Science.gov

Sample records for alters maize nad-dependent

  1. Mild reductions in mitochondrial NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity result in altered nitrate assimilation and pigmentation but do not impact growth.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz-Porzucek, Agata; Sulpice, Ronan; Osorio, Sonia; Krahnert, Ina; Leisse, Andrea; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Hodges, Michael; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were generated expressing a fragment of the mitochondrial NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (SlIDH1) in the antisense orientation. The transgenic plants displayed a mild reduction in the activity of the target enzyme in the leaves but essentially no visible alteration in growth from the wild-type. Fruit size and yield were, however, reduced. These plants were characterized by relatively few changes in photosynthetic parameters, but they displayed a minor decrease in maximum photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm). Furthermore, a clear reduction in flux through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed in the transformants. Additionally, biochemical analyses revealed that the transgenic lines exhibited considerably altered metabolism, being characterized by slight decreases in the levels of amino acids, intermediates of the TCA cycle, photosynthetic pigments, starch, and NAD(P)H levels, but increased levels of nitrate and protein. Results from these studies show that even small changes in mitochondrial NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity lead to noticeable alterations in nitrate assimilation and suggest the presence of different strategies by which metabolism is reprogrammed to compensate for this deficiency. PMID:20035036

  2. Genetic analysis of central carbon metabolism unveils an amino acid substitution that alters maize NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central carbon metabolism (CCM) is a fundamental component of life. The participating genes and enzymes are thought to be structurally and functionally conserved across and within species and thus have not been obvious targets as candidates for crop improvement. We test this functional conservatio...

  3. NAD + -dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Alekseeva, A.A.; Savin, S.S.; Tishkov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2) widely occurs in nature. FDH consists of two identical subunits and contains neither prosthetic groups nor metal ions. This type of FDH was found in different microorganisms (including pathogenic ones), such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants. As opposed to microbiological FDHs functioning in cytoplasm, plant FDHs localize in mitochondria. Formate dehydrogenase activity was first discovered as early as in 1921 in plant; however, until the past decade FDHs from plants had been considerably less studied than the enzymes from microorganisms. This review summarizes the recent results on studying the physiological role, properties, structure, and protein engineering of plant formate dehydrogenases. PMID:22649703

  4. Structural Basis of Inhibition of the Human NAD+ -Dependent Deacetylase SIRT5 by Suramin

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz,A.; Min, J.; Antoshenko, T.; Wang, C.; Allali-Hassani, A.; Dong, A.; Loppnau, P.; vedadi, M.; Bochkarev, A.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and are emerging as molecular targets for the development of pharmaceuticals to treat human metabolic and neurological diseases and cancer. To date, several sirtuin inhibitors and activators have been identified, but the structural mechanisms of how these compounds modulate sirtuin activity have not yet been determined. We identified suramin as a compound that binds to human SIRT5 and showed that it inhibits SIRT5 NAD+-dependent deacetylase activity with an IC50 value of 22 {mu}M. To provide insights into how sirtuin function is altered by inhibitors, we determined two crystal structures of SIRT5, one in complex with ADP-ribose, the other bound to suramin. Our structural studies provide a view of a synthetic inhibitory compound in a sirtuin active site revealing that suramin binds into the NAD+, the product, and the substrate-binding site. Finally, our structures may enable the rational design of more potent inhibitors.

  5. Paramutation alters regulatory control of the maize pl locus.

    PubMed Central

    Hollick, J B; Patterson, G I; Asmundsson, I M; Chandler, V L

    2000-01-01

    The maize purple plant (pl) locus encodes a transcription factor required for anthocyanin pigment synthesis in vegetative and floral tissues. The strongly expressed Pl-Rhoades (Pl-Rh) allele is unstable, spontaneously changing to weaker expression states (Pl') at low frequencies and exclusively changing to Pl' in Pl'/Pl-Rh heterozygotes. The weakly expressed Pl' state is mitotically and meiotically stable, yet reversible. This type of allele-dependent, heritable alteration of gene control is called paramutation. Expression studies herein demonstrate that visible differences in anthocyanin pigment levels mirror pl RNA abundance and that pl paramutation is associated with reduced transcription of the pl gene. This transcriptional alteration is accompanied by acquisition of light-dependent regulation. Restriction endonuclease mapping indicates that these changes in pl gene regulation are not associated with detectable DNA alterations or with extensive changes in cytosine methylation patterns. Genetic tests show that Pl-Blotched (Pl-Bh), a structurally similar pl allele encoding an identical pl RNA and PL protein, does not participate in pl paramutation. This result suggests that if cis-acting sequences are required for pl paramutation they are distinct from the protein coding and immediately adjacent regions. A model is discussed in which pl paramutation results in heritable changes of chromatin structure that fundamentally alter regulatory interactions occurring during plant development. PMID:10747073

  6. SIRT3, a Mitochondrial NAD+-Dependent Deacetylase, Is Involved in the Regulation of Myoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Khalek, Waed; Cortade, Fabienne; Ollendorff, Vincent; Lapasset, Laure; Tintignac, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), one of the seven mammalian sirtuins, is a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase known to control key metabolic pathways. SIRT3 deacetylases and activates a large number of mitochondrial enzymes involved in the respiratory chain, in ATP production, and in both the citric acid and urea cycles. We have previously shown that the regulation of myoblast differentiation is tightly linked to mitochondrial activity. Since SIRT3 modulates mitochondrial activity, we decide to address its role during myoblast differentiation. For this purpose, we first investigated the expression of endogenous SIRT3 during C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We further studied the impact of SIRT3 silencing on both the myogenic potential and the mitochondrial activity of C2C12 cells. We showed that SIRT3 protein expression peaked at the onset of myoblast differentiation. The inhibition of SIRT3 expression mediated by the stable integration of SIRT3 short inhibitory RNA (SIRT3shRNA) in C2C12 myoblasts, resulted in: 1) abrogation of terminal differentiation - as evidenced by a marked decrease in the myoblast fusion index and a significant reduction of Myogenin, MyoD, Sirtuin 1 and Troponin T protein expression - restored upon MyoD overexpression; 2) a decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and citrate synthase protein expression reflecting an alteration of mitochondrial density; and 3) an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mirrored by the decreased activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Altogether our data demonstrate that SIRT3 mainly regulates myoblast differentiation via its influence on mitochondrial activity. PMID:25489948

  7. Biochemical characterization of isocitrate dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus reveals a unique NAD+-dependent homotetrameric enzyme.

    PubMed

    Stokke, Runar; Madern, Dominique; Fedøy, Anita-Elin; Karlsen, Solveig; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Steen, Ida Helene

    2007-05-01

    The gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) of Methylococcus capsulatus (McIDH) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was NAD+-dependent with a thermal optimum for activity at 55-60 degrees C and an apparent midpoint melting temperature (Tm) of 70 degrees C. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) revealed a homotetrameric state, and McIDH thus represents the first homotetrameric NAD+-dependent IDH that has been characterized. Based on a structural alignment of McIDH and homotetrameric homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HDH) from Thermus thermophilus (TtHDH), we identified the clasp-like domain of McIDH as a likely site for tetramerization. McIDH showed moreover, higher sequence identity (48%) to TtHDH than to previously characterized IDHs. Putative NAD+-IDHs with high sequence identity (48-57%) to McIDH were however identified in a variety of bacteria showing that NAD+-dependent IDHs are indeed widespread within the domain, Bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis including these new sequences revealed a close relationship with eukaryal allosterically regulated NAD+-IDH and the subfamily III of IDH was redefined to include bacterial NAD+- and NADP+-dependent IDHs. This apparent relationship suggests that the mitochondrial genes encoding NAD+-IDH are derived from the McIDH-like IDHs. PMID:17160675

  8. The unique kinetic behavior of the very large NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Janthinobacterium lividum.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ryushi; Oyama, Masaki; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of a very large NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Janthinobacterium lividum showed positive cooperativity toward alpha-ketoglutarate and NADH, and the Michaelis-Menten type toward ammonium chloride in the absence of the catalytic activator, L-aspartate. An increase in the maximum activity accompanied the decrease in the S(0.5) values for alpha-ketoglutarate and NADH with the addition of L-aspartate, and the kinetic response for alpha-ketoglutarate changed completely to a typical Michaelis-Menten type in the presence of 10 mM L-aspartate. PMID:20378971

  9. BRCA1 as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent metabolic switch in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Cao, Ji-Min; Sun, Wu-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Li, Chun-Yan; Wang, Xiu-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Both hereditary factors (e.g., BRCA1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent metabolic pathways are implicated in the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer. However, whether crosstalk exists between BRCA1 and NAD metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that: (i) BRCA1 inactivation events (mutation and promoter methylation) were accompanied by elevated levels of NAD; (ii) the knockdown or overexpression of BRCA1 was an effective way to induce an increase or decrease of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt)-related NAD synthesis, respectively; and (iii) BRCA1 expression patterns were inversely correlated with NAD levels in human ovarian cancer specimens. In addition, it is worth noting that: (i) NAD incubation induced increased levels of BRCA1 in a concentration-dependent manner; (ii) Nampt knockdown-mediated reduction in NAD levels was effective at inhibiting BRCA1 expression; and (iii) the overexpression of Nampt led to higher NAD levels and a subsequent increase in BRCA1 levels in primary ovarian cancer cells and A2780, HO-8910 and ES2 ovarian cancer cell lines. These results highlight a novel link between BRCA1 and NAD. Our findings imply that genetic (e.g., BRCA1 inactivation) and NAD-dependent metabolic pathways are jointly involved in the malignant progression of ovarian cancer. PMID:25486197

  10. A NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase coordinates metabolism with cell division in Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Beaufay, François; Coppine, Jérôme; Mayard, Aurélie; Laloux, Géraldine; De Bolle, Xavier; Hallez, Régis

    2015-01-01

    Coupling cell cycle with nutrient availability is a crucial process for all living cells. But how bacteria control cell division according to metabolic supplies remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism that coordinates central metabolism with cell division in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. This mechanism involves the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase GdhZ and the oxidoreductase-like KidO. While enzymatically active GdhZ directly interferes with FtsZ polymerization by stimulating its GTPase activity, KidO bound to NADH destabilizes lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. Both GdhZ and KidO share the same regulatory network to concomitantly stimulate the rapid disassembly of the Z-ring, necessary for the subsequent release of progeny cells. Thus, this mechanism illustrates how proteins initially dedicated to metabolism coordinate cell cycle progression with nutrient availability. PMID:25953831

  11. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in Aerobic Lactate Utilization in Lactobacillus plantarum during Early Stationary Phase

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Philippe; Lorquet, Frédérique; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases are commonly thought to be responsible for lactate utilization during the stationary phase of aerobic growth in Lactobacillus plantarum. To substantiate this view, we constructed single and double knockout mutants for the corresponding genes, loxD and loxL. Lactate-to-acetate conversion was not impaired in these strains, while it was completely blocked in mutants deficient in NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase activities, encoded by the ldhD and ldhL genes. We conclude that NAD-dependent but not NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases are involved in this process. PMID:15375150

  12. NAD(+)- dependent deacetylase SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial protein synthesis by deacetylation of the ribosomal protein MRPL10

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A member of the sirtuin family of NAD (+)-dependent deacetylases, SIRT3, is located in mammalian mitochondria and is important for regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, cell survival, and longevity. In this study, MRPL10 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein L10) was identified as the major acetylated ...

  13. Purification and characterization of the plastid-localized NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    An, Yan; Cao, Youzhi; Xu, Yingwu

    2016-07-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) ubiquitously exists in living organisms and has many isoforms in a single species. MDHs from some classes have been characterized for their catalytic properties, which show significant variations despite that they share high sequence identity for the active sites. One class MDH, the plastid-localized NAD-dependent MDH (plNAD-MDH) is known to be important for plant survival in a dark environment, but its biochemical and enzymatic properties have not been well characterized. This study attempts to fill the gap. plNAD-MDH was expressed in an Escherichia coli system and purified using nickel-affinity chromatography followed by size exclusion chromatography. The N-terminal fusion his-tag was removed by protease cleavage. The gel filtration assay and glutaraldehyde cross-linking results showed that the active enzyme was a homodimer in solution. Further assay indicated that plNAD-MDH is most active at a neutral pH value. The Km values for oxaloacetate and NADH are found in the submillimolar order, a median range for most MDHs. The maximum reaction rate values, however, are dramatically different from other plant MDHs, indicating that plNAD-MDH has different substrate specificity. Moreover, we obtained crystals for this enzyme, which laid the groundwork for further analysis of the enzymatic mechanism from structural stand point. PMID:26095832

  14. NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase as a novel target of tributyltin in human embryonic carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro; Demizu, Yosuke; Kurihara, Masaaki; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2014-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is known to cause developmental defects as endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs). At nanomoler concentrations, TBT actions were mediated by genomic pathways via PPAR/RXR. However, non-genomic target of TBT has not been elucidated. To investigate non-genomic TBT targets, we performed comprehensive metabolomic analyses using human embryonic carcinoma NT2/D1 cells. We found that 100 nM TBT reduced the amounts of α-ketoglutarate, succinate and malate. We further found that TBT decreased the activity of NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH), which catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate in the TCA cycle. In addition, TBT inhibited cell growth and enhanced neuronal differentiation through NAD-IDH inhibition. Furthermore, studies using bacterially expressed human NAD-IDH and in silico simulations suggest that TBT inhibits NAD-IDH due to a possible interaction. These results suggest that NAD-IDH is a novel non-genomic target of TBT at nanomolar levels. Thus, a metabolomic approach may provide new insights into the mechanism of EDC action. PMID:25092173

  15. Isolation and characterization of an inducible NAD-dependent butyraldehyde dehydrogenase from clostridium acetobutylicum

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, W.; Duerre, P.

    1996-12-31

    A NAD-dependent butyraldehyde dehydrogenase (BAD) has been purified from C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 and DSM 173 1. This key enzyme of butanol production, catalyzing the conversion of butyryl-CoA to butyraldehyde, was induced shortly before the onset of butanol production and proved to be oxygen-sensitive. A one step purification procedure on reactive green 19 allowed to purify the enzyme to homogeneity. The purified protein was found to be extremely unstable and could only partially be stabilized by addition of mercaptoethanol and storage below -20{degrees}C. The enzyme subunit had a molecular mass of 39.5 kDa. In the reverse reaction (butyryl-CoA-forming) the apparent pH optimum was 9.75 and Vmax was significantly higher with butyraldehyde and propionaldehyde than with acetaldehyde. BAD could also use NADP+, but NAD+ was the preferred coenzyme for the reverse reaction. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the C. acetobutylicurn DSM 792 protein showed high homology to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAP), especially to the protein of C. pasteurianum. Genomic libraries of C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 were screened by hybridization using PCR-generated heterologous probes encoding the gap gene of C. pasteurianum. Sequence analysis of the positive clones revealed high homology, but no identity to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the butyraldehyde dehydrogenase. Thus, BAD from C. acetobutylicum is distinctly different from other reported aldehyde dehydrogenases with butyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

  16. Cloning and analysis of the C4 photosynthetic NAD-dependent malic enzyme of amaranth mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Long, J J; Wang, J L; Berry, J O

    1994-01-28

    In some C4 plant species, a mitochondrial NAD-dependent malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.39) (NAD-ME) catalyzes the decarboxylation of 4 carbon malate in the bundle sheath cells, releasing CO2 for the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. In amaranth, a dicotyledonous NAD-ME-type C4 plant, the photosynthetic NAD-ME purified as two subunits of 65 and 60 kDa, designated alpha and beta, respectively. Antiserum raised against the alpha subunit reacted only with the 65-kDa protein in immunoblot analysis. Immunogold electron microscopy using the alpha subunit antiserum demonstrated that this protein was localized specifically to the mitochondrial matrix of bundle sheath cells. The complete nucleotide sequence of a 2300-base pair alpha subunit cDNA clone showed that this gene encodes a protein that contains all of the motifs required for a complete and functional malic enzyme. The alpha subunit has significant similarity along its entire length to other known NAD- and NADP-dependent malic enzymes from plants, animals, and bacteria. The findings presented here provide new insights about the C4 photosynthetic NAD-ME and its evolutionary relationship to other forms of malic enzyme present in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. PMID:8300616

  17. NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase as a novel target of tributyltin in human embryonic carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro; Demizu, Yosuke; Kurihara, Masaaki; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2014-08-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is known to cause developmental defects as endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs). At nanomoler concentrations, TBT actions were mediated by genomic pathways via PPAR/RXR. However, non-genomic target of TBT has not been elucidated. To investigate non-genomic TBT targets, we performed comprehensive metabolomic analyses using human embryonic carcinoma NT2/D1 cells. We found that 100 nM TBT reduced the amounts of α-ketoglutarate, succinate and malate. We further found that TBT decreased the activity of NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH), which catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate in the TCA cycle. In addition, TBT inhibited cell growth and enhanced neuronal differentiation through NAD-IDH inhibition. Furthermore, studies using bacterially expressed human NAD-IDH and in silico simulations suggest that TBT inhibits NAD-IDH due to a possible interaction. These results suggest that NAD-IDH is a novel non-genomic target of TBT at nanomolar levels. Thus, a metabolomic approach may provide new insights into the mechanism of EDC action.

  18. Purification and characterization of a NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase from Japanese pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Oura, Y; Yamada, K; Shiratake, K; Yamaki, S

    2000-07-01

    NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14) from Japanese pear fruit was purified to apparent homogeneity (single band by SDS-PAGE with silver staining), and had a specific activity of 916.7 nKatal/mg protein. The molecular of the native enzyme was calculated to be 160 kDa by gel filtration, whereas SDS-PAGE gave a subunit size of 40 kDa, indicating that the native enzyme is a homotetramer. The protein immunologically reacted with an antibody raised in rabbit against the fusion protein expressed in E. coli harboring an apple NAD-SDH cDNA. The Km, values for sorbitol and fructose were 96.4+/-8.60 and 4239+/-33.5 mM, respectively, and optimum pH for sorbitol oxidation was 9.0 and 7.0 for fructose reduction. Pear NAD-SDH had a very narrow substrate specificity, that is, sorbitol, L-iditol, xylitol and L-threitol were oxidized but not any of the other alcohols tested. These data suggest the structural importance of an S configuration at C-2 and an R configuration at C-4 in the substrate(s). Its enzymatic activity was strongly inhibited both by heavy metal ions such as mercury, and by thiol compounds, such as L-cysteine. However, the addition of zinc ion reversed the enzyme inactivation caused by addition of L-cysteine. PMID:10963448

  19. Purification and properties of NAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase from Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, S W; Ljungdahl, L G

    1984-03-25

    An NAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase has been purified to homogeneity from autotrophically and heterotrophically grown cells of Acetobacterium woodii. The enzymes from the differently grown cells were indistinguishable by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis and have a final specific activity of 670 units mg-1. The enzyme is oxygen-labile; therefore, it was isolated under anaerobic conditions in the presence of dithiothreitol. The oxidized enzyme can be reactivated with 5 mM dithiothreitol, the half-time of activation being 19 min. The forward and reverse reaction initial velocity kinetics was studied and the enzyme was found to follow a substituted (ping-pong) reaction mechanism. With this model, the Km values for NAD and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate are 4.0 and 0.26 mM, while for NADH and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate, they are 2.0 and 1.0 mM, respectively. The equilibrium constant at pH 6.7, determined by the Haldane relationship, is approximately equal to 2.0, favoring the formation of NADH and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate. The purified enzyme is a Mr = 55,000 dimer which lacks 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase activities. At pH 6.7, the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate occurs at a rate of 98,600 mol min-1 mol-1 of enzyme, while the reverse reaction occurs at a rate of 95,600 mol min-1 mol-1 of enzyme. PMID:6608524

  20. Purification and properties of NAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase from Acetobacterium woodii

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, S.W.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1984-03-25

    An NAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase has been purified to homogeneity from autotrophically and heterotrophically grown cells of Acetobacterium woodii. The enzymes from the differently grown cells were indistinguishable by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis and have a final specific activity of 670 units mg/sup -1/. The enzyme is oxygen-labile; therefore, it was isolated under anaerobic conditions in the presence of dithiothreitol. The oxidized enzyme can be reactivated with 5 mM dithiothreitol, the half-time of activation being 19 min. The forward and reverse reaction initial velocity kinetics was studied and the enzyme was found to follow a substituted reaction mechanism. With this model, the K/sub m/ values for NAD and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate are 4.0 and 0.26 mM, while for NADH and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate, they are 2.0 and 1.0 mM, respectively. The equilibrium constant at pH 6.7, determined by the Haldane relationship, is approximately equal to 2.0, favoring the formation of NADH and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate. The purified enzyme is a M/sub r/ = 55,000 dimer which lacks 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase activities. At pH 6.7, the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate occurs at a rate of 98,600 mol min/sup -1/ mol/sup -1/ of enzyme, while the reverse reaction occurs at a rate of 95,600 mol min/sup -1/ mol/sup -1/ of enzyme.

  1. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies and Biological Characterization of Human NAD+-dependent 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Duveau, Damien Y.; Yasgar, Adam; Wang, Yuhong; Hu, Xin; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Jadhav, Ajit; Simeonov, Anton; Thomas, Craig J.; Maloney, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of two chemotypes identified as inhibitors of the human NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD, 15-PGDH) was conducted. Top compounds from both series displayed potent inhibition (IC50 <50 nM), demonstrate excellent selectivity towards HPGD and potently induce PGE2 production in A549 lung cancer and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. PMID:24360556

  2. Chloroplast Structure and Function Is Altered in the NCS2 Maize Mitochondrial Mutant 1

    PubMed Central

    Roussell, Deborah L.; Thompson, Deborah L.; Pallardy, Steve G.; Miles, Donald; Newton, Kathleen J.

    1991-01-01

    The nonchromosomal stripe 2 (NCS2) mutant of maize (Zea mays L.) has a DNA rearrangement in the mitochondrial genome that segregates with the abnormal growth phenotype. Yet, the NCS2 characteristic phenotype includes striped sectors of pale-green tissue on the leaves. This suggests a chloroplast abnormality. To characterize the chloroplasts present in the mutant sectors, we examined the chloroplast structure by electron microscopy, chloroplast function by radiolabeled carbon dioxide fixation and fluorescence induction kinetics, and thylakoid protein composition by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The data from these analyses suggest abnormal or prematurely arrested chloroplast development. Deleterious effects of the NCS2 mutant mitochondria upon the cells of the leaf include structural and functional alterations in the both the bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668157

  3. NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase protects against oxidative damage in Escherichia coli K-12 through the action of oxaloacetate.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae Jeong; Kim, In Gyu; Park, Seon Young; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hye Won

    2002-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (OH) can be generated by ionizing radiation and has the potential to induce diseases. We provide the evidence that NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is involved in the antioxidant role in preventing H(2)O(2) or γ-radiation-induced damage in Escherichia coli through the action of oxaloacetate. The E. colimdh mutant strain defective in MDH activity was more sensitive to H(2)O(2) or γ-radiation than was the wild type strain, when challenged in the exponential growth phase. The mdh mutant cells pretreated with oxaloacetate (2.5 mM), a product of NAD-dependent MDH activity, prior to H(2)O(2) treatment or γ-irradiation are resistant to H(2)O(2) or γ-radiation-induced damage, so cell survivability is restored to similar levels with the wild type. The SOS induction of umu'-'lacZ fusion gene by H(2)O(2) is significantly repressed by pretreatment of oxaloacetate in a dose-dependent way. These results indicate that oxaloacetate effectively protects E. coli cells against damage caused by oxidative stress. Oxaloacetate strongly prevented the DNA strand breaks by OH in a metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) system that generated H(2)O(2) as a mediator. By contrast, the prevention of DNA damage by oxaloacetate in an γ-irradiation system that directly generates OH from H(2)O in vitro was far less than that in an MCO system. Our results demonstrated that oxaloacetate, metabolite of NAD-dependent MDH action, plays a role as an antioxidant, possibly by scavenging H(2)O(2). PMID:21782581

  4. Ozone-Induced Alterations in the Accumulation of Newly Synthesized Proteins in Leaves of Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Pino, M. E.; Mudd, J. B.; Bailey-Serres, J.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the response of leaves of 3-week-old maize (Zea mays L.) to short-term (5 h) fumigation with O3-enriched air (0, 0.12, 0.24, or 0.36 [mu]L/L). Older leaves and leaf tissue developed more severe visible damage at higher external O3 concentrations. To investigate the immediate effect of O3 exposure on the accumulation of newly synthesized leaf proteins, leaves were labeled with [35S]methionine after 2 h and fumigated for an additional 3 h. O3-induced alterations of leaf proteins were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. There was a significant decrease in [35S]methionine incorporation into protein at the highest O3 concentration. Developmental differences in accumulation of de novo-synthesized leaf proteins were observed when the leaf tip, middle, and basal sections were labeled under 0 [mu]L/L O3, and additional changes were apparent upon exposure to increasing O3 concentrations. Changes in leaf protein synthesis were observed in the absence of visible leaf injury. Subcellular fractionation revealed O3-induced alterations in soluble and membrane-associated proteins. A number of thylakoid membrane-associated proteins showed specific increases in response to O3 fumigation. In contrast, the synthesis of a 32-kD polypeptide associated with thylakoid membranes was reduced in response to O3 fumigation in parallel with reduced incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein. Immunoprecipitation identified this polypeptide as the D1 protein of photosystem II. A reduction in the accumulation of newly synthesized D1 could have consequences for the efficiency of photosynthesis and other cellular processes. PMID:12228510

  5. Controlling element-induced alterations in UDPglucose:flavonoid glucosyltransferase, the enzyme specified by the bronze locus in maize

    PubMed Central

    Dooner, Hugo K.; Nelson, Oliver E.

    1977-01-01

    The bz locus in maize, which directs synthesis of the enzyme UDPglucose:flavonoid glucosyltransferase (UFGT) in the endosperm, is one of many loci at which controlling element-induced phenotypic changes are known. To characterize the nature of such modifications, several bz mutants derived by transposition of the controlling element Ds to the Bz gene were analyzed. Three mutants were found to lack UFGT at all stages of endosperm development. Two others appeared to make an altered UFGT, and in one of these the enzyme showed an altered developmental profile. PMID:16592474

  6. Recombinant NAD-dependent SIR-2 Protein of Leishmania donovani: Immunobiochemical Characterization as a Potential Vaccine against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Baharia, Rajendra K; Tandon, Rati; Sharma, Tanuj; Suthar, Manish K; Das, Sanchita; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Sunder, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of a vaccine conferring long-lasting immunity remains a challenge against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Immunoproteomic characterization of Leishmania donovani proteins led to the identification of a novel protein NAD+-dependent Silent Information regulatory-2 (SIR2 family or sirtuin) protein (LdSir2RP) as one of the potent immunostimulatory proteins. Proteins of the SIR2 family are characterized by a conserved catalytic domain that exerts unique NAD-dependent deacetylase activity. In the present study, an immunobiochemical characterization of LdSir2RP and further evaluation of its immunogenicity and prophylactic potential was done to assess for its possible involvement as a vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis. Methodology/Principal Findings LdSir2RP was successfully cloned, expressed and purified. The gene was present as a monomeric protein of ~45 kDa and further established by the crosslinking experiment. rLdSir2RP shown cytosolic localization in L. donovani and demonstrating NAD+-dependent deacetylase activity. Bioinformatic analysis also confirmed that LdSir2RP protein has NAD binding domain. The rLdSir2RP was further assessed for its cellular response by lymphoproliferative assay and cytokine ELISA in cured Leishmania patients and hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in comparison to soluble Leishmania antigen and it was observed to stimulate the production of IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α significantly but not the IL-4 and IL-10. The naïve hamsters when vaccinated with rLdSir2RP alongwith BCG resisted the L. donovani challenge to the tune of ~75% and generated strong IL-12 and IFN-γ mediated Th1 type immune response thereof. The efficacy was further supported by remarkable increase in IgG2 antibody level which is indicative of Th1 type of protective response. Further, with a possible implication in vaccine design against VL, identification of potential T-cell epitopes of rLdSir2RP was done using computational approach. Conclusion

  7. NAD(+)-dependent activation of Sirt1 corrects the phenotype in a mouse model of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Raffaele; Pirinen, Eija; Lamperti, Costanza; Marchet, Silvia; Sauve, Anthony A; Li, Wei; Leoni, Valerio; Schon, Eric A; Dantzer, Françoise; Auwerx, Johan; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are highly heterogeneous conditions characterized by defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been proposed as an effective means to correct the biochemical defects and ameliorate the clinical phenotype in these severely disabling, often fatal, disorders. Pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis are targets of Sirtuin1, a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase. As NAD(+) boosts the activity of Sirtuin1 and other sirtuins, intracellular levels of NAD(+) play a key role in the homeostatic control of mitochondrial function by the metabolic status of the cell. We show here that supplementation with nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, or reduction of NAD(+) consumption by inhibiting the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, leads to marked improvement of the respiratory chain defect and exercise intolerance of the Sco2 knockout/knockin mouse, a mitochondrial disease model characterized by impaired cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis. This strategy is potentially translatable into therapy of mitochondrial disorders in humans. PMID:24814483

  8. Production of succinic acid through overexpression of NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme in an Escherichia coli mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Stols, L; Donnelly, M I

    1997-01-01

    NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme was cloned from the Escherichia coli genome by PCR based on the published partial sequence of the gene. The enzyme was overexpressed and purified to near homogeneity in two chromatographic steps and was analyzed kinetically in the forward and reverse directions. The Km values determined in the presence of saturating cofactor and manganese ion were 0.26 mM for malate (physiological direction) and 16 mM for pyruvate (reverse direction). When malic enzyme was induced under appropriate culture conditions in a strain of E. coli that was unable to ferment glucose and accumulated pyruvate, fermentative metabolism of glucose was restored. Succinic acid was the major fermentation product formed. When this fermentation was performed in the presence of hydrogen, the yield of succinic acid increased. The constructed pathway represents an alternative metabolic route for the fermentative production of dicarboxylic acids from renewable feedstocks. PMID:9212416

  9. Kinetic and Structural Basis for Acyl-Group Selectivity and NAD(+) Dependence in Sirtuin-Catalyzed Deacylation.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jessica L; Dittenhafer-Reed, Kristin E; Kudo, Norio; Thelen, Julie N; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru; Denu, John M

    2015-05-19

    Acylation of lysine is an important protein modification regulating diverse biological processes. It was recently demonstrated that members of the human Sirtuin family are capable of catalyzing long chain deacylation, in addition to the well-known NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation activity [Feldman, J. L., Baeza, J., and Denu, J. M. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 31350-31356]. Here we provide a detailed kinetic and structural analysis that describes the interdependence of NAD(+)-binding and acyl-group selectivity for a diverse series of human Sirtuins, SIRT1-SIRT3 and SIRT6. Steady-state and rapid-quench kinetic analyses indicated that differences in NAD(+) saturation and susceptibility to nicotinamide inhibition reflect unique kinetic behavior displayed by each Sirtuin and depend on acyl substrate chain length. Though the rate of nucleophilic attack of the 2'-hydroxyl on the C1'-O-alkylimidate intermediate varies with acyl substrate chain length, this step remains rate-determining for SIRT2 and SIRT3; however, for SIRT6, this step is no longer rate-limiting for long chain substrates. Cocrystallization of SIRT2 with myristoylated peptide and NAD(+) yielded a co-complex structure with reaction product 2'-O-myristoyl-ADP-ribose, revealing a latent hydrophobic cavity to accommodate the long chain acyl group, and suggesting a general mechanism for long chain deacylation. Comparing two separately determined co-complex structures containing either a myristoylated peptide or 2'-O-myristoyl-ADP-ribose indicates there are conformational changes at the myristoyl-ribose linkage with minimal structural differences in the enzyme active site. During the deacylation reaction, the fatty acyl group is held in a relatively fixed position. We describe a kinetic and structural model to explain how various Sirtuins display unique acyl substrate preferences and how different reaction kinetics influence NAD(+) dependence. The biological implications are discussed. PMID:25897714

  10. Wheat glutenin alters protein body structure in maize but not levels of endogenous storage proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal grains are an important nutritional source of amino acids for humans and livestock worldwide. They belong to three subfamilies of grasses or Poaceae. Wheat, barley, and oats belong to the subfamily Pooideae, rice to the Ehrhartoideae, and maize, millets, sugarcane, and sorghum to the Panicoid...

  11. Plastidial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase is critical for embryo development and heterotrophic metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Beeler, Seraina; Liu, Hung-Chi; Stadler, Martha; Schreier, Tina; Eicke, Simona; Lue, Wei-Ling; Truernit, Elisabeth; Zeeman, Samuel C; Chen, Jychian; Kötting, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    In illuminated chloroplasts, one mechanism involved in reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis is the malate-oxaloacetate (OAA) shuttle. Excess electrons from photosynthetic electron transport in the form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced are used by NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) to reduce OAA to malate, thus regenerating the electron acceptor NADP. NADP-MDH is a strictly redox-regulated, light-activated enzyme that is inactive in the dark. In the dark or in nonphotosynthetic tissues, the malate-OAA shuttle was proposed to be mediated by the constitutively active plastidial NAD-specific MDH isoform (pdNAD-MDH), but evidence is scarce. Here, we reveal the critical role of pdNAD-MDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. A pdnad-mdh null mutation is embryo lethal. Plants with reduced pdNAD-MDH levels by means of artificial microRNA (miR-mdh-1) are viable, but dark metabolism is altered as reflected by increased nighttime malate, starch, and glutathione levels and a reduced respiration rate. In addition, miR-mdh-1 plants exhibit strong pleiotropic effects, including dwarfism, reductions in chlorophyll levels, photosynthetic rate, and daytime carbohydrate levels, and disordered chloroplast ultrastructure, particularly in developing leaves, compared with the wild type. pdNAD-MDH deficiency in miR-mdh-1 can be functionally complemented by expression of a microRNA-insensitive pdNAD-MDH but not NADP-MDH, confirming distinct roles for NAD- and NADP-linked redox homeostasis. PMID:24453164

  12. Thiamine Biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Regulated by the NAD+-Dependent Histone Deacetylase Hst1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingguang; Petteys, Brian J.; McClure, Julie M.; Valsakumar, Veena; Bekiranov, Stefan; Frank, Elizabeth L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoding thiamine biosynthesis enzymes in microorganisms are tightly regulated such that low environmental thiamine concentrations activate transcription and high concentrations are repressive. We have determined that multiple thiamine (THI) genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are also regulated by the intracellular NAD+ concentration via the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hst1 and, to a lesser extent, Sir2. Both of these HDACs associate with a distal region of the affected THI gene promoters that does not overlap with a previously defined enhancer region bound by the thiamine-responsive Thi2/Thi3/Pdc2 transcriptional activators. The specificity of histone H3 and/or H4 deacetylation carried out by Hst1 and Sir2 at the distal promoter region depends on the THI gene being tested. Hst1/Sir2-mediated repression of the THI genes occurs at the level of basal expression, thus representing the first set of transcription factors shown to actively repress this gene class. Importantly, lowering the NAD+ concentration and inhibiting the Hst1/Sum1 HDAC complex elevated the intracellular thiamine concentration due to increased thiamine biosynthesis and transport, implicating NAD+ in the control of thiamine homeostasis. PMID:20439498

  13. Biochemical and Structural Studies of Uncharacterized Protein PA0743 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Revealed NAD+-dependent l-Serine Dehydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Tchigvintsev, Anatoli; Singer, Alexander; Brown, Greg; Flick, Robert; Evdokimova, Elena; Tan, Kemin; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2012-01-01

    The β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases form a large family of ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze oxidation of various β-hydroxy acid substrates to corresponding semialdehydes. Several known enzymes include β-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, 2-(hydroxymethyl)glutarate dehydrogenase, and phenylserine dehydrogenase, but the vast majority of β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases remain uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that the predicted β-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase PA0743 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa catalyzes an NAD+-dependent oxidation of l-serine and methyl-l-serine but exhibits low activity against β-hydroxyisobutyrate. Two crystal structures of PA0743 were solved at 2.2–2.3-Å resolution and revealed an N-terminal Rossmann fold domain connected by a long α-helix to the C-terminal all-α domain. The PA0743 apostructure showed the presence of additional density modeled as HEPES bound in the interdomain cleft close to the predicted catalytic Lys-171, revealing the molecular details of the PA0743 substrate-binding site. The structure of the PA0743-NAD+ complex demonstrated that the opposite side of the enzyme active site accommodates the cofactor, which is also bound near Lys-171. Site-directed mutagenesis of PA0743 emphasized the critical role of four amino acid residues in catalysis including the primary catalytic residue Lys-171. Our results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms of substrate selectivity and activity of β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. PMID:22128181

  14. Spectroscopic and Kinetic Properties of the Molybdenum-containing, NAD+-dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Niks, Dimitri; Duvvuru, Jayant; Escalona, Miguel; Hille, Russ

    2016-01-15

    We have examined the rapid reaction kinetics and spectroscopic properties of the molybdenum-containing, NAD(+)-dependent FdsABG formate dehydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha. We confirm previous steady-state studies of the enzyme and extend its characterization to a rapid kinetic study of the reductive half-reaction (the reaction of formate with oxidized enzyme). We have also characterized the electron paramagnetic resonance signal of the molybdenum center in its Mo(V) state and demonstrated the direct transfer of the substrate Cα hydrogen to the molybdenum center in the course of the reaction. Varying temperature, microwave power, and level of enzyme reduction, we are able to clearly identify the electron paramagnetic resonance signals for four of the iron/sulfur clusters of the enzyme and find suggestive evidence for two others; we observe a magnetic interaction between the molybdenum center and one of the iron/sulfur centers, permitting assignment of this signal to a specific iron/sulfur cluster in the enzyme. In light of recent advances in our understanding of the structure of the molybdenum center, we propose a reaction mechanism involving direct hydride transfer from formate to a molybdenum-sulfur group of the molybdenum center. PMID:26553877

  15. Dominant mutations causing alterations in acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase confer tolerance to cyclohexanedione and aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, W B; Marshall, L C; Burton, J D; Somers, D A; Wyse, D L; Gronwald, J W; Gengenbach, B G

    1990-01-01

    A partially dominant mutation exhibiting increased tolerance to cyclohexanedione and aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides was isolated by exposing susceptible maize (Zea mays) tissue cultures to increasingly inhibitory concentrations of sethoxydim (a cyclohexanedione). The selected tissue culture (S2) was greater than 40-fold more tolerant to sethoxydim and 20-fold more tolerant to haloxyfop (an aryloxyphenoxypropionate) than the nonselected wild-type tissue culture. Regenerated S2 plants were heterozygous for the mutant allele and exhibited a high-level, but not complete, tolerance to both herbicides. Homozygous mutant families derived by self-pollinating the regenerated S2 plants exhibited no injury after treatment with 0.8 kg of sethoxydim per ha, which was greater than 16-fold the rate lethal to wild-type plants. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase; EC 6.4.1.2) is the target enzyme of cyclohexanedione and aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides. ACCase activities of the nonselected wild-type and homozygous mutant seedlings were similar in the absence of herbicide. ACCase activity from homozygous tolerant plants required greater than 100-fold more sethoxydim and 16-fold more haloxyfop for 50% inhibition than ACCase from wild-type plants. These results indicate that tolerance to sethoxydim and haloxyfop is controlled by a partially dominant nuclear mutation encoding a herbicide-insensitive alteration in maize ACCase. Images PMID:1976254

  16. Transgenic alteration of ethylene biosynthesis increases grain yield in maize under field drought-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Habben, Jeffrey E; Bao, Xiaoming; Bate, Nicholas J; DeBruin, Jason L; Dolan, Dennis; Hasegawa, Darren; Helentjaris, Timothy G; Lafitte, Renee H; Lovan, Nina; Mo, Hua; Reimann, Kellie; Schussler, Jeffrey R

    2014-08-01

    A transgenic gene-silencing approach was used to modulate the levels of ethylene biosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) and determine its effect on grain yield under drought stress in a comprehensive set of field trials. Commercially relevant transgenic events were created with down-regulated ACC synthases (ACSs), enzymes that catalyse the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis. These events had ethylene emission levels reduced approximately 50% compared with nontransgenic nulls. Multiple, independent transgenic hybrids and controls were tested in field trials at managed drought-stress and rain-fed locations throughout the US. Analysis of yield data indicated that transgenic events had significantly increased grain yield over the null comparators, with the best event having a 0.58 Mg/ha (9.3 bushel/acre) increase after a flowering period drought stress. A (genotype × transgene) × environment interaction existed among the events, highlighting the need to better understand the context in which the down-regulation of ACSs functions in maize. Analysis of secondary traits showed that there was a consistent decrease in the anthesis-silking interval and a concomitant increase in kernel number/ear in transgene-positive events versus nulls. Selected events were also field tested under a low-nitrogen treatment, and the best event was found to have a significant 0.44 Mg/ha (7.1 bushel/acre) yield increase. This set of extensive field evaluations demonstrated that down-regulating the ethylene biosynthetic pathway can improve the grain yield of maize under abiotic stress conditions. PMID:24618117

  17. Inhibition of the NAD-Dependent Protein Deacetylase SIRT2 Induces Granulocytic Differentiation in Human Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sunami, Yoshitaka; Araki, Marito; Hironaka, Yumi; Morishita, Soji; Kobayashi, Masaki; Liew, Ei Leen; Edahiro, Yoko; Tsutsui, Miyuki; Ohsaka, Akimichi; Komatsu, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Sirtuins, NAD-dependent protein deacetylases, play important roles in cellular functions such as metabolism and differentiation. Whether sirtuins function in tumorigenesis is still controversial, but sirtuins are aberrantly expressed in tumors, which may keep cancerous cells undifferentiated. Therefore, we investigated whether the inhibition of sirtuin family proteins induces cellular differentiation in leukemic cells. The sirtuin inhibitors tenovin-6 and BML-266 induce granulocytic differentiation in the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line NB4. This differentiation is likely caused by an inhibition of SIRT2 deacetylase activity, judging from the accumulation of acetylated α-tubulin, a major SIRT2 substrate. Unlike the clinically used differentiation inducer all-trans retinoic acid, tenovin-6 shows limited effects on promyelocytic leukemia–retinoic acid receptor α (PML-RAR-α) stability and promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body formation in NB4 cells, suggesting that tenovin-6 does not directly target PML-RAR-α activity. In agreement with this, tenovin-6 induces cellular differentiation in the non-APL cell line HL-60, where PML-RAR-α does not exist. Knocking down SIRT2 by shRNA induces granulocytic differentiation in NB4 cells, which demonstrates that the inhibition of SIRT2 activity is sufficient to induce cell differentiation in NB4 cells. The overexpression of SIRT2 in NB4 cells decreases the level of granulocytic differentiation induced by tenovin-6, which indicates that tenovin-6 induces granulocytic differentiation by inhibiting SIRT2 activity. Taken together, our data suggest that targeting SIRT2 is a viable strategy to induce leukemic cell differentiation. PMID:23460888

  18. Tunneling of redox enzymes to design nano-probes for monitoring NAD(+) dependent bio-catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Akshath, Uchangi Satyaprasad; Bhatt, Praveena

    2016-11-15

    Monitoring of bio-catalytic events by using nano-probes is of immense interest due to unique optical properties of metal nanoparticles. In the present study, tunneling of enzyme activity was achieved using redox cofactors namely oxidized cytochrome-c (Cyt-c) and Co-enzyme-Q (Co-Q) immobilized on Quantum dots (QDs) which acted as a bio-probe for NAD(+) dependent dehydrogenase catalyzed reaction. We studied how electron transfer from substrate to non-native electron acceptors can differentially modify photoluminescence properties of CdTe QDs. Two probes were designed, QD-Ox-Cyt-c and QD-Ox-Co-Q, which were found to quench the fluorescence of QDs. However, formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) catalyzed reduction of Cyt-c and Co-Q on the surface of QDs lead to fluorescence turn-on of CdTe QDs. This phenomenon was successfully used for the detection of HCHO in the range of 0.01-100,000ng/mL (LOD of 0.01ng/mL) using both QD-Ox-Cyt-c (R(2)=0.93) and QD-Ox-Co-Q (R(2)=0.96). Further probe performance and stability in samples like milk, wine and fruit juice matrix were studied and we could detect HCHO in range of 0.001-100,000ng/mL (LOD of 0.001ng/mL) with good stability and sensitivity of probe in real samples (R(2)=0.97). Appreciable recovery and detection sensitivity in the presence of metal ions suggests that the developed nano-probes can be used successfully for monitoring dehydrogenase based bio-catalytic events even in the absence of NAD(+). Proposed method is advantageous over classical methods as clean up/ derivatization of samples is not required for formaldehyde detection. PMID:27179565

  19. Regulation of SIRT 1 mediated NAD dependent deacetylation: A novel role for the multifunctional enzyme CD38

    SciTech Connect

    Aksoy, Pinar; Escande, Carlos; White, Thomas A.; Thompson, Michael; Soares, Sandra; Benech, Juan Claudio; Chini, Eduardo N. . E-mail: chini.eduardo@mayo.edu

    2006-10-13

    The SIRT 1 enzyme is a NAD dependent deacetylase implicated in ageing, cell protection, and energy metabolism in mammalian cells. How the endogenous activity of SIRT 1 is modulated is not known. The enzyme CD38 is a multifunctional enzyme capable of synthesis of the second messenger, cADPR, NAADP, and ADPR. However, the major enzymatic activity of CD38 is the hydrolysis of NAD. Of particular interest is the fact that CD38 is present on the inner nuclear membrane. Here, we investigate the modulation of the SIRT 1 activity by CD38. We propose that by modulating availability of NAD to the SIRT1 enzyme, CD38 may regulate SIRT1 enzymatic activity. We observed that in CD38 knockout mice, tissue levels of NAD are significantly increased. We also observed that incubation of purified recombinant SIRT1 enzyme with CD38 or nuclear extracts of wild-type mice led to a significant inhibition of its activity. In contrast, incubation of SIRT1 with cellular extract from CD38 knockout mice was without effect. Furthermore, the endogenous activity of SIRT1 was several time higher in nuclear extracts from CD38 knockout mice when compared to wild-type nuclear extracts. Finally, the in vivo deacetylation of the SIRT1 substrate P53 is increased in CD38 knockout mice tissue. Our data support the novel concept that nuclear CD38 is a major regulator of cellular/nuclear NAD level, and SIRT1 activity. These findings have strong implications for understanding the basic mechanisms that modulate intracellular NAD levels, energy homeostasis, as well as ageing and cellular protection modulated by the SIRT enzymes.

  20. Mitochondrial NAD+-dependent malic enzyme from Anopheles stephensi: a possible novel target for malaria mosquito control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anopheles stephensi mitochondrial malic enzyme (ME) emerged as having a relevant role in the provision of pyruvate for the Krebs' cycle because inhibition of this enzyme results in the complete abrogation of oxygen uptake by mitochondria. Therefore, the identification of ME in mitochondria from immortalized A. stephensi (ASE) cells and the investigation of the stereoselectivity of malate analogues are relevant in understanding the physiological role of ME in cells of this important malaria parasite vector and its potential as a possible novel target for insecticide development. Methods To characterize the mitochondrial ME from immortalized ASE cells (Mos. 43; ASE), mass spectrometry analyses of trypsin fragments of ME, genomic sequence analysis and biochemical assays were performed to identify the enzyme and evaluate its activity in terms of cofactor dependency and inhibitor preference. Results The encoding gene sequence and primary sequences of several peptides from mitochondrial ME were found to be highly homologous to the mitochondrial ME from Anopheles gambiae (98%) and 59% homologous to the mitochondrial NADP+-dependent ME isoform from Homo sapiens. Measurements of ME activity in mosquito mitochondria isolated from ASE cells showed that (i) Vmax with NAD+ was 3-fold higher than that with NADP+, (ii) addition of Mg2+ or Mn2+ increased the Vmax by 9- to 21-fold, with Mn2+ 2.3-fold more effective than Mg2+, (iii) succinate and fumarate increased the activity by 2- and 5-fold, respectively, at sub-saturating concentrations of malate, (iv) among the analogs of L-malate tested as inhibitors of the NAD+-dependent ME catalyzed reaction, small (2- to 3-carbons) organic diacids carrying a 2-hydroxyl/keto group behaved as the most potent inhibitors of ME activity (e.g., oxaloacetate, tartronic acid and oxalate). Conclusions The biochemical characterization of Anopheles stephensi ME is of critical relevance given its important role in bioenergetics, suggesting

  1. Mitochondrial NAD Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase either from Yeast or Human Replaces Yeast Cytoplasmic NADP Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase for the Aerobic Growth of Yeast on Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Abhijit; Wei, Baoxian; Weiner, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we deleted three aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes, involved in ethanol metabolism, from yeast S. cerevisiae and found that the triple deleted yeast strain did not grow on ethanol as sole carbon source. The ALDHs were NADP dependent cytosolic ALDH1, NAD dependent mitochondrial ALDH2 and NAD/NADP dependent mitochondrial ALDH5. Double deleted strain ΔALDH2+ΔALDH5 or ΔALDH1+ΔALDH5 could grow on ethanol. However, the double deleted strain ΔALDH1+ΔALDH2 did not grow in ethanol. Methods Triple deleted yeast strain was used. Mitochondrial NAD dependent ALDH from yeast or human was placed in yeast cytosol. Results In the present study we found that a mutant form of cytoplasmic ALDH1 with very low activity barely supported the growth of the triple deleted strain (ΔALDH1+ΔALDH2+ΔALDH5) on ethanol. Finding the importance of NADP dependent ALDH1 on the growth of the strain on ethanol we examined if NAD dependent mitochondrial ALDH2 either from yeast or human would be able to support the growth of the triple deleted strain on ethanol if the mitochondrial form was placed in cytosol. We found that the NAD dependent mitochondrial ALDH2 from yeast or human was active in cytosol and supported the growth of the triple deleted strain on ethanol. Conclusion This study showed that coenzyme preference of ALDH is not critical in cytosol of yeast for the growth on ethanol. PMID:23454351

  2. Allelic Interactions Heritably Alter the Activity of a Metastable Maize Pl Allele

    PubMed Central

    Hollick, J. B.; Patterson, G. I.; Coe-Jr., E. H.; Cone, K. C.; Chandler, V. L.

    1995-01-01

    The maize pl locus encodes a transcriptional activator of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. The Pl-Rhoades (Pl-Rh) allele confers robust purple anthocyanin pigment in several tissues. Spontaneous derivatives of Pl-Rh, termed Pl'-mahogany (Pl'-mah), arise that confer reduced pigment and are meiotically heritable. These derivatives influence other Pl-Rh alleles such that only Pl'-mah alleles are transmitted from a Pl-Rh/Pl'-mah heterozygote. Genetic crosses establish that chromosomal segregation distortion does not explain this exclusive transmission and suggest that Pl-Rh invariably changes to Pl'-mah when exposed to Pl'-mah. Such behavior is a hallmark of paramutation. Cosegregation experiments demonstrate that this paramutagenic activity is genetically linked to the pl locus. By visually quantifying pl action through successive crosses, we find that phenotypic expression is inversely related to paramutagenic strength. In addition, the paramutagenic state is metastable; reversion to a nonparamutagenic Pl-Rh state can occur. The behavior of Pl-Rh is unique, yet it shares characteristics with paramutation at two other maize loci, b and r. Previous analysis of b and r paramutation revealed extensive differences and led to suggestions of distinct molecular mechanisms. Consideration of the common features of all three systems reinvigorates the interpretation that the mechanistic processes of these three allelic interactions are similar. PMID:8647404

  3. Genes and Small RNA Transcripts Exhibit Dosage-Dependent Expression Pattern in Maize Copy-Number Alterations.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tao; Zhang, Jianbo; Lithio, Andrew; Dash, Sudhansu; Weber, David F; Wise, Roger; Nettleton, Dan; Peterson, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Copy-number alterations are widespread in animal and plant genomes, but their immediate impact on gene expression is still unclear. In animals, copy-number alterations usually exhibit dosage effects, except for sex chromosomes which tend to be dosage compensated. In plants, genes within small duplications (<100 kb) often exhibit dosage-dependent expression, whereas large duplications (>50 Mb) are more often dosage compensated. However, little or nothing is known about expression in moderately-sized (1-50 Mb) segmental duplications, and about the response of small RNAs to dosage change. Here, we compared maize (Zea mays) plants with two, three, and four doses of a 14.6-Mb segment of chromosome 1 that contains ∼300 genes. Plants containing the duplicated segment exhibit dosage-dependent effects on ear length and flowering time. Transcriptome analyses using GeneChip and RNA-sequencing methods indicate that most expressed genes and unique small RNAs within the duplicated segments exhibit dosage-dependent transcript levels. We conclude that dosage effect is the predominant regulatory response for both genes and unique small RNA transcripts in the segmental dosage series we tested. To our knowledge this is the first analysis of small RNA expression in plant gene dosage variants. Because segmental duplications comprise a significant proportion of eukaryotic genomes, these findings provide important new insight into the regulation of genes and small RNAs in response to dosage changes. PMID:27129738

  4. Amino acid residues involved in the catalytic mechanism of NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pomares, F; Ferrer, J; Camacho, M; Pire, C; LLorca, F; Bonete, M J

    1999-02-01

    The pH dependence of kinetic parameters for a competitive inhibitor (glutarate) was determined in order to obtain information on the chemical mechanism for NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium salinarum. The maximum velocity is pH dependent, decreasing at low pHs giving a pK value of 7.19+/-0.13, while the V/K for l-glutamate at 30 degrees C decreases at low and high pHs, yielding pK values of 7.9+/-0.2 and 9.8+/-0.2, respectively. The glutarate pKis profile decreases at high pHs, yielding a pK of 9. 59+/-0.09 at 30 degrees C. The values of ionization heat calculated from the change in pK with temperature are: 1.19 x 10(4), 5.7 x 10(3), 7 x 10(3), 6.6 x 10(3) cal mol-1, for the residues involved. All these data suggest that the groups required for catalysis and/or binding are lysine, histidine and tyrosine. The enzyme shows a time-dependent loss in glutamate oxidation activity when incubated with diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC). Inactivation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with a second-order rate constant of 53 M-1min-1. The pKa of the titratable group was pK1=6.6+/-0.6. Inactivation with ethyl acetimidate also shows pseudo-first-order kinetics as well as inactivation with TNM yielding second-order constants of 1.2 M-1min-1 and 2.8 M-1min-1, and pKas of 8.36 and 9.0, respectively. The proposed mechanism involves hydrogen binding of each of the two carboxylic groups to tyrosyl residues; histidine interacts with one of the N-hydrogens of the l-glutamate amino group. We also corroborate the presence of a conservative lysine that has a remarkable ability to coordinate a water molecule that would act as general base. PMID:10076069

  5. Alteration of Thiol Pools in Roots and Shoots of Maize Seedlings Exposed to Cadmium 1

    PubMed Central

    Meuwly, Philippe; Rauser, Wilfried E.

    1992-01-01

    Roots of intact 5-day-old maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings were exposed to 3 micromolar Cd during a 7-day period. Cysteine, γ-glutamylcysteine, glutathione (GSH), and Cd-induced acid-soluble thiols (ASTs), including phytochelatins, were quantified in roots and shoots. Adaptation to Cd and its cost to seedling development were evaluated by measuring Cd content, tissue fresh weight, and rate of root elongation. Roots contained 60 to 67% of the Cd in the seedlings between 4 and 7 days of exposure. Exposure to Cd decreased the fresh weight gain in roots from day 4 onward without affecting the shoots. Between days 1.5 and 3.5 of Cd treatment, roots elongated more slowly than controls; however, their growth rate recovered thereafter and exceeded that of controls. Exposure to Cd did not appreciably affect the concentration of cysteine in the seedlings. However, the initial low concentration of γ-glutamylcysteine increased (after a lag of 6 hours in roots and 2 days in shoots), reaching a plateau by day 6 at 28.5 nanomoles per gram of fresh weight in roots and by day 5 at 19.1 nanomoles per gram of fresh weight in shoots. During the first 9 hours of Cd exposure, the concentration of GSH in roots decreased dramatically (at 31.6 nanomoles per gram of fresh weight per hour) and thereafter decreased more slowly than in controls. The depletion of GSH in the roots (366 nanomoles per gram of fresh weight) matched the synthesis of ASTs (349 nanomoles per gram of fresh weight) during the first 48 hours. The concentration of ASTs in roots increased steadily thereafter to reach 662.2 nanomoles per gram of fresh weight by 6 days of Cd exposure. In shoots, Cd had little influence on the concentration of GSH, but ASTs still accumulated to 173.3 nanomoles per gram fresh weight after 5 days. The molar ratio of thiols in ASTs to Cd increased to a maximum of 10.24 in roots after 4 hours and of 4.25 in shoots after 2 days of Cd exposure. After 4 days, the ratio reached a plateau of

  6. Structural insights into the efficient CO2-reducing activity of an NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus sp. KNK65MA.

    PubMed

    Choe, Hyunjun; Ha, Jung Min; Joo, Jeong Chan; Kim, Hyunook; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Seonghoon; Son, Sang Hyeon; Gengan, Robert M; Jeon, Seung Taeg; Chang, Rakwoo; Jung, Kwang Deog; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2015-02-01

    CO2 fixation is thought to be one of the key factors in mitigating global warming. Of the various methods for removing CO2, the NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (CbFDH) has been widely used in various biological CO2-reduction systems; however, practical applications of CbFDH have often been impeded owing to its low CO2-reducing activity. It has recently been demonstrated that the NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus sp. KNK65MA (TsFDH) has a higher CO2-reducing activity compared with CbFDH. The crystal structure of TsFDH revealed that the biological unit in the asymmetric unit has two conformations, i.e. open (NAD(+)-unbound) and closed (NAD(+)-bound) forms. Three major differences are observed in the crystal structures of TsFDH and CbFDH. Firstly, hole 2 in TsFDH is blocked by helix α20, whereas it is not blocked in CbFDH. Secondly, the sizes of holes 1 and 2 are larger in TsFDH than in CbFDH. Thirdly, Lys287 in TsFDH, which is crucial for the capture of formate and its subsequent delivery to the active site, is an alanine in CbFDH. A computational simulation suggested that the higher CO2-reducing activity of TsFDH is owing to its lower free-energy barrier to CO2 reduction than in CbFDH. PMID:25664741

  7. Multitrophic Interaction in the Rhizosphere of Maize: Root Feeding of Western Corn Rootworm Larvae Alters the Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Dematheis, Flavia; Zimmerling, Ute; Flocco, Cecilia; Kurtz, Benedikt; Vidal, Stefan; Kropf, Siegfried; Smalla, Kornelia

    2012-01-01

    Background Larvae of the Western Corn Rootworm (WCR) feeding on maize roots cause heavy economical losses in the US and in Europe. New or adapted pest management strategies urgently require a better understanding of the multitrophic interaction in the rhizosphere. This study aimed to investigate the effect of WCR root feeding on the microbial communities colonizing the maize rhizosphere. Methodology/Principal Findings In a greenhouse experiment, maize lines KWS13, KWS14, KWS15 and MON88017 were grown in three different soil types in presence and in absence of WCR larvae. Bacterial and fungal community structures were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments, PCR amplified from the total rhizosphere community DNA. DGGE bands with increased intensity were excised from the gel, cloned and sequenced in order to identify specific bacteria responding to WCR larval feeding. DGGE fingerprints showed that the soil type and the maize line influenced the fungal and bacterial communities inhabiting the maize rhizosphere. WCR larval feeding affected the rhiyosphere microbial populations in a soil type and maize line dependent manner. DGGE band sequencing revealed an increased abundance of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in the rhizosphere of several maize lines in all soil types upon WCR larval feeding. Conclusion/Significance The effects of both rhizosphere and WCR larval feeding seemed to be stronger on bacterial communities than on fungi. Bacterial and fungal community shifts in response to larval feeding were most likely due to changes of root exudation patterns. The increased abundance of A. calcoaceticus suggested that phenolic compounds were released upon WCR wounding. PMID:22629377

  8. The effect of altered dosage of a mutant allele of Teosinte branched 1 (tb1-ref) on the root system of modern maize

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There was ancient human selection on the wild progenitor of modern maize, Balsas teosinte, for decreased shoot branching (tillering), in order to allow more nutrients to be diverted to grain. Mechanistically, the decline in shoot tillering has been associated with selection for increased expression of the major domestication gene Teosinte Branched 1 (Tb1) in shoot primordia. Therefore, TB1 has been defined as a repressor of shoot branching. It is known that plants respond to changes in shoot size by compensatory changes in root growth and architecture. However, it has not been reported whether altered TB1 expression affects any plant traits below ground. Previously, changes in dosage of a well-studied mutant allele of Tb1 in modern maize, called tb1-ref, from one to two copies, was shown to increase tillering. As a result, plants with two copies of the tb1-ref allele have a larger shoot biomass than heterozygotes. Here we used aeroponics to phenotype the effects of tb1-ref copy number on maize roots at macro-, meso- and micro scales of development. Results An increase in the tb1-ref copy number from one to two copies resulted in: (1) an increase in crown root number due to the cumulative initiation of crown roots from successive tillers; (2) higher density of first and second order lateral roots; and (3) reduced average lateral root length. The resulting increase in root system biomass in homozygous tb1-ref mutants balanced the increase in shoot biomass caused by enhanced tillering. These changes caused homozygous tb1-ref mutants of modern maize to more closely resemble its ancestor Balsas teosinte below ground. Conclusion We conclude that a decrease in TB1 function in maize results in a larger root system, due to an increase in the number of crown roots and lateral roots. Given that decreased TB1 expression results in a more highly branched and larger shoot, the impact of TB1 below ground may be direct or indirect. We discuss the potential implications

  9. [Activity of liver mitochondrial NAD+-dependent dehydrogenases of the krebs cycle in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis developed under conditions of alimentary protein deficiency].

    PubMed

    Voloshchuk, O N; Kopylchuk, G P

    2016-01-01

    Activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and the NAD(+)/NADН ratio were studied in the liver mitochondrial fraction of rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen under conditions of alimentary protein deprivation. Acetaminophen-induced hepatitis was characterized by a decrease of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities, while the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio remained at the control level. Modeling of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis in rats with alimentary protein caused a more pronounced decrease in the activity of NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases studied and a 2.2-fold increase of the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio. This suggests that alimentary protein deprivation potentiated drug-induced liver damage. PMID:27143375

  10. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Paul R.; Mohammad, Shabaz; Melrose, Helen J.; Moody, Peter C. E.

    2008-08-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase B from H. pylori has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in the presence of NAD. Crystals of GAPDHB diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 166.1, c = 253.1 Å. Helicobacter pylori is a dangerous human pathogen that resides in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its metabolism and with the onset of antibiotic resistance new treatments are required. In this study, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from H. pylori are reported.

  11. A simple method for the rapid determination of the stereospecificity of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases applied to mammalian IMP dehydrogenase and bacterial NADH peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Cooney, D; Hamel, E; Cohen, M; Kang, G J; Dalal, M; Marquez, V

    1987-11-01

    The stereospecificity of IMP dehydrogenase (IMP:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.205) from two different sources was determined. The enzyme preparations were obtained from murine lymphoblasts and from Escherichia coli. Both enzymes transferred the 2-3H of IMP to the pro-S position of carbon atom C-4 of the nicotinamide ring in NAD. Thus, B-sided stereospecificity is common to the enzyme from two very different species. In addition, the studies described here demonstrate that alcohol dehydrogenase and NADH peroxidase, used as auxiliary enzymes, in combination with a microdistillation procedure, should permit rapid determination of the stereospecificity of any NAD-dependent dehydrogenase for which the appropriate tritiated substrate is available. PMID:2889473

  12. Enhancement of NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase activity by methylselenocysteine resets the circadian clock in carcinogen-treated mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Mingzhu; Guo, Wei-Ren; Park, Youngil; Kang, Hwan-Goo; Zarbl, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that dietary methylselenocysteine (MSC) inhibits N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis by resetting circadian gene expression disrupted by the carcinogen at the early stage of tumorigenesis. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we developed a circadian reporter system comprised of human mammary epithelial cells with a luciferase reporter driven by the promoter of human PERIOD 2 (PER2), a core circadian gene. In this in vitro model, NMU disrupted cellular circadian rhythm in a pattern similar to that observed with SIRT1-specific inhibitors; in contrast, MSC restored the circadian rhythms disrupted by NMU and protected against SIRT1 inhibitors. Moreover, NMU inhibited intracellular NAD+/NADH ratio and reduced NAD+-dependent SIRT1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, while MSC restored NAD+/NADH and SIRT1 activity in the NMU-treated cells, indicating that the NAD+-SIRT1 pathway was targeted by NMU and MSC. In rat mammary tissue, a carcinogenic dose of NMU also disrupted NAD+/NADH oscillations and decreased SIRT1 activity; dietary MSC restored NAD+/NADH oscillations and increased SIRT1 activity in the mammary glands of NMU-treated rats. MSC-induced SIRT1 activity was correlated with decreased acetylation of BMAL1 and increased acetylation of histone 3 lysine 9 at the Per2 promoter E-Box in mammary tissue. Changes in SIRT1 activity were temporally correlated with loss or restoration of rhythmic Per2 mRNA expression in NMU-treated or MSC-rescued rat mammary glands, respectively. Together with our previous findings, these results suggest that enhancement of NAD+-dependent SIRT1 activity contributes to the chemopreventive efficacy of MSC by restoring epigenetic regulation of circadian gene expression at early stages of mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:26544624

  13. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian; Yu, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production-NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)-were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6. PMID:25217009

  14. Homology Modeling of NAD+-Dependent DNA Ligase of the Wolbachia Endosymbiont of Brugia malayi and Its Drug Target Potential Using Dispiro-Cycloalkanones

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Nidhi; Nag, Jeetendra K.; Pandey, Jyoti; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Shah, Priyanka; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic filarial nematodes maintain a mutualistic relationship with the endosymbiont Wolbachia. Depletion of Wolbachia produces profound defects in nematode development, fertility, and viability and thus has great promise as a novel approach for treating filarial diseases. NAD+-dependent DNA ligase is an essential enzyme of DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Therefore, in the present study, the antifilarial drug target potential of the NAD+-dependent DNA ligase of the Wolbachia symbiont of Brugia malayi (wBm-LigA) was investigated using dispiro-cycloalkanone compounds. Dispiro-cycloalkanone specifically inhibited the nick-closing and cohesive-end ligation activities of the enzyme without inhibiting human or T4 DNA ligase. The mode of inhibition was competitive with the NAD+ cofactor. Docking studies also revealed the interaction of these compounds with the active site of the target enzyme. The adverse effects of these inhibitors were observed on adult and microfilarial stages of B. malayi in vitro, and the most active compounds were further monitored in vivo in jirds and mastomys rodent models. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 had severe adverse effects in vitro on the motility of both adult worms and microfilariae at low concentrations. Compound 2 was the best inhibitor, with the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) (1.02 μM), followed by compound 5 (IC50, 2.3 μM) and compound 1 (IC50, 2.9 μM). These compounds also exhibited the same adverse effect on adult worms and microfilariae in vivo (P < 0.05). These compounds also tremendously reduced the wolbachial load, as evident by quantitative real-time PCR (P < 0.05). wBm-LigA thus shows great promise as an antifilarial drug target, and dispiro-cycloalkanone compounds show great promise as antifilarial lead candidates. PMID:25845868

  15. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production—NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)—were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6. PMID:25217009

  16. Characterization of Arabidopsis lines deficient in GAPC-1, a cytosolic NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Rius, Sebastián P; Casati, Paula; Iglesias, Alberto A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2008-11-01

    Phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (GAPC-1) is a highly conserved cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-P to 1,3-bis-phosphoglycerate; besides its participation in glycolysis, it is thought to be involved in additional cellular functions. To reach an integrative view on the many roles played by this enzyme, we characterized a homozygous gapc-1 null mutant and an as-GAPC1 line of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Both mutant plant lines show a delay in growth, morphological alterations in siliques, and low seed number. Embryo development was altered, showing abortions and empty embryonic sacs in basal and apical siliques, respectively. The gapc-1 line shows a decrease in ATP levels and reduced respiratory rate. Furthermore, both lines exhibit a decrease in the expression and activity of aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase and reduced levels of pyruvate and several Krebs cycle intermediates, as well as increased reactive oxygen species levels. Transcriptome analysis of the gapc-1 mutants unveils a differential accumulation of transcripts encoding for enzymes involved in carbon partitioning. According to these studies, some enzymes involved in carbon flux decreased (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NAD-malic enzyme, glucose-6-P dehydrogenase) or increased (NAD-malate dehydrogenase) their activities compared to the wild-type line. Taken together, our data indicate that a deficiency in the cytosolic GAPC activity results in modifications of carbon flux and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to an alteration of plant and embryo development with decreased number of seeds, indicating that GAPC-1 is essential for normal fertility in Arabidopsis plants. PMID:18820081

  17. Possible role of NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in growth promotion of Arabidopsis seedlings by low levels of selenium.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toru; Fukui, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    We explored functional significance of selenium (Se) in Arabidopsis physiology. Se at very low concentrations in cultivation exerted a considerable positive effect on Arabidopsis growth with no indication of oxidative stress, whereas Se at higher concentrations significantly suppressed the growth and brought serious oxidative damage. Respiration, ATP levels, and the activity of NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD-GAPDH) were enhanced in Arabidopsis grown in the medium containing 1.0 μM Se. Addition of an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis to the medium abolished both of the Se-dependent growth promotion and NAD-GAPDH up-regulation. Assay of NAD-GAPDH purified from seedlings subjected to Se interventions raised the possibility of a direct connection between the activity of this enzyme and Arabidopsis growth. These results reveal that trace amounts of Se accelerate Arabidopsis growth, and suggest that this pro-growth effect of Se arises enhancing mitochondrial performance in a GSH-dependent manner, in which NAD-GAPDH may serve as a key regulator. PMID:25988618

  18. Biochemical Analysis of the NAD+-Dependent Malate Dehydrogenase, a Substrate of Several Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao Ming; Soetaert, Karine; Peirs, Priska; Kalai, Michaël; Fontaine, Véronique; Dehaye, Jean Paul; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PknD is one of the eleven eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In vitro phosphorylation assays with the active recombinant PknD showed that the intracellular protein NAD+-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is a substrate of this kinase. MDH, an energy-supplying enzyme, catalyzes the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate and plays crucial roles in several metabolic pathways including the citric acid cycle. The phosphorylation site was identified on threonine residues and the phosphorylation inhibited the MDH activity. In vitro, the recombinant MDH could also be phosphorylated by at least five other STPKs, PknA, PknE, PknH, PknJ, and PknG. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that MDH was hyperphosphorylated in the bacteria at the beginning of the stationary and under oxygen-limited conditions by STPKs other than PknD. On the contrary, when PknD-deficient mutant mycobacteria were grown in a phosphate-depleted medium, MDH was not detectably phosphorylated. These results suggest that although the MDH is a substrate of several mycobacterial STPKs, the activity of these kinases can depend on the environment, as we identified PknD as a key element in the MDH phosphorylation assay under phosphate-poor conditions. PMID:25860441

  19. Molecular Clone and Expression of a NAD+-Dependent Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Isozyme Gene from the Halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ma; He, Li-Hong; Yu, Tu-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is an important osmotically compatible solute in Dunaliella. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) is a key enzyme in the pathway of glycerol synthesis, which converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol-3-phosphate. Generally, the glycerol-DHAP cycle pathway, which is driven by G3PDH, is considered as the rate-limiting enzyme to regulate the glycerol level under osmotic shocks. Considering the peculiarity in osmoregulation, the cDNA of a NAD+-dependent G3PDH was isolated from D. salina using RACE and RT-PCR approaches in this study. Results indicated that the length of the cDNA sequence of G3PDH was 2,100 bp encoding a 699 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computational molecular weight was 76.6 kDa. Conserved domain analysis revealed that the G3PDH protein has two independent functional domains, SerB and G3PDH domains. It was predicted that the G3PDH was a nonsecretory protein and may be located in the chloroplast of D. salina. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the D. salina G3PDH had a closer relationship with the G3PDHs from the Dunaliella genus than with those from other species. In addition, the cDNA was subsequently subcloned in the pET-32a(+) vector and was transformed into E. coli strain BL21 (DE3), a expression protein with 100 kDa was identified, which was consistent with the theoretical value. PMID:23626797

  20. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria. PMID:27588098

  1. Cloning of the Staphylococcus aureus ddh gene encoding NAD+-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase and insertional inactivation in a glycopeptide-resistant isolate.

    PubMed Central

    Boyle-Vavra, S; de Jonge, B L; Ebert, C C; Daum, R S

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of low-level glycopeptide resistance among staphylococci is not known. A cytoplasmic protein, provisionally called Ddh (W. M. Milewski, S. Boyle-Vavra, B. Moreira, C. C. Ebert, and R. S. Daum, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:166-172, 1996), and the RNA transcript that contains the ddh gene, which encodes Ddh, are present in increased amounts in a vancomycin-resistant isolate, 523k, compared with the susceptible parent isolate, 523. Sequence analysis had previously revealed that Ddh is related to NAD+-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-nLDH) and VanH. This latter protein is essential for high-level glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis by synthesizing the D-lactate needed for biosynthesis of D-lactate-terminating peptidoglycan precursors with low affinity for vancomycin. We now provide the direct evidence that the ddh gene product is Staphylococcus aureus D-nLDH and hereafter refer to the protein as D-nLDH. However, overproduction of this protein in isolate 523k did not result in production of D-lactate-containing peptidoglycan precursors, and susceptibility testing of ddh mutants of 523k demonstrated that S. aureus D-nLDH is not necessary for glycopeptide resistance in this isolate. We conclude that the mechanism of glycopeptide resistance in this isolate is distinct from that in enterococci. PMID:9352927

  2. Enhanced stability of maize endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is gained through mutants that alter subunit interactions.

    PubMed

    Greene, T W; Hannah, L C

    1998-10-27

    Temperature lability of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP; glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase; ADP: alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.27), a key starch biosynthetic enzyme, may play a significant role in the heat-induced loss in maize seed weight and yield. Here we report the isolation and characterization of heat-stable variants of maize endosperm AGP. Escherichia coli cells expressing wild type (WT) Shrunken2 (Sh2), and Brittle2 (Bt2) exhibit a reduced capacity to produce glycogen when grown at 42 degreesC. Mutagenesis of Sh2 and coexpression with WT Bt2 led to the isolation of multiple mutants capable of synthesizing copious amounts of glycogen at this temperature. An increase in AGP stability was found in each of four mutants examined. Initial characterization revealed that the BT2 protein was elevated in two of these mutants. Yeast two-hybrid studies were conducted to determine whether the mutant SH2 proteins more efficiently recruit the BT2 subunit into tetramer assembly. These experiments showed that replacement of WT SH2 with the heat-stable SH2HS33 enhanced interaction between the SH2 and BT2 subunits. In agreement, density gradient centrifugation of heated and nonheated extracts from WT and one of the mutants, Sh2hs33, identified a greater propensity for heterotetramer dissociation in WT AGP. Sequencing of Sh2hs33 and several other mutants identified a His-to-Tyr mutation at amino acid position 333. Hence, a single point mutation in Sh2 can increase the stability of maize endosperm AGP through enhanced subunit interactions. PMID:9789090

  3. Efficient CO2-Reducing Activity of NAD-Dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus sp. KNK65MA for Formate Production from CO2 Gas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Kim, Min Hoo; Lee, Sang Hyun; Jung, Kwang Deog; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Candida boidinii (CbFDH) has been widely used in various CO2-reduction systems but its practical applications are often impeded due to low CO2-reducing activity. In this study, we demonstrated superior CO2-reducing properties of FDH from Thiobacillus sp. KNK65MA (TsFDH) for production of formate from CO2 gas. To discover more efficient CO2-reducing FDHs than a reference enzyme, i.e. CbFDH, five FDHs were selected with biochemical properties and then, their CO2-reducing activities were evaluated. All FDHs including CbFDH showed better CO2-reducing activities at acidic pHs than at neutral pHs and four FDHs were more active than CbFDH in the CO2 reduction reaction. In particular, the FDH from Thiobacillus sp. KNK65MA (TsFDH) exhibited the highest CO2-reducing activity and had a dramatic preference for the reduction reaction, i.e., a 84.2-fold higher ratio of CO2 reduction to formate oxidation in catalytic efficiency (kcat/KB) compared to CbFDH. Formate was produced from CO2 gas using TsFDH and CbFDH, and TsFDH showed a 5.8-fold higher formate production rate than CbFDH. A sequence and structural comparison showed that FDHs with relatively high CO2-reducing activities had elongated N- and C-terminal loops. The experimental results demonstrate that TsFDH can be an alternative to CbFDH as a biocatalyst in CO2 reduction systems. PMID:25061666

  4. Characterization of the SIRT family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases in the context of a mammalian model of hibernation, the thirteen-lined ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Rouble, Andrew N; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-10-01

    Hibernating mammals employ strong metabolic rate depression to survive the winter, thereby avoiding the high energy costs of maintaining a euthermic lifestyle in the face of low seasonal temperatures and limited food resources. Characteristics of this natural torpor include a significant reduction in body temperature, a shift to a lipid-based metabolism, global suppression of ATP-expensive activities, and the upregulation of selected genes that mediate biochemical reorganization and cytoprotection. Sirtuin (SIRT) proteins, an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases, have been shown to play important roles in the post-translational regulation of many metabolic and cytoprotective processes, suggesting a potential function for these enzymes in the control of hibernation. To assess this possibility, protein levels of the seven mammalian SIRTs (SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT4, SIRT5, SIRT6 and SIRT7), total SIRT activity, and the acetylation status of two downstream SIRT targets (SOD2K68 and NF-κB p65K310) were measured in skeletal muscle, liver, brown adipose and white adipose tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) over the course of the torpor-arousal cycle. The analysis revealed tissue-specific responses of different SIRTs at various points throughout hibernation, including a potentially interesting correlation between increased levels of SIRT3 protein, heightened total SIRT activity, and decreased acetylation of SIRT3 downstream target SOD2K68 in skeletal muscle during late torpor. These results provide evidence to suggest a possible role for the SIRT family of protein deacetylases in the regulation of the metabolic and cellular protective pathways that mediate the process of mammalian hibernation. PMID:26277038

  5. Gene cloning and characterization of the very large NAD-dependent l-glutamate dehydrogenase from the psychrophile Janthinobacterium lividum, isolated from cold soil.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ryushi; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2007-08-01

    NAD-dependent l-glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) activity was detected in cell extract from the psychrophile Janthinobacterium lividum UTB1302, which was isolated from cold soil and purified to homogeneity. The native enzyme (1,065 kDa, determined by gel filtration) is a homohexamer composed of 170-kDa subunits (determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Consistent with these findings, gene cloning and sequencing enabled deduction of the amino acid sequence of the subunit, which proved to be comprised of 1,575 amino acids with a combined molecular mass of 169,360 Da. The enzyme from this psychrophile thus appears to belong to the GDH family characterized by very large subunits, like those expressed by Streptomyces clavuligerus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (about 180 kDa). The entire amino acid sequence of the J. lividum enzyme showed about 40% identity with the sequences from S. clavuligerus and P. aeruginosa enzymes, but the central domains showed higher homology (about 65%). Within the central domain, the residues related to substrate and NAD binding were highly conserved, suggesting that this is the enzyme's catalytic domain. In the presence of NAD, but not in the presence of NADP, this GDH exclusively catalyzed the oxidative deamination of l-glutamate. The stereospecificity of the hydride transfer to NAD was pro-S, which is the same as that of the other known GDHs. Surprisingly, NAD-GDH activity was markedly enhanced by the addition of various amino acids, such as l-aspartate (1,735%) and l-arginine (936%), which strongly suggests that the N- and/or C-terminal domains play regulatory roles and are involved in the activation of the enzyme by these amino acids. PMID:17526698

  6. Genes and small RNA transcripts exhibit dosage-dependent expression pattern in maize copy-number alterations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy-number alterations are widespread in animal and plant genomes, but their immediate impact on gene expression is still unclear. In animals, copy-number alterations usually exhibit dosage effects, except for sex chromosomes that tend to be dosage compensated. In plants, genes within small duplica...

  7. Deficiency of maize starch-branching enzyme i results in altered starch fine structure, decreased digestibility and reduced coleoptile growth during germination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Two distinct starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms predate the divergence of monocots and dicots and have been conserved in plants since then. This strongly suggests that both SBEI and SBEII provide unique selective advantages to plants. However, no phenotype for the SBEI mutation, sbe1a, had been previously observed. To explore this incongruity the objective of the present work was to characterize functional and molecular phenotypes of both sbe1a and wild-type (Wt) in the W64A maize inbred line. Results Endosperm starch granules from the sbe1a mutant were more resistant to digestion by pancreatic α-amylase, and the sbe1a mutant starch had an altered branching pattern for amylopectin and amylose. When kernels were germinated, the sbe1a mutant was associated with shorter coleoptile length and higher residual starch content, suggesting that less efficient starch utilization may have impaired growth during germination. Conclusions The present report documents for the first time a molecular phenotype due to the absence of SBEI, and suggests strongly that it is associated with altered physiological function of the starch in vivo. We believe that these results provide a plausible rationale for the conservation of SBEI in plants in both monocots and dicots, as greater seedling vigor would provide an important survival advantage when resources are limited. PMID:21599988

  8. Altered Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Maize Lc-Expressed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Affects Storage Root Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Min; Fan, Weijuan; Firon, Nurit; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    There is no direct evidence of the effect of lignin metabolism on early storage root development in sweet potato. In this study, we found that heterologous expression of the maize leaf color (Lc) gene in sweet potato increased anthocyanin pigment accumulation in the whole plant and resulted in reduced size with an increased length/width ratio, low yield and less starch content in the early storage roots. RT-PCR analysis revealed dramatic up-regulation of the genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway in developing storage roots, leading to greater lignin content in the Lc transgenic lines, compared to the wild type. This was also evidenced by the enhanced lignification of vascular cells in the early storage roots. Furthermore, increased expression of the β-amylase gene in leaves and storage roots also accelerated starch degradation and increased the sugar use efficiency, providing more energy and carbohydrate sources for lignin biosynthesis in the Lc transgenic sweet potato. Lesser starch accumulation was observed in the developing storage roots at the initiation stage in the Lc plants. Our study provides experimental evidence of the basic carbohydrate metabolism underlying the development of storage roots, which is the transformation of lignin biosynthesis to starch biosynthesis. PMID:26727353

  9. Altered Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Maize Lc-Expressed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Affects Storage Root Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Min; Fan, Weijuan; Firon, Nurit; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    There is no direct evidence of the effect of lignin metabolism on early storage root development in sweet potato. In this study, we found that heterologous expression of the maize leaf color (Lc) gene in sweet potato increased anthocyanin pigment accumulation in the whole plant and resulted in reduced size with an increased length/width ratio, low yield and less starch content in the early storage roots. RT-PCR analysis revealed dramatic up-regulation of the genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway in developing storage roots, leading to greater lignin content in the Lc transgenic lines, compared to the wild type. This was also evidenced by the enhanced lignification of vascular cells in the early storage roots. Furthermore, increased expression of the β-amylase gene in leaves and storage roots also accelerated starch degradation and increased the sugar use efficiency, providing more energy and carbohydrate sources for lignin biosynthesis in the Lc transgenic sweet potato. Lesser starch accumulation was observed in the developing storage roots at the initiation stage in the Lc plants. Our study provides experimental evidence of the basic carbohydrate metabolism underlying the development of storage roots, which is the transformation of lignin biosynthesis to starch biosynthesis. PMID:26727353

  10. Spent metal working fluids produced alterations on photosynthetic parameters and cell-ultrastructure of leaves and roots of maize plants.

    PubMed

    Grijalbo, Lucía; Fernandez-Pascual, Mercedes; García-Seco, Daniel; Gutierrez-Mañero, Francisco Javier; Lucas, Jose Antonio

    2013-09-15

    In this work we assess the capacity of maize (Zea mays) plants to phytoremediate spent metal working fluids (MWFs) and its effects on photosynthesis and ultrastructure of mesophyll and root cells. A corn-esparto fibre system patented by us has been used to phytoremediate MWFs in hydroponic culture. Furthermore, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been used to improve the process. The results show that this system is capable of significantly reducing the chemical oxygen demand, under local legislation limits. However, plant systems are really damaged, mainly its photosynthetic system, as shown by the photosynthetical parameters. Nevertheless, strain inoculated improves these parameters, especially Hill reaction. The ultrastructure of photosynthetic apparatus was also affected. Chloroplast number decreased and becomes degraded in the mesophyll of MWFs treated plants. In some cases even plasmolysis of chloroplast membrane was detected. Early senescence symptoms were detected in root ultrastructural study. Severe cellular damage was observed in the parenchymal root cells of plants grown with MWFs, while vascular bundles cell remained unchanged. It seems that the inoculation minimises the damage originated by the MWFs pollutants, appearing as less degenerative organelles and higher chloroplast number than in non-inoculated ones. PMID:23770488

  11. Maize databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  12. The auxin-deficient defective kernel18 (dek18) mutation alters the expression of seed-specific biosynthethic genes in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dek18 mutant of maize has decreased auxin content in kernels. Molecular and functional characterization of this mutant line offers the possibility to better understand auxin biology in maize seed development. Seeds of the dek18 mutants are smaller compared to wild type seeds and the vegetative d...

  13. Reinventing MaizeGDB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Maize Database (MaizeDB) to the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) turns 20 this year, and such a significant milestone must be celebrated! With the release of the B73 reference sequence and more sequenced genomes on the way, the maize community needs to address various opportunitie...

  14. Maize: Overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is an important cereal crop that is well-suited to industrial agriculture, both in grain production and in grain utilization. Starch, protein and oil are the three major components of the grain. Several processing methods yield many different food ingredients. In addition, whole grain is pr...

  15. Mutation of the maize sbe1a and ae genes alters morphology and physical behavior of wx-type endosperm starch granules.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Hong; Guiltinan, Mark J; Thompson, Donald B

    2007-12-10

    In maize, three isoforms of starch-branching enzyme, SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb, are encoded by the Sbe1a, Sbe2a, and Amylose extender (Ae) genes, respectively. The objective of this research was to explore the effects of null mutations in the Sbe1a and Ae genes alone and in combination in wx background on kernel characteristics and on the morphology and physical behavior of endosperm starch granules. Differences in kernel morphology and weight, starch accumulation, starch granule size and size distribution, starch microstructure, and thermal properties were observed between the ae wx and sbe1a ae wx plants but not between the sbe1a wx mutants when compared to wx. Starch from sbe1a ae wx plants exhibited a larger granule size with a wider gelatinization temperature range and a lower endotherm enthalpy than ae wx. Microscopy shows weaker iodine staining in sbe1a ae wx starch granules. X-ray diffraction revealed A-type crystallinity in wx and sbe1a wx starches and B-type in sbe1a ae wx and ae wx. This study suggests that, while the SBEIIb isoform plays a dominant role in maize endosperm starch synthesis, SBEI also plays a role, which is only observable in the presence of the ae mutation. PMID:17765880

  16. The NAD-Dependent Deacetylase Sirtuin-1 Regulates the Expression of Osteogenic Transcriptional Activator Runt-Related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2) and Production of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 in Chondrocytes in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Terauchi, Koh; Kobayashi, Hajime; Yatabe, Kanaka; Yui, Naoko; Fujiya, Hiroto; Niki, Hisateru; Musha, Haruki; Yudoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Aging is one of the major pathologic factors associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Recently, numerous reports have demonstrated the impact of sirtuin-1 (Sirt1), which is the NAD-dependent deacetylase, on human aging. It has been demonstrated that Sirt1 induces osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the role of Sirt1 in the OA chondrocytes still remains unknown. We postulated that Sirt1 regulates a hypertrophic chondrocyte lineage and degeneration of articular cartilage through the activation of osteogenic transcriptional activator Runx2 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 in OA chondrocytes. To verify whether sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) regulates chondrocyte activity in OA, we studied expressions of Sirt1, Runx2 and production of MMP-13, and their associations in human OA chondrocytes. The expression of Sirt1 was ubiquitously observed in osteoarthritic chondrocytes; in contrast, Runx2 expressed in the osteophyte region in patients with OA and OA model mice. OA relating catabolic factor IL-1βincreased the expression of Runx2 in OA chondrocytes. OA chondrocytes, which were pretreated with Sirt1 inhibitor, inhibited the IL-1β-induced expression of Runx2 compared to the control. Since the Runx2 is a promotor of MMP-13 expression, Sirt1 inactivation may inhibit the Runx2 expression and the resultant down-regulation of MMP-13 production in chondrocytes. Our findings suggest thatSirt1 may regulate the expression of Runx2, which is the osteogenic transcription factor, and the production of MMP-13 from chondrocytes in OA. Since Sirt1 activity is known to be affected by several stresses, including inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as aging, SIRT may be involved in the development of OA. PMID:27367673

  17. Photosynthetic response of field-grown maize to fertilizer N

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While N supply has a large effect on growth and productivity of field-grown maize, its impact on leaf and canopy photosynthesis is less clear. Our objective was to characterize how N supply, and use of N by the maize plant impacts photosynthesis under field conditions. The N supply/N use was altered...

  18. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, O.E.; Pan, D.

    1994-07-19

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating. 2 figs.

  19. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Oliver E.; Pan, David

    1994-01-01

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating.

  20. Rapid decomposition of maize detritus in agricultural headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Natalie A; Tank, Jennifer L; Royer, Todd V; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Whiles, Matt R; Chambers, Catherine P; Frauendorf, Therese C; Evans-White, Michelle A

    2009-01-01

    Headwater streams draining agricultural landscapes receive maize leaves (Zea mays L.) via wind and surface runoff, yet the contribution of maize detritus to organic-matter processing in agricultural streams is largely unknown. We quantified decomposition and microbial respiration rates on conventional (non-Bt) and genetically engineered (Bt) maize in three low-order agricultural streams in northwestern Indiana, USA. We also examined how substrate quality and in-stream nutrient concentrations influenced microbial respiration on maize by comparing respiration on maize and red maple leaves (Acer rubrum) in three nutrient-rich agricultural streams and three low-nutrient forested streams. We found significantly higher rates of microbial respiration on maize vs. red maple leaves and higher rates in agricultural vs. forested streams. Thus both the elevated nutrient status of agricultural streams and the lability of maize detritus (e.g., low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and low lignin content) result in a rapid incorporation of maize leaves into the aquatic microbial food web. We found that Bt maize had a faster decomposition rate than non-Bt maize, while microbial respiration rates did not differ between Bt and non-Bt maize. Decomposition rates were not negatively affected by genetic engineering, perhaps because the Bt toxin does not adversely affect the aquatic microbial assemblage involved in maize decomposition. Additionally, shredding caddisflies, which are known to have suppressed growth rates when fed Bt maize, were depauperate in these agricultural streams, and likely did not play a major role in maize decomposition. Overall, the conversion of native vegetation to row-crop agriculture appears to have altered the quantity, quality, and predictability of allochthonous carbon inputs to headwater streams, with unexplored effects on stream ecosystem structure and function. PMID:19323178

  1. Maize aluminum tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is one of the most economically important food crops grown on acid soils, where aluminum (Al) toxicity greatly limits crop yields. Considerable variation for Al tolerance exists in maize, and this variation has been exploited for many years by plant breeders to enhance maize Al tolerance. Curr...

  2. MaizeCyc: Metabolic networks in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeCyc is a catalog of known and predicted metabolic and transport pathways that enables plant researchers to graphically represent the metabolome of maize (Zea mays), thereby supporting integrated systems-biology analysis. Supported analyses include molecular and genetic/phenotypic profiling (e.g...

  3. Digital gene expression signatures for maize development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide expression signatures detect specific perturbations in developmental programs and contribute to functional resolution of key regulatory networks. In maize (Zea mays) inflorescences, mutations in the RAMOSA (RA) genes affect determinacy of axillary meristems and thus alter branching patt...

  4. EMF radiations (1800 MHz)-inhibited early seedling growth of maize (Zea mays) involves alterations in starch and sucrose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of 1800-MHz electromagnetic field radiations (EMF-r), widely used in mobile communication, on the growth and activity of starch-, sucrose-, and phosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes in Zea mays seedlings. We exposed Z. mays to modulated continuous wave homogenous EMF-r at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.69±0.0 × 10(-1) W kg(-1) for ½, 1, 2, and 4 h. The analysis of seedlings after 7 days revealed that short-term exposure did not induce any significant change, while longer exposure of 4 h caused significant growth and biochemical alterations. There was a reduction in the root and coleoptile length with more pronounced effect on coleoptile growth (23 % reduction on 4-h exposure). The contents of photosynthetic pigments and total carbohydrates declined by 13 and 18 %, respectively, in 4-h exposure treatments compared to unexposed control. The activity of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes-α- and β-amylases-increased by ∼92 and 94 %, respectively, at an exposure duration of 4 h, over that in the control. In response to 4-h exposure treatment, the activity of sucrolytic enzymes-acid invertases and alkaline invertases-was increased by 88 and 266 %, whereas the specific activities of phosphohydrolytic enzymes (acid phosphatases and alkaline phosphatases) showed initial increase up to ≤2 h duration and then declined at >2 h exposure duration. The study concludes that EMF-r-inhibited seedling growth of Z. mays involves interference with starch and sucrose metabolism. PMID:26277350

  5. MaizeGDB, the maize model organism database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is the maize research community's database for maize genetic and genomic information. In this seminar I will outline our current endeavors including a full website redesign, the status of maize genome assembly and annotation projects, and work toward genome functional annotation. Mechanis...

  6. Sorghum and Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum and maize are closely related cereal grains grown throughout the world. Sorghum, a drought tolerant crop grown in semi-arid regions, is a basic food staple in many parts of the developing world, while primarily an animal feed in western countries. Maize, a major worldwide crop, is used for...

  7. MAIZE ALLELIC DIVERSITY PROJECT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the estimated 250-300 races of maize, only 24 races are represented in materials utilized by the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project, a collaborative effort between USDA-ARS and public and private sector research scientists. This is largely a result of poor performance of many races in ...

  8. Maize Genetic Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the resources held at the Maize Genetics Cooperation • Stock Center in detail and also provides some information about the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) in Mexico, and the N...

  9. Recurrent selection to control grain methionine content and improve nutritional value of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methionine is an essential amino acid that is limiting in maize-based diets. The objective of this work was to determine if we could alter methionine content in random-mated maize populations by recurrent selection for grain methionine content. In one study, we developed two populations by selecting...

  10. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, C.; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  11. Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Frame, Bronwyn; Warnberg, Katey; Main, Marcy; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an effective method for introducing genes into maize. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of the maize genotype Hi II. Our starting plant material is immature embryos cocultivated with an Agrobacterium strain carrying a standard binary vector. In addition to step-by-step laboratory transformation procedures, we include extensive details in growing donor plants and caring for transgenic plants in the greenhouse. PMID:25300834

  12. Genetic resources for maize cell wall biology.

    PubMed

    Penning, Bryan W; Hunter, Charles T; Tayengwa, Reuben; Eveland, Andrea L; Dugard, Christopher K; Olek, Anna T; Vermerris, Wilfred; Koch, Karen E; McCarty, Donald R; Davis, Mark F; Thomas, Steven R; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

    2009-12-01

    Grass species represent a major source of food, feed, and fiber crops and potential feedstocks for biofuel production. Most of the biomass is contributed by cell walls that are distinct in composition from all other flowering plants. Identifying cell wall-related genes and their functions underpins a fundamental understanding of growth and development in these species. Toward this goal, we are building a knowledge base of the maize (Zea mays) genes involved in cell wall biology, their expression profiles, and the phenotypic consequences of mutation. Over 750 maize genes were annotated and assembled into gene families predicted to function in cell wall biogenesis. Comparative genomics of maize, rice (Oryza sativa), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequences reveal differences in gene family structure between grass species and a reference eudicot species. Analysis of transcript profile data for cell wall genes in developing maize ovaries revealed that expression within families differed by up to 100-fold. When transcriptional analyses of developing ovaries before pollination from Arabidopsis, rice, and maize were contrasted, distinct sets of cell wall genes were expressed in grasses. These differences in gene family structure and expression between Arabidopsis and the grasses underscore the requirement for a grass-specific genetic model for functional analyses. A UniformMu population proved to be an important resource in both forward- and reverse-genetics approaches to identify hundreds of mutants in cell wall genes. A forward screen of field-grown lines by near-infrared spectroscopic screen of mature leaves yielded several dozen lines with heritable spectroscopic phenotypes. Pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry confirmed that several nir mutants had altered carbohydrate-lignin compositions. PMID:19926802

  13. Maize Photoperiod Control: Part II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 2007 and 2008 seasons, the staff of the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Project and the Maize Curatorial Project staff of the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station experimented with various types of structures to ensure that field plantings of tropical maize germplasm were expo...

  14. Ionomics of the Maize Nested Association Mapping Panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterogeneity in the elemental composition of soils is among the major causes of plant stress worldwide. In order to adapt to these conditions, plants frequently alter their elemental content. We employed mineral nutrient and trace element profiling in diverse maize germplasm, to examine the connect...

  15. MaizeGDB - Past, present, and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) turns 20 this year. This editorial outlines MaizeGDB's history and connection to the Maize Genetics Cooperation, describes key components of how the MaizeGDB interface will be completely redesigned over the course of the next two years to meet cur...

  16. MaizeGDB Community Curation Tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB (http://www.maizegdb.org) is the community database for maize genetics and genomics. The success of the MaizeGDB project largely can be attributed to the involvement of the community of maize geneticists. Members of the community have (1) made their data available by contributing to MaizeGD...

  17. Maize Disease Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide losses in maize due to disease (not including animals or viruses) were estimated to be about 9% in 2001-3 . This varied significantly by region with estimates of 4% in northern Europe and 14% in West Africa and South Asia (http://www.cabicompendium.org/cpc/economic.asp). Losses have tende...

  18. Betaine deficiency in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Lerma, C. ); Rich, P.J.; Ju, G.C.; Yang, Wenju; Rhodes, D. ); Hanson, A.D. )

    1991-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency. This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline {r arrow} betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde.

  19. (Genomic variation in maize)

    SciTech Connect

    Rivin, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    These studies have sought to learn how different DNA sequences and sequence arrangements contribute to genome plasticity in maize. We describe quantitative variation among maize inbred lines for tandemly arrayed and dispersed repeated DNA sequences and gene families, and qualitative variation for sequences homologous to the Mutator family of transposons. The potential of these sequences to undergo unequal crossing over, non-allelic (ectopic) recombination and transposition makes them a source of genome instability. We have found examples of rapid genomic change involving these sequences in Fl hybrids, tissue culture cells and regenerated plants. We describe the repetitive portion of the maize genome as composed primarily of sequences that vary markedly in copy number among different genetic stocks. The most highly variable is the 185 bp repeat associated with the heterochromatic chromosome knobs. Even in lines without visible knobs, there is a considerable quantity of tandemly arrayed repeats. We also found a high degree of variability for the tandemly arrayed 5S and ribosomal DNA repeats. While such variation might be expected as the result of unequal cross-over, we were surprised to find considerable variation among lower copy number, dispersed repeats as well. One highly repeated sequence that showed a complex tandem and dispersed arrangement stood out as showing no detectable variability among the maize lines. In striking contrast to the variability seen between the inbred stocks, individuals within a stock were indistinguishable with regard to their repeated sequence multiplicities.

  20. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which cause these variations. In addition, the effect of the broad range in chemical composition of maize silages on the total tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, milk production and milk composition of dairy cows is quantified and discussed. Finally, the optimum inclusion level of maize silage in the ration of dairy cows for milk production and composition is reviewed. The data showed that the nutritive value of maize silages is highly variable and that most of this variation is caused by large differences in maturity at harvest. Maize silages ensiled at a very early stage (dry matter (DM) < 250 g kg(-1)) were particularly low in starch content and starch/neutral detergent fibre (NDF) ratio, and resulted in a lower DM intake (DMI), milk yield and milk protein content. The DMI, milk yield and milk protein content increased with advancing maturity, reaching an optimum level for maize silages ensiled at DM contents of 300-350 g kg(-1), and then declined slightly at further maturity beyond 350 g kg(-1). The increases in milk (R(2) = 0.599) and protein (R(2) = 0.605) yields with maturity of maize silages were positively related to the increase in starch/NDF ratio of the maize silages. On average, the inclusion of maize silage in grass silage-based diets improved the forage DMI by 2 kg d(-1), milk yield by 1.9 kg d(-1) and milk protein content by 1.2 g kg(-1). Further comparisons showed that, in terms of milk and milk constituent yields, the optimum grass/maize silage ratio depends on the quality of both the grass and maize silages. Replacement of grass silage with maize silage in the ration, as well as an increasing maturity of the maize silages, altered the milk FA profile

  1. Short-Term Treatment with the Urease Inhibitor N-(n-Butyl) Thiophosphoric Triamide (NBPT) Alters Urea Assimilation and Modulates Transcriptional Profiles of Genes Involved in Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Laura; Venuti, Silvia; Tomasi, Nicola; Zamboni, Anita; De Brito Francisco, Rita M; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    To limit nitrogen (N) losses from the soil, it has been suggested to provide urea to crops in conjunction with the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). However, recent studies reported that NBPT affects urea uptake and urease activity in plants. To shed light on these latter aspects, the effects of NBPT were studied analysing transcriptomic and metabolic changes occurring in urea-fed maize seedlings after a short-term exposure to the inhibitor. We provide evidence that NBPT treatment led to a wide reprogramming of plant metabolism. NBPT inhibited the activity of endogenous urease limiting the release and assimilation of ureic-ammonium, with a simultaneous accumulation of urea in plant tissues. Furthermore, NBPT determined changes in the glutamine, glutamate, and asparagine contents. Microarray data indicate that NBPT affects ureic-N assimilation and primary metabolism, such as glycolysis, TCA cycle, and electron transport chain, while activates the phenylalanine/tyrosine-derivative pathway. Moreover, the expression of genes relating to the transport and complexation of divalent metals was strongly modulated by NBPT. Data here presented suggest that when NBPT is provided in conjunction with urea an imbalance between C and N compounds might occur in plant cells. Under this condition, root cells also seem to activate a response to maintain the homeostasis of some micronutrients. PMID:27446099

  2. Short-Term Treatment with the Urease Inhibitor N-(n-Butyl) Thiophosphoric Triamide (NBPT) Alters Urea Assimilation and Modulates Transcriptional Profiles of Genes Involved in Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Maize Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Zanin, Laura; Venuti, Silvia; Tomasi, Nicola; Zamboni, Anita; De Brito Francisco, Rita M.; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    To limit nitrogen (N) losses from the soil, it has been suggested to provide urea to crops in conjunction with the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). However, recent studies reported that NBPT affects urea uptake and urease activity in plants. To shed light on these latter aspects, the effects of NBPT were studied analysing transcriptomic and metabolic changes occurring in urea-fed maize seedlings after a short-term exposure to the inhibitor. We provide evidence that NBPT treatment led to a wide reprogramming of plant metabolism. NBPT inhibited the activity of endogenous urease limiting the release and assimilation of ureic-ammonium, with a simultaneous accumulation of urea in plant tissues. Furthermore, NBPT determined changes in the glutamine, glutamate, and asparagine contents. Microarray data indicate that NBPT affects ureic-N assimilation and primary metabolism, such as glycolysis, TCA cycle, and electron transport chain, while activates the phenylalanine/tyrosine-derivative pathway. Moreover, the expression of genes relating to the transport and complexation of divalent metals was strongly modulated by NBPT. Data here presented suggest that when NBPT is provided in conjunction with urea an imbalance between C and N compounds might occur in plant cells. Under this condition, root cells also seem to activate a response to maintain the homeostasis of some micronutrients. PMID:27446099

  3. Divergent properties of prolamins in wheat and maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sangtong, Vavaporn; Peterson, Joan; Scott, M Paul; Messing, Joachim

    2013-06-01

    Cereal grains are an important nutritional source of amino acids for humans and livestock worldwide. Wheat, barley, and oats belong to a different subfamily of the grasses than rice and in addition to maize, millets, sugarcane, and sorghum. All their seeds, however, are largely devoid of free amino acids because they are stored during dormancy in specialized storage proteins. Prolamins, the major class of storage proteins in cereals with preponderance of proline and glutamine, are synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum during seed development and deposited into subcellular structures of the immature endosperm, the protein bodies. Prolamins have diverged during the evolution of the grass family in their structure and their properties. Here, we used the expression of wheat glutenin-Dx5 in maize to examine its interaction with maize prolamins during endosperm development. Ectopic expression of Dx5 alters protein body morphology in a way that resembles non-vitreous kernel phenotypes, although Dx5 alone does not cause an opaque phenotype. However, if we lower the amount of γ-zeins in Dx5 maize through RNAi, a non-vitreous phenotype emerges and the deformation on the surface of protein bodies is enhanced, indicating that Dx5 requires γ-zeins for its proper subcellular organization in maize. PMID:23435659

  4. Genetic mechanisms of Maize dwarf mosaic virus resistance in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...

  5. MaizeGDB: The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is the community database for biological information about the crop plant Zea mays. Genomic, genetic, sequence, gene product, functional characterization, literature reference, and person/organization contact information are among the datatypes stored at MaizeGDB. At the project’s website...

  6. MaizeGDB: The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is the community database for biological information about the crop plant Zea mays. Genetic, genomic, sequence, gene product, functional characterization, literature reference, and person/organization contact information are among the datatypes stored at MaizeGDB. At the project's website...

  7. Maize rhabdovirus-vector transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    oth of the plant-infecting rhabdovirus genera, Nucleorhabdovirus and Cytorhabdovirus, contain viruses that infect maize (Zea mays L.). The maize infecting rhabdoviruses are transmitted by hemipteran insects in the families Cicadellidae and Delphacidae in a persistent propagative manner. This chapt...

  8. Maize Genetics and Genomics Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is provided each year to our stakeholders in the maize genetic community. In this report, we describe the five-year plan for MaizeGDB reviewed in early 2008 by the USDA-ARS peer review process and which was developed with inputs from our Working Group and the Allerton 2007 Report (MNL 82...

  9. AN INTEGRATED MAP FOR MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Maize Mapping Project (MMP) is focused on developing genetic, physical, and database resources for the maize genome. A key resource being developed by the MMP is a well-integrated genetic and physical map that will expedite the identification of DNA sequences underlying key traits that have been...

  10. Metabolic pathway resources at MaizeGDB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two maize metabolic networks are available at MaizeGDB: MaizeCyc (http://maizecyc.maizegdb.org, also at Gramene) and CornCyc (http://corncyc.maizegdb.org, also at the Plant Metabolic Network). MaizeCyc was developed by Gramene, and CornCyc by the Plant Metabolic Network, both in collaboration with M...

  11. Maize variety and method of production

    DOEpatents

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  12. The MaizeGDB Genome Browser

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB (http://www.maizegdb.org) is the community database for maize genetics and genomics. As part of an effort to develop MaizeGDB as a more sequence-centric resource, we implemented a genome browser based on information we gathered by surveying the community of maize geneticists. Based on commu...

  13. Interleukin-10 modifies the effects of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on the activity and expression of prostaglandin H synthase-2 and the NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in cultured term human villous trophoblast and chorion trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Pomini, F; Caruso, A; Challis, J R

    1999-12-01

    The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), two inflammatory cytokines in amniotic fluid, have been shown to rise during chorioamnionitis. This is probably related to activation of the immune system in order to intensify the inflammatory process and to protect the maternal and fetal organism from infectious agents. These cytokines activate the PG biosynthetic pathway in several tissues, but few studies have examined effects on PG-metabolizing enzymes. When PGs are produced by increased synthesis and/or decreased metabolism at the chorio-decidual interface, labor can be induced. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is known to act as an antiinflammatory cytokine. The goals of this study were to evaluate the interaction of IL-10 with IL-1beta and TNFalpha on PG synthesis and to determine the effects of IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNFalpha on PG metabolism using purified cultures of villous trophoblast and chorion trophoblast cells prepared from placentas of patients at term. Cells were treated with IL-1beta and TNFalpha with or without IL-10 for various times up to 24 h. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding PGH synthase-2 (PGHS-2) and NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) were quantified by Northern blotting, and PGE2 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2alpha (PGFM) output in the medium was measured by RIA. IL-1beta increased PGHS-2 mRNA and PGE2 output from villous and chorion trophoblasts and decreased PGDH mRNA in villous trophoblasts (all P < 0.05). These effects were reversed by IL-10. We found no change in PGHS-2 mRNA or PGE2 output in either trophoblast type treated with TNFalpha, but TNFalpha reduced PGDH mRNA in villous trophoblast, and this effect was reversed by IL-10 (both P < 0.05). We conclude that proinflammatory cytokines can influence PG output through effects on PG synthesis and metabolism and that these effects may be opposed by an antiinflammatory cytokine. These interactions may be

  14. Maize and resistant starch enriched breads reduce postprandial glycemic responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Brites, Carla M; Trigo, Maria J; Carrapiço, Belmira; Alviña, Marcela; Bessa, Rui J

    2011-04-01

    White wheat bread is a poor source of dietary fiber, typically containing less than 2%. A demand exists for the development of breads with starch that is slowly digestible or partially resistant to the digestive process. The utilization of maize flour and resistant starch is expected to reduce the release and absorption of glucose and, hence, lower the glycemic index of bread. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that a diet of maize bread, as produced and consumed in Portugal, would have beneficial metabolic effects on rats compared to white wheat bread. We also hypothesized that the effect of resistant starch on glycemic response could be altered by the use of different formulations and breadmaking processes for wheat and maize breads. Resistant starch (RS) was incorporated into formulations of breads at 20% of the inclusion rate of wheat and maize flours. Assays were conducted with male Wistar rats (n = 36), divided into four groups and fed either wheat bread, RS-wheat bread, maize bread, and RS-maize bread to evaluate feed intake, body weight gain, fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response (glycemic response). Blood triglycerides, total cholesterol concentrations, and liver weights were also determined. The maize bread group presented higher body weight gain and cholesterol level, lower fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response than the wheat bread group. The RS-wheat bread group showed significant reductions in feed intake, fecal pH, postprandial blood glucose response, and total cholesterol. The RS-maize group displayed significant reductions of body weight gain, fecal pH, and total cholesterol levels; however, for the glycemic response, only a reduction in fasting level was observed. These results suggest that maize bread has a lower glycemic index than wheat bread, and the magnitude of the effect of RS on glycemic response depends of type of bread. PMID:21530804

  15. Many maize genes are expressed in an oat background carrying a specific maize chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat-maize addition (OMA) lines are derived from oat x maize sexual hybrids in which individual maize chromosomes have been retained in plants containing a full complement of oat chromosomes. Many of the OMA lines display specific phenotypes, which indicate that maize genes are likely expressed and c...

  16. Inbreeding drives maize centromere evolution

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kevin L.; Xie, Zidian; Wolfgruber, Thomas K.; Presting, Gernot G.

    2016-01-01

    Functional centromeres, the chromosomal sites of spindle attachment during cell division, are marked epigenetically by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant cenH3 and typically contain long stretches of centromere-specific tandem DNA repeats (∼1.8 Mb in maize). In 23 inbreds of domesticated maize chosen to represent the genetic diversity of maize germplasm, partial or nearly complete loss of the tandem DNA repeat CentC precedes 57 independent cenH3 relocation events that result in neocentromere formation. Chromosomal regions with newly acquired cenH3 are colonized by the centromere-specific retrotransposon CR2 at a rate that would result in centromere-sized CR2 clusters in 20,000–95,000 y. Three lines of evidence indicate that CentC loss is linked to inbreeding, including (i) CEN10 of temperate lineages, presumed to have experienced a genetic bottleneck, contain less CentC than their tropical relatives; (ii) strong selection for centromere-linked genes in domesticated maize reduced diversity at seven of the ten maize centromeres to only one or two postdomestication haplotypes; and (iii) the centromere with the largest number of haplotypes in domesticated maize (CEN7) has the highest CentC levels in nearly all domesticated lines. Rare recombinations introduced one (CEN2) or more (CEN5) alternate CEN haplotypes while retaining a single haplotype at domestication loci linked to these centromeres. Taken together, this evidence strongly suggests that inbreeding, favored by postdomestication selection for centromere-linked genes affecting key domestication or agricultural traits, drives replacement of the tandem centromere repeats in maize and other crop plants. Similar forces may act during speciation in natural systems. PMID:26858403

  17. Inbreeding drives maize centromere evolution.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kevin L; Xie, Zidian; Wolfgruber, Thomas K; Presting, Gernot G

    2016-02-23

    Functional centromeres, the chromosomal sites of spindle attachment during cell division, are marked epigenetically by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant cenH3 and typically contain long stretches of centromere-specific tandem DNA repeats (∼1.8 Mb in maize). In 23 inbreds of domesticated maize chosen to represent the genetic diversity of maize germplasm, partial or nearly complete loss of the tandem DNA repeat CentC precedes 57 independent cenH3 relocation events that result in neocentromere formation. Chromosomal regions with newly acquired cenH3 are colonized by the centromere-specific retrotransposon CR2 at a rate that would result in centromere-sized CR2 clusters in 20,000-95,000 y. Three lines of evidence indicate that CentC loss is linked to inbreeding, including (i) CEN10 of temperate lineages, presumed to have experienced a genetic bottleneck, contain less CentC than their tropical relatives; (ii) strong selection for centromere-linked genes in domesticated maize reduced diversity at seven of the ten maize centromeres to only one or two postdomestication haplotypes; and (iii) the centromere with the largest number of haplotypes in domesticated maize (CEN7) has the highest CentC levels in nearly all domesticated lines. Rare recombinations introduced one (CEN2) or more (CEN5) alternate CEN haplotypes while retaining a single haplotype at domestication loci linked to these centromeres. Taken together, this evidence strongly suggests that inbreeding, favored by postdomestication selection for centromere-linked genes affecting key domestication or agricultural traits, drives replacement of the tandem centromere repeats in maize and other crop plants. Similar forces may act during speciation in natural systems. PMID:26858403

  18. The Genetic Architecture of Maize Flowering Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering time is the key trait controlling adaptation of plants to their local environment, and, in an outcrossing species like maize, it is a complex trait. Variation for this complex trait was dissected in maize using a novel set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping...

  19. MaizeGDB: New tools and resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB, the USDA-ARS genetics and genomics database, is a highly curated, community-oriented informatics service to researchers focused on the crop plant and model organism Zea mays. MaizeGDB facilitates maize research by curating, integrating, and maintaining a database that serves as the central...

  20. MaizeGDB's New Genome Browser Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB (http://www.maizegdb.org) is the community database for maize genetics and genomics. Based upon the 2006 MaizeGDB Working Group Report (available at http://www.maizegdb.org/working_group.php) and the Allerton Report (http://www.maizegdb.org/AllertonReport.doc), it has become evident that th...

  1. The MaizeGDB Genome Browser

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB (http://www.maizegdb.org) is the community database for maize genetics and genomics. As part of a larger effort to develop MaizeGDB into a more sequence-centric resource, we recently implemented a genome browser. The GBrowse platform was chosen for this endeavor based on results of a survey...

  2. MaizeGDB Becomes Sequence-centric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is the maize research community’s central repository for genetic and genomic information about the crop plant and research model Zea mays ssp. mays. The MaizeGDB team endeavors to meet research needs as they evolve based on researcher feedback and guidance. Recent work has focused on bett...

  3. Identification and genetic characterization of maize cell wall variation for improved biorefinery feedstock characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah

    2013-10-31

    The objectives of this program are to 1) characterize novel maize mutants with altered cell walls for enhanced biorefinery characteristics and 2) find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to biorefinery characteristics by taking advantage of the genetic diversity of maize. As a result a novel non-transgenic maize plant (cal1) has been identified, whose stover (leaves and stalk) contain more glucan in their walls leading to a higher saccharification yield, when subjected to a standard enzymatic digestion cocktail. Stacking this trait with altered lignin mutants yielded evene higher saccharification yields. Cal-1 mutants do not show a loss of kernel and or biomass yield when grown in the field . Hence, cal1 biomass provides an excellent feedstock for the biofuel industry.

  4. Maize, tropical (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Assem, Shireen K

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines. PMID:25300835

  5. Intestinal and peripheral immune response to MON810 maize ingestion in weaning and old mice.

    PubMed

    Finamore, Alberto; Roselli, Marianna; Britti, Serena; Monastra, Giovanni; Ambra, Roberto; Turrini, Aida; Mengheri, Elena

    2008-12-10

    This study evaluated the gut and peripheral immune response to genetically modified (GM) maize in mice in vulnerable conditions. Weaning and old mice were fed a diet containing MON810 or its parental control maize or a pellet diet containing a GM-free maize for 30 and 90 days. The immunophenotype of intestinal intraepithelial, spleen, and blood lymphocytes of control maize fed mice was similar to that of pellet fed mice. As compared to control maize, MON810 maize induced alterations in the percentage of T and B cells and of CD4(+), CD8(+), gammadeltaT, and alphabetaT subpopulations of weaning and old mice fed for 30 or 90 days, respectively, at the gut and peripheral sites. An increase of serum IL-6, IL-13, IL-12p70, and MIP-1beta after MON810 feeding was also found. These results suggest the importance of the gut and peripheral immune response to GM crop ingestion as well as the age of the consumer in the GMO safety evaluation. PMID:19007233

  6. MaizeGDB update: new tools, data and interface for the maize model organism database

    PubMed Central

    Andorf, Carson M.; Cannon, Ethalinda K.; Portwood, John L.; Gardiner, Jack M.; Harper, Lisa C.; Schaeffer, Mary L.; Braun, Bremen L.; Campbell, Darwin A.; Vinnakota, Abhinav G.; Sribalusu, Venktanaga V.; Huerta, Miranda; Cho, Kyoung Tak; Wimalanathan, Kokulapalan; Richter, Jacqueline D.; Mauch, Emily D.; Rao, Bhavani S.; Birkett, Scott M.; Sen, Taner Z.; Lawrence-Dill, Carolyn J.

    2016-01-01

    MaizeGDB is a highly curated, community-oriented database and informatics service to researchers focused on the crop plant and model organism Zea mays ssp. mays. Although some form of the maize community database has existed over the last 25 years, there have only been two major releases. In 1991, the original maize genetics database MaizeDB was created. In 2003, the combined contents of MaizeDB and the sequence data from ZmDB were made accessible as a single resource named MaizeGDB. Over the next decade, MaizeGDB became more sequence driven while still maintaining traditional maize genetics datasets. This enabled the project to meet the continued growing and evolving needs of the maize research community, yet the interface and underlying infrastructure remained unchanged. In 2015, the MaizeGDB team completed a multi-year effort to update the MaizeGDB resource by reorganizing existing data, upgrading hardware and infrastructure, creating new tools, incorporating new data types (including diversity data, expression data, gene models, and metabolic pathways), and developing and deploying a modern interface. In addition to coordinating a data resource, the MaizeGDB team coordinates activities and provides technical support to the maize research community. MaizeGDB is accessible online at http://www.maizegdb.org. PMID:26432828

  7. MaizeGDB update: new tools, data and interface for the maize model organism database.

    PubMed

    Andorf, Carson M; Cannon, Ethalinda K; Portwood, John L; Gardiner, Jack M; Harper, Lisa C; Schaeffer, Mary L; Braun, Bremen L; Campbell, Darwin A; Vinnakota, Abhinav G; Sribalusu, Venktanaga V; Huerta, Miranda; Cho, Kyoung Tak; Wimalanathan, Kokulapalan; Richter, Jacqueline D; Mauch, Emily D; Rao, Bhavani S; Birkett, Scott M; Sen, Taner Z; Lawrence-Dill, Carolyn J

    2016-01-01

    MaizeGDB is a highly curated, community-oriented database and informatics service to researchers focused on the crop plant and model organism Zea mays ssp. mays. Although some form of the maize community database has existed over the last 25 years, there have only been two major releases. In 1991, the original maize genetics database MaizeDB was created. In 2003, the combined contents of MaizeDB and the sequence data from ZmDB were made accessible as a single resource named MaizeGDB. Over the next decade, MaizeGDB became more sequence driven while still maintaining traditional maize genetics datasets. This enabled the project to meet the continued growing and evolving needs of the maize research community, yet the interface and underlying infrastructure remained unchanged. In 2015, the MaizeGDB team completed a multi-year effort to update the MaizeGDB resource by reorganizing existing data, upgrading hardware and infrastructure, creating new tools, incorporating new data types (including diversity data, expression data, gene models, and metabolic pathways), and developing and deploying a modern interface. In addition to coordinating a data resource, the MaizeGDB team coordinates activities and provides technical support to the maize research community. MaizeGDB is accessible online at http://www.maizegdb.org. PMID:26432828

  8. Photosynthesis, growth and maize yields in the context of global change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is the third most important grain crop behind wheat and rice. Global mean temperatures are rising primarily due to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions into the earth’s atmosphere. Warmer temperatures over major landmasses are predicted to alter precipitation patterns and to increase the f...

  9. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive ...

  10. Identification of novel brown-midrib (bm) genes in maize by tests of allelism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown midrib (bm) mutations are known to affect cell wall digestibility by altering the quantity and composition of lignins in cell walls, resulting in higher ethanol yield and increased cell wall digestibility. So far, four bm genes (bm1, bm2, bm3, and bm4) were identified and mapped in maize, the...

  11. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Ranum, Peter; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays), also called corn, is believed to have originated in central Mexico 7000 years ago from a wild grass, and Native Americans transformed maize into a better source of food. Maize contains approximately 72% starch, 10% protein, and 4% fat, supplying an energy density of 365 Kcal/100 g and is grown throughout the world, with the United States, China, and Brazil being the top three maize-producing countries in the world, producing approximately 563 of the 717 million metric tons/year. Maize can be processed into a variety of food and industrial products, including starch, sweeteners, oil, beverages, glue, industrial alcohol, and fuel ethanol. In the last 10 years, the use of maize for fuel production significantly increased, accounting for approximately 40% of the maize production in the United States. As the ethanol industry absorbs a larger share of the maize crop, higher prices for maize will intensify demand competition and could affect maize prices for animal and human consumption. Low production costs, along with the high consumption of maize flour and cornmeal, especially where micronutrient deficiencies are common public health problems, make this food staple an ideal food vehicle for fortification. PMID:24650320

  12. Importance of rare taxa for bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of Bt- and conventional maize varieties

    PubMed Central

    Dohrmann, Anja B; Küting, Meike; Jünemann, Sebastian; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Schlüter, Andreas; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to explore whether the genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize hybrid MON 89034 × MON 88017, expressing three insecticidal recombinant Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis, would alter the rhizosphere bacterial community. Fine roots of field cultivated Bt-maize and three conventional maize varieties were analyzed together with coarse roots of the Bt-maize. A total of 547 000 sequences were obtained. Library coverage was 100% at the phylum and 99.8% at the genus rank. Although cluster analyses based on relative abundances indicated no differences at higher taxonomic ranks, genera abundances pointed to variety specific differences. Genera-based clustering depended solely on the 49 most dominant genera while the remaining 461 rare genera followed a different selection. A total of 91 genera responded significantly to the different root environments. As a benefit of pyrosequencing, 79 responsive genera were identified that might have been overlooked with conventional cloning sequencing approaches owing to their rareness. There was no indication of bacterial alterations in the rhizosphere of the Bt-maize beyond differences found between conventional varieties. B. thuringiensis-like phylotypes were present at low abundance (0.1% of Bacteria) suggesting possible occurrence of natural Cry proteins in the rhizospheres. Although some genera indicated potential phytopathogenic bacteria in the rhizosphere, their abundances were not significantly different between conventional varieties and Bt-maize. With an unprecedented sensitivity this study indicates that the rhizosphere bacterial community of a GM maize did not respond abnormally to the presence of three insecticidal proteins in the root tissue. PMID:22791236

  13. Future carbon dioxide concentration decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion by field-grown maize.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mir Zaman; Vanloocke, Andy; Siebers, Matthew H; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Cody Markelz, R J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ort, Donald R; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2013-05-01

    Maize, in rotation with soybean, forms the largest continuous ecosystem in temperate North America, therefore changes to the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of water vapor and energy of these crops are likely to have an impact on the Midwestern US climate and hydrological cycle. As a C4 crop, maize photosynthesis is already CO2 -saturated at current CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) and the primary response of maize to elevated [CO2 ] is decreased stomatal conductance (gs ). If maize photosynthesis is not stimulated in elevated [CO2 ], then reduced gs is not offset by greater canopy leaf area, which could potentially result in a greater ET reduction relative to that previously reported in soybean, a C3 species. The objective of this study is to quantify the impact of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy energy and water fluxes of maize (Zea mays). Maize was grown under ambient and elevated [CO2 ] (550 μmol mol(-1) during 2004 and 2006 and 585 μmol mol(-1) during 2010) using Free Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) technology at the SoyFACE facility in Urbana, Illinois. Maize ET was determined using a residual energy balance approach based on measurements of sensible (H) and soil heat fluxes, and net radiation. Relative to control, elevated [CO2 ] decreased maize ET (7-11%; P < 0.01) along with lesser soil moisture depletion, while H increased (25-30 W m(-2) ; P < 0.01) along with higher canopy temperature (0.5-0.6 °C). This reduction in maize ET in elevated [CO2 ] is approximately half that previously reported for soybean. A partitioning analysis showed that transpiration contributed less to total ET for maize compared to soybean, indicating a smaller role of stomata in dictating the ET response to elevated [CO2 ]. Nonetheless, both maize and soybean had significantly decreased ET and increased H, highlighting the critical role of elevated [CO2 ] in altering future hydrology and climate of the region that is extensively cropped with these species. PMID:23505040

  14. Flowering and Determinacy in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All plant organs are produced by meristems, groups of stem cells located in the tips of roots and shoots. Indeterminate meristems make an indefinite number of organs, whereas determinate meristems are consumed after making a specific number of organs. Maize is an ideal system to study the genetic co...

  15. Development of maize starch granules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize kernels of self-pollinated inbred line B73 harvested on various days after pollination (DAP) were subjected for starch granule development studies. Starch in endosperms was first observed on 6 DAP. A small amount of starch granules (<2% of dry weight) was found in the endosperm on 12 DAP. S...

  16. Maize Genetics and Genomics Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 report for MaizeGDB lists the new hires who will focus on curation/outreach and the genome sequence, respectively. Currently all sequence in the database comes from a PlantGDB pipeline and is presented with deep links to external resources such as PlantGDB, Dana Farber, GenBank, the Arizona...

  17. Betaine Deficiency in Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerma, Claudia; Rich, Patrick J.; Ju, Grace C.; Yang, Wen-Ju; Hanson, Andrew D.; Rhodes, David

    1991-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency (D Rhodes, PJ Rich [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 102-108). This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline → betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde. PMID:16668098

  18. Enantioselective Phytotoxicity of Imazamox Against Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Xuesheng; Zeng, Dongqiang; Tan, Huihua

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing concern about the enantioselective effects of chiral herbicides. To study the enantioselective toxicity of the chiral herbicide imazamox on maize, maize seedlings (Zhengda 619, Zea mays L.) were exposed to imazamox racemate and enantiomers in hydroponic experiments. The results showed that imazamox enantiomers selectively affected maize. The effective concentration of Rac-, S- and R-imazamox that caused 50 % inhibition after 5 days treatments (EC50,5d) were 0.4212, 1.2142 and 0.2460 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize root length; 0.0002, 0.1005, 0.0032 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize root fresh weight; 0.7114, 1.4056 and 0.4530 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize shoot height; 0.6220, 1.5418, 0.2286 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize shoot fresh weight; and 0.1100, 0.3306, 0.0307 mg L(-1), respectively, for the total chlorophyll content of leaves. The root morphological parameters and root activity reflected the toxicity effects in the order R-imazamox > Rac-imazamox > S-imazamox. Maize roots were more sensitive to imazamox than maize shoots. The chiral herbicide imazamox poses enantioselective phytotoxicity on maize seedlings: the order of toxicity is R-imazamox > Rac-imazamox > S-imazamox. PMID:26508428

  19. Four descriptions: 'Mollicutes'; 'Corn stunt Spiroplasma'; 'Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma'; and, 'Maize redness'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work includes four chapters, one describing mollicute pathogens of plants in general, and three describing specific mollicute pathogens of maize. Chapters describe the distribution, diseases, symptoms, vector epidemiology and detection of corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma a...

  20. Maize Plants Recognize Herbivore-Associated Cues from Caterpillar Frass.

    PubMed

    Ray, Swayamjit; Gaffor, Iffa; Acevedo, Flor E; Helms, Anjel; Chuang, Wen-Po; Tooker, John; Felton, Gary W; Luthe, Dawn S

    2015-09-01

    Caterpillar behaviors such as feeding, crawling, and oviposition are known to induce defenses in maize and other plant species. We examined plant defense responses to another important caterpillar behavior, their defecation. Fall armyworms (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda), a major threat to maize (Zea mays), are voracious eaters and deposit copious amounts of frass in the enclosed whorl tissue surrounding their feeding site, where it remains for long periods of time. FAW frass is composed of molecules derived from the host plant, the insect itself, and associated microbes, and hence provides abundant cues that may alter plant defense responses. We observed that proteins from FAW frass initially induced wound-responsive defense genes in maize; however, a pathogenesis-related (pr) defense gene was induced as the time after application increased. Elicitation of pathogen defenses by frass proteins was correlated with increased herbivore performance and reduced fungal pathogen performance over time. These responses differ from the typical plant response to oral secretions of the FAW. The results pave the way for identification of protein molecule(s) from the excretion of an herbivore that elicits pathogen defense responses while attenuating herbivore defenses in plants. PMID:26306592

  1. Profiling expression changes caused by a segmental aneuploid in maize

    PubMed Central

    Makarevitch, Irina; Phillips, Ronald L; Springer, Nathan M

    2008-01-01

    Background While changes in chromosome number that result in aneuploidy are associated with phenotypic consequences such as Down syndrome and cancer, the molecular causes of specific phenotypes and genome-wide expression changes that occur in aneuploids are still being elucidated. Results We employed a segmental aneuploid condition in maize to study phenotypic and gene expression changes associated with aneuploidy. Maize plants that are trisomic for 90% of the short arm of chromosome 5 and monosomic for a small distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 6 exhibited a phenotypic syndrome that includes reduced stature, tassel morphology changes and the presence of knots on the leaves. The knotted-like homeobox gene knox10, which is located on the short arm of chromosome 5, was shown to be ectopically expressed in developing leaves of the aneuploid plants. Expression profiling revealed that ~40% of the expressed genes in the trisomic region exhibited the expected 1.5 fold increased transcript levels while the remaining 60% of genes did not show altered expression even with increased gene dosage. Conclusion We found that the majority of genes with altered expression levels were located within the chromosomal regions affected by the segmental aneuploidy and exhibits dosage-dependent expression changes. A small number of genes exhibit higher levels of expression change not predicted by the dosage, or display altered expression even though they are not located in the aneuploid regions. PMID:18186930

  2. Reducing photoperiod response of tropical maize germplasm for use in Midwestern maize introgression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Project (GEM) is a cooperative effort of USDA-ARS, public and private sector scientists to broaden the genetic diversity of maize germplasm. Tropical maize germplasm is an important source of alleles for biotic and abiotic stress resistance and numerous value-adde...

  3. MaizeGDB: Global support for maize research through open access information [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is the open-access global repository for maize genetic and genomic information – from single genes that determine nutritional quality to whole genome-scale data for complex traits including yield and drought tolerance. The data and tools at MaizeGDB enable researchers from Ethiopia to Ghan...

  4. Kernel Composition, Starch Structure, and Enzyme Digestibility of Opaque-2 Maize and Quality Protein Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to understand how opaque-2 (o2) mutation and quality protein maize (QPM) affect maize kernel composition and starch structure, property, and enzyme digestibility. Kernels of o2 maize contained less protein (9.6−12.5%) than those of the wild-type (WT) counterparts (12...

  5. Fate of Transgenic DNA from Orally Administered Bt MON810 Maize and Effects on Immune Response and Growth in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Maria C.; Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Rea, Mary C.; Gelencsér, Eva; Jánosi, Anna; Epstein, Michelle M.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effect of short-term feeding of genetically modified (GM: Bt MON810) maize on immune responses and growth in weanling pigs and determined the fate of the transgenic DNA and protein in-vivo. Pigs were fed a diet containing 38.9% GM or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days. We observed that IL-12 and IFNγ production from mitogenic stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased (P<0.10) following 31 days of GM maize exposure. While Cry1Ab-specific IgG and IgA were not detected in the plasma of GM maize-fed pigs, the detection of the cry1Ab gene and protein was limited to the gastrointestinal digesta and was not found in the kidneys, liver, spleen, muscle, heart or blood. Feeding GM maize to weanling pigs had no effect on growth performance or body weight. IL-6 and IL-4 production from isolated splenocytes were increased (P<0.05) in response to feeding GM maize while the proportion of CD4+ T cells in the spleen decreased. In the ileum, the proportion of B cells and macrophages decreased while the proportion of CD4+ T cells increased in GM maize-fed pigs. IL-8 and IL-4 production from isolated intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes were also increased (P<0.05) in response to feeding GM maize. In conclusion, there was no evidence of cry1Ab gene or protein translocation to the organs and blood of weaning pigs. The growth of pigs was not affected by feeding GM maize. Alterations in immune responses were detected; however, their biologic relevance is questionable. PMID:22132091

  6. Comparative Proteomic Analyses Provide New Insights into Low Phosphorus Stress Responses in Maize Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kewei; Liu, Hanhan; Tao, Peilin; Chen, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiency limits plant growth and development. To better understand the mechanisms behind how maize responds to phosphate stress, we compared the proteome analysis results of two groups of maize leaves that were treated separately with 1,000 µM (control, +P) and 5 µM of KH2PO4 (intervention group, −P) for 25 days. In total, 1,342 protein spots were detected on 2-DE maps and 15.43% had changed (P<0.05; ≥1.5-fold) significantly in quantity between the +P and −P groups. These proteins are involved in several major metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, secondary metabolism, signal transduction, protein synthesis, cell rescue and cell defense and virulence. The results showed that the reduction in photosynthesis under low phosphorus treatment was due to the down-regulation of the proteins involved in CO2 enrichment, the Calvin cycle and the electron transport system. Electron transport and photosynthesis restrictions resulted in a large accumulation of peroxides. Maize has developed many different reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging mechanisms to cope with low phosphorus stress, including up-regulating its antioxidant content and antioxidase activity. After being subjected to phosphorus stress over a long period, maize may increase its internal phosphorus utilization efficiency by altering photorespiration, starch synthesis and lipid composition. These results provide important information about how maize responds to low phosphorus stress. PMID:24858307

  7. The iojap gene in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Martienssen, Robert

    2001-12-01

    The classical maize mutant iojap (Iodent japonica) has variegated green and white leaves. Green sectors have cells with normal chloroplasts whereas white sectors have cells where plastids fail to differentiate. These mutant plastids, when transmitted through the female gametophyte, do not recover in the presence of wild type Iojap. We cloned the Ij locus, and we have investigated the mechanism of epigenetic inheritance and phenotypic expression. More recently, a modifier of this type of variegation, ''Inhibitor of striate'', has also been cloned. Both the iojap and inhibitor of striate proteins have homologs in bacteria and are members of ancient conserved families found in multiple species. These tools can be used to address fundamental questions of inheritance and variegation associated with this classical conundrum of maize genetics. Since the work of Rhoades there has been considerable speculation concerning the nature of the Iojap gene product, the origin of leaf variegation and the mechanism behind the material inheritance of defective plastids. This has made Iojap a textbook paradigm for cytoplasmic inheritance and nuclear-organellar interaction for almost 50 years. Cloning of the Iojap gene in maize, and homologs in other plants and bacteria, provides a new means to address the origin of heteroplastidity, variegation and cytoplasmic inheritance in higher plants.

  8. Comparative Genome Mapping of Sorghum and Maize

    PubMed Central

    Whitkus, R.; Doebley, J.; Lee, M.

    1992-01-01

    Linkage relationships were determined among 85 maize low copy number nuclear DNA probes and seven isozyme loci in an F(2) population derived from a cross of Sorghum bicolor ssp. bicolor X S. bicolor ssp. arundinaceum. Thirteen linkage groups were defined, three more than the 10 chromosomes of sorghum. Use of maize DNA probes to produce the sorghum linkage map allowed us to make several inferences concerning processes involved in the evolutionary divergence of the maize and sorghum genomes. The results show that many linkage groups are conserved between these two genomes and that the amount of recombination in these conserved linkage groups is roughly equivalent in maize and sorghum. Estimates of the proportions of duplicated loci suggest that a larger proportion of the loci are duplicated in the maize genome than in the sorghum genome. This result concurs with a prior estimate that the nuclear DNA content of maize is three to four times greater than that of sorghum. The pattern of conserved linkages between maize and sorghum is such that most sorghum linkage groups are composed of loci that map to two maize chromosomes. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesized ancient polyploid origin of maize and sorghum. There are nine cases in which locus order within shared linkage groups is inverted in sorghum relative to maize. These may have arisen from either inversions or intrachromosomal translocations. We found no evidence for large interchromosomal translocations. Overall, the data suggest that the primary processes involved in divergence of the maize and sorghum genomes were duplications (either by polyploidy or segmental duplication) and inversions or intrachromosomal translocations. PMID:1360933

  9. Ustilago maydis reprograms cell proliferation in maize anthers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; Kelliher, Timothy; Nguyen, Linda; Walbot, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is a ubiquitous pathogen of maize (Zea mays), one of the world’s most important cereal crops. Infection by this smut fungus triggers tumor formation in aerial plant parts within which the fungus sporulates. Using confocal microscopy to track U. maydis infection on corn anthers through 7 dpi (days post-injection), we found that U. maydis is located on the epidermis on the first two days and by 3 dpi has reached all anther lobe cell types. Fungal infection can alter cell fate specification events, cell division patterns, host cell expansion, and host cell senescence depending on the developmental stage and cell type. Fungal impacts on tassel and plant growth were also quantified. Transcriptome profiling using a dual organism microarray identified thousands of anther genes affected by fungal infection 3 dpi during the cell fate specification and rapid cell proliferation phases of anther development. 4147 (17%) of anther-expressed genes were altered by infection, 2018 fungal genes were expressed in anthers, and 206 fungal secretome genes may be anther-specific. The results confirm that U. maydis deploys distinctive genes to cause disease in specific maize organs and begins to chart the mechanisms by which the host plant is manipulated to generate a tumor. PMID:23795972

  10. Use of tropical maize for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical maize is an alternative energy crop being considered as a feedstock for bioethanol production in the North Central and Midwest United States. Tropical maize is advantageous because it produces large amounts of soluble sugars in its stalks, creates a large amount of biomass, and requires lo...

  11. Aflatoxin accumulation in a maize diallel cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimin...

  12. A meteorologically driven maize stress indicator model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A maize soil moisture and temperature stress model is described which was developed to serve as a meteorological data filter to alert commodity analysts to potential stress conditions in the major maize-producing areas of the world. The model also identifies optimum climatic conditions and planting/harvest problems associated with poor tractability.

  13. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project Overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Project (GEM) is a collaborative effort of public and private sector researchers to broaden and enhance the maize germplasm base. The GEM Project has cooperators from 26 private companies, 17 Universities, 7 USDA-ARS Research Units, 1 NGO, and 12 international pub...

  14. The genetic architecture of maize height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state (IBS) among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formida...

  15. Maize metabolic network construction and transcriptome analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A framework for understanding the synthesis and catalysis of metabolites and other biochemicals by proteins is crucial for unraveling the physiology of cells. To create such a framework for Zea mays ssp. mays (maize), we developed MaizeCyc a metabolic network of enzyme catalysts, proteins, carbohydr...

  16. MaizeGDB's New Data Types, Resources, and Activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database. Available at MaizeGDB are diverse data that support maize research including maps, gene product information, loci and their various alleles, phenotypes (both naturally occurring and as a result of directed mutagenesis), stocks, sequences, molecul...

  17. MaizeGDB's new data types, resources, and activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database. Available at MaizeGDB are diverse data that support maize research including maps, gene product information, loci and their various alleles, phenotypes (both naturally occurring and as a result of directed mutagenesis), stocks, sequences, molecul...

  18. Functional Allelic Variation at Key Photoperiod Response QTL in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical maize represents a valuable genetic resource containing unique alleles not present in elite temperate maize. The strong delay in flowering in response to long daylength photoperiods exhibited by most tropical maize hinders its incorporation into temperate maize breeding programs. We tested ...

  19. Co-infection and disease severity of Ohio Maize dwarf mosaic virus and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two major maize viruses have been reported in the United States: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV). These viruses co-occur in regions where maize is grown such that co-infections are likely. Co-infection of different strains of MCDV is also observed frequently...

  20. INTEGRATED WEED CONTROL IN MAIZE.

    PubMed

    Latré, J; Dewitte, K; Derycke, V; De Roo, B; Haesaert, G

    2015-01-01

    Integrated pest management has been implemented as a general practice by EU legislation. As weed control actually is the most important crop protection measure in maize for Western Europe, the new legislation will have its impact. The question is of course which systems can be successfully implemented in practice with respect to labour efficiency and economical parameters. During 3 successive growing seasons (2007, 2008, 2009) weed control in maize was evaluated, the main focus was put on different techniques of integrated weed control and was compared with chemical weed control. Additionally, during 4 successive growing seasons (2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014) two objects based on integrated weed control and two objects based on mechanical weed control were compared to about twenty different objects of conventional chemical weed control. One of the objects based on mechanical weed control consisted of treatment with the flex-tine harrow before and after emergence in combination with chemical weed control at a reduced rate in 3-4 leave stage. The second one consisted of broadcast mechanical treatments before and after emergence followed by a final in-row application of herbicides and an inter-row cultivation at 6-7(8) leave stage. All trials were conducted on the Experimental farm of Bottelare HoGent-UGent on a sandy loam soil. Maize was growing in 1/3 crop rotation. The effect on weed growth as well as the economic impact of the different applications was evaluated. Combining chemical and mechanical weed control is a possible option in conventional farming but the disadvantages must be taken into account. A better planned weed control based on the real present weed-population in combination with a carefully thought-out choice of herbicides should also be considered as an IPM--approach. PMID:27145588

  1. Protein profiling and tps23 induction in different maize lines in response to methyl jasmonate treatment and Diabrotica virgifera infestation.

    PubMed

    Capra, Emanuele; Colombi, Cinzia; De Poli, Pamela; Nocito, Fabio Francesco; Cocucci, Maurizio; Vecchietti, Alberto; Marocco, Adriano; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Plant responses to herbivore insects involve direct and indirect defense with the production of signal molecules including jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives (e.g. methyl jasmonate, MeJA). In maize (Zea mays), root feeding by Diabrotica virgifera larvae activates an indirect defense mechanism, through enthomopathogenic nematodes that are recruited after Terpene Synthase 23 (tps23) upregulation and (E)-β-caryophyllene root emission. In order to gain insight into the correlation between JA signaling and response to Diabrotica attack, we analyzed tps23 expression and protein profiles in maize roots in response to MeJA treatment and insect infestation. Similar to herbivore feeding, MeJA treatment was found to increase tps23 transcript accumulation, with consistent variations for both treatments in maize lines differing in (E)-β-caryophyllene production. Analysis of root protein profiles showed specific alterations leading to the identification of three proteins that were induced by MeJA treatment. We focused on a peroxidase-like protein (Px-like) showing that the corresponding transcripts accumulated in all tested lines. Results show that exogenous application of MeJA upregulates tps23 expression and specifically alters protein patterns in maize roots. Parallel effects on tps23 transcript accumulation were observed upon hormone exposure and insect infestation in different maize lines. In contrast, Px-like transcript profiling showed differences between treatments. These results support the possible involvement of MeJA in mediating the upregulation of tps23 in response to Diabrotica attack. PMID:25506768

  2. Alcohol alters hepatic FoxO1, p53, and mitochondrial SIRT5 deacetylation function

    SciTech Connect

    Lieber, Charles S. Leo, Maria Anna; Wang, Xiaolei; DeCarli, Leonore M.

    2008-08-22

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects the gene expression of a NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuis 1 (SIRT1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}). Our aim was to verify that it also alters the forkhead (FoxO1) and p53 transcription factor proteins, critical in the hepatic response to oxidative stress and regulated by SIRT1 through its deacetylating capacity. Accordingly, rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli alcohol-containing liquid diets for 28 days. Alcohol increased hepatic mRNA expression of FoxO1 (p = 0.003) and p53 (p = 0.001) while corresponding protein levels remained unchanged. However phospho-FoxO1 and phospho-Akt (protein kinase) were both decreased by alcohol consumption (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively) while hepatic p53 was found hyperacetylated (p = 0.017). Furthermore, mitochondrial SIRT5 was reduced (p = 0.0025), and PGC-1{alpha} hyperacetylated (p = 0.027), establishing their role in protein modification. Thus, alcohol consumption disrupts nuclear-mitochondrial interactions by post-translation protein modifications, which contribute to alteration of mitochondrial biogenesis through the newly discovered reduction of SIRT5.

  3. Modified cell cycle status in a mouse model of altered neuronal vulnerability (slow Wallerian degeneration; Wlds)

    PubMed Central

    Wishart, Thomas M; Pemberton, Helen N; James, Sally R; McCabe, Chris J; Gillingwater, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    Background Altered neuronal vulnerability underlies many diseases of the human nervous system, resulting in degeneration and loss of neurons. The neuroprotective slow Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) mutation delays degeneration in axonal and synaptic compartments of neurons following a wide range of traumatic and disease-inducing stimuli, providing a powerful experimental tool with which to investigate modulation of neuronal vulnerability. Although the mechanisms through which Wlds confers neuroprotection remain unclear, a diverse range of downstream modifications, incorporating several genes/pathways, have been implicated. These include the following: elevated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels associated with nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (Nmnat1; a part of the chimeric Wlds gene); altered mRNA expression levels of genes such as pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (Pttg1); changes in the location/activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery via binding to valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97); and modified synaptic expression of proteins such as ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (Ube1). Results Wlds expression in mouse cerebellum and HEK293 cells induced robust increases in a broad spectrum of cell cycle-related genes. Both NAD-dependent and Pttg1-dependent pathways were responsible for mediating different subsets of these alterations, also incorporating changes in VCP/p97 localization and Ube1 expression. Cell proliferation rates were not modified by Wlds, suggesting that later mitotic phases of the cell cycle remained unaltered. We also demonstrate that Wlds concurrently altered endogenous cell stress pathways. Conclusion We report a novel cellular phenotype in cells with altered neuronal vulnerability. We show that previous reports of diverse changes occurring downstream from Wlds expression converge upon modifications in cell cycle status. These data suggest a strong correlation between modified cell cycle pathways and altered

  4. Effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of maize starch and waxy maize starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Zhao, Siming; Liu, Youming; Liu, Ru

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch. Experimental results showed that the salting-out or structure-making ions, such as F(-) and SO4(2-), decreased the swelling power, solubility and transparency of both starches, but increased the gelatinization temperature, enthalpy, and syneresis, due to the tendency of these ions to protect the hydrogen bond links among starch molecules. On the other hand, the salting-in or structure-breaking ions, such as I(-) and SCN(-), exhibited the opposite effects. Microscopic observations confirmed such effects of salts on both starches. Furthermore, the effects of salts were more significant on waxy maize and on normal maize starch. Generally, salts could significantly influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch, following the order of the Hofmeister series. PMID:27507481

  5. Nutrient absorbtion of weeds in maize.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, A; Nagy, P; Németh, T

    2008-01-01

    Our study was carried out in Hungary at Keszthely, in 2007. The effect of different cultivation methods: no-till drill, disk tillage, conventional tillage (ploughing) and five increasing N doses were studied on the weediness. The bi-factorial trial was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Crop rotation: winter wheat-winter wheat-maize-maize. The seeding of maize was 23rd of April in 2007. The weed survey was made with Balázs-Ujvárosi coenological method on the 17th of May. In the experiment were found 21 weed species. We collected all plants of every weed species by plots. The sample area was 1 m2. Furthermore five maize plants per plot were sampled on the 22nd of May. Maize was at 3-4 leaves stage. For reason of competition studies no herbicides were applied on sampling sites. The aerial parts of weeds and maize plants were collected, and the fresh and dry matter weight was measured. We analyzed in detail, the occurrence of weed species, and the biomass production of weeds in comparison with maize. The effect of different cultivation methods markedly demonstrated the weed cover, the number of perennial and annual weeds and the number of occurring weed species. PMID:19226848

  6. Hardness methods for testing maize kernels.

    PubMed

    Fox, Glen; Manley, Marena

    2009-07-01

    Maize is a highly important crop to many countries around the world, through the sale of the maize crop to domestic processors and subsequent production of maize products and also provides a staple food to subsistance farms in undeveloped countries. In many countries, there have been long-term research efforts to develop a suitable hardness method that could assist the maize industry in improving efficiency in processing as well as possibly providing a quality specification for maize growers, which could attract a premium. This paper focuses specifically on hardness and reviews a number of methodologies as well as important biochemical aspects of maize that contribute to maize hardness used internationally. Numerous foods are produced from maize, and hardness has been described as having an impact on food quality. However, the basis of hardness and measurement of hardness are very general and would apply to any use of maize from any country. From the published literature, it would appear that one of the simpler methods used to measure hardness is a grinding step followed by a sieving step, using multiple sieve sizes. This would allow the range in hardness within a sample as well as average particle size and/or coarse/fine ratio to be calculated. Any of these parameters could easily be used as reference values for the development of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy calibrations. The development of precise NIR calibrations will provide an excellent tool for breeders, handlers, and processors to deliver specific cultivars in the case of growers and bulk loads in the case of handlers, thereby ensuring the most efficient use of maize by domestic and international processors. This paper also considers previous research describing the biochemical aspects of maize that have been related to maize hardness. Both starch and protein affect hardness, with most research focusing on the storage proteins (zeins). Both the content and composition of the zein fractions affect

  7. [Effects of intercropping different crops with maize on the Cd uptake by maize].

    PubMed

    Li, Ning-Yu; Li, Zhi-An; Ding, Yong-Zhen; Zou, Bi; Zhuang, Ping

    2008-06-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of intercropping 7 kinds of crops on the Cd uptake by maize (Zea mays L.). The results showed that most intercrops had no significant effects on the growth of maize, only with purple haricot reduced the maize biomass by 32.2% of the control. Legume crops enhanced the total quantity of Cd in maize in a great magnitude, and chickpea worked most efficiently, which doubled the Cd quantity in maize. The 7 intercrops showed different capability of Cd uptake, among which, rape and amaranth absorbed larger amount of Cd, with a Cd level of 53.9 mg x kg(-1) and 51.0 mg x kg(-1) in their aboveground parts, respectively, and of 91.8 mg x kg(-1) in amaranth root when the soil Cd content was 3 mg x kg(-1) soil. There was an interaction between maize and intercrops in Cd uptake. Legumes absorbed smaller amount of Cd but significantly increased the Cd uptake by maize, while amaranth was in adverse. Rape had a higher level of Cd concentration in its shoot, but reduced the Cd in aboveground part of maize. It was indicated that if maize was used for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil, a higher efficiency of Cd removal could be achieved by intercropping it with legumes. Rape and amaranth could be the two promising plants for phytoremediation because of their high Cd accumulation. PMID:18808034

  8. MaizeGDB: The Maize Model Organism Database for Basic, Translational, and Applied Research

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Harper, Lisa C.; Schaeffer, Mary L.; Sen, Taner Z.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Campbell, Darwin A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 maize became the number one production crop in the world with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reporting over 614 million tonnes produced. Its success is due to the high productivity per acre in tandem with a wide variety of commercial uses. Not only is maize an excellent source of food, feed, and fuel, but also its by-products are used in the production of various commercial products. Maize's unparalleled success in agriculture stems from basic research, the outcomes of which drive breeding and product development. In order for basic, translational, and applied researchers to benefit from others' investigations, newly generated data must be made freely and easily accessible. MaizeGDB is the maize research community's central repository for genetics and genomics information. The overall goals of MaizeGDB are to facilitate access to the outcomes of maize research by integrating new maize data into the database and to support the maize research community by coordinating group activities. PMID:18769488

  9. Rhizobium etli maize populations and their competitiveness for root colonization.

    PubMed

    Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2004-05-01

    Rhizobium etli, which normally forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), is a natural maize endophyte. The genetic diversity of R. etli strains from bulk soil, bean nodules, the maize rhizosphere, the maize root, and inside stem tissue in traditional fields where maize is intercropped with P. vulgaris-beans was analyzed. Based on plasmid profiles and alloenzymes, it was determined that several R. etli types were preferentially encountered as putative maize endophytes. Some of these strains from maize were more competitive maize-root colonizers than other R. etli strains from the rhizosphere or from bean nodules. The dominant and highly competitive strain Ch24-10 was the most tolerant to 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA), a maize antimicrobial compound that is inhibitory to some bacteria and fungi. The R. tropici strain CIAT899, successfully used as inoculant of P. vulgaris, was also found to be a competitive maize endophyte in inoculation experiments. PMID:15024554

  10. Choosing a Genome Browser for a Model Organism Database (MOD): Surveying the Maize Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the maize genome sequencing is nearing its completion, the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB), the Model Organism Database for maize, integrated a genome browser to its already existing Web interface and database. The addition of the MaizeGDB Genome Browser to MaizeGDB will allow it ...

  11. A European perspective on maize history.

    PubMed

    Tenaillon, Maud Irène; Charcosset, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Maize was domesticated at least 8700 years ago in the highlands of Mexico. Genome-wide studies have greatly contributed to shed light into the diffusion of maize through the Americas from its center of origin. Also the presence of two European introductions in southern and northern Europe is now established. Such a spread was accompanied by an extreme diversification, and adaptation to the long days and low temperatures of temperate climates has been a key step in maize evolution. Linkage mapping and association mapping have successfully led to the identification of a handful set of the genetic factors that have contributed to maize adaptation, opening the way to new discoveries. Ultimately, these alleles will contribute to sustain breeding efforts to meet the new challenges raised by the evolution of mankind. PMID:21377617

  12. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L.; Bass, Hank W.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  13. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome.

    PubMed

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L; Bass, Hank W; Buckler, Edward S

    2016-05-31

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  14. Agriculture: Weather dilemma for African maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2011-04-01

    The impact of climate change on food production remains uncertain, particularly in the tropics. Research that exploits the results of historical crop trials indicates that Africa's maize crop could be at risk of significant yield losses.

  15. Molecular Genetics of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Maize.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitochondrial genome encodes proteins essential for mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis. Nuclear gene products, however, are required for the expression of mitochondrial genes and the elaboration of functional mitochondrial protein complexes. We are exploiting a unique collection of maiz...

  16. Maize RNA polymerase IV defines trans-generational epigenetic variation.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Karl F; Parkinson, Susan E; Gross, Stephen M; Barbour, Joy-El R; Lim, Jana P; Hollick, Jay B

    2013-03-01

    The maize (Zea mays) RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV) largest subunit, RNA Polymerase D1 (RPD1 or NRPD1), is required for facilitating paramutations, restricting expression patterns of genes required for normal development, and generating small interfering RNA (siRNAs). Despite this expanded role for maize Pol IV relative to Arabidopsis thaliana, neither the general characteristics of Pol IV-regulated haplotypes, nor their prevalence, are known. Here, we show that specific haplotypes of the purple plant1 locus, encoding an anthocyanin pigment regulator, acquire and retain an expanded expression domain following transmission from siRNA biogenesis mutants. This conditioned expression pattern is progressively enhanced over generations in Pol IV mutants and then remains heritable after restoration of Pol IV function. This unusual genetic behavior is associated with promoter-proximal transposon fragments but is independent of sequences required for paramutation. These results indicate that trans-generational Pol IV action defines the expression patterns of haplotypes using co-opted transposon-derived sequences as regulatory elements. Our results provide a molecular framework for the concept that induced changes to the heterochromatic component of the genome are coincident with heritable changes in gene regulation. Alterations of this Pol IV-based regulatory system can generate potentially desirable and adaptive traits for selection to act upon. PMID:23512852

  17. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.

    2008-10-01

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  18. [Effects of nitrogen management on maize nitrogen utilization and residual nitrate nitrogen in soil under maize/soybean and maize/sweet potato relay strip intercropping systems].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Deng, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Qun; Yong, Tai-Wen; Liu, Wei-Guo; Yang, Feng; Mao, Shu-Ming

    2014-10-01

    A large amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizers poured into the fields severely pollute the environment. Reasonable application of N fertilizer has always been the research hotpot. The effects of N management on maize N utilization and residual nitrate N in soil under maize/soybean and maize/ sweet potato relay strip intercropping systems were reported in a field experiment in southwest China. It was found that maize N accumulation, N harvest index, N absorption efficiency, N contribution proportion after the anthesis stage in maize/soybean relay strip intercropping were increased by 6.1%, 5.4%, 4.3%, and 15.1% than under maize/sweet potato with an increase of 22.6% for maize yield after sustainable growing of maize/soybean intercropping system. Nitrate N accumulation in the 0-60 cm soil layer was 12.9% higher under maize/soybean intercropping than under maize/sweet potato intercropping. However, nitrate N concentration in the 60-120 cm soil layer when intercropped with soybean decreased by 10.3% than when intercropped with sweet potato, indicating a decrease of N leaching loss. Increasing of N application rate enhanced N accumulation of maize and decreased N use efficiency and significantly increased nitrate concentration in the soil profile except in the 60-100 cm soil layer, where no significant difference was observed with nitrogen application rate at 0 to 270 kg · hm(-2). Further application of N fertilizer significantly enhanced nitrate leaching loss. Postponing N application increased nitrate accumulation in the 60-100 cm soil layer. The results suggested that N application rates and ratio of base to top dressing had different influences on maize N concentration and nitrate N between maize/soybean and maize/sweet potato intercropping. Maize N concentration in the late growing stage, N harvest index and N use efficiency under maize/soybean intercropping increased (with N application rate at 180-270 kg · hm(-2) and ratio of base to top dressing = 3:2:5) and

  19. Can Transgenic Maize Affect Soil Microbial Communities?

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Christian; Wouterse, Marja; Raubuch, Markus; Roelofs, Willem; Rutgers, Michiel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine if temporal variations of belowground activity reflect the influence of the Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize on soil bacteria and, hence, on a regulatory change of the microbial community (ability to metabolize sources belonging to different chemical guilds) and/or a change in numerical abundance of their cells. Litter placement is known for its strong influence on the soil decomposer communities. The effects of the addition of crop residues on respiration and catabolic activities of the bacterial community were examined in microcosm experiments. Four cultivars of Zea mays L. of two different isolines (each one including the conventional crop and its Bacillus thuringiensis cultivar) and one control of bulk soil were included in the experimental design. The growth models suggest a dichotomy between soils amended with either conventional or transgenic maize residues. The Cry1Ab protein appeared to influence the composition of the microbial community. The highly enhanced soil respiration observed during the first 72 h after the addition of Bt-maize residues can be interpreted as being related to the presence of the transgenic crop residues. This result was confirmed by agar plate counting, as the averages of the colony-forming units of soils in conventional treatments were about one-third of those treated with transgenic straw. Furthermore, the addition of Bt-maize appeared to induce increased microbial consumption of carbohydrates in BIOLOG EcoPlates. Three weeks after the addition of maize residues to the soils, no differences between the consumption rate of specific chemical guilds by bacteria in soils amended with transgenic maize and bacteria in soils amended with conventional maize were detectable. Reaped crop residues, comparable to post-harvest maize straw (a common practice in current agriculture), rapidly influence the soil bacterial cells at a functional level. Overall, these data support the existence of short

  20. Can transgenic maize affect soil microbial communities?

    PubMed

    Mulder, Christian; Wouterse, Marja; Raubuch, Markus; Roelofs, Willem; Rutgers, Michiel

    2006-09-29

    The aim of the experiment was to determine if temporal variations of belowground activity reflect the influence of the Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize on soil bacteria and, hence, on a regulatory change of the microbial community (ability to metabolize sources belonging to different chemical guilds) and/or a change in numerical abundance of their cells. Litter placement is known for its strong influence on the soil decomposer communities. The effects of the addition of crop residues on respiration and catabolic activities of the bacterial community were examined in microcosm experiments. Four cultivars of Zea mays L. of two different isolines (each one including the conventional crop and its Bacillus thuringiensis cultivar) and one control of bulk soil were included in the experimental design. The growth models suggest a dichotomy between soils amended with either conventional or transgenic maize residues. The Cry1Ab protein appeared to influence the composition of the microbial community. The highly enhanced soil respiration observed during the first 72 h after the addition of Bt-maize residues can be interpreted as being related to the presence of the transgenic crop residues. This result was confirmed by agar plate counting, as the averages of the colony-forming units of soils in conventional treatments were about one-third of those treated with transgenic straw. Furthermore, the addition of Bt-maize appeared to induce increased microbial consumption of carbohydrates in BIOLOG EcoPlates. Three weeks after the addition of maize residues to the soils, no differences between the consumption rate of specific chemical guilds by bacteria in soils amended with transgenic maize and bacteria in soils amended with conventional maize were detectable. Reaped crop residues, comparable to post-harvest maize straw (a common practice in current agriculture), rapidly influence the soil bacterial cells at a functional level. Overall, these data support the existence of short

  1. DNA ALTERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure of an organism to genotoxic chemicals may induce a cascade of genetic events. nitially, structural alterations to DNA are formed. ext, the DNA damage is processed and subsequently expressed in mutant gene products. inally, diseases result from the genetic damage. he ...

  2. Plant growth hormones suppress the development of Harpophora maydis, the cause of late wilt in maize.

    PubMed

    Degani, Ofir; Drori, Ran; Goldblat, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Late wilt, a severe vascular disease of maize caused by the fungus Harpophora maydis, is characterized by rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The pathogen is currently controlled by resistant maize cultivars, but the disease is constantly spreading to new areas. The plant's late phenological stage at which the disease appears suggests that plant hormones may be involved in the pathogenesis. This work revealed that plant growth hormones, auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid) and cytokinin (kinetin), suppress H. maydis in culture media and in a detached root assay. Kinetin, and even more auxin, caused significant suppression of fungus spore germination. Gibberellic acid did not alter colony growth rate but had a signal suppressive effect on the pathogens' spore germination. In comparison, ethylene and jasmonic acid, plant senescing and defense response regulators, had minor effects on colony growth and spore germination rate. Their associate hormone, salicylic acid, had a moderate suppressive effect on spore germination and colony growth rate, and a strong influence when combined with auxin. Despite the anti-fungal auxin success in vitro, field experiments with dimethylamine salt of  2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (that mimics the influence of auxin) failed to suppress the late wilt. The lines of evidence presented here reveal the suppressive influence of the three growth hormones studied on fungal development and are important to encourage further and more in-depth examinations of this intriguing hormonal complex regulatory and its role in the maize-H. maydis interactions. PMID:25649030

  3. Chemical Structure of the Cell Walls of Dwarf Maize and Changes Mediated by Gibberellin 1

    PubMed Central

    Carpita, Nicholas C.; Kanabus, Jan

    1988-01-01

    Dwarf maize (Zea mays L.), a mutant deficient in gibberellin synthesis, provides an excellent model to study the influence of gibberellin on biochemical processes related to plant development. Alterations in the chemical structure of the cell wall mediated by gibberellin were examined in seedlings of this mutant. The composition of the walls of roots, mesocotyl, coleoptile, and primary leaves of dwarf maize was similar to that of normal maize and other cereal grasses. Glucuronoarabinoxylans constituted the principal hemicelluloses, but walls also contained substantial amounts of xyloglucan and mixed-linkage β-d-glucan. Root growth in dwarf maize was essentially normal, but growth of mesocotyl and primary leaves was severely retarded. Injection of the gibberellin into the cavity of the coleoptile resulted in a marked increase in elongation of the primary leaves. This elongation was accompanied by increases in total wall mass, but the proportion of β-d-glucan decreased from 20% to 15% of the hemicellulosic polysaccharide. During leaf expansion, the proportion decreased further to only 10%. Through 4 days incubation, the proportion of β-d-glucan in leaves of control seedlings without gibberellin was nearly constant. Extraction of exo- and endo-β-d-glucan hydrolases from purified cell walls and assay against a purified oat bran β-d-glucan demonstrated that gibberellin increased the activity of the endo-β-d-glucan hydrolase. These and other data support the hypothesis that β-d-glucan metabolism is central to control of cell expansion in cereal grasses. PMID:16666367

  4. Transcriptome analysis of near-isogenic lines provides molecular insights into starch biosynthesis in maize kernel.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yingni; Thatcher, Shawn; Wang, Min; Wang, Tingting; Beatty, Mary; Zastrow-Hayes, Gina; Li, Lin; Li, Jiansheng; Li, Bailin; Yang, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    Starch is the major component in maize kernels, providing a stable carbohydrate source for humans and livestock as well as raw material for the biofuel industry. Increasing maize kernel starch content will help meet industry demands and has the potential to increase overall yields. We developed a pair of maize near-isogenic lines (NILs) with different alleles for a starch quantitative trait locus on chromosome 3 (qHS3), resulting in different kernel starch content. To investigate the candidate genes for qHS3 and elucidate their effects on starch metabolism, RNA-Seq was performed for the developing kernels of the NILs at 14 and 21 d after pollination (DAP). Analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data identified 76 genes with nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms and 384 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the introgressed fragment, including a hexokinase gene, ZmHXK3a, which catalyzes the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and may play a key role in starch metabolism. The expression pattern of all DEGs in starch metabolism shows that altered expression of the candidate genes for qHS3 promoted starch synthesis, with positive consequences for kernel starch content. These results expand the current understanding of starch biosynthesis and accumulation in maize kernels and provide potential candidate genes to increase starch content. PMID:26676690

  5. Climate change and maize yield in Iowa

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Hong; Twine, Tracy E.; Girvetz, Evan

    2016-05-24

    Climate is changing across the world, including the major maize-growing state of Iowa in the USA. To maintain crop yields, farmers will need a suite of adaptation strategies, and choice of strategy will depend on how the local to regional climate is expected to change. Here we predict how maize yield might change through the 21st century as compared with late 20th century yields across Iowa, USA, a region representing ideal climate and soils for maize production that contributes substantially to the global maize economy. To account for climate model uncertainty, we drive a dynamic ecosystem model with output frommore » six climate models and two future climate forcing scenarios. Despite a wide range in the predicted amount of warming and change to summer precipitation, all simulations predict a decrease in maize yields from late 20th century to middle and late 21st century ranging from 15% to 50%. Linear regression of all models predicts a 6% state-averaged yield decrease for every 1°C increase in warm season average air temperature. When the influence of moisture stress on crop growth is removed from the model, yield decreases either remain the same or are reduced, depending on predicted changes in warm season precipitation. Lastly, our results suggest that even if maize were to receive all the water it needed, under the strongest climate forcing scenario yields will decline by 10-20% by the end of the 21st century.« less

  6. Climate Change and Maize Yield in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Twine, Tracy E; Girvetz, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Climate is changing across the world, including the major maize-growing state of Iowa in the USA. To maintain crop yields, farmers will need a suite of adaptation strategies, and choice of strategy will depend on how the local to regional climate is expected to change. Here we predict how maize yield might change through the 21st century as compared with late 20th century yields across Iowa, USA, a region representing ideal climate and soils for maize production that contributes substantially to the global maize economy. To account for climate model uncertainty, we drive a dynamic ecosystem model with output from six climate models and two future climate forcing scenarios. Despite a wide range in the predicted amount of warming and change to summer precipitation, all simulations predict a decrease in maize yields from late 20th century to middle and late 21st century ranging from 15% to 50%. Linear regression of all models predicts a 6% state-averaged yield decrease for every 1°C increase in warm season average air temperature. When the influence of moisture stress on crop growth is removed from the model, yield decreases either remain the same or are reduced, depending on predicted changes in warm season precipitation. Our results suggest that even if maize were to receive all the water it needed, under the strongest climate forcing scenario yields will decline by 10-20% by the end of the 21st century. PMID:27219116

  7. Climate Change and Maize Yield in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Twine, Tracy E.; Girvetz, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Climate is changing across the world, including the major maize-growing state of Iowa in the USA. To maintain crop yields, farmers will need a suite of adaptation strategies, and choice of strategy will depend on how the local to regional climate is expected to change. Here we predict how maize yield might change through the 21st century as compared with late 20th century yields across Iowa, USA, a region representing ideal climate and soils for maize production that contributes substantially to the global maize economy. To account for climate model uncertainty, we drive a dynamic ecosystem model with output from six climate models and two future climate forcing scenarios. Despite a wide range in the predicted amount of warming and change to summer precipitation, all simulations predict a decrease in maize yields from late 20th century to middle and late 21st century ranging from 15% to 50%. Linear regression of all models predicts a 6% state-averaged yield decrease for every 1°C increase in warm season average air temperature. When the influence of moisture stress on crop growth is removed from the model, yield decreases either remain the same or are reduced, depending on predicted changes in warm season precipitation. Our results suggest that even if maize were to receive all the water it needed, under the strongest climate forcing scenario yields will decline by 10–20% by the end of the 21st century. PMID:27219116

  8. Analysis of DNA methylation of maize in response to osmotic and salt stress based on methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming-pu

    2010-01-01

    Water stress is known to alter cytosine methylation, which generally represses transcription. However, little is known about the role of methylation alteration in maize under osmotic stress. Here, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) was used to screen PEG- or NaCl-induced methylation alteration in maize seedlings. The sequences of 25 differentially amplified fragments relevant to stress were successfully obtained. Two stress-specific fragments from leaves, LP166 and LPS911, shown to be homologous to retrotransposon Gag-Pol protein genes, suggested that osmotic stress-induced methylation of retrotransposons. Three MSAP fragments, representing drought-induced or salt-induced methylation in leaves, were homologous to a maize aluminum-induced transporter. Besides these, heat shock protein HSP82, Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 2, Lipoxygenase, casein kinase (CK2), and dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) factor were also homologs of MSAP sequences from salt-treated roots. One MSAP fragment amplified from salt-treated roots, designated RS39, was homologous to the first intron of maize protein phosphatase 2C (zmPP2C), whereas - LS103, absent from salt-treated leaves, was homologous to maize glutathione S-transferases (zmGST). Expression analysis showed that salt-induced intron methylation of root zmPP2C significantly downregulated its expression, while salt-induced demethylation of leaf zmGST weakly upregulated its expression. The results suggested that salinity-induced methylation downregulated zmPP2C expression, a negative regulator of the stress response, while salinity-induced demethylation upregulated zmGST expression, a positive effecter of the stress response. Altered methylation, in response to stress, might also be involved in stress acclimation. PMID:19889550

  9. Network analysis of maize RNA transport pathway genes associated with maize resistance to aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a pathogenic fungus producing alfatoxins that cause significant economic losses in maize production. This study analyzes the differences in expression levels of maize genes in response to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. Identification of defense related genes an...

  10. The Other NPGS Maize Collection – A Rich Source of Maize Genetic Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize collection at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, IA is comprised of over 18,300 accessions from all over the world. Of these, 16,000 are maize accessions with population level genetic diversity and over 2,000 are inbred lines with little segregation. The collectio...

  11. MaizeGDB update: New tools, data, and interface for the maize model organism database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is a highly curated, community-oriented database and informatics service to researchers focused on the crop plant and model organism Zea mays ssp. mays. Although some form of the maize community database has existed over the last 25 years, there have only been two major releases. In 1991, ...

  12. Comparison of Gene Expressions of Maize Kernel Pathogenesis-Related Proteins in Different Maize Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus during infection of various grain crops including maize (Zea mays). Contamination of maize with aflatoxins has been shown to be exasperated by late season drought stress. Previous studies have identified numerous resist...

  13. Expanding maize genetic resources with predomestication alleles: maize-teosinte introgression populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) has greater genetic diversity than maize inbreds and landraces (Z. mays ssp. mays). There are, however, limited genetic resources to efficiently evaluate and tap this diversity. To broaden resources for genetic diversity studies in maize, we developed and evaluat...

  14. MaizeGDB: The Maize Model Organism Database for Basic, Translational, and Applied Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2001, maize became the number one production crop in the world (with over 614 million tons produced; http://faostat.fao.org). Its success is due to the high productivity per acre in tandem with a wide variety of commercial uses: not only is maize an excellent source of food, feed, and fuel, its...

  15. Expression of an anthranilate synthase from maize mutant bf-1 in maize line HiII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize mutant bf-1 was one of a series of maize mutants generated by radiation from the Bikini Atoll atomic bomb test in 1946. It is characterized by blue fluorescence in seedlings and anthers under ultraviolet illumination and by mutant plants giving off a characteristic grape-like odor due to the ...

  16. Concentration and dissipation of chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam residues in maize straw, maize, and soil.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Song, Dan; Jia, Hong C; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-09-01

    To study the dissipation rates and final residual levels of chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam in maize straw, maize, and soil, two independent field trials were conducted during the 2014 cropping season in Beijing and Anhui Provinces of China. A 40% wettable powder (20% chlorantraniliprole + 20% thiamethoxam) was sprayed onto maize straw and soil at an application rate of 118 g of active ingredient per hectare (g a.i.ha(-1)). The residual concentrations were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The chlorantraniliprole half-lives in maize straw and soil were 9.0-10.8 and 9.5-21.7 days, respectively. The thiamethoxam half-lives in maize straw and soil were 8.4-9.8 and 4.3-11.7 days, respectively. The final residues of chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam in maize straw, maize, and soil were measured after the pesticides had been sprayed two and three times with an interval of 7 days using 1 and 1.5 times the recommended rate (72 g a.i. ha(-1) and 108 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively). Representative maize straw, maize, and soil samples were collected after the last treatment at pre-harvest intervals of 7, 14, and 28 days. The chlorantraniliprole residue was below 0.01 mg kg(-1) in maize, between 0.01 and 0.31 mg kg(-1) in maize straw, and between 0.03 and 1.91 mg kg(-1) in soil. The thiamethoxam residue concentrations in maize, maize straw, and soil were <0.01, <0.01, and 0.01-0.03 mg kg(-1), respectively. The final pesticide residues on maize were lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after a 14-day pre-harvest interval. Therefore, a dosage of 72 g a.i. ha(-1) was recommended, as it can be considered safe to human beings and animals. PMID:27192406

  17. Transposition-mediated DNA re-replication in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianbo; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Every DNA segment in a eukaryotic genome normally replicates once and only once per cell cycle to maintain genome stability. We show here that this restriction can be bypassed through alternative transposition, a transposition reaction that utilizes the termini of two separate, nearby transposable elements (TEs). Our results suggest that alternative transposition during S phase can induce re-replication of the TEs and their flanking sequences. The DNA re-replication can spontaneously abort to generate double-strand breaks, which can be repaired to generate Composite Insertions composed of transposon termini flanking segmental duplications of various lengths. These results show how alternative transposition coupled with DNA replication and repair can significantly alter genome structure and may have contributed to rapid genome evolution in maize and possibly other eukaryotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03724.001 PMID:25406063

  18. Transcriptional changes in developing maize kernels in response to fumonisin-producing and nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Lanubile, Alessandra; Logrieco, Antonio; Battilani, Paola; Proctor, Robert H; Marocco, Adriano

    2013-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides infects maize producing ear rot, yield loss and the accumulation of fumonisins. In the present study, a transcriptomic approach was employed to investigate the molecular aspects of the interaction of susceptible/resistant maize genotypes with fumonisin-producing/nonproducing strains of F. verticillioides over a time course of 4 days after inoculation. The fumonisin-nonproducing strain led transcription in susceptible maize kernels, starting from 48h post inoculation, with a peak of differentially expressed genes at 72h after inoculation. Pathogen attack altered the mRNA levels of approximately 1.0% of the total number of maize genes assayed, with 15% encoding proteins having potential functions in signal transduction mechanisms, and 9% in the category of transcription factors. These findings indicate that signalling and regulation pathways were prominent in the earlier phases of kernel colonization, inducing the following expression of defense genes. In the resistant maize genotype, the fum1 mutant of F. verticillioides, impaired in this polyketide synthase gene (PKS), provoked a delayed and weakened activation of defense and oxidative stress-related genes, compared to the wild-type strain. The inability to infect resistant kernels may be related to the lack of PKS activity and its association with the lipoxygenase pathway. Plant and fungal 9-lipoxygenases had greater expression after fum1 mutant inoculation, suggesting that PKS plays an indirect effect on pathogen colonization by interfering with the lipid mediated cross-talk between host and pathogen. PMID:23849125

  19. Leaf transpiration efficiency of some drought-resistant maize lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field measurements of leaf gas exchange in maize often indicate stomatal conductances higher than required to provide substomatal carbon dioxide concentrations saturating to photosynthesis. Thus maize leaves often operate at lower transpiration efficiency (TE) than potentially achievable for specie...

  20. Study Progress on Tissue Culture of Maize Mature Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Yanping; Zhou, Xioafu

    It has been paid more and more attention on maize tissue culture as it is a basic work in maize genetic transformation, especially huge breakthrough has been made in maize tissue culture utilizing mature embryos as explants in the recent years. This paper reviewed the study progress on maize tissue culture and plant regeneration utilizing mature embryos as explants from callus induction, subculture, plant regeneration and browning reduction and so on.

  1. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods for four genetically modified maize varieties and maize DNA content in food.

    PubMed

    Brodmann, Peter D; Ilg, Evelyn C; Berthoud, Hélène; Herrmann, Andre

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative detection methods are needed for enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients. This labeling threshold, which is set to 1% in the European Union and Switzerland, must be applied to all approved GMOs. Four different varieties of maize are approved in the European Union: the insect-resistant Bt176 maize (Maximizer), Btl 1 maize, Mon810 (YieldGard) maize, and the herbicide-tolerant T25 (Liberty Link) maize. Because the labeling must be considered individually for each ingredient, a quantitation system for the endogenous maize content is needed in addition to the GMO-specific detection systems. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection methods were developed for the 4 approved genetically modified maize varieties and for an endogenous maize (invertase) gene system. PMID:12083257

  2. Genetic Resources for Maize Cell Wall Biology1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Penning, Bryan W.; Hunter, Charles T.; Tayengwa, Reuben; Eveland, Andrea L.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Olek, Anna T.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Koch, Karen E.; McCarty, Donald R.; Davis, Mark F.; Thomas, Steven R.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2009-01-01

    Grass species represent a major source of food, feed, and fiber crops and potential feedstocks for biofuel production. Most of the biomass is contributed by cell walls that are distinct in composition from all other flowering plants. Identifying cell wall-related genes and their functions underpins a fundamental understanding of growth and development in these species. Toward this goal, we are building a knowledge base of the maize (Zea mays) genes involved in cell wall biology, their expression profiles, and the phenotypic consequences of mutation. Over 750 maize genes were annotated and assembled into gene families predicted to function in cell wall biogenesis. Comparative genomics of maize, rice (Oryza sativa), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequences reveal differences in gene family structure between grass species and a reference eudicot species. Analysis of transcript profile data for cell wall genes in developing maize ovaries revealed that expression within families differed by up to 100-fold. When transcriptional analyses of developing ovaries before pollination from Arabidopsis, rice, and maize were contrasted, distinct sets of cell wall genes were expressed in grasses. These differences in gene family structure and expression between Arabidopsis and the grasses underscore the requirement for a grass-specific genetic model for functional analyses. A UniformMu population proved to be an important resource in both forward- and reverse-genetics approaches to identify hundreds of mutants in cell wall genes. A forward screen of field-grown lines by near-infrared spectroscopic screen of mature leaves yielded several dozen lines with heritable spectroscopic phenotypes. Pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry confirmed that several nir mutants had altered carbohydrate-lignin compositions. PMID:19926802

  3. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Maize rayado fino virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) causes one of the most important virus diseases of maize in regions of Mexico, Central and South America, where it causes moderate to severe yield losses. The virus is found from the southern United States. to northern Argentina where its vector, the maize leafhopper D...

  4. MaizeGDB: everything old is new again! [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of genetic, genomic, and breeding research evolves over time, making it necessary to continually redefine the paradigm for data access and data analysis tools. Here we report the reinvention of MaizeGDB, the maize genetics and genomics database, to meet maize researchers’ ever changing nee...

  5. Biochar mitigation of allelopathy induced yield loss in continuous maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous maize yields are often 1 to 2 Mg/ha lower than those achieved when maize is grown in rotation with soybean in the U.S. Midwest. One factor contributing to this difference is the release of phytotoxic compounds as the previous year’s maize residue decomposes. Based on laboratory results sh...

  6. Biochar mitigation of allelopathy induced yield loss in continuous maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous maize yields are limited by the release of phytotoxic compounds as the previous year’s maize residue decomposes. We tested the hypothesis that soil biochar applications could help mitigate maize autotoxicity and the associated yield depression. Eighteen small field plots (23.7 m2) were es...

  7. Formation of Elongated Starch Granules in High-amylose Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GEMS-0067 maize starch contains up to 32% elongated starch granules much higher than amylose-extender (ae) single-mutant maize starch (~7%) and normal (non-mutant) maize starch (0%). These elongated granules are highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis at 95-100 C, which function as resistant starc...

  8. Mapping QTL Contributing to SCMV Resistance in Tropical Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) has been increasing in importance as a maize disease in Brazil. In this study, were mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated to resistance to SCMV in a maize population consisting of 150 F2:3 families from the cross between two tropical maize i...

  9. Characterization of high temperature tolerance mechanisms in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature, combined with drought, is a major environmental stress that greatly depresses yield and reduces the quality of maize plants in the Southern Plains area. Maize inbred lines vary greatly in thermotolerance based on field observations. Two contrasting maize inbred lines, B76, heat-to...

  10. Resistance of Tripsacorn-introgressed maize lines to Sitophilus zeamais

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the major pests of maize worldwide. We tested one Tripsacorn-introgressed inbred maize line and 42 hybrid combinations between eleven public inbred lines and 16 different Tripsacorn-introgressed inbreds for resis...

  11. Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germplasm bank at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, preserves maize inbred lines from breeding programs from all over the world, including some of the key lines from the breeding history of maize. We genotyped 2,815 maize inbred accessions, mo...

  12. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on conventional hydroxypropylation of maize starch.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ei-Hyun; Oh, Seon-Min; Kim, Hui-Yun; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-08-01

    Effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on conventional hydroxypropylation of maize starch was investigated. Three groups, 'Con' group (conventional hydroxypropylation), 'HHP-Con' group (HHP treatment before conventional hydroxypropylation), and 'Con-HHP' group (HHP treatment after conventional hydroxypropylation), were used in this work. The degree of substitution (DS) increased over the reaction time in all groups. Swelling power and solubility were high in HHP treated groups compared to Con group because HHP treatment weakens the binding forces inside starch granule. In the results of RVA, the Con-HHP group showed a lower pasting temperature and a higher breakdown and viscosity than the other groups. Pre- and post HHP-treatments altered the physicochemical properties of hydroxypropylated maize starch. Hydrophilic and bulky hydroxypropyl groups may weaken the bindings in the granule, while the HHP treatment promoted the collapse of granules and accelerated the leaching of intra-soluble materials. PMID:27112881

  13. Effect of Light on Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Greening Maize Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Eitan; Bogorad, Lawrence

    1973-01-01

    The effect of illumination on the incorporation of labeled precursors into RNA of dark-grown maize (Zea mays) leaves was studied using either 32P-phosphate or double labeling with 14C- and 3H-uridine. In the dark, label was preferentially incorporated into etioplast ribosomal RNAs. Incorporation into this fraction and into lower molecular weight fractions was strongly and preferentially stimulated by light during the first 2 hours of illumination. The effect persisted after illumination was terminated. The possibility that light-induced alterations in plastid ribosomal RNA metabolism may not be required for chlorophyll accumulation in maize is discussed. Sucrose density gradient analyses of ribosomes and of extracted RNA did not reveal light-induced incorporation of label into messenger-like RNA associated with polyribosomes during brief illumination. However, newly produced RNA which seems to be neither ribosomal RNA nor transfer RNA is detectable after illumination for 2.5 hours or longer. PMID:16658268

  14. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), an emerging threat to maize-based food security in sub-Saharan Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on...

  15. Electrotropism of Maize Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    1990-01-01

    We examined the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in solutions of low electrolyte concentration using primary roots of maize (Zea mays L., variety Merit). When submerged in oxygenated solution across which an electric field was applied, the roots curved rapidly and strongly toward the positive electrode (anode). The strength of the electrotropic response increased and the latent period decreased with increasing field strength. At a field strength of 7.5 volts per centimeter the latent period was 6.6 minutes and curvature reached 60 degrees in about 1 hour. For electric fields greater than 10 volts per centimeter the latent period was less than 1 minute. There was no response to electric fields less than 2.8 volts per centimeter. Both electrotropism and growth were inhibited when indoleacetic acid (10 micromolar) was included in the medium. The auxin transport inhibitor pyrenoylbenzoic acid strongly inhibited electrotropism without inhibiting growth. Electrotropism was enhanced by treatments that interfere with gravitropism, e.g. decapping the roots or pretreating them with ethyleneglycol-bis-[β-ethylether]-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid. Similarly, roots of agravitropic pea (Pisum sativum, variety Ageotropum) seedlings were more responsive to electrotropic stimulation than roots of normal (variety Alaska) seedlings. The data indicate that the early steps of gravitropism and electrotropism occur by independent mechanisms. However, the motor mechanisms of the two responses may have features in common since auxin and auxin transport inhibitors reduced both gravitropism and electrotropism. PMID:11537481

  16. Genome-wide identification, expression analysis of auxin-responsive GH3 family genes in maize (Zea mays L.) under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shangguo; Yue, Runqing; Tao, Sun; Yang, Yanjun; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Mingfeng; Wang, Huizhong; Shen, Chenjia

    2015-09-01

    Auxin is involved in different aspects of plant growth and development by regulating the expression of auxin-responsive family genes. As one of the three major auxin-responsive families, GH3 (Gretchen Hagen3) genes participate in auxin homeostasis by catalyzing auxin conjugation and bounding free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to amino acids. However, how GH3 genes function in responses to abiotic stresses and various hormones in maize is largely unknown. Here, the latest updated maize (Zea mays L.) reference genome sequence was used to characterize and analyze the ZmGH3 family genes from maize. The results showed that 13 ZmGH3 genes were mapped on five maize chromosomes (total 10 chromosomes). Highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns suggested the possibility of function diversification for these genes in response to environmental stresses and hormone stimuli. The expression patterns of ZmGH3 genes are responsive to several abiotic stresses (salt, drought and cadmium) and major stress-related hormones (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid). Various environmental factors suppress auxin free IAA contents in maize roots suggesting that these abiotic stresses and hormones might alter GH3-mediated auxin levels. The responsiveness of ZmGH3 genes to a wide range of abiotic stresses and stress-related hormones suggested that ZmGH3s are involved in maize tolerance to environmental stresses. PMID:25557253

  17. Of genes and genomes and the origin of maize.

    PubMed

    White, S; Doebley, J

    1998-08-01

    The crop plant maize (corn) is remarkably dissimilar to its recent wild ancestor, teosinte, making it an extremely interesting model for the study of evolution. Investigations into the evolution of maize are currently being performed at the molecular and morphological levels. Three independent lines of research are poised to shed light on the molecular basis of this spectacular transformation: (1) determining the structure and origin of the maize genome; (2) understanding the role of transposable elements in maize evolution; and (3) elucidating the genetic basis for morphological differences between maize and its wild ancestor teosinte. PMID:9724966

  18. Inducible Resistance to Maize Streak Virus

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Dionne N.; Dugdale, Benjamin; Martin, Darren P.; Varsani, Arvind; Lakay, Francisco M.; Bezuidenhout, Marion E.; Monjane, Adérito L.; Thomson, Jennifer A.; Dale, James; Rybicki, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Maize streak virus (MSV), which causes maize streak disease (MSD), is the major viral pathogenic constraint on maize production in Africa. Type member of the Mastrevirus genus in the family Geminiviridae, MSV has a 2.7 kb, single-stranded circular DNA genome encoding a coat protein, movement protein, and the two replication-associated proteins Rep and RepA. While we have previously developed MSV-resistant transgenic maize lines constitutively expressing “dominant negative mutant” versions of the MSV Rep, the only transgenes we could use were those that caused no developmental defects during the regeneration of plants in tissue culture. A better transgene expression system would be an inducible one, where resistance-conferring transgenes are expressed only in MSV-infected cells. However, most known inducible transgene expression systems are hampered by background or “leaky” expression in the absence of the inducer. Here we describe an adaptation of the recently developed INPACT system to express MSV-derived resistance genes in cell culture. Split gene cassette constructs (SGCs) were developed containing three different transgenes in combination with three different promoter sequences. In each SGC, the transgene was split such that it would be translatable only in the presence of an infecting MSV’s replication associated protein. We used a quantitative real-time PCR assay to show that one of these SGCs (pSPLITrepIII-Rb-Ubi) inducibly inhibits MSV replication as efficiently as does a constitutively expressed transgene that has previously proven effective in protecting transgenic maize from MSV. In addition, in our cell-culture based assay pSPLITrepIII-Rb-Ubi inhibited replication of diverse MSV strains, and even, albeit to a lesser extent, of a different mastrevirus species. The application of this new technology to MSV resistance in maize could allow a better, more acceptable product. PMID:25166274

  19. Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of Maize B104 : A maize transformation resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize transformation is complicated. Most lines are not readily cultured and transformed, making the germplasm available for genome engineering extremely limited. Developing a better understanding of the genomic regions responsible for differences in culturability and transformability would be a goo...

  20. [Detection of genetic modification in maize and maize products by ELISA-test].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, Bogumiła; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota; Jedra, Małgorzata; Badowski, Paweł

    2003-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay methods--TRAIT Test--was applied for detection of genetic modification in maize seeds and foodstuffs, which have been produced from this crop. TRAIT Test is based on the identification GMO protein Cry 1Ab produced by a gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) incorporated into insect resistant corn grain. The experiment was carried out on maize standards and foodstuffs from Warsaw market. The positive result was obtained for one maize product, which was not labelled as GMO. The presence of GMO material was approximately equal to 1%. In conclusion, this test is proper for fast routine qualitative (yes/no) determination GMO material in maize seeds and unprocessed food products. PMID:15052732

  1. Maize pollen is an important allergen in occupationally exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The work- or environmental-related type I sensitization to maize pollen is hardly investigated. We sought to determine the prevalence of sensitization to maize pollen among exposed workers and to identify the eliciting allergens. Methods In July 2010, 8 out of 11 subjects were examined who were repeatedly exposed to maize pollen by pollinating maize during their work in a biological research department. All 8 filled in a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing (SPT) and immune-specific analyses. Results 5 out of the 8 exposed subjects had repeatedly suffered for at least several weeks from rhinitis, 4 from conjunctivitis, 4 from urticaria, and 2 from shortness of breath upon occupational exposure to maize pollen. All symptomatic workers had specific IgE antibodies against maize pollen (CAP class ≥ 1). Interestingly, 4 of the 5 maize pollen-allergic subjects, but none of the 3 asymptomatic exposed workers had IgE antibodies specific for grass pollen. All but one of the maize pollen-allergic subjects had suffered from allergic grass pollen-related symptoms for 6 to 11 years before job-related exposure to maize pollen. Lung function testing was normal in all cases. In immunoblot analyses, the allergenic components could be identified as Zea m 1 and Zea m 13. The reactivity is mostly caused by cross-reactivity to the homologous allergens in temperate grass pollen. Two sera responded to Zea m 3, but interestingly not to the corresponding timothy allergen indicating maize-specific IgE reactivity. Conclusion The present data suggest that subjects pollinating maize are at high risk of developing an allergy to maize pollen as a so far underestimated source of occupational allergens. For the screening of patients with suspected maize pollen sensitization, the determination of IgE antibodies specific for maize pollen is suitable. PMID:22165847

  2. Individual detection of genetically modified maize varieties in non-identity-preserved maize samples.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Kondo, Kazunari; Tanaka, Asako; Liu, Ming S; Oguchi, Taichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Hino, Akihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2008-03-26

    In many countries, the labeling of grains and feed- and foodstuffs is mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds a certain level of approved GM varieties. The GMO content in a maize sample containing the combined-trait (stacked) GM maize as determined by the currently available methodology is likely to be overestimated. However, there has been little information in the literature on the mixing level and varieties of stacked GM maize in real sample grains. For the first time, the GMO content of non-identity-preserved (non-IP) maize samples imported from the United States has been successfully determined by using a previously developed individual kernel detection system coupled to a multiplex qualitative PCR method followed by multichannel capillary gel electrophoresis system analysis. To clarify the GMO content in the maize samples imported from the United States, determine how many stacked GM traits are contained therein, and which GM trait varieties frequently appeared in 2005, the GMO content (percent) on a kernel basis and the varieties of the GM kernels in the non-IP maize samples imported from the United States were investigated using the individual kernel analysis system. The average (+/-standard deviation) of the GMO contents on a kernel basis in five non-IP sample lots was determined to be 51.0+/-21.6%, the percentage of a single GM trait grains was 39%, and the percentage of the stacked GM trait grains was 12%. The MON810 grains and NK603 grains were the most frequent varieties in the single GM traits. The most frequent stacked GM traits were the MON810xNK603 grains. In addition, the present study would provide the answer and impact for the quantification of GM maize content in the GM maize kernels on labeling regulation. PMID:18298063

  3. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Walaa K.; Shearer, Charles R.; Limay-Rios, Victor; Zhou, Ting; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Wild maize (teosinte) has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn) relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense. PMID:26500660

  4. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Walaa K; Shearer, Charles R; Limay-Rios, Victor; Zhou, Ting; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Wild maize (teosinte) has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn) relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense. PMID:26500660

  5. Dual transcriptome analysis reveals insights into the response to Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Xu, Zhennan; Duan, Canxing; Chen, Yanping; Meng, Qingchang; Wu, Jirong; Hao, Zhuanfang; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Mingshun; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Degui; Zhang, Shihuang; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Xinhai

    2016-08-01

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is a viral infection that results in heavy yield losses in maize worldwide, particularly in the summer maize-growing regions of China. MRDD is caused by the Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). In the present study, analyses of microRNAs (miRNAs), the degradome, and transcriptome sequences were used to elucidate the RBSDV-responsive pathway(s) in maize. Genomic analysis indicated that the expression of three non-conserved and 28 conserved miRNAs, representing 17 known miRNA families and 14 novel miRNAs, were significantly altered in response to RBSDV when maize was inoculated at the V3 (third leaf) stage. A total of 99 target transcripts from 48 genes of 10 known miRNAs were found to be responsive to RBSDV infection. The annotations of these target genes include a SQUAMOSA promoter binding (SPB) protein, a P450 reductase, an oxidoreductase, and a ubiquitin-related gene, among others. Characterization of the entire transcriptome suggested that a total of 28 and 1085 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected at 1.5 and 3.0 d, respectively, after artificial inoculation with RBSDV. The expression patterns of cell wall- and chloroplast-related genes, and disease resistance- and stress-related genes changed significantly in response to RBSDV infection. The negatively regulated genes GRMZM2G069316 and GRMZM2G031169, which are the target genes for miR169i-p5 and miR8155, were identified as a nucleolin and a NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold superfamily protein in maize, respectively. The gene ontology term GO:0003824, including GRMZM2G031169 and other 51 DEGs, was designated as responsive to RBSDV. PMID:27493226

  6. Dual transcriptome analysis reveals insights into the response to Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Xu, Zhennan; Duan, Canxing; Chen, Yanping; Meng, Qingchang; Wu, Jirong; Hao, Zhuanfang; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Mingshun; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Degui; Zhang, Shihuang; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Xinhai

    2016-01-01

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is a viral infection that results in heavy yield losses in maize worldwide, particularly in the summer maize-growing regions of China. MRDD is caused by the Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). In the present study, analyses of microRNAs (miRNAs), the degradome, and transcriptome sequences were used to elucidate the RBSDV-responsive pathway(s) in maize. Genomic analysis indicated that the expression of three non-conserved and 28 conserved miRNAs, representing 17 known miRNA families and 14 novel miRNAs, were significantly altered in response to RBSDV when maize was inoculated at the V3 (third leaf) stage. A total of 99 target transcripts from 48 genes of 10 known miRNAs were found to be responsive to RBSDV infection. The annotations of these target genes include a SQUAMOSA promoter binding (SPB) protein, a P450 reductase, an oxidoreductase, and a ubiquitin-related gene, among others. Characterization of the entire transcriptome suggested that a total of 28 and 1085 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected at 1.5 and 3.0 d, respectively, after artificial inoculation with RBSDV. The expression patterns of cell wall- and chloroplast-related genes, and disease resistance- and stress-related genes changed significantly in response to RBSDV infection. The negatively regulated genes GRMZM2G069316 and GRMZM2G031169, which are the target genes for miR169i-p5 and miR8155, were identified as a nucleolin and a NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold superfamily protein in maize, respectively. The gene ontology term GO:0003824, including GRMZM2G031169 and other 51 DEGs, was designated as responsive to RBSDV. PMID:27493226

  7. Use of tropical maize for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hsu; Kaur, Prabhjot; Dien, Bruce; Below, Frederick; Vincent, Michael L; Singh, Vijay

    2013-08-01

    Tropical maize is an alternative energy crop being considered as a feedstock for bioethanol production in the North Central and Midwest United States. Tropical maize is advantageous because it produces large amounts of soluble sugars in its stalks, creates a large amount of biomass, and requires lower inputs (e.g. nitrogen) than grain corn. Soluble sugars, including sucrose, glucose and fructose were extracted by pressing the stalks at dough stage (R4). The initial extracted syrup fermented faster than the control culture grown on a yeast extract/phosphate/sucrose medium. The syrup was subsequently concentrated 1.25-2.25 times, supplemented with urea, and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for up to 96 h. The final ethanol concentrations obtained were 8.1 % (v/v) to 15.6 % (v/v), equivalent to 90.3-92.2 % of the theoretical yields. However, fermentation productivity decreased with sugar concentration, suggesting that the yeast might be osmotically stressed at the increased sugar concentrations. These results provide in-depth information for utilizing tropical maize syrup for bioethanol production that will help in tropical maize breeding and development for use as another feedstock for the biofuel industry. PMID:23508398

  8. MGFD: the maize gene families database.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lei; Jiang, Haiyang; Yan, Hanwei; Li, Xiaoyu; Lin, Yongxiang; Ye, Hui; Cheng, Beijiu

    2016-01-01

    Most gene families are transcription factor (TF) families, which have fundamental roles in almost all biological processes (development, growth and response to environmental factors) and have been employed to manipulate various types of metabolic, developmental and stress response pathways in plants. Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world due its importance to human nutrition and health. Thus, identifying and annotating all the gene families in maize is an important primary step in defining their functions and understanding their roles in the regulation of diverse biological processes. In this study, we identified 96 predicted maize gene families and systematically characterized all 5826 of the genes in those families. We have also developed a comprehensive database of maize gene families (the MGFD). To further explore the functions of these gene families, we extensively annotated the genes, including such basic information as protein sequence features, gene structure, Gene Ontology classifications, phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles. The MGFD has a user-friendly web interface with multiple browse and search functions, as well as data downloading. The MGFD is freely available to users at http://mgfd.ahau.edu.cn/. Database URL: http://mgfd.ahau.edu.cn/. PMID:26896848

  9. MGFD: the maize gene families database

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Lei; Jiang, Haiyang; Yan, Hanwei; Li, Xiaoyu; Lin, Yongxiang; Ye, Hui; Cheng, Beijiu

    2016-01-01

    Most gene families are transcription factor (TF) families, which have fundamental roles in almost all biological processes (development, growth and response to environmental factors) and have been employed to manipulate various types of metabolic, developmental and stress response pathways in plants. Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world due its importance to human nutrition and health. Thus, identifying and annotating all the gene families in maize is an important primary step in defining their functions and understanding their roles in the regulation of diverse biological processes. In this study, we identified 96 predicted maize gene families and systematically characterized all 5826 of the genes in those families. We have also developed a comprehensive database of maize gene families (the MGFD). To further explore the functions of these gene families, we extensively annotated the genes, including such basic information as protein sequence features, gene structure, Gene Ontology classifications, phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles. The MGFD has a user-friendly web interface with multiple browse and search functions, as well as data downloading. The MGFD is freely available to users at http://mgfd.ahau.edu.cn/. Database URL: http://mgfd.ahau.edu.cn/ PMID:26896848

  10. Maize Genetics Outreach to American Indians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is an excellent vehicle for plant genomics outreach to those American Indian tribes who use and appreciate it nutritionally, culturally, and spiritually. During the summer 2006 season we mentored six Native American Indian students for eight weeks. All six worked at the USDA-ARS North Centra...

  11. Use and impact of Bt maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an invited article for a free science library and personal training tool sponsored by Nature Publishing Group, which will be included under the topics Agriculture and Biotechnology (http://www.nature.com/scitable). The focus of this article is on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize. Growers of...

  12. A first generation haplotype map of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the top production crop in the world and possesses more genetic diversity than any other major crop species. By using low-copy-enrichment and rapid sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS) approaches, we simultaneously discovered and genotyped several million sequence polymorphisms among...

  13. Interaction between maize seed and Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that colonizes maize seeds and contaminates them with aflatoxin. The fungus is localized in the endosperm and aleurone. To investigate the plant microbe interaction, we conducted histological and molecular studies to characterize the internal co...

  14. Genetic adjustment to changing climates: MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prospects for more widespread and frequent drought in the near future are placing considerable pressure on maize breeding programs to develop more drought tolerant germplasm. Despite the complexity of the plant’s responses to water limited conditions, rational application of molecular/genomic ap...

  15. MaizeGDB as Chromosome Walking Companion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB, www.maizegdb.org, is the primary repository for genetic and cytogenetic maps, with many details about chromosome markers, genes, QTL, phenotypic variations, and sequences. It links these data to various external resources: GenBank; the EST and GSS contigs at PlantGDB, www.plantgdb.org and ...

  16. Registration of maize inbred line GT603

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GT603 (Reg. No. xxxx, PI xxxxxx) is a yellow dent maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line developed and released by the USDA-ARS Crop Protection and Management Research Unit in cooperation with the University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station in 2010. GT603 was developed through seven generations ...

  17. Regulatory modules controlling maize inflorescence architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic control of branching is a primary determinant of yield, regulating seed number and harvesting ability, yet little is known about the molecular networks that shape grain-bearing inflorescences of cereal crops. Here, we used the maize (Zea mays) inflorescence to investigate gene networks that...

  18. Simulating nitrogen uptake and distribution in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen is a dominant factor in the nutritional status of a maize crop. It is the most easily absorbed nutrient by corn crop and has the largest effect on yield. Leaf area development and light capture is dependent on the nitrogen status of the plant. Knowledge of the factors governing corn crop N ...

  19. Maize and tripsacum: experiments in intergeneric hybridization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research in maize-Tripsacum hybridization is extensive and encompasses a period of more than 60 years of collective research. The publication “The origin of Indian corn and its relatives” describes some of the initial research in this area (Mangelsdorf and Reeves, 1939) and is recommended reading f...

  20. New trait data at MaizeGDB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB has several ways to archive trait data used for QTL and GWAS analyses. The simplest is simple posting of files provided by researchers along with links to the publication. More recently we have begun to integrate these data for diversity recombinant germplasm, and association panels. The go...

  1. The genetic architecture of maize stalk strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stalk strength is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Strong stalks reduce lodging and maximize harvestable yield. Studies show rind penetrometer resistance (RPR), or the force required to pierce a stalk rind with a spike, is a valid approximation of strength. We measured RPR across 4,892 rec...

  2. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  3. REGISTRATION OF MAIZE GERMPLASM LINE GEMS-0067

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GEMS-0067 is a partially inbred germplasm line released by Truman State University (TSU) in accordance with the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) protocol. This line is being released for use in the development of genetically diverse, elite, amylomaize class VII parental lines possessing modifie...

  4. Genomic variation in maize: Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rivin, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    In previous experiments, rapid quantitative changes were observed in specific sequences took place in F1 hybrids of inbred maize lines. One of our major goals is to understand how and when such changes occur, and how stable the novel multiplicities are in subsequent generations. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. [Genomic variation in maize]. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Rivin, C.J.

    1991-12-31

    These studies have sought to learn how different DNA sequences and sequence arrangements contribute to genome plasticity in maize. We describe quantitative variation among maize inbred lines for tandemly arrayed and dispersed repeated DNA sequences and gene families, and qualitative variation for sequences homologous to the Mutator family of transposons. The potential of these sequences to undergo unequal crossing over, non-allelic (ectopic) recombination and transposition makes them a source of genome instability. We have found examples of rapid genomic change involving these sequences in Fl hybrids, tissue culture cells and regenerated plants. We describe the repetitive portion of the maize genome as composed primarily of sequences that vary markedly in copy number among different genetic stocks. The most highly variable is the 185 bp repeat associated with the heterochromatic chromosome knobs. Even in lines without visible knobs, there is a considerable quantity of tandemly arrayed repeats. We also found a high degree of variability for the tandemly arrayed 5S and ribosomal DNA repeats. While such variation might be expected as the result of unequal cross-over, we were surprised to find considerable variation among lower copy number, dispersed repeats as well. One highly repeated sequence that showed a complex tandem and dispersed arrangement stood out as showing no detectable variability among the maize lines. In striking contrast to the variability seen between the inbred stocks, individuals within a stock were indistinguishable with regard to their repeated sequence multiplicities.

  6. Effect of organic fertilizers on maize production in Eastern Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2016-04-01

    Maize remains to be the most important cereal crop in Georgia. Total area of arable land under cereal crops production equals to 184 thousands hectares (FAO statistical yearbook, 2014), from which maize takes the biggest share. Leading position of maize among other cereal crops is caused by its dual purpose as food and feed product. In Spite of a relatively high production of maize to other cereals there is still a high demand on it, especially as feed for animal husbandry. The same tendency is seen in organic production, where producers of livestock and poultry products require organically grown maize, the average yield of which is much less than those produced conventionally. Therefore, it is important to increase productivity of maize in organic farms. Current study aimed to improve maize yield using locally produced organic fertilizers and to compare them to the effect of mineral fertilizers. The study was carried out in Eastern Georgia under dry subtropical climate conditions on local hybrid of maize. This is the first attempt to use hybrid maize (developed with organic plant breeding method) in organic field trials in Georgia. The results shown, that grain yield from two different types of organic fertilizers reached 70% of the yields achieved with industrial mineral fertilizers. As on farm level differences between organic and conventional maize production are much severe, the results from the field trials seems to be promising for future improvement of organic cereal crop production.

  7. Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of Chinese Waxy Maize Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection. PMID:23818949

  8. The brown midrib3 (bm3) mutation in maize occurs in the gene encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Vignols, F; Rigau, J; Torres, M A; Capellades, M; Puigdomènech, P

    1995-01-01

    The brown midrib mutations are among the earliest described in maize. Plants containing a brown midrib mutation exhibit a reddish brown pigmentation of the leaf midrib starting when there are four to six leaves. These mutations are known to alter lignin composition and digestibility of plants and therefore constitute prime candidates in the breeding of silage maize. Here, we show that two independent brown midrib3 (bm3) mutations have resulted from structural changes in the COMT gene, which encodes the enzyme O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC 2.1.1.6), involved in lignin biosynthesis. Our results indicate that the bm3-1 allele (the reference mutant allele) has arisen from an insertional event producing a COMT mRNA altered in both size and amount. By sequencing a COMT cDNA clone obtained from bm3-1 maize, a retrotransposon with homology to the B5 element has been found to be inserted near the junction of the 3' coding region of the COMT gene intron. The second bm3 allele, bm3-2, has resulted from a deletion of part of the COMT gene. These alterations of the COMT gene were confirmed by DNA gel blot and polymerase chain reaction amplification analyses. These results clearly demonstrate that mutations at the COMT gene give a brown midrib3 phenotype. Thus, the gene genetically recognized as bm3 is the same as the one coding for COMT. PMID:7773015

  9. The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, Karen

    2014-03-26

    The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Aspergillus flavus on Resistant and Susceptible Maize Genotypes during Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus, a mycotoxicogenic fungal genus, produces carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops like peanuts and maize. Development of fungal resistant maize cultivars is one strategy used to decrease contamination. Successful development and identification of resistant maize genotypes requires evaluation o...