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Sample records for aluminium additions

  1. [Aluminium content in foods with aluminium-containing food additives].

    PubMed

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichiro; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) content of 105 samples, including bakery products made with baking powder, agricultural products and seafoods treated with alum, was investigated. The amounts of Al detected were as follows (limit of quantification: 0.01 mg/g): 0.01-0.37 mg/g in 26 of 57 bakery products, 0.22-0.57 mg/g in 3 of 6 powder mixes, 0.01-0.05 mg/g in all three agricultural products examined, 0.03-0.90 mg/g in 4 of 6 seafood samples, 0.01-0.03 mg/g in 3 of 11 samples of instant noodles, 0.04-0.14 mg/g in 3 of 4 samples of vermicelli, 0.01 mg/g in 1 of 16 soybean products, but none in soybeans. Amounts equivalent to the PTWI of a 16 kg infant were detected in two samples of bakery products, two samples of powder mixes and one sample of salted jellyfish, if each sample was taken once a week. These results suggest that certain foods, depending on the product and the intake, might exceed the PTWI of children, especially infants. PMID:22450671

  2. Neutron activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction: Determination of impurities in aluminium.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Haggag, A

    1967-09-01

    A separation scheme based on selective extraction in conjunction with the standard addition technique has been developed for the determination of impurities in aluminium by neutron activation. Preliminary investigations have been carried out on the extractability of Sc, Co, Hf, Fe, Sn, Cd, Zn, Ag, Cr, Ce, Cs and Rb by TDA and TBP from acidic media. The best conditions are predicted for the separation of these elements into fractions suitable for analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry. Recovery values of approximately 90% were obtained for all the elements. PMID:18960206

  3. The critical effect of Fe on the grain refinement of aluminium via Al-5Ti-1B addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Ma, N.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of Fe on the nucleation potency of TiB2 particles was investigated by employing grain refinement of high purity aluminium in this study. Experiment results showed that without Fe, high purity aluminium cannot be refined by 0.8wt.% addition of Al-5Ti-1B. However, high purity aluminium containing 0.08wt.% Fe can be refined effectively by 0.2wt.% addition of Al-5Ti-1B, its grain size was about 206µm in diameter. Fine equiaxed grains of about 153µm in diameter can be obtained for high purity aluminium containing 0.08wt.% Fe and 0.006wt.% Ti. Grain refinement mechanism should include nucleation and dendrite remelting and multiplication. Both nucleation and dendrite remelting and multiplication played essential role on the grain refinement of aluminium. The effect of Fe was linked to increase active nuclei by segregation on TiB2 surface and then to promote nucleation of α-Al. The performance of Ti was to enhance the dendrite remelting and multiplication by forming small conglomeration zones of Ti atoms concentrated around TiB2 particles.

  4. Stabilization of FGD gypsum for its disposal in landfills using amorphous aluminium oxide as a fluoride retention additive.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X

    2007-09-01

    The applicability of amorphous aluminium oxide as a fluoride retention additive to flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum was studied as a way of stabilizing this by-product for its disposal in landfills. Using a batch method the sorption behaviour of amorphous aluminium oxide was evaluated at the pH (about 6.5) and background electrolyte conditions (high chloride and sulphate concentrations) found in FGD gypsum leachates. It was found that fluoride sorption on amorphous aluminium oxide was a very fast process with equilibrium attained within the first half an hour of interaction. The sorption process was well described by the Langmuir model, offering a maximum fluoride sorption capacity of 61.7 mg g(-1). Fluoride sorption was unaffected by chloride co-existing ions, while slightly decreased (about 20%) by competing sulphate ions. The use of amorphous aluminium oxide in the stabilization of FGD gypsum proved to greatly decreased its fluoride leachable content (in the range 5-75% for amorphous aluminium oxide doses of 0.1-2%, as determined by the European standard EN 12457-4 [EN-12457-4 Characterization of waste-leaching-compliance test for leaching of granular waste materials and sludges-Part 4: one stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg for materials with particle size below 10mm (without or with size reduction)]), assuring the characterization of this by-product as a waste acceptable at landfills of non-hazardous wastes according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC [Council Decision 2003/33/EC of 19 December 2002. Establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills pursuant to Article 16 of and Annex II to Directive 1999/31/EC] on landfill of wastes. Furthermore, as derived from column leaching studies, the proposed stabilization system proved to be highly effective in simulated conditions of disposal, displaying a fluoride leaching reduction value about 81% for an amorphous aluminium oxide added amount of 2%. PMID:17509651

  5. Gypsum addition to soils contaminated by red mud: implications for aluminium, arsenic, molybdenum and vanadium solubility.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Lockwood, Cindy L; Mayes, William M; Stewart, Douglas I; Mortimer, Robert J G; Gruiz, Katalin; Burke, Ian T

    2013-10-01

    Red mud is highly alkaline (pH 13), saline and can contain elevated concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V). Release of up to 1 million m(3) of bauxite residue (red mud) suspension from the Ajka repository, western Hungary, caused large-scale contamination of downstream rivers and floodplains. There is now concern about the potential leaching of toxic metal(loid)s from the red mud as some have enhanced solubility at high pH. This study investigated the impact of red mud addition to three different Hungarian soils with respect to trace element solubility and soil geochemistry. The effectiveness of gypsum amendment for the rehabilitation of red mud-contaminated soils was also examined. Red mud addition to soils caused a pH increase, proportional to red mud addition, of up to 4 pH units (e.g. pH 7 → 11). Increasing red mud addition also led to significant increases in salinity, dissolved organic carbon and aqueous trace element concentrations. However, the response was highly soil specific and one of the soils tested buffered pH to around pH 8.5 even with the highest red mud loading tested (33 % w/w); experiments using this soil also had much lower aqueous Al, As and V concentrations. Gypsum addition to soil/red mud mixtures, even at relatively low concentrations (1 % w/w), was sufficient to buffer experimental pH to 7.5-8.5. This effect was attributed to the reaction of Ca(2+) supplied by the gypsum with OH(-) and carbonate from the red mud to precipitate calcite. The lowered pH enhanced trace element sorption and largely inhibited the release of Al, As and V. Mo concentrations, however, were largely unaffected by gypsum induced pH buffering due to the greater solubility of Mo (as molybdate) at circumneutral pH. Gypsum addition also leads to significantly higher porewater salinities, and column experiments demonstrated that this increase in total dissolved solids persisted even after 25 pore volume replacements. Gypsum addition could therefore provide a cheaper alternative to recovery (dig and dump) for the treatment of red mud-affected soils. The observed inhibition of trace metal release within red mud-affected soils was relatively insensitive to either the percentage of red mud or gypsum present, making the treatment easy to apply. However, there is risk that over-application of gypsum could lead to detrimental long-term increases in soil salinity. PMID:23793510

  6. Aluminium plasmonics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gerard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we present an overview of 'aluminium plasmonics', i.e. the study of both fundamental and practical aspects of surface plasmon excitations in aluminium structures, in particular thin films and metal nanoparticles. After a brief introduction noting both some recent and historical contributions to aluminium plasmonics, we discuss the optical properties of aluminium and aluminium nanostructures and highlight a few selected studies in a host of areas ranging from fluorescence to data storage.

  7. The Effect of Cu and Ge Additions on Strength and Precipitation in a lean 6xxx Aluminium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mørtsell, E. A.; Marioara, C. D.; Andersen, S. J.; Røyset, J.; Reiso, O.; Holmestad, R.

    2015-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that the strength loss in a lean Al-Mg-Si alloy due to solute reduction could be compensated by back-adding a lower at % of Ge and Cu. Nanosized precipitate needles which are the main cause of strength in these alloys, and material hardness has been correlated to parameters quantified by TEM. It was found that additions of Ge and Cu strongly affect the precipitation process by increasing precipitate density and reducing precipitate size. Investigations of precipitate atomic structure by HAADF-STEM indicated that they contain mixed areas of known phases and disordered regions. A hexagonal Si/Ge-network was found to be present in all precipitate cross sections.

  8. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    PubMed

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  9. Evidence of aluminium accumulation in aluminium welders.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Ahrengart, L; Lidums, V; Pettersson, E; Sjögren, B

    1991-01-01

    Using atomic absorption spectrometry the aluminium concentrations in blood and urine and in two iliac bone biopsies obtained from welders with long term exposure to fumes containing aluminium were measured. The urinary excretion of two workers who had welded for 20 and 21 years varied between 107 and 351 micrograms Al/l, more than 10 times the concentration found in persons without occupational exposure. Urinary aluminium excretion remained high many years after stopping exposure. Blood and bone aluminium concentrations (4-53 micrograms Al/l and 18-29 micrograms Al/g respectively) were also raised but not to the same extent as urine excretion. It is concluded that long term exposure to aluminium by inhalation gives rise to accumulation of aluminium in the body and skeleton of health persons, and that the elimination of retained aluminium is very slow, in the order of several years. PMID:1954151

  10. Effect of molybdenum addition on aluminium grain refined by titanium on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the as cast condition and after pressing by the equal angular channel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.; Atieh, A. M.

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium and its alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in industrial and engineering applications due to their attractive characteristics. However, they solidify in columnar structure which tends to reduce their surface quality and mechanical strength. It is therefore, grain refined by grain refiners i.e. titanium or titanium+boron. The equal angular channel pressing, ECAP, process is a recent method for producing severe plastic deformation in materials. In this research work, the effect of addition of molybdenum either alone or in the presence of titanium to commercially pure aluminium on microstructure and mechanical behaviour is investigated in two conditions; first, in the as cast condition, and second after pressing by the ECAP process at room temperature. It was found that addition of Ti alone at a rate of 0.15% weight to commercially pure Al resulted in grain refining of microstructure and a grain size of 91μm was obtained. However, after pressing by the ECAP process further refinement was achieved and the grain size was reduced to 18μm. Addition of Mo alone to aluminium at a rate of 0.1% resulted in grain size of 76μm in the as cast condition and 32μm after pressing by the ECAP process. The combination of the two elements Ti and Mo together resulted in 48μm grain size in the as cast condition, compared to 40μm after pressing by the ECAP process. Furthermore, it was found that in the as cast condition: addition of Ti alone to Al resulted in enhancement of its mechanical behaviour by an increase of 5.2% increase in its flow stress at 20% true strain, whereas addition of Mo either alone or in the presence of Ti resulted in decrease of its flow stress at 20% by 9% and 5.6% respectively. However, after pressing by ECAP: it was found that addition of Ti or Mo either alone or together to Al resulted in increase of its flow stress at 20 % strain by the following percentages 5.49, 4.74 and 10.3% respectively.

  11. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium-aluminium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Chukin, A. V.; Smolenski, V. V.; Novoselova, A. V.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga-Al alloys containing 0.014-20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated.

  13. Molecular breeding of cereals for aluminium resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...

  14. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  15. Studies on the best alkaline electrolyte for aluminium/air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapali, V.; Venkatakrishna Iyer, S.; Balaramachandran, V.; Sarangapani, K. B.; Ganesan, M.; Anbu Kulandainathan, M.; Sheik Mideen, A.

    Two types of alkaline electrolyte, based on 4 M NaOH have been developed for use in aluminium/air cells or batteries. They contain either alkaline citrate or alkaline citrate cum stannate as an additive to suppress the self-corrosion of aluminium without any deleterious effects on the efficient functioning of aluminium anode at a high negative potential. The alkaline citrate cum stannate solution has been adjudged the best electrolyte in terms of electrochemical characteristics and electrolyte management. Hence, results pertaining to the use of alkaline citrate cum stannate are presented in this paper. An aluminium/air battery with this electrolyte can be used safely and effectively at ambient temperature. An added advantage is the employment of 99.8% pure aluminium for the preparation of alloy anodes. This is expected to reduce the cost of aluminium/air batteries. The best anode based on 99.8% pure aluminium is a quaternary alloy containing lead, gallium and indium.

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of nickel-aluminium oxide system from metals obtained by ore processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobochkin, V. V.; Usoltseva, N. V.; Shorokhov, K. G.; Popova, E. V.

    2015-11-01

    Separate and combined electrochemical oxidation of aluminium and nickel has been conducted by alternating current of industrial frequency. Concentration increase of electrolyte solution (sodium chloride) in the range from 3 to 25 wt. % and current density from 0.5 to 1.5 A/cm2 was found to result in the increasing metal oxidation rate, excluding aluminium oxidation which oxidation rate is independent of the electrolyte solution concentration. At the current density of 1.5 A/cm2 the products of separate oxidation of nickel and aluminium are nickel oxyhydroxides, nickel hydroxides and aluminium oxyhydroxide (boehmite), respectively. In addition to these compounds, the nickel-aluminium oxide hydrate is included in the products of nickel and aluminium co-oxidation. Its content grows with the increasing electrolyte solution concentration. Varying the concentration and current density within the limits indicated, the nickel-aluminium oxide system with nickel oxide content from 3 to 10 wt. % is produced.

  17. Occupational lung fibrosis in an aluminium polisher.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, P; Dumortier, P; Rickaert, F; Van de Weyer, R; Lenclud, C; Yernault, J C

    1986-02-01

    An aluminium polisher developed severe lung fibrosis complicated by bronchial carcinoma. Although he was not submitted to the exposure risks usually described in aluminium lung (bauxite smelting, use of aluminium powders, aluminium welding), he worked in a high concentration of aluminium dust. This was demonstrated by mineralogical analyses which revealed large amounts of small metallic aluminium particles (0.5 micron - 5 micron) in bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue and lymph nodes 5 years after the end of exposure. Aluminium polishing seems to be a potential cause of aluminium lung. PMID:3699115

  18. Bladder cancer in the aluminium industry.

    PubMed

    Thriault, G; Tremblay, C; Cordier, S; Gingras, S

    1984-04-28

    The incidence of bladder cancer is unusually high in aluminium smelter workers. An epidemiological study showed that workers in Soderberg potrooms are at highest risk for bladder cancer, the adjusted overall relative risk being 2.39 (1.34-4.28). Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, of which benz(a)pyrene (BaP) served as an indicator, seems to be the causative factor. The relative risk was evaluated at 12.38 for workers with 20 or more equivalent years of BaP exposure. Cigarette smoking contributed significantly to the appearance of bladder cancer in the population studied. There is a synergistic effect when cigarette smoking and BaP exposure are combined; the numbers in our population are too small to determine whether this interaction effect is multiplicative or additive. It is concluded that bladder cancer is associated with aluminium smelting (primarily with the Soderberg process). PMID:6143877

  19. Aluminium Involvement in Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Vietti, Daniele; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    The aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) seems to involve susceptibility genes and environmental factors. Toxic metals are considered major environmental pollutants. Following our study of a case of multiple sclerosis (MS) improvement due to removal of aluminium (Al) and other toxic metals, we have examined the possible relationship between Al intoxication and ND. We used the slow intravenous treatment with the chelating agent EDTA (calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) (chelation test) to remove Al and detected it in the urine collected from the patients for 12 hours. Patients affected by MS represented 85.6% of total ND. Al was present in 44.8% of cases comprehensive of ND and healthy patients. Al levels were significantly higher in ND patients than in healthy subjects. We here show that treatment of patients affected by Al burden with ten EDTA chelation therapies (EDTA intravenous administration once a week) was able to significantly reduce Al intoxication. PMID:25243176

  20. Aluminium and the human breast.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2016-06-01

    The human population is exposed to aluminium (Al) from diet, antacids and vaccine adjuvants, but frequent application of Al-based salts to the underarm as antiperspirant adds a high additional exposure directly to the local area of the human breast. Coincidentally the upper outer quadrant of the breast is where there is also a disproportionately high incidence of breast cysts and breast cancer. Al has been measured in human breast tissues/fluids at higher levels than in blood, and experimental evidence suggests that at physiologically relevant concentrations, Al can adversely impact on human breast epithelial cell biology. Gross cystic breast disease is the most common benign disorder of the breast and evidence is presented that Al may be a causative factor in formation of breast cysts. Evidence is also reviewed that Al can enable the development of multiple hallmarks associated with cancer in breast cells, in particular that it can cause genomic instability and inappropriate proliferation in human breast epithelial cells, and can increase migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. In addition, Al is a metalloestrogen and oestrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer known to influence multiple hallmarks. The microenvironment is established as another determinant of breast cancer development and Al has been shown to cause adverse alterations to the breast microenvironment. If current usage patterns of Al-based antiperspirant salts contribute to causation of breast cysts and breast cancer, then reduction in exposure would offer a strategy for prevention, and regulatory review is now justified. PMID:26997127

  1. The toxicity of aluminium in humans.

    PubMed

    Exley, C

    2016-06-01

    We are living in the 'aluminium age'. Human exposure to aluminium is inevitable and, perhaps, inestimable. Aluminium's free metal cation, Alaq(3+), is highly biologically reactive and biologically available aluminium is non-essential and essentially toxic. Biologically reactive aluminium is present throughout the human body and while, rarely, it can be acutely toxic, much less is understood about chronic aluminium intoxication. Herein the question is asked as to how to diagnose aluminium toxicity in an individual. While there are as yet, no unequivocal answers to this problem, there are procedures to follow to ascertain the nature of human exposure to aluminium. It is also important to recognise critical factors in exposure regimes and specifically that not all forms of aluminium are toxicologically equivalent and not all routes of exposure are equivalent in their delivery of aluminium to target sites. To ascertain if Alzheimer's disease is a symptom of chronic aluminium intoxication over decades or breast cancer is aggravated by the topical application of an aluminium salt or if autism could result from an immune cascade initiated by an aluminium adjuvant requires that each of these is considered independently and in the light of the most up to date scientific evidence. The aluminium age has taught us that there are no inevitabilities where chronic aluminium toxicity is concerned though there are clear possibilities and these require proving or discounting but not simply ignored. PMID:26922890

  2. Effect of citrate on plasma aluminium concentration and aluminium excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lote, C J; Saunders, H C; Wood, J A; Spencer, A J

    1992-10-01

    1. Plasma aluminium concentration and urinary aluminium excretion were monitored for 4.5 h in rats after the administration of 25 micrograms or 800 micrograms of aluminium as an intravenous bolus, either as aluminium chloride or as aluminium citrate (i.e. aluminium chloride together with sodium citrate). 2. Immediately after the bolus aluminium administration, the plasma aluminium concentration was higher in the groups given aluminium chloride than in those which received aluminium citrate, although the difference was significant (P < 0.05) only for the 25 micrograms dose. This difference between aluminium chloride and citrate indicates that the citrate form has a higher volume of distribution (i.e. is able to leave the plasma). The calculated volume of distribution for the 25 micrograms of aluminium chloride (17.5 ml) was similar to the plasma volume of the rats used (15 ml). 3. In experiments in vitro, the ultrafilterability of aqueous solutions of aluminium chloride and aluminium citrate were compared. Only 1.05 +/- 0.09% of the aluminium chloride solution was ultrafilterable (aluminium concentration 28,200 +/- 730 ng/ml), whereas 97.3 +/- 2.4% of the aluminium citrate was ultrafilterable (aluminium concentration 42,000 +/- 370 ng/ml). When the filterability of aluminium in plasma was examined, the aluminium chloride ultrafilterability was identical with that in aqueous solution (1.06 +/- 0.13%, aluminium concentration 19,800 +/- 2956 ng/ml), but the aluminium citrate was 79.8 +/- 7.1% ultrafilterable (aluminium concentration 10,125 +/- 591 ng/ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1330405

  3. Affinity of the aluminium binding protein.

    PubMed

    Rahman, H; Skillen, A W; Ward, M K; Channon, S M; Kerr, D N

    1986-03-01

    The affinity for aluminium of the binding protein (transferrin) in serum was studied by in vitro ultrafiltration and equilibrium dialysis. It was found that the binding of aluminium to transferrin is very tight and cannot be dissociated by prolonged dialysis or desferrioxamine (DFO). The tight binding of aluminium to transferrin may play a role in the development of microcytic hypochromic anaemia in aluminium intoxicated patients despite the presence of adequate iron. PMID:3699915

  4. IEC 61267: Feasibility of type 1100 aluminium and a copper/aluminium combination for RQA beam qualities.

    PubMed

    Leong, David L; Rainford, Louise; Zhao, Wei; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    In the course of performance acceptance testing, benchmarking or quality control of X-ray imaging systems, it is sometimes necessary to harden the X-ray beam spectrum. IEC 61267 specifies materials and methods to accomplish beam hardening and, unfortunately, requires the use of 99.9% pure aluminium (Alloy 1190) for the RQA beam quality, which is expensive and difficult to obtain. Less expensive and more readily available filters, such as Alloy 1100 (99.0% pure) aluminium and copper/aluminium combinations, have been used clinically to produce RQA series without rigorous scientific investigation to support their use. In this paper, simulation and experimental methods are developed to determine the differences in beam quality using Alloy 1190 and Alloy 1100. Additional simulation investigated copper/aluminium combinations to produce RQA5 and outputs from this simulation are verified with laboratory tests using different filter samples. The results of the study demonstrate that although Alloy 1100 produces a harder beam spectrum compared to Alloy 1190, it is a reasonable substitute. A combination filter of 0.5 mm copper and 2 mm aluminium produced a spectrum closer to that of Alloy 1190 than Alloy 1100 with the added benefits of lower exposures and lower batch variability. PMID:26776501

  5. Pulmonary Fibrosis in an Aluminium Worker

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John

    1959-01-01

    Aluminium dust has never been shown to be harmful to man in Great Britain. This paper reports a fatal case of progressive pulmonary fibrosis in a young man occupationally exposed to a heavy concentration of fine aluminium dust. Clinically, radiologically, and pathologically this case was indistinguishable from cases of aluminium fibrosis of the lung described by Shaver in Canada. Images PMID:13651554

  6. Interference of aluminium and pH on the Na-influx in an aquatic insect Corixa punctata (Illig. )

    SciTech Connect

    Witters, H.; Vangenechten, J.H.D.; Van Puymbroeck, S.; Vanderborght, O.L.J.

    1984-05-01

    Some investigations concerning the impact of acid precipitation on aquatic biota, assess possible toxic effects of aluminium in relation to low pH. But those studies mainly refer to the survival of fishes under these stress conditions. Experiments with some aquatic invertebrates (crustaceans and insect larvae) on mortality under pH and aluminium-stress indicated that aluminium should be the key additional toxic factor in acid water. In this paper, data are presented on the influence of different aluminium-concentrations in relation with a low pH-value, on the Na-influx and haemolymph Na-concentration in the adult waterbug Corixa punctata (Illig.).

  7. Aluminium toxicity in chronic renal insufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Savory, J.; Bertholf, R.L.; Wills, M.R.

    1985-08-01

    Aluminium is a ubiquitous element in the environment and has been demonstrated to be toxic, especially in individuals with impaired renal function. Not much is known about the biochemistry of aluminium and the mechanisms of its toxic effects. Most of the interest in aluminium has been in the clinical setting of the hemodialysis unit. Here aluminium toxicity occurs due to contamination of dialysis solutions, and treatment of the patients with aluminium-containing phosphate binding gels. Aluminium has been shown to be the major contributor to the dialysis encephalopathy syndrome and an osteomalacic component of dialysis osteodystrophy. Other clinical disturbances associated with aluminium toxicity are a microcytic anemia and metastatic extraskeletal calcification. Aluminium overload can be treated effectively by chelation therapy with desferrioxamine and hemodialysis. Aluminium is readily transferred from the dialysate to the patient's -bloodstream during hemodialysis. Once transferred, the aluminium is tightly bound to non-dialysable plasma constituents. Very low concentrations of dialysate aluminium in the range of 10-15 micrograms/l are recommended to guard against toxic effects. Very few studies have been directed towards the separation of the various plasma species which bind eluminium. Gel filtration chromatography has been used to identify five major fractions, one of which is of low molecular weight and the others appear to be protein-aluminium complexes. Recommendations on aluminium monitoring have been published and provide safe and toxic concentrations. Also, the frequency of monitoring has been addressed. Major problems exist with the analytical methods for measuring aluminium which result from inaccurate techniques and contamination difficulties. 136 references.

  8. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Wawer K; Lewandowska M; Kurzydlowski KJ

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals.

  9. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    PubMed

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals. PMID:23421286

  10. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  11. Aluminium in Allergies and Allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate. Exposure occurs due to environmental, dietary and intentional exposure to aluminium, such as in vaccines where it was introduced in 1926. In spite of the fact that it is a typical Th2 adjuvant, aluminium redirects the immune response in systemic allergen immunotherapy (SIT) upon prolonged immunization. SIT in the US, and SLIT in general, are at present non-adjuvanted therapies, but in Europe aluminium is used as adjuvant in most SIT preparations. It enhances the safety of SIT by local deposition of the allergen. Undesired properties of aluminium adjuvants comprise acute and chronic inflammation at the injection site, its Th2 immune stimulatory capacity, its accumulation besides biodistribution in the body. The adjuvant and safety profile of aluminium adjuvants in allergy vaccines are discussed, as well as the need for putting modern delivery systems and adjuvants on the fast track. PMID:25780491

  12. Structural perturbation of diphtheria toxoid upon adsorption to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Régnier, Marie; Metz, Bernard; Tilstra, Wichard; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Jiskoot, Wim; Norde, Willem; Kersten, Gideon

    2012-11-01

    Aluminium-containing adjuvants are often used to enhance the potency of vaccines. In the present work we studied whether adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to colloidal aluminium hydroxide induces conformational changes of the antigen. Diphtheria toxoid has a high affinity for the aluminium hydroxide particles based on a high adsorption degree, adsorption rate and adsorptive capacity. The conformation and stability of diphtheria toxoid in solution and adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant were characterized using five physicochemical techniques: intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Diphtheria toxoid adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide resulted in a minimal shift of the tryptophan fluorescence spectrum, whereas a large increase in the emission of the Bis-ANS probe was observed, indicating that hydrophobic sites of the protein became accessible due to adsorption. In addition, circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy revealed that adsorption to aluminium hydroxide caused an increase of β-sheet content and a decrease of α-helix content in diphtheria toxoid. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated a major decrease in the enthalpy of denaturation upon adsorption. In conclusion, the adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant leads to substantial conformational changes in the antigen. Since physicochemical methods can be used to monitor these conformational changes, these analytical methods might offer a tool in regulatory required vaccine quality control by demonstrating consistency in production. PMID:23000120

  13. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources. PMID:1542992

  14. Interfacial morphology of low-voltage anodic aluminium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Naiping; Dongcinn, Xuecheng; He, Xueying; Argekar, Sandip; Zhang, Yan; Browning, Jim; Schaefer, Dale

    2013-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and neutron reflectivity (NR), as well as ultra-smallangle X-ray scattering (USAXS), are used to examine the in-plane and surfacenormal structure of anodic films formed on aluminium alloy AA2024 and pure aluminium. Aluminium and alloy films up to 3500 A thick were deposited on Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of ingots. Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) films are formed by polarizing at constant voltage up to 20 V noble to the open circuit potential. The voltage sweet spot (5 V) appropriate for constant-voltage anodization of such thin films was determined for both alloy and pure Al. In addition, a new concurrent voltage- and current-control protocol was developed to prepare films with larger pores (voltages higher than 5 V), but formed at a controlled current so that pore growth is slow enough to avoid stripping the aluminium substrate layer. USAXS shows that the pore size and interpore spacing are fixed in the first 10 s after initiation of anodization. Pores then grow linearly in time, at constant radius and interpore spacing. Using a combination of XRR and NR, the film density and degree of hydration of the films were determined from the ratio of scattering length densities. Assuming a chemical formula Al2O3xH2O, it was found that x varies from 0.29 for the native oxide to 1.29 for AAO grown at 20 V under concurrent voltage and current control. The average AAO film density of the porous film at the air surface is 2.45 (20) g cm3. The density of the barrier layer at the metal interface is 2.9 (4) g cm3, which indicates that this layer is also quite porous

  15. Analysis of compressive strength in flatwise and edgewise direction to characterize Al-7000 aluminium foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutarno, Soepriyanto, Syoni; Korda, Akhmad A.; Dirgantara, Tatacipta

    2015-09-01

    The physical mechanical properties of Al-7000 aluminium foam product and processing has been evaluated in this study. The characterization through the compressive testing refers to flatwise direction provided more confident result than edgewise direction. This experiment may correlate with formation of side products of calcia alumina and alumina silica that involved in metal mixture of aluminium foam. These compounds are formed from additional calcium carbonate and silica in the mixture. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) roles as a blowing agent source of carbon dioxide (CO2). The formation of calcia alumina (CaO.Al2O3) may role to strengthen of cell wall of aluminium foam and to improve the viscosity of melting metal. The Al-7000 aluminium foam indicated a decrease of compressive strength probably due to existence of alumina silica (3Al2O3.SiO2) in the metal mixture.

  16. Aluminium inhalation in sheep silicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bégin, R.; Cantin, A.; Massé, S.; Dufresne, A.; Perreault, G.; Sébastien, P.

    1993-01-01

    In prior studies, we and others have documented a significant reduction by surface chemistry modification in the biological activity of quartz. We further documented that aluminium lactate inhalation one month after quartz exposure significantly suppressed the silica-induced alveolitis, reduced the pathological process and decreased the retention of quartz in the lung tissue. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of aluminium inhalation in altering the silicosis process after disease was recognized by standard chest radiography. Twenty-four sheep were enrolled in the study. The 14 silica exposed sheep had an abnormal chest radiograph of the ILO category 1 or above after 3 years of 100 mg Minusil-5 in 100-ml saline intratracheal injections. Ten control sheep were exposed to saline intratracheal injections. All sheep were evaluated at 3-month intervals by chest radiography, lung function and lung lavage. At month 36 of the study, all 14 sheep had an abnormal chest radiograph while the radiographs of controls remained normal. The sheep with silicosis had significantly reduced lung functions and increased cellularity, phospholipids and hyaluronan. These changes persisted during the next 12 months without exposure or treatment. At month 48 and at monthly intervals after, for 12 months, aerosol inhalations were carried out with saline alone for control and seven silicotic sheep and with 100 mg of aluminium lactate in 10 ml saline generated with a Bird Mark 8 pressure ventilator for the other seven silicotic sheep. All sheep were evaluated at 3-month intervals by chest radiography, lung function and lung lavage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8334079

  17. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity. PMID:26610803

  18. Melt spun aluminium alloys for moulding optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbels, G.; Tegelaers, L.; Senden, R.

    2013-09-01

    Melt spinning is a rapid quenching process that makes it possible to create materials with a very fine microstructure. Due to this very fine microstructure the melt spinning process is an enabler for diamond turning optics and moulds without the need of post-polishing. Using diamond turning of melt spun aluminium one can achieve <=2 nm Rq surface roughness. Application areas are imaging and projection optics, mirrors, moulds for contact lenses and spectacles. One of the alloys that RSP produces is RSA-905. This alloy has a solid track record as a better and cheaper concept in the application of moulds for optical components such as contact lenses. The RSA-905 is a dispersion hardened amorphous-like alloy that keeps its properties when exposed to elevated temperatures (up to 380°C). This gives the material unique features for optics moulding applications. RSA-905 moulds are cheaper and better than traditional mould concepts such as copper or brass with or without NiP plating. In addition logistics can be simplified significantly: from typical weeks-months into days-week. Lifetime is typically in the range of 100.000 - 200.000 shots. For high volume production typically ranging from several 100.000 - several 1.000.000 shots, NiP plated steel moulds are typically used. By using an appropriate optical coating concept RSA-905 can be upgraded to a competitive alternative to steel in terms of price, performance and logistics. This paper presents some recent developments for improved mould performance of such concept. Hardness, wear resistance and adhesion are topics of interest and they can be applied by special coatings such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and chromium nitride (CrN). These coatings make the aluminium alloy suitable for moulding mass production of small as well as larger optics, such as spectacle lenses.

  19. Effects of aluminium on electrical and mechanical properties of frog atrial muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Meiri, H.; Shimoni, Y.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of aluminium on membrane ionic currents were studied in single cardiac myocytes. Most of the work was done on frog atrial cells, but some experiments were also carried out on single cells isolated from rabbit ventricles and atria. 2. The effects of aluminium on the force of contraction of frog atrial trabeculae were also investigated. 3. Aluminium was prepared from AlCl3 as a stock 0.5 M solution which has a pH of 3.5. Before each experiment, this solution was added to the control solution, to give a final concentration of 20-100 micrograms ml-1 aluminium (0.75-3.75 mM AlCl3). The solutions were brought to a pH of 7.4 or 7.6. at which they consist of a mixture of amorphous aluminium hydroxides and a very small amount of soluble ionic aluminium complexes: free aluminium cations (less than 10 pM), aluminohydroxide anions (less than 8 microM). The addition of this suspension reduced the peak inward calcium currents in single rabbit atrial and ventricular cells and in frog atrial cells. In the latter, the peak current was reduced (at + 10 mV) to 45% of control (mean of 9 cells). This effect was reversible upon washout, and was obtained at all membrane potentials, with no shift of the calcium current voltage relationship along the voltage axis. 4. Aluminium also reduced the time-dependent potassium current IK. This reduction was observed at all membrane potentials. For example, at + 10 mV, the mean reduction of IK (n = 9) was to 69% of the control amplitude. This effect, which was very difficult to reverse, was not due to IK rundown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2015425

  20. Surface mechanical behaviour of composite Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, C. N.; Georgiou, E. P.

    2009-04-01

    Ni-P-fly ash coatings were produced on zincate coated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of an electroless deposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-P-fly ash coating was found to consist of an amorphous Ni-P matrix with dispersed fly ash particles. The wear resistance of the Ni-P-fly ash coating on zincate treated aluminium alloy was observed to be higher than that of the bare aluminium alloy, when sliding against a stainless steel counterface. In addition, the adhesion between the Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coating and the aluminium alloy substrate was also studied with a scratch testing apparatus. The adhesion strength of Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coating on the aluminium alloy substrate was observed to be higher in comparison to the Ni-P/zincate coating on the same aluminium alloy.

  1. Development of multilayer coatings for forming dies and tools of aluminium alloy from liquid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, E.; Ugues, D.; Brytan, Z.; Perucca, M.

    2009-05-01

    In this work, a nanocomposite (Cr,Al)xN1-x/Si3N4 coating system was deposited on H11 hot work tool steel, using the Lateral Arc Rotating Cathodes (LARC®) deposition system and modulating the chemical composition of the chromium and aluminium-silicon content. Structural characterizations were performed using scanning electron microscopy, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy probe, and applying x-ray diffraction, for the evaluation of phase constitution and crystallite size. In addition to the structural features, the coatings' resistance to cyclic immersions in molten aluminium alloy was evaluated. The deposited CrAlSiN coatings exhibited an fcc-Cr1-xAlxN type structure with different aluminium contents, which directly influence hardness and wear and fatigue resistance in cyclic immersion tests. The main failure modes that occurred on the coatings' surface were soldering and thermal fatigue cracks mainly in the form of heat checks. The aluminium rich coatings were able to withstand about 15 000 cycles, whereas the decrease in the aluminium content in the coatings results in a decrease in the resistance to the immersion in molten aluminium bath. It is worthwhile to note that uncoated H11, subjected to similar testing conditions, withstood at maximum 5000 cycles.

  2. Aluminium in Biological Environments: A Computational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mujika, Jon I; Rezabal, Elixabete; Mercero, Jose M; Ruipérez, Fernando; Costa, Dominique; Ugalde, Jesus M; Lopez, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    The increased availability of aluminium in biological environments, due to human intervention in the last century, raises concerns on the effects that this so far “excluded from biology” metal might have on living organisms. Consequently, the bioinorganic chemistry of aluminium has emerged as a very active field of research. This review will focus on our contributions to this field, based on computational studies that can yield an understanding of the aluminum biochemistry at a molecular level. Aluminium can interact and be stabilized in biological environments by complexing with both low molecular mass chelants and high molecular mass peptides. The speciation of the metal is, nonetheless, dictated by the hydrolytic species dominant in each case and which vary according to the pH condition of the medium. In blood, citrate and serum transferrin are identified as the main low molecular mass and high molecular mass molecules interacting with aluminium. The complexation of aluminium to citrate and the subsequent changes exerted on the deprotonation pathways of its tritable groups will be discussed along with the mechanisms for the intake and release of aluminium in serum transferrin at two pH conditions, physiological neutral and endosomatic acidic. Aluminium can substitute other metals, in particular magnesium, in protein buried sites and trigger conformational disorder and alteration of the protonation states of the protein's sidechains. A detailed account of the interaction of aluminium with proteic sidechains will be given. Finally, it will be described how alumnium can exert oxidative stress by stabilizing superoxide radicals either as mononuclear aluminium or clustered in boehmite. The possibility of promotion of Fenton reaction, and production of hydroxyl radicals will also be discussed. PMID:24757505

  3. Investigation of the aluminium-aluminium oxide reversible transformation as observed by hot stage electron microscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, C. A.; Judd, G.; Ansell, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin foils of high purity aluminium and an Al-Al2O3 SAP type of alloy were oxidised in a specially designed hot stage specimen chamber in an electron microscope. Below 450 C, amorphous aluminium oxide formed on the foil surface and was first detectable at foil edges, holes, and pits. Islands of aluminium then nucleated in this amorphous oxide. The aluminium islands displayed either a lateral growth with eventual coalescence with other islands, or a reoxidation process which caused the islands to disappear. The aluminium island formation was determined to be related to the presence of the electron beam. A mechanism based upon electron charging due to the electron beam was proposed to explain the nucleation, growth, coalescence, disappearance, and geometry of the aluminium islands.

  4. Pulse electrodeposition of adherent nickel coatings onto anodized aluminium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantz, Cédric; Vichery, Charlotte; Zechner, Johannes; Frey, Damian; Bürki, Gerhard; Cebeci, Halil; Michler, Johann; Philippe, Laetitia

    2015-03-01

    Aluminium is one of the mostly used elements in the industry because of its abundance and low weight. However, the deposition of a metallic coating requires performing the so-called zincate pre-treatment in order to allow the formation of inter-metallic bonds and thereby achieving sufficient adherence. In this work, porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) is used as an anchoring intermediate layer for nickel coatings. AAO is grown anodically in sulfuric acid and nickel coatings are deposited by potentiostatic reverse pulse electrodeposition onto as-anodized aluminium surfaces. The electrodeposition of nickel is initiated onto the electrochemically thinned barrier layer of AAO and pursued until the complete covering of the oxide. The electrochemical behavior of Watts and sulfamate baths is investigated by cyclic voltammetry for different barrier layer thickness, allowing to validate the thinning conditions and to determine the appropriate deposition potential of nickel. GD-OES measurements show that low duty cycles are necessary to achieve high filling ratio of the AAO. SEM micrographs show that a smooth uniform coating is obtained when nickel is deposited in presence of additives.

  5. Novel method for joining CFRP to aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, F.; Thomy, C.; Vollertsen, F.; Schiebel, P.; Hoffmeister, C.; Herrmann, A. S.

    The current state of the art in joining of carbon-fibre reinforced composites (CFRP) to metals such as aluminium is - for the case of aircraft structures, e.g.- riveting or bolting. However, to reduce structural weight and improve structural performance, integral, load-bearing aluminium-CFRP-structures are desirable. To produce such structures, a novel joint configuration together with an appropriate thermal, laser-based joining process is suggested by the authors. In this paper, the joint configuration (based on CFRP-Ti-aluminium joints) and the laser beam conduction welding process will be presented, and first specimens obtained will be discussed with respect to their properties. It will be shown that the novel approach is in principle suitable to produce load-bearing CFRP-aluminium structures.

  6. The removal of iron from molten aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Donk, H.M. van der; Nijhof, G.H.; Castelijns, C.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    In this work an overview is given about the techniques available for the removal of metallic impurities from molten aluminium. The overview is focused on the removal of iron. Also, some experimental results are given about the creation of iron-rich intermetallic compounds in an aluminium system, which are subsequently removed by gravity segregation and filtration techniques. This work is part of an ongoing research project of three major European aluminium companies who are co-operating on the subject of recycling of aluminium packaging materials recovered from household waste by means of Eddy-Current techniques. Using this technique the pick-up of some contaminating metals, particularly iron, is almost unavoidable.

  7. Self Healing in Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumley, Roger

    Self healing is a key property of biological materials, examples being the autonomous repair of fractured bones or torn skin tissue, as is discussed in other chapters of this book. More than a century ago, principles were developed defining the reconstitution of fractured bone in vivo which stated that, in essence, material dissolved from where it was not required was redeposited to where it was required as a response to mechanical stimuli and damage. As far as metals and other inanimate materials are concerned, it is well known that damage to oxide films, which normally protect the surfaces of metals such as aluminium (Al) and titanium (Ti) from corrosion, can be repaired by reoxidation in air, which can be seen as a form of self-repair. Now attention is being directed to processes that may possibly heal defects, such as cracks, which can develop in the interior of materials during manufacture, or when they are in service. Such self healing processes may then allow failures to be averted and the useful lives of components and structures to be extended.

  8. Surface modification for aluminium pigment inhibition.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Philip; Palmqvist, Anders E C; Holmberg, Krister

    2006-12-21

    This review concerns surface treatment of aluminium pigments for use in water borne coatings. Aluminium pigments are commonly used in coatings to give a silvery and shiny lustre to the substrate. Such paints and inks have traditionally been solvent borne, since aluminium pigment particles react with water. For environmental and health reasons solvent borne coatings are being replaced by water borne and the aluminium pigments then need to be surface modified in order to stand exposure to water. This process is called inhibition and both organic and inorganic substances are used as inhibiting agents. The organic inhibiting agents range from low molecular weight substances, such as phenols and aromatic acids, via surfactants, in particular alkyl phosphates and other anionic amphiphiles, to high molecular weight compounds, such as polyelectrolytes. A common denominator for them all is that they contain a functional group that interacts specifically with aluminium at the surface. A particularly strong interaction is obtained if the inhibiting agent contains functional groups that form chelating complex with surface Al(III). Encapsulation of the pigment can be made by in situ polymerization at the surface of the pigment and a recent approach is to have the polymerization occur within a double layer of adsorbed surfactant. The inorganic route is dominated by coating with silica, and recent progress has been made using an alkoxide, such as tetraethoxysilane as silica precursor. Such silica coated aluminium pigments are comparable in performance to chromate inhibited pigments and thus offer a possible heavy metal-free alternative. There are obvious connections between surface modifications made to prevent the pigment to react with water and inhibition of corrosion of macroscopic aluminium surfaces. PMID:17239333

  9. Investigation of detonation initiation in aluminium suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veyssiere, B.; Khasainov, B. A.; Briand, A.

    2008-09-01

    Detonation initiation is investigated in aluminium/oxygen and aluminium/air mixtures. Critical conditions for initiation of spherical detonations are examined in analogy with the criteria defined for gaseous mixtures, which correlate critical parameters of detonation initiation to the characteristic size of the cellular structure. However, experimental data on the detonation cell size in these two-phase mixtures are very scarce, on account of the difficulty to perform large-scale experiments. Therefore, 2D numerical simulations of the detonation cellular structure have been undertaken, with the same combustion model for Al/air and Al/O2 mixtures. The cell size is found to be λ = 37.5 cm for a rich ( r = 1.61) aluminium-air mixture, and λ = 7.5 cm for a stoichiometric aluminium-oxygen mixture, which is in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. Calculations performed in large-scale configurations (up to 25 m in length and 1.5 m in lateral direction) suggest that the critical initiation energy and predetonation radius for direct initiation of the unconfined detonation in the aluminium-air mixture are, respectively, 10 kg of TNT and 8 m. Moreover, numerical simulations reveal that the structure of the detonation wave behind the leading front is even more complicated than in pure gaseous mixtures, due to two-phase flow effects.

  10. Thermal stability of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled on a polycrystalline aluminium surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Om Prakash; Biswas, S. K.

    2004-11-01

    In search for a good boundary lubricant additive for aluminium substrates we investigate the molecular disorder retained in a monolayer self-assembled on an aluminium surface subjected to thermal cycling. Our target molecule is octadecyltrichlorosilane (C 18H 37SiCl 3, OTS) but we also study octadecanoic acid (C 17H 35COOH) to explore the effect of changing the molecular head group. The two molecules have the same alkyl back bone, same terminal group but different head groups; -SiCl 3 and -COOH respectively, both however adhere to the aluminium substrate through oxygen atoms by chemisorption bonding. We conduct the study using grazing angle Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our studies show that OTS which is able to polymerize into a two-dimensional network when self-assembled on the aluminium surface is able to retain partial molecular order when subjected to thermal cycles. In contrast a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of the octadecanoic acid, which does not polymerize on the aluminium surface, become totally disordered when heat treated.

  11. Molecular dynamics study on the failure modes of aluminium under decaying shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jian-Li; Wang, Pei; He, An-Min; Duan, Su-Qing; Qin, Cheng-Sen

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the failure modes of single crystal aluminium under decaying shock loading by using molecular dynamics simulations. The microstructure evolution during the failure is presented in terms of the central symmetry parameter, and the corresponding pressure and temperature profiles are calculated and discussed. These results explain the failure morphology and mechanical properties under dynamic tension and especially the difference between solid and melted states. In addition, the fracture strength of aluminium is analyzed from surface velocity within acoustic approximation and virial theorem.

  12. Self-Pierce Riveting of Three Aluminium Alloy and Mild Steel Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.; Abe, Y.; Sakai, S.; Kato, T.

    2010-06-15

    Three aluminium alloy and steel sheets were joined with a self-piercing rivet. Self-pierce riveting has the function of joining steel and aluminium alloys having very different melting points due to plastic joining. The requisites for joining the three sheets are the driving of the rivet leg through the middle sheet, the flaring of the rivet leg in the lower sheet and the prevention of the fracture of the lower sheet. The joinability for various combinations of the three sheets was determined. When the rivet leg is small, no driving through the middle sheet occurs, the lower sheet ruptures for a large rivet leg. In addition, 980 MPa high strength steel, mild steel and aluminium alloy sheets were joined by the self-pierce riveting.

  13. Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives as inhibitors of the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Fouda, A S; Gouda, M M; El-Rahman, S I

    2000-05-01

    The effect of benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid has been investigated using thermometric and polarization techniques. The inhibitive efficiency ranking of these compounds from both techniques was found to be: 2>3>1>4. The inhibitors acted as mixed-type inhibitors but the cathode is more polarized. The relative inhibitive efficiency of these compounds has been explained on the basis of structure of the inhibitors and their mode of interaction at the surface. Results show that these additives are adsorbed on an aluminium surface according to the Langmuir isotherm. Polarization measurements indicated that the rate of corrosion of aluminium rapidly increases with temperature over the range 30-55 degrees C both in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors. Some thermodynamic data of the adsorption process are calculated and discussed. PMID:10823698

  14. Oxidation-assisted ductility of aluminium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sen, Fatih G; Alpas, Ahmet T; van Duin, Adri C T; Qi, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation can drastically change mechanical properties of nanostructures that typically have large surface-to-volume ratios. However, the underlying mechanisms describing the effect oxidation has on the mechanical properties of nanostructures have yet to be characterized. Here we use reactive molecular dynamics and show that the oxidation enhances the aluminium nanowire ductility, and the oxide shell exhibits superplastic behaviour. The oxide shell decreases the aluminium dislocation nucleation stress by increasing the activation volume and the number of nucleation sites. Superplasticity of the amorphous oxide shell is due to viscous flow as a result of healing of the broken aluminium-oxygen bonds by oxygen diffusion, below a critical strain rate. The interplay between the strain rate and oxidation rate is not only essential for designing nanodevices in ambient environments, but also controls interface properties in large-scale deformation processes. PMID:24887649

  15. Diamond grooving of rapidly solidified optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Ghobashy, Sameh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Mkoko, Zwelinzima

    2015-10-01

    Traditional optical aluminium grades such as Al 6061 are intensively used for making optical components for applications ranging from mould insert fabrication to laser machine making. However, because of their irregular microstructure and relative inhomogeneity of material properties at micro scale, traditional optical aluminium may exhibit some difficulties when ultra-high precision diamond turned. Inhomogeneity and micro-variation in the material properties combined with uneven and coarse microstructure may cause unacceptable surface finish and accelerated tool wear, especially in grooving operation when the diamond tool edge is fully immersed in the material surface. Recently, new grades of optical aluminium that are featured by their ultra-fine microstructure and improved material properties have been developed to overcome the problem of high tool wear rates. The new aluminium grades have been developed using rapid solidification process which results in extremely small grain sizes combined with improved mechanical properties. The current study is concerned with investigating the performance of single-point diamond turning when grooving two grades of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades: RSA905 which is a high-alloyed aluminium grade and RSA443 which has a high silicon content. In this study, two series of experiments employed to create radial microgrooves on the two RSA grades. The surface roughness obtained on the groove surface is measured when different combinations of cutting parameters are used. Cutting speed is varied while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant. The results show that groove surface roughness produced on RSA443 is higher than that obtained on RSA905. Also, the paper reports on the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness for each RSA grade.

  16. Aluminium Sheet Metal Forming at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, R.; Heine, B.; Grant, R. J.; Zouaoui, Z.

    2015-02-01

    Low-temperature forming technology offers a new potential for forming operations of aluminium wrought alloys which show a limited formability at ambient temperatures. This paper indicates the mechanical behaviour of the commercial aluminium alloys EN AW-5182 and EN AW-6016 at low temperatures. Stress-strain relationships at different temperatures were investigated through tensile testing experiments. Flow curves were extrapolated using an adapted mathematical constitutive relationship of flow stress and strain. A device which allows cupping tests at sub-zero temperatures was specially designed and a limiting dome height was determined.

  17. Corrosion behavior of aluminium composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Deuis, R.L.; Green, L.; Subramanian, C.; Yellup, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of metal-matrix composite (MMC) coatings (3 mm to 5 mm [0.12 in. to 0.2 in.] thick) fabricated by the plasma-transferred arc (PTA) surfacing process was investigated by potentiostatic and immersion techniques. The test electrolyte was a 3.5 wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Composites were reinforced with angular particles of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), silicon carbide (SiC), or titanium carbide (TiC) of varying volume fractions (V{sub f} {approx} 2.5% to 40%) and of two sizes (70 {micro}m and 140 {micro}m). The matrix was predominantly aluminium with 2 wt% Ni, which was added to enhance the matrix`s wear resistance. The reinforcement type significantly influenced corrosion behavior of the MMC coatings. The immersion study showed the corrosion rate increased in the following order of reinforcement addition: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} < SiC < TiC. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles appeared to play no role in the corrosion process, whereas SiC and TiC particles participated actively. Reinforcement surface area appeared to be a significant parameter influencing the corrosion mechanism of the SiC- and TiC-reinforced composites. An increase in V{sub f} generally resulted in a higher corrosion rate for the SiC- and TiC-reinforced composites. Coating porosity, electrical conductivity of the reinforcement, and the presence of nickel aluminide (NiAl{sub 3}, formed during the surfacing process) all influenced corrosion behavior.

  18. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaopeng; Miao, Yinggang; Liu, Shuangyan; Li, Yulong; Lu, Guoxing

    2015-09-01

    The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ˜ 30 m/s) was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ˜10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ˜10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  19. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g-1 (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg-1), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  20. Characterization of stable aluminium-citrate species as reference substances for aluminium speciation by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Happel, Oliver; Seubert, Andreas

    2006-03-01

    Well-defined anionic aluminium-citrate species are accessible from crystalline aluminium complexes. The solution chemistry of those species can be investigated using ion chromatography as a powerful tool for aluminium speciation in aqueous samples. The separation of three anionic aluminium-citrate complexes by anion exchange chromatography is possible within 5 min using isocratic conditions. The element specific detection was done by online coupled ICP-AES. The remaining charge of the complexes after dissolution can be determined by ion chromatography using a retention model. Time-dependent monitoring of the species distribution gave information about the species stabilities and the decomposition pathways. With citric acid as an aluminium chelator partially very stable anionic species are observed. These complexes are important components in biological systems. An example for the practical use of the separation method and the well-defined standards is given for plant sap, which showed two species with similar behavior compared to the investigated stable aluminium-citrate complexes. PMID:16448659

  1. Aluminium, carbonyls and cytokines in human nipple aspirate fluids: Possible relationship between inflammation, oxidative stress and breast cancer microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Mannello, F; Ligi, D; Canale, M

    2013-11-01

    The human breast is likely exposed to Al (aluminium) from many sources including diet and personal care products. Underarm applications of aluminium salt-based antiperspirant provide a possible long-term source of exposure, especially after underarm applications to shaved and abraded skin. Al research in breast fluids likely reflects the intraductal microenvironment. We found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids (NAF) from 19 breast cancer patients compared with 16 healthy control subjects (268 vs 131 μg/l, respectively; p < 0.0001). In the same NAF samples we found significantly increased levels of protein oxidative carbonyls in cancer patients compared to healthy women (2.35 vs 0.41 nmol/mg prot, respectively; p < 0.0001). Aluminium content and carbonyl levels showed a significant positive linear correlation (r(2) 0.6628, p < 0.0001). In cancer NAF samples (containing higher amounts of aluminium salts) we also found a significantly increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNF-α) and chemoattractant CC and CXC chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1α and MCP-1). In 12 invasive cancer NAF samples we found a significant positive linear correlation among aluminium, carbonyls and pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine (Y = 64.79x-39.63, r(2) 0.8192, p < 0.0005), as well as pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant MCP-1 cytokine (Y = 2026x-866, r(2) 0.9495, p < 0.0001). In addition to emerging evidence, our results support the possible involvement of aluminium ions in oxidative and inflammatory status perturbations of breast cancer microenvironment, suggesting aluminium accumulation in breast microenvironment as a possible risk factor for oxidative/inflammatory phenotype of breast cells. PMID:23916117

  2. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as <0.025μm filtered, <0.45μm filtered (dissolved) and unfiltered (total) present in solution over the 72-h bioassay. The chronic population growth rate inhibition after aluminium exposure varied between diatom species. C. closterium was the most sensitive species (10% inhibition of growth rate (72-h IC10) of 80 (55-100)μg Al/L (95% confidence limits)) while M. polymorphus (540 (460-600)μg Al/L) and P. tricornutum (2100 (2000-2200)μg Al/L) were less sensitive (based on measured total aluminium). Dissolved aluminium was the primary contributor to toxicity in C. closterium, while a combination of dissolved and precipitated aluminium forms contributed to toxicity in M. polymorphus. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the most tolerant diatom P. tricornutum was due predominantly to precipitated aluminium. Preliminary investigations revealed the sensitivity of C. closterium and M. polymorphus to aluminium was influenced by initial cell density with aluminium toxicity significantly (p<0.05) increasing with initial cell density from 10(3) to 10(5)cells/mL. No effects on plasma membrane permeability were observed for any of the three diatoms suggesting that mechanisms of aluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated aluminium. PMID:26921729

  3. Performance of commercial aluminium alloys as anodes in gelled electrolyte aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of commercial aluminium alloys, namely, Al2024, Al7475 and Al1085, for Al-air batteries is performed. Pure Al cladded Al2024 and Al7475 are also evaluated. Current rates from 0.8 mA cm-2 to 8.6 mA cm-2 are measured in a gel Al-air cell composed of the commercial alloy sample, a commercial air-cathode and an easily synthesizable gelled alkaline electrolyte. The influence of the alloying elements and the addition to the electrolyte of ZnO and ZnCl2, as corrosion inhibitors is studied and analysed via EDX/SEM. Specific capacities of up to 426 mAh/g are obtained with notably flat potential discharges of 1.3-1.4 V. The competition between self-corrosion and oxidation reactions is also discussed, as well as the influence of the current applied on that process. Al7475 is determined to have the best behaviour as anode in Al-air primary batteries, and cladding process is found to be an extra protection against corrosion at low current discharges. Conversely, Al1085 provided worse results because of an unfavourable metallic composition.

  4. Studies on an aluminium-carbon cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, L. K.

    The current-voltage behaviour of an electrochemical cell that consists of an aluminium anode and a carbon cathode in a medium containing aqueous NH 4SCN has been studied, both in the presence and in the absence of a coating on the carbon electrode. It is found that activation polarization is the main factor that limits the current output when using an untreated carbon electrode. This problem is eliminated by coating the carbon electrode with an in situ deposition of HgI 2. In this condition, the current output is reduced mainly by ohmic polarization. Further studies with a coated HgI 2-carbon cathode and an aluminium anode, in a medium containing SCN - and Cl - ions together with a complexing agent (EDTA, sodium salt), revealed that a cell performance close to ideal, (i.e, showing no appreciable polarization) can be obtained at currents up to 0.6 mA/cm 2 and above.

  5. Crucial role for the Nalp3 inflammasome in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminium adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Stephanie C.; Colegio, Oscar R.; O’Connor, William; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium adjuvants, typically referred to as ‘alum’, are the most commonly used adjuvants in human and animal vaccines worldwide, yet the mechanism underlying the stimulation of the immune system by alum remains unknown. Toll-like receptors are critical in sensing infections and are therefore common targets of various adjuvants used in immunological studies. Although alum is known to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that alum does not require intact Toll-like receptor signalling to activate the immune system1,2. Here we show that aluminium adjuvants activate an intracellular innate immune response system called the Nalp3 (also known as cryopyrin, CIAS1 or NLRP3) inflammasome. Production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 by macrophages in response to alum in vitro required intact inflammasome signalling. Furthermore, in vivo, mice deficient in Nalp3, ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain) or caspase-1 failed to mount a significant antibody response to an antigen administered with aluminium adjuvants, whereas the response to complete Freund’s adjuvant remained intact. We identify the Nalp3 inflammasome as a crucial element in the adjuvant effect of aluminium adjuvants; in addition, we show that the innate inflammasome pathway can direct a humoral adaptive immune response. This is likely to affect how we design effective, but safe, adjuvants in the future. PMID:18496530

  6. Alkali-Activated Aluminium-Silicate Composites as Insulation Materials for Industrial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembovska, L.; Bajare, D.; Pundiene, I.; Bumanis, G.

    2015-11-01

    The article reports on the study of thermal stability of alkali-activated aluminium- silicate composites (ASC) at temperature 800-1100°C. ASC were prepared by using calcined kaolinite clay, aluminium scrap recycling waste, lead-silicate glass waste and quartz sand. As alkali activator, commercial sodium silicate solution modified with an addition of sodium hydroxide was used. The obtained alkali activation solution had silica modulus Ms=1.67. Components of aluminium scrap recycling waste (aluminium nitride (AlN) and iron sulphite (FeSO3)) react in the alkali media and create gases - ammonia and sulphur dioxide, which provide the porous structure of the material [1]. Changes in the chemical composition of ASC during heating were identified and quantitatively analysed by using DTA/TG, dimension changes during the heating process were determined by using HTOM, pore microstructure was examined by SEM, and mineralogical composition of ASC was determined by XRD. The density of ASC was measured in accordance with EN 1097-7. ASC with density around 560 kg/m3 and heat resistance up to 1100°C with shrinkage less than 5% were obtained. The intended use of this material is the application as an insulation material for industrial purposes at elevated temperatures.

  7. Visual detection and sequential injection determination of aluminium using a cinnamoyl derivative.

    PubMed

    Elečková, Lenka; Alexovič, Michal; Kuchár, Juraj; Balogh, Ioseph S; Andruch, Vasil

    2015-02-01

    A cinnamoyl derivative, 3-[4-(dimethylamino)cinnamoyl]-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3,4-2H-pyran-2-one, was used as a ligand for the determination of aluminium. Upon the addition of an acetonitrile solution of the ligand to an aqueous solution containing Al(III) and a buffer solution at pH 8, a marked change in colour from yellow to orange is observed. The colour intensity is proportional to the concentration of Al(III); thus, the 'naked-eye' detection of aluminium is possible. The reaction is also applied for sequential injection determination of aluminium. Beer׳s law is obeyed in the range from 0.055 to 0.66 mg L(-1) of Al(III). The limit of detection, calculated as three times the standard deviation of the blank test (n=10), was found to be 4 μg L(-1) for Al(III). The method was applied for the determination of aluminium in spiked water samples and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25435222

  8. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-16

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts; ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g(-1) and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g(-1) (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg(-1)), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay. PMID:25849777

  9. Aluminium nitride layers investigated by slow positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, A. S.; Rice-Evans, P. C.; Bull, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The structure and uniformity of aluminium nitride (AlN) layers produced by the sputter-ion plating coating technique has been assessed with the positron beam apparatus, Tacitus. A positron stopping profile accounting for different densities was applied to layered structures of AlN/Al and TiN/AlN. Values for the Doppler line-height parameter are attributed to the variation of the coating processes. The thicknesses of the layers were determined by applying the diffusion model.

  10. Aluminium phosphide poisoning: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Rahman, Arshalooz

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. PMID:22455303

  11. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  12. Plasmonic enhancement of photoluminescence from aluminium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Chris; Stewart, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) films were grown on c-plane sapphire wafers by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) under aluminium-rich conditions. The excess aluminium (Al) accumulated on the surface of the films as micro-scale droplets 1-10 μm in size, and as Al nanoparticles with diameters in the range 10-110 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on the AlN samples using a 193 nm Excimer laser as the excitation source. Prior to PL measurements the wafers were cleaved in half. One half of each wafer was submitted to a 10 min treatment in H3PO4 heated to 70 °C to remove the excess Al from the film surface. The remaining half was left in the as-deposited condition. The mean intensities of the near-band-edge PL peaks of the as-deposited samples were 2.0-3.4 times higher compared to the samples subjected to the H3PO4 Al-removal treatment. This observation motivated calculations to determine the optimal Al surface nanosphere size for plasmonic enhancement of PL from AlN. The PL enhancement was found to peak for an Al nanosphere radius of 15 nm, which is within the range of the experimentally-observed Al nanoparticle sizes.

  13. Inhalation exposure in secondary aluminium smelting.

    PubMed

    Healy, J; Bradley, S D; Northage, C; Scobbie, E

    2001-04-01

    Inhalation exposure at seven UK secondary aluminium smelters was investigated to quantify the main exposures and identify their sources. The substances monitored were gases (carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen dioxide), total inhalable dust, metals, ammonia, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particulate fluoride salts and acids. The results showed that people were exposed to a range of workplace air pollutants. Personal exposure results for total inhalable dust were between 700 and 5600 microg x m(-3) and the maximum personal exposure result for particulate fluoride salts was 690 microg x m(-3) (as F). The maximum aluminium, total PAH and lead personal exposure results were 900, 19 and 18 microg x m(-3) respectively. The average proportion of aluminium in total inhalable dust samples was 13% and rotary furnace processes generated the most dust. Particulate fluoride salt exposure was more widespread than hydrofluoric acid exposure. The source of the salt exposure was fluoride containing fluxes. The lead exposure source was lead solder contamination in the furnace charge. PMID:11295145

  14. Improvement of photodynamic activity of aluminium sulphophthalocyanine due to biotinylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, Irina G.; Jerdeva, Victoria V.; Derkacheva, Valentina M.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.; Kogan, Eugenia A.; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2003-09-01

    The photodynamic activity of dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine in vitro and in vivo were studied. It was obtained that in vitro dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine provides the effective damage of small cell lung carcinoma OAT-75. In vivo dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine causes destruction of tumor (Erlich carcinoma), results in total necrosis of tumor tissue and expresses vascular damage (trombosis and destruction of vascular walls) even in concentration 0.25 mg/kg of a body weight.

  15. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, M.; Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L.; Afshari, A.

    2014-03-01

    Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface roughness was also observed.

  16. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  18. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered. PMID:24779311

  19. Aluminium salt slag characterization and utilization--a review.

    PubMed

    Tsakiridis, P E

    2012-05-30

    Aluminium salt slag (also known as aluminium salt cake), which is produced by the secondary aluminium industry, is formed during aluminium scrap/dross melting and contains 15-30% aluminium oxide, 30-55% sodium chloride, 15-30% potassium chloride, 5-7% metallic aluminium and impurities (carbides, nitrides, sulphides and phosphides). Depending on the raw mix the amount of salt slag produced per tonne of secondary aluminium ranges from 200 to 500 kg. As salt slag has been classified as toxic and hazardous waste, it should be managed in compliance with the current legislation. Its landfill disposal is forbidden in most of the European countries and it should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This paper presents a review of the aluminium salt slag chemical and mineralogical characteristics, as well as various processes for metal recovery, recycling of sodium and potassium chlorides content back to the smelting process and preparation of value added products from the final non metallic residue. PMID:22480708

  20. Aluminium removal from water after defluoridation with the electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Richa; Mathur, Sanjay; Brighu, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is the most electronegative element and has a strong affinity for aluminium. Owing to this fact, most of the techniques used for fluoride removal utilized aluminium compounds, which results in high concentrations of aluminium in treated water. In the present paper, a new approach is presented to meet the WHO guideline for residual aluminium concentration as 0.2 mg/L. In the present work, the electrocoagulation (EC) process was used for fluoride removal. It was found that aluminium content in water increases with an increase in the energy input. Therefore, experiments were optimized for a minimum energy input to achieve the target value (0.7 mg/L) of fluoride in resultant water. These optimized sets were used for further investigations of aluminium control. The experimental investigations revealed that use of bentonite clay as coagulant in clariflocculation brings down the aluminium concentration of water below the WHO guideline. Bentonite dose of 2 g/L was found to be the best for efficient removal of aluminium. PMID:25903166

  1. Cyclic carbonate synthesis catalysed by bimetallic aluminium-salen complexes.

    PubMed

    Clegg, William; Harrington, Ross W; North, Michael; Pasquale, Riccardo

    2010-06-18

    The development of bimetallic aluminium-salen complexes [{Al(salen)}(2)O] as catalysts for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates (including the commercially important ethylene and propylene carbonates) from a wide range of terminal epoxides in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide as a cocatalyst is reported. The bimetallic structure of one complex was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The bimetallic complexes displayed exceptionally high catalytic activity and in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide could catalyse cyclic carbonate synthesis at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Catalyst-reuse experiments demonstrated that one bimetallic complex was stable for over 60 reactions, though the tetrabutylammonium bromide decomposed in situ by a retro-Menschutkin reaction to form tributylamine and had to be regularly replaced. The mild reaction conditions allowed a full analysis of the reaction kinetics to be carried out and this showed that the reaction was first order in aluminium complex concentration, first order in epoxide concentration, first order in carbon dioxide concentration (except when used in excess) and unexpectedly second order in tetrabutylammonium bromide concentration. Further kinetic experiments demonstrated that the tributylamine formed in situ was involved in the catalysis and that addition of butyl bromide to reconvert the tributylamine into tetrabutylammonium bromide resulted in inhibition of the reaction. The reaction kinetics also indicated that no kinetic resolution of racemic epoxides was possible with this class of catalysts, even when the catalyst was derived from a chiral salen ligand. However, it was shown that if enantiomerically pure styrene oxide was used as substrate, then enantiomerically pure styrene carbonate was formed. On the basis of the kinetic and other experimental data, a catalytic cycle that explains why the bimetallic complexes display such high catalytic activity has been developed. PMID:20437423

  2. Deviatoric response of the aluminium alloy, 5083

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Hazell, Paul; Millett, Jeremy; Bourne, Neil

    2009-06-01

    Aluminium alloys such as 5083 are established light weight armour materials. As such, the shock response of these materials is of great importance. The shear strength of a material under shock loading provides an insight into its ballistic performance. In this investigation embedded manganin stress gauges have been employed to measure both the longitudinal and lateral components of stress during plate impact experiments over a range of impact stresses. In turn, these results were used to determine the shear strength and to investigate the time dependence of lateral stress behind the shock front to give an indication of material response.

  3. Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with the same high vertical resolution of 24 depths as normal for traditional CTD/Rosette sampling. Overall, 470 new data points of Al are reported for 22 full depth stations and 24 surface sampling positions along one transect. This transect consisted of 18 stations on the zero meridian proper from 51°57' S until 69°24'S, and 4 stations somewhat to the northeast towards Cape Town from 42°20'S, 09°E to 50°17'S, 01°27'E. The actual concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean were lower than previously reported. The concentration of Al in the upper 25 m was relatively elevated with an average concentration of 0.71 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.43 nM), most likely due to atmospheric input by a suggested combination of direct atmospheric (wet and dry) input and indirect atmospheric input via melting sea ice. Below the surface waters there was a distinct Al minimum with an average concentration of 0.33 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.13 nM) at an average depth of 120 m. In the deep southernmost Weddell Basin the concentration of Al increased with depth to ˜0.8 nM at 4000 m, and a higher concentration of ˜1.5 nM in the ˜4500-5200 m deep Weddell Sea Bottom Water. Over the Bouvet triple junction region, where three deep ocean ridges meet, the concentration of Al increased to ˜1.4 nM at about 2000 m depth over the ridge crest. In the deep basin north of the Bouvet region the concentration of Al increased to higher deep values of 4-6 nM due to influence of North Atlantic Deep Water. In general the intermediate and deep distribution of Al results from the mixing of water masses with different origins, the formation of deep water and additional input from sedimentary sources at sea floor elevations. No significant correlation between Al and silicate (Si) was observed. This is in contrast to some other ocean regions. In the Southern Ocean the supply of Al is extremely low and any signal from Al uptake and dissolution with biogenic silica is undetectable against the high dissolved Si and low dissolved Al concentrations. Here the Al-Si relation in the deep ocean is uncoupled. This is due to the scavenging and subsequent loss of the water column of Al, whereas the concentration of Si increases in the deep ocean due to its input from deep dissolution of biogenic diatom frustules settling from the surface layer.

  4. Galvanised steel to aluminium joining by laser and GTAW processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, G.; Peyre, P.; Deschaux Beaume, F. Stuart, D.; Fras, G.

    2008-12-15

    A new means of assembling galvanised steel to aluminium involving a reaction between solid steel and liquid aluminium was developed, using laser and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes. A direct aluminium melting strategy was investigated with the laser process, whereas an aluminium-induced melting by steel heating and heat conduction through the steel was carried out with the GTAW process. The interfaces generated during the interaction were mainly composed of a 2-40 {mu}m thick intermetallic reaction layers. The linear strength of the assemblies can be as high as 250 N/mm and 190 N/mm for the assemblies produced respectively by laser and GTAW processes. The corresponding failures were located in the fusion zone of aluminium (laser assemblies), or in the reaction layer (GTAW assemblies)

  5. Usage of neural network to predict aluminium oxide layer thickness.

    PubMed

    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Kučerka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A · dm(-2) and 3 A · dm(-2) for creating aluminium oxide layer. PMID:25922850

  6. Albumin adsorption on to aluminium oxide and polyurethane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sharma, C P; Sunny, M C

    1990-05-01

    The changes in protein adsorption onto aluminium surfaces coated with different thicknesses of oxide layers were examined. The oxide layers on aluminium substrates were derived by the anodizing technique. Protein adsorption studies were conducted using 125I-labelled albumin and the amount of albumin adsorbed was estimated with the help of a gamma counter. An increase in albumin adsorption was observed on oxide layer coated aluminium surfaces. The effect of anti-Hageman factor on albumin and fibrinogen adsorption on to bare aluminium, oxide layer coated aluminium and bare polyether urethane urea surfaces was also investigated. It was observed that the presence of anti-Hageman factor increased the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen on to all these substrates. PMID:2383620

  7. Usage of Neural Network to Predict Aluminium Oxide Layer Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Kučerka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A·dm−2 and 3 A·dm−2 for creating aluminium oxide layer. PMID:25922850

  8. Transmittance Optical Properties Investigation of Aluminium Ions Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. H.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2011-03-01

    Aluminium is a silvery-white metal in Group IIIA of the periodic table with atomic number 13, its atomic weight 26.9815. Aluminium is one of the most toxic elements to human body. In aqueous solution, aluminium ions will dissolve as Al3+(aq) under acidic conditions, and Al(OH)4-(aq) under neutral to alkaline condition. Al3+ ions also can further hydrolyse into [Al(H2O)6]3+ ions. The spectroradiometer used in this study was ASD Spectroradiometer (Model FSHH 325-1075) and the light source's wavelength used was 626 nm, 570 nm and 470 nm. Aluminium ions were added to the water by dissolving the aluminium chloride salt with concentration from 50 ?M, 100 ?M, 250 ?M, and 500 ?M. By varying the detecting wavelength, the resulting transmittance signal will be recorded.

  9. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  10. Study on aluminium-based single films.

    PubMed

    Vinod Kumar, G S; García-Moreno, F; Babcsán, N; Brothers, A H; Murty, B S; Banhart, J

    2007-12-28

    In the present paper the authors studied isolated metallic films made from the same material used for making metallic foams, and then characterised their properties. Metal films were made from a liquid aluminium alloy reinforced with ceramic particles of known concentration. Melts without such particles were also investigated. It is shown that stable films could not be made from Al-Si alloy having no particles, and just extremely thin and fragile films could be made from commercially-pure Al. In contrast, aluminium alloys containing particles such as SiC and TiB(2) allowed pulling thin, stable films, which did not rupture. Significant thinning of films was observed when the particle concentration in the melt decreased. By in situ X-ray monitoring of liquid films during pulling, film thickness and drainage effects within the liquid film could be studied. The morphology and microstructure of films was characterised after solidification. Our work shows that the question of how foams are stabilised can be studied using a simplified system such as a film, instead of having to deal with the multitude of different structural elements present in a foam. PMID:18060172

  11. Hearing conservation in the primary aluminium industry

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, N.; Dixon-Ernst, C.; Chesson, B. J.; Cullen, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Noise-induced hearing loss has been an intractable problem for heavy industry. Aims To report our experience in reducing the incidence of age-corrected confirmed 10 dB hearing shifts (averaged over 2, 3 and 4kHz) in employees in the primary aluminium industry in Australia over the period 2006–13. Methods We analysed annual audiometric data to determine the number of permanent hearing shifts that occurred in employees in two bauxite mines, three alumina refineries and two aluminium smelters. Annual hearing shift rates were calculated based on the number of employees tested per year. Hearing conservation initiatives undertaken during the study period are described. An assessment of similar exposure group noise exposures was also undertaken to determine the magnitude of noise exposure reduction during the study period. Results Across all operations, hearing shift rates declined from 5.5% per year in 2006 to 1.3% per year in 2013 (P < 0.001). The decline in shift rates was greater in mines and refineries, where baseline shift rates were higher, than in smelter workers. Modest reductions in noise exposure occurred during the study period. Conclusions We observed a substantial decline in hearing shift rates during the study period. We describe the hearing conservation initiatives that were collectively associated with this decline. We suspect these initiatives could be deployed relatively easily and at modest cost in other industries with noise-exposed employees. PMID:26470945

  12. Accidents in the aluminium smelting industry.

    PubMed

    Das, B C; Chaudhury, S

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the accident records of an aluminium smelting industry, covering about 2,100 employees, over a period of three years, showed a total of 465 accidents of male employees. Out of these, 5 were fatal, 40.86% were from contacts with extreme temperatures, causing burn injury to 42.58%. Hot materials were the agents causing 44.52% of the burn injuries. Molten aluminium constituted 43.96% amongst hot materials. Injury to lower limbs constituted 38.71% and that to upper limbs 36.99%. The accidents occurring to the employees, in the age group of 26-33 years, amounted to 61.72% of the total accidents. The average number of man-days lost per year was 11,153. Average frequency rate of accidents was 30.75 accidents per million man-hours worked. Severity rate of accidents was 2.196 per million man-hours worked. Incident rate per thousand employees was 73.81. Average number of days lost per accidents was 71.95 days and average duration of man-hours between accidents was 32,516. Mean age of the employees, who met with the accidents were 29.53 years. Share of accidents in the second half of each shift was always more than that in the first half, and this average was 66.66%. PMID:8557540

  13. Composite Ni-Co-fly ash coatings on 5083 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, C. N.; Georgiou, E. P.; Tsopani, A.; Piperi, L.

    2011-03-01

    Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were deposited on zincate treated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of the electrodeposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced composite coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were found to consist of a crystalline Ni-Co solid solution with dispersed fly ash particles. In addition, chemical analysis of the Ni-Co matrix showed that it consisted of 80 wt.% Ni and 20 wt.% Co. The co-deposition of fly ash particles leads to a significant increase of the microhardness of the coating. The corrosion behaviour of the Ni-Co-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy, in a 0.3 M NaCl solution (pH = 3.5), was studied by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments.

  14. Aluminium and iron air pollution near an iron casting and aluminium foundry in Turin district (Italy).

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Salvatore; Ferrara, Mauro; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Barbero, Domenico; Baccolo, Tiziana

    2007-09-01

    This work reports the results of an environmental survey carried out in an industrial area in the Province of Turin: its main aim is to assess the levels of iron and aluminium in the outside air during the period from July to September to assess the influence of industrial activity (a cast-iron and aluminium foundry) which is interrupted during the month of August, on the level of metals present in the air. Conducting the analysis during this period of time made it possible to avoid the confounding effect of pollution due to domestic central heating. The measurements were taken from nine areas at different distances from the foundry in the area and according to the direction of the prevailing winds, as deduced from the historical data. The results of this survey show a statistically significant difference in iron and aluminium levels in the outside air in the geographic areas between the two main periods examined: during August (no foundry activity) v/s July-September (foundry activity). The values recorded are: Aluminium 0.4+/-0.45 microg/m(3) v/s 1.12+/-1.29 microg/m(3) (p<0.0001); Iron 0.95+/-0.56 microg/m(3) v/s 1.6+/-1.0 microg/m(3) (p<0.0001). There were no statistically significant differences between the nine sampling points from the point of view of the sampling sites, climate conditions and wind directions. We found no correlation with car traffic, in terms of the number of vehicles, and metals. The values of iron tended to be higher in the areas farther away from the foundry site in the areas located along the path of the prevailing winds. PMID:17637476

  15. Aluminium recovery vs. hydrogen production as resource recovery options for fine MSWI bottom ash fraction.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Ilyas, Aamir; Praagh, Martijn van; Persson, Kenneth M; Grosso, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash fine fraction contains a significant amount of aluminium, but previous works have shown that current recovery options based on standard on-step Eddy Current Separation (ECS) have limited efficiency. In this paper, we evaluated the improvement in the efficiency of ECS by using an additional step of crushing and sieving. The efficiency of metallic Al recovery was quantified by measuring hydrogen gas production. The ash samples were also tested for total aluminium content with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). As an alternative to material recovery, we also investigated the possibility to convert residual metallic Al into useful energy, promoting H2 gas production by reacting metallic Al with water at high pH. The results show that the total aluminium concentration in the <4 mm bottom ash fraction is on average 8% of the weight of the dry ash, with less than 15% of it being present in the metallic form. Of this latter, only 21% can be potentially recovered with ECS combined with crushing and sieving stages and subsequently recycled. For hydrogen production, using 10MNaOH at 1L/S ratio results in the release of 6-11l of H2 gas for each kilogram of fine dry ash, equivalent to an energy potential of 118 kJ. PMID:23453355

  16. Study on optimal surface property of WC-Co cutting tool for aluminium alloy cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizar, Mohd; Arimatsu, Naoya; Kawamitsu, Hiroshi; Takai, Kazuteru; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    The light weight property as well as high corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy has increased their demand especially in automobile industries. Aluminium alloy as a matter of fact has a low melting point and high ductility that severely adhere to the cutting tool surface and cause deterioration of chip evacuation. This problem often resulting in tools breakage. In this paper, in order to impart functions of anti-adhesion, we propose a technique by controlling the grinding marks micro texture on the tool surface by using the blast polishing treatment without any coating technologies. The results show that the tool which underwent polishing treatment reduces the cutting force as well as the aluminium adherence during the initial cutting process, and become worst as the process cutting continues. These results indicate that grinding mark texture improves the anti-adhesion by reducing the contact area during cutting and provide storage for the lubricant. In addition, too much polishing on the tool surface may remove these textures and resultantly worsen the tool performance.

  17. Fires in storages of LFO: Analysis of hazard of structural collapse of steel-aluminium containers.

    PubMed

    Rebec, A; Kolšek, J; Plešec, P

    2016-04-01

    Pool fires of light fuel oil (LFO) in above-ground storages with steel-aluminium containers are discussed. A model is developed for assessments of risks of between-tank fire spread. Radiative effects of the flame body are accounted for by a solid flame radiation model. Thermal profiles evolved due to fire in the adjacent tanks and their consequential structural response is pursued in an exact (materially and geometrically non-linear) manner. The model's derivation is demonstrated on the LFO tank storage located near the Port of Koper (Slovenia). In support of the model, data from literature are adopted where appropriate. Analytical expressions are derived correspondingly for calculations of emissive characteristics of LFO pool fires. Additional data are collected from experiments. Fire experiments conducted on 300cm diameter LFO pans and at different wind speeds and high-temperature uniaxial tension tests of the analysed aluminium alloys types 3xxx and 6xxx are presented. The model is of an immediate fire engineering practical value (risk analyses) or can be used for further research purposes (e.g. sensitivity and parametric studies). The latter use is demonstrated in the final part of the paper discussing possible effects of high-temperature creep of 3xxx aluminium. PMID:26802486

  18. Sulfone-based electrolytes for aluminium rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yuri; Senda, Yui; Kawasaki, Hideki; Koshitani, Naoki; Hosoi, Shizuka; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Morioka, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Masayuki

    2015-02-28

    Electrolyte is a key material for success in the research and development of next-generation rechargeable batteries. Aluminium rechargeable batteries that use aluminium (Al) metals as anode materials are attractive candidates for next-generation batteries, though they have not been developed yet due to the lack of practically useful electrolytes. Here we present, for the first time, non-corrosive reversible Al electrolytes working at room temperature. The electrolytes are composed of aluminium chlorides, dialkylsulfones, and dilutants, which are realized by the identification of electrochemically active Al species, the study of sulfone dependences, the effects of aluminium chloride concentrations, dilutions and their optimizations. The characteristic feature of these materials is the lower chloride concentrations in the solutions than those in the conventional Al electrolytes, which allows us to use the Al metal anodes without corrosions. We anticipate that the sulfone-based electrolytes will open the doors for the research and development of Al rechargeable batteries. PMID:25627398

  19. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. PMID:26365318

  20. Crystalline silicon core fibres from aluminium core preforms.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chong; Jia, Xiaoting; Wei, Lei; Tan, Swee-Ching; Zhao, Xin; Joannopoulos, John D; Fink, Yoel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional fibre-optic drawing involves a thermally mediated geometric scaling where both the fibre materials and their relative positions are identical to those found in the fibre preform. To date, all thermally drawn fibres are limited to the preform composition and geometry. Here, we fabricate a metre-long crystalline silicon-core, silica-cladded fibre from a preform that does not contain any elemental silicon. An aluminium rod is inserted into a macroscopic silica tube and then thermally drawn. The aluminium atoms initially in the core reduce the silica, to produce silicon atoms and aluminium oxide molecules. The silicon atoms diffuse into the core, forming a large phase-separated molten silicon domain that is drawn into the crystalline silicon core fibre. The ability to produce crystalline silicon core fibre out of inexpensive aluminium and silica could pave the way for a simple and scalable method of incorporating silicon-based electronics and photonics into fibres. PMID:25697119

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  2. Reduction of turbidity by a coal-aluminium filter

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, A.G.; Johnson, R.L.

    1985-06-01

    Coal-aluminium granular filters successfully reduce turbidity in low-alkalinity raw waters to less than 1.0 ntu, without a coagulation step or external coagulant aids. Data from experiments conducted with control and pilot-plant filters show the viability of the process and indicate the turbidity and retention mechanisms. Operational characteristics of the process are similar to those of a conventional filter. The costs of the coal-aluminium process compare favourably with those of traditional treatment.

  3. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  4. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy. PMID:22749723

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. Optimization of phosphate removal in anodizing aluminium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chimenos, J M; Fernández, A I; Hernández, A; Haurie, L; Espiell, F; Ayora, C

    2006-01-01

    The wastewater produced after brightening and anodizing aluminium has high concentrations of phosphates and sulphates. The addition of MgO in a first physico-chemical wastewater treatment step makes the selective recovery of phosphates in the form of magnesium phosphates feasible, which may be reused as fertilizer. The proposed wastewater treatment process allows manufacturers to reduce more than 70% of the volume of the precipitate in the sedimentation reactor and more than 50% of the weight of the final disposal sludge. In this study, the use of an alternative low-grade MgO (LG-MgO) as a source of magnesium, which is cheaper than pure MgO, is investigated. The phosphate concentration and pH of the treated wastewater is controlled by the formation and precipitation of newberyite or bobierrite as a function of the magnesium source added. According to experimental data, a reaction mechanism is proposed. Although LG-MgO reacts more slowly than pure MgO and it is necessary to add 3-4 times the stoichiometric amount, this procedure has considerable economic and technical advantages. PMID:16343583

  7. Modelling of Local Necking and Fracture in Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achani, D.; Eriksson, M.; Hopperstad, O. S.; Lademo, O.-G.

    2007-05-01

    Non-linear Finite Element simulations are extensively used in forming and crashworthiness studies of automotive components and structures in which fracture need to be controlled. For thin-walled ductile materials, the fracture-related phenomena that must be properly represented are thinning instability, ductile fracture and through-thickness shear instability. Proper representation of the fracture process relies on the accuracy of constitutive and fracture models and their parameters that need to be calibrated through well defined experiments. The present study focuses on local necking and fracture which is of high industrial importance, and uses a phenomenological criterion for modelling fracture in aluminium alloys. As an accurate description of plastic anisotropy is important, advanced phenomenological constitutive equations based on the yield criterion YLD2000/YLD2003 are used. Uniaxial tensile tests and disc compression tests are performed for identification of the constitutive model parameters. Ductile fracture is described by the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion and an in-plane shear tests is performed to identify the fracture parameter. The reason is that in a well designed in-plane shear test no thinning instability should occur and it thus gives more direct information about the phenomenon of ductile fracture. Numerical simulations have been performed using a user-defined material model implemented in the general-purpose non-linear FE code LS-DYNA. The applicability of the model is demonstrated by correlating the predicted and experimental response in the in-plane shear tests and additional plane strain tension tests.

  8. Polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Carraher, C.; Swift, G.

    1993-12-31

    Polymers, because of the unique properties offered by them, are being employed to larger extents as additives. Polymeric additives may offer incentives such as cost, performance and unique properties. Polymeric additives have been used for years as viscosity modifiers in motor oils, plastisols, antifoaming agents and fillers. New uses are quickly emerging as permanent coloring agent, antibacterial agents and as delivery aids for metals and metal oxides.

  9. The Effect of Zinc to Aluminium Molar Ratio on the Formation of ZINC-ALUMINIUM-4-CHLOROPHENOXYACETATE Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarijo, Siti Halimah; Hussein, Mohd. Zobir; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Yahaya, Asmah Hj.

    2009-06-01

    Layered organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite material containing 4-chlorophenoxy acetate, (4CPA) intercalated into zinc-aluminium-layered double hydroxide (ZAL) was prepared by direct self-assembly method for the formation of Zn-Al-4CPA nanocomposite (ZAC). Various Zn2+ to Al3+ molar ratios, R ranging from 1 to 6 were used in the preparation of the mother liquor with fixed concentration of 4CPA at 0.4 M. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 7.5 by slow addition of 2 M NaOH. Well-ordered nanolayered organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites with the expansion of basal spacing from 8.9 Å in the layered double hydroxide to 19.1-21.2 Å in the resulting nanocomposites were obtained. The FTIR spectra for the nanocomposites showed that the spectrum composed of spectral features of ZAL and 4CPA showing the successful intercalation of the organic moiety into the LDH interlayer. The BET surface area decreased as the XAl value increased while the percentage loading of 4CPA in the nanocomposites increased in the range of 38.9-44.7 % (w/w) as the XAl increased. This shows that the mole ratio of Zn2+ to Al3+, R in the mother liquor controlled the physicochemical properties of the resulting nanocomposite, Zn-Al-4CPA.

  10. Corrosion of aluminium in soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Seruga, M; Hasenay, D

    1996-04-01

    The corrosion of aluminium (Al) in several brands of soft drinks (cola- and citrate-based drinks) has been studied, using an electrochemical method, namely potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion of Al in soft drinks is a very slow, time-dependent and complex process, strongly influenced by the passivation, complexation and adsorption processes. The corrosion of Al in these drinks occurs principally due to the presence of acids: citric acid in citrate-based drinks and orthophosphoric acid in cola-based drinks. The corrosion rate of Al rose with an increase in the acidity of soft drinks, i.e. with increase of the content of total acids. The corrosion rates are much higher in the cola-based drinks than those in citrate-based drinks, due to the facts that: (1) orthophosphoric acid is more corrosive to Al than is citric acid, (2) a quite different passive oxide layer (with different properties) is formed on Al, depending on whether the drink is cola or citrate based. The method of potentiodynamic polarization was shown as being very suitable for the study of corrosion of Al in soft drinks, especially if it is combined with some non-electrochemical method, e.g. graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). PMID:8638433

  11. A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

  12. Fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Fainman, M.Z.

    1989-05-01

    This patent describes a liquid hydrocarbon fuel and additive composition for use in a reciprocating liquid fuel engine, the additive being present in an amount sufficient to increase engine performance and reduce smoke emissions, from about 100 to 1,000 parts per million by volume of the fuel. It comprises: a mixture of: from 10 to 90 wt% of the additive being a straight-chain carboxylic acid ester having a molecular weight of abut 125 to 200; and form about 90 to 10 wt.% of a combustion-survivable neopentylpoly of ester of a straight-chain carboxylic acid, having a molecular weight of from about 300 to 1000.

  13. Improving Efficiency of Aluminium Sacrificial Anode Using Cold Work Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Ann, Chang Tai

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium is one of the preferred materials to be used as sacrificial anode for carbon steel protection. The efficiency of these can be low due to the formation of oxide layer which passivate the anodes. Currently, to improve its efficiency, there are efforts using a new technique called surface modifications. The objective of this research is to study corrosion mechanism of aluminium sacrificial anode which has been processed by cold work. The cold works are applied by reducing the thickness of aluminium sacrificial anodes at 20% and 40% of thickness reduction. The cathodic protection experiments were performed by immersion of aluminium connected to carbon steel cylinder in 3% NaCl solutions. Visual inspections using SEM had been conducted during the experiments and corrosion rate data were taken in every week for 8 weeks of immersion time. Corrosion rate data were measured using weight loss and linear polarization technique (LPR). From the results, it is observed that cold worked aluminium sacrificial anode have a better corrosion performance. It shows higher corrosion rate and lower corrosion potential. The anodes also provided a long functional for sacrificial anode before it stop working. From SEM investigation, it is shown that cold works have changed the microstructure of anodes which is suspected in increasing corrosion rate and cause de-passivate of the surface anodes.

  14. Computer modelling of age hardening for cast aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linda; Ferguson, W. George

    2009-08-01

    Age hardening, or precipitation hardening, is one of the most widely adopted techniques for strengthening of aluminium alloys. Although various age hardening models have been developed for aluminium alloys, from the large volume of literature reviewed, it appears that the bulk of the research has been concentrated on wrought aluminium alloys, only a few of the established precipitation models have been applied to the casting aluminium alloys. In the present work, there are two modelling methods that have been developed and applied to the casting aluminium alloys A356 and A357. One is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology to produce a process model, by which we mean a mathematical relationship between process variables (alloy composition, ageing temperature and time) and material properties (yield strength or hardness) through microstructure evolution (precipitate radius, volume fraction). The other method is based on the Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model which deals with concomitant nucleation, growth and coarsening and is thus capable of predicting the full evolution of the particle size distribution and then a strength model is used to evaluate the resulting change in hardness or yield strength at room temperature by taking into account contributions from lattice resistance, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening.

  15. Modulation of the human immune response by the non-toxic and non-pyrogenic adjuvant aluminium hydroxide: effect on antigen uptake and antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Mannhalter, J W; Neychev, H O; Zlabinger, G J; Ahmad, R; Eibl, M M

    1985-01-01

    The regulatory effects of an adjuvant (aluminium hydroxide) on the early phase of the immune response have been investigated. Adsorbing a soluble antigen (tetanus toxoid) to aluminium hydroxide led to a significant increase (P less than 0.001) in antigen-induced T-cell proliferation (macrophage-T-cell interaction, MTI) making aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed antigens especially suitable to study immunoregulatory changes in the early phase of the immune response. First studies revealed that this increase was due to an enhancement of antigen uptake by the antigen-presenting cell. However, under conditions allowing for the uptake of comparable amounts of soluble (TTs) or aluminium hydroxide-absorbed (TTAL) antigen, T-cell proliferation in response to TTAL was still higher than in response to TTS. This difference was especially pronounced if suboptimal antigen concentrations were used and could be explained by differences in the TTS-versus TTAL-induced release of interleukin-1 (IL-1). Pulsing with TTAL led to a substantial increase in IL-1 release by monocytes (MO) which then subsequently augmented antigen-induced T-cell proliferation. This was further supported by addition of exogenous IL-1 to cultures of T cells and TTS-pulsed MOs, which also significantly increased the T cells' proliferative response. These findings demonstrate that in the early phase of the immune response, aluminium hydroxide exerts its regulatory effect at the level of the antigen-presenting and mediator-releasing accessory cell. PMID:3876178

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The Committee also evaluated the risk posed by two food contaminants, with the aim of deriving tolerable intakes where appropriate and advising on risk management options for the purpose of public health protection. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives and contaminants. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for certain food additives (aluminium-containing food additives, Benzoe Tonkinensis, glycerol ester of gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, glycerol ester of wood rosin, octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic, polydimethyl siloxane, Ponceau 4R, pullulan, pullulanase from Bacillus deromificans expressed in Bacillus licheniformis, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow FCF) and two food contaminants (cyanogenic glycosides and fumonisins). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aluminium lakes of colouring matters; beta-apo-8'-carotenal; beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester; beta-carotene, synthetic; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose; magnesium silicate, synthetic; modified starches; nitrous oxide; sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; and sucrose monoesters of lauric, palmitic or stearic acid. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminants considered. PMID:22519244

  17. Corrosion of aluminium metal in OPC- and CAC-based cement matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Hajime; Swift, Paul; Utton, Claire; Carro-Mateo, Beatriz; Collier, Nick; Milestone, Neil

    2013-08-15

    Corrosion of aluminium metal in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based pastes produces hydrogen gas and expansive reaction products causing problems for the encapsulation of aluminium containing nuclear wastes. Although corrosion of aluminium in cements has been long known, the extent of aluminium corrosion in the cement matrices and effects of such reaction on the cement phases are not well established. The present study investigates the corrosion reaction of aluminium in OPC, OPC-blast furnace slag (BFS) and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) based systems. The total amount of aluminium able to corrode in an OPC and 4:1 BFS:OPC system was determined, and the correlation between the amount of calcium hydroxide in the system and the reaction of aluminium obtained. It was also shown that a CAC-based system could offer a potential matrix to incorporate aluminium metal with a further reduction of pH by introduction of phosphate, producing a calcium phosphate cement.

  18. Stimulation of eryptosis by aluminium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Niemoeller, Olivier M.; Kiedaisch, Valentin; Dreischer, Peter; Wieder, Thomas; Lang, Florian . E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de

    2006-12-01

    Aluminium salts are utilized to impede intestinal phosphate absorption in chronic renal failure. Toxic side effects include anemia, which could result from impaired formation or accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Erythrocytes may be cleared secondary to suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the erythrocyte surface. As macrophages are equipped with PS receptors, they bind, engulf and degrade PS-exposing cells. The present experiments have been performed to explore whether Al{sup 3+} ions trigger eryptosis. The PS exposure was estimated from annexin binding and cell volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis. Exposure to Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 10 {mu}M Al{sup 3+} for 24 h) indeed significantly increased annexin binding, an effect paralleled by decrease of forward scatter at higher concentrations ({>=} 30 {mu}M Al{sup 3+}). According to Fluo3 fluorescence Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 30 {mu}M for 3 h) increased cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} activity. Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 10 {mu}M for 24 h) further decreased cytosolic ATP concentrations. Energy depletion by removal of glucose similarly triggered annexin binding, an effect not further enhanced by Al{sup 3+} ions. The eryptosis was paralleled by release of hemoglobin, pointing to loss of cell membrane integrity. In conclusion, Al{sup 3+} ions decrease cytosolic ATP leading to activation of Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cation channels, Ca{sup 2+} entry, stimulation of cell membrane scrambling and cell shrinkage. Moreover, Al{sup 3+} ions lead to loss of cellular hemoglobin, a feature of hemolysis. Both effects are expected to decrease the life span of circulating erythrocytes and presumably contribute to the development of anemia during Al{sup 3+} intoxication.

  19. Stability constants of aluminium fluoride complexes.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, R P; Moreno, E C

    1971-09-01

    Pointwise titrations of aluminium nitrate solutions with sodium fluoride were made at ionic strengths of 0.5, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05M and at temperatures of 25 degrees and 37 degrees . The total Al(3+) concentration was kept constant at 5 x 10(-4)M and the total F(-) concentration covered the range 5-20 x 10(-4)M with a minimum of 20 points per titration. It is shown that only mononuclear complexes were present with these solution compositions. Determinations of H(+) and F(-) in solution were made by the use of quinhydrone and lanthanum fluoride electrodes, respectively. Formation constants were calculated by three different procedures. Best results were obtained by a non-linear generalized least-squares method that (a) permits calculation of the formation constants with the simultaneous presence of all the complexes being taken into account, (b) does not require segregation of data according to the values of the formation function (n), and (c) yields standard errors that reflect the errors in all the experimental measurements. Values for the formation constants at infinite dilution were obtained by a linear least-squares adjustment of the values obtained for the four finite ionic strengths. The formation constants thus obtained for the reaction AlF(n-1) + F <==> AlF(n) (charges omitted) at 25 degrees have logarithmic values of 6.69 +/- 0.02, 5.35 +/- 0.03, 3.68 +/- 0.01 and 2.75 +/- 0.04 for n = 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The corresponding values at 37 degrees are 6.68 +/- 0.10,5.34 +/- 0.02,3.94 +/- 0.04, and 3.29 +/- 0.05. PMID:18960958

  20. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis of aluminium segregation in silicon carbide grain boundaries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X F; Yang, Q; De Jonghe, L C; Zhang, Z

    2002-07-01

    The aluminium distribution in polycrystalline SiC hot-pressed with aluminium, boron and carbon additives was studied using X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Al excess in homophase SiC grain boundary films was determined, taking into account dissolved Al in the SiC lattice. In the spot-EDS analysis, an electron beam probe with a calibrated diameter was formed, and the total beam-specimen interaction volume was defined, taking the beam spreading through crystalline TEM foil into consideration. EDS spectra were collected from regions containing intergranular films and adjacent matrix grains, respectively. A theoretical treatment was presented and experimental errors were estimated, with a further discussion about the effects of foil thickness. Experimental examples are given, followed by statistical EDS analyses for grain boundary films in SiC samples hot-pressed with increased amounts of Al additions. The results demonstrated a substantial Al segregation in the nanometer-wide intergranular films in all samples. Al additions higher than 3 wt% saturated the Al concentrations in SiC grains and in grain boundary films. The effect of foil thickness, and the parameters for determining the optimum incident beam diameter in the EDS analysis are discussed. PMID:12135460

  1. Time-resolved aluminium laser-induced plasma temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmick, D. M.; Parigger, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    We seek to characterize the temperature decay of laser-induced plasma near the surface of an aluminium target from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of aluminium alloy sample. Laser-induced plasma are initiated by tightly focussing 1064 nm, nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation. Temperatures are inferred from aluminium monoxide spectra viewed at systematically varied time delays by comparing experimental spectra to theoretical calculations with a Nelder Mead algorithm. The temperatures are found to decay from 5173 ± 270 to 3862 ± 46 Kelvin from 10 to 100 μs time delays following optical breakdown. The temperature profile along the plasma height is also inferred from spatially resolved spectral measurements and the electron number density is inferred from Stark broadened Hβ spectra.

  2. Different Approach to the Aluminium Oxide Topography Characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Poljacek, Sanja Mahovic; Gojo, Miroslav; Raos, Pero; Stoic, Antun

    2007-04-07

    Different surface topographic techniques are being widely used for quantitative measurements of typical industrial aluminium oxide surfaces. In this research, specific surface of aluminium oxide layer on the offset printing plate has been investigated by using measuring methods which have previously not been used for characterisation of such surfaces. By using two contact instruments and non-contact laser profilometer (LPM) 2D and 3D roughness parameters have been defined. SEM micrographs of the samples were made. Results have shown that aluminium oxide surfaces with the same average roughness value (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) typically used in the printing plate surface characterisation, have dramatically different surface topographies. According to the type of instrument specific roughness parameters should be used for defining the printing plate surfaces. New surface roughness parameters were defined in order to insure detailed characterisation of the printing plates in graphic reproduction process.

  3. Different Approach to the Aluminium Oxide Topography Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poljacek, Sanja Mahovic; Gojo, Miroslav; Raos, Pero; Stoic, Antun

    2007-04-01

    Different surface topographic techniques are being widely used for quantitative measurements of typical industrial aluminium oxide surfaces. In this research, specific surface of aluminium oxide layer on the offset printing plate has been investigated by using measuring methods which have previously not been used for characterisation of such surfaces. By using two contact instruments and non-contact laser profilometer (LPM) 2D and 3D roughness parameters have been defined. SEM micrographs of the samples were made. Results have shown that aluminium oxide surfaces with the same average roughness value (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) typically used in the printing plate surface characterisation, have dramatically different surface topographies. According to the type of instrument specific roughness parameters should be used for defining the printing plate surfaces. New surface roughness parameters were defined in order to insure detailed characterisation of the printing plates in graphic reproduction process.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a new aluminium-based compound.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Cosp, José; Artiaga, Ramón; Corpas-Iglesias, Francisco; Benítez-Guerrero, Mónica

    2009-08-28

    A new aluminium polynuclear crystalline species, Al(13)(OH)(30)(H(2)O)(15)Cl(9) has been synthesized and characterized. It is a particular case of the Al(13)(OH)(30-y)(H(2)O)(18-x)Cl(9) x zH(2)O family. It has been obtained from aluminium waste cans treated with HCl solution in strong acid media, followed by an ageing period. The crystalline structure of the complex was determined by XRD spectroscopy. Twelve reflections were found and indexed with the DICVOL04 software. Morphologically, a flattened preferred orientation was observed by SEM and FESEM. The chemical structure was studied by several absorption spectroscopy techniques: FTIR, ATR-FTIR and Raman dispersion spectroscopy. The coordination of the aluminium nuclei was determined by Al-MAS-NMR. Only octahedral sites were observed. Thermal characterization of the compound was performed by evolved gas analysis (EGA) coupled to simultaneous TGA-DSC. PMID:19655063

  5. Aluminium toxicity in the rat liver and brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1993-04-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we examined the brain and liver tissue uptake of aluminium 5-75 days after aluminium injection into healthy rats. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the brain and the brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the liver and the liver cell nuclei by PIXE analysis and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The morphological changes of the rat brain examined 75 days after the injection were similar to those which have been reportedly observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells.

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  7. Characterisation of Ga-coated and Ga-brazed aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Ferchaud, E.; Christien, F.; Barnier, V.; Paillard, P.

    2012-05-15

    This work is devoted to the brazing of aluminium using liquid gallium. Gallium was deposited on aluminium samples at {approx} 50 Degree-Sign C using a liquid gallium 'polishing' technique. Brazing was undertaken for 30 min at 500 Degree-Sign C in air. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) characterisation of Ga-coated samples has shown that the Ga surface layer thickness is of ten (or a few tens of) nanometres. Furthermore, aluminium oxide layer (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was shown to be 'descaled' during Ga deposition, which ensures good conditions for further brazing. Cross-section examination of Ga-coated samples shows that liquid gallium penetrates into the aluminium grain boundaries during deposition. The thickness of the grain boundary gallium film was measured using an original EDS technique and is found to be of a few tens of nanometres. The depth of gallium grain boundary penetration is about 300 {mu}m at the deposition temperature. The fracture stress of the brazed joints was measured from tensile tests and was determined to be 33 MPa. Cross-section examination of brazed joints shows that gallium has fully dissolved into the bulk and that the joint is really autogenous. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium can be brazed using liquid gallium deposited by a 'polishing' technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aluminium oxide layer is 'descaled' during liquid Ga 'polishing' deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDS can be used for determination of surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness is of a few tens of nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface and grain boundary gallium dissolves in the bulk during brazing.

  8. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  9. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  10. Towards an understanding of the adjuvant action of aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Marrack, Philippa; McKee, Amy S.; Munks, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of vaccines depends on the presence of an adjuvant in conjunction with the antigen. Of these adjuvants, the ones that contain aluminium, which were first discovered empirically in 1926, are currently the most widely used. However, a detailed understanding of their mechanism of action has only started to be revealed. In this Timeline article, we briefly describe the initial discovery of aluminium adjuvants and discuss historically important advances. We also summarize recent progress in the field and discuss their implications and the remaining questions on how these adjuvants work. PMID:19247370

  11. Transmittance jump in a thin aluminium layer during laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykovsky, N. E.; Pershin, S. M.; Samokhin, A. A.; Senatsky, Yu V.

    2016-02-01

    A jump in the transmittance (from ~0.1% to ~50% for ~1 ns) of an optical gate on a Mylar film (a thin aluminium layer on a Lavsan substrate) irradiated by nanosecond (10-7 - 10-8 s) pulses of a neodymium laser with an intensity up to 0.1 GW cm-2 has been recorded. The mechanism of a fast (10-10 - 10-11 s) increase in the transmittance of the aluminium layer upon its overheating (without boiling) to the metal - insulator phase-transition temperature is discussed.

  12. Accumulation of aluminium and physiological status of tree foliage in the vicinity of a large aluminium smelter.

    PubMed

    Wannaz, E D; Rodriguez, J H; Wolfsberger, T; Carreras, H A; Pignata, M L; Fangmeier, A; Franzaring, J

    2012-01-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al) and sulphur (S) as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products) were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health. PMID:22654642

  13. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    PubMed Central

    Wannaz, E. D.; Rodriguez, J. H.; Wolfsberger, T.; Carreras, H. A.; Pignata, M. L.; Fangmeier, A.; Franzaring, J.

    2012-01-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al) and sulphur (S) as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products) were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health. PMID:22654642

  14. Laboratory studies on formation and minimisation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) in secondary aluminium process.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Dieter; Klobasa, Oliver; Pandelova, Marchela; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the formation mechanisms of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in thermal aluminium recycling processes by use of laboratory experiments. The pattern of isomers of PCDD/F indicates that de novo synthesis is important in aluminium smeltery. The mechanisms of PCDD/F formation in aluminium smelting are similar to that of various incineration processes of waste material. The results of bioanalysis (EROD-test) confirms the existence of de novo synthesis of PCDD/F, but points out to the existence to some additional, toxic compounds of unknown structure. To reduce the amount of PCDD/F the input of carbon at the metal should be reduced; in addition the metal smeltery plants should be cleaned from fly ash particles. It is suggested to use good primary methods in the technical plants like constant feeding of the metal into the oven will minimise PCDD/F concentration. The biological EROD-bioassay is a good tool to estimate PCDD/F-TEQ values also for this technical process simulated in the laboratory. PMID:22137557

  15. Effects of surface treatment of aluminium alloy 1050 on the adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Golru, S.; Attar, M. M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating on the adhesion properties and corrosion resistance of an epoxy/polyamide coating applied on the aluminium alloy 1050 (AA1050). Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measuring device were employed in order to characterize the surface characteristics of the Zr treated AA1050 samples. The epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and Zr treated samples. The epoxy coating adhesion to the aluminium substrate was evaluated by pull-off test before and after 30 days immersion in 3.5% w/w NaCl solution. In addition, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests were employed to characterize the corrosion protection properties of the epoxy coating applied on the AA1050 samples. Results revealed that the surface treatment of AA1050 by zirconium conversion coating resulted in the increase of surface free energy and surface roughness. The dry and recovery (adhesion strength after 30 days immersion in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solution) adhesion strengths of the coatings applied on the Zr treated aluminium samples were greater than untreated sample. In addition, the adhesion loss of the coating applied on the Zr treated aluminium substrate was lower than other samples. Also, the results obtained from EIS and salt spray test clearly revealed that the Zr conversion coating could enhance the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy coating significantly.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Aluminium (aluminum) Tolerance in Rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to utilize moisture and nutrients by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of ...

  17. Sources and speciation of aluminium and silicon in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Farmer, V C

    1986-01-01

    The aluminosilicate minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks are mostly unstable in earth-surface weathering conditions. In the tropics and subtropics, they are transformed to stable end-products (crystalline clay minerals, oxides and hydroxides) that largely conserve aluminium and iron. In noncalcareous soils in temperature and boreal climates, aluminium can be markedly mobile, and is precipitated as metastable products that include hydrous aluminosilicates, hydroxyaluminium polymers in or on 2:1 layer silicates, and complexes with soil organic matter. The aluminosilicate precipitates formed at pH less than 5.5 have structures related to imogolite, a unidimensional crystal in the form of a tube of 2.3 nm outer diameter. These metastable precipitates, both organic and inorganic, are readily remobilized on further acidification, and can release aluminium into streams if the solutions are not neutralized in the subsoil. Three classes of soluble aluminium species in natural waters have been distinguished by their rate of reaction with complexing reagents, and their rate of adsorption on cation-exchange columns. These are: (a) unreactive, acid-soluble, Al, (b) labile monomeric Al, and (c) non-liable monomeric Al. Group (b) includes simple inorganic species (e.g. Al3+, AlOH2+, AlF2+), and group (c) is thought to include organic complexes. In contrast, silicon occurs dominantly as Si(OH)4 monomers in natural water. Its metastable precipitates include hydrous aluminosilicates and biogenic opal. PMID:3743232

  18. LASERS IN MEDICINE: Two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkin, Yu P.; Alfimov, E. E.; Vasil'ev, N. E.; Denisov, A. N.; Makukha, V. K.; Ogirenko, A. P.

    1999-12-01

    A demonstration is given of the feasibility of two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanine and of the pharmaceutical preparation 'Fotosens', used in photodynamic therapy. The excitation source was an Nd:YAG laser emitting at the 1064 nm wavelength. The spectra of the two-photon-excited luminescence were obtained and the two-photon absorption cross sections were determined.

  19. Porphyry copper enrichment linked to excess aluminium in plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, B. J.; Herrington, R. J.; Morris, A.

    2016-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits provide around 75%, 50% and 20% of world copper, molybdenum and gold, respectively. The deposits are mainly centred on calc-alkaline porphyry magmatic systems in subduction zone settings. Although calc-alkaline magmas are relatively common, large porphyry copper deposits are extremely rare and increasingly difficult to discover. Here, we compile existing geochemical data for magmatic plagioclase, a dominant mineral in calc-alkaline rocks, from fertile (porphyry-associated) and barren magmatic systems worldwide, barren examples having no associated porphyry deposit. We show that plagioclase from fertile systems is distinct in containing `excess’ aluminium. This signature is clearly demonstrated in a case study carried out on plagioclase from the fertile La Paloma and Los Sulfatos copper porphyry systems in Chile. Further, the presence of concentric zones of high excess aluminium suggests its incorporation as a result of magmatic processes. As excess aluminium has been linked to high melt water contents, the concentric zones may record injections of hydrous fluid or fluid-rich melts into the sub-porphyry magma chamber. We propose that excess aluminium may exclude copper from plagioclase, so enriching the remaining melts. Furthermore, this chemical signature can be used as an exploration indicator for copper porphyry deposits.

  20. Al-Cu-Li (Aluminium-Copper-Lithium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materials Science International Team MSIT

    This document is part of Subvolume C2 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 2: Selected Copper Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Aluminium-Copper-Lithium.

  1. Al-Cu-Ru (Aluminium-Copper-Ruthenium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materials Science International Team MSIT

    This document is part of Subvolume C2 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 2: Selected Copper Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Aluminium-Copper-Ruthenium.

  2. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake. PMID:24779693

  3. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Alameda, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Araujo, J. P.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS-NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (~1.55) is quite lower (~22%) than the commonly used Al2O3 handbook value (~1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates.

  4. Examples of liquiq metal embrittlement in industrial aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréchet, Y.; Rodine, A.; Véron, M.; Péron, S.; Deschamps, A.

    2002-09-01

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) phenomena were investigated in two industrial aluminium alloys. Gallium penetration in 7010 alloys was systematically investigated to shed light on the effect of microstructure and plasticity ahead of the crack tip. Hot temperature shortness in 5083 alloy is given as an example of cleavage induced by LME.

  5. Aluminium and iron in humans: bioaccumulation, pathology, and removal.

    PubMed

    Peto, Maximus V

    2010-10-01

    It is well known that exposure to various elements has a noticeable effect on human health. The effect of an element is determined by several characteristics, including its similarity to elements of biological necessity, metabolism, and degree of interaction with physiological processes. This review investigates the scientific literature of iron and aluminium to evaluate the extent to which these elements accumulate and cause pathology in humans. Iron was chosen for review because it is necessary for human life while seemingly having relationships with numerous pathological states such as heart disease, cancer, and impaired insulin sensitivity. Aluminium is reviewed because of its prevalence in daily life, observed interference with several biological processes, controversial relationship with Alzheimer disease, and lack of physiological role. Furthermore, because each of these metals has long been investigated for a possible relationship with various pathological states, a substantial volume of research is available regarding the effects of iron and aluminium in biological systems. For both aluminium and iron, this review focuses on: (1) Evaluating the evidence of toxicity, (2) considering the possibility of bioaccumulation, and (3) exploring methods of managing their accumulation. PMID:21142669

  6. Elaboration et caractérisation de gels hybrides à base d'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touati, F.; Gharbi, N.; Zarrouk, H.

    1995-11-01

    De nouveaux gels hybrides "organique—inorganique" à base d'aluminium sont élaborés par voie sol—gel. Le précurseur moléculaire utilisé est le butylate secondaire d'aluminium Al(OBu S) 3 dissous dans CCl 4, modifié par le propane-1,2-diol, le butane-1, x-diol ( x = 2, 3), et le pentane-1,2-diol. Nous avons étudié l'influence des principaux facteurs (nature du solvant, nature et quantité du diol) sur l'obtention des gels monolithiques et transparents. Toutes les préparations sont réalisées sans ajout d'eau. L'étude par RMN MAS 27Al, RMN CP MAS 13C, et par spectroscopie IR montre qu'une réaction d'échange a lieu entre les groupements OBus de l'alcoxyde d'aluminium et les diols utilisés. Les gels obtenussont monolithiques et transparents, les atomes d'aluminium y sont liés entre eux par des ponts organiques selon la formule —Al—O—R —O—Al— où R est une chaîne hydrocarbonée provenant du diol. This paper presents an original method for elaboration of gels with mixed organic—inorganic networks of the general formula —Al—O—R—O—Al—, with R being a hydrocarbon chain. Starting materials used are aluminum tri-sec-butoxide Al(O-sec-C 4H 9) 3, propane-1,2-diol, butane-1,2-diol, butane-1,3-diol, and pentane-1,2-diol. The reactions were carried out with either CCl 4 or cyclohexane as solvent. The exchange reaction between the diols and Al(O-sec-C 4H 9) 3 occurs with the elimination of sec-butanol molecules. Gels are obtained without the addition of water. The monolithic and transparent gels obtained are characterized by IR and as well as 13C and 27Al RMN techniques.

  7. Property enhancement by grain refinement of zinc-aluminium foundry alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, W. K.; Greer, A. L.; Piwowarski, G.; Krajewski, P. K.

    2016-03-01

    Development of cast alloys with good mechanical properties and involving less energy consumption during their melting is one of the key demands of today's industry. Zinc foundry alloys of high and medium Al content, i.e. Zn-(15-30) wt.% Al and Zn-(8-12) wt.% Al, can satisfy these requirements. The present paper summarizes the work [1-9] on improving properties of sand-cast ZnAl10 (Zn-10 wt.% Al) and ZnAl25 (Zn-25 wt. % Al) alloys by melt inoculation. Special attention was devoted to improving ductility, whilst preserving high damping properties at the same time. The composition and structural modification of medium- and high-aluminium zinc alloys influence their strength, tribological properties and structural stability. In a series of studies, Zn - (10-12) wt. % Al and Zn - (25-26) wt.% Al - (1-2.5) wt.% Cu alloys have been doped with different levels of added Ti. The melted alloys were inoculated with ZnTi-based refiners and it was observed that the dendritic structure is significantly finer already after addition of 50 - 100 ppm Ti to the melted alloys. The alloy's structure and mechanical properties have been studied using: SEM (scanning electron microscopy), LM (light microscopy), dilatometry, pin-on-disc wear, and tensile strength measurements. Grain refinement leads to significant improvement of ductility in the binary high-aluminium Zn-(25-27) Al alloys while in the medium-aluminium alloys the effect is rather weak. In the ternary alloys Zn-26Al-Cu, replacing a part of Cu with Ti allows dimensional changes to be reduced while preserving good tribological properties. Furthermore, the high initial damping properties were nearly entirely preserved after inoculation. The results obtained allow us to characterize grain refinement of the examined high-aluminium zinc alloys as a promising process leading to the improvement of their properties. At the same time, using low melting ZnTi-based master alloys makes it possible to avoid the excessive melt overheating needed for TiCAl or TiBAl refiners and reduces the possibility of gas pick-up and material loss.

  8. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  9. A Tapered Aluminium Microelectrode Array for Improvement of Dielectrophoresis-Based Particle Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Buyong, Muhamad Ramdzan; Larki, Farhad; Faiz, Mohd Syafiq; Hamzah, Azrul Azlan; Yunas, Jumrail; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the dielectrophoretic force (FDEP) response of Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays with tapered profile is investigated through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. A standard CMOS processing technique with a step for the formation of a tapered profile resist is implemented in the fabrication of Tapered Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays (TAMA). The FDEP is investigated through analysis of the Clausius-Mossotti factor (CMF) and cross-over frequency (fxo). The performance of TAMA with various side wall angles is compared to that of microelectrodes with a straight cut sidewall profile over a wide range of frequencies through FEM numerical simulations. Additionally, electric field measurement (EFM) is performed through scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in order to obtain the region of force focus in both platforms. Results showed that the tapered profile microelectrodes with angles between 60° and 70° produce the highest electric field gradient on the particles. Also, the region of the strongest electric field in TAMA is located at the bottom and top edge of microelectrode while the strongest electric field in microelectrodes with straight cut profile is found at the top corner of the microelectrode. The latter property of microelectrodes improves the probability of capturing/repelling the particles at the microelectrode’s side wall. PMID:25970255

  10. Development of a solid surface fluorescence-based sensing system for aluminium monitoring in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J F García; Barrales, P Ortega; Díaz, A Molina

    2005-03-15

    A novel, single and robust solid surface fluorescence-based sensing device assembled in a continuous flow system has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of aluminium in water samples. The proposed method is based on the transient immobilization of the target species on an appropriate active solid sensing zone (C(18) silica gel). The target species was the fluorogenic chelate, formed as a result of the on-line complexation of Al(III) with chromotropic acid (CA) at pH 4.1. The fluorescence of the complex is continuously monitored at an emission wavelength of 390nm upon excitation at 361nm. The instrumental, chemical and flow-injection variables affecting the fluorescence signal were carefully investigated and optimized. After selecting the most suitable conditions, the sensing system was calibrated in the range 10-500mugl(-1), obtaining a detection limit of 2.6mugl(-1), and a R.S.D. of 2.2%, with a sampling frequency of 24h(-1). In addition, the selectivity of the proposed methodology was evaluated by performing interference studies with different cations and anions which could affect the analytical response. Finally, the proposed method, which meets the EU regulations regarding the aluminium content in drinking waters, was satisfactorily applied to different water samples, with recoveries between 97 and 105%. The simplicity, low cost and easy operation are the main advantages of the present procedure. PMID:18969932

  11. Histopathological changes in cases of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sinha, U S; Kapoor, A K; Singh, A K; Gupta, A; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2005-04-01

    Of a total of 205 poisoning deaths in our hospital in 2003, 83 cases were due to Aluminium phosphide poisoning and were further analyzed. Most vulnerable age group was 21-40 years and M:F ratio was 2:1. On naked eye examination, almost all the vital organs were found to be congested. On microscopic study, the liver showed central venous congestion, degeneration, haemorrhage, sinusoidal dilation, bile stasis, centrilobular necrosis, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, infiltration by mononuclear cells and fatty change. Microscopy of the lungs revealed alveolar thickening, oedema, dilated capillaries, collapsed alveoli and haemorrhage. In the kidney, changes were degeneration, infiltration, tubular dilation and cloudy swelling. Changes in the brain included congestion and coagulative necrosis and in the stomach, congestion and haemorrhage. Easy availability of this cheap and highly toxic substance was responsible for the sudden spurt of poisoning with aluminium phosphide. PMID:16758658

  12. Results of the Experiment: Welding of Aluminium Alloy in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, S.; Amadori, K.; Boccalatte, A.; Alessandrini, M.; Freddi, A.; Persiani, F.; Poli, G.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment on "dendritic growth in aluminium alloy welding" was performed by the UNIBO team during the 3rd Student Parabolic Flight Campaign and the 30th Professional Parabolic Flight Campaign organised by ESA. Its purpose was to achieve a better understanding of crystal growth during tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of an aluminium alloy to define the main parameters affecting the process under microgravity condition. The experiment had 4 phases : The paper discusses different aspects of the research, paying particularly attention not only to the influence of gravity, but also to other factors influencing welding microstructure, such as the Marangoni effect and the thermal transfer from the electrode to the material. The paper conclude the dissertation of the results offering new perspectives for welding studies and proposing a new approach to the scientific community to investigate this materials processes for manufacturing.

  13. Cleaning of aluminium alloy chambers with ozonized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. K.; Hsiung, G. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, R.; Yang, C. Y.; Chen, C. L.; Hsueh, H. P.; Hsu, S. N.; Liu, I.; Chen, J. R.

    2008-03-01

    In the fabrication of aluminium vacuum chambers of the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), a cleaning treatment with ozonized water followed machining in an ethanol environment. After cleaning with ozonized water, aluminium samples were analyzed according to Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and measurement of the thermal outgassing rate and photon-stimulated desorption (PSD). The results showed that cleaning with ozonized water has a superior performance. A thermal outgassing rate q72 ~ 6.4 × 10-12 Pa · m/s after baking and a photon-desorption yield η ~ 2 × 10-5 molecules/photon at an accumulated beam dose 3 × 1021 photons/cm2 were obtained.

  14. Effects of nitrogen on the combustion of aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Boborykin, V.M.; Gremyachkin, V.M.; Istratov, A.G.; Kolesnikov-Svinarev, V.I.; Kuznetsov, G.P.; Leipunskii, O.I.; Puchkov, V.M.

    1983-11-01

    This article examines the burning rate of a drop of aluminium and the rates of accumulation or loss of condensed A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and ALN on the drop. The rates of mass change in the droplet and condensed products at the surface by using the conditions for heat and matter balance together with the conditions for local thermodynamic equilibrium. The results indicate that burning in mixtures containing nitrogen always gives an appreciably larger residue on the drop than is found for argon-oxygen mixtures. It is suggested that the two-stage process of combustion in air be checked by experiment and that aluminium nitride be observed at an early stage in the combustion.

  15. Experimental evidence for a dynamical crossover in liquid aluminium.

    PubMed

    Demmel, F; Fraile, A; Szubrin, D; Pilgrim, W-C; Morkel, C

    2015-11-18

    The temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor at next-neighbour distances has been investigated for liquid aluminium. This correlation function is a sensitive parameter for changes in the local environment and its Fourier transform was measured in a coherent inelastic neutron scattering experiment. The zero frequency amplitude decreases in a nonlinear way and indicates a change in dynamics around 1.4 ∙ Tmelting. From that amplitude a generalized viscosity can be derived which is a measure of local stress correlations on next-neighbour distances. The derived generalized longitudinal viscosity shows a changing slope at the same temperature range. At this temperature the freezing out of degrees of freedom for structural relaxation upon cooling sets in which can be understood as a precursor towards the solid state. That crossover in dynamics of liquid aluminium shows the same signatures as previously observed in liquid rubidium and lead, indicating an universal character. PMID:26465204

  16. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China. PMID:26727195

  17. High rate constitutive modeling of aluminium alloy tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.

    2006-08-01

    As the need for fuel efficient automobiles increases, car designers are investigating light-weight materials for automotive bodies that will reduce the overall automobile weight. Aluminium alloy tube is a desirable material to use in automotive bodies due to its light weight. However, aluminium suffers from lower formability than steel and its energy absorption ability in a crash event after a forming operation is largely unknown. As part of a larger study on the relationship between crashworthiness and forming processes, constitutive models for 3mm AA5754 aluminium tube were developed. A nominal strain rate of 100/s is often used to characterize overall automobile crash events, whereas strain rates on the order of 1000/s can occur locally. Therefore, tests were performed at quasi-static rates using an Instron test fixture and at strain rates of 500/s to 1500/s using a tensile split Hopkinson bar. High rate testing was then conducted at rates of 500/s, 1000/s and 1500/s at 21circC, 150circC and 300circC. The generated data was then used to determine the constitutive parameters for the Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong material models.

  18. Laser synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles in biocompatible polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of Aluminium (Al) in pure water rapidly forms a thin alumina (Al2O3) layer which drastically modifies surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption characteristics in deep-UV region. Initially, pure aluminium nanoparticles (NPs) are generated in water without any stabilizers or surfactants at low laser fluence which gradually transform to stable Al-Al2O3 core-shell nanostructure with increasing either residency time or fluence. The role of laser wavelength and fluence on the SPR properties and oxidation characteristics of Al NPs has been investigated in detail. We also present a one-step in situ synthesis of oxide-free stable Al NPs in biocompatible polymer solutions using laser ablation in liquid method. We have used nonionic polymers (PVP, PVA and PEG) and anionic surfactant (SDS) stabilizer to suppress the Al2O3 formation and studied the effect of polymer functional group, polymeric chain length, polymer concentration and anionic surfactant on the incipient embryonic aluminium particles and their sizes. The different functional groups of polymers resulted in different oxidation states of Al. PVP and PVA polymers resulted in pure Al NPs; however, PEG and SDS resulted in alumina-modified Al NPs. The Al nanoparticles capped with PVP, PVA, and PEG show a good correlation between nanoparticle stability and monomeric length of the polymer chain.

  19. Effect of oxide particles on the stabilization and final microstructure in aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Bachmaier, Andrea; Pippan, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Bulk aluminium samples containing alumina particles have been produced by different severe plastic deformation methods. Aluminium foils with different initial foil thicknesses were cold rolled to different amounts of strain and aluminium powders were consolidated and deformed by high pressure torsion (HPT). During processing, alumina particles from the foil or particle surface are easily incorporated and dispersed in the bulk material. The influence of these alumina particles on the developing microstructures and the mechanical properties has been studied. PMID:21976787

  20. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPARγ receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation. PMID:25940660

  1. Galvanic interactions of aluminium 3004 and ? brass in tropical marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palraj, S.; Subramanian, G.; Palanichamy, S.

    2014-12-01

    The galvanic corrosion behaviour of aluminium 3004 - ? brass with different area ratios was studied in the tropical marine atmosphere at Tuticorin harbour over a period of 426 days. The area ratios, viz. A Aluminium: A ? brass, studied were 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8. The galvanic corrosion behaviour of the metals was studied in terms of the relative increase in the corrosion rate of aluminium due to galvanic coupling with ? brass, the relative decrease in the corrosion rate of ? brass due to galvanic coupling with aluminium, and the susceptibility of aluminium to pitting owing to galvanic coupling with ? brass. The galvanic potential and galvanic current of the system were monitored. Pits of different dimensions ranging from mild etchings to perforations were experienced on the borders and the surfaces of the interface of aluminium in contact with ? brass. The corrosion products resulting from galvanic corrosion were analysed using XRD and the pitting on aluminium as a result of galvanic corrosion was highlighted in terms of pit depth, size and density of pit, using a high resolution microscope. The most favourable area ratio of aluminium ? brass in marine atmosphere in terms of gravimetric corrosion rate is 8:1 and the most unfavourable area ratio of aluminium ? brass is 1:4.

  2. Dietary Exposure to Aluminium and Health Risk Assessment in the Residents of Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0–2 and 3–13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China. PMID:24594670

  3. Studies of Splat Formation of Copper and Copper Aluminium on Ceramic Substrate in Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, A. T. T.; Hyland, M. M.; Fukumoto, M.; Munroe, P.

    2016-01-01

    Of the substrate-related factors that will influence splat formation, alloying elements has been little studied. In the present work, we have examined the role of alloying elements in controlling the extent of splashing of plasma-sprayed splats. Splats of copper (Cu) and copper alloyed with Al and Zr were deposited by plasma spray or as free-falling droplets. The splat formation and splat-substrate interfaces were characterized using SEM and FIB. It was found that the presence of aluminium in plasma-sprayed Cu-10%Al increased the portion of favorable disk-shaped splats compared to pure copper. It was also found that the disk-shaped splat proportion of Cu-10%Al at room temperature is nearly identical to that of Cu splat at 300 °C, indicating that the addition of Al in the alloy leads to the improvement of splat formation, correlating with the improvement in the interface bonding with the substrate.

  4. Laser-induced electrochemical de- and repassivation investigations on plasma-oxidized aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Tristan O.; Pacher, Ulrich; Giesriegl, Ariane; Soyka, Lukas; Trettenhahn, Gnter; Kautek, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In situ laser depassivation of plasma electrolytically oxididized (PEO) coatings on aluminium was investigated with nanosecond pulses. Ultraviolet radiation of 266 nm was chosen in order to achieve a high absorption in the dielectric coating. The additive accumulation of laser-induced material defects (incubation) affected the depassivation processes. Incubation occurred only at the edges of the ablation craters irradiated by the outer region of the Gaussian beam profile, where the local fluence is below the ablation threshold. The ablation rate in the spot center did not exhibit an incubation effect. Repassivation was interpreted by a linear combination of a high-field and a point defect growth model. At low overpotentials, field gradients affect the process driving the oxide growth at the buried interface. At high fields, corrosion reactions dominate at the oxide/solution interface.

  5. Theoretical aspects of fluoride air contaminant formation in aluminium smelter potrooms.

    PubMed

    L'vov, Boris V; Polzik, Leonid K; Weinbruch, Stephan; Ellingsen, Dag G; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2005-05-01

    The amount of particulate fluorides evolved from aluminium electrolysis cells is not entirely accounted for by the fluorides entrained in the anode gas. The largest additional source of particulate fluoride formation is by direct evaporation of fluorides into the anode gas stream and subsequent condensation on the drops of electrolyte generated in the process of bubble burst. A theoretical model was used for the calculation of the main physical parameters responsible for the formation of particle nuclei when the hot anode-gas is mixed with ambient air. The results of these calculations are in agreement with experimental observations reported in the literature. In particular, the size distribution, composition and morphology of the nano-particles support the theory of a vapour condensation mechanism under conditions of extreme supersaturation, but further studies are necessary. PMID:15877162

  6. Light weight cellular structures based on aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, O.; Embury, J.D.; Sinclair, C.; Sang, H.; Silvetti, P.

    1997-02-01

    An interesting form of lightweight material which has emerged in the past 2 decades is metallic foam. This paper deals with the basic concepts of making metallic foams and a detailed study of foams produced from Al-SiC. In addition, some aspects of cellular solids based on honeycomb structures are outlined including the concept of producing both two-phase foams and foams with composite walls.

  7. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups.

    PubMed

    van der Harst, Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-02-01

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup. The substitution and recycled-content method were next applied with actual rates for recycling, incineration and landfilling for both product systems in selected countries. The six methods differ in their approaches to credit recycling. The three substitution methods stimulate the recyclability of the product and assign credits for the obtained recycled material. The choice to either apply a correction factor, or to account for alternative substituted material has a considerable influence on the LCA results, and is debatable. Nevertheless, we prefer incorporating quality reduction of the recycled material by either a correction factor or an alternative substituted material over simply ignoring quality loss. The allocation-on-number-of-recycling-loops method focusses on the life expectancy of material itself, rather than on a specific separate product. The recycled-content method stimulates the use of recycled material, i.e. credits the use of recycled material in products and ignores the recyclability of the products. The equal-share method is a compromise between the substitution methods and the recycled-content method. The results for the aluminium can follow the underlying philosophies of the methods. The results for the PS cup are additionally influenced by the correction factor or credits for the alternative material accounting for the drop in PS quality, the waste treatment management (recycling rate, incineration rate, landfilling rate), and the source of avoided electricity in case of waste incineration. The results for the PS cup, which are less dominated by production of virgin material than aluminium can, furthermore depend on the environmental impact categories. This stresses the importance to consider other impact categories besides the most commonly used global warming impact. The multitude of available methods complicates the choice of an appropriate method for the LCA practitioner. New guidelines keep appearing and industries also suggest their own preferred method. Unambiguous ISO guidelines, particularly related to sensitivity analysis, would be a great step forward in making more robust LCAs. PMID:26440926

  8. The Tungsten Inert GAS (TIG) Process of Welding Aluminium in Microgravity: Technical and Economic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, S.; Amadori, K.; Boccalatte, A.; Alessandrini, M.; Freddi, A.; Persiani, F.; Poli, G.

    2002-01-01

    The UNIBO team composed of students and professors of the University of Bologna along with technicians and engineers from Alenia Space Division and Siad Italargon Division, took part in the 3rd Student Parabolic Flight Campaign of the European Space Agency in 2000. It won the student competition and went on to take part in the Professional Parabolic Flight Campaign of May 2001. The experiment focused on "dendritic growth in aluminium alloy weldings", and investigated topics related to the welding process of aluminium in microgravity. The purpose of the research is to optimise the process and to define the areas of interest that could be improved by new conceptual designs. The team performed accurate tests in microgravity to determine which phenomena have the greatest impact on the quality of the weldings with respect to penetration, surface roughness and the microstructures that are formed during the solidification. Various parameters were considered in the economic-technical optimisation, such as the type of electrode and its tip angle. Ground and space tests have determined the optimum chemical composition of the electrodes to offer longest life while maintaining the shape of the point. Additionally, the power consumption has been optimised; this offers opportunities for promoting the product to the customer as well as being environmentally friendly. Tests performed on the Al-Li alloys showed a significant influence of some physical phenomena such as the Marangoni effect and thermal diffusion; predictions have been made on the basis of observations of the thermal flux seen in the stereophotos. Space transportation today is a key element in the construction of space stations and future planetary bases, because the volumes available for launch to space are directly related to the payload capacity of rockets or the Space Shuttle. The research performed gives engineers the opportunity to consider completely new concepts for designing structures for space applications. In fact, once the optimised parameters are defined for welding in space, it could be possible to weld different parts directly in orbit to obtain much larger sizes and volumes, for example for space tourism habitation modules. The second relevant aspect is technology transfer obtained by the optimisation of the TIG process on aluminium which is often used in the automotive industry as well as in mass production markets.

  9. The Potential of Aluminium Metal Powder as a Fuel for Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. M.; Osborne, B.; Welch, C. S.

    Metal powder propulsion systems have been addressed intermittently since the Second World War, initially in the field of underwater propulsion where research in the application of propelling torpedoes continues until this day. During the post war era, researchers attempted to utilise metal powders as a fuel for ram jet applications in missiles. The 1960's and 1970's saw additional interest in the use of `pure powder' propellants, i.e. fluidised metal fuel and oxidiser, both in solid particulate form. Again the application was for employment in space-constrained missiles where the idea was to maximise the performance of high energy density powder propellants in order to enhance the missile's flight duration. Metal powder as possible fuel was investigated for in-situ resource utilisation propulsion systems post-1980's where the emphasis was on the use of gaseous oxygen or liquid oxygen combined with aluminium metal powder for use as a ``lunar soil propellant'' or carbon dioxide and magnesium metal powder as a ``Martian propellant''.Albeit aluminium metal powder propellants are lower in performance than cryogenic and Earth storable propellants, the former does have an advantage inasmuch that the propulsion system is generic, i.e. it can be powered with chemicals mined and processed on Earth, the Moon and Mars. Thus, due to the potential refuelling capability, the lower performing aluminium metal powder propellant would effectively possess a much higher change in velocity (V) for multiple missions than the cryogenic or Earth storable propellant which is only suitable for one planet or one mission scenario, respectively.One of the principal limitations of long duration human spaceflight beyond cis-lunar orbit is the lack of refuelling capabilities on distant planets resulting in the reliance on con- ventional non-cryogenic, propellants produced on Earth. If one could develop a reliable propulsion system operating on pro- pellants derived entirely of ingredients found on nearby plan- etary bodies, then not only could mission duration be extended, larger amounts of payload could be ferried to and from the destination and eventually the cost of transporting propellant ingredients from Earth could be reduced, if not eliminated.

  10. Effect of Aluminium Confinement on ANFO Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Mark; Jackson, Scott; Kiyanda, Charles; Shinas, Mike; Hare, Steve; Briggs, Matt

    2013-06-01

    Detonations in confined non-ideal high explosives often have velocities below the confiner sound speed. The effect on detonation propagation of the resulting subsonic flow in the confiner (such as confiner stress waves traveling ahead of the main detonation front or upstream wall deflection into the HE) has yet to be fully understood. Previous work by Sharpe and Bdzil (J. Eng. Math, 2006) has shown that for subsonic confiner flow, there is no limiting thickness for which the detonation dynamics are uninfluenced by further increases in wall thickness. The critical parameters influencing detonation behavior are the wall thickness relative to the HE reaction zone size, and the difference in the detonation velocity and confiner sound speed. Additional possible outcomes of subsonic flow are that for increasing thickness, the confiner is increasingly deflected into the HE upstream of the detonation, and that for sufficiently thick confiners, the detonation speed could be driven up to the sound speed in the confiner. We report here on a further series of experiments in which a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) is detonated in aluminum confiners with varying HE charge diameter and confiner thickness, and compare the results with the outcomes suggested by Sharpe and Bdzil.

  11. Are aluminium potroom workers at increased risk of neurological disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Sim, M; Dick, R; Russo, J; Bernard, B; Grubb, P; Krieg, E; Mueller, C; McCammon, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether long term potroom workers in an aluminium smelter are at increased risk of neurological disorders. METHODS: Cross sectional study of 63 current and former aluminium potroom workers first employed before 1970 and with at least 10 years of service. A group of 37 cast house and carbon plant workers with similar durations of employment and starting dates in the same smelter were used as controls. The prevalence of neurological symptoms was ascertained by questionnaire. Objective tests of tremor in both upper and lower limbs, postural stability, reaction time, and vocabulary were conducted. All subjects were examined by a neurologist. RESULTS: No significant differences in age, race, or education were found between the two groups. Although the potroom group had higher prevalences for all but one of the neurological symptoms, only three odds ratios (ORs) were significantly increased; for incoordination (OR 10.6), difficulty buttoning (OR 6.2), and depression (OR 6.2). Tests of arm or hand and leg tremor in both the visible and non-visible frequencies did not show any significant differences between the two groups. Testing of postural stability showed no definitive pattern of neurologically meaningful differences between the groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups in reaction time, vocabulary score, or clinical neurological assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The objective measures of neurological function provided little support for the finding of increased neurological symptom prevalences in the potroom workers, although increased symptoms may be an indicator of early, subtle neurological changes. The results provide no firm basis for concluding that neurological effects among long term potroom workers are related to the working environment, in particular aluminium exposure, in potrooms. These findings should be treated with caution due to the low participation of former workers and the possibility of information bias in the potroom group. PMID:9166127

  12. Aluminium control of argon solubility in silicate melts under pressure.

    PubMed

    Bouhifd, M Ali; Jephcoat, Andrew P

    2006-02-23

    Understanding of the crystal chemistry of the Earth's deep mantle has evolved rapidly recently with the gradual acceptance of the importance of the effect of minor elements such as aluminium on the properties of major phases such as perovskite. In the early Earth, during its formation and segregation into rocky mantle and iron-rich core, it is likely that silicate liquids played a large part in the transport of volatiles to or from the deep interior. The importance of aluminium on solubility mechanisms at high pressure has so far received little attention, even though aluminium has long been recognized as exerting strong control on liquid structures at ambient conditions. Here we present constraints on the solubility of argon in aluminosilicate melt compositions up to 25 GPa and 3,000 K, using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The argon contents reach a maximum that persists to pressures as high as 17 GPa (up to 500 km deep in an early magma ocean), well above that expected on the basis of Al-free melt experiments. A distinct drop in argon solubility observed over a narrow pressure range correlates well with the expected void loss in the melt structure predicted by recent molecular dynamics simulations. These results provide a process for noble gas sequestration in the mantle at various depths in a cooling magma ocean. The concept of shallow partial melting as a unique process for extracting noble gases from the early Earth, thereby defining the initial atmospheric abundance, may therefore be oversimplified. PMID:16495996

  13. The chemical transformation of copper in aluminium oxide during heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Wang, Hsi-Chih; Yang, Yaw-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2004-08-01

    Thermal treatment has recently been emerging as a promising environmental technology to stabilize heavy metal-containing industrial sludge. This study used x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the species of copper contaminant contained in aluminium oxide that is one of the main compositions of sludge and soil. Results indicate that the originally loaded copper nitrate was transformed into Cu(OH)2 after its dissolution in the aluminium oxide slurry. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) fitting indicates that the main copper species in the 105 °C dried Cu(NO3)2-loaded aluminium oxide is Cu(OH)2 which accounts for ca. 75% of the loaded copper. After thermal treatment at 500 °C for 1 h, both x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and EXAFS fitting results show that CuO became the prevailing copper species (about 85%); the rest of the copper consisted of {\\sim }15{%} Cu(OH)2 and a negligible amount of Cu(NO3)2. It was found that most Cu(OH)2 and Cu(NO3)2 decomposed into CuO at 500 °C. Further increase of the heating temperature from 500 to 900 °C resulted in more decomposition of Cu(OH)2 and Cu(NO3)2; therefore CuO remained as the main copper species. However, it was suggested that about 15% of the loaded copper formed CuAl2O4 through the chemical reaction between CuO and Al2O3 at 900 °C.

  14. The influence of alloy composition on residual stresses in heat treated aluminium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.S.; Redington, W.

    2015-07-15

    The as quenched properties of eight different heat treatable aluminium alloys are related to residual stress magnitudes with the objective being to establish if there is a relationship between the residual stress and the as quenched alloy hardness and strength. Near surface residual stresses were assessed with X-ray diffraction using both the established sin{sup 2}ψ method and the more recent cos α technique. Through thickness residual stresses were also characterised using neutron diffraction. The alloys were chosen to encompass a wide range of strengths. The low to medium strength alloys were 6060 and 6082, medium to high strength 2618A, 2014A, 7075, 7010 and two variants of 7449, while the very high strength alloy was the powder metallurgy alloy N707. To assess the as quenched strength, dynamic hardness and tensile properties were determined from samples tested immediately after quenching to minimise the influence of precipitation hardening by natural aging. In addition, hot hardness measurements were made in situ on samples cooled to simulate quench paths. Within the experimental constraints of the investigation, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness was found to follow the same pattern for all the alloys investigated, varying from tensile in the interior to surface compression. The influence of alloy strength was manifested as a change in the observed residual stress magnitudes, and surface residual stresses were found to vary linearly with as quenched hardness and strength. - Highlights: • As quenched aluminium alloys contain high magnitude residual stresses. • Surface is compressive balance by a tensile core. • As quenched surface residual stress is linear function of alloy strength. • In situ hot hardness demonstrates rapid change in intrinsic hardness during rapid cooling.

  15. Mechanism of aluminium bio-mineralization in the apoferritin cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarpotto, M.; Ciasca, G.; Vassalli, M.; Rossi, C.; Campi, G.; Ricci, A.; Bocca, B.; Pino, A.; Alimonti, A.; De Sole, P.; Papi, M.

    2013-08-01

    Many experimental evidences point out the correlation between the presence of aluminum-ferritin complex and neursopathological disorders. In these complexes, two different ranges of Aluminium (Al) atoms are usually found, i.e., just few atoms or several hundreds. Here, we investigated the in-vitro Al-apoferritin binding, with the aim to elucidate the mechanism behind the formation of Al-ferritin complexes in-vivo. To this purpose, we studied the mineralization of Al in its ionic and complexed form with citrate demonstrating that high Al levels found in clinical studies can be obtained only conveying Al by small physiological ligands.

  16. Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cambronero, L.E.G.; Ruiz-Roman, J.M.; Canadas, I.; Martinez, D.

    2010-06-15

    Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close to 300 W/cm{sup 2} on the mould is high enough to achieve complete foaming after heating for only 200 s. Under these conditions, the density and pore distribution in the foam change depending on the solar heating parameters and mould design. (author)

  17. Effects of silicon on gastrointestinal absorption of aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Edwardson, J.A.; Moore, P.B.; Ferrier, I.N.; Lilley, J.S.; Newton, G.W.A.; Barker, J.; Templar, J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-07-24

    The reported geographical association between Alzheimer's disease and levels of aluminium (Al) in water supplies may reflect the inverse relation between Al and silicon (Si) concentrations in water, and the potential for Si to reduce the bioavailability of the metal. The authors tested this hypothesis using isotopic [sup 26]Al tracer administered orally to five healthy volunteers in the presence and absence of Si. Dissolved Si, at a concentration found in some water supplies reduced the peak plasma [sup 26]Al concentration to 15% of the value obtained in the absence of Si. The results indicate that dissolved Si is an important factor in limiting the absorption of dietary Al.

  18. The fracture of boron fibre-reinforced 6061 aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. A.; Welch, D.; Jollay, J.

    1979-01-01

    The fracture of 6061 aluminium alloy reinforced with unidirectional and cross-plied 0/90 deg, 0/90/+ or - 45 deg boron fibres has been investigated. The results have been described in terms of a critical stress intensity, K(Q). Critical stress intensity factors were obtained by substituting the failure stress and the initial crack length into the appropriate expression for K(Q). Values were obtained that depended on the dimensions of the specimens. It was therefore concluded that, for the size of specimen tested, the values of K(Q) did not reflect any basic materials property.

  19. Deviatoric Response of AN Armour-Grade Aluminium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hazell, P. J.; Millett, J.; Bourne, N. K.

    2009-12-01

    Aluminium alloys such as 5083 H32 are established light-weight armour materials. As such, the shock response of these materials is of great importance. The shear strength of a material under shock loading provides an insight into its ballistic performance. In this investigation embedded manganin stress gauges have been employed to measure both the longitudinal and lateral components of stress during plate-impact experiments over a range of impact stresses. In turn, these results were used to determine the shear strength and to investigate the time dependence of lateral stress behind the shock front to give an indication of material response.

  20. Bone mass determination from microradiographs by computer-assisted videodensitometry. II. Aluminium as a reference substance.

    PubMed

    Kälebo, P; Strid, K G

    1988-01-01

    Aluminium was evaluated as a reference substance in the assessment of rabbit cortical bone by microradiography followed by videodensitometry. Ten dense, cortical-bone specimens from the same tibia diaphysis were microradiographed using prefiltered 27 kV roentgen radiation together with aluminium step wedges and bone simulating phantoms for calibration. Optimally exposed and processed plates were analysed by previously described computer-assisted videodensitometry. For comparison, the specimens were analysed by physico-chemical methods. A strict proportionality was found between the 'aluminium equivalent mass' and the ash weight of the specimens. The total random error was low with a coefficient of variation within 1.5 per cent. It was concluded that aluminium is an appropriate reference material in the determination of cortical bone, which it resembles in effective atomic number and thus x-ray attenuation characteristics. The 'aluminium equivalent mass' is suitably established as the standard of expressing the results of bone assessment by microradiography. PMID:3166886

  1. Multiscale modelling of gallium induced embrittlement in aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhogireddy, Venkata Sai Pavan Kumar; Todorova, Mira; Spatschek, Robert; Neugebauer, Jörg

    Liquid metal embrittlement is a degradation phenomenon in which a solid metal undergoes brittle failure when it is stressed while in contact with a liquid metal. The transition from ductile to brittle metal failure manifests itself by rapid crack propagations which reduces the elongation to failure ratio. Combining density functional theory calculations with continuum methods, we study the liquid metal embrittlement of aluminium in contact with gallium. Comparing ab initio calculated energies for a Σ 3 and a Σ 5 Al grain boundary and their corresponding surface energies in the presence and absence of Ga, we identify critical Ga concentrations which result in a weakening of the mechanical strength of aluminium. Parametrising the DFT results in continuum model we obtain the concentration as a function of the strain in the system. In a final step we extend this approach and compute the stress field induced by cracks in bulk and at grain boundaries. The stress field explains the large segregation of gallium atoms at the crack tip and the crack tip's subsequent propagation.

  2. Stable aluminium ohmic contact to surface modified porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, J.; Maji, S.; Saha, H.; Basu, S.

    2009-06-01

    A stable low resistance aluminium (Al) contact to porous silicon (PS) could be achieved by chemically modifying PS surface with palladium chloride (PdCl2) solution. Palladium (Pd) was dispersed over the PS surface by chemical dipping method using very low concentration of PdCl2 solution (0.01 M) and for a very short duration of time (5 s). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was performed to investigate the morphology of the modified PS surface. Digital X-ray image mapping and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectras were taken to confirm the dispersion and formation of Pd clusters on the porous silicon surface. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) confirms that the presence of oxygen is higher in Pd modified porous silicon than that of unmodified one. Aluminium (Al) was thermally evaporated on Pd modified surfaces and the study of J-V characteristics showed a linear relationship. Therefore the specific contact resistance (ρc) could be measured by transmission line model (TLM) method. Stability of the contact was studied for a time period of around 30 days and no significant ageing effect could be observed.

  3. Perforation of aluminium foam core sandwich panels under impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnasri, I.; Zhao, H.; Girard, Y.

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports an original inverse perforation tests on foam core sandwich panels under impact loading. The key point is the use of an instrumented Hopkinson pressure bar as a perforator and at the same time a measuring device. It aims at a high quality piercing force record during the whole perforation process, which is a lack of common free-flying projectile - target testing schemes. This new testing arrangement allows for the measurement of piercing force-displacement curves under quasi-static and impact loadings of sandwich samples, which is made of 40 mm AlSi7Mg0.5 Cymat foam cores and 0.8 mm thick 2024 T3 aluminium sheet as top and bottom skins. Compared with quasi-static top skin peak loads (the maximal load before the perforation of top skins) obtained under same geometric and clamping conditions and even in the case that the used foam core (Cymat) and aluminium skin sheet are known and have been confirmed rate insensitive, a significant enhancement under impact loading (25%) of the top skin peak load is found.

  4. Experimental study of friction in aluminium bolted joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croccolo, D.; de Agostinis, M.; Vincenzi, N.

    2010-06-01

    This study aims at developing an experimental tool useful to define accurately the friction coefficients in bolted joints and, therefore, at relating precisely the tightening torque to the bolt preloading force in some special components used in front motorbike suspensions. The components under investigation are some clamped joints made of aluminium alloy. The preloading force is achieved by applying a torque wrench to the bolt head. Some specific specimens have been appropriately designed and realized in order to study the tribological aspects of the tightening phase. Experimental tests have been performed by applying the Design of Experiment (DOE) method in order to obtain a mathematical model for the friction coefficients. Three replicas of a full factorial DOE at two levels for each variable have been carried out. The levels include cast versus forged aluminium alloy, anodized versus spray-painted surface, lubricated versus unlubricated screw, and first tightening (fresh unspoiled surfaces) versus sixth tightening (spoiled surfaces). The study considers M8x1.25 8.8 galvanized screws.

  5. Controlling interferometric properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide.

    PubMed

    Kumeria, Tushar; Losic, Dusan

    2012-01-01

    A study of reflective interference spectroscopy [RIfS] properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide [AAO] with the aim to develop a reliable substrate for label-free optical biosensing is presented. The influence of structural parameters of AAO including pore diameters, inter-pore distance, pore length, and surface modification by deposition of Au, Ag, Cr, Pt, Ni, and TiO2 on the RIfS signal (Fabry-Perot fringe) was explored. AAO with controlled pore dimensions was prepared by electrochemical anodization of aluminium using 0.3 M oxalic acid at different voltages (30 to 70 V) and anodization times (10 to 60 min). Results show the strong influence of pore structures and surface modifications on the interference signal and indicate the importance of optimisation of AAO pore structures for RIfS sensing. The pore length/pore diameter aspect ratio of AAO was identified as a suitable parameter to tune interferometric properties of AAO. Finally, the application of AAO with optimised pore structures for sensing of a surface binding reaction of alkanethiols (mercaptoundecanoic acid) on gold surface is demonstrated. PMID:22280884

  6. Fabrication of superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface with excellent corrosion resistance by a facile and environment-friendly method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Libang; Che, Yanhui; Liu, Yanhua; Qiang, Xiaohu; Wang, Yanping

    2013-10-01

    This work develops a facile and environment-friendly method for preparing the superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface with excellent corrosion resistance. The superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface is fabricated by the boiling water treatment and stearic acid (STA) modification. Results show that the boiling water treatment endows the aluminium alloy surface with a porous and rough structure, while STA modification chemically grafts the long hydrophobic alkyl chains onto the aluminium alloy surface. Just grounded on the micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure along with the hydrophobic chemical composition, the superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface is endued the excellent corrosion resistance.

  7. Nouveau procédé de synthèse du nitrure d'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussonne, J. M.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J. P.; Lostec, L.; Sadou, S.

    1993-04-01

    Thermodynamic considerations show that, even at room temperature, pure aluminium can react with nitrogen to form the aluminium nitride AlN. However, pure aluminium does not exist: it is always surrounded by an alumina shell that protects the metal from further reactions. Furthermore, in the hypothesis where one has been able to make aluminium react with nitrogen, an aluminium nitride shell will protect as well the metal core from further oxidation. Prompted by the Lanxide process allowing to form Al/Al2O3 composites, we have mixed aluminium powders with lithium salts, and easily synthesized pure aluminium nitride by heating the mixed powders in nitrogen at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 °C. Starting from aluminium powders with a specific area ranging from 0.3 to 4 m^2/g, we have been able to produce aluminium nitride with specific are ranging from 1 to 20 m^2/g. Mixed with Y203-CaO and sintered at 1720 °C in N2, we obtained AIN ceramics owning 92% density and 160 W/m.K thermal conductivity. Les calculs thermodynamiques montrent que, même à température ambiante, l'aluminium pur peut réagir avec l'azote pour former le nitrure d'aluminium AlN. Cependant, la poudre d'aluminium pur n'existe pas : ses grains sont toujours entourés d'une couche d'alumine protectrice. De plus, dans l'hypothèse où l'on pourrait faire réagir de la poudre d'aluminium avec de l'azote, il se formerait de même une couche protectrice de nitrure d'aluminium qui empêcherait le centre des grains de réagir. S'inspirant du “procédé Lanxide” permettant de réaliser des composites Al/Al2O3, nous avons mélangé de la poudre d'aluminium avec des sels de lithium, et synthétisé du nitrure d'aluminium pur en portant ce mélange dans l'azote à une température pouvant être comprise entre 800 et 1 200 °C. Utilisant des poudres d'aluminium possédant une surface spécifique comprise entre 0,3 et 4 m^2/g, nous avons obtenu une poudre de nitrure d'aluminium avec une surface spécifique comprise entre 1 et 20 m^2/g. Mélangeant classiquement cette poudre avec Y2O3-CaO, nous avons obtenu après frittage à 1 720 °C dans N2 des céramiques densifiées à 92 % et possédant une conductivité thermique de 160 W/m.K.

  8. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    PubMed

    Zio?a-Frankowska, Anetta; D?browski, Miko?aj; Kubaszewski, ?ukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Pozna? (Poland). PMID:26341598

  9. Identification and estimation of extra-framework aluminium in acidic mazzite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanjanchi, M. A.; Razavi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been used to investigate structural modification of mazzite zeolite subjected to calcination, acid leaching and acetylacetone treatments. Extra-framework aluminium species, formed upon expulsion of aluminium from the framework, are detected by DRS because they are involved in aluminium-oxygen charge transfer transitions. Impregnation of the calcined ammonium-exchanged and acid leached samples with ethanolic acetylacetone will convert the broadened 260-280 nm band of extra-framework aluminium with distorted symmetry to a distinct well-defined 285 nm band. The appearance of this band is due to the transformation of the aluminium atoms with a different coordination number to structures with highly ordered octahedral symmetry. Washing the acetylacetone treated samples with hot ethanol leads to extraction of some of the complexed aluminium. The presence of an extracted aluminium triacetylacetonate complex in the eluant is verified by the same spectrophotometer used in its conventional mode. This suggests that a dual DR and UV-VIS spectrophotometry is an appropriate approach to study such topics.

  10. Effects on the nervous system among welders exposed to aluminium and manganese.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, B; Iregren, A; Frech, W; Hagman, M; Johansson, L; Tesarz, M; Wennberg, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The purpose was to study the effects on the nervous system in welders exposed to aluminium and manganese. METHODS--The investigation included questionnaires on symptoms, psychological methods (simple reaction time, finger tapping speed and endurance, digit span, vocabulary, tracking, symbol digit, cylinders, olfactory threshold, Luria-Nebraska motor scale), neurophysiological methods (electroencephalography, event related auditory evoked potential (P-300), brainstem auditory evoked potential, and diadochokinesometry) and assessments of blood and urine concentrations of metals (aluminium, lead, and manganese). RESULTS--The welders exposed to aluminium (n = 38) reported more symptoms from the central nervous system than the control group (n = 39). They also had a decreased motor function in five tests. The effect was dose related in two of these five tests. The median exposure of aluminium welders was 7065 hours and they had about seven times higher concentrations of aluminium in urine than the controls. The welders exposed to manganese (n = 12) had a decreased motor function in five tests. An increased latency of event related auditory evoked potential was also found in this group. The median manganese exposure was 270 hours. These welders did not have higher concentrations of manganese in blood than the controls. CONCLUSIONS--The neurotoxic effects found in the groups of welders exposed to aluminium and manganese are probably caused by the aluminium and manganese exposure, respectively. These effects indicate a need for improvements in the work environments of these welders. PMID:8563855

  11. Aluminium adjuvants and adverse events in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sub-cutaneous immunotherapy is an effective treatment for allergy. It works by helping to modify or re-balance an individuals immune response to allergens and its efficacy is greatly improved by the use of adjuvants, most commonly, aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts have been used in allergy therapy for many decades and are assumed to be safe with few established side-effects. This assumption belies their potency as adjuvants and their potential for biological reactivity both at injection sites and elsewhere in the body. There are very few data purporting to the safety of aluminium adjuvants in allergy immunotherapy and particularly so in relation to longer term health effects. There are, if only few, published reports of adverse events following allergy immunotherapy and aluminium adjuvants are the prime suspects in the majority of such incidents. Aluminium adjuvants are clearly capable of initiating unwanted side effects in recipients of immunotherapy and while there is as yet no evidence that such are commonplace it is complacent to consider aluminium salts as harmless constituents of allergy therapies. Future research should establish the safety of the use of aluminium adjuvants in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy. PMID:24444186

  12. Increasing aluminium concentrations in Southwest Nova Scotia Canada rivers from 1980 to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minichiello, Jeff; Sterling, Shannon; Ambrose, Sarah; Clair, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Elevated aluminum levels in rivers is known to be toxic for aquatic species, in particular Salmo salar; however it was only recently aluminium has been identified as a potential threat to Salmo salar populations in South Western Nova Scotia, Canada (SWNS) (Dennis and Clair 2012). Previously, it was thought SWNS rivers contained enough DOC to render the aluminium in rivers inactive. A key remaining question is whether aluminium levels are declining following atmospheric pollution reductions. Here we make a first assessment of long term (1980-2011) aluminium concentration trends in three watersheds located in SWNS, as measured by weekly grab samples. Our results show that total aluminium levels have significantly increased from 1980-2011 in all three sites. Estimates of ionic aluminium levels indicate that the ionic aluminum concentration frequently exceeds the threshold for the level of aquatic health determined by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (Howells et al. 1990). Data also indicates that calcium levels have yet to recover even with declining concentrations of riverine sulfate. This new knowledge that aluminium is at toxic levels and is worsening will have implications for policy on acidification mitigation in SWNS; this is an urgent issue as the local salmon population numbers currently are declining to near extirpation levels.

  13. Continuous flow analysis method for determination of soluble iron and aluminium in ice cores.

    PubMed

    Spolaor, A; Vallelonga, P; Gabrieli, J; Roman, M; Barbante, C

    2013-01-01

    Iron and aluminium are the two most abundant metals on the Earth's crust, but they display quite different biogeochemical properties. While iron is essential to many biological processes, aluminium has not been found to have any biological function at all. In environmental studies, iron has been studied in detail for its limiting role in the bioproductivity of high nutrient, low carbon oceanic zones, while aluminium is routinely used as a reference of crustal contributions to atmospheric deposition archives including peat bogs, lacustrine and marine sediments and ice sheets and glaciers. We report here the development of a flow injection analysis technique, which has been optimised for the simultaneous determination of soluble iron and aluminium in polar ice cores. Iron was determined by its catalytic role in the reduction of N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamene (DPD) to a semiquinonic form (DPDQ) and subsequent absorption spectroscopy at 514 nm. Aluminium was determined by spectroscopic analysis of an aluminium-lumogallion complex that exhibits fluorescence at 560 nm. These techniques have been applied to a section of Greenland ice dated to 1729-1733 AD and indicate that volcanism is a source of highly soluble aluminium and iron. PMID:22692592

  14. Compressive strength of the mineral reinforced aluminium alloy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Rama; Sharma, Anju; Kumar, Suresh; Singh, Gurmel; Pandey, O. P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of quasi-static compressive strength of aluminium alloy reinforced with different concentration of rutile mineral particles. The reinforced material shows increase in compressive strength with 5wt% rutile concentration as compared to the base alloy. This increase in compressive strength of composite is attributed to direct strengthening due to transfer of load from lower stiffness matrix (LM13 alloy) to higher stiffness reinforcement (rutile particles). Indirect strengthening mechanisms like increase in dislocation density at the matrix-reinforcement interface, grain size refinement of the matrix and dispersion strengthening are also the contributing factors. The decrease in compressive strength of composite with the increased concentration of rutile concentration beyond 5 wt.% can be attributed to the increase in dislocation density due to the void formation at the matrix-reinforcement interface.

  15. On the compression of Aluminium foam structures under shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, David; Bourne, Neil K.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Wood, D.

    2015-06-01

    Foam-based materials have an important role as both blast and impact mitigators, with their extended sub-surface structures providing multiple redundant routes for load management and distribution in the event of failure. In order to further elucidate underlying stress management mechanisms at high strain-rates, here, a series of Aluminium foams manufactured via rapid prototyping techniques were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a quasi one-dimensional state of strain. The nature of pore collapse was monitored via manganin stress gauges at the target rear surface, with resultant data related back to changes in microstructure via microstructural and topographical analysis of both un-impacted and recovered target material.

  16. Quasiparticle spin resonance and coherence in superconducting aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quay, C. H. L.; Weideneder, M.; Chiffaudel, Y.; Strunk, C.; Aprili, M.

    2015-10-01

    Conventional superconductors were long thought to be spin inert; however, there is now increasing interest in both (the manipulation of) the internal spin structure of the ground-state condensate, as well as recently observed long-lived, spin-polarized excitations (quasiparticles). We demonstrate spin resonance in the quasiparticle population of a mesoscopic superconductor (aluminium) using novel on-chip microwave detection techniques. The spin decoherence time obtained (~100 ps), and its dependence on the sample thickness are consistent with Elliott-Yafet spin-orbit scattering as the main decoherence mechanism. The striking divergence between the spin coherence time and the previously measured spin imbalance relaxation time (~10 ns) suggests that the latter is limited instead by inelastic processes. This work stakes out new ground for the nascent field of spin-based electronics with superconductors or superconducting spintronics.

  17. Quasiparticle spin resonance and coherence in superconducting aluminium.

    PubMed

    Quay, C H L; Weideneder, M; Chiffaudel, Y; Strunk, C; Aprili, M

    2015-01-01

    Conventional superconductors were long thought to be spin inert; however, there is now increasing interest in both (the manipulation of) the internal spin structure of the ground-state condensate, as well as recently observed long-lived, spin-polarized excitations (quasiparticles). We demonstrate spin resonance in the quasiparticle population of a mesoscopic superconductor (aluminium) using novel on-chip microwave detection techniques. The spin decoherence time obtained (∼100 ps), and its dependence on the sample thickness are consistent with Elliott-Yafet spin-orbit scattering as the main decoherence mechanism. The striking divergence between the spin coherence time and the previously measured spin imbalance relaxation time (∼10 ns) suggests that the latter is limited instead by inelastic processes. This work stakes out new ground for the nascent field of spin-based electronics with superconductors or superconducting spintronics. PMID:26497744

  18. Frictional conditions between alloy AA6060 aluminium and tool steel

    SciTech Connect

    Wideroee, Fredrik; Welo, Torgeir

    2011-05-04

    The frictional conditions in the new process of screw extrusion of aluminium have been investigated. The contact behaviour between the aluminum alloy and the tool steel in the extruder is vital for understanding the extrusion process. Using a compressive-rotational method for frictional measurements the conditions for unlubricated sticking friction between aluminum alloy AA6060 and tool steel at different combinations of temperatures and pressures have been investigated. In this method the samples in the form of disks are put under hydrostatic pressure while simultaneously being rotated at one end. Pins made from contrast material have been inserted into the samples to measure the deformation introduced. This approach along with 3D simulations form a method for determining the frictional conditions. The paper describes the test method and the results. It was found that the necessary pressure for sticking to occur between the aluminum AA6060 and the different parts of the extruder is heavily influenced by the temperature.

  19. Nanosecond laser texturing of aluminium for control of wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Martin C.; Rosowski, Adam P.; French, Paul W.

    2015-07-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of lasers to modify the wettability of surfaces. Here we report on the use of a 20W nS pulsed IR fibre laser to create strong hydrophobicity on the surface of aluminium sheets. This is unexpected, hydrophobicity is usually associated solely with femto- or pico- second laser processing. At a 20W average power level the area coverage rate is too small for many industrial applications. Further trials using a 800W DPSS laser are described and the ability of this system to change surface wettability at a much higher production rate are indicated. There is little reported literature on surface texturing at higher average power levels. Indications of the productivity, or surface coverage rate, are given.

  20. Quasiparticle spin resonance and coherence in superconducting aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Quay, C. H. L.; Weideneder, M.; Chiffaudel, Y.; Strunk, C.; Aprili, M.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional superconductors were long thought to be spin inert; however, there is now increasing interest in both (the manipulation of) the internal spin structure of the ground-state condensate, as well as recently observed long-lived, spin-polarized excitations (quasiparticles). We demonstrate spin resonance in the quasiparticle population of a mesoscopic superconductor (aluminium) using novel on-chip microwave detection techniques. The spin decoherence time obtained (∼100 ps), and its dependence on the sample thickness are consistent with Elliott–Yafet spin–orbit scattering as the main decoherence mechanism. The striking divergence between the spin coherence time and the previously measured spin imbalance relaxation time (∼10 ns) suggests that the latter is limited instead by inelastic processes. This work stakes out new ground for the nascent field of spin-based electronics with superconductors or superconducting spintronics. PMID:26497744

  1. Neutron irradiation influence on magnesium aluminium spinel inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsova, V.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Ulmanis, U.

    2002-05-01

    Grown by the Verneuil method MgO · nAl 2O 3 single crystals and natural spinel crystal have been studied using X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectra. The fast neutron irradiation of magnesium aluminium spinel leads to the lattice parameter decrease. The bond lengths of Mg-O and Al-O vary with the u-parameter and the lattice parameter. On the other hand, the bond lengths are related with the inversion parameter. Using changes of the lattice parameter during irradiation we have calculated the inversion parameter, which is 15-20%. In the luminescence spectra, the fast neutron radiation (fluence 10 16 cm -2) produces an increase in the intensity ratio of the N- to R-lines by 5-20%. Taking into account that intensity of the N-lines is closely associated with the inversion parameter, it is possible to state that the neutron irradiation causes the increasing of the spinel inversion.

  2. Pulmonary Fibrosis in Workers Exposed to Finely Powdered Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John; Manning, G. B.; Molyneux, M.; Lane, Ronald E.

    1961-01-01

    Of 30 workmen at risk 27 were examined and six found to have evidence of pulmonary fibrosis. In the two fatal cases the evidence for pulmonary fibrosis was conclusive and in three other cases it was sufficient; in one case it was suggestive. The clinical, radiological, and pathological features of these six cases are recorded. Results of respiratory function tests on the four non-fatal cases are given. The manufacturing process is described. An analysis of the powder is given, also the results of dust measurement in the contaminated atmosphere. The literature is reviewed and our own experience compared with reports from Germany and Canada. We concluded that the pulmonary fibrosis was caused by the dust inhaled at work and that the component responsible was finely divided aluminium. Images PMID:13771334

  3. Microstructure characterization of hypereutectoid aluminium bronze composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucita, P.; Wang, S. C.; Li, W. S.; Cook, R. B.; Starink, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    Hypereutectoid aluminium bronze coating was deposited onto an E.N. 10503 steel substrate using plasma transferred arc welding (PTA). Microstructure characterisation of the coating and a section near the steel substrate joint was carried out using SEM, EBSD, EDS in conjunction with XRD and depth-sensing nano-indentation. The constituent phases in the coating were identified as: martensitic Cu3Al β1' phase, solid solution of Al in Cu α phase and the intermetallic Fe3Al κ1 phase. The region near the steel substrate was characterised by high hardness, large grains and presence of Cu precipitates. No cracks were observed in this region. The coating has high hardness of 4.9GPa and Young's modulus of 121.7GPa. This is attributed to homogeneous distribution of sub microns size Fe3Al intermetallic phase. The implications of the coating to the engineering application of sheet metal forming are discussed.

  4. Broadband plasmonic response of self-organized aluminium nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Francesco; Gonella, Grazia; Maidecchi, Giulia; Buzio, Renato; Gerbi, Andrea; Moroni, Riccardo; Giglia, Angelo; Canepa, Maurizio

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the plasmonic response of arrays of Al nanowires fabricated in high-vacuum and embedded within a transparent protective medium. The nanostructures exhibited a strongly-birefringent plasmonic response which, depending on the mutual orientation of the incident-field polarization and the nanowire axis, allowed the plasmon resonance to span the whole spectral range from the visible to the deep-ultraviolet regime. Comparing the experimental data with theoretical calculations allowed to rationalize the optical response in terms of non-ideal nanowire morphologies arising from the bottom-up character of the nanofabrication method. The broadband plasmonic response suggests the potential application of these systems in plasmon-enhanced photovoltaics, exploiting the great advantage of the low-cost of aluminium.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of luminescent aluminium selenide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Balitskii, O.A.; Demchenko, P.Yu.; Mijowska, E.; Cendrowski, K.

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis procedure of size and sharp controlled Al{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystals is introduced. ► Obtained nanoparticles are highly crystalline of hexagonal wurtzite type. ► Colloidal Al{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystals are highly luminescent in the near UV spectral region. ► They can be implemented in light emitters/collectors, concurring with II–VI nanodots. -- Abstract: We propose the synthesis and characterization of colloidal aluminium selenide nanocrystals using trioctylphosphine as a solvent. The nanoparticles have several absorption bands in the spectral region 330–410 nm and are bright UV-blue luminescent, which is well demanded in light collecting and emitting devices, e.g. for tuning their spectral characteristics to higher energy solar photons.

  6. Recent advances in joining of aluminium metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Threadgill, P.L.

    1994-12-31

    Studies have been made of the use of friction welding and gas tungsten arc welding to join several types of SiC particulate reinforced aluminium alloys. The joints have been subjected to detailed metallographic assessment, and some mechanical property data are also reported. Friction welding has been shown to be a very suitable process, and good joints were obtained with relative ease. Although bond line strength in the as-welded condition is less than parent material strength, a full solution treatment and age will restore properties. GTA welding is possible on reinforced 2080 and 7475 sheet materials, using either autogenous welding or a 4047A filler. No evidence for particle/matrix reactions was observed, although SiC particles in the melt zone were often surrounded by eutectic or interdendritic phases. Mechanical properties were variable, but could be significantly improved by postweld heat treatment.

  7. A laboratory continuous crystallization system for aluminium hydroxide precipitation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. A.; Ang, H. M.

    1996-09-01

    A mechanically agitated laboratory continuous crystallization system of capacity 1 litre has been developed with special application to the precipitation of aluminium hydroxide. It consists of continuous liquor and seed feeding arrangements and semi-continuous product evacuation as recommended by Randolph and Larson [Theory of Particulate Processes, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, London, 1988)] [1]. A study of the particle dynamics and the solid and liquid residence time distributions has shown that the set-up represents a normal continuous mixed suspension mixed product removal (CMSMPR) system. It was found that the liquor concentration achieved steady state after 2 to 3 residence times and the slurry density, after 4 residence times; however, it was difficult to attain an absolute steady state for the solid CSD.

  8. The kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions of aluminium(III) with gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester and adrenaline.

    PubMed

    O'Coinceanainn, M; Hynes, M J

    2001-03-01

    The kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions of gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester and adrenaline with aluminium(III) have been investigated in aqueous solution at 25 degrees C and an ionic strength of 0.5 M. A mechanism has been proposed which accounts satisfactorily for the kinetic data. This is consistent with a mechanism in which complex formation takes place almost exclusively by reaction of [Al(H2O)5OH]2+ with the ligands. [Al(H2O)5OH]2+ reacts with gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester and adrenaline with rate constants of 1145, 1330 and 316 M(-1) s(-1) respectively. These data together with the equilibrium data enable the rate constants for reaction of [Al(H2O)6]3+ with both gallic acid and gallic acid methyl ester to be calculated. In view of the dissociative nature of water exchange on [Al(H2O)6]3+ and [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+ the complex formation rate constants are discussed in terms of the Eigen-Wilkins-Tamm mechanism. The overall mechanisms have been validated using global analysis. The results are compared with previously published data on the complex formation reactions of aluminium(III). In addition, the rate constants and mechanisms for replacement of maltol by gallic acid methyl ester and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (dtpa) have been investigated. PMID:11330467

  9. Identification of AFLP and microsatellite markers linked with an aluminium tolerance gene in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, H.; Moroni, S.; Sato, K.; Read, J.; Scott, J.

    2002-08-01

    Barley is the most sensitive among the cereals to aluminium (Al) stress and breeding for more tolerant cultivars is a priority. To enhance selection efficiency for Al tolerance in barley, PCR-based AFLP and microsatellite markers linked to a locus conferring tolerance to aluminium were identified. The study used F(2) progeny derived from a single cross between Yambla (moderately tolerant of Al) and WB229 (tolerant of Al) and developed hydroponic pulse-recovery screening methods to assess tolerance of phenotypes based on root growth. The segregation ratios of tolerant and sensitive genotypes and F(3) progeny testing suggest that a single major gene controlled Al tolerance ( Alt). In order to determine the chromosomal location of the Alt gene, we used the AFLP technique coupled with bulk segregant analysis. We evaluated tolerant and sensitive bulks using 30 combinations of EcoRI/ MseI primers, and 12 of these permitted differentiation of the sensitive and tolerant bulks. More than 1,000 amplified fragments were obtained, and 98 polymorphic bands were scored. AFLP analysis of wheat-barley chromosome addition lines indicated that the Alt gene was located on barley chromosome 4H. Four chromosome 4H-specific microsatellite markers (Bmac310, Bmag353, HVM68 and HVMCABG) were tightly linked to Alt. The large allelic variation detected with microsatellite marker Bmag353 allowed us to implement this marker for routine marker-assisted selection for Al tolerance, and 396 plants could be screened on a single gel. PMID:12582551

  10. Application of Minkowski layer for intergranular fractal surfaces of multiphase active microalloyed and alloyed aluminium-silicate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purenović, J. M.; Randjelović, M. S.; Matović, B. Z.; Purenović, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Microalloyed and alloyed aluminium-silicate ceramics represents multiphase and multifunctional solid-solid system. The microstructure of aluminium-silicate ceramics matrix is arranged with favorable relationship between crystallinity and amorphousness. Numbered physical processes and interactions take place in very complex intergranular and interphase areas, making new boundaries and regions with fractal nature. Fractal nature of grains contours, macro, mezzo and micro pores and nanostructure phases at grain boundaries make this ceramics an active dielectric material. The synergistic effect of additives, dislocations and impurities leads to dislocations movement at grain boundaries and fragmentation of existing grains in a large number of micrograins with distinct fractal nature. Hence, permanent change of micromorphology occurs in intergranular area. Fractal analysis of intergranular microstructure has included application of Minkowski layer, correlated with fractal dimension. It represents convex layer of grains contour roughness and irregularity, determined in accordance with grain contours fractality. The introduction of fractal microstructure analysis allows better interpretation of many physical and physico-chemical processes, bearing in mind that Minkowski layer defines grains contact probability.

  11. Laser welding of aluminium alloys 5083 and 6082 under conduction regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snchez-Amaya, J. M.; Delgado, T.; Gonzlez-Rovira, L.; Botana, F. J.

    2009-09-01

    In this work, samples of aluminium alloys 5083-T0 and 6082-T6 have been welded under conduction regime, using a high power diode laser. The influence of experimental variables, as the laser power and the linear welding rate, on the sizes and properties of the butt weld beads has been studied. In addition to measure the depths and widths of the weld beads, their microstructure, microhardness profile and corrosion resistance have been analysed. The results obtained allow one to define the experimental conditions leading to good quality butt welds with higher penetration than those published in the recent literature under conduction regime. Maximum penetration values of 3 and 2.3 mm were obtained for 5083 and 6082, respectively. Additionally, a simple mathematical expression relating the weld depth ( d) with the laser power ( P) and the processing rate ( v) has been proposed: d=(P-bb)/(av)-(ba)/a, being a, a', b and b' constant values for each alloy and under the employed experimental conditions. The values of these coefficients have been estimated from the fitting to the experimental depth values of 5083 and 6082 butt welds generated under conduction regime.

  12. Sublethal effects in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to mixtures of copper, aluminium and gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Heier, Lene Sørlie; Teien, Hans Christian; Oughton, Deborah; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Olsvik, Pål A; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Lind, Ole Christian; Farmen, Eivind; Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit

    2013-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects in presmolt of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to copper (Cu), aluminium (Al) and gamma radiation, individually or in combination. Fish were exposed for 48 h to metals added to lake water; 10, 40 and 80 μg Cu/L, 250 μg Al/L and a combination of 40 μg Cu/L and 250 μg Al/L. In addition, gamma radiation (4-70 mGy delivered over 48 h) was added as an additional exposure stressor. Selected endpoints were chosen to reveal different toxic mechanisms and included Cu and Al accumulation on gills, blood chemistry and haematological variables (plasma sodium and chloride, haematocrit, glucose), hepatic levels of reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and hepatic transcriptional response of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), metallothionein (MT) and ubiquitin. Exposure to Cu alone resulted in gill accumulation of Cu, reduction of plasma ions and increased transcriptional response of GPx, MT and ubiquitin. Exposure to Al alone reduced plasma ion levels but did not affect any of the hepatic biomarkers except for ubiquitin. The combined metal exposure (Cu + Al) altered the GSH levels, however GPx and MT were not affected suggesting a different mode of detoxification in the combined exposure. Gamma radiation appeared to influence GSH and ubiquitin levels. The observed effects seemed to be both stressor and concentration dependent. PMID:22583837

  13. Matrix effect on leaching of Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from epoxy resin based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes into semi-solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Lipke, Uwe; Haverkamp, Jan Boris; Zapf, Thomas; Lipperheide, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    To study the impact of different semi-solid dosage form components on the leaching of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from the epoxy resin-based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes, the tubes were filled with different matrix preparations and stored at an elevated temperature. Despite compliance with the European Standards EN 15348 and EN 15766 on porosity and polymerisation of internal coatings of aluminium tubes, the commercially available tubes used in the study contained an increased amount of polymerisation residues, such as unbound BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives in the lacquer, as determined by acetonitrile extraction. Storage of Macrogol ointments in these tubes resulted in an almost quantitative migration of the unbound polymerisation residues from the coating into the ointment. In addition, due to alterations observed in the RP-HPLC chromatograms of the matrix spiked with BADGE and BADGE derivatives it is supposed that the leachates can react with formulation components. The contamination of the medicinal product by BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives can be precluded by using aluminium tubes with an internal lacquer with a low degree of unbound polymerisation residues. PMID:26724272

  14. Consequences of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in aluminium-related renal osteodystrophy and the role of endochondral ossification in the repair process.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, J; Smith, P S

    1983-01-01

    A patient with chronic renal failure, a dialysis encephalopathy syndrome and renal osteodystrophy associated with aluminium intoxication developed an avascular necrosis of the left femoral head. Histological examination of the excised head confirmed the zone of avascular necrosis and demonstrated an exuberant formation of cartilage around this zone. Calcification was sparse and the cartilage exhibited histological features similar to those seen in classical rickets. Histochemical and electron probe x-ray microanalysis demonstrated aluminium in the matrix around hypertrophic chondrocytes, at the tide mark of articular cartilage and at the mineralised tissue/osteoid interface of trabecular bone. Aluminium, therefore, preferentially localises at sites of calcification and possibly exerts an inhibitory effect on this reaction. This is taken to account for the relative failure of endochrondral ossification and the development of a rachitic appearance. A comparison with five other examples of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (occurring after renal transplantation, as an idiopathic phenomenon and as a complication of steroid therapy) showed that, in addition to the more commonly described appositional bone formation, cartilage formation and endochondral ossification were present in three of these comparison cases, although less prominent and of considerably less degree than in the main case. Images PMID:6402524

  15. Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease: sites of aluminium binding in human neuroblastoma cells determined using 26Al and accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. J.; Templar, J.; Miller, R. V.; Day, J. P.; Dobson, C. B.; Itzhaki, R. F.; Fifield, L. K.; Allan, G. L.

    1994-06-01

    The aluminium distribution between the major cell compartments of human neuroblastoma cells grown in culture has been determined using 21Al and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Cells (IMR-32) were grown for eight days in a culture medium containing Al-EDTA (0.2mM) spiked with 26Al, harvested, and fractionated by standard biochemical techniques. 26Al in fractions after ashing to Al 2O 3 was determined by AMS using the 14UD accelerator at ANU Canberra. The cytoplasmic and nuclear cell compartments appeared to have reached diffusive equilibrium with the culture medium. Whilst 26Al was retained by the nuclear proteins and nuclear sap, 26Al did not appear to bind to the nucleic acids (DNA/RNA).

  16. Aluminium administration is associated with enhanced hepatic oxidant stress that may be offset by dietary vitamin E in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, M G; Taylor, A; Ferns, G A A

    2003-01-01

    It has been proposed that aluminium toxicity may be mediated, at least in part, by free radical generation. We have investigated the effects of aluminium lactate administration on indices of hepatic oxidant stress, and the consequences of concomitant dietary vitamin E, in male albino Wistar rats. Aluminium lactate was administered for 4 weeks, by ip injection at 10 mg aluminium/kg body weight. Groups of animals received a chow diet containing 0, 5, 15, or 20 mg vitamin E/g of food. A control group of rats received a normal chow diet, without being injected with aluminium. The rats were killed after 4 weeks, and blood and liver tissue removed for the measurement of aluminium and markers of oxidative stress. Plasma and liver aluminium levels were increased in all groups of animals receiving aluminium lactate (P < 0.01), although these levels were significantly reduced in rats receiving concomitant vitamin E (P < 0.05). Aluminium treatment was associated with significantly increased levels of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P < 0.01) that were attenuated by concomitant vitamin E (P < 0.05). Hepatic catalase and reduced glutathione levels were both reduced in animals treated with aluminium (P < 0.05). PMID:12694486

  17. Non-Contact Thickness and Profile Measurements of Rolled Aluminium Strip Using EMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbis, A.; Aruleswaran, A.

    2006-03-01

    Accurate measurement of strip thickness is a very high priority for the aluminium rolled product industry. This paper presents the findings of trials to measure the thickness of aluminium strip using a send-receive, radially polarised Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT). A broadband EMAT system, developed at Warwick University, UK with a centre frequency of approximately 5 MHz and frequency content up to 12 MHz was used. The resultant ultrasonic waveforms have been processed using Fourier analysis. Static measurements of aluminium alloy samples in the thickness range between 0.28 mm to 2.8 mm have been measured using this non-contact approach at stand-offs of up to 2 mm. Measurements across the aluminium strip width to evaluate its profile for quality control was also carried out successfully. Some of the experiments and results obtained are described in detail.

  18. Numerical modelling of closed-cell aluminium foam under dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazell, Paul; Kader, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Escobedo, J. P.; Saadatfar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Closed-cell aluminium foams are extensively used in aerospace and automobile industries. The understanding of their behaviour under impact loading conditions is extremely important since impact problems are directly related to design of these engineering structures. This research investigates the response of a closed-cell aluminium foam (CYMAT) subjected to dynamic loading using the finite element software ABAQUS/explicit. The aim of this research is to numerically investigate the material and structural properties of closed-cell aluminium foam under impact loading conditions with interest in shock propagation and its effects on cell wall deformation. A μ-CT based 3D foam geometry is developed to simulate the local cell collapse behaviours. A number of numerical techniques are applied for modelling the crush behaviour of aluminium foam to obtain the more accurate results. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Comparison of the results shows a good correlation between the experimental results and numerical predictions.

  19. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Calcium-Aluminium-Rich Inclusions: A Tool to Detect Primitive Asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melwani Daswani, M.; Morlok, A.; Wolters, S. D.; Grady, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in Vigarano, Ornans and Allende have characteristic refractory components that may help us identify primitive near-Earth asteroids through mid-IR space telescope spectrometers. We have identified some features.

  20. Non-aqueous aluminium-air battery based on ionic liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, Renaud; Audichon, Thomas; Gonzalez, Serge

    2014-12-01

    A promising metal-air secondary battery based on aluminium-oxygen couple is described. In this paper, we observed that an aluminium-air battery employing EMImCl, AlCl3 room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as electrolyte and aluminium as negative electrode, has an exceptional reduced self-discharged rate. Due to its new and innovative type of electrolyte, this aluminium-air battery can support relatively high current densities (up to 0.6 mA cm-2) and an average voltage of 0.6-0.8 V. Such batteries may find immediate applications, as they can provide an internal, built-in autonomous and self-sustained energy source.

  1. Influence of the glass packing on the contamination of pharmaceutical products by aluminium. Part II: amino acids for parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, D; do Nascimento, P C; Binotto, R; Carlesso, R

    2001-01-01

    The presence of aluminium in amino acids parenteral nutrition solutions can be related to the affinity of the amino acids for aluminium present in glass containers used for storage. For this study solutions of 19 amino acids used in parenteral nutrition were stored individually in glass flasks and the aluminium measured at determined time intervals. Solutions of complexing agents for aluminium, as ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, citrate, oxalate and fluoride ions were also stored in the same flasks and the aluminium measured during the same time interval. The measurements were made by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium content of the glass containers was also measured. The results showed that the glasses have from 0.6% to 0.8% Al. Only solutions of cysteine, cystine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid became contaminated by aluminium. As the same occurred with the complexing agents, aluminum can be released from glass due to an affinity of the substances for aluminium. Comparing the action of complexing agents and amino acids for which the stability constants of aluminium complex are known, it is possible to relate the magnitude of the stability constant with the aluminium leached from glass, the higher the stability constant, the higher the aluminium released. The analysis of commercial formulations with and without cysteine, cystine, glutamic acid or aspartic acid stored in glass containers confirms that the presence of these amino acids combined with the age of the soLution are, at least partially, responsible for the aluminium contamination. The resuLts demonstrated that the contamination is an ongoing process due to the presence of aluminium in glass combined with the affinity of some amino acids for this element. PMID:11787973

  2. Effects of Shielding Gas on Absorption Energy of Nd-YAG Laser for Aluminium Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Mutlu, M.; Akman, E.; Demir, A.

    2007-04-23

    Aluminium is the one of the most abundant element situated in Earth's crust and using in thousands of industrial applications. In this study spectroscopic analysis for 1mm thick aluminium plates investigated and electron temperatures were calculated with using emission spectra obtained from plasma. The relation between electron temperature and shielding gas pressure, type, pulse energy, beam focus position and flow direction were observed. With using shielding gases Ar, He, N2 at different pressures the bead widths was measured.

  3. Aluminium Surface Atmospheric Pressure Dcsbd Plasma Treatment In Air And Nitrogen Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prysiazhnyi, V.

    2010-07-01

    The results of Atomic Force Microscopy and Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR for the analysis of aluminium surface changes by the Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge are presented in this contribution. Availability to use FTIR method for aluminium surface characterization was shown. Different behavior of surface changes was observed for different treating atmospheres: ambient air, nitrogen. Hypothesis about the possible reasons for different behavior was presented.

  4. Risk minimisation of FGD gypsum leachates by incorporation of aluminium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X; Ballesteros, J C; Giménez, A

    2008-11-15

    The incorporation of aluminium sulphate to (flue gas desulphurisation) FGD gypsum before its disposal was investigated as a way to minimise the risk supposed by the high fluoride content of its leachates. Using a bath method the kinetic and equilibrium processes of fluoride removal by aluminium sulphate were studied at fluoride/aluminium molar concentration (F/Al) ratios in the range 1.75 10(-2)-1.75 under the pH conditions (about 6.5) of FGD gypsum leachates. It was found that fluoride removal was a very fast process at any of the (F/Al) ratios subject of study, with equilibrium attained within the first 15 min of interaction. High decreases in solution fluoride concentrations (50-80%) were found at the equilibrium state. The use of aluminium sulphate in the stabilization of FGD gypsum proved to greatly decrease its fluoride leachable content (in the range 20-90% for aluminium sulphate doses of 0.1-5%, as determined by the European standard EN 12457-4). Such fluoride leaching minimisation assures the characterization of this by-product as a waste acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous wastes according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. Furthermore, as derived from column leaching studies, the proposed stabilization system showed to be highly effective in simulated conditions of disposal, displaying fluoride leaching reduction values about 55 and 80% for aluminium sulphate added amounts of 1 and 2%, respectively. PMID:18799198

  5. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50μm did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems. PMID:26148645

  6. Water supply aluminium concentration, dialysis dementia, and effect of reverse-osmosis water treatment.

    PubMed

    Davison, A M; Walker, G S; Oli, H; Lewins, A M

    1982-10-01

    Dialysis dementia appeared in 18 of 258 patients treated by haemodialysis. All Cases developed in patients treated by home dialysis (150) and none in patients treated exclusively by hospital dialysis (108). Analyses of the domestic water supply for each month on dialysis showed that dementia occurred only in those whose water supply had a high aluminium concentration (greater than 80 micrograms/l). The significant exponential relation (p less than 0.01) between the mean aluminium concentration in the water used to prepare the dialysate and the time taken to death from dementia indicates that there is probably no safe aluminium concentration and that removal of aluminium from water is essential before haemodialysis, particularly in areas where alum is used in water treatment as a clarifying agent. Reverse osmosis treatment satisfactorily removes aluminium and many other substances from water. Its application had a beneficial effect on 7 of 9 patients previously exposed to dialysate prepared from water with a high aluminium content and prevented the appearance of dementia in 24 patients whose water was so treated from the start of haemodialysis. PMID:6126664

  7. Galvanic corrosion behaviour of aluminium 3004 and copper in tropical marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, G.; Palraj, S.; Palanichamy, S.

    2014-06-01

    The galvanic corrosion behaviour of aluminium 3004 and copper with different area ratios were studied in the tropical marine atmosphere at Tuticorin harbour over a period of 426 days. The area ratios of A Al: A Cu, studied were 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1 & 8:1. The galvanic corrosion behaviour of metals was studied in terms of relative increase in the corrosion rate of aluminium due to galvanic coupling with copper, relative decrease in the corrosion rate of copper due to galvanic coupling with aluminium, and the susceptibility of aluminium to pitting owing to galvanic coupling with copper. The galvanic potential and galvanic current of the system were monitored. Pits of different dimensions ranging from mild etchings to perforations were experienced on the borders and the surfaces of the interface of aluminium in contact with copper. The weathering parameters and the environmental pollutants which have a major role in influencing the galvanic corrosion of metals were also monitored. The corrosion products resulting from galvanic corrosion were analysed using XRD and the pitting on aluminium resulting from galvanic corrosion has been highlighted in terms of pit depth, size and density of pit, using a high resolution microscope.

  8. Characterization of individual aerosol particles in workroom air of aluminium smelter potrooms.

    PubMed

    Hoflich, Burkard L W; Weinbruch, Stephan; Theissmann, Ralf; Gorzawski, Hauke; Ebert, Martin; Ortner, Hugo M; Skogstad, Asbjorn; Ellingsen, Dag G; Drablos, Per A; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2005-05-01

    Aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameters between 0.18 and 10 microm were collected in the workroom air of two aluminium smelter potrooms with different production processes (Soderberg and Prebake processes). Size, morphology and chemical composition of more than 2000 individual particles were determined by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Based on chemical composition and morphology, particles were classified into different groups. Particle groups with a relative abundance above 1%(by number) include aluminium oxides, cryolite, aluminium oxides-cryolite mixtures, soot, silicates and sea salt. In both production halls, mixtures of aluminium oxides and cryolite are the dominant particle group. Many particles have fluoride-containing surface coatings or show agglomerations of nanometer-sized fluoride-containing particles on their surface. The phase composition of approximately 100 particles was studied by transmission electron microscopy. According to selected area electron diffraction, sodium beta-alumina (NaAl(11)O(17)) is the dominant aluminium oxide and cryolite (Na(3)AlF(6)) the only sodium aluminium fluoride present. Implications of our findings for assessment of adverse health effects are discussed. PMID:15877161

  9. If exposure to aluminium in antiperspirants presents health risks, its content should be reduced.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Alain; Fauconneau, Bernard; Sappino, André-Pascal; Deloncle, Roger; Guillard, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Since aluminium (Al) pervades our environment, the scientific community has for many years raised concerns regarding its safety in humans. Al is present in numerous cosmetics such as antiperspirants, lipsticks and sunscreens. Al chlorohydrate is the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics and may constitute for Al a key exposure route to the human body and a potential source of damage. An in vitro study has demonstrated that Al from antiperspirant can be absorbed through viable human stripped skin. The potential toxicity of Al has been clearly shown and recent works convincingly argue that Al could be involved in cancerogenic processes. Nowadays, for example, Al is suspected of being involved in breast cancer. Recent work in cells in culture has lent credence to the hypothesis that this metal could accumulate in the mammary gland and selectively interfere with the biological properties of breast epithelial cells, thereby promoting a cascade of alterations reminiscent of the early phases of malignant transformation. In addition, several studies suggest that the presence of Al in human breast could influence metastatic process. As a consequence, given that the toxicity of Al has been widely recognized and that it is not a physiological component in human tissues, reducing the concentration of this metal in antiperspirants is a matter of urgency. PMID:24418462

  10. An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210nanometres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniyasu, Yoshitaka; Kasu, Makoto; Makimoto, Toshiki

    2006-05-01

    Compact high-efficiency ultraviolet solid-state light sources-such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes-are of considerable technological interest as alternatives to large, toxic, low-efficiency gas lasers and mercury lamps. Microelectronic fabrication technologies and the environmental sciences both require light sources with shorter emission wavelengths: the former for improved resolution in photolithography and the latter for sensors that can detect minute hazardous particles. In addition, ultraviolet solid-state light sources are also attracting attention for potential applications in high-density optical data storage, biomedical research, water and air purification, and sterilization. Wide-bandgap materials, such as diamond and III-V nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlGaN and AlN; refs 3-10), are potential materials for ultraviolet LEDs and laser diodes, but suffer from difficulties in controlling electrical conduction. Here we report the successful control of both n-type and p-type doping in aluminium nitride (AlN), which has a very wide direct bandgap of 6eV. This doping strategy allows us to develop an AlN PIN (p-type/intrinsic/n-type) homojunction LED with an emission wavelength of 210nm, which is the shortest reported to date for any kind of LED. The emission is attributed to an exciton transition, and represents an important step towards achieving exciton-related light-emitting devices as well as replacing gas light sources with solid-state light sources.

  11. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of tetracycline in a pharmaceutical preparation by complexation with aluminium(III).

    PubMed

    Liawruangrath, Saisunee; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Watanesk, Surasak; Ruengsitagoon, Wirat

    2006-01-01

    A rapid flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric procedure for tetracycline determination is described. It is based on the injection of a 100 microl sample solution containing tetracycline into merged streams of aluminium(III) chloride (0.01 mol 1(-1)) and Tris-buffer in the presence of KCl (0.06 mol l(-1)), pH 7.0, with the same optimum flow rate of 3.2 ml min(-1). A yellow Al(III)-tetracycline complex was monitored at 376 nm. The flow injection system and the experimental conditions were optimized by means of the univariate method. The procedure was applied to the determination of tetracycline in pharmaceutical preparations with a high sampling rate of at least 165 h(-1). A high precision with a relative standard deviation was obtained less than 0.72 and 0.30% of 5.0 and 10 microg ml(-1) (n=11), respectively. The detection limit (3sigma) and the quantification limit (10sigma) were 0.07 and 0.72 mg l(-1), respectively. There were no interference effects from traditional excipients in the dosage forms when the method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations. The matrix effect could be reduced by the standard addition method. PMID:16429765

  12. Modelling the role of marine particle on large scale 231Pa, 230Th, Iron and Aluminium distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutay, J.-C.; Tagliabue, A.; Kriest, I.; van Hulten, M. M. P.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of trace elements in the ocean is governed by the combined effects of various processes, and by exchanges with external sources. Modelling these represents an opportunity to better understand and quantify the mechanisms that regulate the oceanic tracer cycles. Observations collected during the GEOTRACES program provide an opportunity to improve our knowledge regarding processes that should be considered in biogeochemical models to adequately represent the distributions of trace elements in the ocean. Here we present a synthesis about the state of the art for simulating selected trace elements in biogeochemical models: Protactinium, Thorium, Iron and Aluminium. In this contribution we pay particular attention on the role of particles in the cycling of these tracers and how they may provide additional constraints on the transfer of matter in the ocean.

  13. Damage of Aluminium Matrix Composite reinforced with Iron Oxide (Fe3O4): Experimental and Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, F.; Katundi, D.; Bayraktar, E.

    2011-01-01

    The powder metallurgy components are being widely used for sophisticated industrial applications at a very high rate production and low cost. In modern industry, more and more it is imposed to develop new composites, such as high resistant, low density, alternative materials in order to realise multifunctional pieces. For this reason, it is very striking to use reinforced (Fe3O4-iron oxide) aluminium matrix composites in structural applications (automotive, aeronautical, etc.) due to their outstanding stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios. These materials show good thermal conductivity and wear resistance and also low thermal expansion, all of which makes them very high multifunctional light weight materials. Additionally, it is very attractive way to add Fe3O4-iron oxide reinforcing for improving the magnetic permeability of this composites and by this way, it can be obtained a good synchronization between thermal and electrical conductivities and magnetic permeability.

  14. Effects of Welding Processes and Post-Weld Aging Treatment on Fatigue Behavior of AA2219 Aluminium Alloy Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarvizhi, S.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-04-01

    AA2219 aluminium alloy square butt joints without filler metal addition were fabricated using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), electron beam welding (EBW), and friction stir welding (FSW) processes. The fabricated joints were post-weld aged at 175 °C for 12 h. The effect of three welding processes and post-weld aging (PWA) treatment on the fatigue properties is reported. Transverse tensile properties of the welded joints were evaluated. Microstructure analysis was also carried out using optical and electron microscopes. It was found that the post-weld aged FSW joints showed superior fatigue performance compared to EBW and GTAW joints. This was mainly due to the formation of very fine, dynamically recrystallized grains and uniform distribution of fine precipitates in the weld region.

  15. Hydrogenation of palladium rich compounds of aluminium, gallium and indium

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlmann, H.

    2010-02-15

    Palladium rich intermetallic compounds of aluminium, gallium and indium have been studied before and after hydrogenation by powder X-ray diffraction and during hydrogenation by in situ thermal analysis (DSC) at hydrogen gas pressures up to 39 MPa and temperatures up to 700 K. Very weak DSC signals and small unit cell increases of below 1% for AlPd{sub 2}, AlPd{sub 3}, GaPd{sub 2}, Ga{sub 5}Pd{sub 13}, In{sub 3}Pd{sub 5}, and InPd{sub 2} suggest negligible hydrogen uptake. In contrast, for both tetragonal modifications of InPd{sub 3} (ZrAl{sub 3} and TiAl{sub 3} type), heating to 523 K at 2 MPa hydrogen pressure leads to a rearrangement of the intermetallic structure to a cubic AuCu{sub 3} type with an increase in unit cell volume per formula unit by 3.6-3.9%. Gravimetric analysis suggests a composition InPd{sub 3}H{sub a}pprox{sub 0.8} for the hydrogenation product. Very similar behaviour is found for the deuteration of InPd{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: In situ differential scanning calorimetry of the hydrogenation of tetragonal InPd{sub 3} (ZrAl{sub 3} type) at 1.3 MPa hydrogen pressure.

  16. High temperature deformation of friction stir processed 7075 aluminium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaliere, P. . E-mail: pasquale.cavaliere@unile.it; Squillace, A.

    2005-08-15

    The mechanical and microstructural properties of 7075 aluminium alloy resulting from Friction Stir Processing (FSP), into sheets of 7 mm thickness, were analysed in the present study. The sheets were processed perpendicularly to the rolling direction; the tensile mechanical properties were evaluated at room temperature in the transverse and longitudinal directions with respect to the processing one. Tensile tests were also performed at higher temperatures and different strain rates in the nugget zone, in order to analyse the superplastic properties of the recrystallized material and to observe the differences from the parent material as a function of the strong grain refinement due to the Friction Stir Process. The high temperature behaviour of the material was studied, in the parallel direction, by means of tensile tests in the temperature and strain rate ranges of 150-500 deg. C and 10{sup -} {sup 2}-10{sup -} {sup 4} s{sup -} {sup 1} respectively, electron microscopy (FEGSEM) observations were carried out to investigate more closely the fracture surfaces of the specimens tested at different temperatures and strain rates.

  17. Aspects of fabrication aluminium matrix heterophase composites by suspension method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolata, A. J.; Dyzia, M.

    2012-05-01

    Composites with an aluminium alloy matrix (AlMMC) exhibit several advantageous properties such as good strength, stiffness, low density, resistance and dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, good thermal expansion coefficient and particularly high resistance to friction wear. Therefore such composites are more and more used in modern engineering constructions. Composites reinforced with hard ceramic particles (Al2O3, SiC) are gradually being implemented into production in automotive or aircraft industries. Another application of AlMMC is in the electronics industry, where the dimensional stability and capacity to absorb and remove heat is used in radiators. However the main problems are still: a reduction of production costs, developing methods of composite material tests and final product quality assessment, standardisation, development of recycling and mechanical processing methods. AlMMC production technologies, based on liquid-phase methods, and the shaping of products by casting methods, belong to the cheapest production methods. Application of a suspension method for the production of composites with heterophase reinforcement may turn out to be a new material and technological solution. The article presents the material and technological aspects of the transfer procedures for the production of composite suspensions from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale.

  18. Electrocoagulation efficiency of the tannery effluent treatment using aluminium electrodes.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Fornari, Marilda M T; Módenes, Aparecido N; Palácio, Soraya M; Trigueros, Daniela E G; Borba, Fernando H; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2009-01-01

    An electro-coagulation laboratory scale system using aluminium plates electrodes was studied for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants as a by-product from leather finishing industrial process. A fractional factorial 2(3) experimental design was applied in order to obtain optimal values of the system state variables. The electro-coagulation (EC) process efficiency was based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total suspended solid, total fixed solid, total volatile solid, and chemical element concentration values. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for final pH, total fixed solid (TFS), turbidity and Ca concentration have confirmed the predicted models by the experimental design within a 95% confidence level. The reactor working conditions close to real effluent pH (7.6) and electrolysis time in the range 30-45 min were enough to achieve the cost effective reduction factors of organic and inorganic pollutants' concentrations. An appreciable improvement in COD removal efficiency was obtained for electro-coagulation treatment. Finally, the technical-economical analysis results have clearly shown that the electro-coagulation method is very promising for industrial application. PMID:19844065

  19. Aluminium stress disrupts metabolic performance of Plantago almogravensis plantlets transiently.

    PubMed

    Grevenstuk, Tomás; Moing, Annick; Maucourt, Mickaël; Deborde, Catherine; Romano, Anabela

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how tolerant plants cope with internalized aluminium (Al). Tolerant plants are known to deploy efficient detoxification mechanisms, however it is not known to what extent the primary and secondary metabolism is affected by Al. The aim of this work was to study the metabolic repercussions of Al stress in the tolerant plant Plantago almogravensis. P. almogravensis is well adapted to acid soils where high concentrations of free Al are found and has been classified as a hyperaccumulator. In vitro reared plantlets were used for this purpose in order to control Al exposure rigorously. The metabolome of P. almogravensis plantlets as well as its metabolic response to the supply of sucrose was characterized. The supply of sucrose leads to an accumulation of amino acids and secondary metabolites and consumption of carbohydrates that result from increased metabolic activity. In Al-treated plantlets the synthesis of amino acids and secondary metabolites is transiently impaired, suggesting that P. almogravensis is able to recover from the Al treatment within the duration of the trials. In the presence of Al the consumption of carbohydrate resources is accelerated. The content of some metabolic stress markers also demonstrates that P. almogravensis is highly adapted to Al stress. PMID:26433896

  20. Workplace noise exposure after modernisation of an aluminium processing complex.

    PubMed

    Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Lukić, Jela; Udovicić, Ruzica; Zuskin, Eugenija; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Zajec, Zdenko

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess to which extent modernisation of an aluminium production complex reduced occupational noise hazard for jobs with the highest potential of exposure. Periodical measurements of noise level were taken at the same workplaces using the same method, before and after modernisation of all plants. The results were compared with the recommended standard. After modernisation, the noise was significantly reduced in all sections of all plants. The greatest reduction was measured in the foundry. After modernisation, the portion of workplaces with excessive noise level dropped significantly (chisquare=21.315; p<0.0001) from 78.4% to 13%. Noise remained a problem in ingot casting and dross skimming section. In the anode plant, noise remained a problem in the green mill section where noise intensities generated by mills and vibrocompactors varied from 95 dB(A) to 102 dB(A). In the electrolysis plant, the portion of workplaces with extensive noise dropped from 77.8% to 39.3% after modernisation (p=0.0019). Noise remains to be a problem at the anode covering section where levels rise up to 100 dB(A). The modernisation of the factory has considerably reduced the noise level in the working environment of all plants, but it can not be reduced completely. PMID:19789164

  1. Asthma caused by potassium aluminium tetrafluoride: a case series

    PubMed Central

    LAŠTOVKOVÁ, Andrea; KLUSÁČKOVÁ, Pavlina; FENCLOVÁ, Zdenka; BONNETERRE, Vincent; PELCLOVÁ, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe a case-series of potassium aluminium tetrafluoride (KAlF4)-induced occupational asthma (OA) and/or occupational rhinitis (OR). The study involves five patients from a heat-exchanger production line who were examined (including specific inhalation challenge tests) for suspected OA and/or OR caused by a flux containing almost 100% KAlF4 − with fluorides’ workplace air concentrations ranging between 1.7 and 2.8 mg/m3. No subject had a previous history of asthma. All five patients had a positive specific challenge test (three patients were diagnosed with OA alone, one with OR and one with both OR and OA). At the follow-up visit, after three years on average, all patients needed permanent corticosteroid therapy (four topical, one oral). After elimination from the exposure, only one of the observed subjects gave an indication of an improvement, two subjects stabilized and two worsened. Our case series focuses on the correlation between patients’ exposure to fluorides in air-conditioner production and the subsequent occurrence of OR/OA. Currently, it is uncertain whether these OR/OA were caused by hypersensitivity or irritation. PMID:26212411

  2. Heterometallic aluminates: alkali metals trapped by an aluminium aryloxide claw.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M Teresa; Cuenca, Tomás; Mosquera, Marta E G

    2014-10-14

    A series of heterometallic aluminium-alkali metal species [AlMMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}2]n have been isolated for lithium, sodium and potassium. These compounds can be generated by the reaction of [AlMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}]2 with the metallated phenol [M{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}]n or through the reaction of the mixture of AlMe3 and the appropriate alkali metal alkyl base with two equivalents of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. In the heterometallic species obtained, the {AlMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}2}(-) moiety is observed and could be described as a claw which fixes the alkali ion by the phenoxide oxygen atoms while the methoxy groups help to stabilize their coordination sphere. All compounds have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Catalytic studies reveal that these compounds are active in ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. PMID:24965205

  3. Asthma caused by potassium aluminium tetrafluoride: a case series.

    PubMed

    Laštovková, Andrea; Klusáčková, Pavlina; Fenclová, Zdenka; Bonneterre, Vincent; Pelclová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe a case-series of potassium aluminium tetrafluoride (KAlF(4))-induced occupational asthma (OA) and/or occupational rhinitis (OR). The study involves five patients from a heat-exchanger production line who were examined (including specific inhalation challenge tests) for suspected OA and/or OR caused by a flux containing almost 100% KAlF(4) - with fluorides' workplace air concentrations ranging between 1.7 and 2.8 mg/m(3). No subject had a previous history of asthma. All five patients had a positive specific challenge test (three patients were diagnosed with OA alone, one with OR and one with both OR and OA). At the follow-up visit, after three years on average, all patients needed permanent corticosteroid therapy (four topical, one oral). After elimination from the exposure, only one of the observed subjects gave an indication of an improvement, two subjects stabilized and two worsened. Our case series focuses on the correlation between patients' exposure to fluorides in air-conditioner production and the subsequent occurrence of OR/OA. Currently, it is uncertain whether these OR/OA were caused by hypersensitivity or irritation. PMID:26212411

  4. Industrial hygiene survey in an aluminium reduction plant in India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashit K; Ravichandran, Beerappa; Bhattacharya, Sanat K; Roy, Sanjit K; Ahmed, Sabir; Thakur, Sridhar; Saiyed, Habibullah N

    2008-09-01

    This study reports a work-environmental assessment and workers' exposure in a major prebake type aluminium smelter in India. Levels of known health hazards in and near the main smelting operations viz., the Potroom, the Carbon area, the Butt section, the Rodding shop, the Bath preparing area and the Casthouse were measured. Dustiness in general was high to excessively high. Mean levels of respirable dust (PM10) in air in the three dustiest areas were 24.07 mg/m3 in the Carbon areas, 27.57 mg/m3 in the Bath preparing and 4.44 mg/m3 in the Rodding shop. 40- 60% of the particles were less than 5 microm in size. 0.5- 2.82% particulate fluoride was obtained in the size fraction 0.4- 4.7 microm of the Potroom air. Naturally, exposures to total dusts were very high in these processes. The background levels of NOx and SO2 and fluorides (gaseous and particulate) were found to be within the prescribed Indian Standards. Higher exposures to gaseous and particulate fluoride, 3.85 and 6.53 mg/m3 respectively, were observed among the Rodding shop workers. The levels ofpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were deemed to be excessive in the Carbon area. Measurements of heat stress were made in winter and were found to be lower than the prescribed limit. PMID:18783008

  5. The interpretation of polycrystalline coherent inelastic neutron scattering from aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Daniel L.; Ross, D. Keith; Gale, Julian D.; Taylor, Jon W.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to the interpretation and analysis of coherent inelastic neutron scattering from polycrystals (poly-CINS) is presented. This article describes a simulation of the one-phonon coherent inelastic scattering from a lattice model of an arbitrary crystal system. The one-phonon component is characterized by sharp features, determined, for example, by boundaries of the (Q, ω) regions where one-phonon scattering is allowed. These features may be identified with the same features apparent in the measured total coherent inelastic cross section, the other components of which (multiphonon or multiple scattering) show no sharp features. The parameters of the model can then be relaxed to improve the fit between model and experiment. This method is of particular interest where no single crystals are available. To test the approach, the poly-CINS has been measured for polycrystalline aluminium using the MARI spectrometer (ISIS), because both lattice dynamical models and measured dispersion curves are available for this material. The models used include a simple Lennard-Jones model fitted to the elastic constants of this material plus a number of embedded atom method force fields. The agreement obtained suggests that the method demonstrated should be effective in developing models for other materials where single-crystal dispersion curves are not available. PMID:24282332

  6. The interpretation of polycrystalline coherent inelastic neutron scattering from aluminium.

    PubMed

    Roach, Daniel L; Ross, D Keith; Gale, Julian D; Taylor, Jon W

    2013-12-01

    A new approach to the interpretation and analysis of coherent inelastic neutron scattering from polycrystals (poly-CINS) is presented. This article describes a simulation of the one-phonon coherent inelastic scattering from a lattice model of an arbitrary crystal system. The one-phonon component is characterized by sharp features, determined, for example, by boundaries of the (Q, ω) regions where one-phonon scattering is allowed. These features may be identified with the same features apparent in the measured total coherent inelastic cross section, the other components of which (multiphonon or multiple scattering) show no sharp features. The parameters of the model can then be relaxed to improve the fit between model and experiment. This method is of particular interest where no single crystals are available. To test the approach, the poly-CINS has been measured for polycrystalline aluminium using the MARI spectrometer (ISIS), because both lattice dynamical models and measured dispersion curves are available for this material. The models used include a simple Lennard-Jones model fitted to the elastic constants of this material plus a number of embedded atom method force fields. The agreement obtained suggests that the method demonstrated should be effective in developing models for other materials where single-crystal dispersion curves are not available. PMID:24282332

  7. Successful Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Rahimi, Mitra; Hajesmaeili, Mohammadreza; Taherkhani, Maryam; Sadeghi, Roxana

    2016-03-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is one of the most commonly used pesticides worldwide with high mortality rates. Cellular damage and cardiorespiratory failure are the most common causes of mortality and morbidity after poisoning. It is supposed that giving enough time to the patient to survive, the most critical hours after exposure may help the cardiovascular system to recover itself and save the patient's life. During a training workshop for medical extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a 28-year-old ALP-poisoned male was referred to us. Fifty minutes after admission, he developed hypotension and bradycardia and was transferred to ICU. On the second venous blood gas, he had severe metabolic acidosis. After starting the patient on the routine treatment of ALP poisoning, he was a candidate for veno-arterial (VA) ECMO. After three days, lactate level decreased and his general condition improved. On day four, the patient was completely separated from the ECMO machine with acceptable echocardiography and ejection fraction of 40%. One day later, he was extubated, sent to the ward and subsequently discharged in good condition. We suggest this method of treatment for severe ALP poisoning as well as any other poisoning that causes cell toxicity and abrupt cardiovascular or respiratory failure. PMID:26335576

  8. Laser welding of copper and aluminium battery interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bono, Paola; Blackburn, Jon

    2015-07-01

    The adoption of lithium-ion and/or super-capacitor battery technologies is a current hot topic in the automotive industry. For both battery types, the terminals and busbars are manufactured from copper (Cu) and/or aluminium-based (Al-based) alloys, as a result of their high electrical and thermal conductivities. Laser welding is considered an attractive process to industry due to its easy automotability, high processing speed and highly repeatable cost-effective processing. However, laser welding of Cu-Cu and Al-Al joints presents several difficulties due to the high surface reflectivity at infrared (IR) wavelengths. This behaviour becomes even more critical when processing thin sheets and foils.This paper summarises recent work performed to develop laser welding techniques suitable for monometallic joining of Cu-Cu and Al-Al electrical interconnections. Laser welding of multiple overlapped foils (with thickness in the range of 17μm-100μm) were investigated.

  9. Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion

    PubMed Central

    Vailionis, Arturas; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Yang, Wenge; Rode, Andrei V.; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2011-01-01

    At extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those inside planets and stars, common materials form new dense phases with compacted atomic arrangements and unusual physical properties. The synthesis and study of new phases of matter at pressures above 100 GPa and temperatures above 104 Kwarm dense mattermay reveal the functional details of planet and star interiors, and may lead to materials with extraordinary properties. Many phases have been predicted theoretically that may be realized once appropriate formation conditions are found. Here we report the synthesis of a superdense stable phase of body-centred-cubic aluminium, predicted by first-principles theories to exist at pressures above 380 GPa. The superdense Al phase was synthesized in the non-equilibrium conditions of an ultrafast laser-induced microexplosion confined inside sapphire (?-Al2O3). Confined microexplosions offer a strategy to create and recover high-density polymorphs, and a simple method for tabletop study of warm dense matter. PMID:21863012

  10. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Sivasubramanian, J.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J.; Raja, B.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278 ± 3.121 to 189.872 ± 2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749 ± 2.052 to 21.170 ± 1.311 and 13.167 ± 1.441 to 8.953 ± 0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicdbnd CH stretching band and Cdbnd O stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes.

  11. Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24 µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10 = 18 µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) < mussel Mytilus edulis plannulatus (EC10 = 250 µg Al/L, 72-h embryo development) < oyster Saccostrea echinata (EC10 = 410 µg Al/L, 48-h embryo development). Toxicity to these species was the result of the dissolved aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used. PMID:25318392

  12. Simulation de la formabilite des alliages d'aluminium AA5754 et AA6063

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eljaafari, Samira

    Les besoins de reduction du poids se sont concretement traduits par l'introduction de nouvelles nuances plus legeres dans les structures automobiles. Ainsi, des alliages d'aluminium ont commence a etre integres dans les pieces de structure de plusieurs vehicules. La faible masse volumique des alliages d'aluminium (2,7g/cm3) permet d'alleger le poids du vehicule qui entraine une diminution de la consommation de carburant et, donc, des emissions de gaz a effet de serre. La striction et la rupture sont les principaux modes de defaillance qui entrainent le rebut systematique des pieces. C'est pourquoi, ameliorer la prediction d'apparition de ces defauts lors de la simulation va dans le sens d'une meilleure maitrise du procede. Dans le cadre de ce travail doctoral, deux modeles sont developpes pour simuler le comportement a grandes deformations d'alliages d'aluminium: un modele polycristallin de type Taylor et un modele a un ou plusieurs elements finis par grain. Les diagrammes limites de formage (DLF) pour les deux alliages d'aluminium AA5754 et AA6063 ont ete simules numeriquement en utilisant une formulation par elements finis pour les polycristaux basee sur l'hypothese de Taylor. Les DLF conventionnels et de l'hydroformage ont ete traces. L'effet des chemins de deformation sur la formabilite des alliages d'aluminium a aussi ete etudie. Finalement, des simulations numeriques avec les donnees de diffraction des electrons retrodiffuses (EBSD) pour 1'alliage d'aluminium AA5754 ont ete effectuees en utilisant le modele a un ou plusieurs elements par grain. Ces simulations sont executees avec differents modeles du durcissement (Asaro, Bassani et puissance). Mots-cles: Formabilite; Alliage d'aluminium; Hydroformage; Glissement cristallographique; Durcissement; Calcul parallele; Diagramme limite de formage (DLF); Diffraction electron.

  13. Synthesis of thiiranes by rhodium-catalyzed sulfur addition reaction to reactive alkenes.

    PubMed

    Arisawa, Mieko; Ichikawa, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

    2015-05-25

    A rhodium complex derived from RhH(PPh3)4, dppe, and 4-ethynyltoluene catalyzes the addition reaction of sulfur to norbornenes giving the corresponding thiiranes under acetone reflux conditions. The rhodium complex effectively transfers a sulfur atom to the double bond from sulfur, and exo-adducts are obtained. The reaction is also applicable to (E)-cyclooctene and cyclic allenes. The ring-opening reaction of the thiiranes with lithium aluminium hydride gives the corresponding thiols. PMID:25920577

  14. Neutron-activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction Determination of traces of antimony.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Shabana, R; Sanad, W; Allam, B; Khalifa, K

    1968-02-01

    The application of neutron activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction to the determination of traces of antimony in aluminium and rocks is reported. Three simple extraction procedures, using isopropyl ether, hexone, and tributyl phosphate, are described for the selective separation of radioantimony from interfering radionuclides. Antimony concentration is measured by counting the activities of the (122)Sb and (124)Sb photopeaks at 0.564 and 0.603 MeV. PMID:18960289

  15. Influence of the glass packing on the contamination of pharmaceutical products by aluminium. Part I: salts, glucose, heparin and albumin.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, D; do Nascimento, P C; Binotto, R; Pomblum, S C

    2001-01-01

    The presence of aluminium (Al) in pharmaceutical products used parenterally as sodium and potassium chlorides, glucose, heparin and albumin were investigated with respect to their storage in glass containers. As glasses can have aluminium in their composition, the aluminium may be released from the glass into the solution. The action of the substances above mentioned were investigated storing their solutions in glass and plastic containers, and measuring the aluminium in solution at determined time intervals. The aluminium present in the commercial pharmaceutical products, stored in both plastic and glass containers were also measured. All glass containers were analysed to determine their aluminium content. The aluminium determinations were done by atomic absorption spectrometry. The resuLts showed that aluminium is present in all analysed glasses in a percentage of 0.6 to 3%. Although all substances already have a residual aluminium contamination, the major contribution comes from the glass containers in which their solutions were stored. The contamination arising from glass depends too much on the nature of the substance. While the salts extracted about 400 microg Al/l in 60 days, glucose extracted 150 microg Al/l, and albumin and heparin about 500 microg Al/l in the same time interval. Commercial solutions of glucose contain about 10 microg Al/l when stored in polyethylene and from 350 to 1,000 microg Al/l when in glass ampules. Considering all commercial products, solutions stored in plastic containers contained no more than 20 microg Al/l whereas in glass the aluminium contamination reached 1,000 microg/l, and in all of them the aluminium increases with the age of the product. PMID:11787994

  16. Towards improvement of aluminium assay in quartz for in situ cosmogenic 26Al analysis at ANSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Toshiyuki; Fink, David; Mifsud, Charles

    2015-10-01

    Accuracy and precision in the measurement of natural aluminium abundances in quartz can affect the reliability of 26Al exposure dating and 26Al/10Be burial dating. At ANSTO, aliquots extracted from the HF solutions of dissolved quartz are treated in our laboratory, whereas ICP-OES analysis is performed at a commercial laboratory. The long-term inter-run reproducibility of our in-house standards show a limiting precision in Al measurements of 3-4% (1σ), which is lower than the claimed precision of Al analysis by ICP-OES. This indicates that unaccounted random errors are incorporated during our aliquot preparation. In this study, we performed several controlled tests to investigate effects of possible inconsistencies and variances during our aliquot preparation procedure. The results indicate that our procedure is robust against any subtle change in the preparation procedure, e.g., fuming temperatures, fuming reagents, and drying conditions. We found that the density of the solutions dispatched for ICP analysis is occasionally variable due to the presence of residual fuming reagents in the solution. A comparison of the results between the calibration curve and standard addition methods show that the former results are consistently lower than the latter by up to ∼14%. Similar offsets have been reported by previous studies. The reason for these discrepancies is mostly likely matrix effect, which is not accounted for by the calibration curve method. Further tests by varying matrix with impurities such as HF, HClO4, H2SO4 and Si identified that Si could cause lower offset in Al measurements; however, our ICP solutions are confirmed to be free from Si and the cause of matrix effect remains to be investigated. Hence, care must be taken for the measurement of Al concentrations in quartz by ICP-OES, either by ensuring that matrix effect is fully accounted for or by routinely employing standard additions when required.

  17. Aluminium impact on freshwater invertebrates at low pH: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Jan

    The state of knowledge on aluminium (Al) impact on freshwater invertebrates at low pH is reviewed. Mainly inorganic ions seem to be biologically harmful. Published effect/mechanism descriptions may seem somewhat contradictory, but this can be due to the heterogeneity of "the invertebrate group", as well as the multitude and complexity of occurring Al species, thereby also Al analysis problems. Addition of Al to streams has in some cases increased drift and death of mainly some "surface-dependent" species (chironomids, mayflies, dance flies, dixid midges), but also some strictly benthic animals (isopods, stoneflies), while other studies on a variety of animals do not record any change in neither drift, mortality nor biomass. In laboratory exposures Al has been shown to cause raised mortality for some daphnids and blackfly larvae at pH around 5; in the latter animals the effect was however mitigated by humus. A variety of other freshwater invertebrates were not affected. Moreover, at pH 4, Al has even been shown to improve the survival of mayfly nymphs and daphnids, otherwise impaired by the low pH in itself. The reason for this is not clear. Proofs for "food chain accumulation" of Al are still weak. Very high additions of Al have caused a decreased respiration rate in a dragonfly nymph, while a more field-relevant exposure level increased respiration in mayfly nymphs. This suggests a stress situation, probably due to impaired osmoregulation, indicating chemical or mechanical Al impact. The lowered oxygen uptake is then compensated for by improved respiration rate. A model for this is presented. Studies on crayfish, daphnids, mayflies and waterbugs indicate that Al can lower osmoregulatory efficiency and thereby affect the ion balance maintaining mechanisms of the animals. Such sublethal effects are important and should be studied further. The review also critically discusses the concepts mortality and bioavailability.

  18. Tensile Strength and Hardness Correlations with Microscopy in Friction welded Aluminium to Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish, Rengarajan; Seshagiri Rao, Vaddi; Ananthapadmanaban, Dattaguru; Ravi, Balappa

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and copper are good conductors of heat and electricity, copper being the better conductor, is a costly metal indeed. On the other hand, aluminium is cheap, easily available and also has a lower density than copper. Hence, worldwide efforts are being made to partially replace copper wire. Solid state welding should be used to join aluminium to copper. This is because the use of fusion welding results in brittle phases formed in the weld interface. One of the solid state welding techniques used for joining aluminium to copper is friction welding. In this paper, an attempt has been made to join aluminium to copper by friction welding by varying the friction welding parameters, namely friction pressure, upset pressure, burn-off length and speed of rotation of the workpiece. Nine different friction welding parameter combinations were used during welding in accordance with ASTM standards and results have been reported. Tensile strength and hardness tests were carried out for each parameter combination. Optimum friction welding parameter combination was identified with respect to tensile strength. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron dispersive spectroanalysis were obtained to identify modes of fracture and presence of intermetallic phases for each friction welding combination with the aim to narrow down friction welding parameters that give good properties on the whole.

  19. Modulatory Role of Simvastatin against Aluminium Chloride-Induced Behavioural and Biochemical Changes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nampoothiri, Madhavan; John, Jessy; Kumar, Nitesh; Mudgal, Jayesh; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Aluminium, a neurotoxic agent in humans, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we examined the behavioral and biochemical effects of aluminium in rats with special emphasis on memory centres, namely, hippocampus and frontal cortex. Further, the effect of simvastatin treatment on aluminium intoxication was evaluated. Methods. Rats were exposed to aluminium chloride (AlCl3) for 60 days. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg/p.o.) and rivastigmine (1 mg/kg/p.o.) were administered daily prior to AlCl3. Behavioral parameters were assessed using Morris water maze test and actophotometer followed by biochemical investigations, namely, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, TNF-α level, antioxidant enzymes (GSH, catalase), lipid peroxidation, and nitrite level in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels in serum were also determined. Key Findings. Simvastatin treatment improved cognitive function and locomotor activity in rats. Simvastatin reversed hyperlipidemia and significantly rectified the deleterious effect of AlCl3 on AChE activity. Further, in hippocampus and frontal cortex, aluminium-induced elevation in nitrite and TNF-α and reduction in antioxidant enzymes were inhibited by simvastatin. Conclusion. To conclude, the present study suggests that simvastatin per se protects the neurons in hippocampus and frontal cortex from AlCl3, an environmental toxin. PMID:25802481

  20. Highly aluminium doped barium and strontium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by citrate auto-combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J. . E-mail: neil.shirtcliffe@ntu.ac.uk; Thompson, Simon; O'Keefe, Eoin S.; Appleton, Steve; Perry, Carole C. . E-mail: carole.perry@ntu.ac.uk

    2007-02-15

    Aluminium doped barium and strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles BaAl {sub x}Fe{sub (12-x)}O{sub 19} and SrAl {sub x}Fe{sub (12-x)}O{sub 19} were synthesised via a sol-gel route using citric acid to complex the ions followed by an auto-combustion reaction. This method shows promise for the synthesis of complex ferrite powders with small particle size. It was found that around half of the iron could be substituted for aluminium in the barium ferrite with structure retention, whereas strontium aluminium ferrites could be produced with any aluminium content including total substitution of the iron. All synthesised materials consisted of particles smaller than 1 {mu}m, which is the size of a single magnetic domain, and various doping levels were achieved with the final elemental composition being within the bounds of experimental error. The materials show structural and morphological changes as they move from iron to aluminium ferrites. Such materials may be promising for imaging applications.

  1. Study of solid-solution hardening in binary aluminium-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draissia, Mohamed; Debili, Mohamed-Yacine

    2005-09-01

    Solid-solution formation in binary aluminium-based alloys is due essentially to the combined effects of the size and valence of solvent and solute atoms, as expected by the four Hume-Rothery rules. The lattice parameter of aluminium in the solid solution of the sputtered Al-Fe films is [Al-a (Å)=4.052-6.6×10-3Y]. The increasing and decreasing evolution of the lattice parameter of copper [Cu-a (Å)=3.612+1.8×10-3Z] and aluminium [Al-a (Å)=4.048-1.6×10-3X] in the sputtered Al-1.8 to 92.5 at. % Cu films is a result of the difference in size between the aluminium and copper atoms. The low solubility of copper in aluminium (<1.8 at % Cu) is due to the valences of solvent and solute atoms in contrast with other sputtered films prepared under similar conditions, such as Al-Mg (20 at. % Mg), Al-Ti (27 at. % Ti), Al-Cr (5at. % Cr) and Al-Fe (5.5 at. % Fe) where the solubility is due to the difference in size.

  2. Assessing aluminium toxicity in streams affected by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Waters, A S; Webster-Brown, J G

    2013-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has degraded water quality and ecology in streams on the Stockton Plateau, the site of New Zealand's largest open-cast coal mining operation. This has previously been attributed largely to the effects of acidity and elevated aluminium (Al) concentrations. However, the toxicity of dissolved Al is dependent on speciation, which is influenced by pH which affects Al hydrolysis, as well as the concentrations of organic carbon and sulphate which complex Al. Methods for the assessment of the toxic fraction of Al, by chemical analysis and geochemical modelling, have been investigated in selected streams on the Stockton Plateau, where dissolved Al concentrations ranged from 0.034 to 27 mg L(-1). Modelling using PHREEQC indicated that between 0.2 and 85% of the dissolved Al was present as the free ion Al(3+), the most toxic Al species, which dominated in waters of pH = 3.8-4.8. Al-sulphate complexation reduced the Al(3+) concentration at lower pH, while Al-organic and -hydroxide complexes dominated at higher pH. Macroinvertebrate richness in the streams identified an Al(3+) 'threshold' of approximately 0.42 mg/L, above which taxa declined rapidly. Colorimetric 'Aluminon' analysis on unpreserved, unfiltered waters provided a better estimation of Al(3+) concentrations than inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on filtered, acidified waters. The Aluminon method does not react with particulate Al or strong Al complexes, often registering as little as 53% of the dissolved Al concentration determined by ICP-MS. PMID:23579831

  3. Effect of aluminium on the polymerization of silicic acid in aqueous solution and the deposition of silica

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Tarutani, T. . Faculty of Science); Yamanaka, C. )

    1989-01-01

    The effect of aluminium on the polymerization of silicic acid was studied at pH 7, 8 and 9 in the aluminium concentration range of 0-26 ppm (Al) by spectrophotometry, gel chromatography and /sup 27/Al NMR. Retarding and accelerating effects of aluminium on the growth of polysilicic acid particles and on the reaction between monosilicic acid and polysilicic acid were observed by changing the pH. It is suggested that the accelerating effect on the reaction between polysilicic acid particles is due to the formation of aluminium hydroxide on the surface of polysilicic acid. The rate of decrease in the monosilicic acid concentration in the presence of aluminium was faster than that in the absence of aluminium at pH 9, because monosilicic acid could be adsorbed rapidly on the aluminium hydroxide. From the results it is presumed that the formation of aluminium hydroxide on the solid surface may accelerate the deposition of silicic acid from geothermal water.

  4. Indirect method for the determination of aluminium by atomic-absorption spectrometry using an air-acetylene flame.

    PubMed

    Ottaway, J M; Coker, D T; Singleton, B

    1972-06-01

    The enhancement of the atomic-absorption signals of iron, cobalt, nickel and chromium in a fuel-rich air-acetylene flame by small amounts of aluminium makes possible the indirect determination of aluminium in the concentration range 0.01-10 ppm. The optimization of working conditions and the occurrence of interferences are reported. PMID:18961114

  5. Study of aluminium concentration and speciation of surface water in four catchments in the Limousin region (France).

    PubMed

    Guibaud, Gilles; Gauthier, Cécile

    2003-09-15

    This study highlights the contamination of the upstream catchment of several rivers (Vienne, Gartempe, Vézère) in the Limousin (France) by aluminium in the absence of atmospheric pollution. The presence of acid soils on a granitic platform is a natural factor which contributes to the presence of protons and aluminium in water. In the Limousin, it seems that the presence of aluminium in surface water is due to a combination of natural factors: poor acid soils, numerous wet moors and peat bogs. It is currently difficult to evaluate the real impact of intensive cultivation of coniferous trees on the aluminium concentrations found in water in this area. In water, the concentration in total aluminium increases with a decrease in pH and an increase in organic matter. Despite, high concentrations of total aluminium at low pH (close to or lower than 6), the monomeric toxic forms of aluminium, computed with a speciation software, are always inferior to the toxic values for fish. Under such conditions, the concentration in aluminium recorded in some upstream catchments of the Limousin rivers may not cause damage to aquatic life. PMID:14507456

  6. Role of low temperature resistivity on fast electron transport in disordered aluminium and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, David R.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Pasley, John

    2015-08-01

    To determine the link between the onset of the filamentation instability and the low temperature resistivity of the cold-electron plasma, a comparison between the transport of fast electrons through disordered aluminium and copper targets is made using the hybrid code Zephyros. The filamentation instability is suppressed at laser intensities below 5 ×1019 Wcm-2 for materials where the resistivity of the material is lower than 1 μΩm at 1 eV. Interestingly, copper targets show larger resistive magnetic field growth, and as a result, more collimation of the electron beam, despite having a consistently smaller resistivity at lower temperatures than that of aluminium. The increase in magnetic field strength is responsible for the suppression of the filamentation instability. This is due to the resistive filamentation growth rate for copper and aluminium, under identical conditions, being numerically very close.

  7. Evaluation Of Four Welding Arc Processes Applied To 6061 Aluminium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, A.; Paillard, P.; Baudin, T.; Jobez, S.; Castagné, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    At a time when greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced, the use of the aluminium alloys is expanding, in particular in the transportation industry. In order to extend the possibilities of aluminium assembly design, new Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding processes have been conceived. They work at lower temperatures than usual arc processes (classic MIG or Tungsten Inert Gas). This study compares four arc welding processes, applied to the 6061 aluminium alloy. These four weld processes have been studied through the metallurgical analysis of the weld beads. Metallography, micro-hardness testings, X Ray radiography have been carried out on the produced weld beads. The processes are classified according to the quality of the beads like geometry of beads, size of the heat affected zone and presence of defects.

  8. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part I Microstructural investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Piotrowska, Kamila; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    The surface treatment of aluminium alloys under steam containing KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in the formation of an oxide layer having a thickness of up to 825 nm. The use of KMnO4 and HNO3 in the steam resulted in incorporation of the respective chemical species into the oxide layer. Steam treatment with solution containing HNO3 caused dissolution of Cu and Si from the intermetallic particles in the aluminium substrate. The growth rate of oxide layer was observed to be a function of MnO4- and NO3- ions present in the aqueous solution. The NO3- ions exhibit higher affinity towards the intermetallic particles resulting in poor coverage by the steam generated oxide layer compared to the coating formed using MnO4- ions. Further, increase in the concentration of NO3- ions in the solution retards precipitation of the steam generated aluminium hydroxide layer.

  9. Protective Role of G6PD Deficiency in Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Humayun, Mohammad; Haider, Iqbal; Badshah, Aliena; Subhan, Fazle

    2015-04-01

    A 15-year-old boy was referred to the hospital from the periphery with a history of ingestion of 5 wheat pills (aluminium phosphide) 5 days back. He had been given a stomach wash in his village hospital prior to referral. On arrival, he was jaundiced and had developed haematuria too, but otherwise appeared well in himself. Four days after admission, his haemoglobin showed a marked drop and he was shifted to intensive care, keeping in mind the high mortality rate associated with aluminium phosphide intoxication. His G6PD levels were checked, and he turned out to be G6PD deficient. The patient was given intravenous magnesium sulphate and supportive care and he improved subsequently. Wheat pill poisoning carries a high mortality of 98% in some cases; despite the high mortality, this patient survived. This may mean that G6PD deficiency has a protective role in poisoning due to aluminium phosphide. PMID:25933472

  10. Stimulation of amphibian gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion by sucralfate and aluminium: role of local prostaglandin metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, J R; Gibbons, L C; Rees, W D

    1988-01-01

    The present studies were designed to explore the possible mode of protective and ulcer healing actions of sucralfate by examining its effect on gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion by isolated amphibian mucosa. Luminal sucralfate (0.5 g/l) significantly increased bicarbonate secretion by fundic and antral mucosa without influencing transmucosal potential difference. Significant stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion occurred only at 1.0 g/l without change in potential difference. Aluminium, a component of sucralfate, produced similar increases in bicarbonate secretion, while the sucrose and sulphate components were without effect. Pretreatment of mucosae with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 5M) did not abolish the secretory response to sucralfate or aluminium. The results suggest that stimulation of gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion, possibly by the aluminium moiety of sucralfate, may play a role in its protective and ulcer healing actions. PMID:3260886

  11. Evaluation Of Four Welding Arc Processes Applied To 6061 Aluminium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, A.; Paillard, P.; Baudin, T.; Jobez, S.; Castagne, J.-F.

    2011-01-17

    At a time when greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced, the use of the aluminium alloys is expanding, in particular in the transportation industry. In order to extend the possibilities of aluminium assembly design, new Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding processes have been conceived. They work at lower temperatures than usual arc processes (classic MIG or Tungsten Inert Gas). This study compares four arc welding processes, applied to the 6061 aluminium alloy. These four weld processes have been studied through the metallurgical analysis of the weld beads. Metallography, micro-hardness testings, X Ray radiography have been carried out on the produced weld beads. The processes are classified according to the quality of the beads like geometry of beads, size of the heat affected zone and presence of defects.

  12. Influence of humidity on atmospheric pressure air plasma treatment of aluminium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prysiazhnyi, V.; Zaporojchenko, V.; Kersten, H.; Černák, M.

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric pressure air plasma treatment of aluminium surfaces and its aging behaviour in different environments were studied. Two types of aluminium samples with different purity and surface morphology were treated using the diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD). Surface free energy (SFE) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been utilised to characterise changes induced by the plasma. A significant decrease of hydrocarbon contaminants after the plasma treatment was observed. It is concluded that besides the re-contamination by exposure to ambient air, the aging effect, i.e. decrease of the surface free energy of plasma treated surfaces, can be due by dehydration of aluminium oxide layer. Also, it was observed that the humid air plasma treatment resulted in generation of sbnd NOx surface groups.

  13. Development of graphene-nanometre-sized cerium oxide-incorporated aluminium and its electrochemical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, P. Muhamed; Thomas, Saly N.; Edwin, Leela

    2016-02-01

    Graphene-nanometre-sized cerium oxide-incorporated aluminium was prepared and its electrochemical and surface morphological characteristics were studied. The atomic force micrographs and scanning electron micrographs evaluation highlighted that the graphene and nanometre-sized cerium oxide in aluminium had decreased the surface roughness and improved the surface morphological characteristics. The graphene: nanometre-sized cerium oxide (ratios 1:2 or 2:1) with lesser amounts of particle in the matrix showed excellent corrosion resistance in the marine environment as evidenced by linear polarization, electrochemical impedance and weight loss studies. Introduction of graphene in the aluminium matrix showed a barrier separation between the outermost layer and inner layer, increased roughness and increased corrosion. The material is found to be a potential candidate for use in marine environment.

  14. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J L; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kgb.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits-NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24084166

  15. Exposure and inhalation risk assessment in an aluminium cast-house.

    PubMed

    Godderis, L; Vanderheyden, W; Van Geel, J; Moens, G; Masschelein, R; Veulemans, H

    2005-12-01

    To date the exposure, absorption and respiratory health effects of cast-house workers have not been described since most studies performed in the aluminium industry are focused on exposure and health effects of potroom personnel. In the present study, we assessed the external exposure and the absorbed dose of metals in personnel from the aluminium cast house. This was combined with an evaluation of respiratory complaints and the lung function of the personnel. 30 workers from an aluminium casting plant participated and 17 individuals of the packaging and distribution departments were selected as controls. The exposure was assessed by the quantification of total inhalable fume with metal fraction and by the determination of urinary aluminium, chromium, beryllium, manganese and lead concentration. Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), aldehydes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and man-made mineral fibres concentration were assessed as well. In order to evaluate their respiratory status each participant filled out a questionnaire and their lung function was tested by forced spirometry. Total inhalable fume exposure was maximum 4.37 mg m(-3). Exposure to the combustion gases, man-made mineral fibres and metal fume was well below the exposure limits. Beryllium could not be detected in the urine. The values of aluminium, manganese and lead in the urine were all under the respective reference value. One individual had a urinary chromium excretion above the ACGIH defined biological exposure index (BEI) of 30 microg g(-1) creatinine. There was no significant difference in any of the categories of the respiratory questionnaire and in the results of the spirometry between cast house personnel and referents (Chi-square, all p > 0.05). Exposure in cast houses seem to be acceptable under these conditions. However, peak exposure to fumes cannot be excluded and the potential risk of chromium and beryllium exposure due to the recycling of aluminium requires further attention. PMID:16307097

  16. Analysis of cutting forces during dry turning processes of UNS A92024-T3 aluminium bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Agustina, B.; Rubio, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    In the aeronautical and aerospace industries there is a great demand of materials with high resistance and low weight such as the aluminium alloys for the production of different elements that conforms the airships and aerospace vehicles. In this work, an experimental study was carried out in order to analyse the influence of the cutting parameters (feed rate, cutting speed and type of tool) on the forces generated during dry turning tests of UNS A92024-T3 aluminium bars. The main influents factors on the forces were the feed rate and the interaction between type of tool and the spindle speed.

  17. PTMS on iron and aluminium oxide surfaces: a study of damped adsorption kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, J.; Dastoor, P.; Allison, W.

    1998-05-01

    The kinetic processes taking place during the adsorption of propyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS) onto polycrystalline iron and aluminium oxide surfaces have been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Although the adsorption of PTMS on iron reaches equilibrium within a few seconds, the adsorption of PTMS on aluminium exhibits a dramatic time dependence. The presence of a single oscillation in the adsorbate coverage as a function of time indicates the existence of two distinct surface species, each of whose coverage varies dynamically, confirming the predictions of an earlier model.

  18. Semi-Solid Processing by Electric Current During Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodhan, Anjan

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the effect of DC and 50Hz AC treatment (ECT) on aluminium or aluminium alloys during solidification in sand moulds i.e., at their semisolid state. Castings, with different geometry, were made in open or closed sand moulds. It is observed that ECT (a) reduces dissolved gas, (b) reduces internal shrinkage and (c) metal mould reactions in castings. It is also observed that the AC treatment is more effective compared to DC treatment. ECT changes the movement of solidification front. The optical microstructures of ECT samples are quite similar to the samples treated in other semisolid processing methods.

  19. Silica mesoporous thin films as containers for benzotriazole for corrosion protection of 2024 aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recloux, Isaline; Mouanga, Maixent; Druart, Marie-Eve; Paint, Yoann; Olivier, Marie-Georges

    2015-08-01

    This work contributes to the development of a new environmentally friendly alternative pretreatment for 2024 aluminium alloys to replace hexavalent chromium based conversion layers in the aeronautical field. A silica mesoporous thin film, synthesized through the evaporation induced self-assembly process, was doped with benzotriazole to obtain active corrosion protection. Inhibitor loading contents were correlated with pore characteristics. The release kinetics was studied as function of pH. The application of the doped mesoporous film on 2024 aluminium alloy revealed a slowing down of corrosion processes, demonstrating its potential as an active inhibitor storage layer.

  20. PIXE analysis for the study of toxic effects of aluminium in vines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. R.; Le Roux, E.; Renan, M. J.; Peisach, M.

    1984-04-01

    Elemental concentrations of Mg, A1, Si, P, S, Cl, K and Ca were determined by PIXE in various parts of grape vines grown in a Hoagland water culture with and without added aluminium. The presence of Al enhanced the uptake of P, S and K in leaves and stems, but depressed Mg and Ca. In the roots the Al concentration was very high, while that of Mg was reduced compared to the control samples. The toxic effects of aluminium produced symptoms reminiscent of calcium deficiency.

  1. Severe reversible myocardial injury associated with aluminium phosphide toxicity: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Elabbassi, Wael; Chowdhury, Mohammed Andaleeb; Fachtartz, Arif Al Nooryani

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide is commonly used as an insecticide and can be toxic to humans at the cellular level by interfering with mitochondrial energy metabolism. We report on three cases of severe aluminium phosphide cardio-toxicity, resulting in severe decrease in both ventricular heart functions. The first case succumbed to intractable ventricular arrhythmias complicated by multi-organ failure before she died; while the other two cases required invasive hemodynamic support and eventually improved over the course of 10–14 days. We describe our experience and the challenges faced while managing one of them. PMID:25278724

  2. Thermal ablation of an aluminium film upon absorption of a femtosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezhanov, S. G.; Kanavin, A. P.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    We have found the time dependence of the ablation depth of aluminium irradiated by a femtosecond laser pulse. It is shown to what extent an increase in the radiation energy flux density leads to an increase in the quasi-stationary value of the ablation depth. By reducing the aluminium film thickness down to one hundred nanometres and less, the ablation depth significantly increases. At the same time, the quasi-stationary value of the ablation depth of a thin film is obtained due to the removal of heat from the focal spot region.

  3. Regulatory role of zinc during aluminium-induced altered carbohydrate metabolism in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

    2012-03-01

    Aluminium is considered an environmental neurotoxicant and causes many neurological disorders, whereas zinc is vital for many biological functions. The present study was carried out to investigate the role of Zn, if any, in mitigating the adverse effects inflicted by Al on carbohydrate metabolism in rat brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 140-160 g were divided into four different groups: normal control, Al-treated (100 mg/kg b.w./day in drinking water via oral gavage), Zn-treated (227mg/liter in drinking water), and combined Al- and Zn-treated rats. All the treatments were continued for 2 months, and their effects on carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes were studied. Additionally, expressions of the proteins glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and protein phosphatase (PP1), which help in regulating carbohydrate energy metabolism, were also studied. Al treatment resulted in increased activities of the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P), glucose-6-isomerase (G6I), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), whereas the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and glycogen content were decreased. Moreover, no significant change was observed in the biochemical parameters upon Zn supplementation alone. However, Zn supplementation to Al-treated rats was able to reduce significantly the Al-induced increased activities of G6P, G6I, and LDH, but it elevated the levels of hexokinase, SDH, and glycogen. Furthermore, Al treatment increased the protein expression of GSK3 and decreased the PP1 expression, which were found to be reversed upon Zn administration. Hence, Zn is effective in regulating theAl-induced alterations in carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:22108899

  4. In situ observation and analysis of ultrasonic capillary effect in molten aluminium.

    PubMed

    Tzanakis, I; Xu, W W; Eskin, D G; Lee, P D; Kotsovinos, N

    2015-11-01

    An in situ synchrotron radiographic study of a molten Al-10 wt% Cu alloy under the influence of an external ultrasonic field was carried out using the Diamond-Manchester Branchline pink X-ray imaging at the Diamond Light Source in UK. A bespoke test rig was used, consisting of an acoustic transducer with a titanium sonotrode coupled with a PID-controlled resistance furnace. An ultrasonic frequency of 30 kHz, with a peak to peak amplitude at 140 microns, was used, producing a pressure output of 16.9 MPa at the radiation surface of the 1-mm diameter sonotrode. This allowed quantification of not only the cavitation bubble formation and collapse, but there was also evidence of the previously hypothesised ultrasonic capillary effect (UCE), providing the first direct observations of this phenomenon in a molten metallic alloy. This was achieved by quantifying the re-filling of a pre-existing groove in the shape of a tube (which acted as a micro-capillary channel) formed by the oxide envelope of the liquid sample. Analytical solutions of the flow suggest that the filling process, which took place in very small timescales, was related to micro-jetting from the collapsing cavitation bubbles. In addition, a secondary mechanism of liquid penetration through the groove, which is related with the density distribution of the oxides inside the groove, and practically to the filtration of aluminium melt from oxides, was revealed. The observation of the almost instantaneous re-filling of a micro-capillary channel with the metallic melt supports the hypothesised sono-capillary effect in technologically important liquids other than water, like metallic alloys with substantially higher surface tension and density. PMID:26186822

  5. Additives boost gasoline quality

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, L.M.

    1989-04-24

    Gasoline additives have become more important to the supply of high-quality finished gasoline. Additives are used for the inhibition of oxidation, rust, and gum formation, and for prevention of deposits on and in engine components. The demand for high-quality fuels has led to many different additives that are added at the refinery and downstream. This article describes some of the most important additives, what they are and what they do, and gives some guidelines on the selection and addition of them to the gasoline product.

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  7. Numerical analysis of experiments on the generation of shock waves in aluminium under indirect (X-ray) action on the Iskra-5 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S V; Dolgoleva, G V; Novikova, E A

    2013-07-31

    The dynamics of laser and X-ray radiation fields in experiments with cylindrical converter boxes (illuminators), which had earlier been carried out on the Iskra-5 laser facility (the second harmonic of iodine laser radiation, {lambda} = 0.66 {mu}m) was investigated in a sector approximation using the SND-LIRA numerical technique. In these experiments, the X-ray radiation temperature in the box was determined by measuring the velocity of the shock wave generated in the sample under investigation, which was located at the end of the cylindrical illuminator. Through simulations were made using the SND-LIRA code, which took into account the absorption of laser driver radiation at the box walls, the production of quasithermal radiation, as well as the formation and propagation of the shock wave in the sample under investigation. An analysis of the experiments permits determining the electron thermal flux limiter f: for f = 0.03 it is possible to match the experimental scaling data for X-ray in-box radiation temperature to the data of our simulations. The shock velocities obtained from the simulations are also consistent with experimental data. In particular, in the experiment with six laser beams (and a laser energy E{sub L} = 1380 J introduced into the box) the velocity of the shock front (determined from the position of a laser mark) after passage through a 50-{mu}m thick base aluminium layer was equal to 35{+-}1.6 km s{sup -1}, and in simulations to 36 km s{sup -1}. In the experiment with four laser beams (for E{sub L} = 850 J) the shock velocity (measured from the difference of transit times through the base aluminium layer and an additional thin aluminium platelet) was equal to 30{+-}3.6 km s{sup -1}, and in simulations to 30 km s{sup -1}. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  8. Numerical analysis of experiments on the generation of shock waves in aluminium under indirect (X-ray) action on the Iskra-5 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, S. V.; Dolgoleva, G. V.; Novikova, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    The dynamics of laser and X-ray radiation fields in experiments with cylindrical converter boxes (illuminators), which had earlier been carried out on the Iskra-5 laser facility (the second harmonic of iodine laser radiation, λ = 0.66 μm) was investigated in a sector approximation using the SND-LIRA numerical technique. In these experiments, the X-ray radiation temperature in the box was determined by measuring the velocity of the shock wave generated in the sample under investigation, which was located at the end of the cylindrical illuminator. Through simulations were made using the SND-LIRA code, which took into account the absorption of laser driver radiation at the box walls, the production of quasithermal radiation, as well as the formation and propagation of the shock wave in the sample under investigation. An analysis of the experiments permits determining the electron thermal flux limiter f: for f = 0.03 it is possible to match the experimental scaling data for X-ray in-box radiation temperature to the data of our simulations. The shock velocities obtained from the simulations are also consistent with experimental data. In particular, in the experiment with six laser beams (and a laser energy EL = 1380 J introduced into the box) the velocity of the shock front (determined from the position of a laser mark) after passage through a 50-μm thick base aluminium layer was equal to 35+/-1.6 km s-1, and in simulations to 36 km s-1. In the experiment with four laser beams (for EL = 850 J) the shock velocity (measured from the difference of transit times through the base aluminium layer and an additional thin aluminium platelet) was equal to 30+/-3.6 km s-1, and in simulations to 30 km s-1.

  9. Fracturing-fluid additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, P.C. )

    1988-10-01

    Fracturing-fluid additives serve two purposes: to enhance fracture creation and proppant-carrying capacity and to minimize formation damage. Additives that assist fracture creation include viscosifiers, temperature stabilizers, pH-control agents, and fluid-loss-control materials. Those used to minimize formation damage are gel breakers, biocides, surfactants, clay stabilizers, and gases. This paper discusses the qualities and applications of each of these additives.

  10. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  11. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S D; Jackson, G E; Platt, S R

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  12. Aluminium deposition in liver and kidney following acute intravenous administration of aluminium chloride or citrate in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A J; Wood, J A; Saunders, H C; Freeman, M S; Lote, C J

    1995-10-01

    1. Plasma, urinary, liver and kidney cell aluminium (Al) levels were monitored in the rat, 1h after intravenous administration of 29630 nmol (800 micrograms) Al as either Al chloride or as Al citrate (Al chloride plus excess sodium citrate). Al levels were measured in plasma, urine and liver by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Liver and kidney Al content was measured at the cellular and subcellular level by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA). 2. Urinary excretion of Al was significantly higher (P < 0.01), when Al was given as the citrate than as the chloride. After 1h, plasma Al levels were significantly lower in the Al citrate group than the Al chloride group (59 +/- 3.7 vs 877 +/- 214 nmol ml-1, respectively; P < 0.01). 3. Al concentrations were significantly higher in the livers of rats receiving Al chloride (818 +/- 252 nmol g-1 wet weight; P < 0.05), than in either control or Al citrate groups (122 +/- 41 and 107 +/- 26 nmol g-1 wet weight, respectively). Al concentrations derived from EPXMA measurements were in agreement with AAS values for the three groups, with significantly higher Al concentrations in the Al chloride group (1.7 +/- 0.4 nmol mg-1 dry weight; P < 0.05) than in the control or Al citrate groups, where Al was not detectable. EPXMA analysis showed that Al was distributed in all liver organelles analysed (cytoplasm, mitochondria, nucleus, ER) and was not preferentially taken up by any one organelle in Al chloride treated rats. 4. Significant amounts of Al were found in cytoplasm and mitochondria of proximal tubule cells of rats given Al citrate (0.64 +/- 0.15 and 0.80 +/- 0.11 nmol mg-1 dry weight, respectively), but not in nuclei or lysosomes of these cells. Al levels were not detectable in control kidneys, in proximal tubule cells after Al chloride administration or distal tubule cells after either Al treatment. PMID:8562118

  13. Heat transfer in He I for industrially manufactured aluminium plate heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, B.; Bon Mardion, G.; Claudet, G.; Desmaris, M.

    The heat transfer characteristics in boiling helium for commercially available aluminium plate heat exchangers, with and without fins, are given. In nucleate boiling both surfaces present the same heat transfer characteristics. For film boiling, the presence of fins improves heat transfer. It was also verified that for surfaces without fins, the peak nucleate boiling flux follows a Kutateladze law.

  14. Fractal dimension values of cerebral and cerebellar activity in rats loaded with aluminium.

    PubMed

    Kekovic, Goran; Culic, Milka; Martac, Ljiljana; Stojadinovic, Gordana; Capo, Ivan; Lalosevic, Dusan; Sekulic, Slobodan

    2010-07-01

    Aluminium interferes with a variety of cellular metabolic processes in the mammalian nervous system and its intake might increase a risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). While cerebral involvement even at the early stages of intoxication is well known, the role of cerebellum is underestimated. Our aim was to investigate cerebral and cerebellar electrocortical activity in adult male rats exposed to chronic aluminium treatment by nonlinear analytic tools. The adult rats in an aluminium-treated group were injected by AlCl(3), intraperitoneally (2 mg Al/kg, daily for 4 weeks). Fractal analysis of brain activity was performed off-line using Higuchi's algorithm. The average fractal dimension of electrocortical activity in aluminium-treated animals was lower than the average fractal dimension of electrocortical activity in the control rats, at cerebral but not at cerebellar level. The changes in the stationary and nonlinear properties of time series were more expressed in cerebral electrocortical activity than in cerebellar activity. This can be useful for developing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20424923

  15. Application of laser in seam welding of dissimilar steel to aluminium joints for thick structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, S.; Pardal, G.; Ganguly, S.; Williams, S.; McPherson, N.

    2015-04-01

    Laser welding-brazing technique, using a continuous wave (CW) fibre laser with 8000 W of maximum power, was applied in conduction mode to join 2 mm thick steel (XF350) to 6 mm thick aluminium (AA5083-H22), in a lap joint configuration with steel on the top. The steel surface was irradiated by the laser and the heat was conducted through the steel plate to the steel-aluminium interface, where the aluminium melts and wets the steel surface. The welded samples were defect free and the weld micrographs revealed presence of a brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) layer resulting from reaction of Fe and Al atoms. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicated the stoichiometry of the IMC as Fe2Al5 and FeAl3, the former with maximum microhardness measured of 1145 HV 0.025/10. The IMC layer thickness varied between 4 to 21 μm depending upon the laser processing parameters. The IMC layer showed an exponential growth pattern with the applied specific point energy (Esp) at a constant power density (PD). Higher PD values accelerate the IMC layer growth. The mechanical shear strength showed a narrow band of variation in all the samples (with the maximum value registered at 31.3 kN), with a marginal increase in the applied Esp. This could be explained by the fact that increasing the Esp results into an increase in the wetting and thereby the bonded area in the steel-aluminium interface.

  16. NMR and IR characterization of the aluminium complexes of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Chattah, Ana K; Linck, Yamila Garro; Monti, Gustavo A; Levstein, Patricia R; Breda, Susana A; Manzo, Rubén H; Olivera, María E

    2007-10-01

    A set of new aluminium complexes of norfloxacin (NOR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) that show an improvement in their pharmaceutical properties were studied using solution and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The complexes synthesized with two different methods were compared. One of these methods will allow formulation of the compounds at production scale. High-resolution (13)C spectra were obtained with the cross-polarization and magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) experiment. These spectra were assigned by comparing them with the solution data of the pure drug and by using a quaternary carbon edition technique. The carbon relaxation times in the rotating frame, T(1rhoC), were measured for all the complexes. A two-exponential decay evidences that the complexes are nonhomogeneous. The short T(1rhoC) values are in the range 320-1100 micros and the long values in the range 1.8-7 ms. (27)Al MAS NMR spectra revealed an octahedral coordination between the aluminium ion and oxygens of the pure drug, supporting a 3:1 ligand:metal stoichiometry in both CIP and NOR complexes. The stretching and deformation modes of carboxylic acid and carboxylate and keto groups were analyzed by IR. This technique shows that the same modes are present in the aluminium complexes obtained by the two methods and that the coordination of the fluoroquinolone to aluminium occurs through the 4-keto and 3-carboxylic groups. PMID:17729228

  17. Aspects of ultra-high-precision diamond machining of RSA 443 optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkoko, Z.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-08-01

    Optical aluminium alloys such as 6061-T6 are traditionally used in ultra-high precision manufacturing for making optical mirrors for aerospace and other applications. However, the optics industry has recently witnessed the development of more advanced optical aluminium grades that are capable of addressing some of the issues encountered when turning with single-point natural monocrystalline diamond cutters. The advent of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades has generally opened up new possibilities for ultra-high precision manufacturing of optical components. In this study, experiments were conducted with single-point diamond cutters on rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 443 material. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of depth of cut and feed rate at a fixed rotational speed on the tool wear rate and resulting surface roughness of diamond turned specimens. This is done to gain further understanding of the rate of wear on the diamond cutters versus the surface texture generated on the RSA 443 material. The diamond machining experiments yielded machined surfaces which are less reflective but with consistent surface roughness values. Cutting tools were observed for wear through scanning microscopy; relatively low wear pattern was evident on the diamond tool edge. The highest tool wear were obtained at higher depth of cut and increased feed rate.

  18. Aluminium substitution in iron(II III)-layered double hydroxides: Formation and cationic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Christian; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Aissa, Rabha; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Brunelli, Michela; Franois, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The formation and the modifications of the structural properties of an aluminium-substituted iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) of formula Fe4IIFe(2-6y)IIIAl6yIII (OH) 12 SO 4, 8H 2O are followed by pH titration curves, Mssbauer spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Rietveld refinements allow to build a structural model for hydroxysulphate green rust, GR(SO 42-), i.e. y=0, in which a bilayer of sulphate anions points to the Fe 3+ species. A cationic order is proposed to occur in both GR(SO 42-) and aluminium-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust when y<0.08. Variation of the cell parameters and a sharp decrease in average crystal size and anisotropy are detected for an aluminium content as low as y=0.01. The formation of Al-GR(SO 42-) is preceded by the successive precipitation of Fe III and Al III (oxy)hydroxides. Adsorption of more soluble Al III species onto the initially formed ferric oxyhydroxide may be responsible for this slowdown of crystal growth. Therefore, the insertion of low aluminium amount ( y0.01) could be an interesting way for increasing the surface reactivity of iron(II-III) LDH that maintains constant the quantity of the reactive Fe II species of the material.

  19. Electrodeposition of nano- and microcrystalline aluminium in three different air and water stable ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zein El Abedin, S; Moustafa, E M; Hempelmann, R; Natter, H; Endres, F

    2006-07-17

    The present work shows, for the first time, a comparative experimental study on the electrodeposition of aluminium in three different water and air stable ionic liquids, namely 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMP]Tf2N), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIm] Tf2N), and trihexyl-tetradecyl-phosphoniumbis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (P(14,6,6,6) Tf2N). The ionic liquids [BMP]Tf2N and [EMIm]Tf2N show biphasic behaviour in the AlCl3 concentration range from 1.6 to 2.5 mol L(-1) and 2.5 to 5 mol L(-1), respectively. The biphasic mixtures become monophasic at temperatures >/=80 degrees C. It was found that nanocrystalline aluminium can be electrodeposited in the ionic liquid [BMP]Tf2N saturated with AlCl3. The deposits obtained are generally uniform, dense, shining, and adherent with very fine crystallites in the nanometer size regime. However, coarse cubic-shaped aluminium particles in the micrometer range are obtained in the ionic liquid [EMIm]Tf2N. In this liquid the particle size significantly increases as the temperature rises. A very thin, mirrorlike aluminium film containing very fine crystallites of about 20 nm is obtained in the ionic liquid [trihexyl-tetradecyl-phosphonium]Tf(2)N at room temperature. At 150 degrees C, the average grain size is found to be 35 nm. PMID:16789040

  20. Radical Cyclisation of α-Halo Aluminium Acetals: A Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Bénéteau, Romain; Boussonnière, Anne; Rouaud, Jean-Christophe; Lebreton, Jacques; Graton, Jérôme; Jacquemin, Denis; Sebban, Muriel; Oulyadi, Hassan; Hamdoun, Ghanem; Hancock, Amber N; Schiesser, Carl H; Dénès, Fabrice

    2016-03-24

    α-Bromo aluminium acetals are suitable substrates for Ueno-Stork-like radical cyclisations affording γ-lactols and acid-sensitive methylene-γ-lactols in high yields. The mechanistic study herein sets the scope and limitation of this reaction. The influence of the halide (or chalcogenide) atom X (X=Cl, Br, I, SPh, SePh) in the precursors α-haloesters, as well as influence of the solvent and temperature was studied. The structure of the aluminium acetal intermediates resulting from the reduction of the corresponding α-haloesters has been investigated by low-temperature (13) C-INEPT diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) experiments and quantum calculations, providing new insights into the structures of these thermally labile intermediates. Oxygen-bridged dimeric structures with a planar Al2 O2 ring are proposed for the least hindered aluminium acetals, while monomeric structures seem to prevail for the most hindered species. A comparison against the radical cyclisation of aluminium acetals derived from allyl and propargyl alcohols with the parent Ueno-Stork has been made at the BHandHLYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory, highlighting mechanistic similarities and differences. PMID:26890896

  1. Neurofilament phosphorylation and disruption: a possible mechanism of chronic aluminium toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Joshi, Kusum; Minz, Ranjana Walker; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2006-02-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of chronic aluminium exposure on neurofilament phosphorylation and its subsequent disruption in various regions of the rat brain. An intra-gastric dose of aluminium (10mg/kg bw for 12 weeks) resulted in a marked enhancement of Ca2+/CaM dependent protein kinase activity as compared to cAMP dependent protein kinase. The levels of phosphoprotein phosphatase were found to be significantly depleted only in the cerebral cortex. After in vitro phosphorylation using [32gamma-P] ATP, various proteins were resolved on one-dimensional 8% SDS-PAGE, stained with Coomassie Blue and autoradiographed. The amount of 32P-incorporated was quantified using ADOPE PHOTOSHOP (7.0). The 200 kDa neurofilament protein was identified using immunoblotting. Finally, the extent of phosphorylation induced neurofilamentous damage was assessed using immunocytochemical studies. The cytoskeletal proteins were found to be aggregated and disrupted in all the three neuronal regions following 12 weeks of aluminium treatment. This study lends further support to the possible role of aluminium as a potent neurotoxic agent and in the etiopathogenisis of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:16413955

  2. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Perea, Daniel E; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W; Lercher, Johannes A; Bare, Simon R; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Using a nearest-neighbour statistical analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al-Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming. PMID:26133270

  3. Metallized graphite as an improved cathode material for aluminium/air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Ambick; N. Basumallick, Indra

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of metallized (Pt, Ni, Cu, Fe, Co) graphite cathodes by an electrodeposition method from an appropriate electrolytic bath, together with the performance characteristics of specially-designed aluminium/air cells that utilize these cathodes. In these cells, the aluminium electrodes were separated by a glass-jacket separator. The latter prevents mixing of hydrogen gas evolved due to the corrosion of the aluminium electrode. While the open-circuit voltage of the cells is virtually invariant, the short-circuit current and discharge behaviour are markedly dependent upon the choice of catalytic metal. The discharge profiles are improved markedly for cells with a Pt-, Ni- or Cu-coated graphite air cathode, but the reverse is found for Fe- and Co-coated cathodes. The behaviour is explained in terms of chemisorption and the better catalytic activity of Pt, Ni and Cu. These results suggest that Ni- and Cu-coated graphite air cathodes are promising low-cost and efficiennt electrodes for aluminium/air batteries.

  4. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Bare, Simon R.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-07-01

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Using a nearest-neighbour statistical analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al-Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming.

  5. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Bare, Simon R.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Using a nearest-neighbour statistical analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al–Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming. PMID:26133270

  6. Determination of gallium in an iron-aluminium matrix by solvent extraction and flame emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cresser, M S; Torrent-Castellet, J

    1972-11-01

    Solvent extraction of gallium(III) into methyl isobutyl ketone from hydrochloric acid solutions containing titanium (III) sulphate provides a rapid method for separation of gallium from an iron/aluminium matrix and may be employed to eliminate the interference of these elements in the flame emission spectrometric determination of gallium. PMID:18961209

  7. An improved, automated xylenol orange method for the colorimetric determination of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A C; Cresser, M S

    1983-09-01

    An automated colorimetrie procedure is described for the determination of aluminium, based on its complex with Xylenol Orange. Ethanol is used to accelerate the reaction and EDTA to mask iron. The procedure has been applied successfully to natural waters, soil extracts and plant digests. PMID:18963448

  8. Photophysical efficiency-boost of aqueous aluminium phthalocyanine by hybrid formation with nano-clays.

    PubMed

    Staniford, Mark C; Lezhnina, Marina M; Gruener, Malte; Stegemann, Linda; Kuczius, Rauni; Bleicher, Vera; Strassert, Cristian A; Kynast, Ulrich H

    2015-09-11

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprising nanoscaled layered silicates and native aluminium hydroxide phthalocyanine (Al(OH)Pc) allowed for the first time the exploitation of their unique photophysical properties in aqueous ambience. In particular, we were able to observe the efficient emission of Al(OH)Pc-nanoclay hybrids and generation of singlet oxygen in aqueous solution. PMID:26221639

  9. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J.L.; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10 mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits–NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: • Aluminium decreases the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and nuclear encoded subunits. • It decreases the mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial content in rat brain. • It down-regulates the mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1α, NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam. • It also disturbs the mitochondrial or nuclear architecture of neurons. • Finally it also decreases mitochondrial number in HC and CS regions of rat brain.

  10. Exposures in the alumina and primary aluminium industry: an historical review.

    PubMed

    Benke, G; Abramson, M; Sim, M

    1998-04-01

    We reviewed specific chemical exposures and exposure assessment methods relating to published and unpublished epidemiological studies in the alumina and primary aluminium industry. Our focus was to review limitations in the current literature and make recommendations for future research. Although some of the exposures in the smelting of aluminium have been well characterised, particularly in potrooms, little has been published regarding the exposures in bauxite mining and alumina refining. Past epidemiological studies in the industry have concentrated on the smelting of aluminium, with many limitations in the methodology used in their exposure assessment. We found that in aluminium smelting, exposures to fluorides, coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have tended to decrease in recent years, but insufficient information exists for the other known exposures. Although excess cancers have been found among workers in the smelting of aluminium, the exposure assessment methods in future studies need to be improved to better characterise possible causative agents. The small number of cohort studies has been a factor in the failure to identify clear exposure-response relationships for respiratory diseases. A dose-response relationship has been recently described for fluoride exposure and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, but whether fluorides are the causative agent, co-agent or simply markers for the causative agent(s) for potroom asthma, remains to be determined. Published epidemiological studies and quantitative exposure data for bauxite mining and alumina refining are virtually non-existent. Determination of possible exposure-response relationships for this part of the industry through improved exposure assessment methods should be the focus of future studies. PMID:9684558

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. Cold end additive compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sujdak, R.J.

    1980-09-23

    The present invention is drawn to ethylene polyamines in combination with certain alkanolamines as cold-end additives. More specifically, it has been discovered that if these additives are fed to the moving combustion gases of a combustion system which uses sulfur containing fuel and upstream of cold-end surfaces to be treated, the additive will travel along with the gases as vapor and/or liquid droplets and deposit on the cold-end surfaces. As a result, the amount of sulfuric acid corrosion of metallic cold-end surfaces is reduced.

  14. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  15. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  16. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  17. Motor fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Dolhyj, S.R.; Guttmann, A.T.; Velenyi, L.J.

    1983-11-01

    Aryl ethers, e.g., cumylmethylether and anisole, are particularly effective additives for improving the octane number of motor fuels. These aryl ethers are especially useful in increasing the octane number of unleaded gasolines.

  18. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  19. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  20. Combustion improver fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, G.H. III

    1986-04-29

    A fuel additive is described for improving the combustion efficiency and storage stability of stored fuel which is capable of reducing the amount of macroscopic sludge particles formed from polymerization reactions promoted by bacteria and oxidation in fuel and improving the combustion efficiency of the fuel and reducing the soot emissions and scale formation of such fuel in a combustion chamber when used in amounts of from about one part of additive composition to between 3000 to about 10,000 parts by weight of fuel and containing in parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of additive about 50 parts by weight of a polymerizate of ethylene diamine, about 15 parts by weight of a naphtha solvent, about 15 parts by weight of a polyalphaolefin based synthetic oil, about 0.05 parts by weight of a miscible biocide, and about 20 parts by weight of manganese linoleate.

  1. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  2. Quantitative studies of aluminium binding species in human uremic serum by fast protein liquid chromatography coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Soldado Cabezuelo, A B; Blanco González, E; Sanz-Medel, A

    1997-06-01

    Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) was used with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric (ETAAS) detection for quantitative studies of aluminium binding species in unspiked human uremic serum. A rapid and reproducible separation of human serum proteins and other aluminium binders (citrate and desferroxiamine) was achieved on a Mono Q (HR 5/5) anion-exchange column using a sodium chloride gradient (0-0.25 mol l-1) at the physiological human serum pH of 7.4 (0.05 mol l-1 buffer TRIS-HCl). The aluminium distribution in the column fractions was determined by ETAAS. Aluminium contamination was avoided by using an inert chromatographic system equipped with an on-line aluminium-chelating scavenger column (Kelex 100-impregnated silica C18). The sensitivity of the proposed method (detection limit for Al in serum = 5 micrograms l-1) allowed aluminium speciation studies at clinically relevant concentrations (unspiked serum from dialysis patients). The results obtained confirmed that transferrin is the only serum protein binding aluminium and it contains about 90% of total serum aluminium (post-elution aluminium recovery = 105 +/- 5%). It was also confirmed that in the presence of the chelating drug desferrioxamine (DFO) most of the serum aluminium (80%) is bound to DFO. PMID:9282403

  3. Aluminium oxide-hydroxides obtained by hydrothermal synthesis: influence of thermal treatment on phase composition and textural characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykova, A.; Livanova, A.; Kosova, N.; Godymchuk, A.; Mamontov, G.

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium oxide-hydroxides obtained by means of the hydrothermal synthesis of aluminium nanopowder are of great interest in terms of the potential supports for heterogeneous catalysts due its high specific surface area (200...300 m2/g) and pore size of 4...17 nm. In this work the influence of thermal treatment (150...1300 °C) on structural and phase composition, specific surface area and porosity of aluminium oxide-hydroxides has been investigated. Nanostructured γ-Al2O3 (T=400 °C) was found to have the specific surface area of 328 m2/g and average pore size of ∼9 nm. The thermal treatment of aluminium oxide- hydroxides at the temperature of higher and lower than 400 °C has caused the reduction of specific surface area and overall pore volume.

  4. The partial space qualification of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube coating on aluminium substrates for EO applications.

    PubMed

    Theocharous, Evangelos; Chunnilall, Christopher J; Mole, Ryan; Gibbs, David; Fox, Nigel; Shang, Naigui; Howlett, Guy; Jensen, Ben; Taylor, Rosie; Reveles, Juan R; Harris, Oliver B; Ahmed, Naseer

    2014-03-24

    The fabrication of NanoTube Black, a Vertically Aligned carbon NanoTube Array (VANTA) on aluminium substrates is reported for the first time. The coating on aluminium was realised using a process that employs top down thermal radiation to assist growth, enabling deposition at temperatures below the substrate's melting point. The NanoTube Black coatings were shown to exhibit directional hemispherical reflectance values of typically less than 1% across wavelengths in the 2.5 µm to 15 µm range. VANTA-coated aluminium substrates were subjected to space qualification testing (mass loss, outgassing, shock, vibration and temperature cycling) before their optical properties were re-assessed. Within measurement uncertainty, no changes to hemispherical reflectance were detected, confirming that NanoTube Black coatings on aluminium are good candidates for Earth Observation (EO) applications. PMID:24664077

  5. Active coatings for SiC particles to reduce the degradation by liquid aluminium during processing of aluminium matrix composites: study of interfacial reactions.

    PubMed

    Ureña, A.; Rodrigo, P.; Baldonedo, J. L.; Gil, L.

    2001-02-01

    The application of a surface coating on SiC particles is studied as an alternative means of solving problems of reactivity between SiC reinforcements and molten aluminium and problems of low wetting which limit the application of casting routes for fabrication of Al-SiCp composites. The selected active barrier was a ceramic composed of SiO2, which was generated by controlled oxidation of the SiC particles. The coating behaves as an active barrier, preventing a direct reaction between molten aluminium and SiC to form Al4C3 as the main degradation product. At the same time, the SiO2 provokes other interfacial reactions, which are responsible for an improvement in wetting behaviour. Composites were prepared by mixing and compacting SiC particles with Al powders followed by melting in a vacuum furnace, and varying the residence time. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and field emission TEM were employed as the main characterization techniques to study the interfacial reactions occurring between the barrier and the molten aluminium. These studies showed that the SiO2 coating behaves as an active barrier which reacts with the molten Al to form a glassy phase Al-Si-O. This compound underwent partial crystallization during the composite manufacture to form mullite. The formation of an outer crystalline layer, composed mainly of Al2O3, was also detected. Participation of other secondary interface reactions inside the active barrier was also identified by HREM techniques. PMID:11207914

  6. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition

  7. Fracturing products and additives

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This paper provides a consumer guide for the various propping and fracturing fluids available to the oil and gas industry. Products are subdivided into groups that have similar function and performance within each functional category. Where applicable, performance groups have been subdivided to reflect significant differences in additive or proppant chemical nature to emphasize uniqueness in company product lines.

  8. Maximum Likelihood Additivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio

    1982-01-01

    A maximum likelihood estimation procedure was developed to fit weighted and unweighted additive models of conjoint data obtained by categorical rating, paired comparisons or directional ranking methods. Practical uses of the procedure are presented to demonstrate various advantages of the procedure as a statistical method. (Author/JKS)

  9. Maximum Likelihood Additivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio

    A maximum likelihood estimation procedure is developed for the simple and the weighted additive models. The data are assumed to be taken by either one of the following methods: (1) categorical ratings--the subject is asked to rate a set of stimuli with respect to an attribute of the stimuli on rating scales with a relatively few observation…

  10. Catchment characteristics controlling the mobilization and potential toxicity of aluminium fractions in the catchment of the River Dee, northeast Scotland.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M; Smart, R; Cresser, M; Langan, S

    2001-12-17

    Elevated streamwater concentrations of aluminium have been associated with the onset of acidification, both by natural and anthropogenic means. This has important implications for river water quality. Concentrations of total, labile-inorganic and non-labile-organic fractions of aluminium were determined across the River Dee catchment, northeast Scotland. Fifty-nine subcatchments, chosen to reflect the variety of soils, parent materials and land use patterns across this major river system were sampled bi-weekly for 1 year. The distribution of aluminium was closely linked to factors of parent material and organic soil cover. Strong spatial and temporal relationships were observed between pH and all fractions of aluminium. Significant episodic peaks in aluminium occurred, these being especially pronounced when a storm event followed a period of dry weather. A weathering rate index utilizing the Na dominance of base cations was found to be a predictor of potential streamwater toxicity implied through Ca/inorganic aluminium ratios. It was demonstrated that Al was mobilized from acid headwater streams, whilst concentrations in the main stem remained much lower. PMID:11778946

  11. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  12. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  13. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  14. Duty cycle and modulation effects in aluminium alloy welding with high power Nd-YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kathuria, Y.P.; Tsuboi, Akihiko

    1996-12-31

    The demand for the light aluminum vehicles using aluminium alloys will be strengthened in the future. The development of aluminium alloys, e.g., Al-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg alloys is being actively considered and have resulted good results. In view of this, processing of Al-alloys, specially its weldability has been of much importance. Here, the modulation and duty cycle effects on Al-alloy welding with high power Nd-YAG laser are investigated. Microstructural characterization of the low and high duty welds with wave modulation identified the differences in the weld morphology. Welding depth, undercut and strength of fusion zone are discussed as a function of the processing parameters.

  15. Comparison of nickel silicide and aluminium ohmic contact metallizations for low-temperature quantum transport measurements

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We examine nickel silicide as a viable ohmic contact metallization for low-temperature, low-magnetic-field transport measurements of atomic-scale devices in silicon. In particular, we compare a nickel silicide metallization with aluminium, a common ohmic contact for silicon devices. Nickel silicide can be formed at the low temperatures (<400°C) required for maintaining atomic precision placement in donor-based devices, and it avoids the complications found with aluminium contacts which become superconducting at cryogenic measurement temperatures. Importantly, we show that the use of nickel silicide as an ohmic contact at low temperatures does not affect the thermal equilibration of carriers nor contribute to hysteresis in a magnetic field. PMID:21968083

  16. Microstructure and texture of asymmetrically rolled aluminium and titanium after deformation and recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronski, M.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Wronski, S.; Bacroix, B.

    2015-08-01

    Asymmetric rolling is used to modify material properties and to reduce forces and torques applied during deformation. This geometry of deformation is relatively easy to implement on existing industrial rolling mills and it can provide large volumes of a material. The results of the study of microstructure and crystallographic texture in asymmetrically rolled aluminium 6061 and titanium (grade 2) are presented in this work. These characteristics were determined using the EBSD technique and X-ray diffraction. The rolling asymmetry was realized using two identical rolls, driven by independent motors, rotating with different angular velocities. It was found that asymmetric rolling leads to microstructural refinement and texture rotation (around the transverse direction). The impact of asymmetric rolling on microstructural refinement appears also in recrystallized samples of both materials. On the other hand, texture rotation, caused by asymmetric rolling, persists after annealing in titanium but not in aluminium samples.

  17. In situ study of the initiation of hydrogen bubbles at the aluminium metal/oxide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, De-Gang; Wang, Zhang-Jie; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The presence of excess hydrogen at the interface between a metal substrate and a protective oxide can cause blistering and spallation of the scale. However, it remains unclear how nanoscale bubbles manage to reach the critical size in the first place. Here, we perform in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy experiments of the aluminium metal/oxide interface under hydrogen exposure. It is found that once the interface is weakened by hydrogen segregation, surface diffusion of Al atoms initiates the formation of faceted cavities on the metal side, driven by Wulff reconstruction. The morphology and growth rate of these cavities are highly sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the aluminium substrate. Once the cavities grow to a critical size, the internal gas pressure can become great enough to blister the oxide layer. Our findings have implications for understanding hydrogen damage of interfaces.

  18. Development of 26Al accelerator mass spectrometry for aluminium absorption experiments in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, J.; Day, J. P.; Priest, N. D.; Newton, D.; Drumm, P. V.; Lilley, J. S.; Newton, G. W. A.

    1992-05-01

    We have used the 20 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Daresbury Laboratory to conduct accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) on 26Al. The AMS technique has been applied in two studies in which 26Al has been administered to human subjects. The 26Al detection limit is ca. 3.8 × 10-18 g and the limiting 26Al:27Al ratio ca. 7.4 × 10-14. Calibration is linear over at least five orders of magnetude. A value for the gastrointestinal uptake of aluminium has been estimated (ca. 1%) and the characteristics of the renal excretion of aluminium over a 106 day period have been established.

  19. Unequivocal identification of intracellular aluminium adjuvant in a monocytic THP-1 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Mold, Matthew; Eriksson, Håkan; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium-based adjuvants (ABA) are the predominant adjuvants used in human vaccinations. While a consensus is yet to be reached on the aetiology of the biological activities of ABA several studies have identified shape, crystallinity and size as critical factors affecting their adjuvanticity. In spite of recent advances, the fate of ABA following their administration remains unclear. Few if any studies have demonstrated the unequivocal presence of intracellular ABA. Herein we demonstrate for the first time the unequivocal identification of ABA within a monocytic T helper 1 (THP-1) cell line, using lumogallion as a fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium. Use of these new methods revealed that particulate ABA was only found in the cell cytoplasm. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ABA were contained within vesicle-like structures of approximately 0.5–1 μm in diameter. PMID:25190321

  20. Aluminium and hydrogen ions inhibit a mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, J. P.; Pickard, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    The tension-dependent activity of mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channels in excised plasmalemmal patches from onion bulb scale epidermis is modulated by pH in the physiologically meaningful range between 4.5 and 7.2. It is rapidly lowered by lowering pH and rapidly raised by raising pH. Channel activity is effectively inhibited by low levels of aluminium ions and activity can be partially restored by washing for a few minutes. We suggest that under normal conditions the sensitivity of the mechanosensory channels to pH of the wall free space plays important roles in regulation of plant activities such as growth. We further suggest that, when levels of acid and aluminium ions in the soil solution are high, they might inhibit similar sensory channels in cells of the root tip, thus contributing critically to the acid soil syndrome.

  1. Determination of lattice orientation in aluminium alloy grains by low energy gallium ion-channelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Jonathan R.; Dashwood, Richard J.; Chater, Richard J.

    2010-06-01

    Polished sections of a fine-grained aluminium, silicon carbide metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy were prepared by sputtering using a low energy gallium ion source and column (FIB). The MMC had been processed by high temperature extrusion. Images of the polished surface were recorded using the ion-induced secondary electron emission. The metal matrix grains were distinguished by gallium ion-channelling contrast from the silicon carbide component. The variation of the contrast from the aluminium grains with tilt angle can be recorded and used to determine lattice orientation with the contrast from the silicon carbide (SiC) component as a reference. This method is rapid and suits site-specific investigations where classical methods of sample preparation fail.

  2. Wettability behaviour of RTV silicone rubber coated on nanostructured aluminium surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Gelareh; Farzaneh, Masoud; Jafari, Reza

    2011-05-01

    A nanostructutered superhydrophobic surface was elaborated by applying an RTV silicone rubber coating on electrochemically processed aluminium substrates. Study of anodisation voltage on surface morphology showed that higher anodising voltage led to larger pore sizes. Scanning electron microscopy image analysis showed bird's nest and beehive structures formed on anodised surfaces at 50 V and 80 V. Water static contact angle on the treated surfaces reached up to 160° at room temperature. Study of superhydrophobic surfaces at super cooled temperature showed important delayed freezing time for RTV hydrophobic surfaces when compared to non-treated aluminium. However, lower wettability was observed when surface temperature went down from 20 °C to -10 °C. Also, it was found that the capacitance of superhydrophobic surfaces decreased with increasing anodising voltage.

  3. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part II corrosion performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    Surface treatment of aluminium alloys using steam with oxidative chemistries, namely KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys. Detailed investigation of the corrosion performance of the treated surfaces was carried out using potentiodynamic polarisation and standard industrial test methods such as acetic acid salt spray (AASS) and filiform corrosion on commercial AA6060 alloy. Barrier properties of the film including adhesion were evaluated using tape test under wet and dry conditions. Electrochemical results showed reduced cathodic and anodic activity, while the protection provided by steam treatment with HNO3 was a function of the concentration of NO3- ions. The coating generated by inclusion of KMnO4 showed highest resistance to filiform corrosion. Overall, the performance of the steam treated surfaces under filiform corrosion and AASS test was a result of the local coverage of the alloy microstructure resulting from steam containing with KMnO4 and HNO3.

  4. Investigation of femtosecond collisional ionization rates in a solid-density aluminium plasma.

    PubMed

    Vinko, S M; Ciricosta, O; Preston, T R; Rackstraw, D S; Brown, C R D; Burian, T; Chalupský, J; Cho, B I; Chung, H-K; Engelhorn, K; Falcone, R W; Fiokovinini, R; Hájková, V; Heimann, P A; Juha, L; Lee, H J; Lee, R W; Messerschmidt, M; Nagler, B; Schlotter, W; Turner, J J; Vysin, L; Zastrau, U; Wark, J S

    2015-01-01

    The rate at which atoms and ions within a plasma are further ionized by collisions with the free electrons is a fundamental parameter that dictates the dynamics of plasma systems at intermediate and high densities. While collision rates are well known experimentally in a few dilute systems, similar measurements for nonideal plasmas at densities approaching or exceeding those of solids remain elusive. Here we describe a spectroscopic method to study collision rates in solid-density aluminium plasmas created and diagnosed using the Linac Coherent light Source free-electron X-ray laser, tuned to specific interaction pathways around the absorption edges of ionic charge states. We estimate the rate of collisional ionization in solid-density aluminium plasmas at temperatures ~30 eV to be several times higher than that predicted by standard semiempirical models. PMID:25731816

  5. Manufacture and characterization of aluminium matrix composite using powder metallurgy route

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, D.; El Baradie, M.A.; Hashmi, M.S.J.

    1993-12-31

    The potential of Metal Matrix Composite materials for significant improvements in performance over conventional alloys has been widely recognized. Much work has been carried out in Europe and abroad to manufacture MMC materials using different techniques, e.g. Squeeze casting, Spray Co-deposition, Compocasting and Powder Metallurgy Route. The attraction of Powder Metallurgy is that it permits fabrication of high quality, complex parts to close tolerances in an economical manner. In this study the Powder Metallurgy Route was selected for the manufacture of Aluminium Matrix Composites using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particulate as the reinforcement element. The volume fraction of the reinforcement was varied from 10 to 40 percent. Several components were produced, by varying the sintering time and temperature. The results of compression and hardness tests are presented, together with microstructure analysis. Also the mechanical test results for Aluminium Matrix Composite produced through the Powder Metallurgy Route are compared with the results for commercially available composites.

  6. In situ study of the initiation of hydrogen bubbles at the aluminium metal/oxide interface.

    PubMed

    Xie, De-Gang; Wang, Zhang-Jie; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The presence of excess hydrogen at the interface between a metal substrate and a protective oxide can cause blistering and spallation of the scale. However, it remains unclear how nanoscale bubbles manage to reach the critical size in the first place. Here, we perform in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy experiments of the aluminium metal/oxide interface under hydrogen exposure. It is found that once the interface is weakened by hydrogen segregation, surface diffusion of Al atoms initiates the formation of faceted cavities on the metal side, driven by Wulff reconstruction. The morphology and growth rate of these cavities are highly sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the aluminium substrate. Once the cavities grow to a critical size, the internal gas pressure can become great enough to blister the oxide layer. Our findings have implications for understanding hydrogen damage of interfaces. PMID:26121306

  7. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souček, P.; Cassayre, L.; Eloirdi, R.; Malmbeck, R.; Meier, R.; Nourry, C.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys, which originate from pyrochemical recovery of actinides from spent metallic nuclear fuel by electrochemical methods in molten LiCl-KCl. In the present work, the most important steps of this route were experimentally tested using U-Pu-Al alloy prepared by electrodeposition of U and Pu on solid aluminium plate electrodes. The investigated processes were vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the alloy by chlorine gas and sublimation of the AlCl3 formed. The processes parameters were set on the base of a previous thermochemical study and an experimental work using pure UAl3 alloy. The present experimental results indicated high efficiency of salt distillation and chlorination steps, while the sublimation step should be further optimised.

  8. Spectrofluorimetric determination of submicrogram amounts of aluminium using salicylidene-o-aminophenol.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, R M; Smith, R; West, T S

    1966-04-01

    Salicylidene-o-aminophenol provides a sensitive spectrofluorimetric reagent for the determination of aluminium down to 27 ng (or 2.7 x 10(-4) ppm in the final solution). The most suitable conditions of pH (5.6), reagent concentration and development time (>20 min) have been established. Extraction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate into ethyl acetate at the pH of the determination renders the method highly selective; out of 46 foreign cations examined only chromium(III), scandium and thorium interfere. Anions which form complexes with aluminium, such as citrate, tartrate and fluoride, also cause interference, but none of the common anions interferes. A 1:1 stoichiometry of the complex has been established and some conclusions have been drawn concerning its nature. PMID:18959922

  9. Retention of fluoride from diets containing materials produced during aluminium smelting.

    PubMed

    Wright, D A; Thompson, A

    1978-07-01

    1. Using male rats, the availability of fluoride from five by products of the aluminium smelting industry was tested. This was done by considering the balance between fluoride administered in controlled diets and the total fluoride content of waste products eliminated over an experimental period of 1 week. 2. Results indicated that yields of available fluoride expressed as percentage weight of original material were cryolite (Na3ALF6), 45.9%; sodium fluoride (NaF), 41.7%; aluminium fluoride (AFL3.H20), 9.1%; mist eliminator grid solids (with CaF2), 9.4%; reclaimed alumina with adsorbed F, 0.27%. 3. Of the various tissues analysed for fluoride content, only the kidney and femur showed any significant correlation with the amounts of fluoride absorbed or retained. PMID:666997

  10. Growth of L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride single crystal for OLED and super-capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaivani, D.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2015-12-01

    L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride (LVAC), a novel semi-organic material, was grown using slow evaporation under isothermal condition. The single crystal data reveal that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The SEM micrographs give clear picture about the surface morphology. Further, they confirm the inclusion of aluminium chloride into atomic sites of L-Valine. The compositional elements present in the crystal were identified through EDAX analysis. The mass spectral analysis was carried out to determine the molecular weight of the grown crystal. The optical transparency of the grown crystal was investigated by UV-vis-NIR spectrum. FTIR spectral study was used to identify the functional groups present in the grown material. The luminescence characteristics of grown material were analysed to confirm the effect of metal ion on the ligand. This property makes the material suitable for OLED application. The supercapacitive performance of the grown crystal was finally studied using cyclic voltammetry.

  11. Comparison of cavitation intensity in water and in molten aluminium using a high-temperature cavitometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanakis, I.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Eskin, D. G.; Pericleous, K.

    2015-12-01

    The application of ultrasound to industrial casting processes has attracted research interest during the last 50 years. However, the transfer and scale-up of this advanced and promising technology to the industry have been hindered by difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal due to the lack of understanding of certain fundamentals. In the current study, experimental results on ultrasonic processing in deionised water and in liquid aluminium (Al) are reported. Cavitation activity was determined in both liquid environments using an advanced high-temperature cavitometer sensor. In water, the highest cavitation activity is obtained for the lowest sonotrode tip amplitudes. Below the sonotrode, the cavitation intensity in liquid aluminium is found to be four times higher than in water.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Warpage in Laminated Aluminium Alloy Plates for Machining of Primary Aeronautic Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, A. C.; Moreira Filho, L. A.; Menezes, M. A.

    2007-04-07

    The aim of this paper consists in presenting a method of simulating the warpage in 7xxx series aluminium alloy plates. To perform this simulation finite element software MSC.Patran and MSC.Marc were used. Another result of this analysis will be the influence on material residual stresses induced on the raw material during the rolling process upon the warpage of primary aeronautic parts, fabricated through machining (milling) at Embraer. The method used to determinate the aluminium plate residual stress was Layer Removal Test. The numerical algorithm Modified Flavenot Method was used to convert layer removal and beam deflection in stress level. With such information about the level and profile of residual stresses become possible, during the step that anticipate the manufacturing to incorporate these values in the finite-element approach for modelling warpage parts. Based on that warpage parameter surely the products are manufactured with low relative vulnerability propitiating competitiveness and price.

  13. One-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge epitaxy on Si by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ziheng Hao, Xiaojing; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Green, Martin A.

    2014-02-03

    In this work, one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge on Si is achieved via magnetron sputtering by applying an in-situ low temperature (50 °C to 150 °C) heat treatment in between Al and Ge depositions. The effect of heat treatment on film properties and the growth mechanism of Ge epitaxy on Si are studied via X-ray diffraction, Raman and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Compared with the conventional two-step process, the one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization requires much lower thermal budget and results in pure Ge epitaxial layer, which may be suitable for use as a virtual substrate for the fabrication of III-V solar cells.

  14. Effects of process parameters on surface roughness in abrasive waterjet cutting of aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithirai Pon Selvan, M.; Mohana Sundara Raju, N.; Sachidananda, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    Abrasive waterjet cutting is a novel machining process capable of processing wide range of hard-to-cut materials. Surface roughness of machined parts is one of the major machining characteristics that play an important role in determining the quality of engineering components. This paper shows the influence of process parameters on surface roughness ( R a) which is an important cutting performance measure in abrasive waterjet cutting of aluminium. Taguchi's design of experiments was carried out in order to collect surface roughness values. Experiments were conducted in varying water pressure, nozzle traverse speed, abrasive mass flow rate and standoff distance for cutting aluminium using abrasive waterjet cutting process. The effects of these parameters on surface roughness have been studied based on the experimental results.

  15. Finite Element Analysis of Warpage in Laminated Aluminium Alloy Plates for Machining of Primary Aeronautic Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, A. C.; Menezes, M. A.; Moreira Filho, L. A.

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this paper consists in presenting a method of simulating the warpage in 7xxx series aluminium alloy plates. To perform this simulation finite element software MSC.Patran and MSC.Marc were used. Another result of this analysis will be the influence on material residual stresses induced on the raw material during the rolling process upon the warpage of primary aeronautic parts, fabricated through machining (milling) at Embraer. The method used to determinate the aluminium plate residual stress was Layer Removal Test. The numerical algorithm Modified Flavenot Method was used to convert layer removal and beam deflection in stress level. With such information about the level and profile of residual stresses become possible, during the step that anticipate the manufacturing to incorporate these values in the finite-element approach for modelling warpage parts. Based on that warpage parameter surely the products are manufactured with low relative vulnerability propitiating competitiveness and price.

  16. Microstructure heterogeneity after the ECAP process and its influence on recrystallization in aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Wronski, S.; Tarasiuk, J.; Bacroix, B.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Paul, H.

    2013-04-15

    The main purpose of the present work is to describe the qualitative and quantitative behaviours of aluminium during high strain plastic deformation and the effect of deformation on the subsequent recrystallization process. An Electron Backscatter Diffraction analysis of aluminium after the Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and recrystallization process is presented. In order to do this, several topological maps are measured for samples processed by 4 and 8 passes and recrystallized. The processing was conducted with route C. For all samples, distributions of grain size, misorientation, image quality factor (IQ) and texture were preceded and then analysed in some detail. - Highlights: ► Describe the microstructure fragmentation in aluminum. ► High strain plastic deformation and effect of deformation on recrystallization. ► The microstructure fragmentation and its influence on recrystallization. ► Image quality factor and misorientation characteristics are examined using EBSD.

  17. Functional Generalized Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Mathew W.; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(,) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Mller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(,) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  18. Synthetic gasoline additive packages

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The need for additives in modern fuels reflects significant changes recently to gasoline composition, with the incorporation of more cracked components and oxygenated supplements. The olefinic components produced by cracking are more prone to oxidation and have been linked to increased deposits in critical fuel metering areas in both carburetors and fuel injectors, and also in induction systems, especially in the intake ports and on intake valves. Heavy aromatics are also produced from severe refinery processing and have been shown to increase deposits in the combustion chamber and on piston crowns, and to correlate well with the octane requirement increase (ORI). In addition, oxygenates can affect intake valve deposits. MTBE was found to increase intake valve deposits in one engine family, as an example. More testing is needed, however, to define the oxygenates' effects on deposit formation more fully. This article describes new detergent additive system which may provide engine cleanliness without detrimental effects on emissions and vehicle performance, particularly octane requirements increase and intake valve sticking.

  19. Inclusions of nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate “Phase Egg” in superdeep diamonds from Juina (Mato Grosso State, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Richard; Vollmer, Christian; Brenker, Frank; Matsyuk, Stanislav; Kaminsky, Felix

    2007-07-01

    Inclusions in alluvial diamond from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil) have been investigated by TEM methods (electron diffraction, HRTEM, AEM, HAADF, EELS) and Raman spectroscopy. The inclusion paragenesis of Juina diamonds is dominated by ultrahigh-pressure ("superdeep") phases. One of these diamonds, sample #1.1/4, contains several micrometer-sized (approximately 200 μm by 50-70 μm) inclusions, which have been studied. TEM foils prepared applying Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique revealed that these inclusions consist of a porous, nanocrystalline groundmass, which is composed of nanometre-sized crystals of a hydrous aluminium silicate phase with Al:Si approximately 1:1 and chemical composition of phase "Egg" (AlSiO 3(OH)), a minor volume fraction of nanocrystalline stishovite and pore space, which was originally filled with a fluid or gas. The nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate phase is idiomorphic, randomly oriented (approximately 20-30 nm in size) predominantly with tetragonal crystal structure ( a0 = 0.743 nm, c0 = 0.706 nm). The monoclinic structure of synthetic phase "Egg" determined at ambient conditions [M.W. Schmidt, L.W. Finger, R.J. Ross, R.E. Dinnebier, Synthesis, crystal structure, and phase relations of AlSiO 3OH, a high-pressure hydrous phase, American Mineralogist 83 (1998) 881 - 888] is only occasionally observed. The fluid filling in the porosity has been released into the vacuum of the FIB during TEM specimen preparation. Quench products of the fluid containing minor concentrations of F- P- S- Cl- K- Ca and Ba were detected at the walls of the pores. In addition phase "Egg" is identified by μ-Raman spectroscopy within a second sample (RS 43a) from the same location. The presence of Phase "Egg" in the inclusions in diamond may suggest that crustal material has been subducted to a depth of the lower Transition Zone. Although, metastable growth of nanocrystalline high-pressure phases or extension of their respective stability fields to lower pressure can not ruled out completely.

  20. Water-soluble aluminium phthalocyanine-polymer conjugates for PDT: photodynamic activities and pharmacokinetics in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Brasseur, N; Ouellet, R; La Madeleine, C; van Lier, J E

    1999-07-01

    The potential use of unsubstituted aluminium phthalocyanine (AlClPc) as a sensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer has not been fully exploited in spite of its higher efficiency as compared to the sulphonated derivatives. This is largely due to the strong hydrophobic character of AlClPc which renders the material difficult to formulate for in vivo administration. We prepared two water-soluble derivatives of AlClPc by axial coordination of polyethyleneglycol (PEG, MW 2000) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA, MW 13,000-23,000) to the central aluminium ion. Their photodynamic activities were evaluated in vitro against the EMT-6 mouse mammary tumour cells and in vivo against the EMT-6 and the colon carcinoma Colo-26 tumours implanted intradermally in Balb/c mice. Pharmacokinetics were studied in the EMT-6 tumour-bearing mice. After 1 h incubation, the light dose required to kill 90% of cells (LD90) was at least three times less for AlClPc (Cremophor emulsion) as compared to AlPc-PEG and AlPc-PVA, while after 24 h incubation all three preparations were highly phototoxic. All three dye preparations induced complete EMT-6 tumour regression in 75-100% of animals at a low drug dose (0.25 micromol kg(-1)) following PDT (400 J cm(-2), 650-700 nm) at 24 h pi. Complete tumour regression in the Colo-26 tumour model was obtained in 30% of mice at a dose of 2 micromol kg(-1). In the non-cured animals, AlPc-PVA induced the most significant tumour growth delay. This dye showed a prolonged plasma half-life (6.8 h) as compared to AlClPc (2.6 h) and AlPc-PEG (23 min), lower retention by liver and spleen and higher tumour-to-skin and tumour-to-muscle ratios. Our data demonstrate that addition of hydrophilic axial ligands to AlPc, while modifying in vitro and in vivo kinetics, does not reduce the PDT efficiency of the parent molecule. Moreover, in the case of the polyvinylalcohol derivative, axial coordination confers advantageous pharmacokinetics to AlPc, which makes this photosensitizer a valuable, water soluble candidate drug for clinical PDT of cancer. PMID:10408394

  1. Water-soluble aluminium phthalocyanine–polymer conjugates for PDT: photodynamic activities and pharmacokinetics in tumour-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Brasseur, N; Ouellet, R; Madeleine, C La; Lier, J E van

    1999-01-01

    The potential use of unsubstituted aluminium phthalocyanine (AlClPc) as a sensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer has not been fully exploited in spite of its higher efficiency as compared to the sulphonated derivatives. This is largely due to the strong hydrophobic character of AlClPc which renders the material difficult to formulate for in vivo administration. We prepared two water-soluble derivatives of AlClPc by axial coordination of polyethyleneglycol (PEG, MW 2000) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA, MW 13 000–23 000) to the central aluminium ion. Their photodynamic activities were evaluated in vitro against the EMT-6 mouse mammary tumour cells and in vivo against the EMT-6 and the colon carcinoma Colo-26 tumours implanted intradermally in Balb/c mice. Pharmacokinetics were studied in the EMT-6 tumour-bearing mice. After 1 h incubation, the light dose required to kill 90% of cells (LD90) was at least three times less for AlClPc (Cremophor emulsion) as compared to AlPc–PEG and AlPc–PVA, while after 24 h incubation all three preparations were highly phototoxic. All three dye preparations induced complete EMT-6 tumour regression in 75–100% of animals at a low drug dose (0.25 μmol kg−1) following PDT (400 J cm−2, 650–700 nm) at 24 h pi. Complete tumour regression in the Colo-26 tumour model was obtained in 30% of mice at a dose of 2 μmol kg−1. In the non-cured animals, AlPc–PVA induced the most significant tumour growth delay. This dye showed a prolonged plasma half-life (6.8 h) as compared to AlClPc (2.6 h) and AlPc–PEG (23 min), lower retention by liver and spleen and higher tumour-to-skin and tumour-to-muscle ratios. Our data demonstrate that addition of hydrophilic axial ligands to AlPc, while modifying in vitro and in vivo kinetics, does not reduce the PDT efficiency of the parent molecule. Moreover, in the case of the polyvinylalcohol derivative, axial coordination confers advantageous pharmacokinetics to AlPc, which makes this photosensitizer a valuable, water soluble candidate drug for clinical PDT of cancer. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408394

  2. Development of aluminium-clad steel sheet by roll-bonding for the automotive industry

    SciTech Connect

    Buchner, M.; Buchmayr, B.; Bichler, Ch.; Riemelmoser, F.

    2007-04-07

    The objective of the present work is a basic study of production, modelling and validation of sheet composites of AA6xxx-automotive alloy and IF-steel. In this context the influence of surface preparation, pre-heating temperature of aluminium and steel plate, and thickness reduction on the bond strength of the composites as well as on the formation of intermetallic interface layers is analysed by shear tests and metallographic evaluations of the interface.

  3. Hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene in plasma of aluminium foundry workers using hexachloroethane for degassing.

    PubMed Central

    Seldén, A I; Nygren, Y; Westberg, H B; Bodin, L S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the load of selected organochlorine compounds in the blood of aluminium foundry workers who use hexachloroethane as a degassing agent for aluminium and to measure some possible effects on internal organs. METHODS: Plasma from nine male aluminium foundry workers with past experience of use of hexachloroethane and 18 controls (two controls per exposed case) matched for residence, sex, age, and socioeconomic status was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), (P-HCB), and octachlorostyrene (P-OCS) with low resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serum samples from the same subjects were analysed for standard kidney, pancreas, and liver function variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the triplets retained, a non-parametric test, and linear regression were used for the analysis. RESULTS: A fourfold increase of mean P-HCB was found among the exposed subjects compared with the controls (313.1 v 66.9 ng/g lipid; P < 0.01; (ANOVA model)). For P-OCS this difference was even larger (54.6 v 0.7 ng/g lipid; P < 0.01). Results were still significant (P < 0.05) with non-parametric testing. Within the exposed group there was a good correlation between the ln P-HCB (r = 0.80) and ln P-OCS (r = 0.91), respectively, with the cumulative number of years of exposure to hexachloroethane. No significant difference in kidney, pancreas, or liver function was found between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Aluminium degassing with hexachloroethane may increase the body burden of selected organochlorine compounds as reflected by HCB and OCS measurements. With the inherent limitations of this investigation no signs of subclinical organ toxicity were found. PMID:9326166

  4. A novel preparation technique for an aluminium-alumina MMC by a roll bonding process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.B. . Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering); Ralph, B. . Dept. of Materials Technology); Yuen, H.C. . Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering Brunel Univ., Uxbridge, Middlesex . Dept. of Materials Technology)

    1993-09-01

    The potential of fibre reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) has been known for many years and their common fabrication routes and the general characteristics of their properties are well documented. These manufacturing routes are usually expensive and consistent results are difficult to maintain. This paper introduces an economical process for the preparation of an aluminum matrix MMC reinforced with alumina (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The process involves the formation of thin Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] films on commercially pure (CP) aluminium foil by anodizing. The bonding between layers of foil and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] is achieved by hot rolling followed by cold rolling to further break up of the thin Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] film and disperse it into the aluminium matrix. The aim was to produce an MMC with a low volume fraction of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] finely dispersed in the aluminium matrix. The physical and mechanical properties of this material may not be comparable with MMCs produced by conventional techniques in terms of strength and stiffness. However, its inexpensive production route coupled with an increase Young's Modulus, strength and retained good electrical conductivity may well make it a valuable alternative material to be used in electricity transmission applications. The production technique used in making this MMC can readily be adopted by any aluminium sheet rolling plant. With minimal need for equipment alterations, they can convert to produce this form of MMC in semi or fully continuous production runs with their existing rolling mills. This process will greatly reduce the cost of an MMC and at the same time maintain consistent properties.

  5. Analysis of natural convective heat transfer of nano coated aluminium fins using Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, R.; Nandhakumar, A. J. D.; Prabhu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Rectangular aluminium fins were preferred for analysis and coated by carbon nano tubes using PVD to enhance the heat transfer rate of fins. Convective heat transfer rates for coated and non-coated surfaces were calculated and compared. The temperature and heat transfer characteristics were investigated using Nusselt, Grashof, Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers and also optimized by Taguchi method and ANOVA analysis. The average percentage of increase in fin efficiency is 5 %.

  6. Application of thermoelectric potential measurements in chemical analysis-II Determination of aluminium in iron alloys.

    PubMed

    Krajina, A; Dolezal, J

    1967-12-01

    A method is proposed for the rapid determination of aluminium in iron alloys by means of thermoelectric potential measurement. An instrument has been modified, and a method devised for thermoelectro-analytical measurements. The thermoelectric potential of iron-germanium and iron-zinc alloys has been measured, and an attempt made at a theoretical explanation of the influence of alloying elements on the thermoelectric properties of transition metals. PMID:18960250

  7. Phase analysis of aluminium modified GeSbTe bulk prepared from XRD of samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Sharanjit; Singh, D.; Kumar, S.; Thangaraj, R.

    2016-05-01

    Various compositions of Aluminium modified GST as Alx(Ge2Sb2Te5)1-x x= 0, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 are prepared to study as a phase change material. Bulk prepared is studied with XRD scans for various phases formed. Phases other than Ge2Sb2Te5 do come in but dominated one is Ge2Sb2Te5 hexagonal phase.

  8. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in <0.05-mm aggregates. Organic carbon stability in micro-aggregates was higher than that in macro-aggregates and became more stable. Organic carbon contents in total residues, and within different aggregate sizes, were all negatively correlated with PAD. It indicated that organic materials had a more significant effect on macro-aggregate stability and the effects of iron-aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates. PMID:26832865

  9. Development of aluminium-clad steel sheet by roll-bonding for the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, M.; Buchmayr, B.; Bichler, Ch.; Riemelmoser, F.

    2007-04-01

    The objective of the present work is a basic study of production, modelling and validation of sheet composites of AA6xxx-automotive alloy and IF-steel. In this context the influence of surface preparation, pre-heating temperature of aluminium and steel plate, and thickness reduction on the bond strength of the composites as well as on the formation of intermetallic interface layers is analysed by shear tests and metallographic evaluations of the interface.

  10. The Relationship of Aluminium and Silver to Neural Tube Defects; a Case Control

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Altamirano, María de Jesús; Fenton-Navarro, Patricia; Sivet-Chiñas, Elvira; Harp-Iturribarria, Flor de María; Martínez-Cruz, Ruth; Cruz, Pedro Hernández; Cruz, Margarito Martínez; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship of neurotoxic inorganic elements in the hair of patients with the diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects. Our initial hypothesis was that neurotoxic inorganic elements were associated with Neural Tube Defects. Methods Twenty-three samples of hair from newborns were obtained from the General Hospital, “Aurelio Valdivieso” in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico. The study group included 8 newborn infants with neural tube pathology. The control group was composed of 15 newborns without this pathology. The presence of inorganic elements in the hair samples was determined by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (spectroscopic emission of the plasma). Findings The population of newborns with Neural Tube Defects showed significantly higher values of the following elements than the control group: Aluminium, Neural Tube Defects 152.77±51.06 µg/g, control group 76.24±27.89 µg/g; Silver, Neural Tube Defects 1.45±0.76, control group 0.25±0.53 µg/g; Potassium, Neural Tube Defects 553.87±77.91 µg/g, control group 341.13±205.90 µg/g. Association was found at 75 percentile between aluminium plus silver, aluminium plus potassium, silver plus potassium, and potassium plus sodium. Conclusion In the hair of newborns with Neural Tube Defects, the following metals were increased: aluminium, silver. Given the neurotoxicity of the same, and association of Neural Tube Defects with aluminum and silver, one may infer that they may be participating as factors in the development of Neural Tube Defects. PMID:23400307

  11. Ultrasonic ablation as a novel technique for producing pure aluminium nanoparticles dispersed in different liquids for different applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Yasser A. M.; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel physical method for producing surfactant-free aluminium nanoparticles (Al NPs) by irradiating ultrasonic waves on Al thin films immersed in different liquids used for different applications. We suggest naming this technique “ultrasonic ablation”. Our method has many advantages compared with other chemical and physical methods such as (1) fabrication of Al NPs using low-cost and easy procedures, (2) fabrication of pure Al NPs without any chemical additives, (3) fabrication of Al NPs dispersed in different liquids used for different applications, and (4) fabrication of individual Al NPs without aggregations. We have prepared Al NPs in 1,2-dichlorobenzene, which is used as a solvent for preparing active layer solutions of organic solar cells (OSCs), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-blend-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), which is a representative aqueous solution used as a buffer layer in OSCs, and ethanol, which is a representative polar solvent used for different applications. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical absorption techniques have verified the fabrication of individual and surfactant-free Al NPs dispersed in different liquids that can be safely used in different applications.

  12. High-resolution microcontact printing and transfer of massive arrays of microorganisms on planar and compartmentalized nanoporous aluminium oxide.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Colin; Bomer, Johan; Sprenkels, Ad; van den Berg, Albert; de Vos, Willem; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan

    2010-06-01

    Handling microorganisms in high throughput and their deployment into miniaturized platforms presents significant challenges. Contact printing can be used to create dense arrays of viable microorganisms. Such "living arrays", potentially with multiple identical replicates, are useful in the selection of improved industrial microorganisms, screening antimicrobials, clinical diagnostics, strain storage, and for research into microbial genetics. A high throughput method to print microorganisms at high density was devised, employing a microscope and a stamp with a massive array of PDMS pins. Viable bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Esherichia coli), yeast (Candida albicans) and fungal spores (Aspergillus fumigatus) were deposited onto porous aluminium oxide (PAO) using arrays of pins with areas from 5 x 5 to 20 x 20 microm. Printing onto PAO with up to 8100 pins of 20 x 20 microm area with 3 replicates was achieved. Printing with up to 200 pins onto PAO culture chips (divided into 40 x 40 microm culture areas) allowed inoculation followed by effective segregation of microcolonies during outgrowth. Additionally, it was possible to print mixtures of C. albicans and spores of A. fumigatus with a degree of selectivity by capture onto a chemically modified PAO surface. High resolution printing of microorganisms within segregated compartments and on functionalized PAO surfaces has significant advantages over what is possible on semi-solid surfaces such as agar. PMID:20480106

  13. Aluminium Toxicity in Rye (Secale cereale): Root Growth and Dynamics of Cytoplasmic Ca2+ in Intact Root Tips

    PubMed Central

    MA, QIFU; RENGEL, ZDENKO; KUO, JOHN

    2002-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity in rye (Secale cereale L.), an Al‐resistant crop, was examined by measuring root elongation and cytoplasmic free activity of calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) in intact root apical cells. Measurement of [Ca2+]cyt was achieved by loading a Ca2+‐sensitive fluorescent probe, Fluo‐3/AM ester, into root apical cells followed by detection of intracellular fluorescence using a confocal laser scanning microscope. After 20 min of exposure to 50 µm Al (pH 4·2) a slight increase in [Ca2+]cyt of root apical cells was observed, while the response of [Ca2+]cyt to 100 µm Al (pH 4·2) was faster and larger ([Ca2+]cyt increased by 46 % in 10 min). Increases in [Ca2+]cyt were correlated with inhibition of root growth, generally measurable after 2 h. Addition of 400 µm malic acid (pH 4·2) largely ameliorated the effect of 100 µm Al on [Ca2+]cyt in root apical cells and protected root growth from Al toxicity. These results suggest that an increase in [Ca2+]cyt in root apical cells in rye is an early effect of Al toxicity and is followed by the secondary effect on root elongation. PMID:12099355

  14. Interactive effects of aluminium and phosphorus on microbial leaf litter processing in acidified streams: a microcosm approach.

    PubMed

    Clivot, Hugues; Charmasson, Faustine; Felten, Vincent; Boudot, Jean-Pierre; Guérold, François; Danger, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Decline in pH, elevated aluminium (Al) concentrations, and base cations depletion often covary in acidified headwater streams. These parameters are considered as the main factors reducing microbial activities involved in detritus processing, but their individual and interactive effects are still unclear. In addition to its direct toxicity, Al can also reduce the bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in ecosystems through the formation of stable chemical complexes. A three week microcosm experiment was carried out in acid conditions to assess the interactive effects of Al (three levels: 0, 200, and 1,000 μg L(-1)) and P (25, 100, and 1,000 μg L(-1)) on alder leaf litter processing by an aquatic hyphomycete consortium. Our results showed that Al alone reduced fungal growth and altered fungal decomposer activities. High P levels, probably through an alleviation of Al-induced P limitation and a reduction of Al toxic forms, suppressed the negative effects of Al on detritus decomposition. PMID:24361567

  15. Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of a new aluminium complex [5-choloro-8-hydroxyquinoline] bis [2,2'bipyridine] Aluminium Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Bhargava, Parag; Srivastava, Ritu; Singh, Punita

    2015-11-01

    We have synthesized a new aluminium complex, [5-choloro-8-hydroxyquinoline] bis[2,2'bipyridine] Aluminium Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) and characterized it for structural, thermal and photoluminescence properties. The prepared material was characterized by Fourier -transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and photoluminescence. The prepared material showed thermal stability up to 240 °C. The photoluminescence spectrum of Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) in toluene solution showed peak at 515 nm. This material was used as an emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The fundamental structure of device is ITO/F4-TCNQ(1 nm)/α-NPD(35 nm)/Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) (35 nm)/BCP(6 nm)/Alq3(28 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(150 nm). The device emits an yellowish green light (CIE coordinates, x = 0.32, y = 0.52) with maximum luminescence 314 Cd/m2 at 18 V. The maximum current efficiency of OLED was 0.09 Cd/A and maximum power efficiency was 0.03 lm/W at 9 V respectively.

  16. Surface formation in direct chill (DC) casting of 6082 aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, N.; Carlberg, T.

    2016-03-01

    Surface defects in aluminium billet production are a real problem for the subsequent extrusion procedure. Extrusion productivity can be influenced by the surface properties, which is defined as surface appearance, surface segregation zone depth and large Mg2Si and β-particles (Al5FeSi). In this research the surface formation during DC casting of 6082 aluminium billets produced by the air slip technology is studied. The surface microstructures of 6082 aluminium alloys with smooth and wavy surface appearances were investigated, including segregation zone depths and phase formation. The results were discussed based on the exudation of liquid metal through the mushy zone. The specific appearance of the wavy surface of 6082 alloys was correlated to how the oxide skin adheres to the underlying mushy zone and coupled to the dendritic coherency and surface tension of the skin. The occurrence of different phases at the very surface and in the layer just below was explained by variations in solidification directions and subsequent segregation patterns.

  17. Molybdenum, Tungsten, and Aluminium Substitution for Enhancement of the Thermoelectric Performance of Higher Manganese Silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhi Truong, D. Y.; Berthebaud, David; Gascoin, Franck; Kleinke, Holger

    2015-10-01

    An easy and efficient process involving ball milling under soft conditions and spark plasma sintering was used to synthesize higher manganese silicide (HMS)-based compounds, for example MnSi1.75Ge0.02, with different molybdenum, tungsten, and aluminium substitution. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the samples after sintering showed the main phase to be HMS with the presence of some side products. Molybdenum substitution enlarges the unit cells more than tungsten substitution, owing to its greater solubility in the HMS structure, whereas substitution with aluminium did not substantially alter the cell parameters. The electrical resistivity of HMS-based compounds was reduced by <10% by this substitution, because of increased carrier concentrations. Changes of the Seebeck coefficient were insignificant after molybdenum and aluminium substitution whereas tungsten substitution slightly reduced the thermopower of the base material by approximately 8% over the whole temperature range; this was ascribed to reduced carrier mobility as a result of enhanced scattering. Substitution with any combination of two of these elements resulted in no crucial modification of the electrical properties of the base material. Large decreases of lattice thermal conductivity were observed, because of enhanced phonon scattering, with the highest reduction up to 25% for molybdenum substitution; this resulted in a 20% decrease of total thermal conductivity, which contributed to improvement of the figure of merit ZT of the HMS-based materials. The maximum ZT value was approximately 0.40 for the material with 2 at.% molybdenum substitution at the Mn sites.

  18. Fatigue Debonding Analysis of Repaired Aluminium Panels by Composite Patch using Interface Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Toudeshky, Hossein; Jasemzadeh, Ali; Mohammadi, Bijan

    2011-12-01

    Repaired panels with composite patches subjected to fatigue loading may fail due to the progressive debonding between the composite patch and aluminium panel. The objective of this paper is to study the initiation and propagation of a possible fatigue debonding in the adhesive layer while the crack also growths in the panel for single-side repaired aluminium panels. For this purpose three dimensional finite elements method with a thin layer solid like interface element is employed. Fracture mechanics approach is used for the analysis of crack growth in aluminium panel and the interface elements with fatigue constitutive law for mixed mode debonding growth in the adhesive layer. A user element routine and a damage model material routine were developed to include the interface element and to simulate the initiation and propagation of damage in adhesive layer under cyclic loading. It is shown that, the debonding propagation and crack growth rate of the repaired panels depend on the composite patch material and interface bonding properties significantly. It is also shown that using of patch material with higher elastic module leads to the faster damage or debonding growth in the adhesive layer during the fatigue loading.

  19. Aluminium removal from wastewater by refused beach cast seaweed. Equilibrium and dynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Lodeiro, Pablo; Gudiña, Angel; Herrero, Luz; Herrero, Roberto; Sastre de Vicente, Manuel E

    2010-06-15

    Aluminium removal has been investigated in synthetic and real wastewaters provided by an aluminium surface treatment plant. Marine algae, obtained as beach cast seaweed (a refuse substance) were used as adsorption material. The influence of pH, metal concentration and time for aluminium elimination was studied by use of synthetic solutions. The optimum pH value was 4.0, which provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 22.5 mg g(-1). The adsorption percentage surpassed 80% in less than 30 min of contact time. Real solutions from the industrial unit were fully characterized and tested in two different fixed-bed columns. One column was filled with 27.5 g of dried beach cast seaweed. Three cycles of adsorption and two of desorption were carried out. The first cycle (12 mg g(-1) maximum sorption capacity) was enough to reach the maximum adsorption capacity at 15 mL min(-1) flow rate. The second column was packed with 1100 g of seaweed and its behaviour was compared to another column filled with activated charcoal, following both the same experimental procedure. Maximum sorption capacity was 14 mg g(-1) for seaweed, whereas the activated charcoal only reached 1.6 mg g(-1) (flow rate of 250 mL min(-1)). PMID:20189715

  20. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 degrees C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 degrees C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 degrees C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics. PMID:14761750

  1. Two-port multimode interference reflectors based on aluminium mirrors in a thick SOI platform.

    PubMed

    Fandiño, Javier S; Doménech, José David; Muñoz, Pascual

    2015-08-10

    Multimode interference reflectors (MIRs) were recently introduced as a new type of photonic integrated devices for on-chip, broadband light reflection. In the original proposal, different MIRs were demonstrated based on total internal reflection mirrors made of two deep-etched facets. Although simpler to fabricate, this approach imposes certain limits on the shape of the field pattern at the reflecting facets, which in turn restricts the types of MIRs that can be implemented. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the use of aluminium-based mirrors for the design of 2-port MIRs with variable reflectivity. These mirrors do not impose any restrictions on the incident field, and thus give more flexibility at the design stage. Devices with different reflectivities in the range between 0 and 0.5 were fabricated in a 3 um thick SOI platform, and characterization of multiple dies was performed to extract statistical data about their performance. Our measurements show that, on average, losses both in the aluminium mirror and in the access waveguides reduce the reflectivities to about 79% of their target value. Moreover, standard deviations lower than ±5% are obtained over a 20 nm wavelength range (1540-1560 nm). We also provide a theoretical model of the aluminium mirror based on the effective index method and Fresnel equations in multilayer thin films, which shows good agreement with FDTD simulations. PMID:26367878

  2. Speciation study of aluminium in beverages by Competitive Ligand Exchange-Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Magnier, A; Fekete, V; Van Loco, J; Bolle, F; Elskens, M

    2014-05-01

    Competitive Ligand Exchange-Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry (CLE-AdSV) was used for determining the speciation of aluminium in commonly consumed beverages (water, tea, infusion, coffee, orange juice, tomato juice, beer and red wine). Aluminium determination involves the adsorption of Al-complexes with the ligand cupferron onto a hanging mercury drop electrode. All samples were studied at pH 6.5 with an accumulation step at -0.60 V (all potential values in the paper are given versus the Ag/AgCl, [KCl]=3 M reference electrode) during 60 s, and a final cupferron concentration of 4 × 10(-4)M. These conditions were used to establish (i) the concentration of electro-labile aluminium, (ii) the range of ligand concentrations and (iii) the conditional stability constants of beverage samples using titration procedures. The results based on Ruzic plots were compared to computer simulation with Visual MINTEQ. This comparison suggests that labile monomeric Al-forms and soluble organic complexes of low molecular weight can be quantified by the CLE-AdSV procedure. Overall the relative uncertainties on the determination of the electro-active Al fraction and the complexing parameters, i.e., concentration and conditional stability constant of natural ligands in the samples, are less than 15%. Thanks to these results, information on Al bioavailability in beverages was collected and discussed. This study also illustrates the value of computer simulations when complex, time-consuming voltammetric techniques are applied. PMID:24720958

  3. Iron and aluminium oxides containing industrial wastes as adsorbents of heavy metals: Application possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Jacukowicz-Sobala, Irena; Ociński, Daniel; Kociołek-Balawejder, Elżbieta

    2015-07-01

    Industrial wastes with a high iron or aluminium oxide content are produced in huge quantities as by-products of water treatment (water treatment residuals), bauxite processing (red mud) and hard and brown coal burning in power plants (fly ash). Although they vary in their composition, the wastes have one thing in common--a high content of amorphous iron and/or aluminium oxides with a large specific surface area, whereby this group of wastes shows very good adsorbability towards heavy metals, arsenates, selenates, etc. But their physical form makes their utilisation quite difficult, since it is not easy to separate the spent sorbent from the solution and high bed hydraulic resistances occur in dynamic regime processes. Nevertheless, because of the potential benefits of utilising the wastes in industrial effluent treatment, this issue attracts much attention today. This study describes in detail the waste generation processes, the chemical structure of the wastes, their physicochemical properties, and the mechanisms of fixing heavy metals and semimetals on the surface of iron and aluminium oxides. Typical compositions of wastes generated in selected industrial plants are given. A detailed survey of the literature on the adsorption applications of the wastes, including methods of their thermal and chemical activation, as well as regeneration of the spent sorbents, is presented. The existing and potential ways of modifying the physical form of the discussed group of wastes, making it possible to overcome the basic limitation on their practical use, are discussed. PMID:26060197

  4. Study of the biological films formed during the pitting of aluminium in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Salvarezza, R C; De Mele, M F; Videla, H A

    1984-01-01

    Film formation during the pitting corrosion of aluminium in human plasma is studied using conventional electrochemical techniques complemented with scanning electron microscopy as well as energy-dispersive x-ray, electron microprobe and immunoelectrophoresis analysis. The anodic polarization curve of aluminium in human plasma at 37 degrees C shows a passive region related to a low corrosion rate that extends up to -0.66 V (s.c.e.). At more positive potential values than -0.66 V, the breakdown of the oxide protective film occurs due to the chloride anions, leading to an intense localized dissolution of the metal (pitting corrosion). Scanning electron microscopy of the metal surface reveals a thick non-adherent precipitate covering pits of a crystallographic feature. Energy-dispersive x-ray and the microprobe analysis show the presence of aluminium, chloride and carbon signals. Immunoelectrophoresis of the precipitate resuspended in physiological solution shows a strong protein denaturization. Results suggest that the corrosion products are formed during pitting by the interaction of the saturated AlCl3 salt present within the pits and the adsorbed plasma proteins. PMID:6482506

  5. Aluminium ultrahigh vacuum system for the 3 GeV TPS synchrotron light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, G. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, C. L.; Wu, L. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Chan, C. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Hsueh, H. P.; Hsu, S. N.; Chen, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The 3-GeV Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) is a large accelerator and synchrotron light source of circumference 518.4 m. The electron storage ring of TPS requires an ultrahigh-vacuum pressure per beam current less than 2×10-10 Pa/mA in the beam duct to maintain a long life of the circulating beam without scattering of ions by residual gases. Aluminium alloys used for the beam ducts have a benefit of greater thermal conductivity that simplifies the structure of vacuum vessels built with the cooling components. Machining completely free of oil applied to the aluminium chambers followed by cleaning with ozonized water and welding in house provide a precise dimensional control within 0.3 mm and a clean surface with a small rate ~ 6.4×10-12 Pa m/s of thermal outgassing after baking at 150 °C for 24 h. The assembled ion pump with non-evaporable getter pump is capable of evacuating the chamber to a pressure < 1×10-9 Pa. The average pressure inside the duct is expected to be sufficiently small. The clean process to manufacture the aluminium ultrahigh vacuum system is described.

  6. Crashworthiness of Aluminium Tubes; Part 2: Improvement of Hydroforming Operation to Increase Absorption Energy

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amours, Guillaume; Rahem, Ahmed; Mayer, Robert; Williams, Bruce; Worswick, Michael

    2007-05-17

    The motivation to reduce overall vehicle weight within the automotive sector drives the substitution of lightweight materials such as aluminium alloys for structural components. Such a substitution requires a significant amount of development to manufacture structurally parts such that the energy absorption characteristics are not sacrificed in the event of crash. The effects of the manufacturing processes on the crash performance of automotive structural components must be better understood to ensure improved crashworthiness. This paper presents results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the crash response and energy absorption properties of impacted hydroformed aluminium alloy tubes. Crash experiments on hydroformed tubes were performed using a deceleration sled test at the General Motors Technical Center. Results from axial crush testing showed that an important parameter that influences the energy absorption characteristics during crash was the thickness reduction caused by circumferential expansion of the tube during hydroforming. It was found that that the energy absorption decreased as the corner radius decreased, which results because of increased thinning. Sensitivity studies of end feeding parameters, such as end feed level and profile, were carried out to evaluate their impact on the energy absorption of the aluminium tubes.

  7. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-07-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  8. Kojic acid derivatives as powerful chelators for iron(III) and aluminium(III).

    PubMed

    Nurchi, Valeria M; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Crisponi, Guido; Murgia, Sergio; Arca, Massimiliano; Pintus, Anna; Gans, Peter; Niclos-Gutierrez, Juan; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Castineiras, Alfonso; Remelli, Maurizio; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Lis, Tadeusz

    2011-06-14

    Proceeding from a ligand constituted by two units of kojic acid linked by a methylene group, which proved a very promising chelator for excess iron(III) and aluminium(III) pathologies, two new ligands have been designed and synthesized: one by adding a vanillin molecule in the linker and the second by adding an o-vanillin molecule. Both these ligands, on the basis of complex formation studies presented here, show significant potential as therapeutic agents for iron and aluminium overload. Protonation constants of the pure ligands have been determined by potentiometry, and standard reaction heats by calorimetry. Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in the protonation reactions. The crystal structures of both ligands have furthermore been resolved. Complex formation equilibria for the iron complexes have been studied by combined potentiometry-spectrophotometry and those of aluminium by potentiometry alone. All complexes were found to contain two metal ions. NMR diffusion measurements hardly applied to complex formation equilibria and the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations were powerful tools in confirming the proposed reaction model and in evaluating the relative stabilities of the products. Further support was given by NMR chemical shift measurements and electrospray mass spectrometry. PMID:21552634

  9. The first data from the Orion laser: measurements of the spectrum of hot dense aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarty, D. J.; Allan, P.; James, S. F.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hobbs, L. M. R.; Hill, M. P.; Harris, J. W. O.; Morton, J.; Brookes, M. G.; Shepherd, R.; Dunn, J.; Chen, H.; Von Marley, E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chung, H. K.; Lee, R. W.; Brown, G.; Emig, J.

    2016-03-01

    The newly commissioned Orion laser system has been used to study dense plasmas created by a combination of short pulse laser heating and compression by laser driven shocks. Thus the plasma density was systematically varied between 1 and 10g/cc by using aluminium samples buried in plastic foils or diamond sheets. The aluminium was heated to electron temperatures between 500eV and 700eV allowing the plasma conditions to be diagnosed by K- shell emission spectroscopy. The K-shell spectra show the effect of the ionization potential depression as a function of density via the delocalization of n=3 levels and disappearance of n=3 transitions in He-like and H-like aluminium. The data are compared to simulated spectra, which account for the change in the ionization potential by the commonly used Stewart and Pyatt prescription; a simple ion sphere model and an alternative due to Ecker and Kroll suggested by recent X-ray free-electron laser experiments. The experimental data are in reasonable agreement with the model of Stewart and Pyatt, but are in better agreement with a simple ion sphere model. The data indicate that the Ecker and Kröll model overestimates substantially the ionization potential depression in this regime.

  10. Stimulated emission from aluminium anode oxide films doped with rhodamine 6G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, N. Kh; Zeinidenov, A. K.; Aimukhanov, A. K.; Napolskii, K. S.

    2015-07-01

    The spectral and luminescent properties of the rhodamine 6G dye in a porous matrix of aluminium anode oxide are studied. The films with a highly-ordered porous structure are produced using the method of two-stage anodic oxidation. By means of raster electron microscopy it is found that the diameter of the pores amounts to nearly 50 nm and the separation between the adjacent channels is almost 105 nm. The thickness of the films is equal to 55 μm, and the specific surface area measured using the method of nitrogen capillary condensation is 15.3 m2 g-1. Fluorescence and absorption spectra of rhodamine 6G molecules injected into the pores of the aluminium anode oxide are measured. It is found that under the excitation of samples with the surface dye concentration 0.3 × 1014 molecules m-2 by the second harmonic of the Nd : YAG laser in the longitudinal scheme with the pumping intensity 0.4 MW cm-2, a narrow band of stimulated emission with the intensity maximum at the wavelength 572 nm appears against the background of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum. A further increase in the pumping radiation intensity leads to the narrowing of the stimulated emission band and an increase in its intensity. The obtained results demonstrate the potential possibility of using the porous films of aluminium anode oxide, doped with laser dyes, in developing active elements for quantum electronics.

  11. Investigation of structural, morphological, luminescent and thermal properties of combusted aluminium-based iron oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shinde, S.S.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2010-12-15

    Nanocomposites of aluminium integrated hematite {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are synthesized by combustion route using aqueous solutions of AR grade ferric trichloride and aluminium nitrate as precursors. The influence of aluminium incorporation on to the morphology, XPS, photoluminescence and thermal properties has been investigated. The FESEM and AFM micrographs depict that the samples are compact and have homogeneously distributed grains of varying sizes ({approx}20-60 nm). Chemical composition and valence states of constituent elements in hematite are analyzed by XPS. In room temperature photoluminescence (PL) study, we observed strong violet emission around 436 nm without any deep-level emission and a small PL FWHM indicating that the concentrations of defects are responsible for deep-level emissions. The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant. We studied interparticle interactions using complex impedance spectroscopy. We report a new potential candidate for its possible applications in optoelectronics and magnetic devices. -- Graphical abstract: Frequency and temperature dependent interparticle interactions like grains, grain boundary effects using complex impedance spectroscopy of pure and 10 at% Al:Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been studied. Display Omitted

  12. Modelling of stress fields during LFEM DC casting of aluminium billets by a meshless method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrič, B.; Šarler, B.

    2015-06-01

    Direct Chill (DC) casting of aluminium alloys is a widely established technology for efficient production of aluminium billets and slabs. The procedure is being further improved by the application of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (LFEM) in the area of the mold. Novel LFEM DC processing technique affects many different phenomena which occur during solidification, one of them being the stresses and deformations present in the billet. These quantities can have a significant effect on the quality of the cast piece, since they impact porosity, hot-tearing and cold cracking. In this contribution a novel local radial basis function collocation method (LRBFCM) is successfully applied to the problem of stress field calculation during the stationary state of DC casting of aluminium alloys. The formulation of the method is presented in detail, followed by the presentation of the tackled physical problem. The model describes the deformations of linearly elastic, inhomogeneous isotropic solid with a given temperature field. The temperature profile is calculated using the in-house developed heat and mass transfer model. The effects of low frequency EM casting process parameters on the vertical, circumferential and radial stress and on the deformation of billet surface are presented. The application of the LFEM appears to decrease the amplitudes of the tensile stress occurring in the billet.

  13. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  14. Proppant flowback control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.D.; Weaver, J.D.; Parker, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the laboratory and field development of thermoplastic film materials used to reduce proppant flowback that can occur after fracturing treatments. The paper provides a summary of flowback mechanism theories and laboratory tests comparing flowback tendency for various types of treating procedures and materials. Some of these materials include angular proppant, proppant/fiber mixtures, and proppant with film strips tested over a wide range of temperature, closure stress, and flow-rate conditions. Field treatment procedures are discussed, and several case histories are presented. All of the methods evaluated were effective in reducing proppant flowback under certain conditions. Heat-shrink film cut into thin slivers proved to provide flowback reduction over broad temperature and closure stress ranges and was found to cause little impairment to fracture conductivity with some dependency on use concentration, temperature, and closure stress. The film materials were more resistant to damage caused by blending and pumping than all other materials evaluated. In addition, proppant packs, including consolidated packs, were significantly more tolerant of large, repeated stress changes. Field results indicate that the use of the heat-shrink film material as a flowback control agent permits more aggressive bean-up procedures following conventional fracturing treatments. Conventional dry-additive metering systems were used to add the film material to the fracturing fluid proppant slurry.

  15. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO4), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  16. Combination toxicity of etoposide (VP-16) and photosensitisation with a water-soluble aluminium phthalocyanine in K562 human leukaemic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gantchev, T. G.; Brasseur, N.; van Lier, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Etoposide (VP-16) is an anti-cancer drug commonly used against several types of tumours and leukaemia, either alone or in combination chemotherapy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is another, relatively new modality for treatment of various malignancies. The interactions between VP-16 and PDT, using aluminium tetrasulphophthalocyanine as photosensitiser, in K562 human leukaemic cells were investigated. Cell responses to individual and combined drug treatment under different experimental conditions revealed synergistic drug toxicity. The latter was evident from various events of cell response, including supra-additive accumulation of cells in G2/M cell cycle phase and endonucleolytic DNA fragmentation (apoptosis). The involvement of the cellular antioxidant system in the synergistic interactions of photosensitisation and VP-16 is proposed. Images Figure 5 PMID:8932337

  17. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  18. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  19. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  20. Mechanisms and kinetics of reaction-bonded aluminium oxide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Suxing; Holz, D.; Claussen, N. . Advanced Ceramics Group)

    1993-04-01

    Reaction-bonded Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] (RBAO) ceramics were fabricated starting from mechanically alloyed Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/Al, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/Al/ZrO[sub 2], and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/Al/ZrO[sub 2]/Zr mixtures. Isopressed compacts were heat-treated in air up to 1,550 C. Reaction-bonding mechanisms, kinetics, and the influence of ZrO[sub 2] and Zr additions are investigated. Independent of additive, oxidation of Al proceeds both as solid/gas and liquid/gas reaction, and the reaction kinetics follow a parabolic rate law. The reaction rate depends strongly on the particle size of Al. The activation energy of the reaction depends essentially on green density. Below the melting temperature of Al, in samples containing 45 vol% Al and 55 vol% Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], it is 112 and 152 kJ/mol at [approximately]64% and [approximately]74% TD, respectively, while above the melting temperature, it lies in the range [approximately]26--33 kJ/mol. Zr additions reduce the activation energy to some extent. Samples with only ZrO[sub 2] additions exhibit nearly the same activation energies as ZrO[sub 2]-free samples, though ZrO[sub 2] has a very positive effect on the microstructural development in RBAO ceramics. Microstructure evolution and some strength data of RBAO bodies are also reported.

  1. Surface microhardening in a lithium implanted aluminium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Fiset, M.; Knystautas, E.J.; Lapointe, R.

    1984-09-01

    This paper describes changes observed in microhardness after implanting energetic lithium ions into pure aluminum and its 2024-T351 alloy. The addition of lithium to aluminum lowers the density and increases both the modulus of elasticity and tensile strength. Thus, these properties make such alloys attractive in aerospace applications. The authors believe that this is the first report where lithium implantation has been used to evaluate near surface changes.

  2. A density functional theory study of the structure of pure-silica and aluminium-substituted MFI nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Roldan, Alberto; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2016-05-01

    The layered MFI zeolite allows a straightforward hierarchization of the pore system which accelerates mass transfer and increases its lifetime as a catalyst. Here, we present a theoretical study of the structural features of the pure-silica and aluminium-substituted MFI nanosheets. We have analysed the effects of aluminium substitution on the vibrational properties of silanols as well as the features of protons as counter-ions. The formation of the two-dimensional system did not lead to appreciable distortions within the framework. Moreover, the effects on the structure due to the aluminium dopants were the same in both the bulk and the slab. The principal differences were related to the silanol groups that form hydrogen-bonds with neighbouring aluminium-substituted silanols, whereas intra-framework hydrogen-bonds increase the stability of aluminium-substituted silanols toward dehydration. Thus, we have complemented previous experimental and theoretical studies, showing the lamellar MFI zeolite to be a very stable material of high crystallinity regardless of its very thin structure.

  3. The economics of shutting and restarting primary aluminium smelting capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, K.J.

    1996-10-01

    In recent years the aluminum industry in the Western world has been operating well below capacity, with cutbacks in production due largely to the depressed aluminum market conditions of 1992 and 1993. Since mid-1995, however, aluminum producers have begun restarting idled capacity. Extensive efforts and preparation are required both to close capacity in an orderly manner and to restart idled capacity. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the costs of shutting capacity, maintaining idled capacity, and restarting potlines. Costs have been calculated for a smelter which may be considered representative of the industry as a whole. Technical aspects and commercial data are outlined for the representative smelter, with costs presented under a variety of shutdown and restart conditions. Additionally, the time required to bring capacity back on-line is examined for several scenarios, and the economic impact of idled capacity is discussed.

  4. Nucleation of the diamond phase in aluminium-solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornbogen, E.; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.; Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Precipitation was studied from fcc solid solutions with silicon, germanium, copper and magnesium. Of all these elements only silicon and germanium form diamond cubic (DC) precipitates in fcc Al. Nucleation of the DC structure is enhanced if both types of atom are dissolved in the fcc lattice. This is interpreted as due to atomic size effects in the prenucleation stage. There are two modes of interference of fourth elements with nucleation of the DC phase in Al + Si, Ge. The formation of the DC phase is hardly affected if the atoms (for example, copper) are rejected from the (Si, Ge)-rich clusters. If additional types of atom are attracted by silicon and/or germanium, DC nuclei are replaced by intermetallic compounds (for example Mg2Si).

  5. Aluminium oxide in the optical spectrum of VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, T.; Schmidt, M. R.; Menten, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of the optical bands of the B 2Σ + -X 2Σ + system of AlO in the red supergiant VY CMa. In addition to TiO, VO, ScO, and YO, which were recognized in the optical spectrum of the star long time ago, AlO is another refractory molecule which displays strong emission bands in this peculiar star. Simulating the bands of AlO, we derive a rotational temperature of the circumstellar gas of Trot = 700 K. By resolving individual rotational components of the bands, we derive the kinematical characteristics of the gas, finding that the emission is centred at the stellar radial velocity and its intrinsic width is 13.5 km s-1 (full width at half maximum). It is the narrowest emission among all (thermal) features observed in VY CMa so far. The temperature and line widths suggest that the emission arises in gas located within ~20 stellar radii, where the outflow is still being accelerated. This result contradicts equilibrium-chemistry models which predict substantial AlO abundances only to within a few stellar radii. We argue that non-equilibrium models involving propagation of shocks are needed to explain the observations. This work makes use of data acquired within the ESO programmes 67.B-0504 and DDT 266.D-5655, and observations from the AAVSO International Database.

  6. Development and Mechanical Behavior of FML/Aluminium Foam Sandwiches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baştürk, S. B.; Tanoğlu, M.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the Fiber-Metal Laminates (FMLs) containing glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) and aluminum (Al) sheet were consolidated with Al foam cores for preparing the sandwich panels. The aim of this article is the comparison of the flexural properties of FML/Al foam sandwich panels bonded with various surface modification approaches (silane treatment and combination of silane treatment with polypropylene (PP) based film addition). The FML/foam sandwich systems were fabricated by laminating the components in a mould at 200 °C under 1.5 MPa pressure. The energy absorbtion capacities and flexural mechanical properties of the prepared sandwich systems were evaluated by mechanical tests. Experiments were performed on samples of varying foam thicknesses (8, 20 and 30 mm). The bonding among the sandwich components were achieved by various surface modification techniques. The Al sheet/Al foam sandwiches were also consolidated by bonding the components with an epoxy adhesive to reveal the effect of GFPP on the flexural performance of the sandwich structures.

  7. Crystalline silicon growth in the aluminium-induced glass texturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying; Law, Felix; Widenborg, Per I.; Aberle, Armin G.

    2012-12-01

    Aluminium-induced texturing (AIT) is a method to texture glass surfaces by utilising the reaction between aluminium (Al) and glass at high temperature (above 500 °C) and a subsequent wet-chemical treatment that removes the reaction products. In this work, we studied the solid state reaction between a sputtered Al layer and a borosilicate glass sheet during AIT annealing. Raman spectroscopy showed that crystalline silicon (c-Si) is formed during the AIT process. An optical microscope was used to visualise the evolution of the c-Si growth. Plan-view scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations performed on samples after completed AIT reaction showed that separate c-Si clusters formed at the glass surface. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the c-Si clusters grew upwards and were on top of the glass surface. Cross-sectional SEM examination showed that the c-Si layer is not uniform and that crater-shaped nodules are embedded into the glass. The widths and depths of the nodules are in the micrometre range. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the nodules consist mainly of aluminium oxide (Al2O3). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the c-Si grains are preferentially (111) oriented. The activation energy of the reaction between Al and borosilicate glass is 3.0±0.2 eV based on in-situ XRD analysis of the c-Si growth. Finally, a phenomenological model of the AIT process is proposed and we suggest that the topology of the glass texture strongly depends on the size, depth and lateral separation of the Al2O3 nodules embedded in the glass.

  8. Steps toward interstellar silicate mineralogy. III. The role of aluminium in circumstellar amorphous silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutschke, H.; Begemann, B.; Dorschner, J.; Guertler, J.; Gustafson, B.; Henning, Th.; Stognienko, R.

    1998-05-01

    It is a well-known fact that the spectra of oxygen-rich circumstellar dust envelopes around evolved stars show great diversity, especially in the 10 mu m silicate band profiles, but also in the longer infrared wavelength range covered by ISO. This supports earlier conclusions that the concept of a universal cosmic silicate is inadequate and that it is reasonable to consider a wider variety of possible silicate analogues as the basis for an improved modelling of the observed spectra. In the course of an investigation of the role of aluminium in cosmic dust, aluminosilicate glasses (ASGs) have been suggested as interesting laboratory analogues for this purpose. In these glasses, silicon ions within the SiO_4 tetrahedra are partly substituted by fourfold coordinated aluminium. In a new laboratory approach to the silicate dust problem, 13 ASG samples were prepared. Apart from magnesium and iron, the cosmically most abundant metals, sodium and calcium, were incorporated as cations. In this paper, these new silicate dust analogues are analytically and spectroscopically characterized. The spectroscopic results were obtained in the range from the UV to the far-infrared, in the millimetre wave range, and by Raman spectroscopy. Optical constants have been derived for the wavenumbers 1500-20 cm(-1) (6.7-500 mu m) from infrared reflectance measurements and for the frequencies 110-75 GHz (2.7-4 mm) from angle-resolved millimetre-wave scattering at spherical samples from two of the ASGs. For the electronic and vibrational absorption features, the dependence on the aluminium/silicon substitution ratio and on the glass structure is discussed. Relations between the calculated (Rayleigh case) band positions, widths and strengths of the IR absorption bands and the chemical compositions are derived. The application of the new data to the reproduction of observed stardust spectra of the IRAS-LRS catalogue shows promising results.

  9. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  10. Fabrication of ultra-fine grained aluminium tubes by RTES technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarzadeh, H. Abrinia, K.

    2015-04-15

    Recently, repetitive tube expansion and shrinking have been exploited as a means for producing ultra-fine grained and nano-crystalline microstructures for magnesium alloy tubes. This method includes two different half-cycles and was based on pressing a tubular part through an angular channel die with two shear zones. Since the aluminium alloys are the most widely used materials in industries, in this study, repetitive tube expansion and shrinking as a new severe plastic deformation technique was applied to commercially pure aluminium for fabricating ultra-fine grained aluminium tubes for the first time and the ability of this process in significant grain refinement is determined even after single cycle. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the microstructure of the repetitive tube expansion and shrinking processed materials and the examinations showed ultra-fine grains with the average grain size of 320 nm after one cycle of repetitive tube expansion and shrinking. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength increased notably by the factor of 2.17 and 1.27 respectively, after one cycle of repetitive tube expansion and shrinking, whereas the elongation to failure as well as the uniform elongation decreased. Furthermore, micro-hardness distribution through the part's section proposed the hardness increasing to ~ 55 HV from the initial value of ~ 28 HV after one cycle of repetitive tube expansion and shrinking. - Highlights: • RTES was introduced for fabricating the UFGed AA1050 tubes for the first time. • Nano-grained AA1050 tube was obtained by RTES process. • Grain size of ~ 320 nm was obtained after two half-cycles of RTES process. • Yield and ultimate strength increased by the factor of 2.17 and 1.27 respectively. • The microhardness increased to ~ 55 HV from the initial value of ~ 28 HV.

  11. Oblique shock structures formed during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Niasse, N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Burdiak, G.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Bland, S. N.; De Grouchy, P.; Khoory, E.; Pickworth, L.; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.

    2013-02-15

    A series of experiments has been conducted in order to investigate the azimuthal structures formed by the interactions of cylindrically converging plasma flows during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array Z pinch implosions. These experiments were carried out using the 1.4 MA, 240 ns MAGPIE generator at Imperial College London. The main diagnostic used in this study was a two-colour, end-on, Mach-Zehnder imaging interferometer, sensitive to the axially integrated electron density of the plasma. The data collected in these experiments reveal the strongly collisional dynamics of the aluminium ablation streams. The structure of the flows is dominated by a dense network of oblique shock fronts, formed by supersonic collisions between adjacent ablation streams. An estimate for the range of the flow Mach number (M = 6.2-9.2) has been made based on an analysis of the observed shock geometry. Combining this measurement with previously published Thomson Scattering measurements of the plasma flow velocity by Harvey-Thompson et al.[Physics of Plasmas 19, 056303 (2012)] allowed us to place limits on the range of the ZT{sub e} of the plasma. The detailed and quantitative nature of the dataset lends itself well as a source for model validation and code verification exercises, as the exact shock geometry is sensitive to many of the plasma parameters. Comparison of electron density data produced through numerical modelling with the Gorgon 3D MHD code demonstrates that the code is able to reproduce the collisional dynamics observed in aluminium arrays reasonably well.

  12. Determination of anisotropy in impact toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M. H.; Hashmi, F.; Junaid, A.

    The research was aimed to quantify the existence of anisotropy in fracture toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate (used in aircraft structural members). It was further needed to establish the direction in which the fracture toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate is maximum and minimum. This could help ascertain the structural integrity of aircraft structural components; also while designing new components, the knowledge of variation in toughness with respect to direction helps in economizing dead weight of the aircraft. In this research, pursued at the College of Aeronautical Engineering, the anisotropy in toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate was analysed using the Charpy V-notch impact toughness test. The effect of specimen orientation on the impact toughness values of the alloy was investigated and compared with known results to verify the reliability of the work and to ascertain the extent of anisotropy in fracture toughness of the said alloy. Charpy impact tests were carried out on ASTM E 23 standard specimens machined at a reference laboratory at room temperature (23° C +/- 2° C). Four different specimen orientations analysed for the purpose of this study were L-S, L-T, T-S and T-L directions. Subsequently, the results obtained at the research centre were then analysed and correlated with morphology of microstructure of the material to establish the reliability of the experimental results. Moreover, an analysis was also done to cater for the possible errors that could affect the fracture toughness values obtained from experimental results. It was concluded that the T-S orientation of the plate had maximum toughness, whereas, minimum toughness was observed in L-T direction.

  13. Differential activation of genes related to aluminium tolerance in two contrasting rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Maite; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet; Barceló, Juan; Llugany, Mercè

    2015-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a highly Al-tolerant crop. Among other mechanisms, a higher expression of STAR1/STAR2 (sensitive to Al rhizotoxicity1/2) genes and of Nrat1 (NRAMP Aluminium Transporter 1), and ALS1 (Aluminium sensitive 1) can at least in part be responsible for the inducible Al tolerance in this species. Here we analysed the responses to Al in two contrasting rice varieties. All analysed toxicity/tolerance markers (root elongation, Evans blue, morin and haematoxylin staining) indicated higher Al-tolerance in variety Nipponbare, than in variety Modan. Nipponbare accumulated much less Al in the roots than Modan. Aluminium supply caused stronger expression of STAR1 in Nipponbare than in Modan. A distinctively higher increase of Al-induced abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation was found in the roots of Nipponbare than in Modan. Highest ABA levels were observed in Nipponbare after 48 h exposure to Al. This ABA peak was coincident in time with the highest expression level of STAR1. It is proposed that ABA may be required for cell wall remodulation facilitated by the enhanced UDP-glucose transport to the walls through STAR1/STAR2. Contrastingly, in the roots of Modan the expression of both Nrat1 coding for a plasma membrane Al-transporter and of ALS1 coding for a tonoplast-localized Al transporter was considerably enhanced. Moreover, Modan had a higher Al-induced expression of ASR1 a gene that has been proposed to code for a reactive oxygen scavenging protein. In conclusion, the Al-exclusion strategy of Nipponbare, at least in part mediated by STAR1 and probably regulated by ABA, provided better protection against Al toxicity than the accumulation and internal detoxification strategy of Modan mediated by Nrat1, ALS1 and ARS1. PMID:26337117

  14. Acoustic neuroma: potential risk factors and audiometric surveillance in the aluminium industry

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Oyebode; Galusha, Deron; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Kirsche, Sharon; Cantley, Linda; Slade, Martin D; Cullen, Mark R; Donoghue, A Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To look for an association between acoustic neuroma (AN) and participation in a hearing conservation programme (HCP) and also for an association between AN and possible occupational risk factors in the aluminium industry. Methods We conducted a case–control analysis of a population of US aluminium production workers in 8 smelters and 43 other plants. Using insurance claims data, 97 cases of AN were identified between 1996 and 2009. Each was matched with four controls. Covariates included participation in a HCP, working in an aluminium smelter, working in an electrical job and hearing loss. Results In the bivariate analyses, covariates associated with AN were participation in the HCP (OR=1.72; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.69) and smelter work (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.36). Electrical work was not significant (OR=1.60; 95% CI 0.65 to 3.94). Owing to high participation in the HCP in smelters, multivariate subanalyses were required. In the multivariate analyses, participation in the HCP was the only statistically significant risk factor for AN. In the multivariate analysis restricted to employees not working in a smelter, the OR was 1.81 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.17). Hearing loss, an indirect measure of in-ear noise dose, was not predictive of AN. Conclusions Our results suggest the incidental detection of previously undiagnosed tumours in workers who participated in the company-sponsored HCP. The increased medical surveillance among this population of workers most likely introduced detection bias, leading to the identification of AN cases that would have otherwise remained undetected. PMID:25015928

  15. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study (P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration. PMID:25852400

  16. A numerical analysis of empty and foam-filled aluminium conical tubes under oblique impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat, Fauziah; Ismail, Khairul Azwan; Yaacob, Sazali

    2015-05-01

    In real impact applications, an energy absorber rarely sustains dynamic loading either axial or oblique but a combination of both. Established studies have proved that thin-walled tube is an excellent energy absorber under dynamic loading. Furthermore, the introduction of foam filling successfully enhanced the energy absorption capacity of thin-walled tube. However, the understanding of its response under oblique loading has yet been fully explored. Moreover, emerging in automotive industry has lead to increase interests on lightweight materials such as aluminium alloy. As such, this paper presents the crushing behaviour of empty and foam-filled aluminium alloy (AA6061-T6) conical tubes under oblique impact loading using a validated nonlinear finite element (FE) code, LS-DYNA. The study aims to assess the effect of foam filling on the energy absorption of AA6061-T6 tubes for variations in filler density. In fact, to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first attempt to evaluate a response of empty and foam-filled aluminum conical tube by using an experimentally validated model under oblique dynamic loading conditions. Good correlations between the numerical and experimental results were observed. The study show that initial peak force and the energy absorption increase with increasing filler density under axial and oblique loading. On the other hand, the effect of foam filling (0.534 g/cm3 aluminium foam filler) is less pronounced for the initial peak force under axial impact loading. Furthermore, the initial peak force and dynamic force of empty and foam-filled AA6061-T6 conical tubes decrease as the load angle increases from 0 deg to 20 deg hence reduces the energy absorption capacity.

  17. Hexaaqua­aluminium(III) tris­(methane­sulfonate)

    PubMed Central

    Trella, Thomas; Frank, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [Al(H2O)6](CH3SO3)3 (common name: aluminium methane­sulfonate hexa­hydrate), was crystallized from an aqueous solution prepared by the precipitation reaction of aluminium sulfate and barium methane­sulfonate. Its crystal structure is the first of the boron group methane­sulfonates to be determined. The characteristic building block is a centrosymmetric unit containing two hexa­aqua­aluminium cations that are connected to each other by two O atoms of the –SO3 groups in an O—H⋯O⋯H—O sequence. Further O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding links these blocks in orthogonal directions – along [010] forming a double chain array, along [10-1] forming a layered arrangement of parallel chains and along [101] forming a three-dimensional network. As indicated by the O⋯O distances of 2.600 (3)–2.715 (3) Å, the hydrogen bonds are from medium–strong to strong. A further structural feature is the arrangement of two and four methyl groups, respectively, establishing ‘hydro­phobic islands’ of different size, all positioned in a layer-like region perpendicular to [101]. The only other building block within this region is one of the –SO3 groups giving a local connection between the hydro­philic structural regions on both sides of the ‘hydro­phobic’ one. Thermal analysis indicates that a stepwise dehydration process starts at about 413 K and proceeds via the respective penta- and dihydrate until the compound completely decomposes at about 688 K. PMID:22904782

  18. The effects of ionization potential depression on the spectra emitted by hot dense aluminium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Thomas R.; Vinko, Sam M.; Ciricosta, Orlando; Chung, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Richard W.; Wark, Justin S.

    2013-06-01

    Recent experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) have demonstrated that the standard model used for simulating ionization potential depression (IPD) in a plasma (the Stewart-Pyatt (SP) model, J.C. Stewart and K.D. Pyatt Jr., Astrophysical Journal 144 (1966) 1203) considerably underestimates the degree of IPD in a solid density aluminium plasma at temperatures up to 200 eV. In contrast, good agreement with the experimental data was found by use of a modified Ecker-Kröll (mEK) model (G. Ecker and W. Kröll, Physics of Fluids 6 (1963) 62-69). We present here detailed simulations, using the FLYCHK code, of the predicted spectra from hot dense, hydrogenic and helium-like aluminium plasmas ranging in densities from 0.1 to 4 times solid density, and at temperatures up to 1000 eV. Importantly, we find that the greater IPDs predicted by the mEK model result in the loss of the n = 3 states for the hydrogenic ions for all densities above ≈0.8 times solid density, and for the helium-like ions above ≈0.65 solid density. Therefore, we posit that if the mEK model holds at these higher temperatures, the temperature of solid density highly-charged aluminium plasmas cannot be determined by using spectral features associated with the n = 3 principal quantum number, and propose a re-evaluation of previous experimental data where high densities have been inferred from the spectra, and the SP model has been used.

  19. Laser-induced deposition of aluminium on gallium arsenide and silicon nitride from trimethylamine alane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frugier, T.; Boulahia, A.; Sayah, A.; Tonneau, D.; Bourée, J. E.; Siffre, J. M.; Mencaraglia, D.

    1993-05-01

    Aluminium is a highly conductive metal, which is extensively used in the microelectronics industry for semiconductor and interconnect technology. Laser-induced chemical vapour deposition is a very attractive technique for the direct writing of micron-sized aluminium features of high quality with high deposition rates. The use of a solid precursor, an adduct called trimethylamine alane (TMAAH) having interesting physical properties, is reported as a good source for laser-induced deposition of high-purity aluminium films on GaAs- and Si 3N 4-coated GaAs substrates as well as on Al predeposited lines. Thus 30 μm wide, 0.5 μm thick lines, exempt from C, have been deposited using a focused CW visible laser (λ=514 nm), at scanning speeds in the range 2-30μm/s. The laser-induced temperatures, calculated at the centre of the spot, are lower than 300°C. Resistivity measurements performed on Al lines deposited on Si 3N 4-coated GaAs substrates give typically 10 μΩ·cm. The very different deposition rates on GaAs or Si 3N 4-coated GaAs substrates and on Al predeposited lines, which are observed for the TMAAH complex, are consistent with surface physical chemistry studies, which show that both the surface nature and the chemisorbed species play a leading role in the thermal decomposition of the precursor. Thus, it is demonstrated that a laser-writing technique, based on a surface-controlled pyrolytic process of a well defined precursor can be used for in situ reparation or customization of integrated circuits.

  20. Structural study of Al2O3-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses as a function of aluminium content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. M.; King, S. P.; Barney, E. R.; Hanna, J. V.; Newport, R. J.; Pickup, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate based biomaterials are extensively used in the context of tissue engineering: small changes in composition can lead to significant changes in properties allowing their use in a wide range of applications. Samples of composition (Al2O3)x(Na2O)0.11-x(CaO)0.445(P2O5)0.445, where x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08, were prepared by melt quenching. The atomic-scale structure has been studied using neutron diffraction and solid state 27Al MAS NMR, and these data have been rationalised with the determined density of the final glass product. With increasing aluminium concentration the density increases initially, but beyond about 3 mol. % Al2O3 the density starts to decrease. Neutron diffraction data show a concomitant change in the aluminium speciation, which is confirmed by 27Al MAS NMR studies. The NMR data reveal that aluminium is present in 4, 5, and 6-fold coordination and that the relative concentrations of these environments change with increasing aluminium concentration. Materials containing aluminium in 6-fold coordination tend to have higher densities than analogous materials with the aluminium found in 4-fold coordination. Thus, the density changes may readily be explained in terms of an increase in the relative concentration of 4-coordinated aluminium at the expense of 6-fold aluminium as the Al2O3 content is increased beyond 3 mol. %.

  1. Axillary hyperhidrosis. Local treatment with aluminium-chloride hexahydrate 25% in absolute ethanol with and without supplementary treatment with triethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Glent-Madsen, L; Dahl, J C

    1988-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, half-sided experiment, 30 volunteers were treated in both armpits with aluminium chloride hexahydrate 25% in ethanol. In order to neutralize pH and thus reduce the skin irritation, post-treatment was performed in one armpit with triethanolamine 50% in ethanol. The sweat production was measured after physical labour by means of a combined colorimetric/gravimetric method. The combined treatment with aluminium chloride hexahydrate and triethanolamine was found to be statistically significantly (p less than 0.01) less irritating to the skin, but also statistically significantly (p less than 0.01) less effective than treatment with aluminium chloride hexahydrate alone. However, the reduction in the effect of the treatment was not of a sufficient extent as to be noticed by the volunteers themselves. PMID:2449022

  2. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of a 2-(diethylaminomethyl)indole ligated dimethyl­aluminium complex

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Logan E.; Kingsley, Nicholas B.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Al(CH3)2(C13H17N2)] (systematic name; {2-[(di­ethyl­amino)­meth­yl]indol-1-yl-κ2 N,N′}di­methyl­aluminium), was prepared by methane elimination from the reaction of 2-(di­ethyl­amino­meth­yl)indole and tri­methyl­aluminium. The complex crystallizes readily from a concentrated toluene solution in high yield. The asymmetric unit contains two crystallographically independent mol­ecules. Each mol­ecule has a four-coordinate aluminium atom that has pseudo-tetra­hedral geometry. C—H⋯π inter­actions link the independent mol­ecules into chains extending along the b-axis direction. PMID:26594412

  3. The Influence of Strain Rate Variations on the Appearance of Serrated Yielding in 2024-T3 Al-Clad Aluminium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Leacock, Alan G.; McMurray, Robert J.; Brown, D.; Poston, Ken

    2007-04-07

    To avoid failure during the stretch forming process using manual control, machine operators tend to achieve the final form using a stop-start approach. It was observed that when approaching full form, stretcher-strain marks appeared on the surface of the part if the operator stopped and restarted the forming operation. In order to investigate this phenomenon, a series of tensile tests was conducted using two batches of 2024-T3 aluminium alloy. The specimens were tested using several different strain rates, representative of those used on the shop floor. Additional tests were conducted involving a series of pauses under displacement control at differing levels of strain and strain rate. In the uninterrupted tests for the two batches of 2024-T3 material tested, serrated yielding was observed just prior to failure. However for the tests in which there was a pause in displacement, the material consistently exhibited serrated yielding when the crosshead began to move again. These results indicate that the pause provides an opportunity for strain ageing and pinning of the dislocations resulting in serrated yielding of this alloy. In order to avoid serrated yielding, stretch forming operations using 2024-T3 aluminium should be conducted at a constant strain rate without interruption. This also has far reaching implications for those involved in the production and testing of these alloys. The test programme described represents an initial attempt to investigate a phenomenon noted during an industrial forming process and should be extended to analyse the affect of strain path changes on the occurrence of serrated yielding.

  4. Research of aluminium alloy aerospace structure aperture measurement based on 3D digital speckle correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Hongbo; Zhou, Jiangfan; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Hui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the aperture change of the aluminium alloy aerospace structure under real load is researched. Static experiments are carried on which is simulated the load environment of flight course. Compared with the traditional methods, through experiments results, it's proved that 3D digital speckle correlation method has good adaptability and precision on testing aperture change, and it can satisfy measurement on non-contact,real-time 3D deformation or stress concentration. The test results of new method is compared with the traditional method.

  5. Ash from the combustion of Ekibastuzsk coals - a raw material for obtaining glasses and aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Suleimenov, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    The ash content of the Ekibastuzsk coal deposit is up to 45%. The ash contains 26-30% Al2O3, 60-65% SiO2 and at least 4-5% coke. It was mixed with 20-30% slag from the phosphorus industry and 4-5% sodium sulphate for the making of glass ceramic tiles. The good acid resistance of these tiles makes them suitable for lining the equipment in which Al is extracted from the same ash for producing aluminium sulphate.

  6. Evidence of dilute ferromagnetism in rare-earth doped yttrium aluminium garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Warrick G.; Goryachev, Maxim; le Floch, Jean-Michel; Bushev, Pavel; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    This work demonstrates strong coupling regime between an erbium ion spin ensemble and microwave hybrid cavity-whispering gallery modes in a yttrium aluminium garnet dielectric crystal. Coupling strengths of 220 MHz and mode quality factors in excess of 106 are demonstrated. Moreover, the magnetic response of high-Q modes demonstrates behaviour which is unusual for paramagnetic systems. This behaviour includes hysteresis and memory effects. Such qualitative change of the system's magnetic field response is interpreted as a phase transition of rare earth ion impurities. This phenomenon is similar to the phenomenon of dilute ferromagnetism in semiconductors. The clear temperature dependence of the phenomenon is demonstrated.

  7. Aluminium substitution in iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxides: Formation and cationic order

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, Christian Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Aissa, Rabha; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Brunelli, Michela; Francois, Michel

    2008-09-15

    The formation and the modifications of the structural properties of an aluminium-substituted iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) of formula Fe{sub 4}{sup II}Fe{sub (2-6y)}{sup III}Al{sub 6y}{sup III} (OH){sub 12} SO{sub 4}, 8H{sub 2}O are followed by pH titration curves, Moessbauer spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Rietveld refinements allow to build a structural model for hydroxysulphate green rust, GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), i.e. y=0, in which a bilayer of sulphate anions points to the Fe{sup 3+} species. A cationic order is proposed to occur in both GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and aluminium-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust when y<0.08. Variation of the cell parameters and a sharp decrease in average crystal size and anisotropy are detected for an aluminium content as low as y=0.01. The formation of Al-GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) is preceded by the successive precipitation of Fe{sup III} and Al{sup III} (oxy)hydroxides. Adsorption of more soluble Al{sup III} species onto the initially formed ferric oxyhydroxide may be responsible for this slowdown of crystal growth. Therefore, the insertion of low aluminium amount (y{approx}0.01) could be an interesting way for increasing the surface reactivity of iron(II-III) LDH that maintains constant the quantity of the reactive Fe{sup II} species of the material. - Graphical abstract: (a) Crystallographical structure of sulphated green rust: SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} point to the Fe{sup 3+} cations (red) that form an ordered array with the Fe{sup 2+} cations (green). (b) Width and asymmetry of the synchrotron XRD peaks increase rapidly when some Al{sup 3+} species substitute the Fe{sup 3+} cations; z is molar ratio Al{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 3+}.

  8. Multicycle water vapour stability of microporous breathing MOF aluminium isophthalate CAU-10-H.

    PubMed

    Frhlich, Dominik; Henninger, Stefan Kai; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    The hydrothermal stability of aluminium hydroxide isophthalate MOF CAU-10-H was proven, under humid multi-cycling conditions. Detailed in situ thermogravimetric measurements and in situ powder X-ray diffraction analysis during water ad-/desorption were used. A reversible structural change during adsorption was detected and thereby exemplified the robustness of breathing-like MOFs over 700 water vapour ad/desorption cycles. In combination with high water adsorption capacity, hydrophilic CAU-10-H is the first breathing-like MOF with a structural change which is a promising candidate for the use in heat transformation processes. PMID:25189376

  9. Measurement of ablation threshold of oxide-film-coated aluminium nanoparticles irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chefonov, O. V.; Ovchinnikov, A. V.; Il'ina, I. V.; Agranat, M. B.

    2016-03-01

    We report the results of experiments on estimation of femtosecond laser threshold intensity at which nanoparticles are removed from the substrate surface. The studies are performed with nanoparticles obtained by femtosecond laser ablation of pure aluminium in distilled water. The attenuation (or extinction, i.e. absorption and scattering) spectra of nanoparticles are measured at room temperature in the UV and optical wavelength ranges. The size of nanoparticles is determined using atomic force microscopy. A new method of scanning photoluminescence is proposed to evaluate the threshold of nanoparticle removal from the surface of a glass substrate exposed to IR femtosecond laser pulses with intensities 1011 – 1013 W cm-2.

  10. Unprecedented Carbonato Intermediates in Cyclic Carbonate Synthesis Catalysed by Bimetallic Aluminium(Salen) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Castro-Osma, José A; North, Michael; Offermans, Willem K; Leitner, Walter; Müller, Thomas E

    2016-04-21

    The mechanism by which [Al(salen)]2 O complexes catalyse the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide in the absence of a halide cocatalyst has been investigated. Density functional theory (DFT) studies, mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR and infrared spectroscopies provide evidence for the formation of an unprecedented carbonato bridged bimetallic aluminium complex which is shown to be a key intermediate for the halide-free synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide. Deuterated and enantiomerically-pure epoxides were used to study the reaction pathway. Based on the experimental and theoretical results, a catalytic cycle is proposed. PMID:27029954

  11. Hot-crack test for aluminium alloys welds using TIG process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niel, A.; Deschaux-Beaume, F.; Bordreuil, C.; Fras, G.

    2010-06-01

    Hot cracking is a critical defect frequently observed during welding of aluminium alloys. In order to better understand the interaction between cracking phenomenon, process parameters, mechanical factors and microstructures resulting from solidification after welding, an original hot-cracking test during welding is developed. According to in-situ observations and post mortem analyses, hot cracking mechanisms are investigated, taking into account the interaction between microstructural parameters, depending on the thermal cycles, and mechanical parameters, depending on geometry and clamping conditions of the samples and on the thermal field on the sample. Finally, a process map indicating the limit between cracking and non-cracking zones according to welding parameters is presented.

  12. Grain boundary segregation and hydrogen-induced fracture in 7050 aluminium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, R.G.; Tseng, M.K.; Zhang, B.J.; Liu, J.; Jin, Z.H.; Shin, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The relationships between grain boundary segregation and crack growth of stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue in 7050 aluminium alloy have been investigated under various aging conditions; the effects of grain boundary segregation on intergranular fracture work have been calculated using a quasichemical approach. The results show that the hydrogen content at the crack tip and the crack growth rate increase with the concentration of solid solution Mg on increasing grain boundary; both Mg and H segregation induce the intergranular fracture work to decrease. Mg segregation accelerates H enriching and crack propagation. It is indicated that a Mg-H interaction occurs in the processes of corrosion fatigue as well as stress corrosion.

  13. Czochralski growth and optical properties of magnesium-aluminium spinel doped with nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyon, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Auzel, F.

    1986-12-01

    Blue single crystals of magnesium aluminium spinel doped with nickel have been pulled from the melt, by the Czochralski technique. The transmission spectrum of doped samples show three broad absorption bands. According to the absorption map and the chemical analysis of these crystals, the effective segregation coefficient of Ni 2+ in MgAl 20 4 seems to be roughly 1. At T= 80 K. the expected tuning range of the stimulated emission lies from 1.2 to 1.4 μm.

  14. Measurement of preheat in aluminium target in indirect drive using the SGIII prototype facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Wang, Z. B.; Liu, H.; Peng, X. S.; Wang, F.; Ding, Y. K.; Zheng, J.

    2016-03-01

    The velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to demonstrate preheat effect in aluminium in indirect drive. The rear surface motion prior to shock front was observed and compared with a multi-group calculation. By properly adjusting the hard x-ray portion of the radiation source, the calculated rear surface motion fits well with the experimental results, which gives us confidence to predict the preheated temperature of the sample by hard x-rays. Further, the effect of hohlraum geometry is compared and discussed experimentally. The result suggests gas-filled hohlraum or hohlraum with low Z substrates should be considered to further reduce preheating.

  15. Conical tungsten stamps for the replication of pore arrays in anodic aluminium oxide films.

    PubMed

    LeClere, D J; Thompson, G E; Derby, B

    2009-06-17

    A tungsten master stamp has been generated by applying a novel procedure that includes two-step anodizing, followed by sequential anodizing and pore widening to develop nominally funnelled pores. These conical-shaped pores were filled with tungsten by sputter coating to manufacture a master stamp. Under a pressure of 65 MPa, the master stamp successfully embossed the surface of annealed and electropolished aluminium. The embossed surface was then used to control the position of pores created by anodizing under the conditions used to produce the original pore array. PMID:19468168

  16. Controlling the anodizing conditions in preparation of an nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, Azadeh; Abolfazl, Seyed; Sadjadi, Seyed

    2014-12-01

    Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template is commonly used in the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanorods, due to its simple fabrication process. Controlling the anodizing conditions is important because of their direct influence on the size of AAO template pores; it affects the size of nanostructures that are fabricated in AAO template. In present study, several alumina templates were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical anodization in different conditions, such as the time of first process, its voltage, and electrolyte concentration. The effect of these factors on pore diameters of AAO templates was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  17. Evidence of dilute ferromagnetism in rare-earth doped yttrium aluminium garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, Warrick G.; Goryachev, Maxim; Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Tobar, Michael E.; Bushev, Pavel

    2015-09-21

    This work demonstrates strong coupling regime between an erbium ion spin ensemble and microwave hybrid cavity-whispering gallery modes in a yttrium aluminium garnet dielectric crystal. Coupling strengths of 220 MHz and mode quality factors in excess of 10{sup 6} are demonstrated. Moreover, the magnetic response of high-Q modes demonstrates behaviour which is unusual for paramagnetic systems. This behaviour includes hysteresis and memory effects. Such qualitative change of the system's magnetic field response is interpreted as a phase transition of rare earth ion impurities. This phenomenon is similar to the phenomenon of dilute ferromagnetism in semiconductors. The clear temperature dependence of the phenomenon is demonstrated.

  18. Structure analysis of aluminium silicon manganese nitride precipitates formed in grain-oriented electrical steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bernier, Nicolas; Xhoffer, Chris; Van De Putte, Tom; Galceran, Montserrat; Godet, Stphane

    2013-12-15

    We report a detailed structural and chemical characterisation of aluminium silicon manganese nitrides that act as grain growth inhibitors in industrially processed grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels. The compounds are characterised using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), while their crystal structures are analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM in electron diffraction (ED), dark-field, high-resolution and automated crystallographic orientation mapping (ACOM) modes. The chemical bonding character is determined using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Despite the wide variation in composition, all the precipitates exhibit a hexagonal close-packed (h.c.p.) crystal structure and lattice parameters of aluminium nitride. The EDX measurement of ? 900 stoichiometrically different precipitates indicates intermediate structures between pure aluminium nitride and pure silicon manganese nitride, with a constant Si/Mn atomic ratio of ? 4. It is demonstrated that aluminium and silicon are interchangeably precipitated with the same local arrangement, while both Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} are incorporated in the h.c.p. silicon nitride interstitial sites. The oxidation of the silicon manganese nitrides most likely originates from the incorporation of oxygen during the decarburisation annealing process, thus creating extended planar defects such as stacking faults and inversion domain boundaries. The chemical composition of the inhibitors may be written as (AlN){sub x}(SiMn{sub 0.25}N{sub y}O{sub z}){sub 1?x} with x ranging from 0 to 1. - Highlights: We study the structure of (Al,Si,Mn)N inhibitors in grain oriented electrical steels. Inhibitors have the hexagonal close-packed symmetry with lattice parameters of AlN. Inhibitors are intermediate structures between pure AlN and (Si,Mn)N with Si/Mn ? 4. Al and Si share the same local arrangement; Mn is incorporated in both Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+}. Oxygen incorporation is invoked to account for the thermal stability of (Al,Si,Mn)N.

  19. A comparative assessment of crystallite size and lattice strain in differently cast A356 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Roy, H.; Lohar, A. K.; Samanta, S. K.; Tiwari, S.; Dutta, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this investigation, A356 aluminium alloy has been prepared by different routes viz. gravity casting, rheo pressure die casting (RPDC) and RPDC with T6 heat treatment. X-ray diffraction studies of these samples have been done in the scanning range of 20 - 90°. X-ray peak broadening analysis has been used to estimate the crystallite size and lattice stain, in all the samples. The sample prepared by RPDC with T6 treatment has comparatively smaller crystallite size and lesser lattice strain than gravity cast and RPDC samples.

  20. Exchangeable and Bioavailable Aluminium in the Mountain Forest Soil of Barania Góra Range (Silesian Beskids, Poland).

    PubMed

    Zołotajkin, Maria; Ciba, Jerzy; Kluczka, Joanna; Skwira, Monika; Smoliński, Adam

    2011-03-01

    The research was carried out in the spruce forests of Barania Góra (Silesian Beskids, Poland) affected by pandemic dying of trees. Twenty-seven samples were collected from the O layer in two plots: 17 in a cut down forest infested with insect pests (bark beetle) and ten in a 120-year-old healthy forest. The analyses covered basic parameters (pH(H2O), pH(KCl), w(org), C(tot), N(tot), CEC) and the concentrations of aluminium in the fractions leached with 0.1 M BaCl(2) (Al(exch)), 0.5 M CuCl(2) and 0.1 M Na(4)P(2)O(7) (Al(bio)) solutions. The total aluminium concentration in the soil was assayed digesting samples with hydrofluoric acid. The effect of pH and organic matter content on the amount of exchangeable (Al(exch)) and bioavailable (Al(exch)) aluminium in the soil was analysed. It has been found that the soils in both plots are strongly acidic and contain 550 to 1,700 mg kg(-1) of exchangeable aluminium and 1,200 to 4,800 mg kg(-1) of bioavailable aluminium. The lack of disease symptoms in the spruce trees in plot 2 can be explained by the higher content of organic matter in the soil. Unfortunately, one might expect that the high concentration of exchangeable aluminium will also cause the trees in the area to wither. PMID:21423335

  1. Serum aluminium and cobalt levels after ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Grübl, A; Weissinger, M; Brodner, W; Gleiss, A; Giurea, A; Gruber, M; Pöll, G; Meisinger, V; Gottsauner-Wolf, F; Kotz, R

    2006-08-01

    In a randomised study, 28 patients with a mean age of 62.2 years (32 to 81) with osteoarthritis or avascular necrosis of the hip received either a ceramic-on-ceramic or a metal-on-metal total hip replacement. Apart from the liners the acetabular and femoral components were made of Ti-Al-Nb alloy. The serum aluminium and cobalt levels were measured before, and at one year after surgery. The 15 patients in the ceramic-on-ceramic group had a median pre-operative aluminium level of 1.3 microg/l (0.25 to 8.4) and a cobalt level below the detection limit. At one year the aluminium level was 1.1 microg/l (0.25 to 2.3) and the cobalt level was 0.4 microg/l (0.15 to 0.7). The 13 patients in the metal-on-metal group had a median pre-operative aluminium level of 1.9 microg/l (0.25 to 4.4) and a cobalt level below the detection limit. At one year the median aluminium level was 0.9 microg/l (0.25 to 3.9) whereas the cobalt level was 1.4 microg/l (0.5 to 10.5). This increase in the cobalt level at one year was significant (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that ceramic-on-ceramic bearings do not cause elevated levels of serum aluminium in the first post-operative year. PMID:16877596

  2. Fabrication of super slippery sheet-layered and porous anodic aluminium oxide surfaces and its anticorrosion property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tingting; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Yang, Wanlu; Chen, Rongrong; Jing, Xiaoyan; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by natural plants such as Nepenthes pitcher plants, super slippery surfaces have been developed to improve the attributes of repellent surfaces. In this report, super slippery porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) surfaces have fabricated by a simple and reproducible method. Firstly, the aluminium substrates were treated by an anodic process producing micro-nano structured sheet-layered pores, and then immersed in Methyl Silicone Oil, Fluororalkylsilane (FAS) and DuPont Krytox, respectively, generating super slippery surfaces. Such a good material with excellent anti-corrosion property through a simple and repeatable method may be potential candidates for metallic application in anti-corrosion and extreme environment.

  3. Iron and aluminium in relation to brain ferritin in normal individuals and Alzheimer's-disease and chronic renal-dialysis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dedman, D J; Treffry, A; Candy, J M; Taylor, G A; Morris, C M; Bloxham, C A; Perry, R H; Edwardson, J A; Harrison, P M

    1992-01-01

    Ferritin has been isolated and its subunit composition, iron and aluminium content determined in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of normal individuals and in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's-disease and renal-dialysis patients. An e.l.i.s.a. for ferritin has been developed and the ferritin, non-haem iron and aluminium content of the parietal cortex were determined in normal individuals and Alzheimer's-disease patients. It was found that ferritin from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of normal individuals had a high H-subunit content, similar to that of heart ferritin. The subunit composition of ferritin isolated from the cerebral cortex was not significantly altered in Alzheimer's-disease or renal-dialysis patients. Ferritin from the cerebral cortex of normal individuals had only approx. 1500 atoms of iron per molecule and the iron content of ferritin was not significantly changed in Alzheimer's-disease or renal-dialysis patients. Ferritin isolated from the cerebral cortex of normal, Alzheimer's-disease and renal-dialysis patients had less than 9 atoms of aluminium per molecule. The failure to find increased concentrations of aluminium associated with ferritin in dialysis patients, who had markedly increased concentrations of aluminium in the cerebral cortex, shows that aluminium does not accumulate in ferritin in vivo. This has important implications for the toxicity of aluminium, since it implies that cells are unable to detoxify aluminium by the same mechanism as that available for iron. Comparison of the concentrations of ferritin, aluminium and iron in the parietal cortex from normal and Alzheimer's-disease patients showed that, whereas the concentration of aluminium was not increased, both ferritin and iron were significantly increased in Alzheimer's disease. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1445209

  4. Analyses of known and new types of polyhalogenated aromatic substances in oven ash from recycled aluminium production.

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Seija; Lahtiperä, Mirja; Vattulainen, Antero; Takhistov, Viatcheslav V; Viktorovskii, Igor V; Utsal, Viktor A; Paasivirta, Jaakko

    2003-07-01

    Persistent aromatic bromine, chlorine and mixed chlorine-bromine compounds were analysed from recycled aluminium smelter (ALS) ashes to explore the impact of brominated flame retardants (BFR) on their formation. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) were the most abundant original BFRs found. Induction furnace ash contained tetra- to octa-BDEs about 2000ng g(-1) in similar congener ratios as the original scrap, but contents of nona- and deca-BDEs were only 25 and 5ng g(-1) indicating their significant degradation in ALS process. In the most non-polar fraction, PCB levels and profiles were similar as earlier ALS ash samples in 1990s. The highest PCB level measured was that of deca-CB (450ng g(-1)) in the induction furnace ash. In this fraction, bromo compounds were non-detectable (<5ng g(-1)). Fraction of the most polar compounds (from reversed toluene elution of carbon column ("dioxin fraction") contained PCDDs, PCDFs and polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTs) in similar amounts and congener profiles as earlier investigated ALS ash samples. Bromine-containing dioxin and furan congeners were not detected. From individual PCDDs and PCDFs, octaCDF was the most abundant (205ng g(-1)) in induction furnace ash. In this fraction, the original BFR, tetrabromo-bisphenol-A, was identified. Its level in the induction furnace ash was approximated to be 388ng g(-1). In addition, 12 novel brominated and chlorinated compounds were found as abundant (8-441ng g(-1) in the induction furnace ash) contaminants from the fraction. Four of them were bisphenol derivatives, five biphenylols, then octachlorofluorenone (OCFL) and octachlorobiphenylene (OCBP). Their structures or structure types were deduced from total low-resolution EI mass spectra by theoretical isotope cluster simulation (ICLU) and through known fragmentation rules. PMID:12738289

  5. The effect of broadleaf woodland on aluminium speciation in stream water in an acid-sensitive area in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer L; Lynam, Philippa; Heal, Kate V; Palmer, Sheila M

    2012-11-15

    Acidification can result in the mobilisation and release of toxic inorganic monomeric aluminium (Al) species from soils into aquatic ecosystems. Although it is well-established that conifer trees enhance acidic atmospheric deposition and exacerbate soil and water acidification, the effect of broad-leaved woodland on soil and water acidification is less clear. This study investigated the effect of broadleaf woodland cover on the acid-base chemistry and Al species present in stream water, and processes controlling these in the acid-sensitive area around Loch Katrine, in the central Highlands, Scotland, UK, where broadleaf woodland expansion is occurring. A nested sampling approach was used to identify 22 stream sampling locations, in sub-catchments of 3.2-61 ha area and 0-45% broadleaf woodland cover. In addition, soils sampled from 68 locations were analysed to assess the influence of: (i) broadleaf woodland cover on soil characteristics and (ii) soil characteristics on stream water chemistry. Stream water pH was negatively correlated with sub-catchment % woodland cover, indicating that woodland cover is enhancing stream water acidification. Concentrations of all stream water Al species (monomeric total, organic and inorganic) were positively correlated with % woodland cover, although not significantly, but were below levels that are toxic to fish. Soil depth, O horizon depth and soil chemistry, particularly of the A horizon, appeared to be the dominant controls on stream water chemistry rather than woodland cover. There were significant differences in soil acid-base chemistry, with significantly lower O horizon pH and A horizon base saturation and higher A horizon exchangeable Al in the wooded catchments compared to the control. This is evidence that the mobile anion effect is already occurring in the study catchments and suggests that stream water acidification arising from broadleaf woodland expansion could occur, especially where tree density is high and acid deposition is predominantly in dry or occult forms. PMID:23085669

  6. Processing and mechanical behavior of aluminium oxide microstructure composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlacka, Robert J.

    We have proposed a new class of composites that accesses different component properties not through the use of distinct materials, but through the exploitation of the microstructure-property relationship within a single material. That is, we seek to adapt composite concepts to take advantage of the considerable variance in properties associated with different microstructures. This new class of composites is called microstructure composites. Microstructure composites are predominately single phase ceramics that utilize multiple distinct microstructure features in the same composite to obtain unique property combinations. Spatial control and composite connectivity of the individual microstructure components of a microstructure composite are ultimately the key to developing and controlling useful and unique properties. Microstructural features can be controlled via the starting location and transport of the dopants, minority second phases, and liquid phases that are used to manipulate microstructure development. This work focuses on textured-equiaxed microstructure in the Al2O 3 system. Texture is obtained in situ using templated grain growth (TGG). To control microstructure development locally during microstructure composite fabrication, it is important to use relatively low levels of dopant to mitigate the effects of dopant interdiffusion. Therefore, the development of texture in alpha-Al2O3 using TGG was explored under low liquid-phase dopant concentration conditions. High temperature dilatometry was performed to quantify the effect of template constraint on x-y plane shirinkage and the extent to which this constraint could be mitigated as a function of the dopant concentration. x-y plane shrinkage was observed to be increasingly constrained with increasing template loading and decreasing dopant concentration. Final x-y plane shrinkage was greater for samples with 0.14 wt% dopant than for those without dopant, despite have a much lower peak strain rate. It was concluded that densification was impeded by the dopant at lower temperatures but enhanced significantly above 1450C. Texture is highly developed in samples with no dopant and 0.14 wt% dopant by 1550C and in samples with 2 wt% dopant by 1350C. We proposed a new class of composites (called microstructure composites) that accesses different component properties not through the use of distinct materials, but rather through the exploitation of the microstructure-property relationship within a single material. Microstructure composites, therefore, are single phase ceramics that combine components with distinct microstructures within a single composite to obtain unique property combinations. Spatial control and composite connectivity of the individual microstructural 'components' of a microstructure composite are ultimately the key to developing and controlling useful and unique properties. Microstructural components are developed by controlling the starting location and transport of dopants during processing and sintering. This work focuses on alpha-Al2O3 microstructure composites that combine textured components, developed in situ using templated grain growth (TGG), and fine-grained equiaxed components. To control microstructure development locally during composite fabrication, it is important to use relatively low levels of dopant to mitigate the effects of dopant interdiffusion. Therefore, the development of texture in alpha-Al 2O3 using low liquid-phase dopant concentrations was explored, with a focus on the effect of template constraint on texture plane shrinkage. High quality texture was obtained with just 0.14 wt% (SiO2 + CaO) dopant. Textured Al2O3 exhibited transgranular fracture, as well as lower strength and fracture toughness than the fine-grained equiaxed Al2O3. A processing strategy using tape casting was developed for the fabrication of textured-equiaxed Al2O3 microstructure composites with 2-2 connectivity. Dopants used to promote TGG (SiO2 + CaO) were included in the templated tapes and dopants used to prevent abnormal grain growth (MgO) were included in the non templated tapes, which are subsequently stacked, laminated, and co-sintered. Appropriate dopant concentrations and sintering conditions that enable the production of well-textured layers and fine-grained equiaxed layers seperated by a sharp interface were identified. It was found that densification and microstructure development within textured and equiaxed layers is affected by changes in both differential sintering stress and dopant diffusion distance associated with layer thickess and the volume percent of textured layers within the composite. Significant crack deflection was observed during bend testing of composites with porous textured layers (2-5 vol% porosity), resulting in highly non-catastrophic failure (with W.O.F. up to 1 kJ/m2). Crack deflection, often millimeters in length, occurred along the basal faces of templated grains within the textured. Textured layers that deflect cracks (i.e. those with porosity) had significantly lower interfacial fracture energies than textured layers that do not deflect cracks (i.e. those without porosity). It was determined that crack deflection is a composite effect and the result of the combination of the anisotropic fracture energy of textured Al2O3 and the residual compressive stresses developed from thermal expansion mismatch. Other observed fracture phenomena include multiple cracking/crack arrest and preliminary evidence of flaw tolerance. Textured-equiaxed Al2O3 microstructure composites of additional connectivities, (including 1-3, 0-3, and 3-3) were produced by screen printing and co-casting processes. Template alignment during the screen printing process was demonstrated, allowing the capability to print complex textured features. Co-casting was used to produce single tapes with templated and non-templated segments. A variety of stacking strategies were employed to generate various 1-3 and 3-3 composites (including cross-ply composites). Observations during fracture testing of complex composites included non-catastrophic failure without crack deflection and improved delamination resistance.

  7. Different Cold Spray Deposition Strategies: Single- and Multi-layers to Repair Aluminium Alloy Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rech, Silvano; Trentin, Andrea; Vezzù, Simone; Vedelago, Enrico; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel; Irissou, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Cold spraying is increasingly being used for reconstruction or repair of damaged aluminium alloy components, especially in the aviation industry. Both thin (<0.5 mm) and thick (up to 1 cm) coatings are necessary to achieve dimensional recovery of such components. Thin and above all thick coatings can be deposited in a single pass (single layer) or in several passes (multi-pass), resulting in different thermal and stress effects in the component and the coating itself. The thermal input, the amount and type of residual stresses and the porosity affect various characteristics such as adhesion, crack propagation and mechanical properties of the coating. In this study, two sets (single- and multi-pass) of aluminium alloy (AA6061) coatings with different thicknesses (0.5 mm to 2 mm) were deposited onto AA6061 substrates and compared using metallographic and fractographic analyses, four-point bending testing, residual stress analysis and Vickers microhardness indentation. Finally, the coating adhesion and cohesion were measured using the standard ASTM-C633 adhesion test and tubular coating tensile test. This study demonstrates that the single-layer strategy results in greater adhesion and lower porosity, while multilayer coatings have higher elastic modulus. Independent of the strategy, the compressive residual stress decreases as a function of coating thickness.

  8. Different Cold Spray Deposition Strategies: Single- and Multi-layers to Repair Aluminium Alloy Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rech, Silvano; Trentin, Andrea; Vezzù, Simone; Vedelago, Enrico; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel; Irissou, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Cold spraying is increasingly being used for reconstruction or repair of damaged aluminium alloy components, especially in the aviation industry. Both thin (<0.5 mm) and thick (up to 1 cm) coatings are necessary to achieve dimensional recovery of such components. Thin and above all thick coatings can be deposited in a single pass (single layer) or in several passes (multi-pass), resulting in different thermal and stress effects in the component and the coating itself. The thermal input, the amount and type of residual stresses and the porosity affect various characteristics such as adhesion, crack propagation and mechanical properties of the coating. In this study, two sets (single- and multi-pass) of aluminium alloy (AA6061) coatings with different thicknesses (0.5 mm to 2 mm) were deposited onto AA6061 substrates and compared using metallographic and fractographic analyses, four-point bending testing, residual stress analysis and Vickers microhardness indentation. Finally, the coating adhesion and cohesion were measured using the standard ASTM-C633 adhesion test and tubular coating tensile test. This study demonstrates that the single-layer strategy results in greater adhesion and lower porosity, while multilayer coatings have higher elastic modulus. Independent of the strategy, the compressive residual stress decreases as a function of coating thickness.

  9. High accuracy non-contact ultrasonic thickness gauging of aluminium sheet using electromagnetic acoustic transducers.

    PubMed

    Dixon, S; Edwards, C; Palmer, S B

    2001-10-01

    Aluminium sheet thickness has been calculated from ultrasonic data obtained using a send-receive, radially polarised electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). Sheets in the thickness range between 0.1 and 0.5 mm have been measured using this non-contact approach at a stand-off of up to 1.5 mm. Normal incidence shear waves generated and detected in the sheet and the resultant waveforms have been processed using transit time measurements and Fourier analysis. Two broad band EMAT systems have been used to perform the measurements with centre frequencies of approximately 5 MHz and frequency content up to 10 and 20 MHz respectively. The most accurate measurements of thickness on thin sheets have been made using Fourier analysis and have yielded measurements accurate to within 0.2% (or 0.4 microm) for 280 microm thick aluminium sheets. Discrete shear wave echoes can be observed for sheets down to a thickness of 250 microm using the higher frequency EMAT system. However temporal measurements of these signals yield lower accuracy results when compared to the Fourier analysis method which is capable of sub-micron accuracy. PMID:11775660

  10. Sorption of hydrophilic dyes on anodic aluminium oxide films and application to pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Silina, Yuliya E; Kuchmenko, Tatyana A; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2015-02-01

    The sorption of selected hydrophilic pH-sensitive dyes (bromophenol blue, bromothymol blue, bromocresol purple, alizarin red, methyl orange, congo red, rhodamine 6G) on films of anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) was investigated in this study. Depth and pore structure of the AAO channels were adjusted by changing electrolysis time and current density during treatment of aluminium foil in oxalic acid, sulfosalycilic acid and sulfuric acid at concentration levels between 0.2 and 0.6 M. The dyes were immobilized on the AAO surface by direct saturation of the films in dye solutions. It was shown by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral analysis that the dyes penetrated into the AAO channels by more than 1.5 μm, even at static saturation conditions. The anionic dyes linked to the porous AAO surface exhibited differential shifts of the UV absorption bands in their acidic/basic forms. By combining several dyes, the films have an application range between pH = 0.5-9 in aqueous media. The dye-modified AAO film was a simple, portable, inexpensive and reusable pH sensor with very fast response time and clear colour transitions. PMID:25436239

  11. Microstructure refinement of commercial 7xxx aluminium alloys solidified by the electromagnetic vibration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Tamura, T.; Omura, N.; Murakami, Y.; Tada, S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the microstructure refinement of commercial 7xxx aluminium alloys solidified by the electromagnetic vibration technique (EMV) as a function of vibration frequency, f. The microstructure evolution reveals that at the low frequency of f = 62.5 Hz, the solidified microstructure is coarse and with the increase of vibration frequency to f = 500 Hz, the grain size becomes the finest and further increase of frequency to f = 2000 Hz results in coarsening of microstructures. The refinement mechanism is clarified when considering the significant difference in electrical resistivities of the solid and the liquid in mushy zone, in which both phases coexist and subject to vibration. The frequency-dependent refinement behaviour is revealed when the displacement of the mobile solid and sluggish liquid is taken into account during solidification. In contrast to 3xxx aluminium alloys, no giant compounds have been discerned in the present 7xxx alloy regardless of the solidification condition. The formation of crystalline twin is briefly discussed when considering the vibration condition.

  12. A hybrid aluminium alloy and its zoo of interacting nano-precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Wenner, Sigurd; Marioara, Calin Daniel; Andersen, Sigmund Jarle; Ervik, Martin; Holmestad, Randi

    2015-08-15

    An alloy with aluminium as its base element is heat treated to form a multitude of precipitate phases known from different classes of industrial alloys: Al–Cu(–Mg), Al–Mg–Si–Cu, and Al–Zn–Mg. Nanometer-sized needle-shaped particles define the starting point of the phase nucleation, after which there is a split in the precipitation sequence into six phases of highly diverse compositions and morphologies. There are several unique effects of phases from different alloy systems being present in the same host lattice, of which we concentrate on two: the replacement of Ag by Zn on the Ω interface and the formation of combined plates of the θ′ and C phases. Using atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we investigate the formation mechanisms, crystal structures and compositions of the precipitates. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • An aluminium alloy composition in-between the 2/6/7xxx systems was investigated. • Six different phases from the three systems coexist in an over-aged state. • All phases with 〈001〉{sub Al} coherencies can nucleate on 6xxx needle precipitates. • Modified theta′ and omega interfaces are observed.

  13. Effect of Aluminium Sec-butoxide on Wetting Properties of Silica-Based Coatings on Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Sunetra Laxman

    2013-05-01

    Many surface properties are more or less strongly controlled by the surface pattern, i.e., the micro or nanoscale morphologies. Silica-alumina mixed oxide coatings were prepared by simple sol-gel method using methyl trimethoxysilane (MTMS) and aluminium sec-butoxide (ASB) as precursors. To obtain good quality coatings the volume ratio of MeOH:MTMS:HNO3:H2O:NH4OH was optimized at 10:2.5:0.3:1:4 and the ASB:MTMS ratio ( M) was varied from 0.25 to 1. The effect of M on surface roughness and thus on wetting behavior of the coatings was studied. For M = 0.25 and 1, the water contact angle was 95° and 104° while the same for M = 0.5 was 116°. The variation in water contact angle is supported by surface morphology and surface roughness. The presence of aluminium and silica cross linkage was detected by FT-IR and XRD patterns as well.

  14. Inhibition of ethylene production by putrescine alleviates aluminium-induced root inhibition in wheat plants

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Sun, Chengliang; Wang, Jinghong; Ye, Yiquan; Zhou, Weiwei; Lu, Lingli; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of aluminium (Al) toxicity. Although putrescine (Put) has been identified as an important signaling molecule involved in Al tolerance, it is yet unknown how Put mitigates Al-induced root inhibition. Here, the possible mechanism was investigated by using two wheat genotypes differing in Al resistance: Al-tolerant Xi Aimai-1 and Al-sensitive Yangmai-5. Aluminium caused more root inhibition in Yangmai-5 and increased ethylene production at the root apices compared to Xi Aimai-1, whereas the effects were significantly reversed by ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors. The simultaneous exposure of wheat seedlings to Al and ethylene donor, ethephon, or ethylene biosynthesis precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), increased ethylene production and aggravated root inhibition, which was more pronounced in Xi Aimai-1. In contrast, Put treatment decreased ethylene production and alleviated Al-induced root inhibition in both genotypes, and the effects were more conspicuous in Yangmai-5. Furthermore, our results indicated that Al-induced ethylene production was mediated by ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase, and that Put decreased ethylene production by inhibiting ACS. Altogether, these findings indicate that ethylene is involved in Al-induced root inhibition and this process could be alleviated by Put through inhibiting ACS activity. PMID:26744061

  15. Physically-based constitutive modelling of residual stress development in welding of aluminium alloy 2024

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.V.; Shercliff, H.R. . E-mail: hrs@eng.cam.ac.uk; Withers, P.J.; Smith, S.

    2004-10-04

    A finite element model has been developed to predict the evolution of residual stress and distortion which takes into account the history-dependence of the yield stress-temperature response of heat-treatable aluminium alloys during welding. The model was applied to TIG welding of 2024-T3 aluminium alloy, and the residual strain predictions validated using high resolution X-ray synchrotron diffraction. The goal was to capture the influence of the permanent evolution of the microstructure during the thermal cycle with a straightforward numerical procedure, while retaining a sound physical basis. Hardness and resistivity measurements after isothermal hold-and-quench experiments were used to identify salient temperatures for zero, partial and full dissolution of the initial hardening precipitates, and the extent of softening - both immediately after welding, and after natural ageing. Based on these data, a numerical procedure for weld modelling was proposed for tracking the different yield responses during heating and cooling based on the peak temperature reached locally. This history-dependent model was superior to a conventional model in predicting the peak tensile strains, but otherwise the effect of temperature history was weak for 2024-T3. Predictions of the hardness profile immediately after welding compared with the post-weld naturally aged hardness provided insight into the competition between dissolution and coarsening of the precipitates in the heat-affected zone.

  16. Coenzyme Q10 Abrogated the 28 Days Aluminium Chloride Induced Oxidative Changes in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Anuradha S.; Nirwane, Abhijit; Kamble, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to elucidate the impact of oral administration of aluminium chloride for 28 days with respect to oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of female rats. Further, to investigate the potentials of Coenzyme (Co) Q10 (4, 8, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.) in mitigating the detrimental changes. Materials and Methods: Biochemical estimations of cerebral lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin E and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were carried out after 28 days of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) and Co Q10 exposures along with histopathological examination of cerebral cortex of the rats. Results: Subacute exposure to AlCl3(5 mg/kg) led to significant decrease in levels of GSH, vitamin E and activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and an increase in LPO of cerebral cortex. These aberrations were restored by Co Q10 (12 mg/kg, i.p.). This protection offered was comparable to that of L-deprenyl (1 mg/kg, i.p.) which served as a reference standard. Histopathological evaluations confirmed that the normal cerebral morphology was maintained by Co Q10. Conclusion: Thus, AlCl3 exposure hampers the activities of various antioxidant enzymes and induces oxidative stress in cerebral cortex of female Wistar rats. Supplementation with intraperitoneal Co Q10 abrogated these deleterious effects of AlCl3. PMID:25253934

  17. Investigations of the human aluminium biokinetics with 26Al and AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislinger, G.; Steinhausen, C.; Alvarez-Brckmann, M.; Winklhofer, C.; Ittel, T.-H.; Nolte, E.

    1997-03-01

    Continuing the investigations on two healthy volunteers and on two patients with renal failure, the aluminium biokinetics in humans was studied by administering oral and intravenous doses of 26Al to three further healthy volunteers. Blood samples were drawn at times between 20 min and half a year after administration of the doses. The complete daily urine was collected during the first nine days, spot urine samples were taken at later times when blood samples were obtained. Creatinin renal clearances and haematocrit values were also obtained in the time period of the investigations. The 26Al concentrations of the samples were measured using the Munich Tandem accelerator. An open compartment model was developed to describe the time dependences of the measured 26Al concentrations in blood and urine and to establish the human Al biokinetics. The model comprises stomach and duodenum for oral administration, a central compartment consisting of blood plasma and interstitial fluid with transferrin and citrate binding and three peripheral compartments which are needed to describe the time dependence for the long observation period of up to three years. Excretion of Al was mainly described from plasma citrate via the kidneys into the urine and to a lesser extent from the plasma transferrin via the liver into the stool. Time constants between the compartments, fractional intestinal absorption factors and aluminium renal clearances were derived. It was found that the sizes of two peripheral compartments of the patients with renal failure were different to those of the healthy volunteers.

  18. Electron microscopic study on interfacial characterization of electroless Ni W P plating on aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong-jun; Xiong, Ling; Meng, Ji-long

    2007-03-01

    The interface between electroless plating Ni-W-P deposit and aluminium alloy (Al) matrix at different temperature heated for 1 h was studied using transmission electron microscope. The results show that the interface between as-deposited Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix is clear. There are no crack and cavity. The bonding of Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix is in good condition. The Ni-W-P plating is nanocrystalline phase (5-6 nm) in diameter. After being heated at 200 °C for 1 h, the interface of Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix is clear, without the appearance of the diffusion layer. There exist a diffusion layer and educts of intermetallic compounds of nickle and aluminium such as Al 3Ni, Al 3Ni 2, NiAl, Ni 5Al 3 and so on between Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix after being heated at 400 °C for 1 h.

  19. Production and Compressive Characterization of Aluminium MMC Foam Manufactured Using Dual Foaming Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidar, S.; Ansary, S.; Rahman, A.

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium foams, produced by melting Aluminium alloy (LM6) containing blowing agent(s) and vigorous stirring. TiH2 is a known agent for this. As TiH2 begins to decompose into Ti and gaseous H2 when heated above about 465°C, large volumes of hydrogen gas are rapidly produced, creating bubbles that leads to a closed cell foam. A novel Strategy to enhance the mechanical properties of Al-MMC foams is discussed here, and it is demonstrated that titanium hydride (TiH2) in the form of 10-15 μm diameter particles can be pre-treated by selective oxidation to produce more uniform foams having better compressive properties (yield strength and energy absorption). It is found that the mechanical properties of the foams and the uniformity of cell size distribution is improved when the foam is blown with an optimized mixture of CaCO3 and pretreated TiH2. In order to define the relationship of mechanical properties with relative density of this material, correlations which uniquely defines the compressive behaviour of this modified Al- MMC foam has been developed.

  20. Symptoms of the musculoskeletal system and exposure to magnetic fields in an aluminium plant.

    PubMed Central

    Moen, B E; Drabløs, P A; Pedersen, S; Sjøen, M; Thommesen, G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The study was performed to examine the influence of the exposure to magnetic fields in the potrooms of an electrolysis plant on the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms among the employees. The study was performed after much discussion and worry in the aluminium industry about this issue. METHODS--A retrospective cohort study was performed at an aluminium plant. The occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms registered at health controls performed by the occupational health care unit in 1986 and 1991 was assessed from employees exposed to magnetic fields in the potrooms (n = 342) and from a control group (n = 277). The data were collected before the discussion about the effects of magnetic fields started. The exposure to static magnetic fields was found to be 3-20 mT inside the potrooms. Ripple components (alternating currents (AC fields)) were registered as well. RESULTS--No difference between the exposed and unexposed groups was found for the reported musculoskeletal symptoms in 1986 or in 1991. CONCLUSIONS--There seems to be no relation between work in potrooms with exposure to static magnetic fields and the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms. PMID:7663637

  1. Aluminium-catalysed intramolecular hydroamination of aminoalkenes: computational perusal of alternative pathways for aminoalkene activation.

    PubMed

    Tobisch, Sven

    2015-07-21

    A comprehensive computational examination of alternatively plausible mechanistic pathways for the intramolecular hydroamination (HA) of aminoalkenes utilising a recently reported novel phenylene-diamine aluminium amido compound is presented. On the one hand, a proton-assisted concerted N-C/C-H bond-forming pathway to afford the cycloamine in a single step can be invoked, and, on the other, a stepwise σ-insertive pathway that involves a relatively fast, reversible migratory olefin 1,2-insertion step linked to a less rapid, irreversible Al-C alkyl bond protonolysis. The present study, which employs a sophisticated and reliable computational methodology, supports the prevailing mechanism to be a stepwise σ-insertive pathway. The predicted effective barrier for turnover-limiting aminolysis compares favourably with reported catalytic performance data. Non-competitive kinetic demands militates against the operation of the concerted proton-assisted pathway, which describes N-C bond-forming ring closure triggered by concomitant amino proton delivery at the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C linkage evolving through a six-centre transition state structure. The valuable insights into mechanistic intricacies of aluminium-mediated intramolecular HA reported herein will help guide the rational design of group 13 metal-based HA catalysts. PMID:25801632

  2. Downstream processing for xylitol recovery from fermented sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate using aluminium polychloride.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Ramos, R M; Rodrigues, D C; Mancilha, I M

    2000-01-01

    Xylitol, a sweetener comparable to sucrose, is anticariogenic and can be consumed by diabetics. This sugar has been employed successfully in many foods and pharmaceutical products. The discovery of microorganisms capable of converting xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol offers the opportunity of producing this poliol in a simple way. Xylitol production by biotechnological means using sugar cane bagasse is under study in our laboratories, and fermentation parameters have already been established. However, the downstream processing for xylitol recovery is still a bottleneck on which there is only a few data available in the literature. The present study deals with xylitol recovery from fermented sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate using 5.2 g/l of aluminium polychloride associated with activated charcoal. The experiments were performed at pH 9, 50 degrees C for 50 min. The results showed that aluminium polychloride and activated charcoal promoted a 93.5% reduction in phenolic compounds and a 9.7% loss of xylitol from the fermented medium, which became more discoloured, facilitating the xylitol separation. PMID:10739093

  3. To study various concentrations of magnesium and aluminium on amylin hormone conformation.

    PubMed

    Mirhashemi, S M; Aarabi, M H

    2011-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus can be defined as a conformational disease since a beta cell producing protein called amylin undergoes a change in the tertiary structure followed by self-aggregation and deposition. Amylin deposition causes destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different concentrations of magnesium and aluminium alter amylin conformation under near-physiological circumstances. Conformational variations were monitored by fluorescent method before and after incubation by shaker incubator in 37 degrees C by LS55 spectrofluorometer instrument. This in vitro study showed that magnesium had contradictory effects on amylin folding and these effects were magnesium concentration dependent. Magnesium with concentration of 1 to 1.5 mM had inhibitory effect but in 2.5 to 3.5 microM promoted amylin misfolding significantly (p < 0.05). The obtained data also demonstrated that aluminium with concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 microM had stimulatory effects on formation of beta-amyloid sheet significantly (p < 0.05). It may be concluded that islet amyloid misfolding and cytotoxicity to beta-cells might be magnesium dose dependent in diabetic patients. PMID:22235507

  4. Surface morphology of poly-Si films made by aluminium-induced crystallisation on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widenborg, Per I.; Aberle, Armin G.

    2002-07-01

    The surface morphology of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films made at low temperature (˜500°C) by the aluminium-induced crystallisation (AIC) bi-layer process on glass substrates was investigated. The excess of amorphous silicon (a-Si), the substrate preparation process and the native aluminium (Al) oxide thickness were all found to strongly influence the surface morphology. The AIC bi-layer process produces a continuous poly-Si film on the glass with protruding Si islands. The Si islands have vertical sidewalls with a smooth upper surface, due to the high interfacial energy of the incoherent interface between the Al matrix and the Si islands. A coalescence of nanosized crystalline Si clusters is suggested as the growth mode of the Si islands. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman analysis show that the crystalline quality of the Si island is comparable with that of the poly-Si film. Furthermore, an activation energy estimation indicates that the overall thermal mechanism behind the formation of the continuous poly-Si film and the Si islands is the same. A feedback process consisting of a dynamic interaction between the Al and the a-Si layers in the bi-layer structure is suggested. However, the crucial role of the Al oxide interface layer needs to be further investigated before a complete physical model of the glass/Al/a-Si AIC bi-layer process can be suggested.

  5. Pulmonary disease from exposure to an artificial aluminium silicate: further observations.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Beck, B D; Greville, H W; Brain, J D; Bohannon, D E

    1988-01-01

    A cross sectional analysis of the relation between exposure to an artificial aluminium silicate (alunite residue) and pulmonary function changes has been made in 32 subjects, 17 of whom had been previously reported and in whom there was suggestive evidence of a dose response relation between gas transfer and total silicate exposure. Longitudinal data were also available for nine subjects. No dose effect relation was observed in either analysis and only one of the three subjects previously observed to have an abnormal chest radiograph (the index subject) had deteriorated appreciably. Respirable particles of alunite residue were injected intratracheally into Syrian hamsters. No evidence of pulmonary toxicity was seen as judged by bronchoalveolar lavage measurements of the concentrations lactic dehydrogenase, albumin, and the lambda fraction of gold, and the numbers of macrophages, polymorphonuclear cells, and red blood cells (alpha-quartz and ferrous oxide were used as positive and negative controls). These results do not support a significant toxic effect of this aluminium silicate on the lungs. PMID:3259893

  6. Immunostaining of calmodulin and aluminium in Alzheimer's disease-affected brains.

    PubMed

    Solomon, B; Koppel, R; Jossiphov, J

    2001-05-15

    Previous in vitro studies have shown that Al(3+) binds to calmodulin, inducing alterations in its capability to interact with target proteins, accompanied by loss of immunological recognition by its conformational specific monoclonal antibody CAM1. In spite of the wealth of data of calmodulin action in vitro, little information is available on the possible involvement of this protein in the pathology typical of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated calmodulin immunoreactivity in post-mortem human brains affected by Alzheimer's disease, compared with age-matched control brains. Conformational monoclonal antibodies raised against Ca(2+)-calmodulin, namely CAM1 and CAM4, were used in this study for the characterization of calmodulin. Calmodulin immunorecognition by monoclonal antibody CAM1 was found to be lost in cortical tissue sample from brains affected by Alzheimer's disease. This finding leads to the hypothesis of a new, possibly inactive, conformation of the molecule during the disease. On the other hand, CAM4 immunoreactivity was decreased in neurons of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease. Anti-Al(3+) monoclonal antibodies revealed instead more marked aluminium immunoreactivity in the affected brains compared to normal ones. The loss of CAM1 immunoreactivity and the occurrence of large amounts of aluminium suggest an alteration of the active conformation of calmodulin in disease-affected brains. These alterations could be involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease pathology. PMID:11470324

  7. Aluminium recovery from waste incineration bottom ash, and its oxidation level.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The recovery of aluminium (Al) scraps from waste incineration bottom ash is becoming a common practice in waste management. However, during the incineration process, Al in the waste undergoes oxidation processes that reduce its recycling potential. This article investigates the behaviour of Al scraps in the furnace of two selected grate-fired waste-to-energy plants and the amount recoverable from the bottom ash. About 21-23% of the Al fed to the furnace with the residual waste was recovered and potentially recycled from the bottom ash. Out of this amount, 76-87% was found in the bottom ash fraction above 5 mm and thus can be recovered with standard eddy current separation technology. These values depend on the characteristics and the mechanical strength of the Al items in the residual waste. Considering Al packaging materials, about 81% of the Al in cans can be recovered from the bottom ash as an ingot, but this amount decreases to 51% for trays, 27% for a mix of aluminium and poly-laminated foils and 47% for paper-laminated foils. This shows that the recovery of Al from the incineration residues increases proportionally to the thickness of the packaging. PMID:23831779

  8. The effect of sulfur loading on the electrochemical performance of a sulfur-polymer composite cathode coated on aluminium foil.

    PubMed

    Doan, The Nam Long; Gosselink, Denise; Hoang, Tuan K A; Chen, P

    2014-07-21

    A scaling-up investigation of a sulfur-polymer cathode for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries is reported. The proposed procedure uses a low cost aluminium current collector and is suitable for mass production of a composite cathode, with sulfur loading levels of up to 5.9 mg cm(-2), and good electrochemical performance. PMID:24910180

  9. The Role of Zinc Layer During Wetting of Aluminium on Zinc-coated Steel in Laser Brazing and Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzen, M.; Radel, T.; Thomy, C.; Vollertsen, F.

    The zinc layer of zinc-coated steel is known to be a crucial factor for the spreading of liquid aluminium on the coated surface. For industrial brazing and welding processes these zinc-coatings enable a fluxless joining between aluminium and steel in many cases. Yet, the reason for the beneficial effect of the zinc to the wetting process is not completely understood. Fundamental investigations on the wetting behaviour of single aluminium droplets on different zinc-coated steel surfaces have revealed a distinct difference between coated surfaces at room temperature and at elevated temperature regarding the influence of different coating thicknesses. In this paper the case of continuous laser brazing and welding processes of aluminium and commercial galvanized zinc-coated steel sheets are presented. It is shown that in the case of bead-on-plate laser beam brazing, the coating thickness has a measureable effect on the resulting wetting angle and length but does not have a significant impact in case of overlap laser beam welding. This might be linked to different heat transfer conditions. The results also strongly indicate that proper initialbreakup of oxide layers is still required to accomplish good wetting on zinc-coated surfaces.

  10. Aluminium induced structural, metabolic alterations and protective effects of desferrioxamine in the brain tissue of mice: An FTIR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Sivasubramanian, J.; Raja, B.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we intended to made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice brain tissue using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results demonstrate that FTIR can successfully indicate the molecular changes that occur in all groups. The overall findings demonstrate the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids of the brain tissues of mice. The significant decrease in the area value of amide A peak and Olefinicdbnd CH stretching band suggests an alteration in the protein profile and lipid levels due to aluminium exposure, respectively. The significant shift in the amide I and amide II protein peaks may indicate the progression of aluminium induced Alzheimer's disease. Further the administration of DFO significantly improved the level of protein and brought back the amide I and II peaks nearer to the control value. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of Aluminium induced alterations in brain tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies.

  11. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  12. Catalytic activation of OKO zeolite with intersecting pores of 10- and 12-membered rings using atomic layer deposition of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, E; Pulinthanathu Sree, S; Thomas, K; Dendooven, J; De Prins, M; Vanbutsele, G; Breynaert, E; Gilson, J-P; Kirschhock, C E A; Detavernier, C; Martens, J A

    2014-05-01

    Tetrahedral framework aluminium was introduced in all-silica zeolite -COK-14 using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) involving alternating exposure to trimethylaluminium and water vapour. The modification causes permanent conversion of the originally interrupted framework of -COK-14 to a fully connected OKO type framework, and generates catalytic activity in the acid catalysed hydrocarbon conversion reaction. PMID:24667934

  13. Comparison of self-healing ionomer to aluminium-alloy bumpers for protecting spacecraft equipment from space debris impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesconi, A.; Giacomuzzo, C.; Grande, A. M.; Mudric, T.; Zaccariotto, M.; Etemadi, E.; Di Landro, L.; Galvanetto, U.

    2013-03-01

    This paper discusses the impact behavior of a self-healing ionomeric polymer and compares its protection capability against space debris impacts to that of simple aluminium-alloy bumpers. To this end, 14 impact experiments on both ionomer and Al-7075-T6 thin plates with similar surface density were made with 1.5 mm aluminium spheres at velocity between 1 and 4 km/s.First, the perforation extent in both materials was evaluated vis-à-vis the prediction of well known hole-size equations; then, attention was given to the damage potential of the cloud of fragments ejected from the rear side of the target by analysing the craters pattern and the momentum transferred to witness plates mounted on a ballistic pendulum behind the bumpers.Self-healing was completely successful in all but one ionomer samples and the primary damage on ionomeric polymers was found to be significantly lower than that on aluminium. On the other hand, aluminium plates exhibited slightly better debris fragmentation abilities, even though the protecting performance of ionomers seemed to improve at increasing impact speed.

  14. Study of the inhibition of corrosion of aluminium by chromates using fluorescence detection of x-ray absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, J.K.; Isaacs, H.S.; Heald, S.M.; Tranquada, J.; Thompson, G.E.; Wood, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    Fluorescence detection of x-ray absorption has been employed to gain further insight into the interaction of chromate species with aluminium specimens supporting films of controlled thickness; of particular importance, the amounts and locations of Cr VI and Cr III species require further clarification. Absorption spectra from standards show marked differences between Cr III and Cr VI states, indicating the potential of the technique in such inhibitor studies. After natural immersion of the aluminium specimens in relatively dilute chromate/chloride electrolyte for 1 h, the predominant chromium state varied with thickness of the film present originally on the substrate. Specimens supporting air-formed films, developed on the electropolished aluminium surface, showed Cr III. For an anodic film, of thickness 6 nm, both Cr III and Cr VI species were observed, whereas with a 36 nm anodic film, Cr VI was the predominant state. The results are discussed in terms of a model where aluminium and its supporting film contains flaws, of population density dependent on film thickness.

  15. The influence of thermal degradation on the electrodeposition of aluminium from an air- and water-stable ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Veder, Jean-Pierre M; Horne, Michael D; Rther, Thomas; Bond, Alan M; Rodopoulos, Theo

    2013-05-28

    Aluminium electrodeposition is demonstrated from a thermally degraded ionic liquid solution. NMR and voltammetric analyses established that Al(3+) reduction was remarkably similar to that in non-degraded IL solutions suggesting that the electroactive metal-containing species was unaffected by heat treatment. Electron microscopy revealed a significant grain refinement of the deposited metal. PMID:23584418

  16. Spacecraft Shielding: An Experimental Comparison Between Open Cell Aluminium Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures and Whipple Shielding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, D. L. S.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    Spacecraft shielding is generally provided by metallic plates in a Whipple shield type configuration [1] where possible. However, mission restrictions such as spacecraft payload mass, can prevent the inclusion of a dedicated protective structure for prevention against impact damage from micrometeoroids. Due to this, often the spacecraft's primary structure will act as the de facto shield. This is commonly an aluminium honeycomb backed with either glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) or aluminium faceplates [2]. Such materials are strong, lightweight and relatively cheap due to their abundance used within the aerospace industry. However, these materials do not offer the best protection (per unit weight) against hypervelocity impact damage. A new material for shielding (porous aluminium foam [3]) is suggested for low risk space missions. Previous studies by NASA [4] have been performed to test this new material against hypervelocity impacts using spherical aluminium projectiles. This showed its potential for protection for satellites in Earth orbit, against metallic space debris. Here we demonstrate the material's protective capabilities against micrometeoroids, using soda-lime glass spheres as projectiles to accurately gauge its potential with relation to silicatious materials, such as micrometeoroids and natural solar system debris. This is useful for spacecraft missions beyond Earth orbit where solar system materials are the dominant threat (via hypervelocity impacts) to the spacecraft, rather than manmade debris.

  17. Nano-particulate Aluminium Nitride/Al: An Efficient and Versatile Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of Biginelli Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekale, S. U.; Tekale, A. B.; Kanhe, N. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Pawar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    Nano-particulate aluminium nitride/Al (7:1) is reported as a new heterogeneous solid acid catalyst for the synthesis of 3, 4-dihydroxypyrimidi-2-(1H)-ones and their sulphur analogues using the Biginelli reaction. This method involves short reaction time, easy separation, high yields and purity of products.

  18. Decreasing methylation of pectin caused by nitric oxide leads to higher aluminium binding in cell walls and greater aluminium sensitivity of wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Yu, Yan; Liu, Lijuan; Hu, Yan; Ye, Yiquan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bioactive molecule involved in cell wall metabolism, which has been recognized as a major target of aluminium (Al) toxicity. We have investigated the effects of Al-induced NO production on cell wall composition and the subsequent Al-binding capacity in roots of an Al-sensitive cultivar of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yang-5). We found that Al exposure induced NO accumulation in the root tips. Eliminating NO production with an NO scavenger (cPTIO) significantly alleviated the Al-induced inhibition of root growth and thus reduced Al accumulation. Elimination of NO, however, did not significantly affect malate efflux or rhizosphere pH changes under Al exposure. Levels of cell wall polysaccharides (pectin, hemicelluloses 1, and hemicelluloses 2) and pectin methylesterase activity, as well as pectin demethylation in the root apex, significantly increased under Al treatment. Exogenous cPTIO application significantly decreased pectin methylesterase activity and increased the degree of methylation of pectin in the root cell wall, thus decreasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin. These results suggest that the Al-induced enhanced production of NO decreases cell wall pectin methylation, thus increasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin and negatively regulating Al tolerance in wheat. PMID:26663393

  19. Decreasing methylation of pectin caused by nitric oxide leads to higher aluminium binding in cell walls and greater aluminium sensitivity of wheat roots

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Yu, Yan; Liu, Lijuan; Hu, Yan; Ye, Yiquan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bioactive molecule involved in cell wall metabolism, which has been recognized as a major target of aluminium (Al) toxicity. We have investigated the effects of Al-induced NO production on cell wall composition and the subsequent Al-binding capacity in roots of an Al-sensitive cultivar of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yang-5). We found that Al exposure induced NO accumulation in the root tips. Eliminating NO production with an NO scavenger (cPTIO) significantly alleviated the Al-induced inhibition of root growth and thus reduced Al accumulation. Elimination of NO, however, did not significantly affect malate efflux or rhizosphere pH changes under Al exposure. Levels of cell wall polysaccharides (pectin, hemicelluloses 1, and hemicelluloses 2) and pectin methylesterase activity, as well as pectin demethylation in the root apex, significantly increased under Al treatment. Exogenous cPTIO application significantly decreased pectin methylesterase activity and increased the degree of methylation of pectin in the root cell wall, thus decreasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin. These results suggest that the Al-induced enhanced production of NO decreases cell wall pectin methylation, thus increasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin and negatively regulating Al tolerance in wheat. PMID:26663393

  20. Precipitation Reactions in Age-Hardenable Alloys During Laser Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jgle, Eric A.; Sheng, Zhendong; Wu, Liang; Lu, Lin; Risse, Jeroen; Weisheit, Andreas; Raabe, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    We describe and study the thermal profiles experienced by various age-hardenable alloys during laser additive manufacturing (LAM), employing two different manufacturing techniques: selective laser melting and laser metal deposition. Using scanning electron microscopy and atom probe tomography, we reveal at which stages during the manufacturing process desired and undesired precipitation reactions can occur in age-hardenable alloys. Using examples from a maraging steel, a nickel-base superalloy and a scandium-containing aluminium alloy, we demonstrate that precipitation can already occur during the production of the powders used as starting material, during the deposition of material (i.e. during solidification and subsequent cooling), during the intrinsic heat treatment effected by LAM (i.e. in the heat affected zones) and, naturally, during an ageing post-heat treatment. These examples demonstrate the importance of understanding and controlling the thermal profile during the entire additive manufacturing cycle of age-hardenable materials including powder synthesis.

  1. Precipitation Reactions in Age-Hardenable Alloys During Laser Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägle, Eric A.; Sheng, Zhendong; Wu, Liang; Lu, Lin; Risse, Jeroen; Weisheit, Andreas; Raabe, Dierk

    2016-03-01

    We describe and study the thermal profiles experienced by various age-hardenable alloys during laser additive manufacturing (LAM), employing two different manufacturing techniques: selective laser melting and laser metal deposition. Using scanning electron microscopy and atom probe tomography, we reveal at which stages during the manufacturing process desired and undesired precipitation reactions can occur in age-hardenable alloys. Using examples from a maraging steel, a nickel-base superalloy and a scandium-containing aluminium alloy, we demonstrate that precipitation can already occur during the production of the powders used as starting material, during the deposition of material (i.e. during solidification and subsequent cooling), during the intrinsic heat treatment effected by LAM (i.e. in the heat affected zones) and, naturally, during an ageing post-heat treatment. These examples demonstrate the importance of understanding and controlling the thermal profile during the entire additive manufacturing cycle of age-hardenable materials including powder synthesis.

  2. Influence of grain boundaries misorientation angle on intergranular corrosion in 2024-T3 aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bałkowiec, A.; Michalski, J.; Matysiak, H.; Kurzydlowski, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The special attention has been paid to the influence of misorientation angle of a random grain boundary (GB) on susceptibility to intergranular attack. The detailed observations of the microstructure of the intergranular corrosion (IGC) in 2024-T3 aluminium alloy (AA2024-T3) subjected to galvanic corrosion tests in two different solutions containing chloride ions (0.1 M and 0.5 M NaCl) were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) technique was used to determine the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) in the initial sample and a GBCD of corroded grain boundaries on a sample subjected to the corrosion test. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of the misorientation angle on the susceptibility of the grain boundaries to corrosion.

  3. Textured aluminium-doped ZnO thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Subhasis; Ray, Swati; Barua, A. K.

    1996-07-01

    The electrical properties of RF magnetron-sputtered aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films are studied. It is seen that the properties are closely related to their structural properties and doping incorporation. The highly conductive milky AZO films with a wedge-like surface consist of very small crystal grains. It is interesting to note that texturization is obtained in this case at a film thickness less than 0022-3727/29/7/022/img1. At a substrate temperature of 0022-3727/29/7/022/img2, texturization occurs and the resistivity obtained after hydrogen treatment is 0022-3727/29/7/022/img3. This result is very significant and it may accelerate the application of inexpensive AZO films in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells.

  4. Ultrasonic Characterization of Texture in Rolled Aluminium Correlated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essex, S. D.; Potter, M. D. G.; Dixon, S.

    2007-03-01

    Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) is a microscopic technique that provides detailed crystallographic orientation and microstructural information, allowing for accurate measurement of such properties like average grain size. In order to validate and better understand what information an ultrasonic technique can give us we are correlating the ultrasonic measurements with those from EBSD. It generates an appreciation of the limitations of both techniques, and what each can reasonably deliver. We describe a technique to extrapolate the three independent orientation distribution coefficients (ODCs) for cubic structures W400, W420 and W440 from the Bunge-Euler angle data from EBSD scans. Preliminary EBSD results for thin rolled aluminium sheet are discussed and compared to the ODCs determined on the same sample using an ultrasonic EMAT-EMAT S0 Lamb wave measurement system.

  5. In vitro pharmacodynamic properties of a fluoroquinolone pharmaceutical derivative: hydrochloride of ciprofloxacin-aluminium complex.

    PubMed

    Alovero, Fabiana L; Olivera, María E; Manzo, Ruben H

    2003-05-01

    Some in vitro pharmacodynamic properties of a new aqueous soluble ciprofloxacin (CIPX) derivative, the hydrochloride of its aluminum complex: (HCl.CIPX)(3)Al, are reported. Although (HCl.CIPX)(3)Al had the same MIC as CIPX, the minimum bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli was 2-fold higher than that of CIPX and the rate of killing was slightly delayed compared with time-kill curves obtained with CIPX. (HCl.CIPX)(3)Al showed a longer post-antibiotic effect (PAE). As pharmacodynamic properties of CIPX are not drastically affected by being complexed with aluminium, the increased aqueous compatibility of the complex remains as the main formulation factor for liquid dosage forms. PMID:12727078

  6. Ion beam analysis of aluminium ion implanted titanium diboride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, S.; Sood, D. K.; Evans, P. J.; Dytlewski, N.; Short, K. T.

    2002-05-01

    Titanium diboride is often selected for protective coatings due to its high hardness and wear resistance. However, its possible high temperature applications are limited because it exhibits poor oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. Through ion beam modification, it was anticipated that a stable oxidation barrier could form via the formation of "metastable phases" not otherwise observed in stoichiometric TiB 2. Titanium diboride films were deposited onto single-crystal Si(1 0 0) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. MEVVA ion implantation was then performed using an extraction voltage of 40 kV. Selected samples were subjected to post-implantation vacuum annealing prior to oxidation, thus comparing the behaviour of crystalline and amorphous films. Results show that aluminium ion implantation reduces the oxidation rate of DC magnetron sputtered titanium diboride thin films within the experimental temperature range.

  7. Wear Behavior of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Prepared from Industrial Waste

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, L. Francis; Suresh, Paramasivam

    2016-01-01

    With an increase in the population and industrialization, a lot of valuable natural resources are depleted to prepare and manufacture products. However industrialization on the other hand has waste disposal issues, causing dust and environmental pollution. In this work, Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite is prepared by reinforcing 10 wt% and 20 wt% of wet grinder stone dust particles an industrial waste obtained during processing of quarry rocks which are available in nature. In the composite materials design wear is a very important criterion requiring consideration which ensures the materials reliability in applications where they come in contact with the environment and other surfaces. Dry sliding wear test was carried out using pin-on-disc apparatus on the prepared composites. The results reveal that increasing the reinforcement content from 10 wt% to 20 wt% increases the resistance to wear rate. PMID:26989764

  8. Computational modelling of large aluminium stabilized conductors in an indirectly cooled magnet matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Baynham, D.E.; Sampson, P.L.

    1996-07-01

    Many of the detector magnets in use for Particle Physics experiments are based on a common technology developed in the 1980s: indirect cooling, pure aluminium stabilized conductor and monolithic resin impregnation (DELPHI, ALEPH, H1, TOPAZ etc.). In such indirectly cooled magnets stable behavior is a balance between the transient heat removal capacity of the winding and the thermal disturbances. For the extrapolation in magnet technology towards LHC detectors it is important to understand more fully this stability balance. This paper describes computational modelling techniques developed to predict the behavior of conductors in an indirectly cooled magnet matrix. The verification of the model is based on experimental studies of a test coil for the DELPHI solenoid. The computational model has been used to carry out a parametric study of the stability of the conductors proposed for the ATLAS End Cap Toroids at LHC. Results of the parametric study are presented.

  9. Wear Behavior of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Prepared from Industrial Waste.

    PubMed

    Xavier, L Francis; Suresh, Paramasivam

    2016-01-01

    With an increase in the population and industrialization, a lot of valuable natural resources are depleted to prepare and manufacture products. However industrialization on the other hand has waste disposal issues, causing dust and environmental pollution. In this work, Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite is prepared by reinforcing 10 wt% and 20 wt% of wet grinder stone dust particles an industrial waste obtained during processing of quarry rocks which are available in nature. In the composite materials design wear is a very important criterion requiring consideration which ensures the materials reliability in applications where they come in contact with the environment and other surfaces. Dry sliding wear test was carried out using pin-on-disc apparatus on the prepared composites. The results reveal that increasing the reinforcement content from 10 wt% to 20 wt% increases the resistance to wear rate. PMID:26989764

  10. Screening of halogenated aromatic compounds in some raw material lots for an aluminium recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Seija; Paasivirta, Jaakko; Lahtiperä, Mirja; Vattulainen, Antero

    2004-05-01

    Four samples of scrap raw materials for an aluminium recycling plant were screened for the occurrence of persistent halogenated aromatic compounds. The samples contained waste from handling of electric and electronic plastics, filter dust from electronic crusher, cyclone dust from electronic crusher and light fluff from car shredder. In our screening analyses, brominated flame retardants were observed in all samples. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) were identified in all samples in amounts of 245-67450 ng/g. The major PBDE congeners found were decabromo- and pentabromodiphenyl ethers. 1,1-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, hexabromobenzene, ethyl-pentabromobenzene, tetrabromobisphenol-A, pentabromotoluene and dimethyl tetrabromobenzene were observed in all scrap samples. The concentrations of PCBs, PCNs (polychlorinated naphthalenes) and nona- to undecachlorinated terphenyls in some of these scrap samples were remarkably high. PMID:14987867

  11. Interval censoring in longitudinal data of respiratory symptoms in aluminium potroom workers: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, S O; Kongerud, J

    1994-09-15

    In a longitudinal study of workers in seven Norwegian aluminium plants, the time to development of asthmatic symptoms could only be determined to lie in the interval between two consecutive health examinations. In a previous paper we analysed the data by survival techniques for interval censored data. In the present paper the data are reanalysed in two ways and compared to the previous analyses. First, it is assumed that occurrence of symptoms coincided with reporting, in which case the data can be analysed as right censored. Secondly, the follow-up times are completely disregarded and the effects of covariates are analysed on the binary outcomes of symptoms. Comparing the estimated effects of the covariates between the three approaches, only minor differences were found. However, the estimates on incidence were strongly influenced by whether the data were analysed as right or interval censored. PMID:7997710

  12. Pulmonary function in aluminium smelter and surrounding community--a case study.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Saiyed, H N; Roychowdhury, A; Alam, J

    2007-10-01

    The increase of industrial activities in the Angul-Talcher area, Orissa resulted in indiscriminate disposal of waste into the environment leading to the deterioration of the quality of the environment, which affects the health of the workers as well as the community people. Considering the magnitude of the problem, the pulmonary function study had been carried out in one of the largest aluminium producing plant of the country as well as surrounding community people. Aluminium is produced from oxides of alumina by Hall-Heroult smelting process. The electrolysis called as aluminium smelting is carried out in an electrolytic cell (pot) having anode, cathode and electrolyte. The aluminium is deposited in the cathode and the oxygen moves towards anode is released. The workers working at the captive power plant (CPP), which is necessary to meet the power demand of the smelter plant were also investigated. 180 smelter plants workers (non-smoker 129, smoker-51) of different sections and 37 captive power plant workers (non-smoker 29, smoker-8) had undergone pulmonary function tests. Besides these, 85 persons from the surrounding community (non-smoker-66, smoker-19) were also investigated. The workers were all male. Spirometric assessments of Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were done by Spirovit-sp-10 (Schiller Health Care Ltd, Switzerland) and Wrights Peak flow meter (Clement and Clarke, UK). Different lung volumes like FEV1, FEV1%, and flow rates like FEF200-1200ml, FEF25-75% and FEF75-85% were calculated from the same tracings pulmonary function test (PFT) results of the workers according to different age groups, duration of exposures and smoking habits. The mean values of SVC, FVC and FEV1 of smelter plant workers were found higher compared to the community people but the values of captive power plant workers were very much close to the values of the community people. A gradual decrement of the PFT values was found as duration of exposure increased. Lung volumes and the flow rates were decreased as age increases but in some age groups that trend was not followed. It has been found that in each category of subjects, smokers have the higher mean pulmonary function values compared to the non-smokers. Except the community people in all other cases the different flow rates were found higher in nonsmokers compared to smokers. The restrictive, obstructive and combined restrictive and obstructive types of impairments among the subjects were noticed. The respiratory impairment among the workers as a whole was found higher in smelter plant workers (9.44%) followed by the captive power plant workers (5.40%) and the community people (2.35%). In smelter plant workers both the restrictive and obstructive impairments were found higher compared to captive power plant and the community people. PMID:18476380

  13. Analysis of the Capabilities of a Hyperbolic Constitutive Equation for Al-5083 Superplastic Aluminium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otegi, N.; Galdos, L.; Hurtado, I.; Leen, S. B.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the application of a hyperbolic, mechanisms-based constitutive equation set, modified to incorporate the effect of cavitation, to the prediction of the superplastic behaviour of a commercial Al-5083 superplastic aluminium alloy. The development of an algorithm for multi-stage identification of the complex set of constitutive parameters is presented and this approach is applied to characterise the constitutive behaviour of the Al-5083 at 500° C, based on constant strain-rate tensile test data. A large deformation, multiaxial formulation of the constitutive equation set is implemented and applied to finite element modelling of a bulge test forming process to characterise the cavitation evolution behaviour in the bulge test for different back pressure conditions.

  14. Sodium borohydride as an n-type dopant in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Bo; Wu, Zhaoxin; Dai, Yang; Wang, Dongdong; Hou, Xun

    2009-10-01

    An efficient n-type dopant, sodium borohydride (NaBH4), in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) thin film has been developed. Doping NaBH4 in Alq3 can significantly enhance the electron injection and transport, which can reduce the applied voltage and improve the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes compared with the referenced device. Using the quartz crystal microbalance test, we demonstrated that NaBH4 decomposes following gas formation during the thermal evaporation process. By calculating the deposited fraction of NaBH4, we concluded that boron and metallic sodium were the main components of the dopant, while gaseous hydrogen formed during the evaporation process. We thus found that, among these two components, metallic sodium is most likely to be the active component of the dopant because of its strong electron donor characteristic.

  15. A SUPG approach for determining frontlines in aluminium extrusion simulations and a comparison with experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, A. J.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; Huetink, J.; Nilsen, K. E.; Koenis, P. T. G.

    2007-04-07

    In this paper we present a method to determine the frontlines inside the container and inside the extrusion die based on a steady state velocity field. Using this velocity field the convection equation is solved with a SUPG stabilized finite element method for a variable that represents the time it takes from the initial front to a certain point in the domain. When iso-lines in this field are plotted the development of fronts can be tracked. Extrusion experiments are performed with aluminium billets cut in slices. When extrusion is stopped the billet and extrudate are removed from the container and cut in half in the extrusion direction, copper foils between the slices show the frontlines. These lines show good agreement with the iso-lines from the numerical solution of convection equation.

  16. Influence of precipitate size and morphology on grain refinement in nickel aluminium bronze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, C. J.; Xia, K.

    2015-08-01

    Nickel aluminium bronze (NAB) was subjected to equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using routes BA and C at 400°C to investigate the effect of precipitate size and morphology on grain refinement in low stacking fault energy alloys. Both routes produced dynamically recrystallised grains of ∼550 nm in size although only route BA was able to create a uniform distribution of the refined grains. The large unrefined regions in NAB processed via route C was thought to arise from its inability to redistribute the various precipitate phases, as recrystallisation was enhanced around the coarse κII rosettes and refined κIII lamellae but reduced in the areas containing fine κIV precipitates.

  17. Formation of magnetic aluminium oxyhydroxide nanorods and use for hyperthermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Himendra; Schmidt-Stein, Felix; Shrestha, Nabeen K.; Kettering, Melanie; Hilger, Ingrid; Schmuki, Patrik

    2011-03-01

    In the present work, we show that a porous alumina template can easily be filled with magnetic nanoparticles and then be sealed by a hot water treatment (by forming an aluminium oxyhydroxide (AlOOH) sealant layer). The porous layer then can be separated from the substrate by an etch to form free magnetic AlOOH nano-capsules. The process allows for a straightforward and highly defined size control of the magnetic units and can easily be scaled up. Furthermore, as AlOOH is biocompatible and has been used as a drug adjuvant for human use, the nanorod shaped capsules are highly promising for biomedical applications such as hyperthermal effects (heating in alternating magnetic fields).

  18. Growth of PEO ceramic coatings on AA 2024-T3 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero Sotomonte, S.; Blanco Pinzon, C.; García Vergara, S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth of PEO ceramic coatings on AA 2024-T3 aluminium alloy in an aqueous Na2SiO3 (10.5g/l), KOH (2.8g/l) solution at 310 and 400V for 500 and 710s, was investigated. The morphology, roughness and thickness of the coatings were determined by SEM, digital microscopy, XRD diffraction analysis and thickness measuring instrument. The results show that thicker coatings are produced with longer process times and high applied voltages. Due to the nature of the PEO process, the roughness of the surface coatings increases as the coating become thicker, due to the development of sparks. The coatings are porous, with a crater like morphology and they are mainly amorphous.

  19. SAXS and TEM investigation of ion tracks in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M. D.; Li, W. X.; Chen, F.; Trautmann, C.; Bierschenk, T.; Afra, B.; Schauries, D.; Ewing, R. C.; Mudie, S. T.; Kluth, P.

    2014-05-01

    Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:Y3Al5O12 or Nd:YAG) crystals were irradiated with 2.2 GeV 197Au ions. Ion track formation was investigated using synchrotron based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cylindrical ion tracks consisted of an amorphous core with sharp boundaries within the crystalline matrix. The SAXS results, modelled as long cylindrical tracks, provided a constant track density that is 0.6 ± 0.3% different to that of the surrounding matrix. The average track radii determined by both techniques were in excellent agreement, 4.4 ± 0.1 nm from SAXS and 4.4 ± 0.5 nm from TEM. A comparison with previous results of ion tracks in YAG indicates that the track radius is not affected by the presence of 1 mol% Nd dopant.

  20. Magnetic-field generation by pulsed irradiation of aluminium in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumakov, A. N.; Chekan, P. V.

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic-field generation arising under irradiation of an aluminium barrier in the air by a series of laser pulses is studied experimentally. It is found that the magnetic field increases nonlinearly from 10-5 to 10-3 T with increasing laser power density from 107 to 109 W cm-2, the degree of nonlinearity being different for single nanosecond pulses, for a series of such pulses with a repetition rate of 100 - 150 ?s and for a combination of a millisecond laser pulse and a series of nanosecond laser pulses. The dependences of the magnetic-field induction on the power density of laser radiation in the above-mentioned regimes are established.