landline telephone, and internet modes. The 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test is the...

  20. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  1. Alternating method applied to edge and surface crack problems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartranft, R. J.; Sih, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The alternating method, which intimately combines analytical results with numerical calculations, as applied to edge crack problems in two dimensions and surface crack problems in three dimensions, is treated. The case of a crack perpendicular to the edge of a semiinfinite material is considered. One of the crack geometries that has received continual interest in fracture mechanics is that of a semielliptical crack whose major axis lies on a stress free surface. In order to demonstrate the sensitivity of the solution to the influence of the free surface the semicircular crack problem is again treated by the alternating method.

  2. The Effects of Alternative Study Guide Labels on Testing in Developmental Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Shellie Calhoun

    2012-01-01

    Methods and teaching tools have been researched to determine if they prove to be successful in effectively teaching the underprepared. This study was conducted to compare the differences in the utilization of alternative labeling on study guides to determine if the usage affects the outcome on participant's test scores. A quasi-experimental…

  3. Alternatives to in vivo Tests to Detect Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in Fish and Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of current research in risk assessment of chemicals is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, replace or refine the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. In 2009, the US EPA began implementation of t...

  4. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    Background An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be <1 cm in size. The tumor is characterized by night-time pain that may be relieved by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoid osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. Material/Methods In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. Results Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. Conclusions The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment. PMID:26898923

  5. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a

  6. 27 CFR 18.13 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 18.13 Section 18.13 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE...

  7. 27 CFR 18.13 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 18.13 Section 18.13 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE...

  8. 27 CFR 41.26 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 41.26 Section 41.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO General §...

  9. 27 CFR 40.45 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 40.45 Section 40.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED...

  10. 27 CFR 40.385 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 40.385 Section 40.385 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED...