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Sample records for alters neuronal excitability

  1. Prenatal Stress Alters the Development of Socioemotional Behavior and Amygdala Neuron Excitability in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, David E; Rainnie, Donald G

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders with diverse ages of onset and socioemotional symptoms. Some PS-linked disorders involve characteristic social deficits, such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but PS also promotes anxiety disorders. We propose the diversity of symptoms following PS arises from perturbations to early brain development. To this end, we characterized the effects of PS on the developmental trajectory of physiology of the amygdala, a late-developing center for socioemotional control. We found that PS dampened socioemotional behavior and reduced amygdala neuron excitability in offspring during infancy (at postnatal days (P)10, 14, 17 and 21), preadolescence (day 28), and adulthood (day 60). PS offspring in infancy produced fewer isolation-induced vocalizations and in adulthood exhibited less anxiety-like behavior and deficits in social interaction. PS neurons had a more hyperpolarized resting membrane potential from infancy to adulthood and produced fewer action potentials. Moreover, adult amygdala neurons from PS animals expressed larger action potential afterhyperpolarizations and H-current relative to controls, further limiting excitability. Our results suggest that PS can suppress socioemotional behavior throughout development and produce age-specific alterations to amygdala physiology. PMID:25716930

  2. Altered intrinsic excitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in aged PDAPP mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnini, Francesco; Novelia, Janet; Kerrigan, Talitha L.; Brown, Jon T.; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Randall, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidopathy involves the accumulation of insoluble amyloid β (Aβ) species in the brain’s parenchyma and is a key histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Work on transgenic mice that overexpress Aβ suggests that elevated Aβ levels in the brain are associated with aberrant epileptiform activity and increased intrinsic excitability (IE) of CA1 hippocampal neurons. In this study we examined if similar changes could be observed in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from aged PDAPP mice (20–23 month old, Indiana mutation: V717F on APP gene) compared to their age-matched wild-type littermate controls. Whole-cell current clamp recordings revealed that sub-threshold intrinsic properties, such as input resistance, resting membrane potential and hyperpolarization activated “sag” were unaffected, but capacitance was significantly decreased in the transgenic animals. No differences between genotypes were observed in the overall number of action potentials (AP) elicited by 500 ms supra-threshold current stimuli. PDAPP neurons, however, exhibited higher instantaneous firing frequencies after accommodation in response to high intensity current injections. The AP waveform was narrower and shorter in amplitude in PDAPP mice: these changes, according to our in silico model of a CA1/3 pyramidal neuron, depended on the respective increase and reduction of K+ and Na+ voltage-gated channels maximal conductances. Finally, the after-hyperpolarization, seen after the first AP evoked by a +300 pA current injection and after 50 Hz AP bursts, was more pronounced in PDAPP mice. These data show that Aβ-overexpression in aged mice altered the capacitance, the neuronal firing and the AP waveform of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Some of these findings are consistent with previous work on younger PDAPP; they also show important differences that can be potentially ascribed to the interaction between amyloidopathy and ageing. Such a change of IE properties over time underlies

  3. Peroxide alters neuronal excitability in the CA1 region of guinea-pig hippocampus in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Pellmar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of peroxidative damage on neuronal excitability were investigated with electrophysiological techniques in CAl pyramidal cells of the hippocampal slice preparation. Hydrogen peroxide alone or combined with ferrous ions (peroxide/iron) is likely to produce hydroxyl free radicals through the Fenton reaction. Intracellularly recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials were significantly reduced by exposure to peroxide, while responses to iontophoretically applied gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate were unaffected. These results suggest that peroxide has presynaptic actions. Peroxide and peroxide/iron also increased frequency adaptation; after exposure, neurons fired fewer action potentials at a lower frequency in response to the same depolarizing current step. A voltage clamp analysis revealed that the potassium currents were unaffected by peroxide/iron. Calcium current was not obviously altered by exposure to peroxide. Sodium spike thresholds was also unaffected. Calcium spike threshold was significantly increased by peroxide. This action of peroxide may underlie its presynaptic actions. It is concluded that peroxide produces both presynaptic and postsynaptic damage. This damage is likely to result from the production of free radicals which have been postulated to underlie a number of pathological states.

  4. Altered Kv2.1 functioning promotes increased excitability in hippocampal neurons of an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Frazzini, V; Guarnieri, S; Bomba, M; Navarra, R; Morabito, C; Mariggiò, M A; Sensi, S L

    2016-01-01

    Altered neuronal excitability is emerging as an important feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Kv2.1 potassium channels are important modulators of neuronal excitability and synaptic activity. We investigated Kv2.1 currents and its relation to the intrinsic synaptic activity of hippocampal neurons from 3xTg-AD (triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease) mice, a widely employed preclinical AD model. Synaptic activity was also investigated by analyzing spontaneous [Ca(2+)]i spikes. Compared with wild-type (Non-Tg (non-transgenic mouse model)) cultures, 3xTg-AD neurons showed enhanced spike frequency and decreased intensity. Compared with Non-Tg cultures, 3xTg-AD hippocampal neurons revealed reduced Kv2.1-dependent Ik current densities as well as normalized conductances. 3xTg-AD cultures also exhibited an overall decrease in the number of functional Kv2.1 channels. Immunofluorescence assay revealed an increase in Kv2.1 channel oligomerization, a condition associated with blockade of channel function. In Non-Tg neurons, pharmacological blockade of Kv2.1 channels reproduced the altered pattern found in the 3xTg-AD cultures. Moreover, compared with untreated sister cultures, pharmacological inhibition of Kv2.1 in 3xTg-AD neurons did not produce any significant modification in Ik current densities. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote Kv2.1 oligomerization, thereby acting as negative modulator of the channel activity. Glutamate receptor activation produced higher ROS levels in hippocampal 3xTg-AD cultures compared with Non-Tg neurons. Antioxidant treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine was found to rescue Kv2.1-dependent currents and decreased spontaneous hyperexcitability in 3xTg-AD neurons. Analogous results regarding spontaneous synaptic activity were observed in neuronal cultures treated with the antioxidant 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). Our study indicates that AD-related mutations may promote enhanced ROS generation, oxidative

  5. [Ambient modulation of neuronal excitability].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Zhang

    2016-08-25

    Although the modulation of synaptic activity plays an important role in the modulation of neuronal excitability, the significance of the ambient modulation (AM) of neuronal excitability should be emphasized. The AM refers to the alterations of membrane potential of neuron resulted from distinct neural activities, such as the tonic inhibition and excitation through activation of extra-synaptic receptors, the paracrine actions of nearby neural and non-neural cells, endocrinal actions of blood borne hormones and other active chemical substances. The AM of neuronal excitability may have important bearings on distinct brain functions, such as the regulation and switching of cortical states, the appearance of chaotic and vague feelings, which are usually the characteristic features in many mental and neural disorders. PMID:27546499

  6. Enhanced Excitability of Primary Sensory Neurons and Altered Gene Expression of Neuronal Ion Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion in Paclitaxel-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijun; Dougherty, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanism of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy after paclitaxel treatment is not well understood. Given the poor penetration of paclitaxel into central nervous system, peripheral nervous system is most at risk. Methods Intrinsic membrane properties of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were studied by intracellular recordings. Multiple-gene real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction array was used to investigate gene expression of DRG neuronal ion channels. Results Paclitaxel increased the incidence of spontaneous activity from 4.8% to 27.1% in large and from 0% to 33.3% in medium-sized neurons. Paclitaxel decreased the rheobase (nA) from 1.6 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.1 in large, from 1.5 ± 0.2 to 0.6 ± 0.1 in medium-sized, and from 1.6 ± 0.2 to 1.0 ± 0.1 in small neurons. After paclitaxel, other characteristics of membrane properties in each group remained the same except that Aδ neurons showed shorter action potential fall time (ms) (1.0 ± 0.2, n = 10 vs. 1.8 ± 0.3, n = 9, paclitaxel vs. vehicle). Meanwhile, real-time polymerase chain reaction array revealed an alteration in expression of some neuronal ion channel genes including upregulation of HCN1 (fold change 1.76 ± 0.06) and Nav1.7 (1.26 ± 0.02) and downregulation of Kir channels (Kir1.1, 0.73 ± 0.05, Kir3.4, 0.66 ± 0.06) in paclitaxel-treated animals. Conclusions The increased neuronal excitability and the changes in gene expression of some neuronal ion channels in DRG may provide insight into the molecular and cellular basis of paclitaxel neuropathy, which may lead to novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24534904

  7. Mild systemic inflammation and moderate hypoxia transiently alter neuronal excitability in mouse somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Mordel, Jérôme; Sheikh, Aminah; Tsohataridis, Simeon; Kanold, Patrick O; Zehendner, Christoph M; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-04-01

    During the perinatal period, the brain is highly vulnerable to hypoxia and inflammation, which often cause white matter injury and long-term neuronal dysfunction such as motor and cognitive deficits or epileptic seizures. We studied the effects of moderate hypoxia (HYPO), mild systemic inflammation (INFL), or the combination of both (HYPO+INFL) in mouse somatosensory cortex induced during the first postnatal week on network activity and compared it to activity in SHAM control animals. By performing in vitro electrophysiological recordings with multi-electrode arrays from slices prepared directly after injury (P8-10), one week after injury (P13-16), or in young adults (P28-30), we investigated how the neocortical network developed following these insults. No significant difference was observed between the four groups in an extracellular solution close to physiological conditions. In extracellular 8mM potassium solution, slices from the HYPO, INFL, and HYPO+INFL group were more excitable than SHAM at P8-10 and P13-16. In these two age groups, the number and frequency of spontaneous epileptiform events were significantly increased compared to SHAM. The frequency of epileptiform events was significantly reduced by the NMDA antagonist D-APV in HYPO, INFL, and HYPO+INFL, but not in SHAM, indicating a contribution of NMDA receptors to this pathophysiological activity. In addition, the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist CNQX suppressed the remaining epileptiform activity. Electrical stimulation evoked prominent epileptiform activity in slices from HYPO, INFL and HYPO+INFL animals. Stimulation threshold to elicit epileptiform events was lower in these groups than in SHAM. Evoked events spread over larger areas and lasted longer in treated animals than in SHAM. In addition, the evoked epileptiform activity was reduced in the older (P28-30) group indicating that cortical dysfunction induced by hypoxia and inflammation was transient and compensated during early development. PMID

  8. Diet composition, not calorie intake, rapidly alters intrinsic excitability of hypothalamic AgRP/NPY neurons in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Pham, Kevin; Gammons, Jesse W.; Sutherland, Daniel; Liu, Yanyun; Smith, Alana; Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; O’Connell, Kristen M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition resulting from a long-term pattern of poor diet and lifestyle. Long-term consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) leads to persistent activation and leptin resistance in AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Here, for the first time, we demonstrate acute effects of HFD on AgRP neuronal excitability and highlight a critical role for diet composition. In parallel with our earlier finding in obese, long-term HFD mice, we found that even brief HFD feeding results in persistent activation of ARH AgRP neurons. However, unlike long-term HFD-fed mice, AgRP neurons from short-term HFD-fed mice were still leptin-sensitive, indicating that the development of leptin-insensitivity is not a prerequisite for the increased firing rate of AgRP neurons. To distinguish between diet composition, caloric intake, and body weight, we compared acute and long-term effects of HFD and CD in pair-fed mice on AgRP neuronal spiking. HFD consumption in pair-fed mice resulted in a significant increase in AgRP neuronal spiking despite controls for weight gain and caloric intake. Taken together, our results suggest that diet composition may be more important than either calorie intake or body weight for electrically remodeling arcuate AgRP/NPY neurons. PMID:26592769

  9. Alterations in CA1 pyramidal neuronal intrinsic excitability mediated by Ih channel currents in a rat model of amyloid beta pathology.

    PubMed

    Eslamizade, M J; Saffarzadeh, F; Mousavi, S M M; Meftahi, G H; Hosseinmardi, N; Mehdizadeh, M; Janahmadi, M

    2015-10-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by changing the neuronal excitability. However, the cellular mechanisms by which accumulation of Aβ affects intrinsic neuronal properties are not well understood. The effect of bilateral intra-frontal cortex Aβ (1-42) peptide injection on the intrinsic excitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with particular focus on the contribution of hyperpolarization-activated (Ih) channel currents was examined using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Passive avoidance memory impairment and morphological changes in rats receiving intra-frontal Aβ treatment were observed, which was associated with significant changes both in passive and active intrinsic electrical membrane properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Electrophysiological recording showed a significant decrease in neuronal excitability associated with an augmentation in the first spike after-hyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude. In addition, the depolarizing sag voltage was altered in neurons recorded from Aβ-treated group. In voltage-clamp condition, a hyperpolarizing activated inward current sensitive to ZD7288 and capsaicin was significantly increased in neurons from Aβ-treated rats. The Ih current density was increased and the activation curve was shifted toward less negative potential in the Aβ-treated group as compared to control group. The enhancing effect of Aβ treatment on Ih current was confirmed by showing upregulation of the mRNA of HCN1 channel in the CA1 pyramidal layer of hippocampi. These findings suggest the contribution of Ih and possibly TRPV1 channel currents to the changes induced by Aβ treatment in the intrinsic membrane properties, which, in turn, may provide therapeutic targets for treatment of AD. PMID:26254243

  10. Altered emotionality and neuronal excitability in mice lacking KCTD12, an auxiliary subunit of GABAB receptors associated with mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cathomas, F; Stegen, M; Sigrist, H; Schmid, L; Seifritz, E; Gassmann, M; Bettler, B; Pryce, C R

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, is fundamental to brain function and implicated in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. GABA activates G-protein-coupled GABAB receptors comprising principal GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits as well as auxiliary KCTD8, 12, 12b and 16 subunits. The KCTD12 gene has been associated with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Here we compare Kctd12 null mutant (Kctd12−/−) and heterozygous (Kctd12+/−) with wild-type (WT) littermate mice to determine whether lack of or reduced KCTD12 expression leads to phenotypes that, extrapolating to human, could constitute endophenotypes for neuropsychiatric disorders with which KCTD12 is associated. Kctd12−/− mice exhibited increased fear learning but not increased memory of a discrete auditory-conditioned stimulus. Kctd12+/− mice showed increased activity during the inactive (light) phase of the circadian cycle relative to WT and Kctd12−/− mice. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices, a region of high Kctd12 expression, revealed an increased intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons in Kctd12−/− and Kctd12+/− mice. This is the first direct evidence for involvement of KCTD12 in determining phenotypes of emotionality, behavioral activity and neuronal excitability. This study provides empirical support for the polymorphism and expression evidence that KCTD12 confers risk for and is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25689571

  11. A neuronal disruption in redox homeostasis elicited by ammonia alters the glycine/glutamate (GABA) cycle and contributes to MMA-induced excitability.

    PubMed

    Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Gabbi, Patrícia; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Della-Pace, Iuri Domingues; Rodrigues, Fernanda Silva; de Oliveira Ferreira, Ana Paula; da Silveira Junior, Mauro Eduardo Porto; da Silva, Luís Roberto Hart; Grisólia, Alan Barroso Araújo; Braga, Danielle Valente; Dobrachinski, Fernando; da Silva, Anderson Manoel Herculano Oliveira; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Marchesan, Sara; Furian, Ana Flavia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Fighera, Michele Rechia

    2016-06-01

    Hyperammonemia is a common finding in children with methylmalonic acidemia. However, its contribution to methylmalonate-induced excitotoxicty is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms by which ammonia influences in the neurotoxicity induced by methylmalonate (MMA) in mice. The effects of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl 3, 6, and 12 mmol/kg; s.c.) on electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral convulsions induced by MMA (0.3, 0.66, and 1 µmol/2 µL, i.c.v.) were observed in mice. After, ammonia, TNF-α, IL1β, IL-6, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels, mitochondrial potential (ΔΨ), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, Methyl-Tetrazolium (MTT) reduction, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity levels were measured in the cerebral cortex. The binding of [(3)H]flunitrazepam, release of glutamate-GABA; glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and neuronal damage [opening of blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cellular death volume] were also measured. EEG recordings showed that an intermediate dose of NH4Cl (6 mmol/kg) increased the duration of convulsive episodes induced by MMA (0.66 μmol/2 μL i.c.v). NH4Cl (6 mmol/kg) administration also induced neuronal ammonia and NOx increase, as well as mitochondrial ROS generation throughout oxidation of 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) to DCF-RS, followed by GS and GAD inhibition. The NH4Cl plus MMA administration did not alter cytokine levels, plasma fluorescein extravasation, or neuronal damage. However, it potentiated DCF-RS levels, decreased the ΔΨ potential, reduced MTT, inhibited SDH activity, and increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. NH4Cl also altered the GABA cycle characterized by GS and GAD activity inhibition, [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding, and GABA release after MMA injection. On the basis of our findings, the changes in ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) levels elicited by ammonia alter the glycine

  12. Dopamine modulates excitability of basolateral amygdala neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kröner, Sven; Rosenkranz, J Amiel; Grace, Anthony A; Barrionuevo, German

    2005-03-01

    The amygdala plays a role in affective behaviors, which are modulated by the dopamine (DA) innervation of the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA). Although in vivo studies indicate that activation of DA receptors alters BLA neuronal activity, it is unclear whether DA exerts direct effects on BLA neurons or whether it acts via indirect effects on BLA afferents. Using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in rat brain slices, we investigated the site and mechanisms through which DA regulates the excitability of BLA neurons. Dopamine enhanced the excitability of BLA projection neurons in response to somatic current injections via a postsynaptic effect. Dopamine D1 receptor activation increased excitability and evoked firing, whereas D2 receptor activation increased input resistance. Current- and voltage-clamp experiments in projection neurons showed that D1 receptor activation enhanced excitability by modulating a 4-aminopyridine- and alpha-dendrotoxin-sensitive, slowly inactivating K+ current. Furthermore, DA and D1 receptor activation increased evoked firing in fast-spiking BLA interneurons. Consistent with a postsynaptic modulation of interneuron excitability, DA also increased the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents recorded in projection neurons without changing release of GABA. These data demonstrate that DA exerts direct effects on BLA projection neurons and indirect actions via modulation of interneurons that may work in concert to enhance the neuronal response to large, suprathreshold inputs, while suppressing weaker inputs. PMID:15537813

  13. Dynamic DNA methylation regulates neuronal intrinsic membrane excitability.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Jarrod P; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C; Phillips, Scott; Brown, Jordan A; Strange, Sarah K; Sweatt, J David; Hablitz, John J

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA cytosine methylation, contribute to the mechanisms underlying learning and memory by coordinating adaptive gene expression and neuronal plasticity. Transcription-dependent plasticity regulated by DNA methylation includes synaptic plasticity and homeostatic synaptic scaling. Memory-related plasticity also includes alterations in intrinsic membrane excitability mediated by changes in the abundance or activity of ion channels in the plasma membrane, which sets the threshold for action potential generation. We found that prolonged inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity increased intrinsic membrane excitability of cultured cortical pyramidal neurons. Knockdown of the cytosine demethylase TET1 or inhibition of RNA polymerase blocked the increased membrane excitability caused by DNMT inhibition, suggesting that this effect was mediated by subsequent cytosine demethylation and de novo transcription. Prolonged DNMT inhibition blunted the medium component of the after-hyperpolarization potential, an effect that would increase neuronal excitability, and was associated with reduced expression of the genes encoding small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels. Furthermore, the specific SK channel blocker apamin increased neuronal excitability but was ineffective after DNMT inhibition. Our results suggested that DNMT inhibition enables transcriptional changes that culminate in decreased expression of SK channel-encoding genes and decreased activity of SK channels, thus providing a mechanism for the regulation of neuronal intrinsic membrane excitability by dynamic DNA cytosine methylation. This study has implications for human neurological and psychiatric diseases associated with dysregulated intrinsic excitability. PMID:27555660

  14. Radiation-induced impairment of neuronal excitability

    SciTech Connect

    Pellmar, T.C.; Tolliver, J.M.; Neel, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation causes a decrease in the synaptically evoked activity of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells. This effect is dose and dose-rate dependent. Hydrogen peroxide, which produces hydroxyl free radicals when combined with FE + 2, produces similar damage. In contrast, the radioprotectant, dithiothreitol, increases the excitability of hippocampal neurons. These studies indicate that radiation can directly affect the function of central neurons.

  15. Persistent histamine excitation of glutamatergic preoptic neurons.

    PubMed

    Tabarean, Iustin V

    2012-01-01

    Thermoregulatory neurons of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) represent a target at which histamine modulates body temperature. The mechanism by which histamine excites a population of MnPO neurons is not known. In this study it was found that histamine activated a cationic inward current and increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, actions that had a transient component as well as a sustained one that lasted for tens of minutes after removal of the agonist. The sustained component was blocked by TRPC channel blockers. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed expression of TRPC1, TRPC5 and TRPC7 subunits in neurons excited by histamine. These studies also established the presence of transcripts for the glutamatergic marker Vglut2 and for the H1 histamine receptor in neurons excited by histamine. Intracellular application of antibodies directed against cytoplasmic sites of the TRPC1 or TRPC5 channel subunits decreased the histamine-induced inward current. The persistent inward current and elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration could be reversed by activating the PKA pathway. This data reveal a novel mechanism by which histamine induces persistent excitation and sustained intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in glutamatergic MnPO neurons. PMID:23082195

  16. Persistent Histamine Excitation of Glutamatergic Preoptic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tabarean, Iustin V.

    2012-01-01

    Thermoregulatory neurons of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) represent a target at which histamine modulates body temperature. The mechanism by which histamine excites a population of MnPO neurons is not known. In this study it was found that histamine activated a cationic inward current and increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, actions that had a transient component as well as a sustained one that lasted for tens of minutes after removal of the agonist. The sustained component was blocked by TRPC channel blockers. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed expression of TRPC1, TRPC5 and TRPC7 subunits in neurons excited by histamine. These studies also established the presence of transcripts for the glutamatergic marker Vglut2 and for the H1 histamine receptor in neurons excited by histamine. Intracellular application of antibodies directed against cytoplasmic sites of the TRPC1 or TRPC5 channel subunits decreased the histamine-induced inward current. The persistent inward current and elevation in intracellular Ca2+ concentration could be reversed by activating the PKA pathway. This data reveal a novel mechanism by which histamine induces persistent excitation and sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation in glutamatergic MnPO neurons. PMID:23082195

  17. Microglia Control Neuronal Network Excitability via BDNF Signalling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Microglia-neuron interactions play a crucial role in several neurological disorders characterized by altered neural network excitability, such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. While a series of potential messengers have been postulated as substrates of the communication between microglia and neurons, including cytokines, purines, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide, the specific links between messengers, microglia, neuronal networks, and diseases have remained elusive. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) released by microglia emerges as an exception in this riddle. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role played by microglial BDNF in controlling neuronal excitability by causing disinhibition. The efforts made by different laboratories during the last decade have collectively provided a robust mechanistic paradigm which elucidates the mechanisms involved in the synthesis and release of BDNF from microglia, the downstream TrkB-mediated signals in neurons, and the biophysical mechanism by which disinhibition occurs, via the downregulation of the K+-Cl− cotransporter KCC2, dysrupting Cl−homeostasis, and hence the strength of GABAA- and glycine receptor-mediated inhibition. The resulting altered network activity appears to explain several features of the associated pathologies. Targeting the molecular players involved in this canonical signaling pathway may lead to novel therapeutic approach for ameliorating a wide array of neural dysfunctions. PMID:24089642

  18. Perceptual Load Alters Visual Excitability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, David; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    Increasing perceptual load reduces the processing of visual stimuli outside the focus of attention, but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Here we tested an account attributing the effects of perceptual load to modulations of visual cortex excitability. In contrast to stimulus competition accounts, which propose that load…

  19. Vibrational resonance in excitable neuronal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Chen; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of a high-frequency driving on the dynamical response of excitable neuronal systems to a subthreshold low-frequency signal by numerical simulation. We demonstrate the occurrence of vibrational resonance in spatially extended neuronal networks. Different network topologies from single small-world networks to modular networks of small-world subnetworks are considered. It is shown that an optimal amplitude of high-frequency driving enhances the response of neuron populations to a low-frequency signal. This effect of vibrational resonance of neuronal systems depends extensively on the network structure and parameters, such as the coupling strength between neurons, network size, and rewiring probability of single small-world networks, as well as the number of links between different subnetworks and the number of subnetworks in the modular networks. All these parameters play a key role in determining the ability of the network to enhance the outreach of the localized subthreshold low-frequency signal. Considering that two-frequency signals are ubiquity in brain dynamics, we expect the presented results could have important implications for the weak signal detection and information propagation across neuronal systems.

  20. The excitability and rhythm of medullary respiratory neurons in the cat are altered by the serotonin receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N, dimethyltryptamine.

    PubMed

    Lalley, P M

    1994-06-13

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) is an indolealkylamine which has agonist activity at 5HT receptors. In the present investigation, 5-MeODMT had two types of effects on medullary respiratory neurons of the cat. Iontophoretic administration or i.v. doses (43 +/- 8.9 micrograms/kg) of 5-MeODMT hyperpolarized respiratory neurons and severely reduced action potential discharges. Cinanserin, a 5HT-2/1 c receptor antagonist, when injected i.v. reduced the inhibition produced by i.v. injection of 5-MeODMT. Iontophoresis of cinanserin did not antagonize inhibition produced by iontophoresis of 5-MeODMT or 5-HT. The depression of respiratory discharge by i.v. injection of 5-MeODMT is attributed to presynaptic effects (network depression) and post-synaptic activation of 5HT-1A receptors on respiratory neurons. 5-MeODMT (27 +/- 2.78 micrograms/kg i.v.) also increased discharge frequency of inspiratory and expiratory neurons. Inspiratory neuron discharges were briefer and expiratory neuron discharges occurred earlier in relation to phrenic nerve activity. It is suggested that the effects of the smaller doses are due to binding of 5-MeODMT to 5HT-1A receptors on early inspiratory neurons of the medulla. PMID:7922531

  1. Diverse precerebellar neurons share similar intrinsic excitability.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, Kristine E; McElvain, Lauren E; du Lac, Sascha

    2011-11-16

    The cerebellum dedicates a majority of the brain's neurons to processing a wide range of sensory, motor, and cognitive signals. Stereotyped circuitry within the cerebellar cortex suggests that similar computations are performed throughout the cerebellum, but little is known about whether diverse precerebellar neurons are specialized for the nature of the information they convey. In vivo recordings indicate that firing responses to sensory or motor stimuli vary dramatically across different precerebellar nuclei, but whether this reflects diverse synaptic inputs or differentially tuned intrinsic excitability has not been determined. We targeted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to neurons in eight precerebellar nuclei which were retrogradely labeled from different regions of the cerebellum in mice. Intrinsic physiology was compared across neurons in the medial vestibular, external cuneate, lateral reticular, prepositus hypoglossi, supragenual, Roller/intercalatus, reticularis tegmenti pontis, and pontine nuclei. Within the firing domain, precerebellar neurons were remarkably similar. Firing faithfully followed temporally modulated inputs, could be sustained at high rates, and was a linear function of input current over a wide range of inputs and firing rates. Pharmacological analyses revealed common expression of Kv3 currents, which were essential for a wide linear firing range, and of SK (small-conductance calcium-activated potassium) currents, which were essential for a wide linear input range. In contrast, membrane properties below spike threshold varied considerably within and across precerebellar nuclei, as evidenced by variability in postinhibitory rebound firing. Our findings indicate that diverse precerebellar neurons perform similar scaling computations on their inputs but may be differentially tuned to synaptic inhibition. PMID:22090493

  2. Estragole blocks neuronal excitability by direct inhibition of Na+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Alves, K.S.; Ferreira-da-Silva, F.W.; Peixoto-Neves, D.; Viana-Cardoso, K.V.; Moreira-Júnior, L.; Oquendo, M.B.; Oliveira-Abreu, K.; Albuquerque, A.A.C.; Coelho-de-Souza, A.N.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Estragole is a volatile terpenoid, which occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of many plants. It has several pharmacological and biological activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of estragole on neuronal excitability. Intact and dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats were used to record action potential and Na+ currents with intracellular and patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Estragole blocked the generation of action potentials in cells with or without inflexions on their descendant (repolarization) phase (Ninf and N0 neurons, respectively) in a concentration-dependent manner. The resting potentials and input resistances of Ninf and N0 cells were not altered by estragole (2, 4, and 6 mM). Estragole also inhibited total Na+ current and tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 3.2 and 3.6 mM, respectively). Kinetic analysis of Na+ current in the presence of 4 mM estragole showed a statistically significant reduction of fast and slow inactivation time constants, indicating an acceleration of the inactivation process. These data demonstrate that estragole blocks neuronal excitability by direct inhibition of Na+ channel conductance activation. This action of estragole is likely to be relevant to the understanding of the mechanisms of several pharmacological effects of this substance. PMID:24345915

  3. Learning Enhances Intrinsic Excitability in a Subset of Lateral Amygdala Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehgal, Megha; Ehlers, Vanessa L.; Moyer, James R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Learning-induced modulation of neuronal intrinsic excitability is a metaplasticity mechanism that can impact the acquisition of new memories. Although the amygdala is important for emotional learning and other behaviors, including fear and anxiety, whether learning alters intrinsic excitability within the amygdala has received very little…

  4. Altering the Balance between Excitation and Inhibition in Cultured Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzakpasu, Rhonda

    2010-03-01

    How is the network temporal structure altered when the balance between excitation and inhibition is changed? Proper balance is essential for normal brain function, including cognitive processing, the representation of sensory information and motor control. When the balance is compromised, neurological disorders may result. We use a simple reduced experimental system to investigate how manipulating the number of inhibitory neurons in a network of cultured hippocampal neurons affects synchronized bursting activity, the most prominent temporal signature of cultured hippocampal networks. Inhibitory neurons are thought to control spike timing and modulate network excitability and their absence may lead to widespread synchronization. We culture dissociated hippocampal neurons with varying quantities of inhibitory neurons on an 8x8 grid of extracellular electrodes and study how inhibitory neurons modulate network temporal dynamics. We show that as the proportion of inhibitory neurons increase, there is a dramatic transition in the temporal pattern.

  5. Sleep Interacts with Aβ to Modulate Intrinsic Neuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Masashi; Lone, Shahnaz R.; Liu, Sha; Liu, Qili; Zhang, Julia; Spira, Adam P.; Wu, Mark N.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Emerging data suggest an important relationship between sleep and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), but how poor sleep promotes the development of AD remains unclear. Results Here, using a Drosophila model of AD, we provide evidence suggesting that changes in neuronal excitability underlie the effects of sleep loss on AD pathogenesis. β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation leads to reduced and fragmented sleep, while chronic sleep deprivation increases Aβ burden. Moreover, enhancing sleep reduces Aβ deposition. Increasing neuronal excitability phenocopies the effects of reducing sleep on Aβ, and decreasing neuronal activity blocks the elevated Aβ accumulation induced by sleep deprivation. At the single neuron level, we find that chronic sleep deprivation, as well as Aβ expression, enhances intrinsic neuronal excitability. Importantly, these data reveal that sleep loss exacerbates Aβ–induced hyperexcitability and suggest that defects in specific K+ currents underlie the hyperexcitability caused by sleep loss and Aβ expression. Finally, we show that feeding levetiracetam, an anti-epileptic medication, to Aβ-expressing flies suppresses neuronal excitability and significantly prolongs their lifespan. Conclusions Our findings directly link sleep loss to changes in neuronal excitability and Aβ accumulation and further suggest that neuronal hyperexcitability is an important mediator of Aβ toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a mechanistic framework for a positive feedback loop, whereby sleep loss and neuronal excitation accelerate the accumulation of Aβ, a key pathogenic step in the development of AD. PMID:25754641

  6. Excitation of type II anterior caudate neurons by stimulation of dopamine D3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Piercey, M F; Hyslop, D K; Hoffmann, W E

    1997-07-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated that both direct- and indirect-acting dopamine (DA) receptor agonists excite type II neurons in the anterior caudate (CN) by stimulation of DA receptors belonging to the D2 receptor subfamily (D2, D3, D4 receptor subtypes). In the present study, pramipexole, a D3-preferring DA agonist effective in treating Parkinson's disease, excited type II anterior CN neurons. As with other direct-acting agonists, excitation of the CN neurons occurred only at doses above those that silenced DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC). Although more potent than pramipexole in inhibiting SNPC cells, PNU-91356A, a D2-preferring agonist, did not excite type II CN cells. The D3-preferring antagonist (+)-AJ76 was weaker than haloperidol, a D2-preferring antagonist, in reversing the effects of amphetamine on firing rates in dopaminergic neurons in both the SNPC and the CN. However, in relationship to its potency in the SNPC, (+)-AJ76 was more potent than haloperidol in the CN. PNU-101387, a selective D4 antagonist, did not alter amphetamine-induced stimulation of type II CN neurons. We conclude that DA agonists may excite type II anterior CN neurons via D3 receptor activation. The stimulation of these neurons may contribute to the anti-parkinsonian effects of pramipexole. PMID:9262154

  7. Neuronal excitability: voltage-dependent currents and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Rutecki, P A

    1992-04-01

    Neuronal membrane excitability and the synaptic connections among neurons produce behavior and cognition. The intracellular compartment of neurons is negatively charged relative to the extracellular space, and this charge, as well as current flow, is produced by ions. From the perspective of charged ions, the lipid bilayer of the neuronal membrane acts as a capacitor, and transmembrane glycoprotein pores or channels act as resistors. The open and closed states of ionic channels determine the membrane potential. At equilibrium, the lowest resistance or greatest permeability is for potassium, and the resting membrane potential is close to the equilibrium potential for potassium. When a channel is opened, permeable ions diffuse down their electrochemical gradients and the membrane potential is changed. Channels are gated (opened or closed) by voltage, neurotransmitters, and second messengers. The neuron integrates synaptic potentials produced by transmitter-gated channel activity and either generates a subthreshold potential, or a suprathreshold depolarization that generates an action potential or a burst of action potentials. Action potential generation is mediated by a large, brief sodium influx that is followed by activation of a voltage-dependent potassium eflux. The pattern of action potential firing is dependent on the interaction of a repertoire of voltage-dependent ion conductances. The action potential is the main signaling mechanism to activate synaptic transmission at axon terminals. Synaptic transmission is graded depending on the amount of calcium entering the presynaptic terminal. The number of action potentials, or the shape of the action potential, will determine the amount of calcium entering the terminal and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. Presynaptic ion channels may also be controlled by neurotransmitters or modulators and affect synaptic transmission by altering the amount of calcium influx. PMID:1375602

  8. Excitable neurons, firing threshold manifolds and canards.

    PubMed

    Mitry, John; McCarthy, Michelle; Kopell, Nancy; Wechselberger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate firing threshold manifolds in a mathematical model of an excitable neuron. The model analyzed investigates the phenomenon of post-inhibitory rebound spiking due to propofol anesthesia and is adapted from McCarthy et al. (SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst. 11(4):1674-1697, 2012). Propofol modulates the decay time-scale of an inhibitory GABAa synaptic current. Interestingly, this system gives rise to rebound spiking within a specific range of propofol doses. Using techniques from geometric singular perturbation theory, we identify geometric structures, known as canards of folded saddle-type, which form the firing threshold manifolds. We find that the position and orientation of the canard separatrix is propofol dependent. Thus, the speeds of relevant slow synaptic processes are encoded within this geometric structure. We show that this behavior cannot be understood using a static, inhibitory current step protocol, which can provide a single threshold for rebound spiking but cannot explain the observed cessation of spiking for higher propofol doses. We then compare the analyses of dynamic and static synaptic inhibition, showing how the firing threshold manifolds of each relate, and why a current step approach is unable to fully capture the behavior of this model. PMID:23945278

  9. Diverse impact of acute and long-term extracellular proteolytic activity on plasticity of neuronal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Wójtowicz, Tomasz; Brzdąk, Patrycja; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory require alteration in number and strength of existing synaptic connections. Extracellular proteolysis within the synapses has been shown to play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity by determining synapse structure, function, and number. Although synaptic plasticity of excitatory synapses is generally acknowledged to play a crucial role in formation of memory traces, some components of neural plasticity are reflected by nonsynaptic changes. Since information in neural networks is ultimately conveyed with action potentials, scaling of neuronal excitability could significantly enhance or dampen the outcome of dendritic integration, boost neuronal information storage capacity and ultimately learning. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. With this regard, several lines of evidence and our most recent study support a view that activity of extracellular proteases might affect information processing in neuronal networks by affecting targets beyond synapses. Here, we review the most recent studies addressing the impact of extracellular proteolysis on plasticity of neuronal excitability and discuss how enzymatic activity may alter input-output/transfer function of neurons, supporting cognitive processes. Interestingly, extracellular proteolysis may alter intrinsic neuronal excitability and excitation/inhibition balance both rapidly (time of minutes to hours) and in long-term window. Moreover, it appears that by cleavage of extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents, proteases may modulate function of ion channels or alter inhibitory drive and hence facilitate active participation of dendrites and axon initial segments (AISs) in adjusting neuronal input/output function. Altogether, a picture emerges whereby both rapid and long-term extracellular proteolysis may influence some aspects of information processing in neurons, such as initiation of action potential, spike frequency adaptation, properties of action potential and dendritic

  10. Which Neurons Will Be the Engram - Activated Neurons and/or More Excitable Neurons?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-il; Cho, Hye-Yeon; Han, Jin-Hee

    2016-01-01

    During past decades, the formation and storage principle of memory have received much attention in the neuroscience field. Although some studies have attempted to demonstrate the nature of the engram, elucidating the memory engram allocation mechanism was not possible because of the limitations of existing methods, which cannot specifically modulate the candidate neuronal population. Recently, the development of new techniques, which offer ways to mark and control specific populations of neurons, may accelerate solving this issue. Here, we review the recent advances, which have provided substantial evidence showing that both candidates (neuronal population that is activated by learning, and that has increased CREB level/excitability at learning) satisfy the criteria of the engram, which are necessary and sufficient for memory expression. PMID:27122991

  11. Kisspeptin and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Excitability: Molecular Mechanisms Driven by 17β-Estradiol.

    PubMed

    Rønnekleiv, Oline K; Zhang, Chunguang; Bosch, Martha A; Kelly, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that signals via a Gαq-coupled receptor, GPR54, in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and is essential for pubertal maturation and fertility. Kisspeptin depolarizes and excites GnRH neurons primarily through the activation of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels and the inhibition of K+ channels. The gonadal steroid 17β-estradiol (E2) upregulates not only kisspeptin (Kiss1) mRNA but also increases the excitability of the rostral forebrain Kiss1 neurons. In addition, a primary postsynaptic action of E2 on GnRH neurons is to upregulate the expression of channel transcripts that orchestrate the downstream signaling of kisspeptin in GnRH neurons. These include not only TRPC4 channels but also low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels and high-voltage-activated L-, N- and R-type calcium channel transcripts. Moreover, E2 has direct membrane-initiated actions to alter the excitability of GnRH neurons by enhancing ATP-sensitive potassium channel activity, which is critical for maintaining GnRH neurons in a hyperpolarized state for the recruitment of T-type calcium channels that are important for burst firing. Therefore, E2 modulates the excitability of GnRH neurons as well as of Kiss1 neurons by altering the expression and/or function of ion channels; moreover, kisspeptin provides critical excitatory input to GnRH neurons to facilitate burst firing activity and peptide release. PMID:25612870

  12. Kisspeptin and GnRH Neuronal Excitability: Molecular Mechanisms Driven by 17β-Estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Zhang, Chunguang; Bosch, Martha A.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that signals via a Gαq-coupled receptor, GPR54, in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and is essential for pubertal maturation and fertility. Kisspeptin depolarizes and excites GnRH neurons primarily through the activation of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels and inhibition of K+ channels. The gonadal steroid 17β-estradiol (E2) up-regulates not only kisspeptin (Kiss1) mRNA, but also increases the excitability of the rostral forebrain Kiss1 neurons. In addition, a primary postsynaptic action of E2 on GnRH neurons is to up-regulate the expression of channel transcripts that orchestrate the downstream signaling of kisspeptin in GnRH neurons. These include not only TRPC4 channels, but also low voltage-activated T-type calcium channels and high voltage-activated L-, N- and R-type calcium channel transcripts. Moreover, E2 has direct membrane-initiated actions to alter the excitability of GnRH neurons by enhancing ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, which is critical for maintaining GnRH neurons in a hyperpolarized state for recruitment of T-type calcium channels that are important for burst firing. Therefore, E2 modulates the excitability of GnRH neurons as well as Kiss1 neurons by altering the expression and/or function of ion channels; and kisspeptin provides critical excitatory input to GnRH neurons to facilitate burst firing activity and peptide release. PMID:25612870

  13. Excitation BolsTORs motor neurons in ALS mice.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Mark P

    2013-10-01

    It is unclear why motor neurons selectively degenerate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Saxena et al. (2013) demonstrate that excitation of motor neurons can prevent their demise in a mouse model of inherited ALS by a mechanism involving the mTOR pathway. PMID:24094096

  14. Neuronal excitability level transition induced by electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florence, G.; Kurths, J.; Machado, B. S.; Fonoff, E. T.; Cerdeira, H. A.; Teixeira, M. J.; Sameshima, K.

    2014-12-01

    In experimental studies, electrical stimulation (ES) has been applied to induce neuronal activity or to disrupt pathological patterns. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of these activity pattern transitions are not clear. To study these phenomena, we simulated a model of the hippocampal region CA1. The computational simulations using different amplitude levels and duration of ES revealed three states of neuronal excitability: burst-firing mode, depolarization block and spreading depression wave. We used the bifurcation theory to analyse the interference of ES in the cellular excitability and the neuronal dynamics. Understanding this process would help to improve the ES techniques to control some neurological disorders.

  15. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 regulates neuronal circuit development and excitability

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Sachiko; Lantz, Crystal; Kim, Eunyoung; Gupta, Nitin; Higgins, Richard; Stopfer, Mark; Hoffman, Dax A.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    In early postnatal development, naturally occurring cell death, dendritic outgrowth and synaptogenesis sculpt neuronal ensembles into functional neuronal circuits. Here we demonstrate that deletion of the extracellular proteinase MMP-9 affects each of these processes, resulting in maladapted neuronal circuitry. MMP-9 deletion increases the number of CA1 pyramidal neurons, but decreases dendritic length and complexity while dendritic spine density is unchanged. Parallel changes in neuronal morphology are observed in primary visual cortex, and persist into adulthood. Individual CA1 neurons in MMP-9−/− mice have enhanced input resistance and a significant increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Additionally, deletion of MMP-9 significant increases spontaneous neuronal activity in awake MMP-9−/− mice and enhances response to acute challenge by the excitotoxin kainate. Thus MMP-9-dependent proteolysis regulates several aspects of circuit maturation to constrain excitability throughout life. PMID:26093382

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Regulates Neuronal Circuit Development and Excitability.

    PubMed

    Murase, Sachiko; Lantz, Crystal L; Kim, Eunyoung; Gupta, Nitin; Higgins, Richard; Stopfer, Mark; Hoffman, Dax A; Quinlan, Elizabeth M

    2016-07-01

    In early postnatal development, naturally occurring cell death, dendritic outgrowth, and synaptogenesis sculpt neuronal ensembles into functional neuronal circuits. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of the extracellular proteinase matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) affects each of these processes, resulting in maladapted neuronal circuitry. MMP-9 deletion increases the number of CA1 pyramidal neurons but decreases dendritic length and complexity. Parallel changes in neuronal morphology are observed in primary visual cortex and persist into adulthood. Individual CA1 neurons in MMP-9(-/-) mice have enhanced input resistance and a significant increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Additionally, deletion of MMP-9 significantly increases spontaneous neuronal activity in awake MMP-9(-/-) mice and enhances response to acute challenge by the excitotoxin kainate. Our data document a novel role for MMP-9-dependent proteolysis: the regulation of several aspects of circuit maturation to constrain excitability throughout life. PMID:26093382

  17. Neuron absorption study and mid-IR optical excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dingkai; Chen, Xing; Vadala, Shilpa; Leach, Jennie; Kostov, Yordan; Bewley, William W.; Kim, Chul-Soo; Kim, Mijin; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Merritt, Charles D.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2012-02-01

    Neuronal optical excitation can provide non-contacting tools to explore brain circuitry and a durable stimulation interface for cardiac pacing and visual as well as auditory sensory neuronal stimulation. To obtain accurate absorption spectra, we scan the transmission of neurons in cell culture medium, and normalize it by subtracting out the absorption spectrum of the medium alone. The resulting spectra show that the main neuronal absorption peaks are in the 3000- 6000nm band, although there is a smaller peak near 1450nm. By coupling the output of a 3μm interband cascade laser (ICL) into a mid-IR fluorozirconate fiber, we can effectively deliver more than 1J/cm2 photon intensity to the excitation site for neuronal stimulation.

  18. Learning intrinsic excitability in medium spiny neurons

    PubMed Central

    Scheler, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    We present an unsupervised, local activation-dependent learning rule for intrinsic plasticity (IP) which affects the composition of ion channel conductances for single neurons in a use-dependent way. We use a single-compartment conductance-based model for medium spiny striatal neurons in order to show the effects of parameterization of individual ion channels on the neuronal membrane potential-curent relationship (activation function). We show that parameter changes within the physiological ranges are sufficient to create an ensemble of neurons with significantly different activation functions. We emphasize that the effects of intrinsic neuronal modulation on spiking behavior require a distributed mode of synaptic input and can be eliminated by strongly correlated input. We show how modulation and adaptivity in ion channel conductances can be utilized to store patterns without an additional contribution by synaptic plasticity (SP). The adaptation of the spike response may result in either "positive" or "negative" pattern learning. However, read-out of stored information depends on a distributed pattern of synaptic activity to let intrinsic modulation determine spike response. We briefly discuss the implications of this conditional memory on learning and addiction. PMID:25520776

  19. The splicing regulator Rbfox1 (A2BP1) controls neuronal excitation in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Gehman, Lauren T.; Stoilov, Peter; Maguire, Jamie; Damianov, Andrey; Lin, Chia-Ho; Shiue, Lily; Ares, Manuel; Mody, Istvan; Black, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    The Rbfox family of RNA binding proteins regulates alternative splicing of many important neuronal transcripts but their role in neuronal physiology is not clear1. We show here that central nervous system (CNS)-specific deletion of the Rbfox1 gene results in heightened susceptibility to spontaneous and kainic acid-induced seizures. Electrophysiological recording reveals a corresponding increase in neuronal excitability in the dentate gyrus of the knockout mice. Whole transcriptome analyses identify multiple splicing changes in the Rbfox1−/− brain with few changes in overall transcript abundance. These splicing changes alter proteins that mediate synaptic transmission and membrane excitation, some of which are implicated in human epilepsy. Thus, Rbfox1 directs a genetic program required in the prevention of neuronal hyperexcitation and seizures. The Rbfox1 knockout mice provide a new model to study the post-transcriptional regulation of synaptic function. PMID:21623373

  20. Regulation of neuronal excitability by release of proteins from glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Igelhorst, Birte A.; Niederkinkhaus, Vanessa; Karus, Claudia; Lange, Maren D.; Dietzel, Irmgard D.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of glial cells on electrical isolation and shaping of synaptic transmission between neurons have been extensively studied. Here we present evidence that the release of proteins from astrocytes as well as microglia may regulate voltage-activated Na+ currents in neurons, thereby increasing excitability and speed of transmission in neurons kept at distance from each other by specialized glial cells. As a first example, we show that basic fibroblast growth factor and neurotrophin-3, which are released from astrocytes by exposure to thyroid hormone, influence each other to enhance Na+ current density in cultured hippocampal neurons. As a second example, we show that the presence of microglia in hippocampal cultures can upregulate Na+ current density. The effect can be boosted by lipopolysaccharides, bacterial membrane-derived stimulators of microglial activation. Comparable effects are induced by the exposure of neuron-enriched hippocampal cultures to tumour necrosis factor-α, which is released from stimulated microglia. Taken together, our findings suggest that release of proteins from various types of glial cells can alter neuronal excitability over a time course of several days. This explains changes in neuronal excitability occurring in states of thyroid hormone imbalance and possibly also in seizures triggered by infectious diseases. PMID:26009773

  1. Natural antisense transcripts regulate the neuronal stress response and excitability

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xingguo; Valakh, Vera; DiAntonio, Aaron; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Neurons regulate ionic fluxes across their plasma membrane to maintain their excitable properties under varying environmental conditions. However, the mechanisms that regulate ion channels abundance remain poorly understood. Here we show that pickpocket 29 (ppk29), a gene that encodes a Drosophila degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC), regulates neuronal excitability via a protein-independent mechanism. We demonstrate that the mRNA 3′UTR of ppk29 affects neuronal firing rates and associated heat-induced seizures by acting as a natural antisense transcript (NAT) that regulates the neuronal mRNA levels of seizure (sei), the Drosophila homolog of the human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel. We find that the regulatory impact of ppk29 mRNA on sei is independent of the sodium channel it encodes. Thus, our studies reveal a novel mRNA dependent mechanism for the regulation of neuronal excitability that is independent of protein-coding capacity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01849.001 PMID:24642409

  2. Enhanced excitability of guinea pig inferior mesenteric ganglion neurons during and following recovery from chemical colitis.

    PubMed

    Linden, David R

    2012-11-01

    Postganglionic sympathetic neurons in the prevertebral ganglia (PVG) provide ongoing inhibitory tone to the gastrointestinal tract and receive innervation from mechanosensory intestinofugal afferent neurons primarily located in the colon and rectum. This study tests the hypothesis that colitis alters the excitability of PVG neurons. Intracellular recording techniques were used to evaluate changes in the electrical properties of inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) neurons in the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and acetic acid models of guinea pig colitis. Visceromotor IMG neurons were hyperexcitable 12 and 24 h, but not 6 h, post-TNBS during "acute" inflammation. Hyperexcitability persisted at 6 days post-TNBS during "chronic" inflammation, as well as at 56 days post-TNBS when colitis had resolved. In contrast, there was only a modest decrease in the current required to elicit an action potential at 24 h after acetic acid administration. Vasomotor neurons from inflamed preparations exhibited normal excitability. The excitatory effects of XE-991, a blocker of the channel that contributes to the M-type potassium current, and heteropodatoxin-2, a blocker of the channel that contributes to the A-type potassium current, were unchanged in TNBS-inflamed preparations, suggesting that these currents did not contribute to hyperexcitability. Riluzole, an inhibitor of persistent sodium currents, caused tonic visceromotor neurons to accommodate to sustained current pulses, regardless of the inflammatory state of the preparation, and restored a normal rheobase in neurons from TNBS-inflamed preparations but did not alter the rheobase of control preparations, suggesting that enhanced activity of voltage-gated sodium channels may contribute to colitis-induced hyperexcitability. Collectively, these data indicate that enhanced sympathetic drive as a result of hyperexcitable visceromotor neurons may contribute to small bowel dysfunction during colitis. PMID:22961805

  3. Inflection, canards and excitability threshold in neuronal models.

    PubMed

    Desroches, M; Krupa, M; Rodrigues, S

    2013-10-01

    A technique is presented, based on the differential geometry of planar curves, to evaluate the excitability threshold of neuronal models. The aim is to determine regions of the phase plane where solutions to the model equations have zero local curvature, thereby defining a zero-curvature (inflection) set that discerns between sub-threshold and spiking electrical activity. This transition can arise through a Hopf bifurcation, via the so-called canard explosion that happens in an exponentially small parameter variation, and this is typical for a large class of planar neuronal models (FitzHugh-Nagumo, reduced Hodgkin-Huxley), namely, type II neurons (resonators). This transition can also correspond to the crossing of the stable manifold of a saddle equilibrium, in the case of type I neurons (integrators). We compute inflection sets and study how well they approximate the excitability threshold of these neuron models, that is, both in the canard and in the non-canard regime, using tools from invariant manifold theory and singularity theory. With the latter, we investigate the topological changes that inflection sets undergo upon parameter variation. Finally, we show that the concept of inflection set gives a good approximation of the threshold in both the so-called resonator and integrator neuronal cases. PMID:22945512

  4. Nonlinear Dynamics of Neuronal Excitability, Oscillations, and Coincidence Detection

    PubMed Central

    RINZEL, JOHN; HUGUET, GEMMA

    2014-01-01

    We review some widely studied models and firing dynamics for neuronal systems, both at the single cell and network level, and dynamical systems techniques to study them. In particular, we focus on two topics in mathematical neuroscience that have attracted the attention of mathematicians for decades: single-cell excitability and bursting. We review the mathematical framework for three types of excitability and onset of repetitive firing behavior in single-neuron models and their relation with Hodgkin’s classification in 1948 of repetitive firing properties. We discuss the mathematical dissection of bursting oscillations using fast/slow analysis and demonstrate the approach using single-cell and mean-field network models. Finally, we illustrate the properties of Type III excitability in which case repetitive firing for constant or slow inputs is absent. Rather, firing is in response only to rapid enough changes in the stimulus. Our case study involves neuronal computations for sound localization for which neurons in the auditory brain stem perform extraordinarily precise coincidence detection with submillisecond temporal resolution. PMID:25392560

  5. Spinal motor neuron excitability during the cutaneous silent period.

    PubMed

    Leis, A A; Stĕtkárová, I; Berić, A; Stokić, D S

    1995-12-01

    The physiologic mechanisms generating the cutaneous silent period (CSP) remain uncertain. It is not known whether the CSP occurs because of inexcitability of the spinal motor neuron. We therefore, assessed excitability of the motor neuron during the CSP using F-wave responses. H-reflexes were also elicited during the CSP. Electrical stimulation to the fifth digit produced the CSP in the voluntarily contracting abductor pollicis brevis muscle (APB). Median nerve stimulation at the wrist elicited control F or H responses during isometric APB contraction (condition 1) and in resting muscle (condition 2). Control amplitudes were compared to those elicited in the midst of the CSP. In Condition 1, F-wave amplitudes and frequency during the CSP were unchanged compared with controls. However, F-waves were increased in amplitude and frequency during the CSP (P < 0.001) relative to responses elicited in resting muscle (condition 2). H-reflexes during the CSP were suppressed (P < 0.001) compared with controls elicited during contraction (condition 1), but facilitated relative to the resting state (condition 2) in which no H-reflexes were elicitable. We conclude that spinal motor neurons remain excitable to antidromic volleys at the same time that the corticospinal volley is inhibited to produce the CSP. Moreover, motor neuron excitability appears to be increased during the CSP compared to the relaxed state. PMID:7477071

  6. Morphine disinhibits glutamatergic input to VTA dopamine neurons and promotes dopamine neuron excitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Zhao, Yanfang; Yang, Hualan; Luan, Wenjie; Song, Jiaojiao; Cui, Dongyang; Dong, Yi; Lai, Bin; Ma, Lan; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    One reported mechanism for morphine activation of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the disinhibition model of VTA-DA neurons. Morphine inhibits GABA inhibitory neurons, which shifts the balance between inhibitory and excitatory input to VTA-DA neurons in favor of excitation and then leads to VTA-DA neuron excitation. However, it is not known whether morphine has an additional strengthening effect on excitatory input. Our results suggest that glutamatergic input to VTA-DA neurons is inhibited by GABAergic interneurons via GABAB receptors and that morphine promotes presynaptic glutamate release by removing this inhibition. We also studied the contribution of the morphine-induced disinhibitory effect on the presynaptic glutamate release to the overall excitatory effect of morphine on VTA-DA neurons and related behavior. Our results suggest that the disinhibitory action of morphine on presynaptic glutamate release might be the main mechanism for morphine-induced increase in VTA-DA neuron firing and related behaviors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09275.001 PMID:26208338

  7. Pharmacogenetic Modulation of Orexin Neurons Alters Sleep/Wakefulness States in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsujino, Natsuko; Roth, Bryan; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Hypothalamic neurons expressing neuropeptide orexins are critically involved in the control of sleep and wakefulness. Although the activity of orexin neurons is thought to be influenced by various neuronal input as well as humoral factors, the direct consequences of changes in the activity of these neurons in an intact animal are largely unknown. We therefore examined the effects of orexin neuron-specific pharmacogenetic modulation in vivo by a new method called the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs approach (DREADD). Using this system, we successfully activated and suppressed orexin neurons as measured by Fos staining. EEG and EMG recordings suggested that excitation of orexin neurons significantly increased the amount of time spent in wakefulness and decreased both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep times. Inhibition of orexin neurons decreased wakefulness time and increased NREM sleep time. These findings clearly show that changes in the activity of orexin neurons can alter the behavioral state of animals and also validate this novel approach for manipulating neuronal activity in awake, freely-moving animals. PMID:21647372

  8. Excitation and depression of cortical neurones by 5-hydroxytryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, M. H. T.; Straughan, D. W.

    1967-01-01

    1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and various 5-HT antagonists have been applied micro-electrophoretically from multibarrelled micropipettes into the environment of single neurones in the post-sigmoid and suprasylvian gyri of the cat cerebral cortex. 2. In unanaesthetized animals (encéphale isolé) a high proportion of neurones (30%) were excited by 5-HT. This excitation usually had a rapid onset and was seen both in spontaneously active neurones and in otherwise quiescent neurones in which firing was induced by L-glutamate. Some neurones were so sensitive that the uncontrolled diffusion from micropipettes was sufficient to excite them. More cells were excited by 5-HT applied as a cation from solutions of the bimaleate salt than when solutions of the creatinine sulphate salt were used. 3. In a high proportion of cells (33%) spontaneous firing or amino acid excitation was depressed by 5-HT. 4. A mixed effect was seen in a small proportion (6%) of the cells tested; usually 5-HT caused an excitation initially which was followed by a depression. In other cells, desensitization occurred, and the excitatory effect of 5-HT was diminished or lost. 5. When glutamate was used to excite otherwise quiescent cells, there was a significant increase in the number of cells excited by 5-HT and a significant decrease in the number of cells unaffected compared with spontaneously active cells. 6. The micro-electrophoretic application of D-lysergic diethylamide (LSD 25), 2-brom LSD (BOL 148), methysergide (UML 491), or 2′- (3-dimethylaminopropylthio)cinnamanilide (SQ 10643) temporarily prevented excitation by 5-HT in half the cells tested. LSD and SQ 10643 were particularly potent in this respect. This antagonism of 5-HT excitation could still be seen when excitation of the cell by L-glutamate or acetylcholine (ACh) was unaffected. 7. The depression induced by 5-HT was not prevented by the application of known 5-HT antagonists in the majority of the cells tested (93%). In two cells

  9. Perineuronal Nets Enhance the Excitability of Fast-Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized complexes of extracellular matrix molecules that surround the somata of fast-spiking neurons throughout the vertebrate brain. PNNs are particularly prevalent throughout the auditory brainstem, which transmits signals with high speed and precision. It is unknown whether PNNs contribute to the fast-spiking ability of the neurons they surround. Whole-cell recordings were made from medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) principal neurons in acute brain slices from postnatal day 21 (P21) to P27 mice. PNNs were degraded by incubating slices in chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) and were compared to slices that were treated with a control enzyme (penicillinase). ChABC treatment did not affect the ability of MNTB neurons to fire at up to 1000 Hz when driven by current pulses. However, f–I (frequency–intensity) curves constructed by injecting Gaussian white noise currents superimposed on DC current steps showed that ChABC treatment reduced the gain of spike output. An increase in spike threshold may have contributed to this effect, which is consistent with the observation that spikes in ChABC-treated cells were delayed relative to control-treated cells. In addition, parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking cortical neurons in >P70 slices that were treated with ChABC also had reduced excitability and gain. The development of PNNs around somata of fast-spiking neurons may be essential for fast and precise sensory transmission and synaptic inhibition in the brain. PMID:27570824

  10. Perineuronal Nets Enhance the Excitability of Fast-Spiking Neurons.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Timothy S

    2016-01-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized complexes of extracellular matrix molecules that surround the somata of fast-spiking neurons throughout the vertebrate brain. PNNs are particularly prevalent throughout the auditory brainstem, which transmits signals with high speed and precision. It is unknown whether PNNs contribute to the fast-spiking ability of the neurons they surround. Whole-cell recordings were made from medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) principal neurons in acute brain slices from postnatal day 21 (P21) to P27 mice. PNNs were degraded by incubating slices in chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) and were compared to slices that were treated with a control enzyme (penicillinase). ChABC treatment did not affect the ability of MNTB neurons to fire at up to 1000 Hz when driven by current pulses. However, f-I (frequency-intensity) curves constructed by injecting Gaussian white noise currents superimposed on DC current steps showed that ChABC treatment reduced the gain of spike output. An increase in spike threshold may have contributed to this effect, which is consistent with the observation that spikes in ChABC-treated cells were delayed relative to control-treated cells. In addition, parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking cortical neurons in >P70 slices that were treated with ChABC also had reduced excitability and gain. The development of PNNs around somata of fast-spiking neurons may be essential for fast and precise sensory transmission and synaptic inhibition in the brain. PMID:27570824

  11. Purines and neuronal excitability: links to the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Masino, S A; Kawamura, M; Ruskin, D N; Geiger, J D; Boison, D

    2012-07-01

    ATP and adenosine are purines that play dual roles in cell metabolism and neuronal signaling. Acting at the A(1) receptor (A(1)R) subtype, adenosine acts directly on neurons to inhibit excitability and is a powerful endogenous neuroprotective and anticonvulsant molecule. Previous research showed an increase in ATP and other cell energy parameters when an animal is administered a ketogenic diet, an established metabolic therapy to reduce epileptic seizures, but the relationship among purines, neuronal excitability and the ketogenic diet was unclear. Recent work in vivo and in vitro tested the specific hypothesis that adenosine acting at A(1)Rs is a key mechanism underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy and yielded direct evidence linking A(1)Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Specifically, an in vitro mimic of a ketogenic diet revealed an A(1)R-dependent metabolic autocrine hyperpolarization of hippocampal neurons. In parallel, applying the ketogenic diet in vivo to transgenic mouse models with spontaneous electrographic seizures revealed that intact A(1)Rs are necessary for the seizure-suppressing effects of the diet. This is the first direct in vivo evidence linking A(1)Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Other predictions of the relationship between purines and the ketogenic diet are discussed. Taken together, recent research on the role of purines may offer new opportunities for metabolic therapy and insight into its underlying mechanisms. PMID:21880467

  12. Heat pulse excitability of vestibular hair cells and afferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Richard D; Brichta, Alan M; Tabatabaee, Hessam; Boutros, Peter J; Ahn, JoongHo; Della Santina, Charles C; Poppi, Lauren A; Lim, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    In the present study we combined electrophysiology with optical heat pulse stimuli to examine thermodynamics of membrane electrical excitability in mammalian vestibular hair cells and afferent neurons. We recorded whole cell currents in mammalian type II vestibular hair cells using an excised preparation (mouse) and action potentials (APs) in afferent neurons in vivo (chinchilla) in response to optical heat pulses applied to the crista (ΔT ≈ 0.25°C per pulse). Afferent spike trains evoked by heat pulse stimuli were diverse and included asynchronous inhibition, asynchronous excitation, and/or phase-locked APs synchronized to each infrared heat pulse. Thermal responses of membrane currents responsible for APs in ganglion neurons were strictly excitatory, with Q10 ≈ 2. In contrast, hair cells responded with a mix of excitatory and inhibitory currents. Excitatory hair cell membrane currents included a thermoelectric capacitive current proportional to the rate of temperature rise (dT/dt) and an inward conduction current driven by ΔT An iberiotoxin-sensitive inhibitory conduction current was also evoked by ΔT, rising in <3 ms and decaying with a time constant of ∼24 ms. The inhibitory component dominated whole cell currents in 50% of hair cells at -68 mV and in 67% of hair cells at -60 mV. Responses were quantified and described on the basis of first principles of thermodynamics. Results identify key molecular targets underlying heat pulse excitability in vestibular sensory organs and provide quantitative methods for rational application of optical heat pulses to examine protein biophysics and manipulate cellular excitability. PMID:27226448

  13. Modulators of Calcium Influx Regulate Membrane Excitability in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lirk, Philipp; Poroli, Mark; Rigaud, Marcel; Fuchs, Andreas; Fillip, Patrick; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Ljubkovic, Marko; Sapunar, Damir; Hogan, Quinn

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic neuropathic pain resulting from neuronal damage remains difficult to treat, in part due to incomplete understanding of underlying cellular mechanisms. We have previously shown that inward Ca2+ flux (ICa) across the sensory neuron plasmalemma is decreased in a rodent model of chronic neuropathic pain, but the direct consequence of this loss of ICa on function of the sensory neuron has not been defined. We therefore examined the extent to which altered membrane properties after nerve injury, especially increased excitability that may contribute to chronic pain, are attributable to diminished Ca2+ entry. Methods Intracellular microelectrode measurements were obtained from A-type neurons of dorsal root ganglia excised from control rats and those with neuropathic pain behavior following spinal nerve ligation. Recording conditions were varied to suppress or promote ICa while biophysical parameters and excitability were determined. Results Both lowered external bath Ca2+ concentration and blockade of ICa with bath cadmium diminished the duration and area of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP), accompanied by decreased current threshold for action potential (AP) initiation and increased repetitive firing during sustained depolarization. Reciprocally, elevated bath Ca2+ increased the AHP and suppressed repetitive firing. Voltage sag during neuronal hyperpolarization, indicative of the cation-nonselective H-current, diminished with lowered bath Ca2+, cadmium application, or chelation of intracellular Ca2+. Additional recordings with selective blockers of ICa subtypes showed that N-, P/Q, L-, and R-type currents each contribute to generation of the AHP, and that blockade of any of these as well as the T-type current slows the AP upstroke, prolongs the AP duration, and (except for L-type current) decreases the current threshold for AP initiation. Conclusions Taken together, our findings show that suppression of ICa decreases the AHP, reduces the

  14. Vasopressin indirectly excites dorsal raphe serotonin neurons through activation of the vasopressin1A receptor.

    PubMed

    Rood, B D; Beck, S G

    2014-02-28

    The neuropeptide vasopressin (AVP; arginine-vasopressin) is produced in a handful of brain nuclei located in the hypothalamus and extended amygdala and is released both peripherally as a hormone and within the central nervous system as a neurotransmitter. Central projections have been associated with a number of functions including regulation of physiological homeostasis, control of circadian rhythms, and modulation of social behavior. The AVP neurons located in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala (i.e., extended amygdala) in particular have been associated with affiliative social behavior in multiple species. It was recently demonstrated that in the mouse AVP projections emanating from extended amygdala neurons innervate a number of forebrain and midbrain brain regions including the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), the site of origin of most forebrain-projecting serotonin neurons. Based on the presence of AVP fibers in the DR, we hypothesized that AVP would alter the physiology of serotonin neurons via AVP 1A receptor (V1AR) activation. Using whole-cell electrophysiology techniques, we found that AVP increased the frequency and amplitude of excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in serotonin neurons of male mice. The indirect stimulation of serotonin neurons was AMPA/kainate receptor dependent and blocked by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin, suggesting an effect of AVP on glutamate neurons. Further, the increase in EPSC frequency induced by AVP was blocked by selective V1AR antagonists. Our data suggest that AVP had an excitatory influence on serotonin neurons. This work highlights a new target (i.e., V1AR) for manipulating serotonin neuron excitability. In light of our data, we propose that some of the diverse effects of AVP on physiology and behavior, including social behavior, may be due to activation of the DR serotonin system. PMID:24345477

  15. Markers of pathological excitability derived from principal dynamic modes of hippocampal neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Eunji E.; Zalay, Osbert C.; Serletis, Demitre; Carlen, Peter L.; Bardakjian, Berj L.

    2012-10-01

    Transformation of principal dynamic modes (PDMs) under epileptogenic conditions was investigated by computing the Volterra kernels in a rodent epilepsy model derived from a mouse whole hippocampal preparation, where epileptogenesis was induced by altering the concentrations of Mg2 + and K+ of the perfusate for different levels of excitability. Both integrating and differentiating PDMs were present in the neuronal dynamics, and both of them increased in absolute magnitude for increased excitability levels. However, the integrating PDMs dominated at all levels of excitability in terms of their relative contributions to the overall response, whereas the dominant frequency responses of the differentiating PDMs were shifted to higher ranges under epileptogenic conditions, from ripple activities (75-200 Hz) to fast ripple activities (200-500 Hz).

  16. Markers of pathological excitability derived from principal dynamic modes of hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunji E; Zalay, Osbert C; Serletis, Demitre; Carlen, Peter L; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2012-10-01

    Transformation of principal dynamic modes (PDMs) under epileptogenic conditions was investigated by computing the Volterra kernels in a rodent epilepsy model derived from a mouse whole hippocampal preparation, where epileptogenesis was induced by altering the concentrations of Mg(2 +) and K(+) of the perfusate for different levels of excitability. Both integrating and differentiating PDMs were present in the neuronal dynamics, and both of them increased in absolute magnitude for increased excitability levels. However, the integrating PDMs dominated at all levels of excitability in terms of their relative contributions to the overall response, whereas the dominant frequency responses of the differentiating PDMs were shifted to higher ranges under epileptogenic conditions, from ripple activities (75-200 Hz) to fast ripple activities (200-500 Hz). PMID:22871606

  17. Increased excitability of both principle neurons and interneurons during associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Oh, M. Matthew; Disterhoft, John F.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we highlight several studies indicating that modulation of intrinsic neuronal excitability is a key for successful memory formation. Specifically, we will focus our discussion on our hypothesis that the postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP: a key regulator of intrinsic excitability) is an essential cellular mechanism used by both principle and inhibitory neurons to change their neuronal activity as memory is formed. In addition, we propose that these intrinsic excitability changes occur first in principle neurons, followed by changes in inhibitory neurons; thus maintaining the balance of network activity among neurons for successful encoding and read-out of memory. PMID:24946769

  18. METHYLMERCURY IMPAIRS NEURONAL DIFFERENTIATION BY ALTERING NEUROTROPHIN SIGNALING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In previous in vivo studies, we observed that developmental exposure to CH3Hg can alter neocortical morphology and neurotrophin signaling. Using primed PC12 cells as a model system for neuronal differentiation, we examined the hypothesis that the developmental effects of CH3Hg ma...

  19. An FPGA-Based Silicon Neuronal Network with Selectable Excitability Silicon Neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Katori, Yuichi; Kohno, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a digital silicon neuronal network which simulates the nerve system in creatures and has the ability to execute intelligent tasks, such as associative memory. Two essential elements, the mathematical-structure-based digital spiking silicon neuron (DSSN) and the transmitter release based silicon synapse, allow us to tune the excitability of silicon neurons and are computationally efficient for hardware implementation. We adopt mixed pipeline and parallel structure and shift operations to design a sufficient large and complex network without excessive hardware resource cost. The network with 256 full-connected neurons is built on a Digilent Atlys board equipped with a Xilinx Spartan-6 LX45 FPGA. Besides, a memory control block and USB control block are designed to accomplish the task of data communication between the network and the host PC. This paper also describes the mechanism of associative memory performed in the silicon neuronal network. The network is capable of retrieving stored patterns if the inputs contain enough information of them. The retrieving probability increases with the similarity between the input and the stored pattern increasing. Synchronization of neurons is observed when the successful stored pattern retrieval occurs. PMID:23269911

  20. White Matter Neuron Alterations in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Caroline M; Crawford, Benjamin C; Akbarian, Schahram

    2010-01-01

    Increased density and altered spatial distribution of subcortical white matter neurons (WMN) represents one of the more well replicated cellular alterations found in schizophrenia and related disease. In many of the affected cases, the underlying genetic risk architecture for these WMN abnormalities remains unknown. Increased density of neurons immunoreactive for Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 (MAP2) and Neuronal Nuclear Antigen (NeuN) have been reported by independent studies, though there are negative reports as well; additionally, group differences in some of the studies appear to be driven by a small subset of cases. Alterations in markers for inhibitory (GABAergic) neurons have also been described. For example, downregulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) in inhibitory WMN positioned at the gray/white matter border, as well as altered spatial distribution, have been reported. While increased density of WMN has been suggested to reflect disturbance of neurodevelopmental processes, including neuronal migration, neurogenesis, and cell death, alternative hypotheses—such as an adaptive response to microglial activation in mature CNS, as has been described in multiple sclerosis—should also be considered. We argue that larger scale studies involving hundreds of postmortem specimens will be necessary in order to clearly establish the subset of subjects affected. Additionally, these larger cohorts could make it feasible to connect the cellular pathology to environmental and genetic factors implicated in schizophrenia and some cases with bipolar disorder or autism. These could include the 22q11 deletion (Velocardiofacial/ DiGeorge) syndrome, which in some cases is associated with neuronal ectopias in white matter. PMID:20691252

  1. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Feber, Joost; Stoyanova, Irina I.; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-06-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods currently exist for estimating network connectivity, most of which are related to cross-correlation. An example is the conditional firing probability (CFP) analysis which calculates the pairwise probability (CFPi,j) that electrode j records an action potential at time t = τ, given that electrode i recorded a spike at t = 0. However, electrode i often records multiple spikes within the analysis interval, and CFP values are biased by the on-going dynamic state of the network. Here we show that in a linear approximation this bias may be removed by deconvoluting CFPi,j with the autocorrelation of i (i.e. CFPi,i), to obtain the single pulse response (SPRi,j)—the average response at electrode j to a single spike at electrode i. Thus, in a linear system SPRs would be independent of the dynamic network state. Nonlinear components of synaptic transmission, such as facilitation and short term depression, will however still affect SPRs. Therefore SPRs provide a clean measure of network excitability. We used carbachol and ghrelin to moderately activate cultured cortical networks to affect their dynamic state. Both neuromodulators transformed the bursting firing patterns of the isolated networks into more dispersed firing. We show that the influence of the dynamic state on SPRs is much smaller than the effect on CFPs, but not zero. The remaining difference reflects the alteration in network excitability. We conclude that SPRs are less contaminated by the dynamic network state and that mild excitation may decrease network excitability, possibly through short term synaptic depression.

  2. Proton radiation alters intrinsic and synaptic properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons of the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Irina V; Schneider, Calvin J; Bezaire, Marianne; Soltesz, Ivan; Vlkolinsky, Roman; Nelson, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    High-energy protons constitute at least 85% of the fluence of energetic ions in interplanetary space. Although protons are only sparsely ionizing compared to higher atomic mass ions, they nevertheless significantly contribute to the delivered dose received by astronauts that can potentially affect central nervous system function at high fluence, especially during prolonged deep space missions such as to Mars. Here we report on the long-term effects of 1 Gy proton irradiation on electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the mouse hippocampus. The hippocampus is a key structure for the formation of long-term episodic memory, for spatial orientation and for information processing in a number of other cognitive tasks. CA1 pyramidal neurons form the last and critical relay point in the trisynaptic circuit of the hippocampal principal neurons through which information is processed before being transferred to other brain areas. Proper functioning of CA1 pyramidal neurons is crucial for hippocampus-dependent tasks. Using the patch-clamp technique to evaluate chronic effects of 1 Gy proton irradiation on CA1 pyramidal neurons, we found that the intrinsic membrane properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons were chronically altered at 3 months postirradiation, resulting in a hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential (VRMP) and a decrease in input resistance (Rin). These small but significant alterations in intrinsic properties decreased the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and had a dramatic impact on network function in a computational model of the CA1 microcircuit. We also found that proton-radiation exposure upregulated the persistent Na(+) current (INaP) and increased the rate of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Both the INaP and the heightened rate of mEPSCs contribute to neuronal depolarization and excitation, and at least in part, could compensate for the reduced excitability resulting from the radiation effects on the

  3. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca2+ imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25–1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm2 resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca2+] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca2+ involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca2+]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca2+ release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses. PMID:24920028

  4. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling.

    PubMed

    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2014-09-15

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca(2+) imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25-1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm(2) resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca(2+)] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca(2+) involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca(2+) cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca(2+)]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca(2+) release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses. PMID:24920028

  5. Pseudorabies Virus Infection Alters Neuronal Activity and Connectivity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Kelly M.; Tank, David W.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV), infect the peripheral nervous system of their hosts. Symptoms of infection often include itching, numbness, or pain indicative of altered neurological function. To determine if there is an in vitro electrophysiological correlate to these characteristic in vivo symptoms, we infected cultured rat sympathetic neurons with well-characterized strains of PRV known to produce virulent or attenuated symptoms in animals. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made at various times after infection. By 8 hours of infection with virulent PRV, action potential (AP) firing rates increased substantially and were accompanied by hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials and spikelet-like events. Coincident with the increase in AP firing rate, adjacent neurons exhibited coupled firing events, first with AP-spikelets and later with near identical resting membrane potentials and AP firing. Small fusion pores between adjacent cell bodies formed early after infection as demonstrated by transfer of the low molecular weight dye, Lucifer Yellow. Later, larger pores formed as demonstrated by transfer of high molecular weight Texas red-dextran conjugates between infected cells. Further evidence for viral-induced fusion pores was obtained by infecting neurons with a viral mutant defective for glycoprotein B, a component of the viral membrane fusion complex. These infected neurons were essentially identical to mock infected neurons: no increased AP firing, no spikelet-like events, and no electrical or dye transfer. Infection with PRV Bartha, an attenuated circuit-tracing strain delayed, but did not eliminate the increased neuronal activity and coupling events. We suggest that formation of fusion pores between infected neurons results in electrical coupling and elevated firing rates, and that these processes may contribute to the altered neural function seen in PRV

  6. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; Kuo, Chay T.; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations. PMID:27095423

  7. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons.

    PubMed

    Dieni, Cristina V; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B; Kuo, Chay T; Wadiche, Jacques I; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations. PMID:27095423

  8. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; Kuo, Chay T.; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-04-20

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spikemore » due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Here, our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations.« less

  9. Aromatase inhibitors augment nociceptive behaviors in rats and enhance the excitability of sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Robarge, Jason D; Duarte, Djane B; Shariati, Behzad; Wang, Ruizhong; Flockhart, David A; Vasko, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Although aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are commonly used therapies for breast cancer, their use is limited because they produce arthralgia in a large number of patients. To determine whether AIs produce hypersensitivity in animal models of pain, we examined the effects of the AI, letrozole, on mechanical, thermal, and chemical sensitivity in rats. In ovariectomized (OVX) rats, administering a single dose of 1 or 5mg/kg letrozole significantly reduced mechanical paw withdrawal thresholds, without altering thermal sensitivity. Repeated injection of 5mg/kg letrozole in male rats produced mechanical, but not thermal, hypersensitivity that extinguished when drug dosing was stopped. A single dose of 5mg/kg letrozole or daily dosing of letrozole or exemestane in male rats also augmented flinching behavior induced by intraplantar injection of 1000nmol of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). To determine whether sensitization of sensory neurons contributed to AI-induced hypersensitivity, we evaluated the excitability of neurons isolated from dorsal root ganglia of male rats chronically treated with letrozole. Both small and medium-diameter sensory neurons isolated from letrozole-treated rats were more excitable, as reflected by increased action potential firing in response to a ramp of depolarizing current, a lower resting membrane potential, and a lower rheobase. However, systemic letrozole treatment did not augment the stimulus-evoked release of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from spinal cord slices, suggesting that the enhanced nociceptive responses were not secondary to an increase in peptide release from sensory endings in the spinal cord. These results provide the first evidence that AIs modulate the excitability of sensory neurons, which may be a primary mechanism for the effect of these drugs to augment pain behaviors in rats. PMID:27072527

  10. Nicotine excites corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA-expressing neuron in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in vitro in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bai-Ri; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Chu, Chun-Ping; Cui, Xun; Qiu, De-Lai

    2016-05-25

    Nicotine is known to modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by stimulating corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) release from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). However, the mechanism by which nicotine affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by modulating PVN CRH neuronal activity is currently unclear. Here, we examined the effects of nicotine on PVN CRH-mRNA-expressing neurons in vitro in rats by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, biocytin staining, and single-cell reverse transcription-multiplex PCR techniques. Of the 146 PVN putative parvocellular neurons, 17.1% (25/146) coexpressed GAPDH mRNA and CRH mRNA. Under current-clamp recording conditions, application of nicotine (1 μM) induced excitation in 92% (23/25) PVN CRH-mRNA-expressing neurons, which showed a significant increase in the spike firing rate accompanied by a depolarization of the membrane potential. Nicotine induced an increase in the spike firing rate of PVN CRH-mRNA-expressing neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-effective concentration (EC50) of nicotine for increasing the spike firing rate of PVN CRH-mRNA-expressing neurons was 1.6 μM. Extracellular application of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (1 mM) abolished the nicotine-induced excitation of PVN CRH-mRNA-expressing neurons. Moreover, application of nicotine induced a significant increase in the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents frequency, but without significantly altering the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents amplitude of the CRH-mRNA-expressing neurons. Biocytin staining confirmed that the nicotine-sensitive CRH-mRNA-expressing neurons were located in the PVN parvocellular division. These results indicated that extracellular administration of nicotine indirectly excited PVN CRH-mRNA-expressing neurons, suggesting that nicotine modulated PVN CRH secretion by enhancement of both the presynaptic action potential drive and

  11. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Infection of Sensory Neurons Alters Neuronal Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Martha F.; Cook, W. James; Roth, Frederick P.; Zhu, Jia; Holman, Holly; Knipe, David M.; Coen, Donald M.

    2003-01-01

    The persistence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the diseases that it causes in the human population can be attributed to the maintenance of a latent infection within neurons in sensory ganglia. Little is known about the effects of latent infection on the host neuron. We have addressed the question of whether latent HSV infection affects neuronal gene expression by using microarray transcript profiling of host gene expression in ganglia from latently infected versus mock-infected mouse trigeminal ganglia. 33P-labeled cDNA probes from pooled ganglia harvested at 30 days postinfection or post-mock infection were hybridized to nylon arrays printed with 2,556 mouse genes. Signal intensities were acquired by phosphorimager. Mean intensities (n = 4 replicates in each of three independent experiments) of signals from mock-infected versus latently infected ganglia were compared by using a variant of Student's t test. We identified significant changes in the expression of mouse neuronal genes, including several with roles in gene expression, such as the Clk2 gene, and neurotransmission, such as genes encoding potassium voltage-gated channels and a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. We confirmed the neuronal localization of some of these transcripts by using in situ hybridization. To validate the microarray results, we performed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses for a selection of the genes. These studies demonstrate that latent HSV infection can alter neuronal gene expression and might provide a new mechanism for how persistent viral infection can cause chronic disease. PMID:12915567

  12. The HIV Protein gp120 Alters Mitochondrial Dynamics in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Avdoshina, Valeria; Fields, Jerel Adam; Castellano, Paul; Dedoni, Simona; Palchik, Guillermo; Trejo, Margarita; Adame, Anthony; Rockenstein, Edward; Eugenin, Eliseo; Masliah, Eliezer; Mocchetti, Italo

    2016-05-01

    Neurotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) includes synaptic simplification and neuronal apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of HIV-associated neurotoxicity remain unclear, thus precluding an effective treatment of the neurological complications. The present study was undertaken to characterize novel mechanisms of HIV neurotoxicity that may explain how HIV subjects develop neuronal degeneration. Several neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction; therefore, we hypothesized that HIV promotes mitochondrial damage. We first analyzed brains from HIV encephalitis (HIVE) by electron microscopy. Several sections of HIVE subjects contained enlarged and damaged mitochondria compared to brains from HIV subjects with no neurological complications. Similar pathologies were observed in mice overexpressing the HIV protein gp120, suggesting that this viral protein may be responsible for mitochondrial pathology found in HIVE. To gain more information about the cellular mechanisms of gp120 neurotoxicity, we exposed rat cortical neurons to gp120 and we determined cellular oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial distribution, and trafficking. Our data show that gp120 evokes impairment in mitochondrial function and distribution. These data suggest that one of the mechanisms of HIV neurotoxicity includes altered mitochondrial dynamics in neurons. PMID:26936603

  13. Moderate differences in circulating corticosterone alter receptor-mediated regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Judge, Sarah J; Ingram, Colin D; Gartside, Sarah E

    2004-12-01

    Circulating glucocorticoid levels vary with stress and psychiatric illness and play a potentially important role in regulating transmitter systems that regulate mood. To determine whether chronic variation in corticosterone levels within the normal diurnal range altered the control of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuronal activity, male rats were adrenalectomized and implanted with either a 2% or 70% corticosterone/cholesterol pellet (100 mg). Two weeks later, the regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus was studied by in vitro electrophysiology. At this time, serum corticosterone levels approximated the low-point (2%) and mid-point (70%) of the diurnal range. The excitatory response of 5-HT neurones to the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (1-11 microM) was significantly greater in the 2% group compared to the 70% group. By contrast, the inhibitory response to 5-HT (10-50 microM) was significantly lower in the 2% group compared to the 70% group. Thus, chronic variation in circulating corticosterone over a narrow part of the normal diurnal range causes a shift in the balance of positive and negative regulation of 5-HT neurones, with increased alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation and reduced 5-HT-mediated autoinhibition at lower corticosterone levels. This shift would have a major impact on control of 5-HT neuronal activity. PMID:15582914

  14. Maternal immune activation produces neonatal excitability defects in offspring hippocampal neurons from pregnant rats treated with poly I:C

    PubMed Central

    Patrich, Eti; Piontkewitz, Yael; Peretz, Asher; Weiner, Ina; Attali, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) resulting from prenatal exposure to infectious pathogens or inflammatory stimuli is increasingly recognized to play an important etiological role in neuropsychiatric disorders with neurodevelopmental features. MIA in pregnant rodents induced by injection of the synthetic double-stranded RNA, Poly I:C, a mimic of viral infection, leads to a wide spectrum of behavioral abnormalities as well as structural and functional defects in the brain. Previous MIA studies using poly I:C prenatal treatment suggested that neurophysiological alterations occur in the hippocampus. However, these investigations used only juvenile or adult animals. We postulated that MIA-induced alterations could occur earlier at neonatal/early postnatal stages. Here we examined the neurophysiological properties of cultured pyramidal-like hippocampal neurons prepared from neonatal (P0-P2) offspring of pregnant rats injected with poly I:C. Offspring neurons from poly I:C-treated mothers exhibited significantly lower intrinsic excitability and stronger spike frequency adaptation, compared to saline. A similar lower intrinsic excitability was observed in CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of two weeks-old poly I:C offspring. Cultured hippocampal neurons also displayed lower frequency of spontaneous firing, higher charge transfer of IPSCs and larger amplitude of miniature IPSCs. Thus, maternal immune activation leads to strikingly early neurophysiological abnormalities in hippocampal neurons. PMID:26742695

  15. Computational modeling of optogenetic neuronal excitation under complex illumination conditions using a Matlab-Neuron interface (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yona, Guy; Weissler, Yonatan; Meitav, Nizan; Guzi, Eliran; Rifold, Dafna D.; Kahn, Itamar; Shoham, Shy

    2016-03-01

    Optogenetics has in recent years become a central tool in neuroscience research. Creating a realistic model of optogenetic neuronal excitation is of crucial importance for controlling the activation levels of various neuronal populations in different depths, predicting experimental results and designing the optical systems. However, current approaches to modeling light propagation through rodents' brain tissue suffer from major shortcomings and comprehensive modeling of local illumination levels together with other important factors governing excitation (i.e., cellular morphology, channel dynamics and expression), are still lacking. To address this challenge we introduce a new simulation tool for optogenetic neuronal excitation under complex and realistic illumination conditions that implements a detailed physical model for light scattering (in MATLAB) together with neuron morphology and channelrhodopsin-2 model (in NEURON). These two disparate simulation environments were interconnected using a newly developed generic interface termed 'NeuroLab'. Applying this method, we show that in a layer-V cortical neuron, the relative contribution of the apical dendrites to neuronal excitation is considerably greater than that of the soma or basal dendrites, when illuminated from the surface.

  16. Extracellular pH regulates excitability of vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Cichy, Annika; Ackels, Tobias; Tsitoura, Chryssanthi; Kahan, Anat; Gronloh, Nina; Söchtig, Melanie; Engelhardt, Corinna H; Ben-Shaul, Yoram; Müller, Frank; Spehr, Jennifer; Spehr, Marc

    2015-03-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) plays a critical role in semiochemical detection and social communication. Vomeronasal stimuli are typically secreted in various body fluids. Following direct contact with urine deposits or other secretions, a peristaltic vascular pump mediates fluid entry into the recipient's VNO. Therefore, while vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) sample various stimulatory semiochemicals dissolved in the intraluminal mucus, they might also be affected by the general physicochemical properties of the "solvent." Here, we report cycle stage-correlated variations in urinary pH among female mice. Estrus-specific pH decline is observed exclusively in urine samples from sexually experienced females. Moreover, patch-clamp recordings in acute VNO slices reveal that mouse VSNs reliably detect extracellular acidosis. Acid-evoked responses share the biophysical and pharmacological hallmarks of the hyperpolarization-activated current Ih. Mechanistically, VSN acid sensitivity depends on a pH-induced shift in the voltage-dependence of Ih activation that causes the opening of HCN channels at rest, thereby increasing VSN excitability. Together, our results identify extracellular acidification as a potent activator of vomeronasal Ih and suggest HCN channel-dependent vomeronasal gain control of social chemosignaling. Our data thus reveal a potential mechanistic basis for stimulus pH detection in rodent chemosensory communication. PMID:25740530

  17. Optical control of neuronal excitation and inhibition using a single opsin protein, ChR2

    PubMed Central

    Liske, Holly; Qian, Xiang; Anikeeva, Polina; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on neuronal membrane potential is frequency dependent. Low frequency electrical stimulation can evoke action potentials, whereas high frequency stimulation can inhibit action potential transmission. Optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expressed in neuronal membranes can also excite action potentials. However, it is unknown whether optical stimulation of ChR2-expressing neurons produces a transition from excitation to inhibition with increasing light pulse frequencies. Here we report optical inhibition of motor neuron and muscle activity in vivo in the cooled sciatic nerves of Thy1-ChR2-EYFP mice. We also demonstrate all-optical single-wavelength control of neuronal excitation and inhibition without co-expression of inhibitory and excitatory opsins. This all-optical system is free from stimulation-induced electrical artifacts and thus provides a new approach to investigate mechanisms of high frequency inhibition in neuronal circuits in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24173561

  18. Targeted deletion in astrocyte intermediate filament (Gfap) alters neuronal physiology.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, M A; Gregg, R G; Behringer, R R; Brenner, M; Delaney, C L; Galbreath, E J; Zhang, C L; Pearce, R A; Chiu, S Y; Messing, A

    1996-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a member of the family of intermediate filament structural proteins and is found predominantly in astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS). To assess the function of GFAP, we created GFAP-null mice using gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. The GFAP-null mice have normal development and fertility, and show no gross alterations in behavior or CNS morphology. Astrocytes are present in the CNS of the mutant mice, but contain a severely reduced number of intermediate filaments. Since astrocyte processes contact synapses and may modulate synaptic function, we examined whether the GFAP-null mice were altered in long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The GFAP-null mice displayed enhanced long-term potentiation of both population spike amplitude and excitatory post-synaptic potential slope compared to control mice. These data suggest that GFAP is important for astrocyte-neuronal interactions, and that astrocyte processes play a vital role in modulating synaptic efficacy in the CNS. These mice therefore represent a direct demonstration that a primary defect in astrocytes influences neuronal physiology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8692820

  19. Transient alterations in neuronal and behavioral activity following bensultap and fipronil treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Szegedi, Viktor; Bárdos, György; Détári, László; Tóth, Attila; Banczerowski-Pelyhe, Ilona; Világi, Ildikó

    2005-10-15

    In the present multilevel study, neuromodulatory effect of two insecticides, bensultap and fipronil were investigated in rats. Although the new generation of insecticides shows greater affinity to invertebrate as compared to mammalian receptors, toxic effect of these compounds in vertebrates cannot be excluded. The aim of the study was to follow the course of neuronal changes in rats for 1 week after a high-dose insecticide exposure. Alterations in synaptic excitability, in sleep-wake pattern and in behavior were analyzed using conventional in vitro brain slice method, long-lasting EEG recordings, and open-field tests. The two chemicals examined in this study induced only weak and transient effects. Bensultap, acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, caused a transient decrease in neuronal excitability. Sleep and behavioral changes demonstrated a similar time course. Fipronil, on the other hand, increased excitability and its effect lasted slightly longer. All effects were greatest on the first day following 'poisoning', and measured variables usually returned to normal within a week. These results suggest that the studied compounds do have some effects on the mammalian nervous system, but this effect is usually mild and temporary. PMID:16009481

  20. Hydrogen peroxide modulates neuronal excitability and membrane properties in ventral horn neurons of the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Masayuki; Hirano, Toru; Watanabe, Kei; Shoji, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Nobuko; Baba, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoto; Kohno, Tatsuro

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species, is an important signaling molecule for synaptic and neuronal activity in the central nervous system; it is produced excessively in brain ischemia and spinal cord injury. Although H2O2-mediated modulations of synaptic transmission have been reported in ventral horn (VH) neurons of the rat spinal cord, the effects of H2O2 on neuronal excitability and membrane properties remain poorly understood. Accordingly, the present study investigated such effects using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The bath-application of H2O2 decreased neuronal excitability accompanied by decreased input resistance, firing frequency, and action potential amplitude and by increased rheobase. These H2O2-mediated changes were induced by activation of extrasynaptic, but not synaptic, GABAA receptors. Indeed, GABAergic tonic currents were enhanced by H2O2. On the other hand, the amplitude of medium and slow afterhyperpolarization (mAHP and sAHP), which plays important roles in controlling neuronal excitability and is mediated by small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels, was significantly decreased by H2O2. When extrasynaptic GABAA receptors were completely blocked, these decreases of mAHP and sAHP persisted, and H2O2 increased excitability, suggesting that H2O2 per se might have the potential to increase neuronal excitability via decreased SK channel conductance. These findings indicate that activating extrasynaptic GABAA receptors or SK channels may attenuate acute neuronal damage caused by H2O2-induced hyperexcitability and therefore represent a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of H2O2-induced motor neuron disorders. PMID:27343829

  1. Mice deficient for prion protein exhibit normal neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Lledo, P M; Tremblay, P; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B; Nicoll, R A

    1996-01-01

    We recorded in the CA1 region from hippocampal slices of prion protein (PrP) gene knockout mice to investigate whether the loss of the normal form of prion protein (PrPC) affects neuronal excitability as well as synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. No deficit in synaptic inhibition was found using field potential recordings because (i) responses induced by stimulation in stratum radiatum consisted of a single population spike in PrP gene knockout mice similar to that recorded from control mice and (ii) the plot of field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope versus the population spike amplitude showed no difference between the two groups of mice. Intracellular recordings also failed to detect any difference in cell excitability and the reversal potential for inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Analysis of the kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic current revealed no modification. Finally, we examined whether synaptic plasticity was altered and found no difference in long-term potentiation between control and PrP gene knockout mice. On the basis of our findings, we propose that the loss of the normal form of prion protein does not alter the physiology of the CA1 region of the hippocampus. PMID:8637886

  2. Mice Deficient for Prion Protein Exhibit Normal Neuronal Excitability and Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Tremblay, Patrick; Dearmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.; Nicoll, Roger A.

    1996-03-01

    We recorded in the CA1 region from hippocampal slices of prion protein (PrP) gene knockout mice to investigate whether the loss of the normal form of prion protein (PrPC) affects neuronal excitability as well as synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. No deficit in synaptic inhibition was found using field potential recordings because (i) responses induced by stimulation in stratum radiatum consisted of a single population spike in PrP gene knockout mice similar to that recorded from control mice and (ii) the plot of field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope versus the population spike amplitude showed no difference between the two groups of mice. Intracellular recordings also failed to detect any difference in cell excitability and the reversal potential for inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Analysis of the kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic current revealed no modification. Finally, we examined whether synaptic plasticity was altered and found no difference in long-term potentiation between control and PrP gene knockout mice. On the basis of our findings, we propose that the loss of the normal form of prion protein does not alter the physiology of the CA1 region of the hippocampus.

  3. Enhanced excitability of hippocampal mossy fibers and CA3 neurons under dietary zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Yamada, Kohei; Minami, Akira; Nagano, Tetsuo; Oku, Naoto

    2005-02-01

    On the basis of the evidence that susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures is enhanced by zinc deficiency and that glutamate concentrations in hippocampal extracellular fluid are excessively increased during seizures, excitability of hippocampal mossy fibers and CA3 neurons was examined using hippocampal slices, which were prepare from mice fed a zinc-deficient diet for 4 weeks. The spatio-temporal dynamics of zinc and calcium was monitored using their indicators, membrane-impermeable ZnAF-2 and membrane-permeable fura-2 AM, respectively. When the molecular layer of dentate gyrus was stimulated with 100mM KCl for 1s, the increased percentages of extracellular zinc in the stratum lucidum and CA3 pyramidal cell layer were higher in zinc-deficient mice than in the control mice, implying that glutamate release from the mossy fibers of the dentate granular cells is enhanced by zinc deficiency. Judging from the increased percentages, however, the amount of zinc released was estimated to be less in zinc-deficient mice. On the other hand, the basal calcium concentrations in the stratum lucidum and CA3 pyramidal cell layer detected with fura-2 were higher in zinc-deficient mice than in the control mice, indicating that hippocampal calcium homeostasis is affected by zinc deficiency. Furthermore, the increased percentage of intracellular calcium in the stratum lucidum by stimulation with high K+ was enhanced by the zinc deficiency. The alteration of hippocampal calcium homeostasis seems to enhance excitability of dentate granular cells in zinc deficiency, following by an enhanced excitability of postsynaptic structures in CA3 neurons. PMID:15716032

  4. Pet-1 Switches Transcriptional Targets Postnatally to Regulate Maturation of Serotonin Neuron Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Wyler, Steven C.; Spencer, W. Clay; Green, Noah H.; Rood, Benjamin D.; Crawford, LaTasha; Craige, Caryne; Gresch, Paul; McMahon, Douglas G.; Beck, Sheryl G.

    2016-01-01

    Newborn neurons enter an extended maturation stage, during which they acquire excitability characteristics crucial for development of presynaptic and postsynaptic connectivity. In contrast to earlier specification programs, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that control neuronal maturation. The Pet-1 ETS (E26 transformation-specific) factor is continuously expressed in serotonin (5-HT) neurons and initially acts in postmitotic precursors to control acquisition of 5-HT transmitter identity. Using a combination of RNA sequencing, electrophysiology, and conditional targeting approaches, we determined gene expression patterns in maturing flow-sorted 5-HT neurons and the temporal requirements for Pet-1 in shaping these patterns for functional maturation of mouse 5-HT neurons. We report a profound disruption of postmitotic expression trajectories in Pet-1−/− neurons, which prevented postnatal maturation of 5-HT neuron passive and active intrinsic membrane properties, G-protein signaling, and synaptic responses to glutamatergic, lysophosphatidic, and adrenergic agonists. Unexpectedly, conditional targeting revealed a postnatal stage-specific switch in Pet-1 targets from 5-HT synthesis genes to transmitter receptor genes required for afferent modulation of 5-HT neuron excitability. 5-HT1a autoreceptor expression depended transiently on Pet-1, thus revealing an early postnatal sensitive period for control of 5-HT excitability genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing revealed that Pet-1 regulates 5-HT neuron maturation through direct gene activation and repression. Moreover, Pet-1 directly regulates the 5-HT neuron maturation factor Engrailed 1, which suggests Pet-1 orchestrates maturation through secondary postmitotic regulatory factors. The early postnatal switch in Pet-1 targets uncovers a distinct neonatal stage-specific function for Pet-1, during which it promotes maturation of 5-HT neuron excitability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The

  5. Excitement and synchronization of small-world neuronal networks with short-term synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Wiercigroch, Marian; Fang, Jian-An; Wang, Zhijie

    2011-10-01

    Excitement and synchronization of electrically and chemically coupled Newman-Watts (NW) small-world neuronal networks with a short-term synaptic plasticity described by a modified Oja learning rule are investigated. For each type of neuronal network, the variation properties of synaptic weights are examined first. Then the effects of the learning rate, the coupling strength and the shortcut-adding probability on excitement and synchronization of the neuronal network are studied. It is shown that the synaptic learning suppresses the over-excitement, helps synchronization for the electrically coupled network but impairs synchronization for the chemically coupled one. Both the introduction of shortcuts and the increase of the coupling strength improve synchronization and they are helpful in increasing the excitement for the chemically coupled network, but have little effect on the excitement of the electrically coupled one. PMID:21956933

  6. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  7. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D; Kelly, Martin J; Rønnekleiv, Oline K

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1(ARH)) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1(ARH) neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1(ARH) neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1(ARH) neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1(ARH) neurons. We propose that Kiss1(ARH) neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. PMID:27549338

  8. Altered intrinsic properties and bursting activities of neurons in layer IV of somatosensory cortex from Fmr-1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linming; Liang, Zhanrong; Zhu, Pingping; Li, Meng; Yi, Yong-Hong; Liao, Wei-Ping; Su, Tao

    2016-06-01

    Neuroadaptations and alterations in neuronal excitability are critical in brain maturation and many neurological diseases. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by extensive synaptic and circuit dysfunction. It is still unclear about the alterations in intrinsic excitability of individual neurons and their link to hyperexcitable circuitry. In this study, whole cell patch-clamp recordings were employed to characterize the membrane and firing properties of layer IV cells in slices of the somatosensory cortex of Fmr-1 knockout (KO) mice. These cells generally exhibited a regular spiking (RS) pattern, while there were significant increases in the number of cells that adopted intrinsic bursting (IB) compared with age-matched wild type (WT) cells. The cells subgrouped according to their firing patterns and maturation differed significantly in membrane and discharge properties between KO and WT. The changes in the intrinsic properties were consistent with highly facilitated discharges in KO cells induced by current injection. Spontaneous activities of RS neurons driven by local network were also increased in the KO cells, especially in neonate groups. Under an epileptiform condition mimicked by omission of Mg(2+) in extracellular solution, these RS neurons from KO mice were more likely to switch to burst discharges. Analysis on bursts revealed that the KO cells tended to form burst discharges and even severe events manifested as seizure-like ictal discharges. These results suggest that alterations in intrinsic properties in individual neurons are involved in the abnormal excitability of cortical circuitry and possibly account for the pathogenesis of epilepsy in FXS. PMID:27048919

  9. Modelling Feedback Excitation, Pacemaker Properties and Sensory Switching of Electrically Coupled Brainstem Neurons Controlling Rhythmic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Michael J.; Soffe, Stephen R.; Willshaw, David J.; Roberts, Alan

    2016-01-01

    What cellular and network properties allow reliable neuronal rhythm generation or firing that can be started and stopped by brief synaptic inputs? We investigate rhythmic activity in an electrically-coupled population of brainstem neurons driving swimming locomotion in young frog tadpoles, and how activity is switched on and off by brief sensory stimulation. We build a computational model of 30 electrically-coupled conditional pacemaker neurons on one side of the tadpole hindbrain and spinal cord. Based on experimental estimates for neuron properties, population sizes, synapse strengths and connections, we show that: long-lasting, mutual, glutamatergic excitation between the neurons allows the network to sustain rhythmic pacemaker firing at swimming frequencies following brief synaptic excitation; activity persists but rhythm breaks down without electrical coupling; NMDA voltage-dependency doubles the range of synaptic feedback strengths generating sustained rhythm. The network can be switched on and off at short latency by brief synaptic excitation and inhibition. We demonstrate that a population of generic Hodgkin-Huxley type neurons coupled by glutamatergic excitatory feedback can generate sustained asynchronous firing switched on and off synaptically. We conclude that networks of neurons with NMDAR mediated feedback excitation can generate self-sustained activity following brief synaptic excitation. The frequency of activity is limited by the kinetics of the neuron membrane channels and can be stopped by brief inhibitory input. Network activity can be rhythmic at lower frequencies if the neurons are electrically coupled. Our key finding is that excitatory synaptic feedback within a population of neurons can produce switchable, stable, sustained firing without synaptic inhibition. PMID:26824331

  10. Modelling Feedback Excitation, Pacemaker Properties and Sensory Switching of Electrically Coupled Brainstem Neurons Controlling Rhythmic Activity.

    PubMed

    Hull, Michael J; Soffe, Stephen R; Willshaw, David J; Roberts, Alan

    2016-01-01

    What cellular and network properties allow reliable neuronal rhythm generation or firing that can be started and stopped by brief synaptic inputs? We investigate rhythmic activity in an electrically-coupled population of brainstem neurons driving swimming locomotion in young frog tadpoles, and how activity is switched on and off by brief sensory stimulation. We build a computational model of 30 electrically-coupled conditional pacemaker neurons on one side of the tadpole hindbrain and spinal cord. Based on experimental estimates for neuron properties, population sizes, synapse strengths and connections, we show that: long-lasting, mutual, glutamatergic excitation between the neurons allows the network to sustain rhythmic pacemaker firing at swimming frequencies following brief synaptic excitation; activity persists but rhythm breaks down without electrical coupling; NMDA voltage-dependency doubles the range of synaptic feedback strengths generating sustained rhythm. The network can be switched on and off at short latency by brief synaptic excitation and inhibition. We demonstrate that a population of generic Hodgkin-Huxley type neurons coupled by glutamatergic excitatory feedback can generate sustained asynchronous firing switched on and off synaptically. We conclude that networks of neurons with NMDAR mediated feedback excitation can generate self-sustained activity following brief synaptic excitation. The frequency of activity is limited by the kinetics of the neuron membrane channels and can be stopped by brief inhibitory input. Network activity can be rhythmic at lower frequencies if the neurons are electrically coupled. Our key finding is that excitatory synaptic feedback within a population of neurons can produce switchable, stable, sustained firing without synaptic inhibition. PMID:26824331

  11. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandon J; Wall, Teagan R; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Nichols, Weston A; Moaddel, Ruin; Xiao, Cheng; Lester, Henry A

    2016-03-01

    Upregulation of β2 subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is implicated in several aspects of nicotine addiction, and menthol cigarette smokers tend to upregulate β2* nAChRs more than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. We investigated the effect of long-term menthol alone on midbrain neurons containing nAChRs. In midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons from mice containing fluorescent nAChR subunits, menthol alone increased the number of α4 and α6 nAChR subunits, but this upregulation did not occur in midbrain GABAergic neurons. Thus, chronic menthol produces a cell-type-selective upregulation of α4* nAChRs, complementing that of chronic nicotine alone, which upregulates α4 subunit-containing (α4*) nAChRs in GABAergic but not DA neurons. In mouse brain slices and cultured midbrain neurons, menthol reduced DA neuron firing frequency and altered DA neuron excitability following nAChR activation. Furthermore, menthol exposure before nicotine abolished nicotine reward-related behavior in mice. In neuroblastoma cells transfected with fluorescent nAChR subunits, exposure to 500 nm menthol alone also increased nAChR number and favored the formation of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChRs; this contrasts with the action of nicotine itself, which favors (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs. Menthol alone also increases the number of α6β2 receptors that exclude the β3 subunit. Thus, menthol stabilizes lower-sensitivity α4* and α6 subunit-containing nAChRs, possibly by acting as a chemical chaperone. The abolition of nicotine reward-related behavior may be mediated through menthol's ability to stabilize lower-sensitivity nAChRs and alter DA neuron excitability. We conclude that menthol is more than a tobacco flavorant: administered alone chronically, it alters midbrain DA neurons of the nicotine reward-related pathway. PMID:26961950

  12. Self-excited relaxation oscillations in networks of impulse neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu; Rozov, N. Kh

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of mathematical modelling of neuron activity. New classes of singularly perturbed differential-difference equations with Volterra-type delay are proposed and used to describe how single neurons and also neural networks function with various kinds of connections (electrical or chemical). Special asymptotic methods are developed which make it possible to analyse questions of the existence and stability of relaxation periodic motions in such systems. Bibliography: 56 titles.

  13. Maternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Razavinasab, Moazamehosadat; Moazzami, Kasra; Shabani, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Some studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) may result in structural damage to neurons. In this study, we have elucidated the alteration in the hippocampal function of offspring Wistar rats (n = 8 rats in each group) that were chronically exposed to mobile phones during their gestational period by applying behavioral, histological, and electrophysiological tests. Rats in the EMF group were exposed to 900 MHz pulsed-EMF irradiation for 6 h/day. Whole cell recordings in hippocampal pyramidal cells in the mobile phone groups did show a decrease in neuronal excitability. Mobile phone exposure was mostly associated with a decrease in the number of action potentials fired in spontaneous activity and in response to current injection in both male and female groups. There was an increase in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in mobile phone rats compared with the control. The results of the passive avoidance and Morris water maze assessment of learning and memory performance showed that phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention in male and female rats compared with the control rats. Light microscopy study of brain sections of the control and mobile phone-exposed rats showed normal morphology.Our results suggest that exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. PMID:24604340

  14. Self-organization of synchronous activity propagation in neuronal networks driven by local excitation.

    PubMed

    Bayati, Mehdi; Valizadeh, Alireza; Abbassian, Abdolhossein; Cheng, Sen

    2015-01-01

    Many experimental and theoretical studies have suggested that the reliable propagation of synchronous neural activity is crucial for neural information processing. The propagation of synchronous firing activity in so-called synfire chains has been studied extensively in feed-forward networks of spiking neurons. However, it remains unclear how such neural activity could emerge in recurrent neuronal networks through synaptic plasticity. In this study, we investigate whether local excitation, i.e., neurons that fire at a higher frequency than the other, spontaneously active neurons in the network, can shape a network to allow for synchronous activity propagation. We use two-dimensional, locally connected and heterogeneous neuronal networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). We find that, in our model, local excitation drives profound network changes within seconds. In the emergent network, neural activity propagates synchronously through the network. This activity originates from the site of the local excitation and propagates through the network. The synchronous activity propagation persists, even when the local excitation is removed, since it derives from the synaptic weight matrix. Importantly, once this connectivity is established it remains stable even in the presence of spontaneous activity. Our results suggest that synfire-chain-like activity can emerge in a relatively simple way in realistic neural networks by locally exciting the desired origin of the neuronal sequence. PMID:26089794

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor differentially modulates excitability of two classes of hippocampal output neurons.

    PubMed

    Graves, A R; Moore, S J; Spruston, N; Tryba, A K; Kaczorowski, C C

    2016-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Canonically, this has been ascribed to an enhancing effect on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region. However, it is the pyramidal neurons in the subiculum that form the primary efferent pathways conveying hippocampal information to other areas of the brain, and yet the effect of BDNF on these neurons has remained unexplored. We present new data that BDNF regulates neuronal excitability and cellular plasticity in a much more complex manner than previously suggested. Subicular pyramidal neurons can be divided into two major classes, which have different electrophysiological and morphological properties, different requirements for the induction of plasticity, and different extrahippocampal projections. We found that BDNF increases excitability in one class of subicular pyramidal neurons yet decreases excitability in the other class. Furthermore, while endogenous BDNF was necessary for the induction of synaptic plasticity in both cell types, BDNF enhanced intrinsic plasticity in one class of pyramidal neurons yet suppressed intrinsic plasticity in the other. Taken together, these data suggest a novel role for BDNF signaling, as it appears to dynamically and bidirectionally regulate the output of hippocampal information to different regions of the brain. PMID:27146982

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor differentially modulates excitability of two classes of hippocampal output neurons

    PubMed Central

    Graves, A. R.; Moore, S. J.; Spruston, N.; Tryba, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Canonically, this has been ascribed to an enhancing effect on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region. However, it is the pyramidal neurons in the subiculum that form the primary efferent pathways conveying hippocampal information to other areas of the brain, and yet the effect of BDNF on these neurons has remained unexplored. We present new data that BDNF regulates neuronal excitability and cellular plasticity in a much more complex manner than previously suggested. Subicular pyramidal neurons can be divided into two major classes, which have different electrophysiological and morphological properties, different requirements for the induction of plasticity, and different extrahippocampal projections. We found that BDNF increases excitability in one class of subicular pyramidal neurons yet decreases excitability in the other class. Furthermore, while endogenous BDNF was necessary for the induction of synaptic plasticity in both cell types, BDNF enhanced intrinsic plasticity in one class of pyramidal neurons yet suppressed intrinsic plasticity in the other. Taken together, these data suggest a novel role for BDNF signaling, as it appears to dynamically and bidirectionally regulate the output of hippocampal information to different regions of the brain. PMID:27146982

  17. Presynaptic Excitation via GABAB Receptors in Habenula Cholinergic Neurons Regulates Fear Memory Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juen; Tan, Lubin; Ren, Yuqi; Liang, Jingwen; Lin, Rui; Feng, Qiru; Zhou, Jingfeng; Hu, Fei; Ren, Jing; Wei, Chao; Yu, Tao; Zhuang, Yinghua; Bettler, Bernhard; Wang, Fengchao; Luo, Minmin

    2016-07-28

    Fear behaviors are regulated by adaptive mechanisms that dampen their expression in the absence of danger. By studying circuits and the molecular mechanisms underlying this adaptive response, we show that cholinergic neurons of the medial habenula reduce fear memory expression through GABAB presynaptic excitation. Ablating these neurons or inactivating their GABAB receptors impairs fear extinction in mice, whereas activating the neurons or their axonal GABAB receptors reduces conditioned fear. Although considered exclusively inhibitory, here, GABAB mediates excitation by amplifying presynaptic Ca(2+) entry through Cav2.3 channels and potentiating co-release of glutamate, acetylcholine, and neurokinin B to excite interpeduncular neurons. Activating the receptors for these neurotransmitters or enhancing neurotransmission with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor reduces fear responses of both wild-type and GABAB mutant mice. We identify the role of an extra-amygdalar circuit and presynaptic GABAB receptors in fear control, suggesting that boosting neurotransmission in this pathway might ameliorate some fear disorders. PMID:27426949

  18. Changes in neuronal excitability serve as a mechanism of long-term memory for operant conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Mozzachiodi, Riccardo; Lorenzetti, Fred D.; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Learning can lead to changes in the intrinsic excitability of neurons. However, it is unclear to what extent these changes persist and what role they play in the expression of memory. Here, we report that in vitro analogues of operant conditioning produce a long-term (24 h) increase in the excitability of an identified neuron (B51) critical for the expression of feeding in Aplysia. This increase in excitability, which is cAMP dependent, contributes to the associative modification of the feeding circuitry, providing a mechanism for long-term memory storage. PMID:18776897

  19. Dissecting mechanisms of brain aging by studying the intrinsic excitability of neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Valerio; Richman, Jeffrey; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies using vertebrate and invertebrate animal models have shown aging associated changes in brain function. Importantly, changes in soma size, loss or regression of dendrites and dendritic spines and alterations in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors in specific neurons were described. Despite this understanding, how aging impacts intrinsic properties of individual neurons or circuits that govern a defined behavior is yet to be determined. Here we discuss current understanding of specific electrophysiological changes in individual neurons and circuits during aging. PMID:25610394

  20. Trace Fear Conditioning Differentially Modulates Intrinsic Excitability of Medial Prefrontal Cortex–Basolateral Complex of Amygdala Projection Neurons in Infralimbic and Prelimbic Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chenghui; Ehlers, Vanessa L.

    2015-01-01

    combination of electrophysiological recordings from fluorescently labeled mPFC-to-amygdala projection neurons in rats with acquisition and extinction of trace fear conditioning to determine how specific neurons change during behavior. This is the first study to demonstrate that trace fear conditioning significantly alters the intrinsic excitability of mPFC-to-amygdala projection neurons in a subregion- and cell-type-specific manner, which is also transient and reversed by extinction. These data are of broad interest to the neuroscientific community, and the results will inspire additional studies investigating the cellular mechanisms underlying circuit-specific changes within the brain as a result of associative learning and memory. PMID:26424895

  1. Reduced motor neuron excitability is an important contributor to weakness in a rat model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Paul; Vincent, Jacob A; Powers, Randall; Cope, Tim C; Rich, Mark M

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms by which sepsis triggers intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW) remain unclear. We previously identified difficulty with motor unit recruitment in patients as a novel contributor to ICUAW. To study the mechanism underlying poor recruitment of motor units we used the rat cecal ligation and puncture model of sepsis. We identified striking dysfunction of alpha motor neurons during repetitive firing. Firing was more erratic, and often intermittent. Our data raised the possibility that reduced excitability of motor neurons was a significant contributor to weakness induced by sepsis. In this study we quantified the contribution of reduced motor neuron excitability and compared its magnitude to the contributions of myopathy, neuropathy and failure of neuromuscular transmission. We injected constant depolarizing current pulses (5s) into the soma of alpha motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of anesthetized rats to trigger repetitive firing. In response to constant depolarization, motor neurons in untreated control rats fired at steady and continuous firing rates and generated smooth and sustained tetanic motor unit force as expected. In contrast, following induction of sepsis, motor neurons were often unable to sustain firing throughout the 5s current injection such that force production was reduced. Even when firing, motor neurons from septic rats fired erratically and discontinuously, leading to irregular production of motor unit force. Both fast and slow type motor neurons had similar disruption of excitability. We followed rats after recovery from sepsis to determine the time course of resolution of the defect in motor neuron excitability. By one week, rats appeared to have recovered from sepsis as they had no piloerection and appeared to be in no distress. The defects in motor neuron repetitive firing were still striking at 2weeks and, although improved, were present at one month. We infer that rats suffered from weakness due to reduced

  2. Insulin Excites Anorexigenic Proopiomelanocortin Neurons via Activation of Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jian; Zhang, Chunguang; Borgquist, Amanda; Nestor, Casey C; Smith, Arik W.; Bosch, Martha A.; Ku, Stephen; Wagner, Edward J.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are vital anorexigenic neurons. Although both the leptin receptor and insulin receptor are coupled to activation of phosphatidylinositide3-kinase (PI3K) in POMC neurons, they are thought to have disparate actions on POMC excitability. Using whole-cell recording and selective pharmacological tools, we have found that similar to leptin, purified insulin depolarized POMC, and adjacent kisspeptin neurons via activation of TRPC5 channels, which are highly expressed in these neurons. In contrast, insulin hyperpolarized and inhibited NPY/AgRP neurons via activation of KATP channels. Moreover, Zn2+, which is found in insulin formulations at nanomolar concentrations, inhibited POMC neurons via activation of KATP channels. Finally as predicted, insulin given intracerebroventrically robustly inhibited food intake and activated c-fos expression in arcuate POMC neurons. Our results show that purified insulin excites POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus, which we propose is a major mechanism by which insulin regulates energy homeostasis. PMID:24703699

  3. Membrane Capacitive Memory Alters Spiking in Neurons Described by the Fractional-Order Hodgkin-Huxley Model

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Seth H.

    2015-01-01

    Excitable cells and cell membranes are often modeled by the simple yet elegant parallel resistor-capacitor circuit. However, studies have shown that the passive properties of membranes may be more appropriately modeled with a non-ideal capacitor, in which the current-voltage relationship is given by a fractional-order derivative. Fractional-order membrane potential dynamics introduce capacitive memory effects, i.e., dynamics are influenced by a weighted sum of the membrane potential prior history. However, it is not clear to what extent fractional-order dynamics may alter the properties of active excitable cells. In this study, we investigate the spiking properties of the neuronal membrane patch, nerve axon, and neural networks described by the fractional-order Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. We find that in the membrane patch model, as fractional-order decreases, i.e., a greater influence of membrane potential memory, peak sodium and potassium currents are altered, and spike frequency and amplitude are generally reduced. In the nerve axon, the velocity of spike propagation increases as fractional-order decreases, while in a neural network, electrical activity is more likely to cease for smaller fractional-order. Importantly, we demonstrate that the modulation of the peak ionic currents that occurs for reduced fractional-order alone fails to reproduce many of the key alterations in spiking properties, suggesting that membrane capacitive memory and fractional-order membrane potential dynamics are important and necessary to reproduce neuronal electrical activity. PMID:25970534

  4. Membrane capacitive memory alters spiking in neurons described by the fractional-order Hodgkin-Huxley model.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Seth H

    2015-01-01

    Excitable cells and cell membranes are often modeled by the simple yet elegant parallel resistor-capacitor circuit. However, studies have shown that the passive properties of membranes may be more appropriately modeled with a non-ideal capacitor, in which the current-voltage relationship is given by a fractional-order derivative. Fractional-order membrane potential dynamics introduce capacitive memory effects, i.e., dynamics are influenced by a weighted sum of the membrane potential prior history. However, it is not clear to what extent fractional-order dynamics may alter the properties of active excitable cells. In this study, we investigate the spiking properties of the neuronal membrane patch, nerve axon, and neural networks described by the fractional-order Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. We find that in the membrane patch model, as fractional-order decreases, i.e., a greater influence of membrane potential memory, peak sodium and potassium currents are altered, and spike frequency and amplitude are generally reduced. In the nerve axon, the velocity of spike propagation increases as fractional-order decreases, while in a neural network, electrical activity is more likely to cease for smaller fractional-order. Importantly, we demonstrate that the modulation of the peak ionic currents that occurs for reduced fractional-order alone fails to reproduce many of the key alterations in spiking properties, suggesting that membrane capacitive memory and fractional-order membrane potential dynamics are important and necessary to reproduce neuronal electrical activity. PMID:25970534

  5. Coherence-Resonance-Induced Neuronal Firing near a Saddle-Node and Homoclinic Bifurcation Corresponding to Type-I Excitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bing; Gu, Hua-Guang; Li, Yu-Ye

    2011-09-01

    Excitability is an essential characteristic of excitable media such as nervous and cardiac systems. Different types of neuronal excitability are related to different bifurcation structures. We simulate the coherence resonance effect near a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation corresponding to type-I excitability in a theoretical neuron model, and recognize the obvious features of the corresponding firing pattern. Similar firing patterns are discovered in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. The results are not only helpful for understanding the dynamics of the saddle-node bifurcation and type-I excitability in a realistic nervous system, but also provide a practical indicator to identify types of excitability and bifurcation.

  6. miR-128 regulates neuronal migration, outgrowth and intrinsic excitability via the intellectual disability gene Phf6

    PubMed Central

    Franzoni, Eleonora; Booker, Sam A; Parthasarathy, Srinivas; Rehfeld, Frederick; Grosser, Sabine; Srivatsa, Swathi; Fuchs, Heiko R; Tarabykin, Victor; Vida, Imre; Wulczyn, F Gregory

    2015-01-01

    miR-128, a brain-enriched microRNA, has been implicated in the control of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis but its potential roles in intervening processes have not been addressed. We show that post-transcriptional mechanisms restrict miR-128 accumulation to post-mitotic neurons during mouse corticogenesis and in adult stem cell niches. Whereas premature miR-128 expression in progenitors for upper layer neurons leads to impaired neuronal migration and inappropriate branching, sponge-mediated inhibition results in overmigration. Within the upper layers, premature miR-128 expression reduces the complexity of dendritic arborization, associated with altered electrophysiological properties. We show that Phf6, a gene mutated in the cognitive disorder Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome, is an important regulatory target for miR-128. Restoring PHF6 expression counteracts the deleterious effect of miR-128 on neuronal migration, outgrowth and intrinsic physiological properties. Our results place miR-128 upstream of PHF6 in a pathway vital for cortical lamination as well as for the development of neuronal morphology and intrinsic excitability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04263.001 PMID:25556700

  7. Neuronal Atrophy Early in Degenerative Ataxia Is a Compensatory Mechanism to Regulate Membrane Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Orco, James M.; Wasserman, Aaron H.; Chopra, Ravi; Ingram, Melissa A. C.; Hu, Yuan-Shih; Singh, Vikrant; Wulff, Heike; Opal, Puneet; Orr, Harry T.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases is commonly viewed as an early event in a continuum that ultimately results in neuronal loss. In a mouse model of the polyglutamine disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), we tested the hypothesis that cerebellar Purkinje neuron atrophy serves an adaptive role rather than being simply a nonspecific response to injury. In acute cerebellar slices from SCA1 mice, we find that Purkinje neuron pacemaker firing is initially normal but, with the onset of motor dysfunction, becomes disrupted, accompanied by abnormal depolarization. Remarkably, subsequent Purkinje cell atrophy is associated with a restoration of pacemaker firing. The early inability of Purkinje neurons to support repetitive spiking is due to unopposed calcium currents resulting from a reduction in large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) and subthreshold-activated potassium channels. The subsequent restoration of SCA1 Purkinje neuron firing correlates with the recovery of the density of these potassium channels that accompanies cell atrophy. Supporting a critical role for BK channels, viral-mediated increases in BK channel expression in SCA1 Purkinje neurons improves motor dysfunction and partially restores Purkinje neuron morphology. Cerebellar perfusion of flufenamic acid, an agent that restores the depolarized membrane potential of SCA1 Purkinje neurons by activating potassium channels, prevents Purkinje neuron dendritic atrophy. These results suggest that Purkinje neuron dendritic remodeling in ataxia is an adaptive response to increases in intrinsic membrane excitability. Similar adaptive remodeling could apply to other vulnerable neuronal populations in neurodegenerative disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In neurodegenerative disease, neuronal atrophy has long been assumed to be an early nonspecific event preceding neuronal loss. However, in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), we identify a previously unappreciated

  8. Dietary cholesterol modulates the excitability of rabbit hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Desheng; Schreurs, Bernard G.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown high dietary cholesterol can affect learning and memory including rabbit eyeblink conditioning and this effect may be due to increased membrane cholesterol and enhanced hippocampal amyloid beta production. This study investigated whether dietary cholesterol modulates rabbit hippocampal CA1 neuron membrane properties known to be involved in rabbit eyeblink conditioning. Whole-cell current clamp recordings in hippocampal neurons from rabbits fed 2% cholesterol or normal chow for 8 weeks revealed changes including decreased after-hyperpolarization amplitudes (AHPs) – an index of membrane excitability shown to be important for rabbit eyeblink conditioning. This index was reversed by adding copper to drinking water – a dietary manipulation that can retard rabbit eyeblink conditioning. Evidence of cholesterol effects on membrane excitability was provided by application of methyl-β-cyclodextrin, a compound that reduces membrane cholesterol, which increased the excitability of hippocampal CA1 neurons. PMID:20639007

  9. Monitoring the excitability of neocortical efferent neurons to direct activation by extracellular current pulses.

    PubMed

    Swadlow, H A

    1992-08-01

    and is thought to reflect excitability changes associated with EPSPs. Examination of such subliminal responses revealed subthreshold synaptic inputs that were not revealed by examination of all-or-none action potentials. In contrast to the specificity of the short-latency threshold decrease, a long-lasting increase in JSCP threshold was seen in virtually all neurons after stimulation of each of the afferent pathways tested. This increase in threshold usually began 20-40 ms after stimulation, lasted for 100-200 ms, and is thought to reflect excitability changes associated with a long-lasting inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) seen in many cortical neurons. 4. Many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of rat, cat, and rabbit have no demonstrable receptive fields.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1527578

  10. Intrinsic Hippocampal Excitability Changes of Opposite Signs and Different Origins in CA1 and CA3 Pyramidal Neurons Underlie Aging-Related Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Oh, M. Matthew; Simkin, Dina; Disterhoft, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Aging-related cognitive deficits have been attributed to dysfunction of neurons due to failures at synaptic or intrinsic loci, or both. Given the importance of the hippocampus for successful encoding of memory and that the main output of the hippocampus is via the CA1 pyramidal neurons, much of the research has been focused on identifying the aging-related changes of these CA1 pyramidal neurons. We and others have discovered that the postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) following a train of action potentials is greatly enlarged in CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged animals. This enlarged postburst AHP is a significant factor in reducing the intrinsic excitability of these neurons, and thus limiting their activity in the neural network during learning. Based on these data, it has largely been thought that aging-related cognitive deficits are attributable to reduced activity of pyramidal neurons. However, recent in vivo and ex vivo studies provide compelling evidence that aging-related deficits could also be due to a converse change in CA3 pyramidal neurons, which show increased activity with aging. In this review, we will incorporate these recent findings and posit that an interdependent dynamic dysfunctional change occurs within the hippocampal network, largely due to altered intrinsic excitability in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which ultimately leads to the aging-related cognitive deficits. PMID:27375440

  11. Proteomic profiling of neuromas reveals alterations in protein composition and local protein synthesis in hyper-excitable nerves

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hong-Lei; Cendan, Cruz-Miguel; Roza, Carolina; Okuse, Kenji; Cramer, Rainer; Timms, John F; Wood, John N

    2008-01-01

    Neuropathic pain may arise following peripheral nerve injury though the molecular mechanisms associated with this are unclear. We used proteomic profiling to examine changes in protein expression associated with the formation of hyper-excitable neuromas derived from rodent saphenous nerves. A two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) profiling strategy was employed to examine protein expression changes between developing neuromas and normal nerves in whole tissue lysates. We found around 200 proteins which displayed a >1.75-fold change in expression between neuroma and normal nerve and identified 55 of these proteins using mass spectrometry. We also used immunoblotting to examine the expression of low-abundance ion channels Nav1.3, Nav1.8 and calcium channel α2δ-1 subunit in this model, since they have previously been implicated in neuronal hyperexcitability associated with neuropathic pain. Finally, S35methionine in vitro labelling of neuroma and control samples was used to demonstrate local protein synthesis of neuron-specific genes. A number of cytoskeletal proteins, enzymes and proteins associated with oxidative stress were up-regulated in neuromas, whilst overall levels of voltage-gated ion channel proteins were unaffected. We conclude that altered mRNA levels reported in the somata of damaged DRG neurons do not necessarily reflect levels of altered proteins in hyper-excitable damaged nerve endings. An altered repertoire of protein expression, local protein synthesis and topological re-arrangements of ion channels may all play important roles in neuroma hyper-excitability. PMID:18700027

  12. Micro-electrode array recordings reveal reductions in both excitation and inhibition in cultured cortical neuron networks lacking Shank3.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Chen, Q; Zhou, T; Bozic, D; Fu, Z; Pan, J Q; Feng, G

    2016-02-01

    Numerous risk genes have recently been implicated in susceptibility to autism and schizophrenia. Translating such genetic findings into disease-relevant neurobiological mechanisms is challenging due to the lack of throughput assays that can be used to assess their functions on an appropriate scale. To address this issue, we explored the feasibility of using a micro-electrode array (MEA) as a potentially scalable assay to identify the electrical network phenotypes associated with risk genes. We first characterized local and global network firing in cortical neurons with MEAs, and then developed methods to analyze the alternation between the network active period (NAP) and the network inactive period (NIP), each of which lasts tens of seconds. We then evaluated the electric phenotypes of neurons derived from Shank3 knockout (KO) mice. Cortical neurons cultured on MEAs displayed a rich repertoire of spontaneous firing, and Shank3 deletion led to reduced firing activity. Enhancing excitation with CX546 rescued the deficit in the spike rate in the Shank3 KO network. In addition, the Shank3 KO network produced a shorter NIP, and this altered network firing pattern was normalized by clonazepam, a positive modulator of the GABAA receptor. MEA recordings revealed electric phenotypes that displayed altered excitation and inhibition in the network lacking Shank3. Thus, our study highlights MEAs as an experimental framework for measuring multiple robust neurobiological end points in dynamic networks and as an assay system that could be used to identify electric phenotypes in cultured neuronal networks and to analyze additional risk genes identified in psychiatric genetics. PMID:26598066

  13. The ADAR RNA editing enzyme controls neuronal excitability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianghua; Overton, Ian M; Baines, Richard A; Keegan, Liam P; O'Connell, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    RNA editing by deamination of specific adenosine bases to inosines during pre-mRNA processing generates edited isoforms of proteins. Recoding RNA editing is more widespread in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Editing levels rise strongly at metamorphosis, and Adar(5G1) null mutant flies lack editing events in hundreds of CNS transcripts; mutant flies have reduced viability, severely defective locomotion and age-dependent neurodegeneration. On the other hand, overexpressing an adult dADAR isoform with high enzymatic activity ubiquitously during larval and pupal stages is lethal. Advantage was taken of this to screen for genetic modifiers; Adar overexpression lethality is rescued by reduced dosage of the Rdl (Resistant to dieldrin), gene encoding a subunit of inhibitory GABA receptors. Reduced dosage of the Gad1 gene encoding the GABA synthetase also rescues Adar overexpression lethality. Drosophila Adar(5G1) mutant phenotypes are ameliorated by feeding GABA modulators. We demonstrate that neuronal excitability is linked to dADAR expression levels in individual neurons; Adar-overexpressing larval motor neurons show reduced excitability whereas Adar(5G1) null mutant or targeted Adar knockdown motor neurons exhibit increased excitability. GABA inhibitory signalling is impaired in human epileptic and autistic conditions, and vertebrate ADARs may have a relevant evolutionarily conserved control over neuronal excitability. PMID:24137011

  14. Balance between Excitation and Inhibition Controls the Temporal Organization of Neuronal Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, F.; Herrmann, H. J.; Perrone-Capano, C.; Plenz, D.; de Arcangelis, L.

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal avalanches, measured in vitro and in vivo, exhibit a robust critical behavior. Their temporal organization hides the presence of correlations. Here we present experimental measurements of the waiting time distribution between successive avalanches in the rat cortex in vitro. This exhibits a nonmonotonic behavior not usually found in other natural processes. Numerical simulations provide evidence that this behavior is a consequence of the alternation between states of high and low activity, named up and down states, leading to a balance between excitation and inhibition controlled by a single parameter. During these periods, both the single neuron state and the network excitability level, keeping memory of past activity, are tuned by homeostatic mechanisms.

  15. Altered Purinergic Signaling in Colorectal Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Contributes to Colorectal Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    La, Jun-Ho; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Gebhart, G. F.

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by pain and hypersensitivity in the relative absence of colon inflammation or structural changes. To assess the role of P2X receptors expressed in colorectal dorsal root ganglion (c-DRG) neurons and colon hypersensitivity, we studied excitability and purinergic signaling of retrogradely labeled mouse thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) c-DRG neurons after intracolonic treatment with saline or zymosan (which reproduces 2 major features of IBS—persistent colorectal hypersensitivity without inflammation) using patch-clamp, immunohistochemical, and RT-PCR techniques. Although whole cell capacitances did not differ between LS and TL c-DRG neurons and were not changed after zymosan treatment, membrane excitability was increased in LS and TL c-DRG neurons from zymosan-treated mice. Purinergic agonist adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) and α,β-methylene ATP [α,β-meATP] produced inward currents in TL c-DRG neurons were predominantly P2X3-like fast (∼70% of responsive neurons); P2X2/3-like slow currents were more common in LS c-DRG neurons (∼35% of responsive neurons). Transient currents were not produced by either agonist in c-DRG neurons from P2X3−/− mice. Neither total whole cell Kv current density nor the sustained or transient Kv components was changed in c-DRG neurons after zymosan treatment. The number of cells expressing P2X3 protein and its mRNA and the kinetic properties of ATP- and α,β-meATP-evoked currents in c-DRG neurons were not changed by zymosan treatment. However, the EC50 of α,β-meATP for the fast current decreased significantly in TL c-DRG neurons. These findings suggest that colorectal hypersensitivity produced by intracolonic zymosan increases excitability and enhances purinergic signaling in c-DRG neurons. PMID:20861433

  16. Altered purinergic signaling in colorectal dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to colorectal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Masamichi; La, Jun-Ho; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Gebhart, G F

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by pain and hypersensitivity in the relative absence of colon inflammation or structural changes. To assess the role of P2X receptors expressed in colorectal dorsal root ganglion (c-DRG) neurons and colon hypersensitivity, we studied excitability and purinergic signaling of retrogradely labeled mouse thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) c-DRG neurons after intracolonic treatment with saline or zymosan (which reproduces 2 major features of IBS-persistent colorectal hypersensitivity without inflammation) using patch-clamp, immunohistochemical, and RT-PCR techniques. Although whole cell capacitances did not differ between LS and TL c-DRG neurons and were not changed after zymosan treatment, membrane excitability was increased in LS and TL c-DRG neurons from zymosan-treated mice. Purinergic agonist adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and α,β-methylene ATP [α,β-meATP] produced inward currents in TL c-DRG neurons were predominantly P2X(3)-like fast (∼70% of responsive neurons); P2X(2/3)-like slow currents were more common in LS c-DRG neurons (∼35% of responsive neurons). Transient currents were not produced by either agonist in c-DRG neurons from P2X(3)(-/-) mice. Neither total whole cell Kv current density nor the sustained or transient Kv components was changed in c-DRG neurons after zymosan treatment. The number of cells expressing P2X(3) protein and its mRNA and the kinetic properties of ATP- and α,β-meATP-evoked currents in c-DRG neurons were not changed by zymosan treatment. However, the EC(50) of α,β-meATP for the fast current decreased significantly in TL c-DRG neurons. These findings suggest that colorectal hypersensitivity produced by intracolonic zymosan increases excitability and enhances purinergic signaling in c-DRG neurons. PMID:20861433

  17. Effects of aversive stimuli beyond defensive neural circuits: reduced excitability in an identified neuron critical for feeding in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Shields-Johnson, Maria E; Hernandez, John S; Torno, Cody; Adams, Katherine M; Wainwright, Marcy L; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    In Aplysia, repeated trials of aversive stimuli produce long-term sensitization (LTS) of defensive reflexes and suppression of feeding. Whereas the cellular underpinnings of LTS have been characterized, the mechanisms of feeding suppression remained unknown. Here, we report that LTS training induced a long-term decrease in the excitability of B51 (a decision-making neuron in the feeding circuit) that recovered at a time point in which LTS is no longer observed (72 h post-treatment). These findings indicate B51 as a locus of plasticity underlying feeding suppression. Finally, treatment with serotonin to induce LTS failed to alter feeding and B51 excitability, suggesting that serotonin does not mediate the effects of LTS training on the feeding circuit. PMID:23242417

  18. Human cerebrospinal fluid increases the excitability of pyramidal neurons in the in vitro brain slice

    PubMed Central

    Bjorefeldt, Andreas; Andreasson, Ulf; Daborg, Jonny; Riebe, Ilse; Wasling, Pontus; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hanse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The composition of brain extracellular fluid is shaped by a continuous exchange of substances between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid. The CSF is known to contain a wide range of endogenous neuromodulatory substances, but their collective influence on neuronal activity has been poorly investigated. We show here that replacing artificial CSF (aCSF), routinely used for perfusion of brain slices in vitro, with human CSF (hCSF) powerfully boosts spontaneous firing of CA1, CA3 and layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the rat brain slice. CA1 pyramidal neurons in hCSF display lowered firing thresholds, more depolarized resting membrane potentials and reduced input resistance, mimicking properties of pyramidal neurons recorded in vivo. The increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons was completely occluded by intracellular application of GTPγS, suggesting that endogenous neuromodulators in hCSF act on G-protein coupled receptors to enhance excitability. We found no increase in spontaneous inhibitory synaptic transmission by hCSF, indicating a differential effect on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Our findings highlight a previously unknown function of the CSF in promoting spontaneous excitatory activity, and may help to explain differences observed in the activity of pyramidal neurons recorded in vivo and in vitro. PMID:25556798

  19. TRESK channel contribution to nociceptive sensory neurons excitability: modulation by nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuronal hyperexcitability is a crucial phenomenon underlying spontaneous and evoked pain. In invertebrate nociceptors, the S-type leak K+ channel (analogous to TREK-1 in mammals) plays a critical role of in determining neuronal excitability following nerve injury. Few data are available on the role of leak K2P channels after peripheral axotomy in mammals. Results Here we describe that rat sciatic nerve axotomy induces hyperexcitability of L4-L5 DRG sensory neurons and decreases TRESK (K2P18.1) expression, a channel with a major contribution to total leak current in DRGs. While the expression of other channels from the same family did not significantly change, injury markers ATF3 and Cacna2d1 were highly upregulated. Similarly, acute sensory neuron dissociation (in vitro axotomy) produced marked hyperexcitability and similar total background currents compared with neurons injured in vivo. In addition, the sanshool derivative IBA, which blocked TRESK currents in transfected HEK293 cells and DRGs, increased intracellular calcium in 49% of DRG neurons in culture. Most IBA-responding neurons (71%) also responded to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, indicating that they were nociceptors. Additional evidence of a biological role of TRESK channels was provided by behavioral evidence of pain (flinching and licking), in vivo electrophysiological evidence of C-nociceptor activation following IBA injection in the rat hindpaw, and increased sensitivity to painful pressure after TRESK knockdown in vivo. Conclusions In summary, our results clearly support an important role of TRESK channels in determining neuronal excitability in specific DRG neurons subpopulations, and show that axonal injury down-regulates TRESK channels, therefore contributing to neuronal hyperexcitability. PMID:21527011

  20. PYRETHROID MODULATION OF SPONTANEOUS NEURONAL EXCITABILITY AND NEUROTRANSMISSION IN HIPPOCAMPAL NEURONS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides have potent actions on voltage-gated sodium channels, inhibiting inactivation and increasing channel open times. These are thought to underlie, at least in part, the clinical symptoms of pyrethroid intoxication. However, disruption of neuronal activity at ...

  1. Memory Deficits Are Associated with Impaired Ability to Modulate Neuronal Excitability in Middle-Aged Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Normal aging disrupts hippocampal neuroplasticity and learning and memory. Aging deficits were exposed in a subset (30%) of middle-aged mice that performed below criterion on a hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Basal neuronal excitability was comparable in middle-aged and young mice, but learning-related modulation of the…

  2. Morphology and Intrinsic Excitability of Regenerating Sensory and Motor Neurons Grown on a Line Micropattern

    PubMed Central

    Benzina, Ouafa; Cloitre, Thierry; Martin, Marta; Raoul, Cédric; Gergely, Csilla; Scamps, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    Axonal regeneration is one of the greatest challenges in severe injuries of peripheral nerve. To provide the bridge needed for regeneration, biological or synthetic tubular nerve constructs with aligned architecture have been developed. A key point for improving axonal regeneration is assessing the effects of substrate geometry on neuronal behavior. In the present study, we used an extracellular matrix-micropatterned substrate comprising 3 µm wide lines aimed to physically mimic the in vivo longitudinal axonal growth of mice peripheral sensory and motor neurons. Adult sensory neurons or embryonic motoneurons were seeded and processed for morphological and electrical activity analyses after two days in vitro. We show that micropattern-guided sensory neurons grow one or two axons without secondary branching. Motoneurons polarity was kept on micropattern with a long axon and small dendrites. The micro-patterned substrate maintains the growth promoting effects of conditioning injury and demonstrates, for the first time, that neurite initiation and extension could be differentially regulated by conditioning injury among DRG sensory neuron subpopulations. The micro-patterned substrate impacts the excitability of sensory neurons and promotes the apparition of firing action potentials characteristic for a subclass of mechanosensitive neurons. The line pattern is quite relevant for assessing the regenerative and developmental growth of sensory and motoneurons and offers a unique model for the analysis of the impact of geometry on the expression and the activity of mechanosensitive channels in DRG sensory neurons. PMID:25329060

  3. Excitation of tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons by oxytocin: crosstalk in the control of lactation.

    PubMed

    Briffaud, Virginie; Williams, Paul; Courty, Justine; Broberger, Christian

    2015-03-11

    Milk production in the nursing mother is induced by the hormone prolactin. Its release from the anterior pituitary is generally under tonic inhibition by neuroendocrine tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons of the arcuate nucleus. Successful nursing, however, requires not only production but also ejection of breast milk. This function is supported by the hormone oxytocin. Here we explored the possibility that interaction between these functionally complementary hormones is mediated by TIDA neurons. First, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on prepubertal male rat hypothalamic slices, where TIDA neurons can be identified by a robust and rhythmic membrane potential oscillation. Oxytocin induced a switch of this rhythmic activity to tonic discharge through a depolarization involving direct actions on TIDA neurons. The depolarization is sensitive to blockade of the oxytocin receptor and is mediated by a voltage-dependent inward current. This inward current has two components: a canonical transient receptor potential-like conductance in the low-voltage range, and in the high-voltage range, a Ca(2+)-dependent component. Finally, whole-cell and loose-patch recordings were also performed on slices from virgin and lactating female rats to evaluate the relevance of these findings for nursing. In these preparations, oxytocin was found to excite TIDA neurons, identified by their expression of tyrosine hydroxylase. These findings suggest that oxytocin can modulate prolactin secretion by exciting TIDA neurons, and that this may serve as a feedforward inhibition of prolactin release. PMID:25762669

  4. Cell-Specific Fine-Tuning of Neuronal Excitability by Differential Expression of Modulator Protein Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, James; Sheldon, Amanda; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Fei, Hong; Koh, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    SLOB (SLOWPOKE-binding protein) modulates the Drosophila SLOWPOKE calcium-activated potassium channel. We have shown previously that SLOB deletion or RNAi knockdown decreases excitability of neurosecretory pars intercerebralis (PI) neurons in the adult Drosophila brain. In contrast, we found that SLOB deletion/knockdown enhances neurotransmitter release from motor neurons at the fly larval neuromuscular junction, suggesting an increase in excitability. Because two prominent SLOB isoforms, SLOB57 and SLOB71, modulate SLOWPOKE channels in opposite directions in vitro, we investigated whether divergent expression patterns of these two isoforms might underlie the differential modulation of excitability in PI and motor neurons. By performing detailed in vitro and in vivo analysis, we found strikingly different modes of regulatory control by the slob57 and slob71 promoters. The slob71, but not slob57, promoter contains binding sites for the Hunchback and Mirror transcriptional repressors. Furthermore, several core promoter elements that are absent in the slob57 promoter coordinately drive robust expression of a luciferase vector by the slob71 promoter in vitro. In addition, we visualized the expression patterns of the slob57 and slob71 promoters in vivo and found clear spatiotemporal differences in promoter activity. SLOB57 is expressed prominently in adult PI neurons, whereas larval motor neurons exclusively express SLOB71. In contrast, at the larval neuromuscular junction, SLOB57 expression appears to be restricted mainly to a subset of glial cells. Our results illustrate how the use of alternative transcriptional start sites within an ion channel modulator locus coupled with functionally relevant alternative splicing can be used to fine-tune neuronal excitability in a cell-specific manner. PMID:24133277

  5. The effects of prolonged intracortical microstimulation on the excitability of pyramidal tract neurons in the cat.

    PubMed

    McCreery, Douglas B; Agnew, William F; Bullara, Leo A

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the excitability changes induced in cerebral cortical neurons during prolonged microstimulation with a spatially dense microelectrodes array. The arrays of 16 iridium microelectrodes were implanted chronically into the postcruciate gyrus of cats. Neuronal responses characteristic of single pyramidal tract axons (ULRs) were recorded in the medullary pyramid. 7 h of pulsing of individual electrodes at 50 Hz and at 4 nC/ph induced little or no change in the ULRs' electrical thresholds. The thresholds also were quite stable when 4 of the 16 microelectrodes were pulsed on each of 14 consecutive days. However, when all 16 microelectrodes were pulsed for 7 h at 4 nC/ph, the threshold of approximately half of the ULRs became elevated. Recovery of excitability required 2-18 days. Prolonged sequential (interleaved) pulsing of the 16 microelectrodes induced less depression of excitability than did simultaneous pulsing, but only when the stimulus amplitude was low (12 A, 1.8 nC/ph). Stimulation at a higher amplitude (15 nC/ph) induced much more depression of excitability. These findings imply that multiple processes mediate the stimulation-induced depression of neuronal excitability. The data also demonstrate that the depression can be reduced by employing a stimulus regimen in which the inherent spatial resolution of the array is maximized (sequential pulsing at an amplitude in which there is minimal overlap of the effective current fields). PMID:11874134

  6. Excess dietary salt intake alters the excitability of central sympathetic networks.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Sean D; Madden, Christopher J; Sved, Alan F

    2010-07-14

    The ingestion of excess dietary salt (defined as NaCl) is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, mortality, and is regarded as a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Although several mechanisms contribute to the adverse consequences of dietary salt intake, accumulating evidence suggests that dietary salt loading produces neurogenically-mediated increases in total peripheral resistance to raise arterial blood pressure (ABP). Evidence from clinical studies and experimental models clearly establishes a hypertensive effect of dietary salt loading in a subset of individuals who are deemed "salt-sensitive". However, we will discuss and present evidence to develop a novel hypothesis to suggest that while chronic increases in dietary salt intake do not elevate mean ABP in "non-salt-sensitive" animals, dietary salt intake does enhance several sympathetic reflexes thereby predisposing these animals and/or individuals to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Additional evidence raises an intriguing hypothesis that these enhanced sympathetic reflexes are largely attributed to the ability of excess dietary salt intake to selectively enhance the excitability of sympathetic-regulatory neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Insight into the cellular mechanisms by which dietary salt intake alters the responsiveness of RVLM circuits will likely provide a foundation for developing new therapeutic approaches to treat salt-sensitive hypertension. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. PMID:20434471

  7. Opening of pannexin- and connexin-based channels increases the excitability of nodose ganglion sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Retamal, Mauricio A; Alcayaga, Julio; Verdugo, Christian A; Bultynck, Geert; Leybaert, Luc; Sáez, Pablo J; Fernández, Ricardo; León, Luis E; Sáez, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Satellite glial cells (SGCs) are the main glia in sensory ganglia. They surround neuronal bodies and form a cap that prevents the formation of chemical or electrical synapses between neighboring neurons. SGCs have been suggested to establish bidirectional paracrine communication with sensory neurons. However, the molecular mechanism involved in this cellular communication is unknown. In the central nervous system (CNS), astrocytes present connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels and pannexin1 (Panx1) channels, and the opening of these channels allows the release of signal molecules, such as ATP and glutamate. We propose that these channels could play a role in glia-neuron communication in sensory ganglia. Therefore, we studied the expression and function of Cx43 and Panx1 in rat and mouse nodose-petrosal-jugular complexes (NPJcs) using confocal immunofluorescence, molecular and electrophysiological techniques. Cx43 and Panx1 were detected in SGCs and in sensory neurons, respectively. In the rat and mouse, the electrical activity of vagal nerve increased significantly after nodose neurons were exposed to a Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-free solution, a condition that increases the open probability of Cx hemichannels. This response was partially mimicked by a cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the last 10 amino acids of Cx43 (TAT-Cx43CT). Enhanced neuronal activity was reduced by Cx hemichannel, Panx1 channel and P2X7 receptor blockers. Moreover, the role of Panx1 was confirmed in NPJc, because in those from Panx1 knockout mice showed a reduced increase of neuronal activity induced by Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-free extracellular conditions. The data suggest that Cx hemichannels and Panx channels serve as paracrine communication pathways between SGCs and neurons by modulating the excitability of sensory neurons. PMID:24999316

  8. Opening of pannexin- and connexin-based channels increases the excitability of nodose ganglion sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Retamal, Mauricio A.; Alcayaga, Julio; Verdugo, Christian A.; Bultynck, Geert; Leybaert, Luc; Sáez, Pablo J.; Fernández, Ricardo; León, Luis E.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite glial cells (SGCs) are the main glia in sensory ganglia. They surround neuronal bodies and form a cap that prevents the formation of chemical or electrical synapses between neighboring neurons. SGCs have been suggested to establish bidirectional paracrine communication with sensory neurons. However, the molecular mechanism involved in this cellular communication is unknown. In the central nervous system (CNS), astrocytes present connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels and pannexin1 (Panx1) channels, and the opening of these channels allows the release of signal molecules, such as ATP and glutamate. We propose that these channels could play a role in glia-neuron communication in sensory ganglia. Therefore, we studied the expression and function of Cx43 and Panx1 in rat and mouse nodose-petrosal-jugular complexes (NPJcs) using confocal immunofluorescence, molecular and electrophysiological techniques. Cx43 and Panx1 were detected in SGCs and in sensory neurons, respectively. In the rat and mouse, the electrical activity of vagal nerve increased significantly after nodose neurons were exposed to a Ca2+/Mg2+-free solution, a condition that increases the open probability of Cx hemichannels. This response was partially mimicked by a cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the last 10 amino acids of Cx43 (TAT-Cx43CT). Enhanced neuronal activity was reduced by Cx hemichannel, Panx1 channel and P2X7 receptor blockers. Moreover, the role of Panx1 was confirmed in NPJc, because in those from Panx1 knockout mice showed a reduced increase of neuronal activity induced by Ca2+/Mg2+-free extracellular conditions. The data suggest that Cx hemichannels and Panx channels serve as paracrine communication pathways between SGCs and neurons by modulating the excitability of sensory neurons. PMID:24999316

  9. Dynorphin activation of kappa opioid receptor reduces neuronal excitability in the paraventricular nucleus of mouse thalamus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiheng; Tang, Yamei; Tao, Huai; Li, Cunyan; Zhang, Xianghui; Liu, Yong

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is expressed in the paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (PVT), a brain region associated with arousal, drug reward and stress. Although intra-PVT infusion of KOR agonist was found to inhibit drug-seeking behavior, it is still unclear whether endogenous KOR agonists directly regulate PVT neuron activity. Here, we investigated the effect of the endogenous KOR agonist dynorphin-A (Dyn-A) on the excitability of mouse PVT neurons at different developmental ages. We found Dyn-A strongly inhibited PVT neurons through a direct postsynaptic hyperpolarization. Under voltage-clamp configuration, Dyn-A evoked an obvious outward current in majority of neurons tested in anterior PVT (aPVT) but only in minority of neurons in posterior PVT (pPVT). The Dyn-A current was abolished by KOR antagonist nor-BNI, Ba(2+) and non-hydrolyzable GDP analogue GDP-β-s, indicating that Dyn-A activates KOR and opens G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels in PVT neurons. More interestingly, by comparing Dyn-A currents in aPVT neurons of mice at various ages, we found Dyn-A evoked significant larger current in aPVT neurons from mice around prepuberty and early puberty stage. In addition, KOR activation by Dyn-A didn't produce obvious desensitization, while mu opioid receptor (MOR) activation induced obvious desensitization of mu receptor itself and also heterologous desensitization of KOR in PVT neurons. Together, our findings indicate that Dyn-A activates KOR and inhibits aPVT neurons in mice at various ages especially around puberty, suggesting a possible role of KOR in regulating aPVT-related brain function including stress response and drug-seeking behavior during adolescence. PMID:26056031

  10. Inorganic polyphosphate regulates neuronal excitability through modulation of voltage-gated channels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a highly charged polyanion capable of interacting with a number of molecular targets. This signaling molecule is released into the extracellular matrix by central astrocytes and by peripheral platelets during inflammation. While the release of polyP is associated with both induction of blood coagulation and astrocyte extracellular signaling, the role of secreted polyP in regulation of neuronal activity remains undefined. Here we test the hypothesis that polyP is an important participant in neuronal signaling. Specifically, we investigate the ability of neurons to release polyP and to induce neuronal firing, and clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process by studying the action of polyP on voltage gated channels. Results Using patch clamp techniques, and primary hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion cell cultures, we demonstrate that polyP directly influences neuronal activity, inducing action potential generation in both PNS and CNS neurons. Mechanistically, this is accomplished by shifting the voltage sensitivity of NaV channel activation toward the neuronal resting membrane potential, the block KV channels, and the activation of CaV channels. Next, using calcium imaging we found that polyP stimulates an increase in neuronal network activity and induces calcium influx in glial cells. Using in situ DAPI localization and live imaging, we demonstrate that polyP is naturally present in synaptic regions and is released from the neurons upon depolarization. Finally, using a biochemical assay we demonstrate that polyP is present in synaptosomes and can be released upon their membrane depolarization by the addition of potassium chloride. Conclusions We conclude that polyP release leads to increased excitability of the neuronal membrane through the modulation of voltage gated ion channels. Together, our data establishes that polyP could function as excitatory neuromodulator in both the PNS and CNS. PMID:24886461

  11. Transpinal and Transcortical Stimulation Alter Corticospinal Excitability and Increase Spinal Output

    PubMed Central

    Knikou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in corticospinal excitability and spinal output following noninvasive transpinal and transcortical stimulation in humans. The size of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and recorded from the right plantar flexor and extensor muscles, was assessed following transcutaneous electric stimulation of the spine (tsESS) over the thoracolumbar region at conditioning-test (C-T) intervals that ranged from negative 50 to positive 50 ms. The size of the transpinal evoked potentials (TEPs), induced by tsESS and recorded from the right and left plantar flexor and extensor muscles, was assessed following TMS over the left primary motor cortex at 0.7 and at 1.1× MEP resting threshold at C-T intervals that ranged from negative 50 to positive 50 ms. The recruitment curves of MEPs and TEPs had a similar shape, and statistically significant differences between the sigmoid function parameters of MEPs and TEPs were not found. Anodal tsESS resulted in early MEP depression followed by long-latency MEP facilitation of both ankle plantar flexors and extensors. TEPs of ankle plantar flexors and extensors were increased regardless TMS intensity level. Subthreshold and suprathreshold TMS induced short-latency TEP facilitation that was larger in the TEPs ipsilateral to TMS. Noninvasive transpinal stimulation affected ipsilateral and contralateral actions of corticospinal neurons, while corticocortical and corticospinal descending volleys increased TEPs in both limbs. Transpinal and transcortical stimulation is a noninvasive neuromodulation method that alters corticospinal excitability and increases motor output of multiple spinal segments in humans. PMID:25007330

  12. Acute lipopolysaccharide exposure facilitates epileptiform activity via enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Wei; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates brain inflammation has been involved in the genesis of seizures. However, the direct effect of acute inflammation on neuronal circuits is not well known. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been used extensively to stimulate brain inflammatory responses both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we observed the contribution of inflammation induced by 10 μg/mL LPS to the excitability of neuronal circuits in acute hippocampal slices. When slices were incubated with LPS for 30 minutes, significant increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In electrophysiological recordings, we found that frequency of epileptiform discharges and spikes per burst increased 30 minutes after LPS application. LPS enhanced evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents but did not modify evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents. In addition, exposure to LPS enhanced the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, as demonstrated by a decrease in rheobase and an increase in action potential frequency elicited by depolarizing current injection. Our observations suggest that acute inflammation induced by LPS facilitates epileptiform activity in vitro and that enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability may contribute to this facilitation. These results may provide new clues for treating seizures associated with brain inflammatory disease. PMID:25170268

  13. Cyclic AMP Stimulates Neurite Outgrowth of Lamprey Reticulospinal Neurons without Substantially Altering Their Biophysical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pale, Timothée; Frisch, Emily B.; McClellan, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Reticulospinal (RS) neurons are critical for initiation of locomotor behavior, and following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, the axons of these neurons regenerate and restore locomotor behavior within a few weeks. For lamprey RS neurons in culture, experimental induction of calcium influx, either in the growth cone or cell body, is inhibitory for neurite outgrowth. Following SCI, these neurons partially downregulate calcium channel expression, which would be expected to reduce calcium influx and possibly provide supportive conditions for axonal regeneration. In the present study, it was tested whether activation of second messenger signaling pathways stimulates neurite outgrowth of lamprey RS neurons without altering their electrical properties (e.g. spike broadening) so as to possibly increase calcium influx and compromise axonal growth. First, activation of cAMP pathways with forskolin or dbcAMP stimulated neurite outgrowth of RS neurons in culture in a PKA-dependent manner, while activation of cGMP signaling pathways with dbcGMP inhibited outgrowth. Second, neurophysiological recordings from uninjured RS neurons in isolated lamprey brain-spinal cord preparations indicated that dbcAMP or dbcGMP did not significantly affect any of the measured electrical properties. In contrast, for uninjured RS neurons, forskolin increased action potential duration, which might have increased calcium influx, but did not significantly affect most other electrical properties. Importantly, for injured RS neurons during the period of axonal regeneration, forskolin did not significantly alter their electrical properties. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of cAMP signaling by dbcAMP stimulates neurite outgrowth, but does not alter the electrical properties of lamprey RS neurons in such a way that would be expected to induce calcium influx. In conclusion, our results suggest that activation of cAMP pathways alone, without compensation for possible

  14. Control of ventricular excitability by neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve

    PubMed Central

    Machhada, Asif; Ang, Richard; Ackland, Gareth L.; Ninkina, Natalia; Buchman, Vladimir L.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Trapp, Stefan; Tinker, Andrew; Marina, Nephtali; Gourine, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The central nervous origins of functional parasympathetic innervation of cardiac ventricles remain controversial. Objective This study aimed to identify a population of vagal preganglionic neurons that contribute to the control of ventricular excitability. An animal model of synuclein pathology relevant to Parkinson’s disease was used to determine whether age-related loss of the activity of the identified group of neurons is associated with changes in ventricular electrophysiology. Methods In vivo cardiac electrophysiology was performed in anesthetized rats in conditions of selective inhibition of the dorsal vagal motor nucleus (DVMN) neurons by pharmacogenetic approach and in mice with global genetic deletion of all family members of the synuclein protein. Results In rats anesthetized with urethane (in conditions of systemic beta-adrenoceptor blockade), muscarinic and neuronal nitric oxide synthase blockade confirmed the existence of a tonic parasympathetic control of cardiac excitability mediated by the actions of acetylcholine and nitric oxide. Acute DVMN silencing led to shortening of the ventricular effective refractory period (vERP), a lowering of the threshold for triggered ventricular tachycardia, and prolongation of the corrected QT (QTc) interval. Lower resting activity of the DVMN neurons in aging synuclein-deficient mice was found to be associated with vERP shortening and QTc interval prolongation. Conclusion Activity of the DVMN vagal preganglionic neurons is responsible for tonic parasympathetic control of ventricular excitability, likely to be mediated by nitric oxide. These findings provide the first insight into the central nervous substrate that underlies functional parasympathetic innervation of the ventricles and highlight its vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26051529

  15. Optical controling dynamic and fluctuation processes in ensemble of neurons at pulsed electrical excitation ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, Garif G.; Seliverstov, George A.; Akchurin, Alexander G.; Akchurin, George G.

    2004-05-01

    Dynamic response of the somatic frog nerve on electrical pulsed excitation was investigated ex vivo. Strong fluctuation of consequence compound action potential in ensemble of neurons near-threshold was discovered. The nonlinear response of the Hodgkin-Huxley model neurons with external electrical pulsed was investigated and numeral results correlation with experiments. Complex dynamic of compound action potential was discovered when on-line time of stimulatory electrical pulses comparable with nerve refractory period. New techniques research nonlinear behavior using photodynamic reactions or UV-A radiation at somatic frog nerve was approved. This nonlinear dynamic regime was controlling laser induced inactivation of processes in membrane of nerve.

  16. Neural Excitability Alterations After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Lepley, Adam S.; Ericksen, Hayley M.; Clements, Amy; Sohn, David H.; Gribble, Phillip A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Neuromuscular dysfunction is common after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). However, little is known about quadriceps spinal-reflex and descending corticomotor excitability after ACL-R. Understanding the effects of ACL-R on spinal-reflex and corticomotor excitability will help elucidate the origins of neuromuscular dysfunction. Objective To determine whether spinal-reflex excitability and corticomotor excitability differed between the injured and uninjured limbs of patients with unilateral ACL-R and between these limbs and the matched limbs of healthy participants. Design Case-control study. Setting Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 28 patients with unilateral ACL-R (9 men, 19 women; age = 21.28 ± 3.79 years, height = 170.95 ± 10.04 cm, mass = 73.18 ± 18.02 kg, time after surgery = 48.10 ± 36.17 months) and 29 participants serving as healthy controls (9 men, 20 women; age = 21.55 ± 2.70 years, height = 170.59 ± 8.93 cm, mass = 71.89 ± 12.70 kg) volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s) Active motor thresholds (AMTs) were collected from the vastus medialis (VM) using transcranial magnetic stimulation. We evaluated VM spinal reflexes using the Hoffmann reflex normalized to maximal muscle responses (H : M ratio). Voluntary quadriceps activation was measured with the superimposed-burst technique and calculated using the central activation ratio (CAR). We also evaluated whether ACL-R patients with high or low voluntary activation had different outcomes. Results The AMT was higher in the injured than in the uninjured limb in the ACL-R group (t27 = 3.32, P = .003) and in the matched limb of the control group (t55 = 2.05, P = .04). The H : M ratio was bilaterally higher in the ACL-R than the control group (F1,55 = 5.17, P = .03). The quadriceps CAR was bilaterally lower in the ACL-R compared with the control group (F1,55 = 10.5, P = .002). The ACL-R group with low voluntary activation (CAR < 0.95) had higher AMT than

  17. A role for intracellular zinc in glioma alteration of neuronal chloride equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Di Angelantonio, S; Murana, E; Cocco, S; Scala, F; Bertollini, C; Molinari, M G; Lauro, C; Bregestovski, P; Limatola, C; Ragozzino, D

    2014-01-01

    Glioma patients commonly suffer from epileptic seizures. However, the mechanisms of glioma-associated epilepsy are far to be completely understood. Using glioma-neurons co-cultures, we found that tumor cells are able to deeply influence neuronal chloride homeostasis, by depolarizing the reversal potential of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-evoked currents (EGABA). EGABA depolarizing shift is due to zinc-dependent reduction of neuronal KCC2 activity and requires glutamate release from glioma cells. Consistently, intracellular zinc loading rapidly depolarizes EGABA in mouse hippocampal neurons, through the Src/Trk pathway and this effect is promptly reverted upon zinc chelation. This study provides a possible molecular mechanism linking glioma invasion to excitation/inhibition imbalance and epileptic seizures, through the zinc–mediated disruption of neuronal chloride homeostasis. PMID:25356870

  18. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Excites GnRH Neurons in Male and Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Piet, Richard; Dunckley, Henry; Lee, Kiho; Herbison, Allan E

    2016-09-01

    A variety of external and internal factors modulate the activity of GnRH neurons to control fertility in mammals. A direct, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-mediated input to GnRH neurons originating from the suprachiasmatic nucleus is thought to relay circadian information within this network. In the present study, we examined the effects of VIP on GnRH neuron activity in male and female mice at different stages of the estrous cycle. We carried out cell-attached recordings in slices from GnRH-green fluorescent protein mice and calcium imaging in slices from a mouse line expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP3 selectively in GnRH neurons. We show that 50%-80% of GnRH neurons increase their firing rate in response to bath-applied VIP (1nM-1000nM) in both male and female mice and that this is accompanied by a robust increase in intracellular calcium concentrations. This effect is mediated directly at the GnRH neuron likely through activation of high-affinity VIP receptors. Because suprachiasmatic nucleus-derived timing cues trigger the preovulatory surge only on the afternoon of proestrus in female mice, we examined the effects of VIP during the estrous cycle at different times of day. VIP responsiveness in GnRH neurons did not vary significantly in diestrous and proestrous mice before or around the time of the expected preovulatory surge. These results indicate that the majority of GnRH neurons in male and female mice express functional VIP receptors and that the effects of VIP on GnRH neurons do not alter across the estrous cycle. PMID:27501185

  19. Abrupt and gradual transitions between low and hyperexcited firing frequencies in neuronal models with fast synaptic excitation: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstein, Horacio G.

    2013-12-01

    Hyperexcitability of neuronal networks is one of the hallmarks of epileptic brain seizure generation, and results from a net imbalance between excitation and inhibition that promotes excessive abnormal firing frequencies. The transition between low and high firing frequencies as the levels of recurrent AMPA excitation change can occur either gradually or abruptly. We used modeling, numerical simulations, and dynamical systems tools to investigate the biophysical and dynamic mechanisms that underlie these two identified modes of transition in recurrently connected neurons via AMPA excitation. We compare our results and demonstrate that these two modes of transition are qualitatively different and can be linked to different intrinsic properties of the participating neurons.

  20. Activity-dependent serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons in the mouse prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Emily K.; Avesar, Daniel; Gulledge, Allan T.

    2014-01-01

    Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) in the mouse prefrontal cortex respond to serotonin (5-HT) according to their long-distance axonal projections; 5-HT1A (1A) receptors mediate inhibitory responses in corticopontine (CPn) L5PNs, while 5-HT2A (2A) receptors can enhance action potential (AP) output in callosal/commissural (COM) L5PNs, either directly (in “COM-excited” neurons), or following brief 1A-mediated inhibition (in “COM-biphasic” neurons). Here we compare the impact of 5-HT on the excitability of CPn and COM L5PNs experiencing variable excitatory drive produced by current injection (DC current or simulated synaptic current) or with exogenous glutamate. 5-HT delivered at resting membrane potentials, or paired with subthreshold depolarizing input, hyperpolarized CPn and COM-biphasic L5PNs and failed to promote AP generation in COM-excited L5PNs. Conversely, when paired with suprathreshold excitatory drive generating multiple APs, 5-HT suppressed AP output in CPn L5PNs, enhanced AP generation in COM-excited L5PNs, and generated variable responses in COM-biphasic L5PNs. While COM-excited neurons failed to respond to 5-HT in the presence of a 2A receptor antagonist, 32% of CPn neurons exhibited 2A-dependent excitation following blockade of 1A receptors. The presence of pharmacologically revealed 2A receptors in CPn L5PNs was correlated with the duration of 1A-mediated inhibition, yet biphasic excitatory responses to 5-HT were never observed, even when 5-HT was paired with strong excitatory drive. Our results suggest that 2A receptors selectively amplify the output of COM L5PNs experiencing suprathreshold excitatory drive, while shaping the duration of 1A-mediated inhibition in a subset of CPn L5PNs. Activity-dependent serotonergic excitation of COM L5PNs, combined with 1A-mediated inhibition of CPn and COM-biphasic L5PNs, may facilitate executive function by focusing network activity within cortical circuits subserving the most appropriate behavioral output

  1. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-12-01

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation.

  2. Redistribution of Kv1 and Kv7 enhances neuronal excitability during structural axon initial segment plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kuba, Hiroshi; Yamada, Rei; Ishiguro, Go; Adachi, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    Structural plasticity of the axon initial segment (AIS), the trigger zone of neurons, is a powerful means for regulating neuronal activity. Here, we show that AIS plasticity is not limited to structural changes; it also occurs as changes in ion-channel expression, which substantially augments the efficacy of regulation. In the avian cochlear nucleus, depriving afferent inputs by removing cochlea elongated the AIS, and simultaneously switched the dominant Kv channels at the AIS from Kv1.1 to Kv7.2. Due to the slow activation kinetics of Kv7.2, the redistribution of the Kv channels reduced the shunting conductance at the elongated AIS during the initiation of action potentials and effectively enhanced the excitability of the deprived neurons. The results indicate that the functional plasticity of the AIS works cooperatively with the structural plasticity and compensates for the loss of afferent inputs to maintain the homeostasis of auditory circuits after hearing loss by cochlea removal. PMID:26581625

  3. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation. PMID:26631412

  4. Suppression of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and neuronal excitability by imperatorin.

    PubMed

    Wu, King-Chuen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Cheng, Ka-Shun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yang, Chin-Tsang; Wong, Kar-Lok; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Chan, Paul; Leung, Yuk-Man

    2013-12-01

    Imperatorin is a naturally occurring furocoumarin compound isolated from plants such as Angelica archangelica and Cnidium monnieri. It has multiple pharmacological effects including anticonvulsant effects. Here we determined the effects of imperatorin on voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) using whole-cell patch clamp techniques in differentiated neuronal NG108-15 cells. We showed that imperatorin inhibited VGSC; such inhibition did not show state-dependence. Imperatorin caused a left shift in the steady-state inactivation curve without affecting activation gating. The inhibition of VGSC by imperatorin displayed a mild frequency-dependence. Imperatorin was also shown to inhibit VGSC and action potential amplitude without affecting voltage-gated K(+) channels in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. In conclusion, our results suggest that imperatorin dampens neuronal excitability by inhibiting VGSC. PMID:24113522

  5. Developmental changes in membrane excitability and morphology of neurons in the nucleus angularis of the chicken

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Iwao; Ohmori, Harunori

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand how sound intensity information is extracted and processed in the auditory nuclei, we investigated the neuronal excitability in the nucleus angularis (NA) of the chicken (P0–5) and the chicken embryo (E16–21). In embryos, neurons fired basically in three patterns in response to current injections: the onset pattern (19 %), the tonic pattern (52 %) and the pause pattern (29 %). After hatching, neurons fired either in the tonic pattern (83 %) or in the onset pattern (17 %). In both pre- and post-hatch periods, multiple firing neurons (tonic and pause) increased the maximum rate of rise of the action potential 2.6-fold, the fall 3.9-fold, and the maximum firing frequency 4-fold, and shifted the threshold potential to be more negative. After hatching, the firing frequency of tonic neurons reached a maximum at about 650 Hz. Application of TEA (1 mm) reduced the firing frequency, broadened action potentials and reduced the maximum rate of fall, but the threshold current was not changed. Dendrotoxin-I (DTX, 100 nm) reduced the threshold current. Application of DTX induced the onset neuron to fire repetitively. Branching patterns of auditory nerve fibres (ANFs) in NA were visualized by labelling with 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (Di-I) placed within the cochlea. Di-I placed near the apex of the cochlea labelled the ventral part of the NA, and Di-I placed in the base labelled the dorso-lateral part. Tonic neurons labelled with biocytin extended dendrites in parallel with the projection of ANFs in the nucleus after hatching. ANF activity of a limited range of characteristic sound frequencies is thought to be extracted by tonic neurons and encoded into firing frequencies proportional to the strength of the input. PMID:12576492

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) alters acid-sensitivity of cultured neurons derived from the medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Okada, Junichi; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2005-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known as environmental pollutants that may cause adverse health problems. However, little is known about the effects of PCBs on acid-sensitive neurons of the medulla oblongata, which regulate respiration. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine whether PCB alters acid-sensitivity of cultured neurons derived from the rat medulla oblongata. When extracellular pH was shifted from 7.4 to 7.0, acid-sensitive neurons showed depolarization, which was measured by voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye. Exposure to PCB (Aroclor 1254) decreased the amplitude of depolarization in low pH and increased the resting membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that PCB potentially influences acid-sensitivity through alteration of the membrane potential of acid-sensitive neurons, which could affect the regulation of respiration. PMID:15833269

  7. Reaction-diffusion waves in neuronal tissue and the window of cortical excitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlem, M. A.; Müller, S. C.

    2004-07-01

    Spreading depression (SD) is a dynamic wave phenomenon occurring in all gray matter regions of the central nervous systems (CNS). It is characterized by a sudden breakdown of neuronal activity and accompanied by a massive influx and efflux of ions across the membrane of neurons. The retina is a constituent of the CNS in which one can easily observe the dynamic behavior of the SD wave fronts, because SD changes the optical properties of the tissue. There is ample evidence that SD belongs to the self-organization processes due to the coupling of reaction with diffusion in excitable medium. It is assumed that the occurrence of SD is associated with some neurological symptoms of migraine with aura. A frequently reported aura symptom is a traveling visual blind region (scotoma) with a preceding figure of scintillating line segments. The characteristic form and development of the scotoma suggests that the underlying phenomenon is a wave propagating through the primary visual cortex, most likely the cortical spreading depression. In this article we discuss similarities between SD waves and the migraine aura on the basis of properties of reaction-diffusion waves known from other excitable media. In particular, the propagation velocities, the shape and the dynamics of the waves are compared with each other. We find that the assumption of the neuronal tissue to be in a state of only weak excitability explains some properties of the migraine aura, such as the confined appearance and its propagation with a stable velocity.

  8. Genetic Background Modulates Impaired Excitability of Inhibitory Neurons in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Moran; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Yu, Frank H.; Jones, Christina J.; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Dominant loss-of-function mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1 cause Dravet Syndrome, an intractable childhood-onset epilepsy. NaV1.1+/− Dravet Syndrome mice in C57BL/6 genetic background exhibit severe seizures, cognitive and social impairments, and premature death. Here we show that Dravet Syndrome mice in pure 129/SvJ genetic background have many fewer seizures and much less premature death than in pure C57BL/6 background. These mice also have a higher threshold for thermally induced seizures, fewer myoclonic seizures, and no cognitive impairment, similar to patients with Genetic Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus. Consistent with this mild phenotype, mutation of NaV1.1 channels has much less physiological effect on neuronal excitability in 129/SvJ mice. In hippocampal slices, the excitability of CA1 Stratum Oriens interneurons is selectively impaired, while the excitability of CA1 pyramidal cells is unaffected. NaV1.1 haploinsufficiency results in increased rheobase and threshold for action potential firing and impaired ability to sustain high-frequency firing. Moreover, deletion of NaV1.1 markedly reduces the amplification and integration of synaptic events, further contributing to reduced excitability of interneurons. Excitability is less impaired in inhibitory neurons of Dravet Syndrome mice in 129/SvJ genetic background. Because specific deletion of NaV1.1 in forebrain GABAergic interneuons is sufficient to cause the symptoms of Dravet Syndrome in mice, our results support the conclusion that the milder phenotype in 129/SvJ mice is caused by lesser impairment of sodium channel function and electrical excitability in their forebrain interneurons. This mild impairment of excitability of interneurons leads to a milder disease phenotype in 129/SvJ mice, similar to Genetic Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus in humans. PMID:25281316

  9. Stim and Orai proteins in neuronal Ca2+ signaling and excitability

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Francesco; Zuccolo, Estella; Soda, Teresa; Tanzi, Franco; Guerra, Germano; Mapelli, Lisa; Lodola, Francesco; D’Angelo, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Stim1 and Orai1 are ubiquitous proteins that have long been known to mediate Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) current (ICRAC) and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) only in non-excitable cells. SOCE is activated following the depletion of the endogenous Ca2+ stores, which are mainly located within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), to replete the intracellular Ca2+ reservoir and engage specific Ca2+-dependent processes, such as proliferation, migration, cytoskeletal remodeling, and gene expression. Their paralogs, Stim2, Orai2 and Orai3, support SOCE in heterologous expression systems, but their physiological role is still obscure. Ca2+ inflow in neurons has long been exclusively ascribed to voltage-operated and receptor-operated channels. Nevertheless, recent work has unveiled that Stim1–2 and Orai1-2, but not Orai3, proteins are also expressed and mediate SOCE in neurons. Herein, we survey current knowledge about the neuronal distribution of Stim and Orai proteins in rodent and human brains; we further discuss that Orai2 is the main pore-forming subunit of CRAC channels in central neurons, in which it may be activated by either Stim1 or Stim2 depending on species, brain region and physiological stimuli. We examine the functions regulated by SOCE in neurons, where this pathway is activated under resting conditions to refill the ER, control spinogenesis and regulate gene transcription. Besides, we highlighted the possibility that SOCE also controls neuronal excitation and regulate synaptic plasticity. Finally, we evaluate the involvement of Stim and Orai proteins in severe neurodegenerative and neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. PMID:25964739

  10. Brain excitability and connectivity of neuronal assemblies in Alzheimer's disease: from animal models to human findings.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, Marcello; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2012-10-01

    The human brain contains about 100 billion neurons forming an intricate network of innumerable connections, which continuously adapt and rewire themselves following inputs from external and internal environments as well as the physiological synaptic, dendritic and axonal sculpture during brain maturation and throughout the life span. Growing evidence supports the idea that Alzheimer's disease (AD) targets selected and functionally connected neuronal networks and, specifically, their synaptic terminals, affecting brain connectivity well before producing neuronal loss and compartmental atrophy. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the dismantling of neuronal circuits and the implementation of 'clinically oriented' methods to map-out the dynamic interactions amongst neuronal assemblies will enhance early/pre-symptomatic diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression. More important, this will open the avenues to innovative treatments, bridging the gap between molecular mechanisms and the variety of symptoms forming disease phenotype. In the present review a set of evidence supports the idea that altered brain connectivity, exhausted neural plasticity and aberrant neuronal activity are facets of the same coin linked to age-related neurodegenerative dementia of Alzheimer type. Investigating their respective roles in AD pathophysiology will help in translating findings from basic research to clinical applications. PMID:22789698

  11. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some) fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala), but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens). These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues–which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences. PMID:24548554

  12. Modified cell cycle status in a mouse model of altered neuronal vulnerability (slow Wallerian degeneration; Wlds)

    PubMed Central

    Wishart, Thomas M; Pemberton, Helen N; James, Sally R; McCabe, Chris J; Gillingwater, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    Background Altered neuronal vulnerability underlies many diseases of the human nervous system, resulting in degeneration and loss of neurons. The neuroprotective slow Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) mutation delays degeneration in axonal and synaptic compartments of neurons following a wide range of traumatic and disease-inducing stimuli, providing a powerful experimental tool with which to investigate modulation of neuronal vulnerability. Although the mechanisms through which Wlds confers neuroprotection remain unclear, a diverse range of downstream modifications, incorporating several genes/pathways, have been implicated. These include the following: elevated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels associated with nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (Nmnat1; a part of the chimeric Wlds gene); altered mRNA expression levels of genes such as pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (Pttg1); changes in the location/activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery via binding to valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97); and modified synaptic expression of proteins such as ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (Ube1). Results Wlds expression in mouse cerebellum and HEK293 cells induced robust increases in a broad spectrum of cell cycle-related genes. Both NAD-dependent and Pttg1-dependent pathways were responsible for mediating different subsets of these alterations, also incorporating changes in VCP/p97 localization and Ube1 expression. Cell proliferation rates were not modified by Wlds, suggesting that later mitotic phases of the cell cycle remained unaltered. We also demonstrate that Wlds concurrently altered endogenous cell stress pathways. Conclusion We report a novel cellular phenotype in cells with altered neuronal vulnerability. We show that previous reports of diverse changes occurring downstream from Wlds expression converge upon modifications in cell cycle status. These data suggest a strong correlation between modified cell cycle pathways and altered

  13. Phasic, suprathreshold excitation and sustained inhibition underlie neuronal selectivity for short-duration sounds.

    PubMed

    Alluri, Rishi K; Rose, Gary J; Hanson, Jessica L; Leary, Christopher J; Vasquez-Opazo, Gustavo A; Graham, Jalina A; Wilkerson, Jeremy

    2016-03-29

    Sound duration is important in acoustic communication, including speech recognition in humans. Although duration-selective auditory neurons have been found, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. To investigate these mechanisms we combined in vivo whole-cell patch recordings from midbrain neurons, extraction of excitatory and inhibitory conductances, and focal pharmacological manipulations. We show that selectivity for short-duration stimuli results from integration of short-latency, sustained inhibition with delayed, phasic excitation; active membrane properties appeared to amplify responses to effective stimuli. Blocking GABAAreceptors attenuated stimulus-related inhibition, revealed suprathreshold excitation at all stimulus durations, and decreased short-pass selectivity without changing resting potentials. Blocking AMPA and NMDA receptors to attenuate excitation confirmed that inhibition tracks stimulus duration and revealed no evidence of postinhibitory rebound depolarization inherent to coincidence models of duration selectivity. These results strongly support an anticoincidence mechanism of short-pass selectivity, wherein inhibition and suprathreshold excitation show greatest temporal overlap for long duration stimuli. PMID:26976602

  14. Altered iPSC-derived neurons' sodium channel properties in subjects with Monge's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Gu, X Q; Chailangkarn, T; Perkins, G; Callacondo, D; Appenzeller, O; Poulsen, O; Zhou, D; Muotri, A R; Haddad, G G

    2015-03-12

    Monge's disease, also known as chronic mountain sickness (CMS), is a disease that potentially threatens more than 140 million highlanders during extended time living at high altitudes (over 2500m). The prevalence of CMS in Andeans is about 15-20%, suggesting that the majority of highlanders (non-CMS) are rather healthy at high altitudes; however, CMS subjects experience severe hypoxemia, erythrocytosis and many neurologic manifestations including migraine, headache, mental fatigue, confusion, and memory loss. The underlying mechanisms of CMS neuropathology are not well understood and no ideal treatment is available to prevent or cure CMS, except for phlebotomy. In the current study, we reprogrammed fibroblast cells from both CMS and non-CMS subjects' skin biopsies into the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), then differentiated into neurons and compared their neuronal properties. We discovered that CMS neurons were much less excitable (higher rheobase) than non-CMS neurons. This decreased excitability was not caused by differences in passive neuronal properties, but instead by a significantly lowered Na(+) channel current density and by a shift of the voltage-conductance curve in the depolarization direction. Our findings provide, for the first time, evidence of a neuronal abnormality in CMS subjects as compared to non-CMS subjects, hoping that such studies can pave the way to a better understanding of the neuropathology in CMS. PMID:25559931

  15. Synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C induces a rapid imbalance in neuronal excitability.

    PubMed

    Martín, Victor; Vale, Carmen; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Rubiolo, Juan Andrés; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2015-06-15

    Ciguatera is a human global disease caused by the consumption of contaminated fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs), sodium channel activator toxins. Symptoms of ciguatera include neurological alterations such as paraesthesiae, dysaesthesiae, depression, and heightened nociperception, among others. An important issue to understand these long-term neurological alterations is to establish the role that changes in activity produced by CTX 3C represent to neurons. Here, the effects of synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on membrane potential, spontaneous spiking, and properties of synaptic transmission in cultured cortical neurons of 11-18 days in vitro (DIV) were evaluated using electrophysiological approaches. CTX 3C induced a large depolarization that decreased neuronal firing and caused a rapid inward tonic current that was primarily GABAergic. Moreover, the toxin enhanced the amplitude of miniature postsynaptic inhibitory currents (mIPSCs), whereas it decreased the amplitude of miniature postsynaptic excitatory currents (mEPSCs). The frequency of mIPSCs increased, whereas the frequency of mEPSCs remained unaltered. We describe, for the first time, that a rapid membrane depolarization caused by CTX 3C in cortical neurons activates mechanisms that tend to suppress electrical activity by shifting the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission toward inhibition. Indeed, these results suggest that the acute effects of CTX on synaptic transmission could underlie some of the neurological symptoms caused by ciguatera in humans. PMID:25945403

  16. Combined chronic blockade of hyper-active L-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors ameliorates HIV-1 associated hyper-excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Khodr, Christina E; Chen, Lihua; Dave, Sonya; Al-Harthi, Lena; Hu, Xiu-Ti

    2016-10-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection induces neurological and neuropsychological deficits, which are associated with dysregulation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other vulnerable brain regions. We evaluated the impact of HIV infection in the mPFC and the therapeutic potential of targeting over-active voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (L-channel) and NMDA receptors (NMDAR), as modeled in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to assess the membrane properties and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) potentials (Ca(2+) influx) in mPFC pyramidal neurons. Neurons from HIV-1 Tg rats displayed reduced rheobase, spike amplitude and inwardly-rectifying K(+) influx, increased numbers of action potentials, and a trend of aberrant firing compared to those from non-Tg control rats. Neuronal hyper-excitation was associated with abnormally-enhanced Ca(2+) influx (independent of NMDAR), which was eliminated by acute L-channel blockade. Combined chronic blockade of over-active L-channels and NMDARs with open-channel blockers abolished HIV effects on spiking, aberrant firing and Ca(2+) potential half-amplitude duration, though not the reduced inward rectification. In contrast, individual chronic blockade of over-active L-channels or NMDARs did not alleviate HIV-induced mPFC hyper-excitability. These studies demonstrate that HIV alters mPFC neuronal activity by dysregulating membrane excitability and Ca(2+) influx through the L-channels. This renders these neurons more susceptible and vulnerable to excitatory stimuli, and could contribute to HIV-associated neuropathogenesis. Combined targeting of over-active L-channels/NMDARs alleviates HIV-induced dysfunction of mPFC pyramidal neurons, emphasizing a potential novel therapeutic strategy that may effectively decrease HIV-induced Ca(2+) dysregulation in the mPFC. PMID:27326669

  17. Long-term potentiation of neuronal excitation by neuron-glia interactions in the rat spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide; Murase, Kazuyuki

    2007-03-01

    By imaging neuronal excitation in rat spinal cord slices with a voltage-sensitive dye, we examined the role of glial cells in the P2X receptor agonist alphabeta-methylene ATP (alphabetameATP)-triggered long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dorsal horn. Bath application of alphabetameATP potentiated neuronal excitation in the superficial dorsal horn. The potentiation was inhibited in the presence of the P2X receptor antagonists TNP-ATP, PPADS and A-317491, and was not induced in slices taken from rats neonatally treated with capsaicin. These results suggest that alphabetameATP acts on P2X receptors, possibly P2X(3) and/or P2X(2/3), in capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent terminals. Furthermore, the potentiation was inhibited by treatment with the glial metabolism inhibitor monofluoroacetic acid. Results obtained with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor SB203580, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-6, and antibodies to TNF-alpha and IL-6, as well as by double immunolabelling of activated p38 MAPK with markers of astrocytes and microglia, demonstrated that alphabetameATP activated p38 MAPK in astrocytes, and that the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and p38 MAPK activation were necessary for the induction of alphabetameATP-triggered LTP. These findings indicate that glial cells contribute to the alphabetameATP-induced LTP, which might be part of a cellular mechanism for the induction of persistent pain. PMID:17425556

  18. Disruption of Slc4a10 augments neuronal excitability and modulates synaptic short-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sinning, Anne; Liebmann, Lutz; Hübner, Christian A.

    2015-01-01

    Slc4a10 is a Na+-coupled Cl−-HCO3− exchanger, which is expressed in principal and inhibitory neurons as well as in choroid plexus epithelial cells of the brain. Slc4a10 knockout (KO) mice have collapsed brain ventricles and display an increased seizure threshold, while heterozygous deletions in man have been associated with idiopathic epilepsy and other neurological symptoms. To further characterize the role of Slc4a10 for network excitability, we compared input-output relations as well as short and long term changes of evoked field potentials in Slc4a10 KO and wildtype (WT) mice. While responses of CA1 pyramidal neurons to stimulation of Schaffer collaterals were increased in Slc4a10 KO mice, evoked field potentials did not differ between genotypes in the stratum radiatum or the neocortical areas analyzed. Paired pulse facilitation was diminished in the hippocampus upon disruption of Slc4a10. In the neocortex paired pulse depression was increased. Though short term plasticity is modulated via Slc4a10, long term potentiation appears independent of Slc4a10. Our data support that Slc4a10 dampens neuronal excitability and thus sheds light on the pathophysiology of SLC4A10 associated pathologies. PMID:26136660

  19. A characterization of the effects on neuronal excitability due to prolonged microstimulation with chronically implanted microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    McCreery, D B; Yuen, T G; Agnew, W F; Bullara, L A

    1997-10-01

    Localized, long-lasting stimulation-induced depression of neuronal excitability (SIDNE) is a consequence of prolonged, high-frequency microstimulation in the central nervous system (CNS). It represents a persisting refractory state in the neurons and axons near the stimulating microelectrode, that occurs in the absence of histologically detectable tissue injury. It does not involve a change in synaptic efficacy and, in this respect, it differs from the more familiar phenomenon of long-term depression (LTD). Although SIDNE is ultimately reversible (after several days), it must be taken into account in the design of neural prostheses based on microstimulation in the central nervous system and in animal studies that require prolonged microstimulation in the CNS. In this study, we have characterized the phenomenon, using as the paradigm, iridium microelectrodes implanted chronically in the cat's posteroventral cochlear nucleus. Although the SIDNE may persist for several days after the end of the stimulation protocol, it does not become more severe from day to day when the stimulation protocol is repeated on successive days. The severity of the SIDNE is strongly dependent upon both the instantaneous frequency and the duty cycle of the electrical stimulation. The character of the SIDNE, including its localization to the immediate vicinity of the stimulating microelectrodes, suggests that the phenomenon is a direct consequence of the prolonged electrical excitation of the neurons close to the microelectrode. The problem of designing microstimulation systems that allow high-frequency stimulation of a neural substrate, while minimizing SIDNE are discussed. PMID:9311162

  20. Rare variants in neuronal excitability genes influence risk for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ament, Seth A.; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Glusman, Gustavo; Ashworth, Justin; Hou, Liping; Akula, Nirmala; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Badner, Judith A.; Brunkow, Mary E.; Mauldin, Denise E.; Stittrich, Anna-Barbara; Rouleau, Katherine; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Nurnberger, John I.; Gershon, Elliot S.; Schork, Nicholas; Price, Nathan D.; Gelinas, Richard; Hood, Leroy; Craig, David; McMahon, Francis J.; Kelsoe, John R.; Roach, Jared C.; Kelsoe, John R.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Shilling, Paul D.; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Roach, Jared C.; Ament, Seth A.; Hood, Leroy; Nurnberger, John I.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Koller, Daniel L.; Gershon, Elliot S.; Badner, Judith A.; Liu, Chunyu; Scheftner, William A.; Lawson, William B.; Coryell, William; Potash, James B.; Rice, John; Byerley, William; McMahon, Francis J.; Hou, Liping; Berrettini, Wade H.; Zandi, Peter P.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Craig, David W.; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Quarless, Danjuma

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of 200 individuals from 41 families multiply affected with bipolar disorder (BD) to identify contributions of rare variants to genetic risk. We initially focused on 3,087 candidate genes with known synaptic functions or prior evidence from genome-wide association studies. BD pedigrees had an increased burden of rare variants in genes encoding neuronal ion channels, including subunits of GABAA receptors and voltage-gated calcium channels. Four uncommon coding and regulatory variants also showed significant association, including a missense variant in GABRA6. Targeted sequencing of 26 of these candidate genes in an additional 3,014 cases and 1,717 controls confirmed rare variant associations in ANK3, CACNA1B, CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNG2, CAMK2A, and NGF. Variants in promoters and 5′ and 3′ UTRs contributed more strongly than coding variants to risk for BD, both in pedigrees and in the case-control cohort. The genes and pathways identified in this study regulate diverse aspects of neuronal excitability. We conclude that rare variants in neuronal excitability genes contribute to risk for BD. PMID:25730879

  1. Alterations in cortical network oscillations and parvalbumin neurons in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Cho, Raymond Y; Lewis, David A

    2015-06-15

    Cognitive deficits are a core clinical feature of schizophrenia but respond poorly to available medications. Thus, understanding the neural basis of these deficits is crucial for the development of new therapeutic interventions. The types of cognitive processes affected in schizophrenia are thought to depend on the precisely timed transmission of information in cortical regions via synchronous oscillations at gamma band frequency. Here, we review 1) data from clinical studies suggesting that induction of frontal cortex gamma oscillations during tasks that engage cognitive or complex perceptual functions is attenuated in schizophrenia; 2) findings from basic neuroscience studies highlighting the features of parvalbumin-positive interneurons that are critical for gamma oscillation production; and 3) results from recent postmortem human brain studies providing additional molecular bases for parvalbumin-positive interneuron alterations in prefrontal cortical circuitry in schizophrenia. PMID:25863358

  2. Alterations in Cortical Network Oscillations and Parvalbumin Neurons in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Cho, Raymond Y; Lewis, David A

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are a core clinical feature of schizophrenia but respond poorly to available medications. Thus, understanding the neural basis of these deficits is crucial for the development of new therapeutic interventions. The types of cognitive processes affected in schizophrenia are thought to depend on the precisely timed transmission of information in cortical regions via synchronous oscillations at gamma band frequency. Here, we review 1) data from clinical studies suggesting that induction of frontal cortex gamma oscillations during tasks that engage cognitive or complex perceptual functions is attenuated in schizophrenia, 2) findings from basic neuroscience studies highlighting the features of parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons that are critical for gamma oscillation production and 3) results from recent postmortem human brain studies providing additional molecular bases for PV interneuron alterations in prefrontal cortical circuitry in schizophrenia. PMID:25863358

  3. Motor-Neuron Pool Excitability of the Lower Leg Muscles After Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain

    PubMed Central

    Klykken, Lindsey W.; Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Kim, Kyung-Min; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Hertel, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Context: Neuromuscular deficits in leg muscles that are associated with arthrogenic muscle inhibition have been reported in people with chronic ankle instability, yet whether these neuromuscular alterations are present in individuals with acute sprains is unknown. Objective: To compare the effect of acute lateral ankle sprain on the motor-neuron pool excitability (MNPE) of injured leg muscles with that of uninjured contralateral leg muscles and the leg muscles of healthy controls. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten individuals with acute ankle sprains (6 females, 4 males; age = 19.2 ± 3.8 years, height = 169.4 ± 8.5 cm, mass = 66.3 ±11.6 kg) and 10 healthy individuals (6 females, 4 males; age = 20.6 ± 4.0 years, height = 169.9 ± 10.6 cm, mass = 66.3 ± 10.2 kg) participated. Intervention(s): The independent variables were group (acute ankle sprain, healthy) and limb (injured, uninjured). Separate dependent t tests were used to determine differences in MNPE between legs. Main Outcome Measure(s): The MNPE of the soleus, fibularis longus, and tibialis anterior was measured by the maximal Hoffmann reflex (Hmax) and maximal muscle response (Mmax) and was then normalized using the Hmax:Mmax ratio. Results: The soleus MNPE in the ankle-sprain group was higher in the injured limb (Hmax:Mmax = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46, 0.80) than in the uninjured limb (Hmax:Mmax = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.08, 0.93) (t6 = 3.62, P = .01). In the acute ankle-sprain group, tibialis anterior MNPE tended to be lower in the injured ankle (Hmax:Mmax = 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01, 0.10) than in the uninjured ankle (Hmax:Mmax = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.09, 0.35), but this finding was not different (t9 = −2.01, P = .07). No differences were detected between injured (0.22; 95% CI, 0.14, 0.29) and uninjured (0.25; 95% CI, 0.12, 0.38) ankles for the fibularis longus in the ankle-sprain group (t9 = −0.739, P = .48). We found no side-to-side differences in

  4. Intrinsic excitability varies by sex in prepubertal striatal medium spiny neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dorris, David M.; Cao, Jinyan; Willett, Jaime A.; Hauser, Caitlin A.

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in neuron electrophysiological properties were traditionally associated with brain regions directly involved in reproduction in adult, postpubertal animals. There is growing acknowledgement that sex differences can exist in other developmental periods and brain regions as well. This includes the dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen), which shows robust sex differences in gene expression, neuromodulator action (including dopamine and 17β-estradiol), and relevant sensorimotor behaviors and pathologies such as the responsiveness to drugs of abuse. Here we examine whether these sex differences extend to striatal neuron electrophysiology. We test the hypothesis that passive and active medium spiny neuron (MSN) electrophysiological properties in prepubertal rat dorsal striatum differ by sex. We made whole cell recordings from male and females MSNs from acute brain slices. The slope of the evoked firing rate to current injection curve was increased in MSNs recorded from females compared with males. The initial action potential firing rate was increased in MSNs recorded from females compared with males. Action potential after-hyperpolarization peak was decreased, and threshold was hyperpolarized in MSNs recorded from females compared with males. No sex differences in passive electrophysiological properties or miniature excitatory synaptic currents were detected. These findings indicate that MSN excitability is increased in prepubertal females compared with males, providing a new mechanism that potentially contributes to generating sex differences in striatal-mediated processes. Broadly, these findings demonstrate that sex differences in neuron electrophysiological properties can exist prepuberty in brain regions not directly related to reproduction. PMID:25376786

  5. Degeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons Due to Metabolic Alterations and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Kim, Jongpil

    2016-01-01

    The rates of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), markedly increase with age. In recent years, studies have reported an association between metabolic changes and various pathophysiological mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with metabolic diseases. Oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in metabolic diseases lead to adverse neurophysiological phenomena, including neuronal loss, synaptic dysfunction, and improper insulin signaling, resulting in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition, several lines of evidence suggest that alterations of CNS environments by metabolic changes influence the dopamine neuronal loss, eventually affecting the pathogenesis of PD. Thus, we reviewed recent findings relating to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons during metabolic diseases. We highlight the fact that using a metabolic approach to manipulate degeneration of dopaminergic neurons can serve as a therapeutic strategy to attenuate pathology of PD. PMID:27065205

  6. Molecular mechanism of modulation of nociceptive neuron membrane excitability by a tripeptide.

    PubMed

    Shelykh, T N; Rogachevsky, I V; Nozdrachev, A D; Veselkina, O S; Podzorova, S A; Krylov, B V; Plakhova, V B

    2016-01-01

    Using the whole-cell patch-clamp method, the ability of arginine-containing tripeptide Ac-RER-NH2, dipeptide Ac-RR-NH2, and free Arg molecule to modulate the membrane excitability of nociceptors was studied. Extracellular Ac-RER-NH2 upon interaction with the outer membrane of the nociceptive neuron decreases the Zeff value of the activation gating system of Nav1.8 channels. Thus, the tripeptide Ac-RER-NH2 can be considered as a new effective and safe analgesic. PMID:27025494

  7. Excitation and Modulation of TRPA1, TRPV1, and TRPM8 Channel-expressing Sensory Neurons by the Pruritogen Chloroquine*

    PubMed Central

    Than, Jonathan Y.-X. L.; Li, Lin; Hasan, Raquibul; Zhang, Xuming

    2013-01-01

    The sensations of pain, itch, and cold often interact with each other. Pain inhibits itch, whereas cold inhibits both pain and itch. TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels transduce pain and itch, whereas TRPM8 transduces cold. The pruritogen chloroquine (CQ) was reported to excite TRPA1, leading to the sensation of itch. It is unclear how CQ excites and modulates TRPA1+, TRPV1+, and TRPM8+ neurons and thus affects the sensations of pain, itch, and cold. Here, we show that only 43% of CQ-excited dorsal root ganglion neurons expressed TRPA1; as expected, the responses of these neurons were completely prevented by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The remaining 57% of CQ-excited neurons did not express TRPA1, and excitation was not prevented by either a TRPA1 or TRPV1 antagonist but was prevented by the general transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel blocker BTP2 and the selective TRPC3 inhibitor Pyr3. Furthermore, CQ caused potent sensitization of TRPV1 in 51.9% of TRPV1+ neurons and concomitant inhibition of TRPM8 in 48.8% of TRPM8+ dorsal root ganglion neurons. Sensitization of TRPV1 is caused mainly by activation of the phospholipase C-PKC pathway following activation of the CQ receptor MrgprA3. By contrast, inhibition of TRPM8 is caused by a direct action of activated Gαq independent of the phospholipase C pathway. Our data suggest the involvement of the TRPC3 channel acting together with TRPA1 to mediate CQ-induced itch. CQ not only elicits itch by directly exciting itch-encoding neurons but also exerts previously unappreciated widespread actions on pain-, itch-, and cold-sensing neurons, leading to enhanced pain and itch. PMID:23508958

  8. Intrinsic excitability changes induced by acute treatment of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with exogenous amyloid β peptide.

    PubMed

    Tamagnini, Francesco; Scullion, Sarah; Brown, Jon T; Randall, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the human brain is a canonical pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent work in Aβ-overexpressing transgenic mice indicates that increased brain Aβ levels can be associated with aberrant epileptiform activity. In line with this, such mice can also exhibit altered intrinsic excitability (IE) of cortical and hippocampal neurons: these observations may relate to the increased prevalence of seizures in AD patients. In this study, we examined what changes in IE are produced in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells after 2-5 h treatment with an oligomeric preparation of synthetic human Aβ 1-42 peptide. Whole cell current clamp recordings were compared between Aβ-(500 nM) and vehicle-(DMSO 0.05%) treated hippocampal slices obtained from mice. The soluble Aβ treatment did not produce alterations in sub-threshold intrinsic properties, including membrane potential, input resistance, and hyperpolarization activated "sag". Similarly, no changes were noted in the firing profile evoked by 500 ms square current supra-threshold stimuli. However, Aβ 500 nM treatment resulted in the hyperpolarization of the action potential (AP) threshold. In addition, treatment with Aβ at 500 nM depressed the after-hyperpolarization that followed both a single AP or 50 Hz trains of a number of APs between 5 and 25. These data suggest that acute exposure to soluble Aβ oligomers affects IE properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons differently from outcomes seen in transgenic models of amyloidopathy. However, in both chronic and acute models, the IE changes are toward hyperexcitability, reinforcing the idea that amyloidopathy and increased incidence in seizures might be causally related in AD patients. PMID:25515596

  9. Intrinsic excitability changes induced by acute treatment of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with exogenous amyloid β peptide

    PubMed Central

    Scullion, Sarah; Brown, Jon T.; Randall, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulation of beta‐amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the human brain is a canonical pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent work in Aβ‐overexpressing transgenic mice indicates that increased brain Aβ levels can be associated with aberrant epileptiform activity. In line with this, such mice can also exhibit altered intrinsic excitability (IE) of cortical and hippocampal neurons: these observations may relate to the increased prevalence of seizures in AD patients. In this study, we examined what changes in IE are produced in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells after 2–5 h treatment with an oligomeric preparation of synthetic human Aβ 1–42 peptide. Whole cell current clamp recordings were compared between Aβ‐(500 nM) and vehicle‐(DMSO 0.05%) treated hippocampal slices obtained from mice. The soluble Aβ treatment did not produce alterations in sub‐threshold intrinsic properties, including membrane potential, input resistance, and hyperpolarization activated “sag”. Similarly, no changes were noted in the firing profile evoked by 500 ms square current supra‐threshold stimuli. However, Aβ 500 nM treatment resulted in the hyperpolarization of the action potential (AP) threshold. In addition, treatment with Aβ at 500 nM depressed the after‐hyperpolarization that followed both a single AP or 50 Hz trains of a number of APs between 5 and 25. These data suggest that acute exposure to soluble Aβ oligomers affects IE properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons differently from outcomes seen in transgenic models of amyloidopathy. However, in both chronic and acute models, the IE changes are toward hyperexcitability, reinforcing the idea that amyloidopathy and increased incidence in seizures might be causally related in AD patients. © 2014 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25515596

  10. Dopamine D4 Receptor Excitation of Lateral Habenula Neurons via Multiple Cellular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Good, Cameron H.; Wang, Huikun; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Mejias-Aponte, Carlos A.; Hoffman, Alexander F.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamatergic lateral habenula (LHb) output communicates negative motivational valence to ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons via activation of the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). However, the LHb also receives a poorly understood DA input from the VTA, which we hypothesized constitutes an important feedback loop regulating DA responses to stimuli. Using whole-cell electrophysiology in rat brain slices, we find that DA initiates a depolarizing inward current (IDAi) and increases spontaneous firing in 32% of LHb neurons. IDAi was also observed upon application of amphetamine or the DA uptake blockers cocaine or GBR12935, indicating involvement of endogenous DA. IDAi was blocked by D4 receptor (D4R) antagonists (L745,870 or L741,742), and mimicked by a selective D4R agonist (A412997). IDAi was associated with increased whole-cell conductance and was blocked by Cs+ or a selective blocker of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channel, ZD7288. IDAi was also associated with a depolarizing shift in half-activation voltage for the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) mediated by HCN channels. Recordings from LHb neurons containing fluorescent retrograde tracers revealed that IDAi was observed only in cells projecting to the RMTg and not the VTA. In parallel with direct depolarization, DA also strongly increased synaptic glutamate release and reduced synaptic GABA release onto LHb cells. These results demonstrate that DA can excite glutamatergic LHb output to RMTg via multiple cellular mechanisms. Since the RMTg strongly inhibits midbrain DA neurons, activation of LHb output to RMTg by DA represents a negative feedback loop that may dampen DA neuron output following activation. PMID:24155292

  11. Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Enhances the Excitability and Synaptic Plasticity of Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex Neurons and Induces a Tolerance to the Acute Inhibitory Actions of Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Lopez, Marcelo F; Mulholland, Patrick J; Woodward, John J

    2016-03-01

    Alcoholism is associated with changes in brain reward and control systems, including the prefrontal cortex. In prefrontal areas, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been suggested to have an important role in the development of alcohol-abuse disorders and studies from this laboratory demonstrate that OFC-mediated behaviors are impaired in alcohol-dependent animals. However, it is not known whether chronic alcohol (ethanol) exposure alters the fundamental properties of OFC neurons. In this study, mice were exposed to repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure to induce dependence and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine the effects of CIE treatment on lateral OFC (lOFC) neuron excitability, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Repeated cycles of CIE exposure and withdrawal enhanced current-evoked action potential (AP) spiking and this was accompanied by a reduction in the after-hyperpolarization and a decrease in the functional activity of SK channels. CIE mice also showed an increase in the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and this was associated with an increase in GluA1/GluA2 AMPA receptor expression and a decrease in GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits. Following CIE treatment, lOFC neurons displayed a persistent long-term potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission following a spike-timing-dependent protocol. Lastly, CIE treatment diminished the inhibitory effect of acute ethanol on AP spiking of lOFC neurons and reduced expression of the GlyT1 transporter. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic exposure to ethanol leads to enhanced intrinsic excitability and glutamatergic synaptic signaling of lOFC neurons. These alterations may contribute to the impairment of OFC-dependent behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals. PMID:26286839

  12. Alterations of orexinergic and melanin-concentrating hormone neurons in experimental sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Palomba, M; Seke-Etet, P F; Laperchia, C; Tiberio, L; Xu, Y-Z; Colavito, V; Grassi-Zucconi, G; Bentivoglio, M

    2015-04-01

    neurons in the pathogenesis of sleep/wake alterations in the disease and to their vulnerability to inflammatory signaling. PMID:25595977

  13. Alterations in neuronal activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits in the parkinsonian state

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Adriana; Devergnas, Annaelle; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials (LFPs), electroencephalograms (EEGs) or electrocorticograms (ECoGs). Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. PMID:25698937

  14. Label-free distinguishing between neurons and glial cells based on two-photon excited fluorescence signal of neuron perinuclear granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Huiping; Jiang, Liwei; Wang, Xingfu; Liu, Gaoqiang; Wang, Shu; Zheng, Liqin; Li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    Neurons and glial cells are two critical cell types of brain tissue. Their accurate identification is important for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In this paper, distinguishing between neurons and glial cells by using the two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signals of intracellular intrinsic sources was performed. TPEF microscopy combined with TUJ-1 and GFAP immunostaining and quantitative image analysis demonstrated that the perinuclear granules of neurons in the TPEF images of brain tissue and the primary cultured cortical cells were a unique characteristic of neurons compared to glial cells which can become a quantitative feature to distinguish neurons from glial cells. With the development of miniaturized TPEF microscope (‘two-photon fiberscopes’) imaging devices, TPEF microscopy can be developed into an effective diagnostic and monitoring tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia.

  15. Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Briant, Linford J B; Stalbovskiy, Alexey O; Nolan, Matthew F; Champneys, Alan R; Pickering, Anthony E

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension is associated with pathologically increased sympathetic drive to the vasculature. This has been attributed to increased excitatory drive to sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) from brainstem cardiovascular control centers. However, there is also evidence supporting increased intrinsic excitability of SPN. To test this hypothesis, we made whole cell recordings of muscle vasoconstrictor-like (MVClike) SPN in the working-heart brainstem preparation of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MVClike SPN have a higher spontaneous firing frequency in the SH rat (3.85 ± 0.4 vs. 2.44 ± 0.4 Hz in WKY; P = 0.011) with greater respiratory modulation of their activity. The action potentials of SH SPN had smaller, shorter afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and showed diminished transient rectification indicating suppression of an A-type potassium conductance (IA). We developed mathematical models of the SPN to establish if changes in their intrinsic properties in SH rats could account for their altered firing. Reduction of the maximal conductance density of IA by 15-30% changed the excitability and output of the model from the WKY to a SH profile, with increased firing frequency, amplified respiratory modulation, and smaller AHPs. This change in output is predominantly a consequence of altered synaptic integration. Consistent with these in silico predictions, we found that intrathecal 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased sympathetic nerve activity, elevated perfusion pressure, and augmented Traube-Hering waves. Our findings indicate that IA acts as a powerful filter on incoming synaptic drive to SPN and that its diminution in the SH rat is potentially sufficient to account for the increased sympathetic output underlying hypertension. PMID:25122704

  16. Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Briant, Linford J. B.; Stalbovskiy, Alexey O.; Nolan, Matthew F.; Champneys, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with pathologically increased sympathetic drive to the vasculature. This has been attributed to increased excitatory drive to sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) from brainstem cardiovascular control centers. However, there is also evidence supporting increased intrinsic excitability of SPN. To test this hypothesis, we made whole cell recordings of muscle vasoconstrictor-like (MVClike) SPN in the working-heart brainstem preparation of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MVClike SPN have a higher spontaneous firing frequency in the SH rat (3.85 ± 0.4 vs. 2.44 ± 0.4 Hz in WKY; P = 0.011) with greater respiratory modulation of their activity. The action potentials of SH SPN had smaller, shorter afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and showed diminished transient rectification indicating suppression of an A-type potassium conductance (IA). We developed mathematical models of the SPN to establish if changes in their intrinsic properties in SH rats could account for their altered firing. Reduction of the maximal conductance density of IA by 15–30% changed the excitability and output of the model from the WKY to a SH profile, with increased firing frequency, amplified respiratory modulation, and smaller AHPs. This change in output is predominantly a consequence of altered synaptic integration. Consistent with these in silico predictions, we found that intrathecal 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased sympathetic nerve activity, elevated perfusion pressure, and augmented Traube-Hering waves. Our findings indicate that IA acts as a powerful filter on incoming synaptic drive to SPN and that its diminution in the SH rat is potentially sufficient to account for the increased sympathetic output underlying hypertension. PMID:25122704

  17. Primary motor cortex of the parkinsonian monkey: altered neuronal responses to muscle stretch

    PubMed Central

    Pasquereau, Benjamin; Turner, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Exaggeration of the long-latency stretch reflex (LLSR) is a characteristic neurophysiologic feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) that contributes to parkinsonian rigidity. To explore one frequently-hypothesized mechanism, we studied the effects of fast muscle stretches on neuronal activity in the macaque primary motor cortex (M1) before and after the induction of parkinsonism by unilateral administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We compared results from the general population of M1 neurons and two antidromically-identified subpopulations: distant-projecting pyramidal-tract type neurons (PTNs) and intra-telecenphalic-type corticostriatal neurons (CSNs). Rapid rotations of elbow or wrist joints evoked short-latency responses in 62% of arm-related M1 neurons. As in PD, the late electromyographic responses that constitute the LLSR were enhanced following MPTP. This was accompanied by a shortening of M1 neuronal response latencies and a degradation of directional selectivity, but surprisingly, no increase in single unit response magnitudes. The results suggest that parkinsonism alters the timing and specificity of M1 responses to muscle stretch. Observation of an exaggerated LLSR with no change in the magnitude of proprioceptive responses in M1 is consistent with the idea that the increase in LLSR gain that contributes to parkinsonian rigidity is localized to the spinal cord. PMID:24324412

  18. Motor imagery muscle contraction strength influences spinal motor neuron excitability and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Bunno, Yoshibumi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Iwatsuki, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in spinal motor neuron excitability and autonomic nervous system activity during motor imagery of isometric thenar muscle activity at 10% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). [Methods] The F-waves and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio were recorded at rest, during motor imagery, and post-trial. For motor imagery trials, subjects were instructed to imagine thenar muscle activity at 10% and 50% MVC while holding the sensor of a pinch meter for 5 min. [Results] The F-waves and LF/HF ratio during motor imagery at 50% MVC were significantly increased compared with those at rest, whereas those during motor imagery at 10% MVC were not significantly different from those at rest. The relative values of the F/M amplitude ratio during motor imagery at 50% MVC were significantly higher than those at 10% MVC. The relative values of persistence and the LF/HF ratio during motor imagery were similar during motor imagery at the two muscle contraction strengths. [Conclusion] Motor imagery can increase the spinal motor neuron excitability and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity. Motor imagery at 50% MVC may be more effective than motor imagery at 10% MVC. PMID:26834354

  19. Maternal care differentially affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy-Binh; Bagot, Rosemary C; Diorio, Josie; Wong, Tak Pan; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Variations in early life maternal care modulate hippocampal development to program distinct emotional-cognitive phenotypes that persist into adulthood. Adult rat offspring that received low compared with high levels of maternal licking and grooming (low LG offspring) in early postnatal life show reduced long term potentiation (LTP) and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory, suggesting a 'detrimental' maternal effect on neural development. However, these studies focused uniquely on the dorsal hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests a distinct role of the ventral hippocampus in mediating aggression, anxiety, and fear-memory formation, which are enhanced in low LG offspring. We report that variations in maternal care in the rat associate with opposing effects on hippocampal function in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Reduced pup licking associated with suppressed LTP formation in the dorsal hippocampus, but enhanced ventral hippocampal LTP. Ventral hippocampal neurons in low LG offspring fired action potentials at lower threshold voltages that were of larger amplitude and faster rise rate in comparison with those in high LG offspring. Furthermore, recordings of excitatory postsynaptic potential-to-spike coupling (E-S coupling) revealed an increase in excitability of ventral hippocampal CA1 neurons in low LG offspring. These effects do not associate with changes in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents or paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting a specific effect of maternal care on intrinsic excitability. These findings suggest region-specific influences of maternal care in shaping neural development and synaptic plasticity. PMID:25598429

  20. Maternal Care Differentially Affects Neuronal Excitability and Synaptic Plasticity in the Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huy-Binh; Bagot, Rosemary C; Diorio, Josie; Wong, Tak Pan; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Variations in early life maternal care modulate hippocampal development to program distinct emotional–cognitive phenotypes that persist into adulthood. Adult rat offspring that received low compared with high levels of maternal licking and grooming (low LG offspring) in early postnatal life show reduced long term potentiation (LTP) and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory, suggesting a ‘detrimental' maternal effect on neural development. However, these studies focused uniquely on the dorsal hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests a distinct role of the ventral hippocampus in mediating aggression, anxiety, and fear-memory formation, which are enhanced in low LG offspring. We report that variations in maternal care in the rat associate with opposing effects on hippocampal function in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Reduced pup licking associated with suppressed LTP formation in the dorsal hippocampus, but enhanced ventral hippocampal LTP. Ventral hippocampal neurons in low LG offspring fired action potentials at lower threshold voltages that were of larger amplitude and faster rise rate in comparison with those in high LG offspring. Furthermore, recordings of excitatory postsynaptic potential-to-spike coupling (E-S coupling) revealed an increase in excitability of ventral hippocampal CA1 neurons in low LG offspring. These effects do not associate with changes in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents or paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting a specific effect of maternal care on intrinsic excitability. These findings suggest region-specific influences of maternal care in shaping neural development and synaptic plasticity. PMID:25598429

  1. 17β-Estradiol increases persistent Na(+) current and excitability of AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons in female mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunguang; Bosch, Martha A; Qiu, Jian; Rønnekleiv, Oline K; Kelly, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    In vitro slice studies have revealed that there are significant differences in the spontaneous firing activity between anteroventral periventricular/periventricular preoptic nucleus (AVPV/PeN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in females. Although both populations express similar endogenous conductances, we have discovered that AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons express a subthreshold, persistent sodium current (INaP) that dramatically alters their firing activity. Based on whole-cell recording of Kiss1-Cre-green fluorescent protein (GFP) neurons, INaP was 4-fold greater in AVPV/PeN vs ARC Kiss1 neurons. An LH surge-producing dose of 17β-estradiol (E2) that increased Kiss1 mRNA expression in the AVPV/PeN, also augmented INaP in AVPV/PeN neurons by 2-fold. Because the activation threshold for INaP was close to the resting membrane potential (RMP) of AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons (-54 mV), it rendered them much more excitable and spontaneously active vs ARC Kiss1 neurons (RMP = -66 mV). Single-cell RT-PCR revealed that AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons expressed the requisite sodium channel α-subunit transcripts, NaV1.1, NaV1.2, and NaV1.6 and β subunits, β2 and β4. Importantly, NaV1.1α and -β2 transcripts in AVPV/PeN, but not ARC, were up-regulated 2- to 3-fold by a surge-producing dose of E2, similar to the transient calcium current channel subunit Cav3.1. The transient calcium current collaborates with INaP to generate burst firing, and selective blockade of INaP by riluzole significantly attenuated rebound burst firing and spontaneous activity. Therefore, INaP appears to play a prominent role in AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons to generate spontaneous, repetitive burst firing, which is required for the high-frequency-stimulated release of kisspeptin for exciting GnRH neurons and potentially generating the GnRH surge. PMID:25734516

  2. Characterization of altered intrinsic excitability in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells of the Aβ-overproducing PDAPP mouse.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, T L; Brown, J T; Randall, A D

    2014-04-01

    Transgenic mice that accumulate Aβ peptides in the CNS are commonly used to interrogate functional consequences of Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloidopathy. In addition to changes to synaptic function, there is also growing evidence that changes to intrinsic excitability of neurones can arise in these models of amyloidopathy. Furthermore, some of these alterations to intrinsic properties may occur relatively early within the age-related progression of experimental amyloidopathy. Here we report a detailed comparison between the intrinsic excitability properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurones in wild-type (WT) and PDAPP mice. The latter is a well-established model of Aβ accumulation which expresses human APP harbouring the Indiana (V717F) mutation. At the age employed in this study (9-10 months) CNS Abeta was elevated in PDAPP mice but significant plaque pathology was absent. PDAPP mice exhibited no differences in subthreshold intrinsic properties including resting potential, input resistance, membrane time constant and sag. When CA1 cells of PDAPP mice were given depolarizing stimuli of various amplitudes they initially fired at a higher frequency than WT cells. Commensurate with this, PDAPP cells exhibited a larger fast afterdepolarizing potential. PDAPP mice had narrower spikes but action potential threshold, rate of rise and peak were not different. Thus not all changes seen in our previous studies of amyloidopathy models were present in PDAPP mice; however, narrower spikes, larger ADPs and the propensity to fire at higher frequencies were consistent with our prior work and thus may represent robust, cross-model, indices of amyloidopathy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neurodevelopment Disorder'. PMID:24055500

  3. Characterization of altered intrinsic excitability in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells of the Aβ-overproducing PDAPP mouse☆

    PubMed Central

    Kerrigan, T.L.; Brown, J.T.; Randall, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic mice that accumulate Aβ peptides in the CNS are commonly used to interrogate functional consequences of Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloidopathy. In addition to changes to synaptic function, there is also growing evidence that changes to intrinsic excitability of neurones can arise in these models of amyloidopathy. Furthermore, some of these alterations to intrinsic properties may occur relatively early within the age-related progression of experimental amyloidopathy. Here we report a detailed comparison between the intrinsic excitability properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurones in wild-type (WT) and PDAPP mice. The latter is a well-established model of Aβ accumulation which expresses human APP harbouring the Indiana (V717F) mutation. At the age employed in this study (9–10 months) CNS Abeta was elevated in PDAPP mice but significant plaque pathology was absent. PDAPP mice exhibited no differences in subthreshold intrinsic properties including resting potential, input resistance, membrane time constant and sag. When CA1 cells of PDAPP mice were given depolarizing stimuli of various amplitudes they initially fired at a higher frequency than WT cells. Commensurate with this, PDAPP cells exhibited a larger fast afterdepolarizing potential. PDAPP mice had narrower spikes but action potential threshold, rate of rise and peak were not different. Thus not all changes seen in our previous studies of amyloidopathy models were present in PDAPP mice; however, narrower spikes, larger ADPs and the propensity to fire at higher frequencies were consistent with our prior work and thus may represent robust, cross-model, indices of amyloidopathy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Neurodevelopment Disorder’. PMID:24055500

  4. Direct muscarinic and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelan, K. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have utilized intracellular recording techniques to investigate the cholinoceptivity of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons in a submerged brain slice preparation. Exogenous application of the mixed cholinergic agonists, acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh), produced predominantly membrane depolarization, induction of action potential firing, and decreased input resistance. Application of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine (MUSC), or the selective nicotinic receptor agonists nicotine (NIC) or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) also produced membrane depolarizations. The MUSC-induced depolarization was accompanied by decreased conductance, while an increase in conductance appeared to underlie the NIC- and DMPP-induced depolarizations. The muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mediated depolarizations persisted in tetrodotoxin and/or low Ca2+/high Mg2+ containing media, suggesting direct postsynaptic receptor activation. The MUSC-induced depolarization could be reversibly blocked by the selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, atropine, while the DMPP-induced depolarization could be reversibly suppressed by the selective ganglionic nicotinic-receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Some neurons exhibited a transient membrane hyperpolarization during the depolarizing response to CCh or MUSC application. This transient inhibition could be reversibly blocked by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, suggesting that the underlying hyperpolarization results indirectly from the endogenous release of GABA acting at GABA receptors. This study confirms the cholinoceptivity of MVN neurons and establishes that individual MVN cells possess muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors. The data provide support for a prominent role of cholinergic mechanisms in the direct and indirect regulation of the excitability of MVN neurons.

  5. Lead Exposure Disrupts Global DNA Methylation in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Alters Their Neuronal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Senut, Marie-Claude; Sen, Arko; Cingolani, Pablo; Shaik, Asra; Land, Susan J.; Ruden, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) during childhood can result in learning disabilities and behavioral problems. Although described in animal models, whether Pb exposure also alters neuronal differentiation in the developing brains of exposed children is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of Pb (from 0.4 to 1.9μM) on the capacity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to progress to a neuronal fate. We found that neither acute nor chronic exposure to Pb prevented hESCs from generating neural progenitor cells (NPCs). NPCs derived from hESCs chronically exposed to 1.9μM Pb throughout the neural differentiation process generated 2.5 times more TUJ1-positive neurons than those derived from control hESCs. Pb exposure of hESCs during the stage of neural rosette formation resulted in a significant decrease in the expression levels of the neural marker genes PAX6 and MSI1. Furthermore, the resulting NPCs differentiated into neurons with shorter neurites and less branching than control neurons, as assessed by Sholl analysis. DNA methylation studies of control, acutely treated hESCs and NPCs derived from chronically exposed hESCs using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip demonstrated that Pb exposure induced changes in the methylation status of genes involved in neurogenetic signaling pathways. In summary, our study shows that exposure to Pb subtly alters the neuronal differentiation of exposed hESCs and that these changes could be partly mediated by modifications in the DNA methylation status of genes crucial to brain development. PMID:24519525

  6. Lead exposure disrupts global DNA methylation in human embryonic stem cells and alters their neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Senut, Marie-Claude; Sen, Arko; Cingolani, Pablo; Shaik, Asra; Land, Susan J; Ruden, Douglas M

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) during childhood can result in learning disabilities and behavioral problems. Although described in animal models, whether Pb exposure also alters neuronal differentiation in the developing brains of exposed children is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of Pb (from 0.4 to 1.9μM) on the capacity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to progress to a neuronal fate. We found that neither acute nor chronic exposure to Pb prevented hESCs from generating neural progenitor cells (NPCs). NPCs derived from hESCs chronically exposed to 1.9μM Pb throughout the neural differentiation process generated 2.5 times more TUJ1-positive neurons than those derived from control hESCs. Pb exposure of hESCs during the stage of neural rosette formation resulted in a significant decrease in the expression levels of the neural marker genes PAX6 and MSI1. Furthermore, the resulting NPCs differentiated into neurons with shorter neurites and less branching than control neurons, as assessed by Sholl analysis. DNA methylation studies of control, acutely treated hESCs and NPCs derived from chronically exposed hESCs using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip demonstrated that Pb exposure induced changes in the methylation status of genes involved in neurogenetic signaling pathways. In summary, our study shows that exposure to Pb subtly alters the neuronal differentiation of exposed hESCs and that these changes could be partly mediated by modifications in the DNA methylation status of genes crucial to brain development. PMID:24519525

  7. Chemical activation of caudal medullary expiratory neurones alters the pattern of breathing in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bongianni, F; Corda, M; Fontana, G A; Pantaleo, T

    1994-02-01

    1. The purpose of this work was to ascertain whether the activation of caudal expiratory neurones located in the caudal part of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) may affect the pattern of breathing via medullary axon collaterals. 2. We used microinjections of DL-homocysteic acid (DLH) to activate this population of neurones in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed and artificially ventilated cats. Both phrenic and abdominal nerve activities were monitored; extracellular recordings from medullary and upper cervical cord respiratory neurones were performed. 3. DLH (160 mM) microinjected (10-30 nl for a total of 1.6-4.8 nmol) into the caudal VRG, into sites where expiratory activity was encountered, provoked an intense and sustained activation of the expiratory motor output associated with a corresponding period of silence in phrenic nerve activity. During the progressive decline of the activation of abdominal motoneurones, rhythmic inspiratory activity resumed, displaying a decrease in frequency and a marked reduction or the complete suppression of postinspiratory activity as its most consistent features. 4. Medullary and upper cervical cord inspiratory neurones exhibited inhibitory responses consistent with those observed in phrenic nerve activity, while expiratory neurones in the caudal VRG on the side contralateral to the injection showed excitation patterns similar to those of abdominal motoneurones. On the other hand, in correspondence to expiratory motor output activation, expiratory neurones of the Bötzinger complex displayed tonic discharges whose intensity was markedly lower than the peak level of control breaths. 5. Bilateral lignocaine blockades of neural transmission at C2-C3 affecting the expiratory and, to a varying extent, the inspiratory bulbospinal pathways as well as spinal cord transections at C2-C3 or C1-C2, did not suppress the inhibitory effect on inspiratory neurones of either the ipsi- or contralateral VRG in response to DLH

  8. Modeling the electrical behavior of anatomically complex neurons using a network analysis program: excitable membrane.

    PubMed

    Bunow, B; Segev, I; Fleshman, J W

    1985-01-01

    We present methods for using the general-purpose network analysis program, SPICE, to construct computer models of excitable membrane displaying Hodgkin-Huxley-like kinetics. The four non-linear partial differential equations of Hodgkin and Huxley (H-H; 1952) are implemented using electrical circuit elements. The H-H rate constants, alpha and beta, are approximated by polynomial functions rather than exponential functions, since the former are handled more efficiently by SPICE. The process of developing code to implement the H-H sodium conductance is described in detail. The Appendix contains a complete listing of the code required to simulate an H-H action potential. The behavior of models so constructed is validated by comparison with the space-clamped and propagating action potentials of Hodgkin and Huxley. SPICE models of multiply branched axons were tested and found to behave as predicted by previous numerical solutions for propagation in inhomogeneous axons. New results are presented for two cases. First, a detailed, anatomically based model is constructed of group Ia input to an alpha-motoneuron with an excitable soma, a myelinated axon and passive dendrites. Second, we simulate interactions among clusters of mixed excitable and passive dendritic spines on an idealized neuron. The methods presented in this paper and its companion (Segev et al. 1985) should permit neurobiologists to construct and explore models which simulate much more closely the real morphological and physiological characteristics of nerve cells. PMID:3841014

  9. Recovery of neuronal and network excitability after spinal cord injury and implications for spasticity

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Jessica M.; Condliffe, Elizabeth G.; Martins, Karen J. B.; Bennett, David J.; Gorassini, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    The state of areflexia and muscle weakness that immediately follows a spinal cord injury (SCI) is gradually replaced by the recovery of neuronal and network excitability, leading to both improvements in residual motor function and the development of spasticity. In this review we summarize recent animal and human studies that describe how motoneurons and their activation by sensory pathways become hyperexcitable to compensate for the reduction of functional activation of the spinal cord and the eventual impact on the muscle. Specifically, decreases in the inhibitory control of sensory transmission and increases in intrinsic motoneuron excitability are described. We present the idea that replacing lost patterned activation of the spinal cord by activating synaptic inputs via assisted movements, pharmacology or electrical stimulation may help to recover lost spinal inhibition. This may lead to a reduction of uncontrolled activation of the spinal cord and thus, improve its controlled activation by synaptic inputs to ultimately normalize circuit function. Increasing the excitation of the spinal cord with spared descending and/or peripheral inputs by facilitating movement, instead of suppressing it pharmacologically, may provide the best avenue to improve residual motor function and manage spasticity after SCI. PMID:24860447

  10. Altered neuronal network and rescue in a human MECP2 duplication model

    PubMed Central

    Nageshappa, Savitha; Carromeu, Cassiano; Trujillo, Cleber A.; Mesci, Pinar; Espuny-Camacho, Ira; Pasciuto, Emanuela; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre; Verfaillie, Catherine; Raitano, Susanna; Kumar, Anujith; Carvalho, Claudia M.B.; Bagni, Claudia; Ramocki, Melissa B.; Araujo, Bruno H. S.; Torres, Laila B.; Lupski, James R.; Van Esch, Hilde; Muotri, Alysson R.

    2015-01-01

    Increased dosage of MeCP2 results in a dramatic neurodevelopmental phenotype with onset at birth. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from patients with the MECP2 duplication syndrome (MECP2dup), carrying different duplication sizes, to study the impact of increased MeCP2 dosage in human neurons. We show that cortical neurons derived from these different MECP2dup iPSC lines have increase synaptogenesis and dendritic complexity. Additionally, using multi-electrodes arrays, we show that neuronal network synchronization was altered in MECP2dup-derived neurons. Given MeCP2 function at the epigenetic level, we tested if these alterations were reversible using a library of compounds with defined activity on epigenetic pathways. One histone deacetylase inhibitor, NCH-51, was validated as a potential clinical candidate. Interestingly, this compound has never been considered before as a therapeutic alternative for neurological disorders. Our model recapitulates early stages of the human MECP2 duplication syndrome and represents a promising cellular tool to facilitate therapeutic drug screening for severe neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26347316

  11. Altered neuronal network and rescue in a human MECP2 duplication model.

    PubMed

    Nageshappa, S; Carromeu, C; Trujillo, C A; Mesci, P; Espuny-Camacho, I; Pasciuto, E; Vanderhaeghen, P; Verfaillie, C M; Raitano, S; Kumar, A; Carvalho, C M B; Bagni, C; Ramocki, M B; Araujo, B H S; Torres, L B; Lupski, J R; Van Esch, H; Muotri, A R

    2016-02-01

    Increased dosage of methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2) results in a dramatic neurodevelopmental phenotype with onset at birth. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with the MECP2 duplication syndrome (MECP2dup), carrying different duplication sizes, to study the impact of increased MeCP2 dosage in human neurons. We show that cortical neurons derived from these different MECP2dup iPSC lines have increased synaptogenesis and dendritic complexity. In addition, using multi-electrodes arrays, we show that neuronal network synchronization was altered in MECP2dup-derived neurons. Given MeCP2 functions at the epigenetic level, we tested whether these alterations were reversible using a library of compounds with defined activity on epigenetic pathways. One histone deacetylase inhibitor, NCH-51, was validated as a potential clinical candidate. Interestingly, this compound has never been considered before as a therapeutic alternative for neurological disorders. Our model recapitulates early stages of the human MECP2 duplication syndrome and represents a promising cellular tool to facilitate therapeutic drug screening for severe neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26347316

  12. Dendritic remodeling of hippocampal neurons is associated with altered NMDA receptor expression in alcohol dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Miranda C.; Kim, Airee; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged alcohol exposure has been previously shown to impair the structure and function of the hippocampus, although the underlying structural and biochemical alterations contributing to these deleterious effects are unclear. Also unclear is whether these changes persist into prolonged periods of abstinence. Previous work from our lab utilizing a clinically relevant rodent model of alcohol consumption demonstrated that alcohol dependence (induced by chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure or CIE) decreases proliferation and survival of neural stem cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone and hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, implicating this region of the cortex as particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of prolonged ethanol exposure. For this study, we investigated seven weeks of CIE-induced morphological changes (dendritic complexity and dendritic spine density) of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell neurons, CA3, and CA1 pyramidal neurons and the associated alterations in biochemical markers of synaptic plasticity and toxicity (NMDA receptors and PSD-95) in the hippocampus in ethanol-experienced Wistar rats 3h (CIE) and 21 days (protracted abstinence) after the last ethanol vapor exposure. CIE reduced dendritic arborization of DG neurons and this effect persisted into protracted abstinence. CIE enhanced dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons and this effect did not persist into protracted abstinence. The architectural changes in dendrites did not correlate with alterations in dendritic spine density, however, they were associated with increases in the expression of pNR2B, total NR2B, and total NR2A immediately following CIE with expression levels returning to control levels in prolonged abstinence. Overall, these data provide the evidence that CIE produces profound changes in hippocampal structural plasticity and in molecular tools that maintain hippocampal structural plasticity, and these alterations may underlie cognitive dysfunction

  13. Multisensory plasticity in adulthood: cross-modal experience enhances neuronal excitability and exposes silent inputs

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liping; Rowland, Benjamin A.; Xu, Jinghong

    2013-01-01

    Multisensory superior colliculus neurons in cats were found to retain substantial plasticity to short-term, site-specific experience with cross-modal stimuli well into adulthood. Following cross-modal exposure trials, these neurons substantially increased their sensitivity to the cross-modal stimulus configuration as well as to its individual component stimuli. In many cases, the exposure experience also revealed a previously ineffective or “silent” input channel, rendering it overtly responsive. These experience-induced changes required relatively few exposure trials and could be retained for more than 1 h. However, their induction was generally restricted to experience with cross-modal stimuli. Only rarely were they induced by exposure to a modality-specific stimulus and were never induced by stimulating a previously ineffective input channel. This short-term plasticity likely provides substantial benefits to the organism in dealing with ongoing and sequential events that take place at a given location in space and may reflect the ability of multisensory superior colliculus neurons to rapidly alter their response properties to accommodate to changes in environmental challenges and event probabilities. PMID:23114212

  14. Phasic excitation of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons potentiates the initiation of conditioned approach behavior: parametric and reinforcement-schedule analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ilango, Anton; Kesner, Andrew J.; Broker, Carl J.; Wang, Dong V.; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are implicated in motivation and learning. However, it is unclear how phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, which is implicated in learning, is involved in motivation. Here we used a self-stimulation procedure to examine how mice seek for optogenetically-induced phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, with an emphasis on the temporal dimension. TH-Cre transgenic mice received adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin-2 into the ventral tegmental area, resulting in selective expression of the opsin in dopamine neurons. These mice were trained to press on a lever for photo-pulse trains that phasically excited dopamine neurons. They learned to self-stimulate in a fast, constant manner, and rapidly reduced pressing during extinction. We first determined effective parameters of photo-pulse trains in self-stimulation. Lever-press rates changed as a function of the manipulation of pulse number, duration, intensity, and frequency. We then examined effects of interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement on photo-pulse train reinforcement, which was contrasted with food reinforcement. Reinforcement with food inhibited lever pressing for a few seconds, after which pressing was robustly regulated in a goal-directed manner. In contrast, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons robustly potentiated the initiation of lever pressing; however, this effect did not last more than 1 s and quickly diminished. Indeed, response rates markedly decreased when lever pressing was reinforced with inter-reinforcement interval schedules of 3 or 10 s or ratio schedules requiring multiple responses per reinforcement. Thus, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons briefly potentiates the initiation of approach behavior with apparent lack of long-term motivational regulation. PMID:24834037

  15. Removal of GABAA Receptor γ2 Subunits from Parvalbumin Neurons Causes Wide-Ranging Behavioral Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Leppä, Elli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Vekovischeva, Olga Y.; Swinny, Jerome D.; Rantanen, Ville; Toppila, Esko; Höger, Harald; Sieghart, Werner; Wulff, Peer; Wisden, William; Korpi, Esa R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral significance of fast synaptic inhibition by αβγ2-type GABAA receptors on parvalbumin (Pv) cells. The GABAA receptor γ2 subunit gene was selectively inactivated in Pv-positive neurons by Cre/loxP recombination. The resulting Pv-Δγ2 mice were relatively healthy in the first postnatal weeks; but then as Cre started to be expressed, the mice progressively developed wide-ranging phenotypic alterations including low body weight, motor deficits and tremor, decreased anxiety levels, decreased pain sensitivity and deficient prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex and impaired spatial learning. Nevertheless, the deletion was not lethal, and mice did not show increased mortality even after one year. Autoradiography with t-butylbicyclophosphoro[35S]thionate suggested an increased amount of GABAA receptors with only α and β subunits in central nervous system regions that contained high levels of parvalbumin neurons. Using BAC-transgenesis, we reduced some of the Pv-Δγ2 phenotype by selectively re-expressing the wild-type γ2 subunit back into some Pv cells (reticular thalamic neurons and cerebellar Pv-positive neurons). This produced less severe impairments of motor skills and spatial learning compared with Pv-Δγ2 mice, but all other deficits remained. Our results reveal the widespread significance of fast GABAergic inhibition onto Pv-positive neurons for diverse behavioral modalities, such as motor coordination, sensorimotor integration, emotional behavior and nociception. PMID:21912668

  16. HIV alters neuronal mitochondrial fission/fusion in the brain during HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jerel Adam; Serger, Elisabeth; Campos, Sofia; Divakaruni, Ajit S.; Kim, Changyoun; Smith, Kendall; Trejo, Margarita; Adame, Anthony; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; Murphy, Anne N.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Masliah, Eliezer

    2015-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still occur in approximately 50% of HIV patients, and therapies to combat HAND progression are urgently needed. HIV proteins are released from infected cells and cause neuronal damage, possibly through mitochondrial abnormalities. Altered mitochondrial fission and fusion is implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we hypothesized that mitochondrial fission/fusion may be dysregulated in neurons during HAND. We have identified decreased mitochondrial fission protein (dynamin 1-like; DNM1L) in frontal cortex tissues of HAND donors, along with enlarged and elongated mitochondria localized to the soma of damaged neurons. Similar pathology was observed in the brains of GFAP-gp120 tg mice. In vitro, recombinant gp120 decreased total and active DNM1L levels, reduced the level of Mitotracker staining, and increased extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) in primary neurons. DNM1L knockdown enhanced the effects of gp120 as measured by reduced Mitotracker signal in the treated cells. Interestingly, overexpression of DNM1L increased the level of Mitotracker staining in primary rat neurons and reduced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the GFAP-gp120-tg mice. These data suggest that mitochondrial biogenesis dynamics are shifted towards mitochondrial fusion in brains of HAND patients and this may be due to gp120-induced reduction in DNM1L activity. Promoting mitochondrial fission during HIV infection of the CNS may restore mitochondrial biogenesis and prevent neurodegeneration. PMID:26611103

  17. A Novel Subtype of Astrocytes Expressing TRPV4 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4) Regulates Neuronal Excitability via Release of Gliotransmitters*

    PubMed Central

    Shibasaki, Koji; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Tamalu, Fuminobu; Tominaga, Makoto; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes play active roles in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Neuronal excitation can evoke Ca2+ transients in astrocytes, and these Ca2+ transients can modulate neuronal excitability. Although only a subset of astrocytes appears to communicate with neurons, the types of astrocytes that can regulate neuronal excitability are poorly characterized. We found that ∼30% of astrocytes in the brain express transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), indicating that astrocytic subtypes can be classified on the basis of their expression patterns. When TRPV4+ astrocytes are activated by ligands such as arachidonic acid, the activation propagates to neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions and by ATP release from the TRPV4+ astrocytes. After activation, both TRPV4+ and TRPV4− astrocytes release glutamate, which acts as an excitatory gliotransmitter to increase synaptic transmission through type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Our results indicate that TRPV4+ astrocytes constitute a novel subtype of the population and are solely responsible for initiating excitatory gliotransmitter release to enhance synaptic transmission. We propose that TRPV4+ astrocytes form a core of excitatory glial assembly in the brain and function to efficiently increase neuronal excitation in response to endogenous TRPV4 ligands. PMID:24737318

  18. Reduced Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Contributes to Enhanced Intrinsic Excitability in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from PrP−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jing; Stemkowski, Patrick L.; Gandini, Maria A.; Black, Stefanie A.; Zhang, Zizhen; Souza, Ivana A.; Chen, Lina; Zamponi, Gerald W.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic ablation of cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been linked to increased neuronal excitability and synaptic activity in the hippocampus. We have previously shown that synaptic activity in hippocampi of PrP-null mice is increased due to enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. Here, we focused on the effect of PRNP gene knock-out (KO) on intrinsic neuronal excitability, and in particular, the underlying ionic mechanism in hippocampal neurons cultured from P0 mouse pups. We found that the absence of PrPC profoundly affected the firing properties of cultured hippocampal neurons in the presence of synaptic blockers. The membrane impedance was greater in PrP-null neurons, and this difference was abolished by the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel blocker ZD7288 (100 μM). HCN channel activity appeared to be functionally regulated by PrPC. The amplitude of voltage sag, a characteristic of activating HCN channel current (Ih), was decreased in null mice. Moreover, Ih peak current was reduced, along with a hyperpolarizing shift in activation gating and slower kinetics. However, neither HCN1 nor HCN2 formed a biochemical complex with PrPC. These results suggest that the absence of PrP downregulates the activity of HCN channels through activation of a cell signaling pathway rather than through direct interactions. This in turn contributes to an increase in membrane impedance to potentiate neuronal excitability. PMID:27047338

  19. Sulforhodamine 101 induces long-tem potentiation of intrinsic excitability and synaptic efficacy in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jian; Kang, Ning; Yu, Yufei; Zhang, Jinsong; Petersen, Nicolas; Tian, Guo-Feng; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2010-01-01

    Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) has been extensively used for investigation as a specific marker for astroglia in vivo and activity-dependent dye for monitoring regulated exocytosis. Here, we report that SR101 has bioactive effects on neuronal activity. Perfusion of slices with SR101 (1 μM) for 10 min induced long-term potentiation of intrinsic neuronal excitability (LTP-IE) and a long-lasting increase in evoked EPSCs (eEPSCs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices. The increase in intrinsic neuronal excitability was a result of negative shifts in the action potential (AP) threshold. The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, AP-5 (50 μM), blocked SR101-induced LTP-IE, but glutamate receptor blockers, AP-5 (50 μM), MCPG (200 μM), and MSOP (100 μM), only partially blocked SR101-induced potentiation of eEPSCs. SR101 induced an enhancement of evoked synaptic NMDAR currents, suggesting that SR101 enhances activation of synaptic NMDARs. SR101-induced LTP-IE and potentiation of synaptic transmission triggered spontaneous neuronal firing in slices and in vivo epileptic seizures. Our results suggest that SR101 is an epileptogenic agent that long-lastingly lowers the AP threshold to increase intrinsic neuronal excitability and enhances the synaptic efficacy to increase synaptic inputs. As such, SR101 can be used as an experimental tool to induce epileptic seizures. PMID:20600669

  20. Cocaine-induced vs. behaviour-related alterations of spontaneous and evoked discharge of somatosensory cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Candice; Waterhouse, Barry D

    2004-02-01

    While the abuse potential of cocaine stems mainly from its ability to increase dopaminergic transmission in limbic regions, drug actions on other monoamine-innervated circuits may contribute to the development and maintenance of cocaine addiction. Previous extracellular recordings in anaesthetized rats revealed a facilitatory influence of cocaine on primary sensory pathways, which could influence the processing of drug-related stimuli during the development of cocaine addiction. We further analysed these sensory effects of cocaine in freely behaving rats (n = 9). Using an array of eight microelectrodes chronically implanted in infragranular layers of primary somatosensory cortex, we recorded the basal activity of 40 single- and 64 multiunits and their response to electrical stimulation of the whisker pad before and after incremental doses of cocaine (0.25-2 mg/kg i.v.). Both spontaneous and cocaine-induced explorations were associated with elevated basal firing of the cortical neurons and suppression of their short-latency excitation and postexcitatory inhibition in response to the whisker-pad stimulation. In addition to exploration-related alterations, the administration of cocaine enhanced the long-latency rebound excitation induced by the whisker-pad stimulation. This component of the sensory response, which is more labile and does not seem to convey information about the physical characteristics of the stimulus, may participate in the processing of drug-related sensory stimuli. PMID:15009149

  1. Ionic Mechanisms of Neuronal Excitation by Inhibitory GABA_A Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Kevin J.; Soldo, Brandi L.; Proctor, William R.

    1995-08-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA_A) receptors are the principal mediators of synaptic inhibition, and yet when intensely activated, dendritic GABA_A receptors excite rather than inhibit neurons. The membrane depolarization mediated by GABA_A receptors is a result of the differential, activity-dependent collapse of the opposing concentration gradients of chloride and bicarbonate, the anions that permeate the GABA_A ionophore. Because this depolarization diminishes the voltage-dependent block of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by magnesium, the activity-dependent depolarization mediated by GABA is sufficient to account for frequency modulation of synaptic NMDA receptor activation. Anionic gradient shifts may represent a mechanism whereby the rate and coherence of synaptic activity determine whether dendritic GABA_A receptor activation is excitatory or inhibitory.

  2. Dynamic response of ensemble neurons to pulsed optical and electrical excitation in vivo and in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, Garif G.; Seleverstov, George A.; Kamenskih, Tatyana G.; Akchurin, George G.; Bondarenko, Olga A.

    2002-07-01

    The nonlinear response of the Hodgkin-Huxley model neuron with external electrical pulsed was investigated. Dynamic response of somatic frog nerve on electrical pulsed duration was study in vitro. Transcutaneous millisecond of excitation of the ganglion cell of the human retina by electric uses is used for diagnosis, determination of the extent of optic nerve damage, and also partial restoration of visual function in patients with glaucoma, myopia and different types of optic nerve atrophy. Correlation between the threshold of phosphen formation and duration of the stimulating electric pulses was determined experimentally in normal eyes and in eyes with various pathologies. Comparison of optical and electrical scintillating frequency gives information about the dynamic processes in the normal and pathological retina.

  3. Engrailed Alters the Specificity of Synaptic Connections of Drosophila Auditory Neurons with the Giant Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Pézier, Adeline; Jezzini, Sami H.; Marie, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We show that a subset of sound-detecting Johnston's Organ neurons (JONs) in Drosophila melanogaster, which express the transcription factors Engrailed (En) and Invected (Inv), form mixed electrical and chemical synaptic inputs onto the giant fiber (GF) dendrite. These synaptic connections are detected by trans-synaptic Neurobiotin (NB) transfer and by colocalization of Bruchpilot-short puncta. We then show that misexpressing En postmitotically in a second subset of sound-responsive JONs causes them to form ectopic electrical and chemical synapses with the GF, in turn causing that postsynaptic neuron to redistribute its dendritic branches into the vicinity of these afferents. We also introduce a simple electrophysiological recording paradigm for quantifying the presynaptic and postsynaptic electrical activity at this synapse, by measuring the extracellular sound-evoked potentials (SEPs) from the antennal nerve while monitoring the likelihood of the GF firing an action potential in response to simultaneous subthreshold sound and voltage stimuli. Ectopic presynaptic expression of En strengthens the synaptic connection, consistent with there being more synaptic contacts formed. Finally, RNAi-mediated knockdown of En and Inv in postmitotic neurons reduces SEP amplitude but also reduces synaptic strength at the JON–GF synapse. Overall, these results suggest that En and Inv in JONs regulate both neuronal excitability and synaptic connectivity. PMID:25164665

  4. Effects of acute and chronic administration of neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on neuronal excitability in mice

    PubMed Central

    Svob Strac, Dubravka; Vlainic, Josipa; Samardzic, Janko; Erhardt, Julija; Krsnik, Zeljka

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) has been associated with important brain functions, including neuronal survival, memory, and behavior, showing therapeutic potential in various neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. However, the antagonistic effects of DHEAS on γ-amino-butyric acidA receptors and its facilitatory action on glutamatergic neurotransmission might lead to enhanced brain excitability and seizures and thus limit DHEAS therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to investigate possible age and sex differences in the neuronal excitability of the mice following acute and chronic DHEAS administration. Methods DHEAS was administered intraperitoneally in male and female adult and old mice either acutely or repeatedly once daily for 4 weeks in a 10 mg/kg dose. To investigate the potential proconvulsant properties of DHEAS, we studied the effects of acute and chronic DHEAS treatment on picrotoxin-, pentylentetrazole-, and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced seizures in mice. The effects of acute and chronic DHEAS administration on the locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight of the mice were also studied. We also investigated the effects of DHEAS treatment on [3H]flunitrazepam binding to the mouse brain membranes. Results DHEAS did not modify the locomotor activity, motor coordination, body weight, and brain [3H]flunitrazepam binding of male and female mice. The results failed to demonstrate significant effects of single- and long-term DHEAS treatment on the convulsive susceptibility in both adult and aged mice of both sexes. However, small but significant changes regarding sex differences in the susceptibility to seizures were observed following DHEAS administration to mice. Conclusion Although our findings suggest that DHEAS treatment might be safe for various potential therapeutic applications in adult as well as in old age, they also support subtle interaction of DHEAS with male and female hormonal status

  5. Corticotropin releasing factor excites neurons of posterior hypothalamic nucleus to produce tachycardia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, He-Ren; Zhuang, Qian-Xing; Li, Bin; Li, Hong-Zhao; Chen, Zhang-Peng; Wang, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Jing-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), a peptide hormone involved in the stress response, holds a key position in cardiovascular regulation. Here, we report that the central effect of CRF on cardiovascular activities is mediated by the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PH), an important structure responsible for stress-induced cardiovascular changes. Our present results demonstrate that CRF directly excites PH neurons via two CRF receptors, CRFR1 and CRFR2, and consequently increases heart rate (HR) rather than the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Bilateral vagotomy does not influence the tachycardia response to microinjection of CRF into the PH, while β adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol almost totally abolishes the tachycardia. Furthermore, microinjecting CRF into the PH primarily increases neuronal activity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVMM), but does not influence that of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV). These findings suggest that the PH is a critical target for central CRF system in regulation of cardiac activity and the PH-RVLM/RVMM-cardiac sympathetic nerve pathways, rather than PH-DMNV-vagus pathway, may contribute to the CRF-induced tachycardia. PMID:26831220

  6. Dexmedetomidine alleviates postoperative cognitive dysfunction by inhibiting neuron excitation in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Bo; Shi, Qiqing; Fang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perioperative stress response is one of the factors leading to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Dexmedetomidine (Dex) can reduce the stress response and hippocampus neuroapoptosis, but its mechanism of action on POCD remains unknown. This study investigated the protective effect and possible mechanism of Dex on POCD in aged rats. Ninety-six aged male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 24 rats per group): a non-surgical control group, a surgical (model) group, a surgical group receiving a high dose of Dex (12 μg/kg), and a surgical group receiving a low dose of Dex (3 μg/kg). Cognitive function and neuronal apoptosis were evaluated after splenectomy. Compared with the control group, the model group had significantly longer escape latencies and fewer platform crossings in the Morris water-maze test. Immunohistochemistry showed that relaxin-3 and c-fos positive neurons in the hippocampus increased on postoperative days 1 and 3. Greater downregulation of the Bcl-2 protein and upregulation of Fas, caspase-8, and caspase-9 significantly increased neuroapoptosis in the model group. Compared with the model group, rats given Dex had (1) shorter escape latencies, (2) more platform crossings, (3) fewer relaxin-3 and c-fos positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area, (4) upregulation of Bcl-2, (5) downregulation of Fas, caspase-8, and caspase-9 proteins, and (6) decreased neuroapoptosis in the hippocampus. Thus, our data suggest that Dex may improve cognitive functioning in aged rats by inhibiting neural over-excitability. The mechanism may operate by restraining relaxin-3 and c-fos expression. PMID:27069541

  7. The dissociative anaesthetics, ketamine and phencyclidine, selectively reduce excitation of central mammalian neurones by N-methyl-aspartate.

    PubMed Central

    Anis, N. A.; Berry, S. C.; Burton, N. R.; Lodge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of two dissociative anaesthetics, ketamine and phencyclidine, with the responses of spinal neurones to the electrophoretic administration of amino acids and acetylcholine was studied in decerebrate or pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats and rats. Both ketamine and phencyclidine selectively blocked excitation by N-methyl-aspartate (NMA) with little effect on excitation by quisqualate and kainate. Ketamine reduced responses to L-aspartate somewhat more than those of L-glutamate; the sensitivity of responses to these two putative transmitters was between that to NMA on one hand and that to quisqualate or kainate on the other. On Renshaw cells, ketamine and phencyclidine reduced responses to acetylcholine less than those to NMA but more than those to quisqualate or kainate. Dorsal root-evoked synaptic excitation of Renshaw cells was reduced to a greater extent than that following ventral root excitation. Intravenous ketamine, 2.5-20 mg/kg, and phencyclidine, 0.2-0.5 mg/kg, also selectively blocked excitation of neurones by NMA. Ketamine showed no consistent or selective effect on inhibition of spinal neurones by electrophoretically administered glycine or gamma-aminobutyricacid (GABA). The results suggest that reduction of synaptic excitation mediated via NMA receptors contributes to the anaesthetic/analgesic properties of these two dissociative anaesthetics. PMID:6317114

  8. Selective lesions of the cholinergic neurons within the posterior pedunculopontine do not alter operant learning or nicotine sensitization.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Duncan A A; Wilson, David I G; Winn, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Cholinergic neurons within the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus have been implicated in a range of functions, including behavioral state control, attention, and modulation of midbrain and basal ganglia systems. Previous experiments with excitotoxic lesions have found persistent learning impairment and altered response to nicotine following lesion of the posterior component of the PPTg (pPPTg). These effects have been attributed to disrupted input to midbrain dopamine systems, particularly the ventral tegmental area. The pPPTg contains a dense collection of cholinergic neurons and also large numbers of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Because these interdigitated populations of neurons are all susceptible to excitotoxins, the effects of such lesions cannot be attributed to one neuronal population. We wished to assess whether the learning impairments and altered responses to nicotine in excitotoxic PPTg-lesioned rats were due to loss of cholinergic neurons within the pPPTg. Selective depletion of cholinergic pPPTg neurons is achievable with the fusion toxin Dtx-UII, which targets UII receptors expressed only by cholinergic neurons in this region. Rats bearing bilateral lesions of cholinergic pPPTg neurons (>90 % ChAT+ neuronal loss) displayed no deficits in the learning or performance of fixed and variable ratio schedules of reinforcement for pellet reward. Separate rats with the same lesions had a normal locomotor response to nicotine and furthermore sensitized to repeated administration of nicotine at the same rate as sham controls. Previously seen changes in these behaviors following excitotoxic pPPTg lesions cannot be attributed solely to loss of cholinergic neurons. These findings indicate that non-cholinergic neurons within the pPPTg are responsible for the learning deficits and altered responses to nicotine seen after excitotoxic lesions. The functions of cholinergic neurons may be related to behavioral state control and attention rather than learning

  9. Selective alterations of neurons and circuits related to early memory loss in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Llorens-Martín, Maria; Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Rabano, Alberto; Hernandez, Felix; Avila, Jesus; DeFelipe, Javier

    2014-01-01

    A progressive loss of episodic memory is a well-known clinical symptom that characterizes Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The beginning of this loss of memory has been associated with the very early, pathological accumulation of tau and neuronal degeneration observed in the entorhinal cortex (EC). Tau-related pathology is thought to then spread progressively to the hippocampal formation and other brain areas as the disease progresses. The major cortical afferent source of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus is the EC through the perforant pathway. At least two main circuits participate in the connection between EC and the hippocampus; one originating in layer II and the other in layer III of the EC giving rise to the classical trisynaptic (ECII → dentate gyrus → CA3 → CA1) and monosynaptic (ECIII → CA1) circuits. Thus, the study of the early pathological changes in these circuits is of great interest. In this review, we will discuss mainly the alterations of the granule cell neurons of the dentate gyrus and the atrophy of CA1 pyramidal neurons that occur in AD in relation to the possible differential alterations of these two main circuits. PMID:24904307

  10. Modulation of swimming behavior in the medicinal leech. IV. Serotonin-induced alteration of synaptic interactions between neurons of the swim circuit.

    PubMed

    Mangan, P S; Cometa, A K; Friesen, W O

    1994-12-01

    Serotonin enhances the expression of swimming in the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. These two reports examine the physiological causes underlying this modulation. The initial paper (Mangan et al. 1994) demonstrated that serotonin enhanced the participation of inhibitory swim motor neurons (MNs) in the generation of the swimming rhythm in the isolated nerve cord. In experiments reported here, we examined whether synaptic interactions between neurons of the swim circuit are altered by serotonin. Following exposure to 50 microM serotonin, pairwise intracellular recording revealed the presence of a time-dependent synaptic decrement. Synaptic decrement was characterized by: 1) a substantial decline in synaptic inhibition (half-decay time about 0.4 s) during constant presynaptic excitation; 2) a reduced half-time of recovery from synaptic inhibition; and 3) a strong dependence on the presynaptic neuron's membrane potential. We found little alteration in the physiology of synaptic transmission involving MNs following amine depletion in leech nerve cords. We propose that alterations in synaptic interactions resulting from exposure to elevated serotonin levels, coupled with the changes in MN cellular properties described earlier, are crucial to the increased efficacy of MNs in participating in generating and expressing the leech swimming rhythm. PMID:7807416

  11. Activity and High-Order Effective Connectivity Alterations in Sanfilippo C Patient-Specific Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Canals, Isaac; Soriano, Jordi; Orlandi, Javier G.; Torrent, Roger; Richaud-Patin, Yvonne; Jiménez-Delgado, Senda; Merlin, Simone; Follenzi, Antonia; Consiglio, Antonella; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel; Raya, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has been successfully used to recapitulate phenotypic traits of several human diseases in vitro. Patient-specific iPSC-based disease models are also expected to reveal early functional phenotypes, although this remains to be proved. Here, we generated iPSC lines from two patients with Sanfilippo type C syndrome, a lysosomal storage disorder with inheritable progressive neurodegeneration. Mature neurons obtained from patient-specific iPSC lines recapitulated the main known phenotypes of the disease, not present in genetically corrected patient-specific iPSC-derived cultures. Moreover, neuronal networks organized in vitro from mature patient-derived neurons showed early defects in neuronal activity, network-wide degradation, and altered effective connectivity. Our findings establish the importance of iPSC-based technology to identify early functional phenotypes, which can in turn shed light on the pathological mechanisms occurring in Sanfilippo syndrome. This technology also has the potential to provide valuable readouts to screen compounds, which can prevent the onset of neurodegeneration. PMID:26411903

  12. Altering Entry Site Preference of Lentiviral Vectors into Neuronal Cells by Pseudotyping with Envelope Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenta; Kato, Shigeki; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Takada, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    A lentiviral vector system provides a powerful strategy for gene therapy trials against a variety of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Pseudotyping of lentiviral vectors with different envelope glycoproteins not only confers the neurotropism to the vectors, but also alters the preference of sites of vector entry into neuronal cells. One major group of lentiviral vectors is a pseudotype with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) that enters preferentially cell body areas (somata/dendrites) of neurons and transduces them. Another group contains lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with fusion envelope glycoproteins composed of different sets of rabies virus glycoprotein and VSV-G segments that enter predominantly axon terminals of neurons and are transported through axons retrogradely to their cell bodies, resulting in enhanced retrograde gene transfer. This retrograde gene transfer takes a considerable advantage of delivering the transgene into neuronal cell bodies situated in regions distant from the injection site of the vectors. The rational use of these two vector groups characterized by different entry mechanisms will further extend the strategy for gene therapy of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26611586

  13. Neuronal responses in cat primary auditory cortex to natural and altered species-specific calls.

    PubMed

    Gehr, D D; Komiya, H; Eggermont, J J

    2000-12-01

    We investigated how natural and morphed cat vocalizations are represented in primary auditory cortex (AI). About 40% of the neurons showed time-locked responses to major peaks in the vocalization envelope, 60% only responded at the onset. Simultaneously recorded multi-unit (MU) activity of these peak-tracking neurons on separate electrodes was significantly more synchronous during stimulation than under silence. Thus, the representation of the vocalizations is likely synchronously distributed across the cortex. The sum of the responses to the low and high frequency part of the meow, with the boundary at 2.5 kHz, was larger than the neuronal response to the natural meow itself, suggesting that strong lateral inhibition is shaping the response to the natural meow. In this sense, the neurons are combination-sensitive. The frequency-tuning properties and the response to amplitude-modulated tones of the MU recordings can explain the responses to natural, and temporally and spectrally altered vocalizations. Analysis of the mutual information in the firing rate suggests that the activity of at least 95 recording sites in AI would be needed to reliably distinguish between the nine different vocalizations. This suggests that a distributed representation based on temporal stimulus aspects may be more efficient than one based on firing rate. PMID:11077191

  14. Optogenetic excitation of neurons with channelrhodopsins: light instrumentation, expression systems, and channelrhodopsin variants.

    PubMed

    Lin, John Y

    2012-01-01

    Classically, temporally precise excitation of membrane potential in neurons within intact tissue can be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect electrical stimulation induced by changing magnetic fields. Both of these approaches have a predetermined selectivity based on the biophysical properties of the nervous tissue and membrane in the region of the stimulation. A recent advance in selective excitation of neurons is the "optogenetic" approach utilizing channelrhodopsins (ChRs). By expressing the light-responsive ChR in neurons using cell-type selective promoters or other methods, specific neurons can be depolarized by light in a temporally precise manner with millisecond resolution even if their membrane biophysical properties are less favorable for electrical stimulation. In addition, ChRs can be used to depolarize nonneuronal cells in the nervous tissue, and to sustain depolarization over a prolonged period of time, both of which cannot be achieved with electrical or magnetic stimulations. To conduct an experiment with ChR, experimenters need to make the correct choices on the three main components to such an experiment: the expression system, the illumination source, and the ChR variant used. This chapter aims to provide some discussions on the current developments of these aspects of the experiments. To express ChR in neurons, the common expression systems include viral vectors, in utero electroporation, and transgenic animals, each with their advantages and limitations regarding the cost, expression pattern, and the required effort. In terms of the instrumentation, an illumination source that is capable of providing the desired wavelength with high intensity is crucial for the success of the experiment. The important factors regarding the light source used include the cost, light density output, efficiency for fiber coupling for in vivo rodent experiments, and the available methods to control light intensity and onset/termination. The third

  15. Muscarinic receptor subtypes differentially control synaptic input and excitability of cerebellum-projecting medial vestibular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2016-04-01

    Neurons in the vestibular nuclei have a vital function in balance maintenance, gaze stabilization, and posture. Although muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are expressed and involved in regulating vestibular function, it remains unclear how individual mAChR subtypes regulate vestibular neuronal activity. In this study, we determined which specific subtypes of mAChRs control synaptic input and excitability of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons that project to the cerebellum. Cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons were labeled by a fluorescent retrograde tracer and then identified in rat brainstem slices. Quantitative PCR analysis suggested that M2 and M3 were the possible major mAChR subtypes expressed in the MVN. The mAChR agonist oxotremorine-M significantly reduced the amplitude of glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic currents evoked by stimulation of vestibular primary afferents, and this effect was abolished by the M2-preferring antagonist AF-DX 116. However, oxotremorine-M had no effect on GABA-mediated spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents of labeled MVN neurons. Furthermore, oxotremorine-M significantly increased the firing activity of labeled MVN neurons, and this effect was blocked by the M3-preferring antagonist J104129 in most neurons tested. In addition, AF-DX 116 reduced the onset latency and prolonged the excitatory effect of oxotremorine-M on the firing activity of labeled MVN neurons. Our findings suggest that M3 is the predominant post-synaptic mAChR involved in muscarinic excitation of cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons. Pre-synaptic M2 mAChR regulates excitatory glutamatergic input from vestibular primary afferents, which in turn influences the excitability of cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons. This new information has important therapeutic implications for treating vestibular disorders with mAChR subtype-selective agents. Medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons projecting to the cerebellum are involved in balance control. We

  16. Leptin modulates the intrinsic excitability of AgRP/NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Baver, Scott B; Hope, Kevin; Guyot, Shannon; Bjørbaek, Christian; Kaczorowski, Catherine; O'Connell, Kristen M S

    2014-04-16

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) is a brain region critical for regulation of food intake and a primary area for the action of leptin in the CNS. In lean mice, the adipokine leptin inhibits neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neuronal activity, resulting in decreased food intake. Here we show that diet-induced obesity in mice is associated with persistent activation of NPY neurons and a failure of leptin to reduce the firing rate or hyperpolarize the resting membrane potential. However, the molecular mechanism whereby diet uncouples leptin's effect on neuronal excitability remains to be fully elucidated. In NPY neurons from lean mice, the Kv channel blocker 4-aminopyridine inhibited leptin-induced changes in input resistance and spike rate. Consistent with this, we found that ARH NPY neurons have a large, leptin-sensitive delayed rectifier K(+) current and that leptin sensitivity of this current is blunted in neurons from diet-induced obese mice. This current is primarily carried by Kv2-containing channels, as the Kv2 channel inhibitor stromatoxin-1 significantly increased the spontaneous firing rate in NPY neurons from lean mice. In HEK cells, leptin induced a significant hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of Kv2.1 but had no effect on the function of the closely related channel Kv2.2 when these channels were coexpressed with the long isoform of the leptin receptor LepRb. Our results suggest that dynamic modulation of somatic Kv2.1 channels regulates the intrinsic excitability of NPY neurons to modulate the spontaneous activity and the integration of synaptic input onto these neurons in the ARH. PMID:24741039

  17. Alterations of Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons: Turning Points in the Genesis of Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Granato, Alberto; De Giorgio, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons (PNs) represent the majority of neocortical cells and their involvement in cognitive functions is decisive. Therefore, they are the most obvious target of developmental disorders characterized by mental retardation. Genetic and non-genetic forms of intellectual disability share a few basic pathogenetic signatures that result in the anomalous function of PNs. Here, we review the key mechanisms impairing these neurons and their participation in the cortical network, with special focus on experimental models of fetal exposure to alcohol. Due to the heterogeneity of PNs, some alterations affect selectively a given cell population, which may also differ depending on the considered pathology. These specific features open new possibilities for the interpretation of cognitive defects observed in mental retardation syndromes, as well as for novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:25157343

  18. alters the connectivity of olfactory neurons in the absence of amyloid plaques in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Luxiang; Schrank, Benjamin R.; Rodriguez, Steve; Benz, Eric G.; Moulia, Thomas W.; Rickenbacher, Gregory T.; Gomez, Alexis C.; Levites, Yona; Edwards, Sarah R.; Golde, Todd E.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Barnea, Gilad; Albers, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Aβ peptide aggregates into amyloid plaques at presymptomatic stages of Alzheimer's disease, but the temporal relationship between plaque formation and neuronal dysfunction is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the connectivity of the peripheral olfactory neural circuit is perturbed in mice overexpressing human APPsw (Swedish mutation) prior to the onset of plaques. Expression of hAPPsw exclusively in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) also perturbs connectivity with associated reductions in odor-evoked gene expression and olfactory acuity. By contrast, OSN axons project correctly in mice overexpressing wild type human APP throughout the brain and in mice overexpressing human APPmv, a missense mutation that reduces Aβ production, exclusively in OSNs. Furthermore, expression of Aβ40 or Aβ42 solely in the olfactory epithelium disrupts OSN axon targeting. Our data indicate that altering the structural connectivity and function of highly plastic neural circuits is one of the pleiotropic actions of soluble human Aβ. PMID:22910355

  19. Pretreatment with nonselective cationic channel inhibitors blunts the PACAP-induced increase in guinea pig cardiac neuron excitability.

    PubMed

    Merriam, Laura A; Roman, Carolyn W; Baran, Caitlin N; Girard, Beatrice M; May, Victor; Parsons, Rodney L

    2012-11-01

    Calcium influx is required for the pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)-induced increase in guinea pig cardiac neuron excitability, noted as a change from a phasic to multiple action potential firing pattern. Intracellular recordings indicated that pretreatment with the nonselective cationic channel inhibitors, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB), 1-[β-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole HCl (SKF 96365), and flufenamic acid (FFA) reduced the 20-nM PACAP-induced excitability increase. Additional experiments tested whether 2-APB, FFA, and SKF 96365 could suppress the increase in excitability by PACAP once it had developed. The increased action potential firing remained following application of 2-APB but was diminished by FFA. SKF 96365 transiently depressed the PACAP-induced excitability increase. A decrease and recovery of action potential amplitude paralleled the excitability shift. Since semiquantitative PCR indicated that cardiac neurons express TRPC subunit transcripts, we hypothesize that PACAP activates calcium-permeable, nonselective cationic channels, which possibly are members of the TRPC family. Our results are consistent with calcium influx being required for the initiation of the PACAP-induced increase in excitability, but suggest that it may not be required to sustain the peptide effect. The present results also demonstrate that nonselective cationic channel inhibitors could have other actions, which might contribute to the inhibition of the PACAP-induced excitability increase. PMID:22528456

  20. Altered and dynamic ion selectivity of K+ channels in cell development and excitability

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haijun; Chatelain, Franck C.; Lesage, Florian

    2015-01-01

    K+ channels play a key role in regulating cellular excitability. It was thought that the strong K+-selectivity of these channels was static, only altered by mutations in their selectivity filter, which can cause severe genetic disorders. Recent studies demonstrate that selectivity of K+ channels can also exhibit dynamic changes. Under acidic conditions or in low extracellular K+ concentrations, the two-pore domain K+ channel (K2P) TWIK1 becomes permeable to Na+, shifting from an inhibitory role to an excitatory role. This phenomenon is responsible for the paradoxical depolarization of human cardiomyocytes in pathological hypokalemia, and therefore may contribute to cardiac arrhythmias. In other cell types, TWIK1 produces depolarizing leak currents under physiological conditions. Dynamic ion selectivity also occurs in other K2P channels. Here we review evidence that dynamic selectivity of K2P channels constitutes a new regulatory mechanism of cellular excitability, whose significance is only now becoming appreciated. PMID:25023607

  1. Alteration of glial-neuronal metabolic interactions in a mouse model of Alexander disease

    PubMed Central

    Meisingset, Tore Wergeland; Risa, Øystein; Brenner, Michael; Messing, Albee; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Alexander disease is a rare and usually fatal neurological disorder characterized by the abundant presence of protein aggregates in astrocytes. Most cases result from dominant missense de novo mutations in the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), but how these mutations lead to aggregate formation and compromise function is not known. A transgenic mouse line (Tg73.7) over-expressing human GFAP produces astrocytic aggregates indistinguishable from those seen in the human disease, making them a model of this disorder. To investigate possible metabolic changes associated with Alexander disease Tg73.7 mice and controls were injected simultaneously with [1-13C]glucose to analyze neuronal metabolism and [1,2-13C]acetate to monitor astrocytic metabolism. Brain extracts were analyzed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify amounts of several key metabolites, and by 13C MRS to analyze amino acid neurotransmitter metabolism. In the cerebral cortex, reduced utilization of [1,2-13C]acetate was observed for synthesis of glutamine, glutamate, and GABA, and the concentration of the marker for neuronal mitochondrial metabolism, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), was decreased. This indicates impaired astrocytic and neuronal metabolism and decreased transfer of glutamine from astrocytes to neurons compared to control mice. In the cerebellum, glutamine and GABA content and labeling from [1-13C]glucose were increased. Evidence for brain edema was found in the increased amount of water and of the osmoregulators myo-inositol and taurine. It can be concluded that astrocyte – neuronal interactions were altered differently in distinct regions. PMID:20544858

  2. Local administration of resveratrol inhibits excitability of nociceptive wide-dynamic range neurons in rat trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Yoshihito; Shibuya, Eri; Takehana, Shiori; Sekiguchi, Kenta; Oshima, Katsuo; Kamata, Hiroaki; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Mamoru

    2016-06-01

    Although we recently reported that intravenous administration of resveratrol suppresses trigeminal nociception, the precise peripheral effect of resveratrol on nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation-induced trigeminal neuron activity in vivo remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether local subcutaneous administration of resveratrol attenuates mechanical stimulation-induced excitability of trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neuron activity in rats, in vivo. Extracellular single-unit recordings were made of SpVc wide-dynamic range (WDR) neuron activity in response to orofacial mechanical stimulation in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Neurons responded to non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimulation applied to the orofacial skin. Local subcutaneous administration of resveratrol (1-10mM) into the orofacial skin dose dependently and significantly reduced the mean number of SpVc WDR neurons firing in response to both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli, with the maximal inhibition of discharge frequency in response to both stimuli being seen within 5min. These inhibitory effects were no longer evident after approximately 20min. The mean magnitude of inhibition by resveratrol (10mM) of SpVc neuron discharge frequency was almost equal to that of the local anesthetic 1% lidocaine (37mM). These results suggest that local injection of resveratrol into the peripheral receptive field suppresses the excitability of SpVc neurons, possibly via inhibition of Na(+) channels in the nociceptive nerve terminals of trigeminal ganglion neurons. Therefore, local subcutaneous administration of resveratrol may provide relief of trigeminal nociceptive pain, without side effects, thus contributing to the suite of complementary and alternative medicines used as local anesthetic agents. PMID:27288246

  3. Exposure to a high fat diet during the perinatal period alters vagal motoneurone excitability, even in the absence of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Ruchi; Fortna, Samuel R; Browning, Kirsteen N

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal period is critically important to the development of autonomic neural circuits responsible for energy homeostasis. Vagal neurocircuits are vital to the regulation of upper gastrointestinal functions, including satiety. Diet-induced obesity modulates the excitability and responsiveness of both peripheral vagal afferents and central vagal efferents but less information is available regarding the effects of diet per se on vagal neurocircuit functions. The aims of this study were to investigate whether perinatal exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) dysregulated dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones, prior to the development of obesity. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from gastric-projecting DMV neurones in thin brainstem slices from rats that were exposed to either a control diet or HFD from pregnancy day 13. Our data demonstrate that following perinatal HFD: (i) DMV neurones had decreased excitability and input resistance with a reduced ability to fire action potentials; (ii) the proportion of DMV neurones excited by cholecystokinin (CCK) was unaltered but the proportion of neurones in which CCK increased excitatory glutamatergic synaptic inputs was reduced; (iii) the tonic activation of presynaptic group II metabotropic glutamate receptors on inhibitory nerve terminals was attenuated, allowing modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission; and (iv) the size and dendritic arborization of gastric-projecting DMV neurones was increased. These results suggest that perinatal HFD exposure compromises the excitability and responsiveness of gastric-projecting DMV neurones, even in the absence of obesity, suggesting that attenuation of vago-vagal reflex signalling may precede the development of obesity. PMID:25556801

  4. L-Phosphinothricin modulation of inwardly rectifying K(+) channels increased excitability in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Laetitia; Desrus, Agnès; Même, Sandra; Même, William

    2016-07-01

    Phosphinotricin (L-PPT) is the active compound of a broad-spectrum herbicide. Acute poisoning with L-PPT has various clinical manifestations, including seizures and convulsions. However, the exact mechanism of L-PPT toxicity remains unclear. The present study addressed the role of L-PPT, in the excitability of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). In whole-cell current-clamp experiments, L-PPT increased the input resistance (Ri), decreased the rheobase and increased the firing frequency of action potentials. In voltage-clamp experiments, L-PPT inhibited the inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) currents. Finally, the effects of L-PPT mimicked the inhibition of Kir channels with Ba(2+) on neuronal excitability. Altogether, these results suggest that the herbicide L-PPT is a modulator of Kir channels in MSNs. Thereby, Kir channels are potent regulators of the excitability of MSNs and reduced open probability of these channels would generate a powerful upregulation of neuronal output. This effect may represent a possible mechanism for L-PPT dependent neuronal toxicity. PMID:27136897

  5. Gut region-dependent alterations of nitrergic myenteric neurons after chronic alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bagyánszki, Mária; Bódi, Nikolett

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse damages nearly every organ in the body. The harmful effects of ethanol on the brain, the liver and the pancreas are well documented. Although chronic alcohol consumption causes serious impairments also in the gastrointestinal tract like altered motility, mucosal damage, impaired absorption of nutrients and inflammation, the effects of chronically consumed ethanol on the enteric nervous system are less detailed. While the nitrergic myenteric neurons play an essential role in the regulation of gastrointestinal peristalsis, it was hypothesised, that these neurons are the first targets of consumed ethanol or its metabolites generated in the different gastrointestinal segments. To reinforce this hypothesis the effects of ethanol on the gastrointestinal tract was investigated in different rodent models with quantitative immunohistochemistry, in vivo and in vitro motility measurements, western blot analysis, evaluation of nitric oxide synthase enzyme activity and bio-imaging of nitric oxide synthesis. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption did not result significant neural loss, but primarily impaired the nitrergic pathways in gut region-dependent way leading to disturbed gastrointestinal motility. The gut segment-specific differences in the effects of chronic alcohol consumption highlight the significance the ethanol-induced neuronal microenvironment involving oxidative stress and intestinal microbiota. PMID:26301118

  6. Val66Met Polymorphism of BDNF Alters Prodomain Structure to Induce Neuronal Growth Cone Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Anastasia, Agustin; Deinhardt, Katrin; Chao, Moses V.; Will, Nathan E.; Irmady, Krithi; Lee, Francis S.; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Bracken, Clay

    2013-01-01

    A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene results in a Val66Met substitution in the BDNF prodomain region. This single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with alterations in memory and with enhanced risk to develop depression and anxiety disorders in humans. Here we show that the isolated BDNF prodomain is detected in the hippocampus and that it can be secreted from neurons in an activity-dependent manner. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and circular dichroism we find that the prodomain is intrinsically disordered, and the Val66Met substitution induces structural changes. Surprisingly, application of Met66 (but not Val66) BDNF prodomain induces acute growth cone retraction and a decrease in Rac activity in hippocampal neurons. Expression of p75NTR and differential engagement of the Met66 prodomain to the SorCS2 receptor are required for this effect. These results identify the Met66 prodomain as a new active ligand which modulates neuronal morphology. PMID:24048383

  7. LGI1-associated epilepsy through altered ADAM23-dependent neuronal morphology

    PubMed Central

    Owuor, Katherine; Harel, Noam Y.; Englot, Dario C.; Hisama, Fuki; Blumenfeld, Hal; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Most epilepsy genes encode ion channels, but the LGI1 gene responsible for Autosomal Dominant Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features produces a secreted protein. LGI1 is suggested to regulate PSD-95 via ADAM22. However, no unbiased screen of LGI1 action has been conducted. Here, we searched for brain genes supporting high affinity LGI-1 binding. ADAM23 was the only LGI1 interactor identified. The related proteins, ADAM22 and ADAM11, but not ADAM12, bind LGI1. Neither ADAM23 nor ADAM11, nor some forms of ADAM22, contain PDZ-interacting sequences, suggesting PSD-95-independent mechanisms in ADPEAF. Because ADAMs modulate integrins, we examined LGI1 effect on neurite outgrowth. LGI1 increases outgrowth from wild type but not ADAM23-/- neurons. Furthermore, CA1 pyramidal neurons of ADAM23-/- hippocampi have reduced dendritic arborization. ADAM23-/- mice exhibit spontaneous seizures, while ADAM23+/- mice have decreased seizure thresholds. Thus, LGI1 binding to ADAM23 is necessary to correctly pattern neuronal morphology and altered anatomical patterning contributes to ADPEAF. PMID:19796686

  8. Ethanol exposure during gastrulation alters neuronal morphology and behavior in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shubham D; Boutin, Savanna; Ferdous, Jannatul; Ali, Declan W

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during development has been shown to lead to deficits in fine and gross motor control. In this study we used zebrafish embryos to determine the effects of EtOH treatment during gastrulation. We treated embryos in the gastrulation stage (5.25 hours post fertilization (hpf) to 10.75 hpf) with 10 mM, 50 mM or 100 mM EtOH and examined the effects on general animal morphology, the c-start reflex behavior, Mauthner cell (M-cell) morphology and motor neuron morphology. EtOH treated fish exhibited a minor but significant increase in gross morphological deformities compared with untreated fish. Behavioral studies showed that EtOH treatment resulted in an increase in the peak speed of the tail during the escape response. Furthermore, there was a marked increase in abnormally directed c-starts, with treated fish showing greater incidences of c-starts in inappropriate directions. Immunolabeling of the M-cells, which are born during gastrulation, revealed that they were significantly smaller in fish treated with 100 mM EtOH compared with controls. Immunolabeling of primary motor neurons using anti-znp1, showed no significant effect on axonal branching, whereas secondary motor axons had a greater number of branches in ethanol treated fish compared with controls. Together these findings indicate that ethanol exposure during gastrulation can lead to alterations in behavior, neuronal morphology and possibly function. PMID:25599605

  9. Dopamine alters AMPA receptor synaptic expression and subunit composition in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area cultured with prefrontal cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Gao, Can; Wolf, Marina E

    2007-12-26

    Excitatory synapses onto dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) represent a critical site of psychostimulant-induced synaptic plasticity. This plasticity involves alterations in synaptic strength through AMPA receptor (AMPAR) redistribution. Here, we report an in vitro model for studying regulation of AMPAR trafficking in DA neurons under control conditions and after elevation of DA levels, mimicking cocaine exposure. We used cocultures containing rat VTA neurons and prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons from enhanced cyan fluorescent protein-expressing mice. In VTA-PFC cocultures, D1 receptor activation (10 min) increased synaptic and nonsynaptic glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) and GluR2 surface expression on DA neurons. NMDA or AMPA receptor antagonists blocked this effect, and it was not observed in pure VTA cultures, suggesting that DA agonists acted on D1 receptors on PFC neurons, altering their excitatory transmission onto VTA DA neurons and, thus, influencing AMPARs. To mimic the longer elevation in extracellular DA levels produced by systemic cocaine, cocultures were incubated with DA for 1 h. Synaptic GluR1 was increased 24 h later, reminiscent of the increased AMPA/NMDA ratio at excitatory synapses onto VTA DA neurons 24 h after cocaine injection (Ungless et al., 2001). In contrast, GluR2 was unchanged. Analysis of colocalization of surface GluR1-3 labeling suggested that control DA neurons express a substantial number of GluR1/2, GluR2/3, and homomeric GluR1 receptors and that the increase in surface AMPARs 24 h after DA exposure may in part reflect increased GluR1/3-containing receptors. These results help define the cellular basis for plasticity underlying the development of behavioral sensitization. PMID:18160635

  10. State- and Trait-Related Alterations of Motor Cortex Excitability in Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schecklmann, Martin; Landgrebe, Michael; Kleinjung, Tobias; Frank, Elmar; Rupprecht, Rainer; Sand, Philipp G.; Eichhammer, Peter; Hajak, Göran; Langguth, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a brain network disorder with involvement of auditory and non-auditory areas. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporal cortex has been investigated for the treatment of tinnitus. Several small studies suggest that motor cortex excitability is altered in people with tinnitus. We retrospectively analysed data from 231 patients with chronic tinnitus and 120 healthy controls by pooling data from different studies. Variables of interest were resting motor threshold (RMT), short-interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI), intra-cortical facilitation (ICF), and cortical silent period (CSP). 118 patients were tested twice - before and after ten rTMS treatment sessions over the left temporal cortex. In tinnitus patients SICI and ICF were increased and CSP was shortened as compared to healthy controls. There was no group difference in RMT. Treatment related amelioration of tinnitus symptoms were correlated with normalisations in SICI. These findings confirm earlier studies of abnormal motor cortex excitability in tinnitus patients. Moreover our longitudinal data suggest that altered SICI may reflect a state parameter, whereas CSP and ICF may rather mirror a trait-like predisposing factor of tinnitus. These findings are new and innovative as they enlarge the knowledge about basic physiologic and neuroplastic processes in tinnitus. PMID:24409317

  11. Activation of Neurotensin Receptor 1 Facilitates Neuronal Excitability and Spatial Learning and Memory in the Entorhinal Cortex: Beneficial Actions in an Alzheimer's Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhaoyang; Cilz, Nicholas I.; Kurada, Lalitha; Hu, Binqi; Yang, Chuanxiu; Wada, Etsuko; Combs, Colin K.; Porter, James E.; Lesage, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide distributed in the CNS, including the entorhinal cortex (EC), a structure that is crucial for learning and memory and undergoes the earliest pathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas NT has been implicated in modulating cognition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which NT modifies cognitive processes and the potential therapeutic roles of NT in AD have not been determined. Here we examined the effects of NT on neuronal excitability and spatial learning in the EC, which expresses high density of NT receptors. Brief application of NT induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency, which could last for at least 1 h. NT-induced facilitation of neuronal excitability was mediated by downregulation of TREK-2 K+ channels and required the functions of NTS1, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C. Microinjection of NT or NTS1 agonist, PD149163, into the EC increased spatial learning as assessed by the Barnes Maze Test. Activation of NTS1 receptors also induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency and significantly improved the memory status in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of AD. Our study identifies a cellular substrate underlying learning and memory and suggests that NTS1 agonists may exert beneficial actions in an animal model of AD. PMID:24828655

  12. Activation of neurotensin receptor 1 facilitates neuronal excitability and spatial learning and memory in the entorhinal cortex: beneficial actions in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhaoyang; Cilz, Nicholas I; Kurada, Lalitha; Hu, Binqi; Yang, Chuanxiu; Wada, Etsuko; Combs, Colin K; Porter, James E; Lesage, Florian; Lei, Saobo

    2014-05-14

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide distributed in the CNS, including the entorhinal cortex (EC), a structure that is crucial for learning and memory and undergoes the earliest pathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas NT has been implicated in modulating cognition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which NT modifies cognitive processes and the potential therapeutic roles of NT in AD have not been determined. Here we examined the effects of NT on neuronal excitability and spatial learning in the EC, which expresses high density of NT receptors. Brief application of NT induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency, which could last for at least 1 h. NT-induced facilitation of neuronal excitability was mediated by downregulation of TREK-2 K(+) channels and required the functions of NTS1, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C. Microinjection of NT or NTS1 agonist, PD149163, into the EC increased spatial learning as assessed by the Barnes Maze Test. Activation of NTS1 receptors also induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency and significantly improved the memory status in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of AD. Our study identifies a cellular substrate underlying learning and memory and suggests that NTS1 agonists may exert beneficial actions in an animal model of AD. PMID:24828655

  13. Mutations in the Drosophila pushover gene confer increased neuronal excitability and spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, S.; Hillman, T.; Stern, M.

    1996-04-01

    We describe the identification of a gene called pushover (push), which affects both behavior and synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Adults carrying either of two mutations in push exhibit sluggishness, uncoordination, a defective escape response, and male sterility. Larvae defective in push exhibit increased release of transmitter at the neuromuscular junction. In particular, the frequency of spontaneous transmitter release and the amount of transmitter release evoked by nerve stimulation are each increased two- to threefold in push mutants at the lowest external [(Ca{sup 2+})] tested (0.15 mM). Furthermore, these mutants are more sensitive than wild type to application of the potassium channel-blocking drug quinidine: following quinidine application, push mutants, but not wild-type, display repetitive firing of the motor axon, leading to repetitive muscle postsynaptic potentials. The push gene thus might affect both neuronal excitability and the transmitter release process. Complementation tests and recombinational mapping suggest that the push mutations are allelic to a previously identified P-element-induced mutation, which also causes behavorial abnormalities and male sterility. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Intrinsic excitability state of local neuronal population modulates signal propagation in feed-forward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruixue; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xilei; Qin, Yingmei; Wang, Haixu

    2015-04-01

    Reliable signal propagation across distributed brain areas is an essential requirement for cognitive function, and it has been investigated extensively in computational studies where feed-forward network (FFN) is taken as a generic model. But it is still unclear how distinct local network states, which are intrinsically generated by synaptic interactions within each layer, would affect the ability of FFN to transmit information. Here we investigate the impact of such network states on propagating transient synchrony (synfire) and firing rate by a combination of numerical simulations and analytical approach. Specifically, local network dynamics is attributed to the competition between excitatory and inhibitory neurons within each layer. Our results show that concomitant with different local network states, the performance of signal propagation differs dramatically. For both synfire propagation and firing rate propagation, there exists an optimal local excitability state, respectively, that optimizes the performance of signal propagation. Furthermore, we find that long-range connections strongly change the dependence of spiking activity propagation on local network state and propose that these two factors work jointly to determine information transmission across distributed networks. Finally, a simple mean field approach that bridges response properties of long-range connectivity and local subnetworks is utilized to reveal the underlying mechanism. PMID:25933656

  15. Intrinsic excitability state of local neuronal population modulates signal propagation in feed-forward neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ruixue; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xilei; Qin, Yingmei; Wang, Haixu

    2015-04-01

    Reliable signal propagation across distributed brain areas is an essential requirement for cognitive function, and it has been investigated extensively in computational studies where feed-forward network (FFN) is taken as a generic model. But it is still unclear how distinct local network states, which are intrinsically generated by synaptic interactions within each layer, would affect the ability of FFN to transmit information. Here we investigate the impact of such network states on propagating transient synchrony (synfire) and firing rate by a combination of numerical simulations and analytical approach. Specifically, local network dynamics is attributed to the competition between excitatory and inhibitory neurons within each layer. Our results show that concomitant with different local network states, the performance of signal propagation differs dramatically. For both synfire propagation and firing rate propagation, there exists an optimal local excitability state, respectively, that optimizes the performance of signal propagation. Furthermore, we find that long-range connections strongly change the dependence of spiking activity propagation on local network state and propose that these two factors work jointly to determine information transmission across distributed networks. Finally, a simple mean field approach that bridges response properties of long-range connectivity and local subnetworks is utilized to reveal the underlying mechanism.

  16. Nicotine enhances inhibition of mouse vagal motor neurons by modulating excitability of premotor GABAergic neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Boychuk, Jeffery A; Boychuk, Carie R; Uteshev, Victor V; Smith, Bret N

    2015-02-15

    The caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) serves as the site of the first synapse for visceral sensory inputs to the central nervous system. The NTS sends functional projections to multiple brain nuclei, with gastric-related projections primarily targeting the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Previous studies have demonstrated that the majority of caudal NTS neurons that project to the DMV respond robustly to nicotine and express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, the cytochemical identity and relationship with specific viscera of DMV-projecting, nicotine-responsive caudal NTS neurons have not been determined. The present study used transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under a GAD67 promoter in a subset of GABAergic neurons, in vivo retrograde pseudorabies viral labeling to identify gastric-related vagal complex neurons, and patch-clamp electrophysiology in acute brain stem slices to test the hypothesis that gastric-related and GABAergic inhibitory synaptic input to the DMV from the caudal NTS is under a robust modulatory control by nAChRs. Our results suggest that activation of nAChRs in the caudal NTS, but not DMV, potentiates GABAergic, but not glutamatergic, input to the DMV. Gastric-related caudal NTS and DMV neurons are directly involved in this nicotine-sensitive circuitry. Understanding the central patterns of nicotinic modulation of visceral sensory-motor circuitry may help develop therapeutic interventions to restore autonomic homeostasis in patients with autonomic impairments. PMID:25429117

  17. Cytarabine induced cerebellar neuronal damage in juvenile rat: correlating neurobehavioral performance with cellular and genetic alterations.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ronak S; Rachamalla, Mahesh; Chary, Namoju R; Shera, Firdos Y; Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2012-03-11

    Cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), a pyrimidine analogue induces cerebellar dysfunction and behavioral abnormalities. Although many in vitro experiments have been conducted in the past demonstrating the lethal potential of Ara-C to cerebellar neurons, there is a paucity of literature available regarding the effects of Ara-C on the cellular and genetic material of cerebellum and its subsequent influence on the neurobehavioral performance in vivo. Rats were treated with Ara-C at the dose levels 50, 100 and 200mg/kg/day for 5 and 14 days by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. Endpoints of the evaluation included food and water intake, body and organ weight, behavioral parameters, histopathology, oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, expression of p53, caspase-3 and calbindin D-28K (calbindin) as well as histone acetylation and methylation. Ara-C treatment for 14 days significantly decreased the food and water intake, body weight gain and brain weight in rat as compared to the control. Alterations in various behavioral parameters were observed, indicating the impaired cerebellar function. Further, cellular abnormalities in the cerebellum such as Purkinje cell misalignment and granule cell cytotoxicity were observed. Positive correlation was observed between Ara-C induced disturbance in the motor performance and the Purkinje cell loss in rat cerebellum. Moreover, Ara-C treatment significantly increased the oxidative stress, DNA damage, TUNEL positive cells, p53 and caspase-3 positive cells in the rat cerebellum. Unlike short-term treatment, long-term Ara-C treatment significantly reduced calbindin expression in the cerebellum. Apart from this, 14 days Ara-C treatment led to significant alterations in the histone acetylation and methylation in the cerebellum, while in 5 days treatment no such alterations were observed. Present results indicated that Ara-C, by inducing oxidative stress mediated DNA damage, executes neuronal apoptosis which is accompanied by an increase in the p53

  18. Brain-region–specific alterations of the trajectories of neuronal volume growth throughout the lifespan in autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Several morphometric studies have revealed smaller than normal neurons in the neocortex of autistic subjects. To test the hypothesis that abnormal neuronal growth is a marker of an autism-associated global encephalopathy, neuronal volumes were estimated in 16 brain regions, including various subcortical structures, Ammon’s horn, archicortex, cerebellum, and brainstem in 14 brains from individuals with autism 4 to 60 years of age and 14 age-matched control brains. This stereological study showed a significantly smaller volume of neuronal soma in 14 of 16 regions in the 4- to 8-year-old autistic brains than in the controls. Arbitrary classification revealed a very severe neuronal volume deficit in 14.3% of significantly altered structures, severe in 50%, moderate in 21.4%, and mild in 14.3% structures. This pattern suggests desynchronized neuronal growth in the interacting neuronal networks involved in the autistic phenotype. The comparative study of the autistic and control subject brains revealed that the number of structures with a significant volume deficit decreased from 14 in the 4- to 8-year-old autistic subjects to 4 in the 36- to 60-year-old. Neuronal volumes in 75% of the structures examined in the older adults with autism are comparable to neuronal volume in age-matched controls. This pattern suggests defects of neuronal growth in early childhood and delayed up-regulation of neuronal growth during adolescence and adulthood reducing neuron soma volume deficit in majority of examined regions. However, significant correction of neuron size but limited clinical improvements suggests that delayed correction does not restore functional deficits. PMID:24612906

  19. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different ages in developing non-human primates

    SciTech Connect

    Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-01-15

    Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS exposure during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational age. Mother/infant pairs continued the exposures postnatally to age 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human age, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS exposure based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at age of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS exposure effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS exposure inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS exposure on age-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with age-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS exposure can increase the risk, such as SIDS

  20. CK2 activity is required for the interaction of FGF14 with voltage-gated sodium channels and neuronal excitability.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Chun J; Scala, Federico; Nenov, Miroslav N; Wildburger, Norelle C; Elferink, Hannah; Singh, Aditya K; Chesson, Charles B; Buzhdygan, Tetyana; Sohail, Maveen; Shavkunov, Alexander S; Panova, Neli I; Nilsson, Carol L; Rudra, Jai S; Lichti, Cheryl F; Laezza, Fernanda

    2016-06-01

    Recent data shows that fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) binds to and controls the function of the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel with phenotypic outcomes on neuronal excitability. Mutations in the FGF14 gene in humans have been associated with brain disorders that are partially recapitulated in Fgf14(-/-) mice. Thus, signaling pathways that modulate the FGF14:Nav channel interaction may be important therapeutic targets. Bioluminescence-based screening of small molecule modulators of the FGF14:Nav1.6 complex identified 4,5,6,7 -: tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), a potent casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor, as a strong suppressor of FGF14:Nav1.6 interaction. Inhibition of CK2 through TBB reduces the interaction of FGF14 with Nav1.6 and Nav1.2 channels. Mass spectrometry confirmed direct phosphorylation of FGF14 by CK2 at S228 and S230, and mutation to alanine at these sites modified FGF14 modulation of Nav1.6-mediated currents. In 1 d in vitro hippocampal neurons, TBB induced a reduction in FGF14 expression, a decrease in transient Na(+) current amplitude, and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of Nav channel steady-state inactivation. In mature neurons, TBB reduces the axodendritic polarity of FGF14. In cornu ammonis area 1 hippocampal slices from wild-type mice, TBB impairs neuronal excitability by increasing action potential threshold and lowering firing frequency. Importantly, these changes in excitability are recapitulated in Fgf14(-/-) mice, and deletion of Fgf14 occludes TBB-dependent phenotypes observed in wild-type mice. These results suggest that a CK2-FGF14 axis may regulate Nav channels and neuronal excitability.-Hsu, W.-C. J., Scala, F., Nenov, M. N., Wildburger, N. C., Elferink, H., Singh, A. K., Chesson, C. B., Buzhdygan, T., Sohail, M., Shavkunov, A. S., Panova, N. I., Nilsson, C. L., Rudra, J. S., Lichti, C. F., Laezza, F. CK2 activity is required for the interaction of FGF14 with voltage-gated sodium channels and neuronal

  1. ATP excites mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons through activation of P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Vick, J S; Delay, R J

    2012-09-18

    Purinergic signaling through activation of P2X and P2Y receptors is critically important in the chemical senses. In the mouse main olfactory epithelium (MOE), adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) elicits an increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](I)) and reduces the responsiveness of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants through activation of P2X and P2Y receptors. We investigated the role of purinergic signaling in vomeronasal sensory neuron (VSN)s from the mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO), an olfactory organ distinct from the MOE that responds to many conspecific chemical cues. Using a combination of calcium imaging and patch-clamp electrophysiology with isolated VSNs, we demonstrated that ATP elicits an increase in [Ca(2+)](I) and an inward current with similar EC(50)s. Neither adenosine nor the P2Y receptor ligands adenosine 5'-diphosphate, uridine 5'-triphosphate, and uridine-5'-disphosphate could mimic either effect of ATP. Moreover, the increase in [Ca(2+)](I) required the presence of extracellular calcium and the inward current elicited by ATP was partially blocked by the P2X receptor antagonists pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonate and 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Consistent with the activation of P2X receptors, we detected gene expression of the P2X1 and 3 receptors in the VNO by Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When co-delivered with dilute urine, a natural stimulus, ATP significantly increased the inward current above that elicited by dilute urine or ATP alone. Mechanical stimulation of the VNO induced the release of ATP, detected by luciferin-luciferase luminometry, and this release of ATP was completely abolished in the presence of the connexin/pannexin hemichannel blocker, carbenoxolone. We conclude that the release of ATP could occur during the activity of the vasomotor pump that facilitates the movement of chemicals into the VNO for detection by VSNs. This mechanism could lead to a

  2. Light exposure induces short- and long-term changes in the excitability of retinorecipient neurons in suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    LeSauter, Joseph; Cloues, Robin; Witkovsky, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the locus of a hypothalamic circadian clock that synchronizes physiological and behavioral responses to the daily light-dark cycle. The nucleus is composed of functionally and peptidergically diverse populations of cells for which distinct electrochemical properties are largely unstudied. SCN neurons containing gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receive direct retinal input via the retinohypothalamic tract. We targeted GRP neurons with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker for whole cell patch-clamping. In these neurons, we studied short (0.5–1.5 h)- and long-term (2–6 h) effects of a 1-h light pulse (LP) given 2 h after lights off [Zeitgeber time (ZT) 14:00–15:00] on membrane potential and spike firing. In brain slices taken from light-exposed animals, cells were depolarized, and spike firing rate increased between ZT 15:30 and 16:30. During a subsequent 4-h period beginning around ZT 17:00, GRP neurons from light-exposed animals were hyperpolarized by ∼15 mV. None of these effects was observed in GRP neurons from animals not exposed to light or in immediately adjacent non-GRP neurons whether or not exposed to light. Depolarization of GRP neurons was associated with a reduction in GABAA-dependent synaptic noise, whereas hyperpolarization was accompanied both by a loss of GABAA drive and suppression of a TTX-resistant leakage current carried primarily by Na. This suggests that, in the SCN, exposure to light may induce a short-term increase in GRP neuron excitability mediated by retinal neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, followed by long-term membrane hyperpolarization resulting from suppression of a leakage current, possibly resulting from genomic signals. PMID:21593396

  3. scn1bb, a zebrafish ortholog of SCN1B expressed in excitable and non-excitable cells, affects motor neuron axon morphology and touch sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Fein, Amanda J.; Wright, Melissa A.; Slat, Emily A.; Ribera, Angeles B.; Isom, Lori L.

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels initiate and propagate action potentials in excitable cells. Mammalian Na+ channels are composed of one pore-forming α subunit and two β subunits. SCN1B encodes the Na+ channel β1 subunit that modulates channel gating and voltage-dependence, regulates channel cell surface expression, and functions as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM). We recently identified scn1ba, a zebrafish ortholog of SCN1B. Here we report that zebrafish express a second β1-like paralog, scn1bb. In contrast to the restricted expression of scn1ba mRNA in excitable cells, we detected scn1bb transcripts and protein in several ectodermal derivatives including neurons, glia, the lateral line, peripheral sensory structures, and tissues derived from other germ layers such as the pronephros. As expected for β1 subunits, elimination of Scn1bb protein in vivo by morpholino knock-down reduced Na+ current amplitudes in Rohon-Beard neurons of zebrafish embryos, consistent with effects observed in heterologous systems. Further, after Scn1bb knock-down, zebrafish embryos displayed defects in Rohon-Beard mediated touch sensitivity, demonstrating the significance of Scn1bb modulation of Na+ current to organismal behavior. In addition to effects associated with Na+ current modulation, Scn1bb knockdown produced phenotypes consistent with CAM functions. In particular, morpholino knock-down led to abnormal development of ventrally-projecting spinal neuron axons, defasciculation of the olfactory nerve, and increased hair cell number in the inner ear. We propose that, in addition to modulation of electrical excitability, Scn1bb plays critical developmental roles by functioning as a CAM in the zebrafish embryonic nervous system. PMID:19020043

  4. Neurosteroid interactions with synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAa receptors: regulation of subunit plasticity, phasic and tonic inhibition, and neuronal network excitability

    PubMed Central

    Chase Matthew, Carver; Doodipala Samba, Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Neurosteroids are steroids synthesized within the brain with rapid effects on neuronal excitability. Allopregnanolone, allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, and androstanediol are three widely explored prototype endogenous neurosteroids. They have very different targets and functions compared to conventional steroid hormones. Neuronal GABAa receptors are one of the prime molecular targets of neurosteroids. Objective This review provides a critical appraisal of recent advances in the pharmacology of endogenous neurosteroids that interact with GABAa receptors in the brain. Neurosteroids possess distinct, characteristic effects on the membrane potential and current conductance of the neuron, mainly via potentiation of GABAa receptors at low concentrations and direct activation of receptor chloride channel at higher concentrations. The GABAa receptor mediates two types of inhibition, now characterized as synaptic (phasic) and extrasynaptic (tonic) inhibition. Synaptic release of GABA results in the activation of low-affinity γ2-containing synaptic receptors, while high-affinity δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors are persistently activated by the ambient GABA present in the extracellular fluid. Neurosteroids are potent positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAa receptors and therefore enhance both phasic and tonic inhibition. Tonic inhibition is specifically more sensitive to neurosteroids. The resulting tonic conductance generates a form of shunting inhibition that controls neuronal network excitability, seizure susceptibility, and behavior. Conclusion The growing understanding of the mechanisms of neurosteroid regulation of the structure and function of the synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAa receptors provide many opportunities to create improved therapies for sleep, anxiety, stress, epilepsy, and other neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:24071826

  5. Genetic Inhibition of CaMKII in Dorsal Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons Reduces Functional Excitatory Synapses and Enhances Intrinsic Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Klug, Jason R.; Mathur, Brian N.; Kash, Thomas L.; Wang, Hui-Dong; Matthews, Robert T.; Robison, A. J.; Anderson, Mark E.; Deutch, Ariel Y.; Lovinger, David M.; Colbran, Roger J.; Winder, Danny G.

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is abundant in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). CaMKII is dynamically regulated by changes in dopamine signaling, as occurs in Parkinson's disease as well as addiction. Although CaMKII has been extensively studied in the hippocampus where it regulates excitatory synaptic transmission, relatively little is known about how it modulates neuronal function in the striatum. Therefore, we examined the impact of selectively overexpressing an EGFP-fused CaMKII inhibitory peptide (EAC3I) in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) using a novel transgenic mouse model. EAC3I-expressing cells exhibited markedly decreased excitatory transmission, indicated by a decrease in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). This decrease was not accompanied by changes in the probability of release, levels of glutamate at the synapse, or changes in dendritic spine density. CaMKII regulation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is a major means by which the kinase regulates neuronal function in the hippocampus. We found that the decrease in striatal excitatory transmission seen in the EAC3I mice is mimicked by deletion of GluA1. Further, while CaMKII inhibition decreased excitatory transmission onto MSNs, it increased their intrinsic excitability. These data suggest that CaMKII plays a critical role in setting the excitability rheostat of striatal MSNs by coordinating excitatory synaptic drive and the resulting depolarization response. PMID:23028932

  6. Exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor relieves pain symptoms of diabetic rats by reducing excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Yu, Ting; Yu, Liling; Li, Haijun; Liu, Yongjuan; Wang, Dongqin

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes lacking of effective treatments. Enhanced excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron plays a crucial role in the progression of diabetic neuropathic hyperalgesia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known as a neuromodulator of nociception, but whether and how BDNF modulates the excitability of DRG neurons in the development of DPN remain to be clarified. This study investigated the role of exogenous BDNF and its high-affinity tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain. The results showed that continued intrathecal administration of BDNF to diabetic rats dramatically alleviated mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, as well as inhibited hyperexcitability of DRG neurons. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with TrkB Fc (a synthetic fusion protein consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the TrkB receptor). The expression of BDNF and TrkB was upregulated in the DRG of diabetic rats. Intrathecal administration of BDNF did not affect this upregulation. These data provide novel information that exogenous BDNF relieved pain symptoms of diabetic rats by reducing hyperexcitability of DRG neurons and might be the potential treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:26441011

  7. Excitability of spinal motor neurons during motor imagery of thenar muscle activity under maximal voluntary contractions of 50% and 100%

    PubMed Central

    Bunno, Yoshibumi; Onigata, Chieko; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We often perform physical therapy using motor imagery of muscle contraction to improve motor function for healthy subjects and central nerve disorders. This study aimed to determine the differences in the excitability of spinal motor neurons during motor imagery of a muscle contraction at different contraction strengths. [Subjects] We recorded the F-wave in 15 healthy subjects. [Methods] In resting trial, the muscle was relaxed during F-wave recording. For motor imagery trial, subjects were instructed to imagine maximal voluntary contractions of 50% and 100% while holding the sensor of a pinch meter, and F-waves were recorded for each contraction. The F-wave was recorded immediately after motor imagery. [Results] Persistence and F/M amplitude ratio during motor imagery under maximal voluntary contractions of 50% and 100% were significantly higher than that at rest. In addition, the relative values of persistence, F/M amplitude ratio, and latency were similar during motor imagery under the two muscle contraction strengths. [Conclusion] Motor imagery under maximal voluntary contractions of 50% and 100% can increase the excitability of spinal motor neurons. Differences in the imagined muscle contraction strengths are not involved in changes in the excitability of spinal motor neurons. PMID:26504291

  8. Suppression of ATP-induced excitability in rat small-diameter trigeminal ganglion neurons by activation of GABAB receptor.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mamoru; Ikeda, Mizuho; Takahashi, Masayuki; Kanazawa, Takuya; Nasu, Masanori; Matsumoto, Shigeji

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a GABAB receptor agonist could modulate ATP-activated neuronal excitability of nociceptive TRG neurons using perforated whole-cell patch-clamp and immunohistochemical techniques. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 86% of P2X3 receptor-immunoreactive, small-diameter TRG neurons co-expressed GABAB receptor. Under voltage-clamp conditions (Vh=-60mV), application of ATP activated the inward current in acutely isolated rat TRG neurons in a dose-dependent manner (10-50 μM) and this current could be blocked by pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-27,47-disulfonic acid (PPADS) (10 μM), a selective P2 purinoreceptor antagonist. The peak amplitude of ATP-activated currents was significantly inhibited after application of GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen (10-50 μM), in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. The baclofen-induced inhibition of ATP-activated current was abolished by co-application of 3-amino-2 (4-chlorophenyl)-2hydroxypropysufonic acid) saclofen, a GABAB receptor antagonist (50 μM). Under current-clamp conditions, application of 20 μM ATP significantly depolarized the membrane potential resulting in increased mean action potential frequencies, and these ATP-induced effects were significantly inhibited by baclofen and these effects were antagonized by co-application of saclofen. Together, the results suggested that GABAB receptor activation could inhibit the ATP-induced excitability of small-diameter TRG neurons activated through the P2X3 receptor. Thus, the interaction between P2X3 and GABAB receptors of small-diameter TRG neuronal cell bodies is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of trigeminal nociception. PMID:24004472

  9. Stress-Hyperresponsive WKY Rats Demonstrate Depressed Dorsal Raphe Neuronal Excitability and Dysregulated CRF-Mediated Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Julia C; Zhang, Guojun; Walsh, Teresa; Kirby, Lynn G; Akanwa, Adaure; Brooks-Kayal, Amy; Beck, Sheryl G

    2011-01-01

    Major depression is a debilitating psychiatric disease that may be precipitated by a dysregulation of stress neurocircuitry caused by chronic or severe stress exposure. Moreover, hyperresponsivity to stressors correlates with depressed mood and may contribute to the etiology of major depression. The serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is an important site in the neurocircuitry underlying behavioral responses to stressors, and is tightly regulated, in part, by a combination of intrinsic cell properties, autoinhibition, and GABAergic synaptic transmission. The stress-related neurotransmitter corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) modulates DRN neuronal excitability and subsequent 5-HT release in the forebrain. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats exhibit exaggerated behavioral responses to stressors, that is, stress hyperresponsivity, and are considered an animal model of depression. To better understand the neurobiological basis of the stress hyperresponsivity, we used a combination of mRNA analysis and whole-cell electrophysiological techniques to measure differences in intrinsic activity and receptor response, in 5-HT- and non-5-HT-containing neurons of the DRN in WKY rats compared with Sprague-Dawley controls. In the WKY rat, there was a decrease in the neuronal excitability of 5-HT neurons coupled with decreased TPH2 production. Additionally, we found that CRF did not increase GABAergic activity in 5-HT neurons as is normally seen in 5-HT neurons of Sprague-Dawley controls. The CRF modulation of 5-HT DRN neurotransmission at the single-cell level is selectively disrupted in the WKY animal model of depression and may be one of the cellular correlates underlying depression. PMID:21160465

  10. Prenatal fat-rich diet exposure alters responses of embryonic neurons to the chemokine, CCL2, in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Poon, K; Abramova, D; Ho, H T; Leibowitz, S

    2016-06-01

    Maternal consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy is found to stimulate the genesis of hypothalamic orexigenic peptide neurons in the offspring, while HFD intake in adult animals produces a systemic low-grade inflammation which increases neuroimmune factors that may affect neurogenesis and neuronal migration. Building on this evidence and our recent study showing that the inflammatory chemokine, CCL2, stimulates the migration of hypothalamic neurons and expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, we tested here the possibility that prenatal exposure to a HFD in rats affects this chemokine system, both CCL2 and its receptors, CCR2 and CCR4, and alters its actions on hypothalamic neurons, specifically those expressing the neuropeptides, enkephalin (ENK) and galanin (GAL). Using primary dissociated hypothalamic neurons extracted from embryos on embryonic day 19, we found that prenatal HFD exposure compared to chow control actually reduces the expression of CCL2 in these hypothalamic neurons, while increasing CCR2 and CCR4 expression, and also reduces the sensitivity of hypothalamic neurons to CCL2. The HFD abolished the dose-dependent, stimulatory effect of CCL2 on the number of migrated neurons and even shifted its normal stimulatory effect on migrational velocity and distance traveled by control neurons to an inhibition of migration. Further, it abolished the dose-dependent, stimulatory effect of CCL2 on neuronal expression of ENK and GAL. These results demonstrate that prenatal HFD exposure greatly disturbs the functioning of the CCL2 chemokine system in embryonic hypothalamic neurons, reducing its endogenous levels and ability to promote the migration of neurons and their expression of orexigenic peptides. PMID:26979053