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Sample records for aluminium additions

  1. [Aluminium content in foods with aluminium-containing food additives].

    PubMed

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichiro; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) content of 105 samples, including bakery products made with baking powder, agricultural products and seafoods treated with alum, was investigated. The amounts of Al detected were as follows (limit of quantification: 0.01 mg/g): 0.01-0.37 mg/g in 26 of 57 bakery products, 0.22-0.57 mg/g in 3 of 6 powder mixes, 0.01-0.05 mg/g in all three agricultural products examined, 0.03-0.90 mg/g in 4 of 6 seafood samples, 0.01-0.03 mg/g in 3 of 11 samples of instant noodles, 0.04-0.14 mg/g in 3 of 4 samples of vermicelli, 0.01 mg/g in 1 of 16 soybean products, but none in soybeans. Amounts equivalent to the PTWI of a 16 kg infant were detected in two samples of bakery products, two samples of powder mixes and one sample of salted jellyfish, if each sample was taken once a week. These results suggest that certain foods, depending on the product and the intake, might exceed the PTWI of children, especially infants. PMID:22450671

  2. Control of Microthrix parvicella by aluminium salts addition.

    PubMed

    Durban, N; Juzan, L; Krier, J; Gillot, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and iron chloride were added to a biological nutrient removal pilot plant (1,500 population equivalent) treating urban wastewater to investigate the control of Microthrix parvicella bulking and foaming by metallic salts. Monitoring plant performance over two 6-month periods showed a slight impact on the removal efficiencies. Addition of metallic salts (Me; aluminium or aluminium + iron) at a concentration of 41 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) (MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids) over 70 days allowed a stabilization of the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI), whereas higher dosages (94 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 35 days or 137 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 14 days induced a significant improvement of the settling conditions. Microscopic observations showed a compaction of biological aggregates with an embedding of filamentous bacteria into the flocs that is not specific to M. parvicella as bacteria from phylum Chloroflexi are embedded too. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting M. parvicella further indicated a possible growth limitation in addition to the flocculation impact at the high dosages of metallic salts investigated. DSVI appeared to be correlated with the relative abundance of M. parvicella. PMID:26819398

  3. TEM and HRTEM studies of ball milled 6061 aluminium alloy powder with Zr addition.

    PubMed

    Lity?ska-Dobrzy?ska, L; Dutkiewicz, J; Maziarz, W; Rogal, ?

    2010-03-01

    The effect of mechanical alloying on the microstructure of atomized 6061 aluminium alloy powder and 6061 powder with a zirconium addition was studied in the work. The atomized 6061 aluminium alloy powder and 6061 powder with addition of 2 wt.% Zr were milled in a planetary ball mill and investigated using X-ray diffraction measurements, conventional and high-resolution electron microscopy (TEM/HRTEM) and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. An increase of stresses was observed in milled powders after the refinement of crystallites beyond 100 nm. In the powder with zirconium addition, some part of the Zr atoms diffused in aluminium forming a solid solution containing up to 0.5 wt.% Zr. The remaining was found to form Zr-rich particles containing up to 88 wt.% Zr and were identified as face centred cubic (fcc) phase with lattice constant a= 0.48 nm. That fcc phase partially transformed into the L1(2) ordered phase. Eighty-hour milling brought an increase of microhardness (measured with Vickers method) from about 50 HV (168 MPa) for the initial 6061 powder to about 170 HV (552 MPa). The addition of zirconium had no influence on the microhardness. PMID:20500426

  4. Effect of Refiner Addition Level on Zirconium-Containing Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaradeh, M. M. R.; Carlberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in aluminium alloys containing Zr, grain refiner additions do not function as desired, producing an effect often referred to as nuclei poisoning. This paper investigates the structure of direct chill-cast ingots of commercial AA3003 aluminium alloys, with and without Zr, at various addition levels of Al5Ti1B master alloy. In Bridgman experiments simulating ingot solidification, Zr-containing alloys were studied after the addition of various amounts of Ti. It could be demonstrated, in both ingot casting and simulation experiments, that Zr poisoning can be compensated for by adding more Ti and/or Al5Ti1B. The results confirm better refinement behaviour with the addition of Ti + B than of only Ti. The various combinations of Zr and Ti also influenced the formation of AlFeMn phases, and the precipitation of large Al6(Mn,Fe) particles was revealed. AlZrTiSi intermetallic compounds were also detected.

  5. Chemical and biological effects of acid, aluminium and lime additions to a Welsh Hill-stream.

    PubMed

    Weatherley, N S; Thomas, S P; Ormerod, S J

    1989-01-01

    Chemical and biological responses to simultaneous additions of acid, aluminium and lime were investigated in contiguous 250m-reaches of a chronically acidic stream in Wales. Treatments were applied for 24 h, and from the upstream end were as follows: zone A-untreated, pH 5.0, 0.37 mg litre(-1) filterable Al; zone B-acidified to pH 4.5, 0.40 mg Al litre(-1) (47% of Al attributed to release from the stream bed due to acid additions); zone C-acidified to pH 4.5 and Al dosed to 0.67 mg litre(-1); zone D-dosed with limestone slurry, resulting in pH 7.2, 0.13 mg Al litre(-1). In all reaches, the chemistry of the interstitial water at depths of 0.15 and 0.3 m never fell below pH 5.5, with corresponding decreases in Al and increases in base cation concentrations. Brown trout, Salmo trutta, and crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, held in the stream showed decreases in plasma [Na(+)] and haemolymph [Na(+)], respectively, in all acidic zones (A, B, C): these responses were mitigated by liming (zone D). Thus both chronic and simulated episodic levels of pH and dissolved Al were sub-lethally toxic to test species of aquatic fauna. This experiment also demonstrates a stream bed source/sink of Al, and the availability of a possible refuge from acidic surface waters within the substratum. PMID:15092469

  6. Stabilization of FGD gypsum for its disposal in landfills using amorphous aluminium oxide as a fluoride retention additive.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X

    2007-09-01

    The applicability of amorphous aluminium oxide as a fluoride retention additive to flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum was studied as a way of stabilizing this by-product for its disposal in landfills. Using a batch method the sorption behaviour of amorphous aluminium oxide was evaluated at the pH (about 6.5) and background electrolyte conditions (high chloride and sulphate concentrations) found in FGD gypsum leachates. It was found that fluoride sorption on amorphous aluminium oxide was a very fast process with equilibrium attained within the first half an hour of interaction. The sorption process was well described by the Langmuir model, offering a maximum fluoride sorption capacity of 61.7 mg g(-1). Fluoride sorption was unaffected by chloride co-existing ions, while slightly decreased (about 20%) by competing sulphate ions. The use of amorphous aluminium oxide in the stabilization of FGD gypsum proved to greatly decreased its fluoride leachable content (in the range 5-75% for amorphous aluminium oxide doses of 0.1-2%, as determined by the European standard EN 12457-4 [EN-12457-4 Characterization of waste-leaching-compliance test for leaching of granular waste materials and sludges-Part 4: one stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg for materials with particle size below 10mm (without or with size reduction)]), assuring the characterization of this by-product as a waste acceptable at landfills of non-hazardous wastes according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC [Council Decision 2003/33/EC of 19 December 2002. Establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills pursuant to Article 16 of and Annex II to Directive 1999/31/EC] on landfill of wastes. Furthermore, as derived from column leaching studies, the proposed stabilization system proved to be highly effective in simulated conditions of disposal, displaying a fluoride leaching reduction value about 81% for an amorphous aluminium oxide added amount of 2%. PMID:17509651

  7. Gypsum addition to soils contaminated by red mud: implications for aluminium, arsenic, molybdenum and vanadium solubility.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Lockwood, Cindy L; Mayes, William M; Stewart, Douglas I; Mortimer, Robert J G; Gruiz, Katalin; Burke, Ian T

    2013-10-01

    Red mud is highly alkaline (pH 13), saline and can contain elevated concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V). Release of up to 1 million m(3) of bauxite residue (red mud) suspension from the Ajka repository, western Hungary, caused large-scale contamination of downstream rivers and floodplains. There is now concern about the potential leaching of toxic metal(loid)s from the red mud as some have enhanced solubility at high pH. This study investigated the impact of red mud addition to three different Hungarian soils with respect to trace element solubility and soil geochemistry. The effectiveness of gypsum amendment for the rehabilitation of red mud-contaminated soils was also examined. Red mud addition to soils caused a pH increase, proportional to red mud addition, of up to 4 pH units (e.g. pH 7 → 11). Increasing red mud addition also led to significant increases in salinity, dissolved organic carbon and aqueous trace element concentrations. However, the response was highly soil specific and one of the soils tested buffered pH to around pH 8.5 even with the highest red mud loading tested (33 % w/w); experiments using this soil also had much lower aqueous Al, As and V concentrations. Gypsum addition to soil/red mud mixtures, even at relatively low concentrations (1 % w/w), was sufficient to buffer experimental pH to 7.5-8.5. This effect was attributed to the reaction of Ca(2+) supplied by the gypsum with OH(-) and carbonate from the red mud to precipitate calcite. The lowered pH enhanced trace element sorption and largely inhibited the release of Al, As and V. Mo concentrations, however, were largely unaffected by gypsum induced pH buffering due to the greater solubility of Mo (as molybdate) at circumneutral pH. Gypsum addition also leads to significantly higher porewater salinities, and column experiments demonstrated that this increase in total dissolved solids persisted even after 25 pore volume replacements. Gypsum addition could therefore provide a cheaper alternative to recovery (dig and dump) for the treatment of red mud-affected soils. The observed inhibition of trace metal release within red mud-affected soils was relatively insensitive to either the percentage of red mud or gypsum present, making the treatment easy to apply. However, there is risk that over-application of gypsum could lead to detrimental long-term increases in soil salinity. PMID:23793510

  8. Aluminium plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we present an overview of 'aluminium plasmonics', i.e. the study of both fundamental and practical aspects of surface plasmon excitations in aluminium structures, in particular thin films and metal nanoparticles. After a brief introduction noting both some recent and historical contributions to aluminium plasmonics, we discuss the optical properties of aluminium and aluminium nanostructures and highlight a few selected studies in a host of areas ranging from fluorescence to data storage.

  9. The Effect of Cu and Ge Additions on Strength and Precipitation in a lean 6xxx Aluminium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mørtsell, E. A.; Marioara, C. D.; Andersen, S. J.; Røyset, J.; Reiso, O.; Holmestad, R.

    2015-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that the strength loss in a lean Al-Mg-Si alloy due to solute reduction could be compensated by back-adding a lower at % of Ge and Cu. Nanosized precipitate needles which are the main cause of strength in these alloys, and material hardness has been correlated to parameters quantified by TEM. It was found that additions of Ge and Cu strongly affect the precipitation process by increasing precipitate density and reducing precipitate size. Investigations of precipitate atomic structure by HAADF-STEM indicated that they contain mixed areas of known phases and disordered regions. A hexagonal Si/Ge-network was found to be present in all precipitate cross sections.

  10. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    PubMed

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  11. Evidence of aluminium accumulation in aluminium welders.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Ahrengart, L; Lidums, V; Pettersson, E; Sjögren, B

    1991-01-01

    Using atomic absorption spectrometry the aluminium concentrations in blood and urine and in two iliac bone biopsies obtained from welders with long term exposure to fumes containing aluminium were measured. The urinary excretion of two workers who had welded for 20 and 21 years varied between 107 and 351 micrograms Al/l, more than 10 times the concentration found in persons without occupational exposure. Urinary aluminium excretion remained high many years after stopping exposure. Blood and bone aluminium concentrations (4-53 micrograms Al/l and 18-29 micrograms Al/g respectively) were also raised but not to the same extent as urine excretion. It is concluded that long term exposure to aluminium by inhalation gives rise to accumulation of aluminium in the body and skeleton of health persons, and that the elimination of retained aluminium is very slow, in the order of several years. PMID:1954151

  12. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  13. Human exposure to aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium. PMID:23982047

  14. Mullite and alumina composites preparation from cordierite and aluminium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Aklouche, N. Achour, S.; Tabet, N.

    2008-05-06

    Densification and phase transformation of mullite and alumina composites prepared from cordierite and aluminium hydroxide mixture were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of mullite since the early stage of aluminium hydroxide addition to the cordierite. Above 40 wt.% of aluminium hydroxide addition, the presence of spinel and mullite phases can be detected by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the amounts of spinel as well as mullite present increased with increasing aluminium hydroxide concentration at the expense of cordierite. These analyses were completed by density measurements and scanning electron microscopy observation.

  15. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium-aluminium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Chukin, A. V.; Smolenski, V. V.; Novoselova, A. V.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga-Al alloys containing 0.014-20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated.

  16. Molecular breeding of cereals for aluminium resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...

  17. Aluminium and human breast diseases.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F

    2011-11-01

    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 ?g/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 ?g/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 ?g/l) compared with human serum (median 6 ?g/l) or human milk (median 25 ?g/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate. PMID:22099158

  18. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  19. Aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bogle, R G; Theron, P; Brooks, P; Dargan, P I; Redhead, J

    2006-01-01

    We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy woman caused by deliberate ingestion of aluminium phosphide (AlP), a pesticide used to kill rodents and insects. Toxicity of AlP and review of cases reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London) 1997-2003 are discussed. PMID:16373788

  20. Aluminium in human breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Charles, Lisa M; Barr, Lester; Martin, Claire; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa D

    2007-09-01

    Aluminium is omnipresent in everyday life and increased exposure is resulting in a burgeoning body burden of this non-essential metal. Personal care products are potential contributors to the body burden of aluminium and recent evidence has linked breast cancer with aluminium-based antiperspirants. We have used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) to measure the aluminium content in breast biopsies obtained following mastectomies. The aluminium content of breast tissue and breast tissue fat were in the range 4-437 nmol/g dry wt. and 3-192 nmol/g oil, respectively. The aluminium content of breast tissue in the outer regions (axilla and lateral) was significantly higher (P=0.033) than the inner regions (middle and medial) of the breast. Whether differences in the regional distribution of aluminium in the breast are related to the known higher incidence of tumours in the outer upper quadrant of the breast remains to be ascertained. PMID:17629949

  1. Studies on the best alkaline electrolyte for aluminium/air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapali, V.; Venkatakrishna Iyer, S.; Balaramachandran, V.; Sarangapani, K. B.; Ganesan, M.; Anbu Kulandainathan, M.; Sheik Mideen, A.

    Two types of alkaline electrolyte, based on 4 M NaOH have been developed for use in aluminium/air cells or batteries. They contain either alkaline citrate or alkaline citrate cum stannate as an additive to suppress the self-corrosion of aluminium without any deleterious effects on the efficient functioning of aluminium anode at a high negative potential. The alkaline citrate cum stannate solution has been adjudged the best electrolyte in terms of electrochemical characteristics and electrolyte management. Hence, results pertaining to the use of alkaline citrate cum stannate are presented in this paper. An aluminium/air battery with this electrolyte can be used safely and effectively at ambient temperature. An added advantage is the employment of 99.8% pure aluminium for the preparation of alloy anodes. This is expected to reduce the cost of aluminium/air batteries. The best anode based on 99.8% pure aluminium is a quaternary alloy containing lead, gallium and indium.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of nickel-aluminium oxide system from metals obtained by ore processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobochkin, V. V.; Usoltseva, N. V.; Shorokhov, K. G.; Popova, E. V.

    2015-11-01

    Separate and combined electrochemical oxidation of aluminium and nickel has been conducted by alternating current of industrial frequency. Concentration increase of electrolyte solution (sodium chloride) in the range from 3 to 25 wt. % and current density from 0.5 to 1.5 A/cm2 was found to result in the increasing metal oxidation rate, excluding aluminium oxidation which oxidation rate is independent of the electrolyte solution concentration. At the current density of 1.5 A/cm2 the products of separate oxidation of nickel and aluminium are nickel oxyhydroxides, nickel hydroxides and aluminium oxyhydroxide (boehmite), respectively. In addition to these compounds, the nickel-aluminium oxide hydrate is included in the products of nickel and aluminium co-oxidation. Its content grows with the increasing electrolyte solution concentration. Varying the concentration and current density within the limits indicated, the nickel-aluminium oxide system with nickel oxide content from 3 to 10 wt. % is produced.

  3. Occupational lung fibrosis in an aluminium polisher.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, P; Dumortier, P; Rickaert, F; Van de Weyer, R; Lenclud, C; Yernault, J C

    1986-02-01

    An aluminium polisher developed severe lung fibrosis complicated by bronchial carcinoma. Although he was not submitted to the exposure risks usually described in aluminium lung (bauxite smelting, use of aluminium powders, aluminium welding), he worked in a high concentration of aluminium dust. This was demonstrated by mineralogical analyses which revealed large amounts of small metallic aluminium particles (0.5 micron - 5 micron) in bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue and lymph nodes 5 years after the end of exposure. Aluminium polishing seems to be a potential cause of aluminium lung. PMID:3699115

  4. Bladder cancer in the aluminium industry.

    PubMed

    Thériault, G; Tremblay, C; Cordier, S; Gingras, S

    1984-04-28

    The incidence of bladder cancer is unusually high in aluminium smelter workers. An epidemiological study showed that workers in Soderberg potrooms are at highest risk for bladder cancer, the adjusted overall relative risk being 2.39 (1.34-4.28). Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, of which benz(a)pyrene (BaP) served as an indicator, seems to be the causative factor. The relative risk was evaluated at 12.38 for workers with 20 or more equivalent years of BaP exposure. Cigarette smoking contributed significantly to the appearance of bladder cancer in the population studied. There is a synergistic effect when cigarette smoking and BaP exposure are combined; the numbers in our population are too small to determine whether this interaction effect is multiplicative or additive. It is concluded that bladder cancer is associated with aluminium smelting (primarily with the Soderberg process). PMID:6143877

  5. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  6. Aluminium Involvement in Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Vietti, Daniele; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    The aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) seems to involve susceptibility genes and environmental factors. Toxic metals are considered major environmental pollutants. Following our study of a case of multiple sclerosis (MS) improvement due to removal of aluminium (Al) and other toxic metals, we have examined the possible relationship between Al intoxication and ND. We used the slow intravenous treatment with the chelating agent EDTA (calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) (chelation test) to remove Al and detected it in the urine collected from the patients for 12 hours. Patients affected by MS represented 85.6% of total ND. Al was present in 44.8% of cases comprehensive of ND and healthy patients. Al levels were significantly higher in ND patients than in healthy subjects. We here show that treatment of patients affected by Al burden with ten EDTA chelation therapies (EDTA intravenous administration once a week) was able to significantly reduce Al intoxication. PMID:25243176

  7. Effect of citrate on plasma aluminium concentration and aluminium excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lote, C J; Saunders, H C; Wood, J A; Spencer, A J

    1992-10-01

    1. Plasma aluminium concentration and urinary aluminium excretion were monitored for 4.5 h in rats after the administration of 25 micrograms or 800 micrograms of aluminium as an intravenous bolus, either as aluminium chloride or as aluminium citrate (i.e. aluminium chloride together with sodium citrate). 2. Immediately after the bolus aluminium administration, the plasma aluminium concentration was higher in the groups given aluminium chloride than in those which received aluminium citrate, although the difference was significant (P < 0.05) only for the 25 micrograms dose. This difference between aluminium chloride and citrate indicates that the citrate form has a higher volume of distribution (i.e. is able to leave the plasma). The calculated volume of distribution for the 25 micrograms of aluminium chloride (17.5 ml) was similar to the plasma volume of the rats used (15 ml). 3. In experiments in vitro, the ultrafilterability of aqueous solutions of aluminium chloride and aluminium citrate were compared. Only 1.05 +/- 0.09% of the aluminium chloride solution was ultrafilterable (aluminium concentration 28,200 +/- 730 ng/ml), whereas 97.3 +/- 2.4% of the aluminium citrate was ultrafilterable (aluminium concentration 42,000 +/- 370 ng/ml). When the filterability of aluminium in plasma was examined, the aluminium chloride ultrafilterability was identical with that in aqueous solution (1.06 +/- 0.13%, aluminium concentration 19,800 +/- 2956 ng/ml), but the aluminium citrate was 79.8 +/- 7.1% ultrafilterable (aluminium concentration 10,125 +/- 591 ng/ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1330405

  8. Dependence in Classification of Aluminium Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resti, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the dependence between edge and colour intensity of aluminium waste image, the aim of this paper is to classify the aluminium waste into three types; pure aluminium, not pure aluminium type-1 (mixed iron/lead) and not pure aluminium type 2 (unrecycle). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed to reduction the dimension of image data, while Bayes’ theorem with the Gaussian copula was applied to classification. The copula was employed to handle dependence between edge and colour intensity of aluminium waste image. The results showed that the classifier has been correctly classifiable by 88.33%.

  9. Dietary exposure to aluminium of urban residents from cities in South China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Wang, Jing; Li, Min; Liang, Xuxia; Dai, Guangwei; Hu, Zhikun; Wen, Jian; Huang, Qiong; Zhang, Yonghui

    2013-01-01

    A dietary survey was conducted over three consecutive days by using 24-hour dietary recall in the Pearl River Delta of South China to investigate the dietary consumption status. A total of 1702 food samples, 22 food groups, were collected, and aluminium concentrations of foods were determined by using ICP-MS. Weekly dietary exposure to aluminium of the average urban residents of South China was estimated to be 1.5 mg kg?¹ body weight, which amounted to 76% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Wheat-made products (53.5%) contributed most to the dietary exposure, followed by vegetables (12.2%). The high-level consumers' weekly exposure to aluminium was 11.1 mg kg?¹ body weight, which amounted to 407% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. The results indicated that the general urban residents in South China might be safe from aluminium exposure, but the high-level consumers might be at some risk of aluminium exposure. The foods contributing to aluminium exposure were processed food with aluminium-containing food additives. It is necessary to take effective measures to control the overuse of aluminium-containing food additives. PMID:23566278

  10. Indentation tests of aluminium honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashab, A.; Wong, Y. C.; Lu, G.; Ruan, D.

    2013-07-01

    Aluminium honeycomb is a type of cellular material which has high strength to weigh ratio and is a good energy absorber. They are used as structural components in various engineering applications. Comprehensive study has been conducted on the compressive behavior of aluminium honeycombs. However, the research of aluminium honeycombs subjected to other type of loading, such as indentation, is still limited. In this paper, quasi-static and dynamic indentation tests were conducted to study the deformation and energy absorption of three types of HEXCELL® aluminium honeycombs with different cell sizes and cell wall thicknesses. Quasi-static tests were conducted by using a universal MTS machine at velocities of 0.05 mm/s, 0.5 mm/s and 5 mm/s, respectively. Dynamic tests were conducted by using a high speed INSTRON machine at a velocity of 5 m/s. Force-displacement curves were plotted in which the total energy absorbed was calculated. The deformation of aluminium honeycombs in indentation tests includes the compression of honeycomb cells under the indenter and tearing of honeycomb cell walls along the indenter edges. The energy dissipated in compression and tearing were calculated and discussed. The effects of cell size, cell wall thickness and loading velocity or strain rate on the plateau stress and energy absorption were analyzed.

  11. Aluminium phosphide-induced leukopenia

    PubMed Central

    Ntelios, Dimitrios; Mandros, Charalampos; Potolidis, Evangelos; Fanourgiakis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Acute intoxication from the pesticide aluminium phosphide is a relatively rare, life-threatening condition in which cardiovascular decompensation is the most feared problem. We report the case of a patient exposed to aluminium phosphide-liberated phosphine gas. It resulted in the development of a gastroenteritis-like syndrome accompanied by severe reduction in white blood cell numbers as an early and prominent manifestation. By affecting important physiological processes such as mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species homeostasis, phosphine could cause severe toxicity. After presenting the characteristics of certain leucocyte subpopulations we provide the current molecular understanding of the observed leukopenia which in part seems paradoxical. PMID:24172776

  12. Interference of aluminium and pH on the Na-influx in an aquatic insect Corixa punctata (Illig. )

    SciTech Connect

    Witters, H.; Vangenechten, J.H.D.; Van Puymbroeck, S.; Vanderborght, O.L.J.

    1984-05-01

    Some investigations concerning the impact of acid precipitation on aquatic biota, assess possible toxic effects of aluminium in relation to low pH. But those studies mainly refer to the survival of fishes under these stress conditions. Experiments with some aquatic invertebrates (crustaceans and insect larvae) on mortality under pH and aluminium-stress indicated that aluminium should be the key additional toxic factor in acid water. In this paper, data are presented on the influence of different aluminium-concentrations in relation with a low pH-value, on the Na-influx and haemolymph Na-concentration in the adult waterbug Corixa punctata (Illig.).

  13. Aluminium toxicity in chronic renal insufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Savory, J.; Bertholf, R.L.; Wills, M.R.

    1985-08-01

    Aluminium is a ubiquitous element in the environment and has been demonstrated to be toxic, especially in individuals with impaired renal function. Not much is known about the biochemistry of aluminium and the mechanisms of its toxic effects. Most of the interest in aluminium has been in the clinical setting of the hemodialysis unit. Here aluminium toxicity occurs due to contamination of dialysis solutions, and treatment of the patients with aluminium-containing phosphate binding gels. Aluminium has been shown to be the major contributor to the dialysis encephalopathy syndrome and an osteomalacic component of dialysis osteodystrophy. Other clinical disturbances associated with aluminium toxicity are a microcytic anemia and metastatic extraskeletal calcification. Aluminium overload can be treated effectively by chelation therapy with desferrioxamine and hemodialysis. Aluminium is readily transferred from the dialysate to the patient's -bloodstream during hemodialysis. Once transferred, the aluminium is tightly bound to non-dialysable plasma constituents. Very low concentrations of dialysate aluminium in the range of 10-15 micrograms/l are recommended to guard against toxic effects. Very few studies have been directed towards the separation of the various plasma species which bind eluminium. Gel filtration chromatography has been used to identify five major fractions, one of which is of low molecular weight and the others appear to be protein-aluminium complexes. Recommendations on aluminium monitoring have been published and provide safe and toxic concentrations. Also, the frequency of monitoring has been addressed. Major problems exist with the analytical methods for measuring aluminium which result from inaccurate techniques and contamination difficulties. 136 references.

  14. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    PubMed

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals. PMID:23421286

  15. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Wawer K; Lewandowska M; Kurzydlowski KJ

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals.

  16. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  17. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 ?g/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) ?g/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  18. Aluminium electrodeposition under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Andrew P; Harris, Robert C; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Ryder, Karl S; Sun, I-Wen

    2014-07-28

    The electrodeposition of aluminium is demonstrated using a eutectic mixture of aluminium chloride and urea. The mixture is shown to be conducting through the formation of both cationic ([AlCl2·urean](+)) and anionic (AlCl4(-)) species and electrodeposition is achieved through the cationic species. The use of a biphasic system with the ionic liquid and a protective hydrocarbon layer allows metal deposition to be carried out in an environment with ambient moisture without the need for a glove box. A direct comparison is made between the AlCl3:urea and imidazolium chloride:AlCl3 systems and the differences in speciation and mass transport manifest themselves in different deposit morphologies. Brighteners which work in the chloroaluminate system such as toluene and LiCl are shown to be ineffective in the urea based system and the reasons for these differences are ascribed to the mechanism of the anodic reaction which is rate limiting. PMID:24916113

  19. Aluminium toxicokinetics: an updated minireview.

    PubMed

    Yokel, R A; McNamara, P J

    2001-04-01

    This MiniReview updates and expands the MiniReview of aluminium toxicokinetics by Wilhelm et al. published by this journal in 1990. The use of 26Al, analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry, now enables determination of Al toxicokinetics under physiological conditions. There is concern about aluminium in drinking water. The common sources of aluminium for man are reviewed. Oral Al bioavailability from water appears to be about 0.3%. Food is the primary common source. Al bioavailability from food has not been adequately determined. Industrial and medicinal exposure, and perhaps antiperspirant use, can significantly increase absorbed aluminium. Inhalation bioavailability of airborne soluble Al appears to be about 1.5% in the industrial environment. Al may distribute to the brain from the nasal cavity, but the significance of this exposure route is unknown. Systemic Al bioavailability after single underarm antiperspirant application may be up to 0.012%. All intramuscularly injected Al, e.g. from vaccines, may eventually be absorbed. Al distributes unequally to all tissues. Distribution and renal excretion appear to be enhanced by citrate. Brain uptake of Al may be mediated by Al transferrin and Al citrate complexes. There appears to be carrier-mediated efflux of Al citrate from the brain. Elimination half-lives of years have been reported in man, probably reflecting release from bone. Al elimination is primarily renal with < or = 2% excreted in bile. The contribution of food to absorbed Al needs to be determined to advance our understanding of the major components of Al toxicokinetics. PMID:11322172

  20. Aluminium in Allergies and Allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate. Exposure occurs due to environmental, dietary and intentional exposure to aluminium, such as in vaccines where it was introduced in 1926. In spite of the fact that it is a typical Th2 adjuvant, aluminium redirects the immune response in systemic allergen immunotherapy (SIT) upon prolonged immunization. SIT in the US, and SLIT in general, are at present non-adjuvanted therapies, but in Europe aluminium is used as adjuvant in most SIT preparations. It enhances the safety of SIT by local deposition of the allergen. Undesired properties of aluminium adjuvants comprise acute and chronic inflammation at the injection site, its Th2 immune stimulatory capacity, its accumulation besides biodistribution in the body. The adjuvant and safety profile of aluminium adjuvants in allergy vaccines are discussed, as well as the need for putting modern delivery systems and adjuvants on the fast track. PMID:25780491

  1. Structural perturbation of diphtheria toxoid upon adsorption to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Régnier, Marie; Metz, Bernard; Tilstra, Wichard; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Jiskoot, Wim; Norde, Willem; Kersten, Gideon

    2012-11-01

    Aluminium-containing adjuvants are often used to enhance the potency of vaccines. In the present work we studied whether adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to colloidal aluminium hydroxide induces conformational changes of the antigen. Diphtheria toxoid has a high affinity for the aluminium hydroxide particles based on a high adsorption degree, adsorption rate and adsorptive capacity. The conformation and stability of diphtheria toxoid in solution and adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant were characterized using five physicochemical techniques: intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Diphtheria toxoid adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide resulted in a minimal shift of the tryptophan fluorescence spectrum, whereas a large increase in the emission of the Bis-ANS probe was observed, indicating that hydrophobic sites of the protein became accessible due to adsorption. In addition, circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy revealed that adsorption to aluminium hydroxide caused an increase of β-sheet content and a decrease of α-helix content in diphtheria toxoid. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated a major decrease in the enthalpy of denaturation upon adsorption. In conclusion, the adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant leads to substantial conformational changes in the antigen. Since physicochemical methods can be used to monitor these conformational changes, these analytical methods might offer a tool in regulatory required vaccine quality control by demonstrating consistency in production. PMID:23000120

  2. Aluminium and injection site reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Culora, G A; Ramsay, A D; Theaker, J M

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To alert pathologists to the spectrum of histological appearances that may be seen in injection site reactions related to aluminium. METHODS: Four cases of injection site reaction were examined microscopically using routine staining with haematoxylin and eosin, electron microscopy and by electron probe microanalysis. RESULTS: As in previous reports, all four cases included collections of histiocytes which contained faint granular brownish refractile material within their cytoplasm; ultrastructural examination showed this to be aluminium. Two cases showed a prominent inflammatory reaction with numerous lymphoid follicles and a notable eosinophilic infiltrate. Two cases showed unusual features not described previously. In one, there was a sclerosing lipogranuloma-like reaction with unlined cystic spaces containing crystalline material. The other case presented as a large symptomatic subcutaneous swelling which microscopically showed diffuse and wide-spread involvement of the subcutis by a lymphoid infiltrate with prominent lymphoid follicles. CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights the changes encountered in aluminium injection site reactions and emphasises that the lesions have a wider range of histological appearances than described previously. Images PMID:8943754

  3. Interfacial morphology of low-voltage anodic aluminium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Naiping; Dongcinn, Xuecheng; He, Xueying; Argekar, Sandip; Zhang, Yan; Browning, Jim; Schaefer, Dale

    2013-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and neutron reflectivity (NR), as well as ultra-smallangle X-ray scattering (USAXS), are used to examine the in-plane and surfacenormal structure of anodic films formed on aluminium alloy AA2024 and pure aluminium. Aluminium and alloy films up to 3500 A thick were deposited on Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of ingots. Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) films are formed by polarizing at constant voltage up to 20 V noble to the open circuit potential. The voltage sweet spot (5 V) appropriate for constant-voltage anodization of such thin films was determined for both alloy and pure Al. In addition, a new concurrent voltage- and current-control protocol was developed to prepare films with larger pores (voltages higher than 5 V), but formed at a controlled current so that pore growth is slow enough to avoid stripping the aluminium substrate layer. USAXS shows that the pore size and interpore spacing are fixed in the first 10 s after initiation of anodization. Pores then grow linearly in time, at constant radius and interpore spacing. Using a combination of XRR and NR, the film density and degree of hydration of the films were determined from the ratio of scattering length densities. Assuming a chemical formula Al2O3xH2O, it was found that x varies from 0.29 for the native oxide to 1.29 for AAO grown at 20 V under concurrent voltage and current control. The average AAO film density of the porous film at the air surface is 2.45 (20) g cm3. The density of the barrier layer at the metal interface is 2.9 (4) g cm3, which indicates that this layer is also quite porous

  4. Analysis of compressive strength in flatwise and edgewise direction to characterize Al-7000 aluminium foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutarno, Soepriyanto, Syoni; Korda, Akhmad A.; Dirgantara, Tatacipta

    2015-09-01

    The physical mechanical properties of Al-7000 aluminium foam product and processing has been evaluated in this study. The characterization through the compressive testing refers to flatwise direction provided more confident result than edgewise direction. This experiment may correlate with formation of side products of calcia alumina and alumina silica that involved in metal mixture of aluminium foam. These compounds are formed from additional calcium carbonate and silica in the mixture. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) roles as a blowing agent source of carbon dioxide (CO2). The formation of calcia alumina (CaO.Al2O3) may role to strengthen of cell wall of aluminium foam and to improve the viscosity of melting metal. The Al-7000 aluminium foam indicated a decrease of compressive strength probably due to existence of alumina silica (3Al2O3.SiO2) in the metal mixture.

  5. Shear Strength of Single Lap Joint Aluminium-Thermoplastic Natural Rubber (Al-TPNR) Laminated Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzakkar, M. Z.; Ahmad, S.; Yarmo, M. A.; Jalar, A.; Bijarimi, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of surface treatment on the aluminium surface and a coupling agent to improve adhesion between aluminium with organic polymer. Thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) matrix was prepared by melt blending of natural rubber (NR), liquid natural rubber (LNR) compatibilizer, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The PEgMAH concentration used was varied from 0% - 25%. In addition, the aluminium surface was pre-treated with 3-glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane (3-GPS) to enhance the mechanical properties of laminated composite. It was found that the shear strength of single lap joint Al-TPNR laminated composite showing an increasing trend as a function of PE-g-MAH contents for the 3-GPS surface treated aluminium. Moreover, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the strength improvement was associated with the chemical state of the compound involved.

  6. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity. PMID:26610803

  7. MOCVD of aluminium oxide films using aluminium ?-diketonates as precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, A.; Shivashankar, S. A.; Samuelson, A. G.

    2002-06-01

    Deposition of Al203 coatings by CVD is of importance because they are often used as abrading material in cemented carbide cutting tools. The conventionally used CVD process for Al203 involves the corrosive reactant AICl3. In this paper, we report on the thermal characterisation of the metalorganic precursors namely aluminium tris-tetramethyl-heptanedionate [ Al(thd)3] and aluminium tris-acetylacetonate [ Al(acac)3] and their application to the CVD of Al203 films. Crystalline A1203 films were deposited by MOCVD at low temperatures by the pyrolysis of Al(thd)3 and AI(acac)3. The films were deposited on a TiN-coated tungsten carbide (TiN/WC) and Si(100) substrates in the temperature range 500-1100 °C. The as-deposited films were characterised by x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy. The observed crystallinity of films grown at low temperatures, their microstructure, and composition may be interpreted in terms of a growth process that involves the melting of the metalorganic precursor on the hot growth surface.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of carvedilol against aluminium induced toxicity: possible behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Atish; Dogra, Samrita

    2011-01-01

    Aluminium, is a trace element available in the Earth's crust naturally and has a toxic potential for humans. It has been suggested as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. ?-Adrenoceptor blocking agents (?-blockers) have been established as therapeutics for the treatment of patients with hypertension, ischemic heart diseases, chronic heart failure, arrhythmias and glaucoma. Over the years, however, ?-blockers have been associated with an incidence, albeit low, of central nervous system (CNS) side effects. In addition, noradrenergic receptors play a modulatory role in many nerve functions, including vigilance, attention, reward, learning and memory. Therefore, the present study has been designed to explore the possible role of carvedilol, an adrenergic antagonist against aluminium chloride-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Aluminium chloride (100 mg/kg) was administered daily for six weeks that significantly increased cognitive dysfunction in the Morris water maze and oxidative damage as indicated by a rise in lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentration and depleted reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activity compared to sham treatment. Chronic aluminium chloride treatment also significantly increased acetylcholinesterase activity and the aluminium concentration in brain compared to sham. Chronic administration of carvedilol (2.5 and 5 mg/kg, po) daily to rats for a period of 6 weeks significantly improved the memory performance tasks of rats in the Morris water maze test, attenuated oxidative stress (reduced lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and restored reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activity), decreased acetylcholinesterase activity and aluminium concentration in aluminium-treated rats compared to control rats (p < 0.05). Results of this study demonstrated the neuroprotective potential of carvedilol in aluminium chloride-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage. PMID:22001979

  9. Effects of aluminium on electrical and mechanical properties of frog atrial muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Meiri, H.; Shimoni, Y.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of aluminium on membrane ionic currents were studied in single cardiac myocytes. Most of the work was done on frog atrial cells, but some experiments were also carried out on single cells isolated from rabbit ventricles and atria. 2. The effects of aluminium on the force of contraction of frog atrial trabeculae were also investigated. 3. Aluminium was prepared from AlCl3 as a stock 0.5 M solution which has a pH of 3.5. Before each experiment, this solution was added to the control solution, to give a final concentration of 20-100 micrograms ml-1 aluminium (0.75-3.75 mM AlCl3). The solutions were brought to a pH of 7.4 or 7.6. at which they consist of a mixture of amorphous aluminium hydroxides and a very small amount of soluble ionic aluminium complexes: free aluminium cations (less than 10 pM), aluminohydroxide anions (less than 8 microM). The addition of this suspension reduced the peak inward calcium currents in single rabbit atrial and ventricular cells and in frog atrial cells. In the latter, the peak current was reduced (at + 10 mV) to 45% of control (mean of 9 cells). This effect was reversible upon washout, and was obtained at all membrane potentials, with no shift of the calcium current voltage relationship along the voltage axis. 4. Aluminium also reduced the time-dependent potassium current IK. This reduction was observed at all membrane potentials. For example, at + 10 mV, the mean reduction of IK (n = 9) was to 69% of the control amplitude. This effect, which was very difficult to reverse, was not due to IK rundown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2015425

  10. Aluminium in Biological Environments: A Computational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mujika, Jon I; Rezabal, Elixabete; Mercero, Jose M; Ruipérez, Fernando; Costa, Dominique; Ugalde, Jesus M; Lopez, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    The increased availability of aluminium in biological environments, due to human intervention in the last century, raises concerns on the effects that this so far “excluded from biology” metal might have on living organisms. Consequently, the bioinorganic chemistry of aluminium has emerged as a very active field of research. This review will focus on our contributions to this field, based on computational studies that can yield an understanding of the aluminum biochemistry at a molecular level. Aluminium can interact and be stabilized in biological environments by complexing with both low molecular mass chelants and high molecular mass peptides. The speciation of the metal is, nonetheless, dictated by the hydrolytic species dominant in each case and which vary according to the pH condition of the medium. In blood, citrate and serum transferrin are identified as the main low molecular mass and high molecular mass molecules interacting with aluminium. The complexation of aluminium to citrate and the subsequent changes exerted on the deprotonation pathways of its tritable groups will be discussed along with the mechanisms for the intake and release of aluminium in serum transferrin at two pH conditions, physiological neutral and endosomatic acidic. Aluminium can substitute other metals, in particular magnesium, in protein buried sites and trigger conformational disorder and alteration of the protonation states of the protein's sidechains. A detailed account of the interaction of aluminium with proteic sidechains will be given. Finally, it will be described how alumnium can exert oxidative stress by stabilizing superoxide radicals either as mononuclear aluminium or clustered in boehmite. The possibility of promotion of Fenton reaction, and production of hydroxyl radicals will also be discussed. PMID:24757505

  11. Investigation of the aluminium-aluminium oxide reversible transformation as observed by hot stage electron microscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, C. A.; Judd, G.; Ansell, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin foils of high purity aluminium and an Al-Al2O3 SAP type of alloy were oxidised in a specially designed hot stage specimen chamber in an electron microscope. Below 450 C, amorphous aluminium oxide formed on the foil surface and was first detectable at foil edges, holes, and pits. Islands of aluminium then nucleated in this amorphous oxide. The aluminium islands displayed either a lateral growth with eventual coalescence with other islands, or a reoxidation process which caused the islands to disappear. The aluminium island formation was determined to be related to the presence of the electron beam. A mechanism based upon electron charging due to the electron beam was proposed to explain the nucleation, growth, coalescence, disappearance, and geometry of the aluminium islands.

  12. Pulse electrodeposition of adherent nickel coatings onto anodized aluminium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantz, Cédric; Vichery, Charlotte; Zechner, Johannes; Frey, Damian; Bürki, Gerhard; Cebeci, Halil; Michler, Johann; Philippe, Laetitia

    2015-03-01

    Aluminium is one of the mostly used elements in the industry because of its abundance and low weight. However, the deposition of a metallic coating requires performing the so-called zincate pre-treatment in order to allow the formation of inter-metallic bonds and thereby achieving sufficient adherence. In this work, porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) is used as an anchoring intermediate layer for nickel coatings. AAO is grown anodically in sulfuric acid and nickel coatings are deposited by potentiostatic reverse pulse electrodeposition onto as-anodized aluminium surfaces. The electrodeposition of nickel is initiated onto the electrochemically thinned barrier layer of AAO and pursued until the complete covering of the oxide. The electrochemical behavior of Watts and sulfamate baths is investigated by cyclic voltammetry for different barrier layer thickness, allowing to validate the thinning conditions and to determine the appropriate deposition potential of nickel. GD-OES measurements show that low duty cycles are necessary to achieve high filling ratio of the AAO. SEM micrographs show that a smooth uniform coating is obtained when nickel is deposited in presence of additives.

  13. The removal of iron from molten aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Donk, H.M. van der; Nijhof, G.H.; Castelijns, C.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    In this work an overview is given about the techniques available for the removal of metallic impurities from molten aluminium. The overview is focused on the removal of iron. Also, some experimental results are given about the creation of iron-rich intermetallic compounds in an aluminium system, which are subsequently removed by gravity segregation and filtration techniques. This work is part of an ongoing research project of three major European aluminium companies who are co-operating on the subject of recycling of aluminium packaging materials recovered from household waste by means of Eddy-Current techniques. Using this technique the pick-up of some contaminating metals, particularly iron, is almost unavoidable.

  14. Novel method for joining CFRP to aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, F.; Thomy, C.; Vollertsen, F.; Schiebel, P.; Hoffmeister, C.; Herrmann, A. S.

    The current state of the art in joining of carbon-fibre reinforced composites (CFRP) to metals such as aluminium is - for the case of aircraft structures, e.g.- riveting or bolting. However, to reduce structural weight and improve structural performance, integral, load-bearing aluminium-CFRP-structures are desirable. To produce such structures, a novel joint configuration together with an appropriate thermal, laser-based joining process is suggested by the authors. In this paper, the joint configuration (based on CFRP-Ti-aluminium joints) and the laser beam conduction welding process will be presented, and first specimens obtained will be discussed with respect to their properties. It will be shown that the novel approach is in principle suitable to produce load-bearing CFRP-aluminium structures.

  15. Aluminium content of soft drinks from aluminium cans.

    PubMed

    Seruga, M; Grgi?, J; Mandi?, M

    1994-04-01

    The aluminium (Al) content of soft drinks from Al cans has been measured during 12 months of storage, by the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) method. The results show that the Al content in all soft drinks increased during the whole storage time. This increase was a result of dissolution of Al from the can wall due to the presence of aggressive ingredients in the soft drinks, mainly acids. The Al content rose with increasing acid concentration and decreasing pH value of the soft drinks. The evaluated possible daily intake of Al (0.8 mg) through consumption of these drinks was practically negligible in relation to total daily dietary Al intake, as well as to tolerable daily intake. Thus, soft drinks from Al cans are an insignificant source of dietary Al intake and it appears that the Al intake from this source should not be a cause for concern in regard to Al toxicity for the human body. PMID:8197828

  16. A preliminary study of the dermal absorption of aluminium from antiperspirants using aluminium-26.

    PubMed

    Flarend, R; Bin, T; Elmore, D; Hem, S L

    2001-02-01

    Aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH), the active ingredient in many antiperspirants, was labeled with the radioisotope 26Al. The labeled ACH was then fractionated into about 100 samples using gel filtration chromatography. Each fraction was analyzed for 26Al and total aluminium content. Aluminium-26 was only detected in the fractions that also contained aluminium, which verified that the ACH was uniformly labeled. 84 mg of the labeled ACH was then applied to a single underarm of two adult subjects with blood and urine samples being collected over 7 weeks. Tape-stripping and mild washings of the skin were also collected for the first 6 days. Results indicate that only 0.012% of the applied aluminium was absorbed through the skin. At this rate, about 4 microg of aluminium is absorbed from a single use of ACH on both underarms. This is about 2.5% of the aluminium typically absorbed by the gut from food over the same time period. Therefore, a one-time use of ACH applied to the skin is not a significant contribution to the body burden of aluminium. PMID:11267710

  17. Dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products of residents in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junfei; Peng, Shaojie; Tian, Mingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Bo; Wu, Min; He, Gengsheng

    2015-12-01

    A dietary survey of 3431 residents was conducted by a 24-h dietary recall method in Shanghai, China, quarterly from September 2013 to September 2014. A total of 400 food samples were tested for aluminium concentration, including wheat flour and puffed products from 2011 to 2013. Probabilistic analysis was used to estimate the dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat and puffed products. The means of dietary aluminium exposure for children (2-6 years old), juveniles (7-17 years old), adults (18-65 years old) and seniors (over 65 years old) were 1.88, 0.94, 0.44 and 0.42 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) respectively, with a population average of 0.51 mg kg(-1) bw week(-1). The proportions of those who had aluminium exposure from wheat and puffed products lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) were 77%, 90%, 97%, and 97% respectively from children to seniors. We estimated that the proportions of people at risk would decrease by 13%, 6%, 2% and 2% respectively under the new China National Standards - GB 2760-2014 National Food Safety for Standards for using food additives. The results indicated that aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products is unlikely to cause adverse health effects in the general population in Shanghai; however, children were at a higher risk of excess aluminium exposure. Significant improvements in reducing the dietary exposure to aluminium are expected in the population, especially for children after the implementation of GB 2760-2014. PMID:26414493

  18. Self Healing in Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumley, Roger

    Self healing is a key property of biological materials, examples being the autonomous repair of fractured bones or torn skin tissue, as is discussed in other chapters of this book. More than a century ago, principles were developed defining the reconstitution of fractured bone in vivo which stated that, in essence, material dissolved from where it was not required was redeposited to where it was required as a response to mechanical stimuli and damage. As far as metals and other inanimate materials are concerned, it is well known that damage to oxide films, which normally protect the surfaces of metals such as aluminium (Al) and titanium (Ti) from corrosion, can be repaired by reoxidation in air, which can be seen as a form of self-repair. Now attention is being directed to processes that may possibly heal defects, such as cracks, which can develop in the interior of materials during manufacture, or when they are in service. Such self healing processes may then allow failures to be averted and the useful lives of components and structures to be extended.

  19. Aluminium in parenteral nutrition: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sánchez, A; Tejada-González, P; Arteta-Jiménez, M

    2013-03-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity problem in parenteral nutrition solutions (PNS) is decades old and is still unresolved. The aim of this review is to gather updated information about this matter, regarding legislation, manifestations, diagnostics and treatment, patient population at risk and the actions to be taken to limit its accumulation. A structured search using MeSH vocabulary and Title/Abstract searches was conducted in PubMed (http://www.pubmed.gov) up to November 2012. Al is ubiquitous, facilitating its potential for exposure. Nevertheless, humans have several mechanisms to prevent significant absorption and to aid its elimination; therefore, the vast majority of the population is not at risk for Al toxicity. However, when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed (for example, parenteral fluids), renal function is impaired (for example, adult patients with renal compromise and neonates) or exposure is high (for example, long-term PNS), Al is prone to accumulate in the body, including manifestations such as impaired neurological development, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic bone disease, dyslipemia and even genotoxic activity. A high Al content in PNS is largely the result of three parenteral nutrient additives: calcium gluconate, inorganic phosphates and cysteine hydrochloride. Despite the legislative efforts, some factors make difficult to comply with the rule and, therefore, to limit the Al toxicity. Unfortunately, manufacturers have not universally changed their processes to obtain a lower Al content of parenteral drug products (PDP). In addition, the imprecise information provided by PDP labels and the high lot-to-lot variation make the prediction of Al content rather inaccurate. PMID:23403874

  20. Microstructure and superplasticity in a stir-cast SiCp/2024 aluminium composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Zheng; Zhang Baoliang; Wang Yanwen )

    1994-06-01

    Aluminium matrix composites reinforced with ceramic whiskers or particles have a high specific strength and modulus in addition to good wear resistance and heat resistance. They have shown considerable promise in structural applications, but one of the main drawbacks of the composite is the ductility, which leads to the poor formability, and thus limits their applications. Superplastic forming is a viable technique that is used to solve this problem. A number of aluminium base composites can exhibit superplasticity. Until now, almost all of the composites in superplastic studies were prepared by the powder metallurgy (PM) method. This method causes the composites to have very fine grains (about 1 [mu]m) and fewer microstructural defects; as a result, they exhibited high strain rate superplasticity. Studies on the superplasticity in ingot metallurgy (IM) aluminium matrix composites are rare, but are equally important. Because IM is a low cost method of preparing aluminium matrix composites, it will play an increasingly more important role in the future applications of the composites. In this work the authors investigated the microstructure and superplasticity of a IM 2024 aluminium matrix composite, reinforced with silicon carbide particles (SiCp/2024). They thermomechanically treated the composite by hot forging and extrusion, obtained a superplastic elongation of 685% at an initial strain rate of 5 [times] 10[sup [minus]4]s[sup [minus]1], with a 788K temperature. They also observed and analyzed the microstructure of this composite.

  1. Molecular dynamics study on the failure modes of aluminium under decaying shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jian-Li; Wang, Pei; He, An-Min; Duan, Su-Qing; Qin, Cheng-Sen

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the failure modes of single crystal aluminium under decaying shock loading by using molecular dynamics simulations. The microstructure evolution during the failure is presented in terms of the central symmetry parameter, and the corresponding pressure and temperature profiles are calculated and discussed. These results explain the failure morphology and mechanical properties under dynamic tension and especially the difference between solid and melted states. In addition, the fracture strength of aluminium is analyzed from surface velocity within acoustic approximation and virial theorem.

  2. Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives as inhibitors of the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Fouda, A S; Gouda, M M; El-Rahman, S I

    2000-05-01

    The effect of benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid has been investigated using thermometric and polarization techniques. The inhibitive efficiency ranking of these compounds from both techniques was found to be: 2>3>1>4. The inhibitors acted as mixed-type inhibitors but the cathode is more polarized. The relative inhibitive efficiency of these compounds has been explained on the basis of structure of the inhibitors and their mode of interaction at the surface. Results show that these additives are adsorbed on an aluminium surface according to the Langmuir isotherm. Polarization measurements indicated that the rate of corrosion of aluminium rapidly increases with temperature over the range 30-55 degrees C both in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors. Some thermodynamic data of the adsorption process are calculated and discussed. PMID:10823698

  3. Oxidation-assisted ductility of aluminium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sen, Fatih G; Alpas, Ahmet T; van Duin, Adri C T; Qi, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation can drastically change mechanical properties of nanostructures that typically have large surface-to-volume ratios. However, the underlying mechanisms describing the effect oxidation has on the mechanical properties of nanostructures have yet to be characterized. Here we use reactive molecular dynamics and show that the oxidation enhances the aluminium nanowire ductility, and the oxide shell exhibits superplastic behaviour. The oxide shell decreases the aluminium dislocation nucleation stress by increasing the activation volume and the number of nucleation sites. Superplasticity of the amorphous oxide shell is due to viscous flow as a result of healing of the broken aluminium-oxygen bonds by oxygen diffusion, below a critical strain rate. The interplay between the strain rate and oxidation rate is not only essential for designing nanodevices in ambient environments, but also controls interface properties in large-scale deformation processes. PMID:24887649

  4. Oxidation-assisted ductility of aluminium nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Fatih G.; Alpas, Ahmet T.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Qi, Yue

    2014-06-01

    Oxidation can drastically change mechanical properties of nanostructures that typically have large surface-to-volume ratios. However, the underlying mechanisms describing the effect oxidation has on the mechanical properties of nanostructures have yet to be characterized. Here we use reactive molecular dynamics and show that the oxidation enhances the aluminium nanowire ductility, and the oxide shell exhibits superplastic behaviour. The oxide shell decreases the aluminium dislocation nucleation stress by increasing the activation volume and the number of nucleation sites. Superplasticity of the amorphous oxide shell is due to viscous flow as a result of healing of the broken aluminium-oxygen bonds by oxygen diffusion, below a critical strain rate. The interplay between the strain rate and oxidation rate is not only essential for designing nanodevices in ambient environments, but also controls interface properties in large-scale deformation processes.

  5. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with zinc sulphate and/or vitamin E alleviated these toxic effects. In some cases, vitamin E exerted a more potent effect, while in other cases, the more potent effect is related to zinc sulphate and the combination of both at most of the recorded data. PMID:23282999

  6. Diamond grooving of rapidly solidified optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Ghobashy, Sameh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Mkoko, Zwelinzima

    2015-10-01

    Traditional optical aluminium grades such as Al 6061 are intensively used for making optical components for applications ranging from mould insert fabrication to laser machine making. However, because of their irregular microstructure and relative inhomogeneity of material properties at micro scale, traditional optical aluminium may exhibit some difficulties when ultra-high precision diamond turned. Inhomogeneity and micro-variation in the material properties combined with uneven and coarse microstructure may cause unacceptable surface finish and accelerated tool wear, especially in grooving operation when the diamond tool edge is fully immersed in the material surface. Recently, new grades of optical aluminium that are featured by their ultra-fine microstructure and improved material properties have been developed to overcome the problem of high tool wear rates. The new aluminium grades have been developed using rapid solidification process which results in extremely small grain sizes combined with improved mechanical properties. The current study is concerned with investigating the performance of single-point diamond turning when grooving two grades of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades: RSA905 which is a high-alloyed aluminium grade and RSA443 which has a high silicon content. In this study, two series of experiments employed to create radial microgrooves on the two RSA grades. The surface roughness obtained on the groove surface is measured when different combinations of cutting parameters are used. Cutting speed is varied while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant. The results show that groove surface roughness produced on RSA443 is higher than that obtained on RSA905. Also, the paper reports on the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness for each RSA grade.

  7. Aluminium Sheet Metal Forming at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, R.; Heine, B.; Grant, R. J.; Zouaoui, Z.

    2015-02-01

    Low-temperature forming technology offers a new potential for forming operations of aluminium wrought alloys which show a limited formability at ambient temperatures. This paper indicates the mechanical behaviour of the commercial aluminium alloys EN AW-5182 and EN AW-6016 at low temperatures. Stress-strain relationships at different temperatures were investigated through tensile testing experiments. Flow curves were extrapolated using an adapted mathematical constitutive relationship of flow stress and strain. A device which allows cupping tests at sub-zero temperatures was specially designed and a limiting dome height was determined.

  8. Corrosion behavior of aluminium composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Deuis, R.L.; Green, L.; Subramanian, C.; Yellup, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of metal-matrix composite (MMC) coatings (3 mm to 5 mm [0.12 in. to 0.2 in.] thick) fabricated by the plasma-transferred arc (PTA) surfacing process was investigated by potentiostatic and immersion techniques. The test electrolyte was a 3.5 wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Composites were reinforced with angular particles of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), silicon carbide (SiC), or titanium carbide (TiC) of varying volume fractions (V{sub f} {approx} 2.5% to 40%) and of two sizes (70 {micro}m and 140 {micro}m). The matrix was predominantly aluminium with 2 wt% Ni, which was added to enhance the matrix`s wear resistance. The reinforcement type significantly influenced corrosion behavior of the MMC coatings. The immersion study showed the corrosion rate increased in the following order of reinforcement addition: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} < SiC < TiC. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles appeared to play no role in the corrosion process, whereas SiC and TiC particles participated actively. Reinforcement surface area appeared to be a significant parameter influencing the corrosion mechanism of the SiC- and TiC-reinforced composites. An increase in V{sub f} generally resulted in a higher corrosion rate for the SiC- and TiC-reinforced composites. Coating porosity, electrical conductivity of the reinforcement, and the presence of nickel aluminide (NiAl{sub 3}, formed during the surfacing process) all influenced corrosion behavior.

  9. Aluminium, carbonyls and cytokines in human nipple aspirate fluids: Possible relationship between inflammation, oxidative stress and breast cancer microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Mannello, F; Ligi, D; Canale, M

    2013-11-01

    The human breast is likely exposed to Al (aluminium) from many sources including diet and personal care products. Underarm applications of aluminium salt-based antiperspirant provide a possible long-term source of exposure, especially after underarm applications to shaved and abraded skin. Al research in breast fluids likely reflects the intraductal microenvironment. We found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids (NAF) from 19 breast cancer patients compared with 16 healthy control subjects (268 vs 131 μg/l, respectively; p < 0.0001). In the same NAF samples we found significantly increased levels of protein oxidative carbonyls in cancer patients compared to healthy women (2.35 vs 0.41 nmol/mg prot, respectively; p < 0.0001). Aluminium content and carbonyl levels showed a significant positive linear correlation (r(2) 0.6628, p < 0.0001). In cancer NAF samples (containing higher amounts of aluminium salts) we also found a significantly increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNF-α) and chemoattractant CC and CXC chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1α and MCP-1). In 12 invasive cancer NAF samples we found a significant positive linear correlation among aluminium, carbonyls and pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine (Y = 64.79x-39.63, r(2) 0.8192, p < 0.0005), as well as pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant MCP-1 cytokine (Y = 2026x-866, r(2) 0.9495, p < 0.0001). In addition to emerging evidence, our results support the possible involvement of aluminium ions in oxidative and inflammatory status perturbations of breast cancer microenvironment, suggesting aluminium accumulation in breast microenvironment as a possible risk factor for oxidative/inflammatory phenotype of breast cells. PMID:23916117

  10. High strain rate superplasticity of AlN particulate reinforced aluminium alloy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, T. ); L'Esperance, G.; Hong, B.D. )

    1994-08-01

    Ceramic whisker or particulate reinforced aluminium alloy composites have a great potential for automobile engineering components, aerospace structures, semi-conductor packaging and so on, because of the composites ability to exhibit a high specific elastic modulus and specific tensile strength, excellent wear resistance and heat resistance, low thermal expansion and good dimensional stability. A serious problem involving practical application of ceramic whisker or particulate reinforced aluminium alloy composites is due to the low tensile ductility, fracture toughness at room temperature and, also, their hardness qualities that make it difficult to deform by conventional forming processing and machining by ordinary tools. It has been found, however, that aluminium alloy composites reinforced by SiC or Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] whiskers or particulates produce superplasticity at a high strain rate of about 0.1s[sup [minus]1]. Superplastic deformation mechanisms of the ceramic whisker or particulate reinforced aluminium alloy composites are fine grain boundary sliding, interfacial sliding at a liquid phase and dynamic recrystallization. An AlN particulate reinforced aluminium alloy composite exhibits a high elastic modulus and a high thermal conductivity, and their thermal expansion is similar to silicon in that the AlN particulate reinforced aluminum alloy composite is expected to apply to semi-conductor packaging in the aerospace structure. In addition, if the composite could produce superplasticity at high strain rates, the market of aerospace application for superplastic composites could be expanded. The purpose of this study is to make clear if an AlN particulate reinforced aluminium alloy composite can produce superplasticity at high strain rate and the superplastic characteristics.

  11. Al-Co-Fe (Aluminium - Cobalt - Iron)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materials Science International Team MSIT®

    This document is part of Subvolume A1 'Light Metal Systems. Part 1: Selected Systems from Ag-Al-Cu to Al-Cu-Er' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV Physical Chemistry. It provides the data for the ternary system Al-Co-Fe (Aluminium - Cobalt - Iron).

  12. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaopeng; Miao, Yinggang; Liu, Shuangyan; Li, Yulong; Lu, Guoxing

    2015-09-01

    The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ˜ 30 m/s) was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ˜10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ˜10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  13. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g-1 (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg-1), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  14. Characterization of stable aluminium-citrate species as reference substances for aluminium speciation by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Happel, Oliver; Seubert, Andreas

    2006-03-01

    Well-defined anionic aluminium-citrate species are accessible from crystalline aluminium complexes. The solution chemistry of those species can be investigated using ion chromatography as a powerful tool for aluminium speciation in aqueous samples. The separation of three anionic aluminium-citrate complexes by anion exchange chromatography is possible within 5 min using isocratic conditions. The element specific detection was done by online coupled ICP-AES. The remaining charge of the complexes after dissolution can be determined by ion chromatography using a retention model. Time-dependent monitoring of the species distribution gave information about the species stabilities and the decomposition pathways. With citric acid as an aluminium chelator partially very stable anionic species are observed. These complexes are important components in biological systems. An example for the practical use of the separation method and the well-defined standards is given for plant sap, which showed two species with similar behavior compared to the investigated stable aluminium-citrate complexes. PMID:16448659

  15. Electrogeneration of aluminium to remove silica in water.

    PubMed

    Gelover-Santiago, S L; Pérez-Castrejón, S; Martín-Domínguez, A; Villegas-Mendoza, I E

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on electrogeneration of aluminium, as a coagulant to remove silica in make-up water for cooling towers. Three electrochemical systems were tested, two with aluminium electrodes (one with polarity change and another without it), and a third one with aluminium anodes and cathodes of stainless steel. From the obtained results it was concluded that under the studied conditions, the most advantageous system to produce aluminium and remove silica is the one with both electrodes of aluminium working with direct current. Due to chemical production of aluminium at the cathode, the concentration of aluminium in the water at the outlet of the electrochemical reactor is much higher than the one calculated according to Faraday's law. Under the tested conditions it was possible to remove up to 66% of silica from water containing around 50 mg L(-1). PMID:22258672

  16. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as <0.025μm filtered, <0.45μm filtered (dissolved) and unfiltered (total) present in solution over the 72-h bioassay. The chronic population growth rate inhibition after aluminium exposure varied between diatom species. C. closterium was the most sensitive species (10% inhibition of growth rate (72-h IC10) of 80 (55-100)μg Al/L (95% confidence limits)) while M. polymorphus (540 (460-600)μg Al/L) and P. tricornutum (2100 (2000-2200)μg Al/L) were less sensitive (based on measured total aluminium). Dissolved aluminium was the primary contributor to toxicity in C. closterium, while a combination of dissolved and precipitated aluminium forms contributed to toxicity in M. polymorphus. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the most tolerant diatom P. tricornutum was due predominantly to precipitated aluminium. Preliminary investigations revealed the sensitivity of C. closterium and M. polymorphus to aluminium was influenced by initial cell density with aluminium toxicity significantly (p<0.05) increasing with initial cell density from 10(3) to 10(5)cells/mL. No effects on plasma membrane permeability were observed for any of the three diatoms suggesting that mechanisms of aluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated aluminium. PMID:26921729

  17. Performance of commercial aluminium alloys as anodes in gelled electrolyte aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of commercial aluminium alloys, namely, Al2024, Al7475 and Al1085, for Al-air batteries is performed. Pure Al cladded Al2024 and Al7475 are also evaluated. Current rates from 0.8 mA cm-2 to 8.6 mA cm-2 are measured in a gel Al-air cell composed of the commercial alloy sample, a commercial air-cathode and an easily synthesizable gelled alkaline electrolyte. The influence of the alloying elements and the addition to the electrolyte of ZnO and ZnCl2, as corrosion inhibitors is studied and analysed via EDX/SEM. Specific capacities of up to 426 mAh/g are obtained with notably flat potential discharges of 1.3-1.4 V. The competition between self-corrosion and oxidation reactions is also discussed, as well as the influence of the current applied on that process. Al7475 is determined to have the best behaviour as anode in Al-air primary batteries, and cladding process is found to be an extra protection against corrosion at low current discharges. Conversely, Al1085 provided worse results because of an unfavourable metallic composition.

  18. Alkali-Activated Aluminium-Silicate Composites as Insulation Materials for Industrial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembovska, L.; Bajare, D.; Pundiene, I.; Bumanis, G.

    2015-11-01

    The article reports on the study of thermal stability of alkali-activated aluminium- silicate composites (ASC) at temperature 800-1100°C. ASC were prepared by using calcined kaolinite clay, aluminium scrap recycling waste, lead-silicate glass waste and quartz sand. As alkali activator, commercial sodium silicate solution modified with an addition of sodium hydroxide was used. The obtained alkali activation solution had silica modulus Ms=1.67. Components of aluminium scrap recycling waste (aluminium nitride (AlN) and iron sulphite (FeSO3)) react in the alkali media and create gases - ammonia and sulphur dioxide, which provide the porous structure of the material [1]. Changes in the chemical composition of ASC during heating were identified and quantitatively analysed by using DTA/TG, dimension changes during the heating process were determined by using HTOM, pore microstructure was examined by SEM, and mineralogical composition of ASC was determined by XRD. The density of ASC was measured in accordance with EN 1097-7. ASC with density around 560 kg/m3 and heat resistance up to 1100°C with shrinkage less than 5% were obtained. The intended use of this material is the application as an insulation material for industrial purposes at elevated temperatures.

  19. Crucial role for the Nalp3 inflammasome in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminium adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Stephanie C.; Colegio, Oscar R.; O’Connor, William; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium adjuvants, typically referred to as ‘alum’, are the most commonly used adjuvants in human and animal vaccines worldwide, yet the mechanism underlying the stimulation of the immune system by alum remains unknown. Toll-like receptors are critical in sensing infections and are therefore common targets of various adjuvants used in immunological studies. Although alum is known to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that alum does not require intact Toll-like receptor signalling to activate the immune system1,2. Here we show that aluminium adjuvants activate an intracellular innate immune response system called the Nalp3 (also known as cryopyrin, CIAS1 or NLRP3) inflammasome. Production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 by macrophages in response to alum in vitro required intact inflammasome signalling. Furthermore, in vivo, mice deficient in Nalp3, ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain) or caspase-1 failed to mount a significant antibody response to an antigen administered with aluminium adjuvants, whereas the response to complete Freund’s adjuvant remained intact. We identify the Nalp3 inflammasome as a crucial element in the adjuvant effect of aluminium adjuvants; in addition, we show that the innate inflammasome pathway can direct a humoral adaptive immune response. This is likely to affect how we design effective, but safe, adjuvants in the future. PMID:18496530

  20. Visual detection and sequential injection determination of aluminium using a cinnamoyl derivative.

    PubMed

    Elečková, Lenka; Alexovič, Michal; Kuchár, Juraj; Balogh, Ioseph S; Andruch, Vasil

    2015-02-01

    A cinnamoyl derivative, 3-[4-(dimethylamino)cinnamoyl]-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3,4-2H-pyran-2-one, was used as a ligand for the determination of aluminium. Upon the addition of an acetonitrile solution of the ligand to an aqueous solution containing Al(III) and a buffer solution at pH 8, a marked change in colour from yellow to orange is observed. The colour intensity is proportional to the concentration of Al(III); thus, the 'naked-eye' detection of aluminium is possible. The reaction is also applied for sequential injection determination of aluminium. Beer׳s law is obeyed in the range from 0.055 to 0.66 mg L(-1) of Al(III). The limit of detection, calculated as three times the standard deviation of the blank test (n=10), was found to be 4 μg L(-1) for Al(III). The method was applied for the determination of aluminium in spiked water samples and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25435222

  1. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-16

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts; ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g(-1) and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g(-1) (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg(-1)), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay. PMID:25849777

  2. CVV Auger line shapes in aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, V.; Presilla, C.; Sacchetti, F.

    1989-05-01

    Aluminium L 23 VV and KVV Auger spectra are compared for the first time. In spite of the differences in kinetic energy of the escaping electrons and of the core-holes, the two spectra look very similar suggesting that surface effects do not contribute much to the Auger transition. Moreover in both spectra it is visible a high energy structure which is interpreted as an intrinsic plasmon-grain satellite due to the core-hole relaxation.

  3. Aluminium phosphide poisoning: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Rahman, Arshalooz

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. PMID:22455303

  4. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  5. What is the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin?

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium is neurotoxic. Its free ion, Al(3+) (aq), is highly biologically reactive and uniquely equipped to do damage to essential cellular (neuronal) biochemistry. This unequivocal fact must be the starting point in examining the risk posed by aluminium as a neurotoxin in humans. Aluminium is present in the human brain and it accumulates with age. The most recent research demonstrates that a significant proportion of individuals older than 70 years of age have a potentially pathological accumulation of aluminium somewhere in their brain. What are the symptoms of chronic aluminium intoxication in humans? What if neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are the manifestation of the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin? How might such an (outrageous) hypothesis be tested? PMID:24779346

  6. Inhalation exposure in secondary aluminium smelting.

    PubMed

    Healy, J; Bradley, S D; Northage, C; Scobbie, E

    2001-04-01

    Inhalation exposure at seven UK secondary aluminium smelters was investigated to quantify the main exposures and identify their sources. The substances monitored were gases (carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen dioxide), total inhalable dust, metals, ammonia, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particulate fluoride salts and acids. The results showed that people were exposed to a range of workplace air pollutants. Personal exposure results for total inhalable dust were between 700 and 5600 microg x m(-3) and the maximum personal exposure result for particulate fluoride salts was 690 microg x m(-3) (as F). The maximum aluminium, total PAH and lead personal exposure results were 900, 19 and 18 microg x m(-3) respectively. The average proportion of aluminium in total inhalable dust samples was 13% and rotary furnace processes generated the most dust. Particulate fluoride salt exposure was more widespread than hydrofluoric acid exposure. The source of the salt exposure was fluoride containing fluxes. The lead exposure source was lead solder contamination in the furnace charge. PMID:11295145

  7. Improving the Crashworthiness of Aluminium Rail Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangani, Donato; Robinson, Mark; Kotsikos, George

    An experimental and modelling programme of work have been undertaken to predict the performance of aluminium welds in rail vehicles under highly dynamic loading conditions and provide design guidelines to reduce the likelihood of the occurrence of weld unzipping. Modelling of weld unzipping in large rail structures is a challenging task since it requires to deal with material instability, to take into account the uncertainties in material parameters and to address the problem of mesh resolution which together pose severe challenges to computability. The proposed methodology to the prediction of weld failure is based on the validation of the numerical models through correlation with laboratory scale tearing tests. The tearing tests were conducted on samples taken from real rail extrusions with the purpose of obtaining the failure parameters under dynamic loading and understanding the effect of weld material composition on joint behaviour. The validated material models were used to construct a FEA simulation of the collision of an aluminium rail car and investigate the effect of both joint geometry and welding techniques on the failure mechanism. Comparisons of the model with the failures observed in an aluminium rail vehicle that was involved in a high speed collision, have shown that it is possible to model the phenomenon of weld unzipping with good accuracy. The numerical models have also been used as a tool for the optimisation of joint design to improve crashworthiness.

  8. Laser-induced forward transfer of aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, V.; Wagner, M.

    1991-12-01

    The laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of aluminium is experimentally investigated for aluminium target thickness up to some ?m. The aluminium is transferred to glazed ceramics and to silicon substrates with and without oxidized surface, respectively. Two types of laser beam sources are used: a Nd:YAG laser with a Gaussian beam profile and a Nd:glass laser system providing a homogenized flat top profile. The resulting deposition is determined by the removal mode of the Al from the target and by the interaction of the molten Al with the substrate. In a first removal mode (low laser intensities and/or thin targets) where melting through of the target precedes the onset of vaporization at the target front side the material can easily be transferred to the substrate. In a second mode (high laser intensities and/or thick targets) the blow-off process is characterized by higher vapor pressures which leads to disturbed deposits. The interaction of impacting material with the substrate causes the formation of droplets on oxidized surfaces due to the high surface tension of liquid metals.

  9. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Methods Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30%?w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Results Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 ?g/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 ?g/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 ?g per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 ?g per day. Conclusions All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium. PMID:24103160

  10. Improvement of photodynamic activity of aluminium sulphophthalocyanine due to biotinylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, Irina G.; Jerdeva, Victoria V.; Derkacheva, Valentina M.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.; Kogan, Eugenia A.; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2003-09-01

    The photodynamic activity of dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine in vitro and in vivo were studied. It was obtained that in vitro dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine provides the effective damage of small cell lung carcinoma OAT-75. In vivo dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine causes destruction of tumor (Erlich carcinoma), results in total necrosis of tumor tissue and expresses vascular damage (trombosis and destruction of vascular walls) even in concentration 0.25 mg/kg of a body weight.

  11. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, M.; Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L.; Afshari, A.

    2014-03-01

    Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface roughness was also observed.

  12. High strain rate testing of aluminium alloy & high speed photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, M.; Froustey, C.; Charles, J. L.; Lataillade, J. L.

    2003-09-01

    In order to gain in safety, it is necessary to study material responses in severe conditions, for instance under dynamic loadings, especially in the case of light alloys used in car, nautical and aeronautical industries. The initiated study concerns fatigue-impact coupling effects on a commercial aluminium alloy (AA5454) used in car industry. Through a part of this investigation, by modificating the pre-existent flywheel, we try to characterize its dynamic strain and failure properties. The first modification is the changing of the specimen holding device, using a new measurement technique, inspired by the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. This allows us to obtain data directly exploitable for the derivation of the intrinsie material behaviour, avoiding then a numerical post treatment. Furthermore, we present the multi-CCD camera system that we set up in addition to the flywheel apparatus. This photographie device is associated to this equipment in order to visualize localisation of plastic strain and subsequent failure phenomenon.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  14. Positron Lifetime Measurements of Subsurface Region in Aluminium Alloy and Aluminium Alloy Composite after Dry Sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dryzek, E.

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents positron lifetime studies of the subsurface region of AK12 aluminium alloy and Al2O3-particle-reinforced AK12 aluminium alloy composite after sliding against steel in the pin-on-disc machine. The defect depth profile detected in the AK12 alloy extended up to 300?m but for the composite AK12 the range of this profile was significantly shortened to less than˜90?m. The positron lifetime dependence on depth evidences a steep gradient of defect concentration near the surface. The subsurface zones have been also examined using scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Aluminium oxide nanowires synthesis from high purity aluminium films via two-step anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, Azadeh; Najafian, Ahmad; Seyed Sadjadi, Seyed Abolfazl

    2015-05-01

    Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates were prepared via two-step anodization by using high purity aluminium films. After second anodization, AAO templates were treated under pore-widening process, by being immersed in 5 wt% phosphoric acid. In this study, effect of pore-widening time on structure and pore diameters of AAO templates were investigated and controlling the pore-widening time, alumina nanowires were fabricated. Different techniques, such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDS) were employed to study the structure of AAO templates and alumina nanowires.

  16. Alteration of aluminium inhibition of synaptosomal (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase by colestipol administration.

    PubMed

    Silva, V S; Oliveira, L; Gonçalves, P P

    2013-11-01

    The ability of aluminium to inhibit the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity has been observed by several authors. During chronic dietary exposure to AlCl3, brain (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity drops, even if no alterations of catalytic subunit protein expression and of energy charge potential are observed. The aluminium effect on (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity seems to implicate the reduction of interacting protomers within the oligomeric ensemble of the membrane-bound (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase. The activity of (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase is altered by the microviscosity of lipid environment. We studied if aluminium inhibitory effect on (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase is modified by alterations in synaptosomal membrane cholesterol content. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to chronic dietary AlCl3 exposure (0.03 g/day of AlCl3) and/or to colestipol, a hypolidaemic drug (0.31 g/day) during 4 months. The activity of (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase was studied in brain cortex synaptosomes with different cholesterol contents. Additionally, we incubate synaptosomes with methyl-?-cyclodextrin for both enrichment and depletion of membrane cholesterol content, with or without 300 ?M AlCl3. This enzyme activity was significantly reduced by micromolar AlCl3 added in vitro and when aluminium was orally administered to rats. The oral administration of colestipol reduced the cholesterol content and concomitantly inhibited the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase. The aluminium inhibitory effect on synaptosomal (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase was reduced by cholesterol depletion both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23829947

  17. Prevalence of beryllium sensitization among aluminium smelter workers

    PubMed Central

    Slade, M. D.; Cantley, L. F.; Kirsche, S. R.; Wesdock, J. C.; Cullen, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Beryllium exposure occurs in aluminium smelters from natural contamination of bauxite, the principal source of aluminium. Aims To characterize beryllium exposure in aluminium smelters and determine the prevalence rate of beryllium sensitization (BeS) among aluminium smelter workers. Methods A population of 3185 workers from nine aluminium smelters owned by four different aluminium-producing companies were determined to have significant beryllium exposure. Of these, 1932 workers participated in medical surveillance programmes that included the serum beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), confirmation of sensitization by at least two abnormal BeLPT test results and further evaluation for chronic beryllium disease in workers with BeS. Results Personal beryllium samples obtained from the nine aluminium smelters showed a range of <0.01–13.00 ?g/m3 time-weighted average with an arithmetic mean of 0.25 ?g/m3 and geometric mean of 0.06 ?g/m3. Nine workers were diagnosed with BeS (prevalence rate of 0.47%, 95% confidence interval = 0.21–0.88%). Conclusions BeS can occur in aluminium smelter workers through natural beryllium contamination of the bauxite and further concentration during the refining and smelting processes. Exposure levels to beryllium observed in aluminium smelters are similar to those seen in other industries that utilize beryllium. However, compared with beryllium-exposed workers in other industries, the rate of BeS among aluminium smelter workers appears lower. This lower observed rate may be related to a more soluble form of beryllium found in the aluminium smelting work environment as well as the consistent use of respiratory protection. PMID:20610489

  18. Thin-layer chromatography of aluminium: quantitative densitometric determination of Fe2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Si4+.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Najar, P A; Chouhan, R N; Jeurkar, J U; Dolas, S D; Ramana Rao, K V

    2007-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography in combination with scanning densitometry is used as a tool for the quantitative determination of some impurity and additive elements in aluminium. Microgram levels of iron, silicon, copper, nickel, titanium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc present in a high concentration aluminium matrix is detected, and selective separations of some of these elements are achieved on silica gel H layers developed with a mobile phase containing aqueous sodium chloride solution. The quantitative determination of iron, silicon, nickel, and copper are obtained from the densitometric evaluation of chromatograms and are compared with the respective optical emission spectral analytical data. PMID:17555634

  19. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered. PMID:24779311

  20. Aluminium in the northwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measures, C. I.; Edmond, J. M.; Jickells, T. D.

    1986-07-01

    A series of profiles between Woods Hole and Bermuda has been measured on board ship for Al. The extrema in the upper waters can be explained by the accumulation of aeolian inputs in the thin summer mixed layer, the depletion of the underlying "Winter Water" by scavenging during the Spring bloom and the enrichment of the Subtropical Mode (18°C) Water by aeolian accumulation during winter and local convection before the Spring bloom. The pronounced minimum at mid-depth is associated with the Antarctic Intermediate Water and the underlying Labrador Sea-Med Water complex. Presumably, the AAIW and the Med Water are depleted by the ageing effect on this short residence time element during their transit to the area. The LSW is formed from surface waters containing a large component of Arctic waters, extremely depleted in Al, advected south in the East Greenland Current. The linear increase to the bottom is caused by mixing of enriched lower North Atlantic Deep Water with the depleted Bottom Water and LSW cores. The enrichment in the Deep Water appears to be produced by the entrainment of high-Al waters from the North European Shelf by the gyre in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and its injection into the Denmark Straits overflow waters in a manner recently described for the radiocaesium releases from the Windscale reprocessing plant on the Irish Sea. An additional contribution probably comes from the shelf north of Iceland.

  1. Aluminium salt slag characterization and utilization--a review.

    PubMed

    Tsakiridis, P E

    2012-05-30

    Aluminium salt slag (also known as aluminium salt cake), which is produced by the secondary aluminium industry, is formed during aluminium scrap/dross melting and contains 15-30% aluminium oxide, 30-55% sodium chloride, 15-30% potassium chloride, 5-7% metallic aluminium and impurities (carbides, nitrides, sulphides and phosphides). Depending on the raw mix the amount of salt slag produced per tonne of secondary aluminium ranges from 200 to 500 kg. As salt slag has been classified as toxic and hazardous waste, it should be managed in compliance with the current legislation. Its landfill disposal is forbidden in most of the European countries and it should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This paper presents a review of the aluminium salt slag chemical and mineralogical characteristics, as well as various processes for metal recovery, recycling of sodium and potassium chlorides content back to the smelting process and preparation of value added products from the final non metallic residue. PMID:22480708

  2. Aluminium removal from water after defluoridation with the electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Richa; Mathur, Sanjay; Brighu, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is the most electronegative element and has a strong affinity for aluminium. Owing to this fact, most of the techniques used for fluoride removal utilized aluminium compounds, which results in high concentrations of aluminium in treated water. In the present paper, a new approach is presented to meet the WHO guideline for residual aluminium concentration as 0.2 mg/L. In the present work, the electrocoagulation (EC) process was used for fluoride removal. It was found that aluminium content in water increases with an increase in the energy input. Therefore, experiments were optimized for a minimum energy input to achieve the target value (0.7 mg/L) of fluoride in resultant water. These optimized sets were used for further investigations of aluminium control. The experimental investigations revealed that use of bentonite clay as coagulant in clariflocculation brings down the aluminium concentration of water below the WHO guideline. Bentonite dose of 2 g/L was found to be the best for efficient removal of aluminium. PMID:25903166

  3. Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with the same high vertical resolution of 24 depths as normal for traditional CTD/Rosette sampling. Overall, 470 new data points of Al are reported for 22 full depth stations and 24 surface sampling positions along one transect. This transect consisted of 18 stations on the zero meridian proper from 51°57' S until 69°24'S, and 4 stations somewhat to the northeast towards Cape Town from 42°20'S, 09°E to 50°17'S, 01°27'E. The actual concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean were lower than previously reported. The concentration of Al in the upper 25 m was relatively elevated with an average concentration of 0.71 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.43 nM), most likely due to atmospheric input by a suggested combination of direct atmospheric (wet and dry) input and indirect atmospheric input via melting sea ice. Below the surface waters there was a distinct Al minimum with an average concentration of 0.33 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.13 nM) at an average depth of 120 m. In the deep southernmost Weddell Basin the concentration of Al increased with depth to ˜0.8 nM at 4000 m, and a higher concentration of ˜1.5 nM in the ˜4500-5200 m deep Weddell Sea Bottom Water. Over the Bouvet triple junction region, where three deep ocean ridges meet, the concentration of Al increased to ˜1.4 nM at about 2000 m depth over the ridge crest. In the deep basin north of the Bouvet region the concentration of Al increased to higher deep values of 4-6 nM due to influence of North Atlantic Deep Water. In general the intermediate and deep distribution of Al results from the mixing of water masses with different origins, the formation of deep water and additional input from sedimentary sources at sea floor elevations. No significant correlation between Al and silicate (Si) was observed. This is in contrast to some other ocean regions. In the Southern Ocean the supply of Al is extremely low and any signal from Al uptake and dissolution with biogenic silica is undetectable against the high dissolved Si and low dissolved Al concentrations. Here the Al-Si relation in the deep ocean is uncoupled. This is due to the scavenging and subsequent loss of the water column of Al, whereas the concentration of Si increases in the deep ocean due to its input from deep dissolution of biogenic diatom frustules settling from the surface layer.

  4. Usage of Neural Network to Predict Aluminium Oxide Layer Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Ku?erka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1?A·dm?2 and 3?A·dm?2 for creating aluminium oxide layer. PMID:25922850

  5. Galvanised steel to aluminium joining by laser and GTAW processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, G.; Peyre, P.; Deschaux Beaume, F. Stuart, D.; Fras, G.

    2008-12-15

    A new means of assembling galvanised steel to aluminium involving a reaction between solid steel and liquid aluminium was developed, using laser and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes. A direct aluminium melting strategy was investigated with the laser process, whereas an aluminium-induced melting by steel heating and heat conduction through the steel was carried out with the GTAW process. The interfaces generated during the interaction were mainly composed of a 2-40 {mu}m thick intermetallic reaction layers. The linear strength of the assemblies can be as high as 250 N/mm and 190 N/mm for the assemblies produced respectively by laser and GTAW processes. The corresponding failures were located in the fusion zone of aluminium (laser assemblies), or in the reaction layer (GTAW assemblies)

  6. Transmittance Optical Properties Investigation of Aluminium Ions Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. H.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2011-03-01

    Aluminium is a silvery-white metal in Group IIIA of the periodic table with atomic number 13, its atomic weight 26.9815. Aluminium is one of the most toxic elements to human body. In aqueous solution, aluminium ions will dissolve as Al3+(aq) under acidic conditions, and Al(OH)4-(aq) under neutral to alkaline condition. Al3+ ions also can further hydrolyse into [Al(H2O)6]3+ ions. The spectroradiometer used in this study was ASD Spectroradiometer (Model FSHH 325-1075) and the light source's wavelength used was 626 nm, 570 nm and 470 nm. Aluminium ions were added to the water by dissolving the aluminium chloride salt with concentration from 50 ?M, 100 ?M, 250 ?M, and 500 ?M. By varying the detecting wavelength, the resulting transmittance signal will be recorded.

  7. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  8. Study on aluminium-based single films.

    PubMed

    Vinod Kumar, G S; García-Moreno, F; Babcsán, N; Brothers, A H; Murty, B S; Banhart, J

    2007-12-28

    In the present paper the authors studied isolated metallic films made from the same material used for making metallic foams, and then characterised their properties. Metal films were made from a liquid aluminium alloy reinforced with ceramic particles of known concentration. Melts without such particles were also investigated. It is shown that stable films could not be made from Al-Si alloy having no particles, and just extremely thin and fragile films could be made from commercially-pure Al. In contrast, aluminium alloys containing particles such as SiC and TiB(2) allowed pulling thin, stable films, which did not rupture. Significant thinning of films was observed when the particle concentration in the melt decreased. By in situ X-ray monitoring of liquid films during pulling, film thickness and drainage effects within the liquid film could be studied. The morphology and microstructure of films was characterised after solidification. Our work shows that the question of how foams are stabilised can be studied using a simplified system such as a film, instead of having to deal with the multitude of different structural elements present in a foam. PMID:18060172

  9. Hearing conservation in the primary aluminium industry

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, N.; Dixon-Ernst, C.; Chesson, B. J.; Cullen, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Noise-induced hearing loss has been an intractable problem for heavy industry. Aims To report our experience in reducing the incidence of age-corrected confirmed 10 dB hearing shifts (averaged over 2, 3 and 4kHz) in employees in the primary aluminium industry in Australia over the period 2006–13. Methods We analysed annual audiometric data to determine the number of permanent hearing shifts that occurred in employees in two bauxite mines, three alumina refineries and two aluminium smelters. Annual hearing shift rates were calculated based on the number of employees tested per year. Hearing conservation initiatives undertaken during the study period are described. An assessment of similar exposure group noise exposures was also undertaken to determine the magnitude of noise exposure reduction during the study period. Results Across all operations, hearing shift rates declined from 5.5% per year in 2006 to 1.3% per year in 2013 (P < 0.001). The decline in shift rates was greater in mines and refineries, where baseline shift rates were higher, than in smelter workers. Modest reductions in noise exposure occurred during the study period. Conclusions We observed a substantial decline in hearing shift rates during the study period. We describe the hearing conservation initiatives that were collectively associated with this decline. We suspect these initiatives could be deployed relatively easily and at modest cost in other industries with noise-exposed employees. PMID:26470945

  10. Accidents in the aluminium smelting industry.

    PubMed

    Das, B C; Chaudhury, S

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the accident records of an aluminium smelting industry, covering about 2,100 employees, over a period of three years, showed a total of 465 accidents of male employees. Out of these, 5 were fatal, 40.86% were from contacts with extreme temperatures, causing burn injury to 42.58%. Hot materials were the agents causing 44.52% of the burn injuries. Molten aluminium constituted 43.96% amongst hot materials. Injury to lower limbs constituted 38.71% and that to upper limbs 36.99%. The accidents occurring to the employees, in the age group of 26-33 years, amounted to 61.72% of the total accidents. The average number of man-days lost per year was 11,153. Average frequency rate of accidents was 30.75 accidents per million man-hours worked. Severity rate of accidents was 2.196 per million man-hours worked. Incident rate per thousand employees was 73.81. Average number of days lost per accidents was 71.95 days and average duration of man-hours between accidents was 32,516. Mean age of the employees, who met with the accidents were 29.53 years. Share of accidents in the second half of each shift was always more than that in the first half, and this average was 66.66%. PMID:8557540

  11. The effective thermal conductivity of insulation materials reinforced with aluminium foil at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüksel, N.; Avc?, A.; K?l?ç, M.

    2012-09-01

    The effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of multilayer thermal insulation materials was experimentally investigated as a function of temperature (0-25 °C). The materials consisted of binary/ternary glass wools or ternary expanded polystyrene foams reinforced with aluminium foil. The experimental measurements were performed using a guarded hot plate with temperature differences of 5, 10 and 15 °C. The results indicated that significant correlations exist between ETC and the characteristics of the materials with decreasing temperature. The ETC decreases with reinforcement with aluminium foil at the same temperature or with temperature differences of 5 and 15 °C. In addition, it was clearly observed that the ETC decreases sharply with decreased temperature. Consequently, reflective materials may reduce the ETC at low temperatures.

  12. Preparation and characterization of nanodispersions of yttria, yttrium aluminium garnet and lutetium aluminium garnet.

    PubMed

    Bredol, Michael; Micior, Joanna

    2013-07-15

    Refractory and chemically inert nanoparticulate solids like yttria, yttrium aluminium garnet or lutetium aluminium garnet are notoriously difficult to disperse in aqueous solution, although such dispersions might prove useful for 2D- and 3D-printing, deposition of films or other shaping procedures for ceramic green bodies. This work reports on experiments to prepare such dispersions from nanopowders, using a range of selected carboxylic acids as ligands for electrostatic charging and stabilization of the various nanomaterials. The assessment of the system properties achieved combines ?-potential and viscosity (flow curve) measurements in the resulting colloidal systems. Calculations of the molecular electrostatic potential of the ligands were used to correlate the molecular structure of the ligands and their capability to dock to the surface of the solid particles. The colloid chemical data received have then been interpreted on this background; citric acid and polyacrylic acid have been identified as the most attractive dispersants. PMID:23643249

  13. A quest for super dense aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiquet, G.; Narayana, C.; Bellin, C.; Shukla, A.; Esteve, I.; Mezouar, N.

    2013-12-01

    The extreme pressure phase diagram of materials is important not only for understanding the interiors of planets or stars, but also for the fundamental understanding of the relation between crystal structure and electronic structure. Structural transitions induced by extreme pressure are governed by the deformation of valence electron charge density which bears the brunt of increasing compression while the relative volume occupied by the nearly incompressible ionic core electrons increases. At extreme pressures common materials are expected to transform into new dense phases with extremely compact atomic arrangements that may also have unusual physical properties. In this report, we present new experiments carried out on aluminium. A simple system like Al is not only important as a benchmark for theory, but can also be used as a standard for pressures in the TPa range and beyond which are targeted at new dynamic compression facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the US or Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) in Bordeaux in France. For aluminium, first principle calculations have consistently predicted a phase transition sequence from fcc to hcp and hcp to bcc in a pressure range below 0.5 TPa [Tambe et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 172102, 2008]. The hcp phase was identified at 217 GPa in a recent experiment [Akahama et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 45505, 2006] but the detection of the predicted bcc phase has been hampered by the difficulty of routine static high pressure experiments beyond 350 GPa. Here, we report on the overcoming of this obstacle and the detection of all the structural phase transitions predicted in Al by achieving a pressure in excess of 500 GPa in the static regime in a diamond-anvil cell. In particular, using X-ray diffraction at the high-pressure beamline ID27 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), we find a bcc super-dense phase of aluminium at a pressure of 380 GPa. In this report, we provide detailed information on this phase transition as well as details on how to achieve controlled static experiments in the range 3 to 5 Mbar.

  14. Aluminium and iron air pollution near an iron casting and aluminium foundry in Turin district (Italy).

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Salvatore; Ferrara, Mauro; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Barbero, Domenico; Baccolo, Tiziana

    2007-09-01

    This work reports the results of an environmental survey carried out in an industrial area in the Province of Turin: its main aim is to assess the levels of iron and aluminium in the outside air during the period from July to September to assess the influence of industrial activity (a cast-iron and aluminium foundry) which is interrupted during the month of August, on the level of metals present in the air. Conducting the analysis during this period of time made it possible to avoid the confounding effect of pollution due to domestic central heating. The measurements were taken from nine areas at different distances from the foundry in the area and according to the direction of the prevailing winds, as deduced from the historical data. The results of this survey show a statistically significant difference in iron and aluminium levels in the outside air in the geographic areas between the two main periods examined: during August (no foundry activity) v/s July-September (foundry activity). The values recorded are: Aluminium 0.4+/-0.45 microg/m(3) v/s 1.12+/-1.29 microg/m(3) (p<0.0001); Iron 0.95+/-0.56 microg/m(3) v/s 1.6+/-1.0 microg/m(3) (p<0.0001). There were no statistically significant differences between the nine sampling points from the point of view of the sampling sites, climate conditions and wind directions. We found no correlation with car traffic, in terms of the number of vehicles, and metals. The values of iron tended to be higher in the areas farther away from the foundry site in the areas located along the path of the prevailing winds. PMID:17637476

  15. Ehrlich tumour cells: Ca(2+)-uptake modification by aluminium lactate.

    PubMed

    Anghileri, L J

    1992-05-01

    Aluminium lactate provokes the same modification of 45Ca(2+)-uptake by Ehrlich ascites tumour cells as does ferric lactate. The increase of uptake is metal-complex concentration-dependent, and in contrast to ferric lactate, is only partially inhibited by albumin. Under the same experimental conditions, chromic lactate provoked no modification of that uptake. A plasma membrane rigidity increase provoked by coordination binding of aluminium to phospholipids is likely to be the main cause of Ca(2+)-uptake modification by aluminium lactate. PMID:1623500

  16. DNA strand patterns on aluminium thin films.

    PubMed

    Khatir, Nadia Mahmoudi; Banihashemian, Seyedeh Maryam; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Majid, Wan Haliza Abd; Rahman, Saadah Abdul; Shahhosseini, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    A new patterning method using Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) strands capable of producing nanogaps of less than 100 nm is proposed and investigated in this work. DNA strands from Bosenbergia rotunda were used as the fundamental element in patterning DNA on thin films of aluminium (Al) metal without the need for any lithographic techniques. The DNA strands were applied in buffer solutions onto thin films of Al on silicon (Si) and the chemical interactions between the DNA strands and Al creates nanometer scale arbitrary patterning by direct transfer of the DNA strands onto the substrate. This simple and cost-effective method can be utilized in the fabrication of various components in electronic chips for microelectronics and Nano Electronic Mechanical System (NEMS) applications in general. PMID:22163981

  17. Aluminium recovery vs. hydrogen production as resource recovery options for fine MSWI bottom ash fraction.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Ilyas, Aamir; Praagh, Martijn van; Persson, Kenneth M; Grosso, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash fine fraction contains a significant amount of aluminium, but previous works have shown that current recovery options based on standard on-step Eddy Current Separation (ECS) have limited efficiency. In this paper, we evaluated the improvement in the efficiency of ECS by using an additional step of crushing and sieving. The efficiency of metallic Al recovery was quantified by measuring hydrogen gas production. The ash samples were also tested for total aluminium content with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). As an alternative to material recovery, we also investigated the possibility to convert residual metallic Al into useful energy, promoting H2 gas production by reacting metallic Al with water at high pH. The results show that the total aluminium concentration in the <4 mm bottom ash fraction is on average 8% of the weight of the dry ash, with less than 15% of it being present in the metallic form. Of this latter, only 21% can be potentially recovered with ECS combined with crushing and sieving stages and subsequently recycled. For hydrogen production, using 10MNaOH at 1L/S ratio results in the release of 6-11l of H2 gas for each kilogram of fine dry ash, equivalent to an energy potential of 118 kJ. PMID:23453355

  18. Study on optimal surface property of WC-Co cutting tool for aluminium alloy cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizar, Mohd; Arimatsu, Naoya; Kawamitsu, Hiroshi; Takai, Kazuteru; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    The light weight property as well as high corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy has increased their demand especially in automobile industries. Aluminium alloy as a matter of fact has a low melting point and high ductility that severely adhere to the cutting tool surface and cause deterioration of chip evacuation. This problem often resulting in tools breakage. In this paper, in order to impart functions of anti-adhesion, we propose a technique by controlling the grinding marks micro texture on the tool surface by using the blast polishing treatment without any coating technologies. The results show that the tool which underwent polishing treatment reduces the cutting force as well as the aluminium adherence during the initial cutting process, and become worst as the process cutting continues. These results indicate that grinding mark texture improves the anti-adhesion by reducing the contact area during cutting and provide storage for the lubricant. In addition, too much polishing on the tool surface may remove these textures and resultantly worsen the tool performance.

  19. Radiation induced synthesis of powder yttrium aluminium garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?uba, Václav; Indrei, Jakub; Mú?ka, Viliam; Nikl, Martin; Beitlerová, Alena; Pospíšil, Milan; Jakubec, Ivo

    2011-09-01

    Yttrium-aluminium garnet powders were prepared from aqueous solutions containing yttrium nitrate and aluminium chloride or nitrate via irradiation with accelerated electrons or UV light and via consequent calcination of formed solid phase. UV light seems to be more convenient for yttrium-aluminium garnet preparation; both types of irradiation yield crystalline Y 3Al 5O 12 phase after 1 h calcination at 1000 °C in air, but some amounts of yttrium oxide and aluminium oxide were also detected in calcinated solid phase formed under accelerated electrons irradiation. Preliminary radioluminescence and thermoluminescence measurements were performed to further evaluate prepared materials. Intensive radioluminescence typical for Ce 3+ doped structure was observed; thermoluminescence glow curves show distinctive peaks at 135-140 and 240-250 °C.

  20. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. PMID:26365318

  1. The management of Frey's syndrome with aluminium chloride hexahydrate antiperspirant.

    PubMed Central

    Black, M. J.; Gunn, A.

    1990-01-01

    Nine patients suffering from gustatory sweating (Frey's syndrome) following parotidectomy have been treated by topical applications of aluminium chloride hexahydrate. Treatment has successfully controlled gustatory sweating using application intervals varying from 1 to 50 days. Images Figure 1 PMID:2301903

  2. Sulfone-based electrolytes for aluminium rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yuri; Senda, Yui; Kawasaki, Hideki; Koshitani, Naoki; Hosoi, Shizuka; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Morioka, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Masayuki

    2015-02-28

    Electrolyte is a key material for success in the research and development of next-generation rechargeable batteries. Aluminium rechargeable batteries that use aluminium (Al) metals as anode materials are attractive candidates for next-generation batteries, though they have not been developed yet due to the lack of practically useful electrolytes. Here we present, for the first time, non-corrosive reversible Al electrolytes working at room temperature. The electrolytes are composed of aluminium chlorides, dialkylsulfones, and dilutants, which are realized by the identification of electrochemically active Al species, the study of sulfone dependences, the effects of aluminium chloride concentrations, dilutions and their optimizations. The characteristic feature of these materials is the lower chloride concentrations in the solutions than those in the conventional Al electrolytes, which allows us to use the Al metal anodes without corrosions. We anticipate that the sulfone-based electrolytes will open the doors for the research and development of Al rechargeable batteries. PMID:25627398

  3. Reduction of turbidity by a coal-aluminium filter

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, A.G.; Johnson, R.L.

    1985-06-01

    Coal-aluminium granular filters successfully reduce turbidity in low-alkalinity raw waters to less than 1.0 ntu, without a coagulation step or external coagulant aids. Data from experiments conducted with control and pilot-plant filters show the viability of the process and indicate the turbidity and retention mechanisms. Operational characteristics of the process are similar to those of a conventional filter. The costs of the coal-aluminium process compare favourably with those of traditional treatment.

  4. Study of aluminium and lead in some traditional Omani dishes.

    PubMed

    El Tawila, M; Al Awfy, S; Al Asfoor, D

    1996-01-01

    Because of the recent interest on the aluminium content of foods cooked in aluminium saucepans and the association between aluminium and lead and many toxic symptoms and disease, information about the source of exposure of man to these metals specially from food and drinks are required. Thirty four of the most commonly consumed Omani dishes were analyzed for their aluminium and lead content, in order to determine the level of contamination and to estimate the approximate oral intake of each metal. The level of aluminium in the studied dishes was in the range between 0.98 and 16.53 mg/kg with a mean 5.4 mg/kg. The highest level of aluminium was found in fish dishes (9.03 mg/kg) and meat and poultry dishes (7.66 mg/kg). The effect of using aluminium pans on the metal level was also studied in some foods. The effect varies from slight increase in case of frying or cooking of fish to a significant increase in case of baking rakal bread on aluminium flat pan. The level of lead in the studied dishes ranged between 0.026 and 1.75 mg/kg with a mean of 0.32 mg/kg. Salted fish contained the highest level of lead (0.57 mg/kg). The approximate daily intake, calculated on the base of the serving quantities, was found to be within the acceptable daily or weekly intake recommended for each metal. PMID:17214194

  5. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy. PMID:22749723

  6. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  7. COS, CS2 and SO 2 in aluminium smelter exhaust : The contribution of aluminium production to the global COS budget.

    PubMed

    Harnisch, J; Borchers, R; Fabian, P

    1995-07-01

    Measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbondisulfide (CS2) were carried out on samples drawn from a smoke stack of an aluminium smelter. Volume mixing ratios of 6 ppm COS and 0.1 ppm CS2 were measured for gases from the electrolysis unit that had previously passed an Al2O3 fluid bed reactor and electrostatic precipitators. Specific emissions of 1.6 kg COS and 0.03 kg CS2 per ton of primary aluminium were found. Extrapolating from this particular smelter's conditions to a world mix specific COS emissions of about 4 kg/t(Al) are calculated resulting in emissions of annually 0.08 Tg COS into the atmosphere due to electrolytic aluminium production in 1995. Besides the photochemical conversion of anthropogenic CS2 aluminium production is established to be the second major industrial source of COS probably exceeding automotive tire wear's and coal combustion's contributions. PMID:24234692

  8. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  9. Microstructure and properties of hot compacted powders of aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Lity?ska-Dobrzy?ska, L; Dutkiewicz, J; Maziarz, W; Kanciruk, A

    2009-11-01

    Atomized 6061 aluminium alloy powders with and without the addition of 2 wt% Zr were milled for 80 h in a planetary ball mill and hot pressed in vacuum. The milled powders showed microhardness of about 170 HV, which increased after hot pressing up to 260 HV and up to 280 HV for powders without and with the Zr additions, respectively. Compression tests showed the high yield stress of 300 MPa obtained for the hot-pressed sample produced from the initial powders compared with ultimate compression strength of above 800 MPa for that of the milled sample and slightly higher for that with Zr additions. The effect of hot pressing on the structure of powders was investigated using a conventional analytical and high-resolution electron microscopy and high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The samples of initial powders hot pressed in vacuum showed a cell structure with particles of the Mg(2)Si and AlFeSi phases in intercell areas. In the milled and hot-pressed sample, the homogeneous structure of small grains of size below 200 nm was observed. The AlFeSi and Mg(2)Si particles with size 20-100 nm were uniformly distributed as well as the Zr rich particles in the Zr containing alloy. The Zr-rich particles containing up to 80 at% Zr were identified as a metastable fcc cubic phase with lattice parameter a= 0.48 nm. PMID:19903236

  10. Asthma due to aluminium soldering flux

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, G. M.

    1967-01-01

    Two patients have been studied who complained of dyspnoea after the inhalation of fumes from a new soldering flux recently developed for use in jointing aluminium which has been replacing copper as a material for electric cables. A previous survey of respiratory complaints after the use of this particular flux had failed to show any objective change in lung function, and the present cases are the first to be reported. Both subjects have been investigated by means of serial spirometry, peak flow rates, and body plethysmography following inhalation of small amounts of flux fumes; delayed and prolonged bronchoconstriction has been demonstrated. Similar results have been obtained after the inhalation of one of the main constituents of the flux, namely amino-ethyl ethanolamine, which is presumably the active allergic agent. The bronchial response is unusual in being delayed in onset but otherwise resembles pollen-sensitivity asthma rather than the infiltrative process seen in farmer's lung. The type of immune mechanism involved is speculative, but it is possible that some alteration of the amino-ethyl ethanolamine is needed before it can react with reaginic antibody fixed in the bronchial tissues. PMID:6076508

  11. Corrosion of aluminium in soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Seruga, M; Hasenay, D

    1996-04-01

    The corrosion of aluminium (Al) in several brands of soft drinks (cola- and citrate-based drinks) has been studied, using an electrochemical method, namely potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion of Al in soft drinks is a very slow, time-dependent and complex process, strongly influenced by the passivation, complexation and adsorption processes. The corrosion of Al in these drinks occurs principally due to the presence of acids: citric acid in citrate-based drinks and orthophosphoric acid in cola-based drinks. The corrosion rate of Al rose with an increase in the acidity of soft drinks, i.e. with increase of the content of total acids. The corrosion rates are much higher in the cola-based drinks than those in citrate-based drinks, due to the facts that: (1) orthophosphoric acid is more corrosive to Al than is citric acid, (2) a quite different passive oxide layer (with different properties) is formed on Al, depending on whether the drink is cola or citrate based. The method of potentiodynamic polarization was shown as being very suitable for the study of corrosion of Al in soft drinks, especially if it is combined with some non-electrochemical method, e.g. graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). PMID:8638433

  12. Improving Efficiency of Aluminium Sacrificial Anode Using Cold Work Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Ann, Chang Tai

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium is one of the preferred materials to be used as sacrificial anode for carbon steel protection. The efficiency of these can be low due to the formation of oxide layer which passivate the anodes. Currently, to improve its efficiency, there are efforts using a new technique called surface modifications. The objective of this research is to study corrosion mechanism of aluminium sacrificial anode which has been processed by cold work. The cold works are applied by reducing the thickness of aluminium sacrificial anodes at 20% and 40% of thickness reduction. The cathodic protection experiments were performed by immersion of aluminium connected to carbon steel cylinder in 3% NaCl solutions. Visual inspections using SEM had been conducted during the experiments and corrosion rate data were taken in every week for 8 weeks of immersion time. Corrosion rate data were measured using weight loss and linear polarization technique (LPR). From the results, it is observed that cold worked aluminium sacrificial anode have a better corrosion performance. It shows higher corrosion rate and lower corrosion potential. The anodes also provided a long functional for sacrificial anode before it stop working. From SEM investigation, it is shown that cold works have changed the microstructure of anodes which is suspected in increasing corrosion rate and cause de-passivate of the surface anodes.

  13. Computer modelling of age hardening for cast aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linda; Ferguson, W. George

    2009-08-01

    Age hardening, or precipitation hardening, is one of the most widely adopted techniques for strengthening of aluminium alloys. Although various age hardening models have been developed for aluminium alloys, from the large volume of literature reviewed, it appears that the bulk of the research has been concentrated on wrought aluminium alloys, only a few of the established precipitation models have been applied to the casting aluminium alloys. In the present work, there are two modelling methods that have been developed and applied to the casting aluminium alloys A356 and A357. One is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology to produce a process model, by which we mean a mathematical relationship between process variables (alloy composition, ageing temperature and time) and material properties (yield strength or hardness) through microstructure evolution (precipitate radius, volume fraction). The other method is based on the Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model which deals with concomitant nucleation, growth and coarsening and is thus capable of predicting the full evolution of the particle size distribution and then a strength model is used to evaluate the resulting change in hardness or yield strength at room temperature by taking into account contributions from lattice resistance, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening.

  14. Electron density determination of aluminium laser-induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmick, D. M.; Parigger, C. G.

    2015-06-01

    We present temporally and spatially resolved electron density results of laser-induced plasma initiated on the surface of an aluminium target. Aluminium 394.4 and 396.15 nm lines were fit to Lorentzian profiles to evaluate Stark widths and shifts. Experimentally determined electron density versus line width and shift relationships were applied. Fitting to the aluminium lines indicates an electron density of 1.9 ± 0.2 and 3.2+/- 0.4× {{10}18} c{{m}-3} for Stark widths and 1.7 ± 0.5 and 1.7+/- 0.5× {{10}18} c{{m}-3} for Stark shifts at a 0.3 ?s time delay following plasma initiation for the aluminium Al i 394.4 and 396.15 nm transitions, respectively. Simultaneous observations of the singly ionized nitrogen line, N ii, at 395.5 nm were also fit for a time delay of 0.2 ?s, indicating an electron density of 1.8+/- 1.0× {{10}18} c{{m}-3}. The differences between the nitrogen and aluminium electron densities show evidence of self absorption.

  15. Corrosion of aluminium metal in OPC- and CAC-based cement matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Hajime; Swift, Paul; Utton, Claire; Carro-Mateo, Beatriz; Collier, Nick; Milestone, Neil

    2013-08-15

    Corrosion of aluminium metal in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based pastes produces hydrogen gas and expansive reaction products causing problems for the encapsulation of aluminium containing nuclear wastes. Although corrosion of aluminium in cements has been long known, the extent of aluminium corrosion in the cement matrices and effects of such reaction on the cement phases are not well established. The present study investigates the corrosion reaction of aluminium in OPC, OPC-blast furnace slag (BFS) and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) based systems. The total amount of aluminium able to corrode in an OPC and 4:1 BFS:OPC system was determined, and the correlation between the amount of calcium hydroxide in the system and the reaction of aluminium obtained. It was also shown that a CAC-based system could offer a potential matrix to incorporate aluminium metal with a further reduction of pH by introduction of phosphate, producing a calcium phosphate cement.

  16. Macronutrients, aluminium from drinking water and foods, and other metals in cognitive decline and dementia.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Colacicco, Anna Maria; D'Introno, Alessia; Capurso, Cristiano; Parigi, Angelo Del; Capurso, Sabrina A; Torres, Francesco; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2006-11-01

    A possible role of the macronutrients and the basic elements of carbohydrates (glucose administration or depletion), proteins (amino acids such as tryptophan and tyrosine), and fat (unsaturated fatty acids) was recently proposed for age-related changes of cognitive function, and the cognitive decline of degenerative (AD) or vascular origin. The availability and utilization of glucose has been implicated in cognitive function not only as a result of nutritional and systemic metabolic conditions, but also, although speculatively, as a crucial phase of the mechanism of action of molecules used as cognitive-enhancers. Furthermore, many lines of evidence have focused on the importance of oxidative stress mechanisms and free radical damage in AD pathogenesis. In addition, epidemiological studies have recently reported an association between alcohol and the incidence of AD and predementia syndromes. Foods with large amounts of aluminium-containing additives or aluminium from drinking water may affect the risk of developing AD, aluminium more likely acting as a cofactor somewhere in the cascade of events leading to the demented brain. A role for other metals in dementia have been speculated, given the encouraging results reported from studies on peripheral zinc concentrations, zinc supplementation, serum copper, either bound with ceruloplasmin or not, and iron metabolism in AD. Nonetheless, more data are needed to support a possible role of these metals in dementing diseases. Healthy diets, antioxidant supplements, and the prevention of nutritional deficiencies or exposure to foods and water with high content of metals could be considered the first line of defence against the development and progression of cognitive decline. PMID:17119295

  17. Determination of aluminium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid in presence of a cationic surfactant by first and second derivative synchronous fluorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Salinas, F.; de la Pena, A.; Duran, M.S.

    1988-08-01

    An analytical method has been developed for the fluorimetric determination of nanogram amounts of aluminium in solution. The method is based on the reaction of aluminium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid presence of hexadeciltrimethylammonium bromide as a surfactant agent. Synchronous scanned first and second derivative fluorimetry has been employed to increase the sensitivity of the method. The influence of reaction variables as well as instrumental parameters is discussed. The interference of various foreign ions has also been examined and in some cases eliminated or reduced by addition of 1,10-phenanthroline.

  18. Double layer, diluent and anode effects upon the electrodeposition of aluminium from chloroaluminate based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Andrew P; Qiu, Fulian; Abood, Hadi M A; Ali, M Rostom; Ryder, Karl S

    2010-02-28

    The deposition of aluminium from a chloroaluminate based ionic liquid was studied to elucidate the effect of a diluent (toluene) and electrolyte (LiCl) on the deposit morphology. A wide variety of analytical techniques was applied to this system to determine the speciation and mechanism of material growth. These included: (27)Al NMR, FAB-MS, cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, chronopotentiometry, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. It was found that under-potential deposition (upd) causes a change in the way in which metal grows on the electrode surface. Metal grows in two regimes which are believed to be nano-material and bulk material. The addition of toluene causes a change in speciation and a decrease in upd which in turn changes the morphology of the deposit obtained and can lead to mirror finish aluminium. The addition of LiCl has the opposite effect encouraging upd and leading to larger crystallites and a dark grey deposit. It is also shown for the first time that under many conditions the rate of the anodic dissolution process is overall rate controlling and one effect of the addition of toluene is to increase the rate of anodic dissolution. PMID:20145853

  19. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis of aluminium segregation in silicon carbide grain boundaries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X F; Yang, Q; De Jonghe, L C; Zhang, Z

    2002-07-01

    The aluminium distribution in polycrystalline SiC hot-pressed with aluminium, boron and carbon additives was studied using X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Al excess in homophase SiC grain boundary films was determined, taking into account dissolved Al in the SiC lattice. In the spot-EDS analysis, an electron beam probe with a calibrated diameter was formed, and the total beam-specimen interaction volume was defined, taking the beam spreading through crystalline TEM foil into consideration. EDS spectra were collected from regions containing intergranular films and adjacent matrix grains, respectively. A theoretical treatment was presented and experimental errors were estimated, with a further discussion about the effects of foil thickness. Experimental examples are given, followed by statistical EDS analyses for grain boundary films in SiC samples hot-pressed with increased amounts of Al additions. The results demonstrated a substantial Al segregation in the nanometer-wide intergranular films in all samples. Al additions higher than 3 wt% saturated the Al concentrations in SiC grains and in grain boundary films. The effect of foil thickness, and the parameters for determining the optimum incident beam diameter in the EDS analysis are discussed. PMID:12135460

  20. Stability constants of aluminium fluoride complexes.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, R P; Moreno, E C

    1971-09-01

    Pointwise titrations of aluminium nitrate solutions with sodium fluoride were made at ionic strengths of 0.5, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05M and at temperatures of 25 degrees and 37 degrees . The total Al(3+) concentration was kept constant at 5 x 10(-4)M and the total F(-) concentration covered the range 5-20 x 10(-4)M with a minimum of 20 points per titration. It is shown that only mononuclear complexes were present with these solution compositions. Determinations of H(+) and F(-) in solution were made by the use of quinhydrone and lanthanum fluoride electrodes, respectively. Formation constants were calculated by three different procedures. Best results were obtained by a non-linear generalized least-squares method that (a) permits calculation of the formation constants with the simultaneous presence of all the complexes being taken into account, (b) does not require segregation of data according to the values of the formation function (n), and (c) yields standard errors that reflect the errors in all the experimental measurements. Values for the formation constants at infinite dilution were obtained by a linear least-squares adjustment of the values obtained for the four finite ionic strengths. The formation constants thus obtained for the reaction AlF(n-1) + F <==> AlF(n) (charges omitted) at 25 degrees have logarithmic values of 6.69 +/- 0.02, 5.35 +/- 0.03, 3.68 +/- 0.01 and 2.75 +/- 0.04 for n = 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The corresponding values at 37 degrees are 6.68 +/- 0.10,5.34 +/- 0.02,3.94 +/- 0.04, and 3.29 +/- 0.05. PMID:18960958

  1. Stimulation of eryptosis by aluminium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Niemoeller, Olivier M.; Kiedaisch, Valentin; Dreischer, Peter; Wieder, Thomas; Lang, Florian . E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de

    2006-12-01

    Aluminium salts are utilized to impede intestinal phosphate absorption in chronic renal failure. Toxic side effects include anemia, which could result from impaired formation or accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Erythrocytes may be cleared secondary to suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the erythrocyte surface. As macrophages are equipped with PS receptors, they bind, engulf and degrade PS-exposing cells. The present experiments have been performed to explore whether Al{sup 3+} ions trigger eryptosis. The PS exposure was estimated from annexin binding and cell volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis. Exposure to Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 10 {mu}M Al{sup 3+} for 24 h) indeed significantly increased annexin binding, an effect paralleled by decrease of forward scatter at higher concentrations ({>=} 30 {mu}M Al{sup 3+}). According to Fluo3 fluorescence Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 30 {mu}M for 3 h) increased cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} activity. Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 10 {mu}M for 24 h) further decreased cytosolic ATP concentrations. Energy depletion by removal of glucose similarly triggered annexin binding, an effect not further enhanced by Al{sup 3+} ions. The eryptosis was paralleled by release of hemoglobin, pointing to loss of cell membrane integrity. In conclusion, Al{sup 3+} ions decrease cytosolic ATP leading to activation of Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cation channels, Ca{sup 2+} entry, stimulation of cell membrane scrambling and cell shrinkage. Moreover, Al{sup 3+} ions lead to loss of cellular hemoglobin, a feature of hemolysis. Both effects are expected to decrease the life span of circulating erythrocytes and presumably contribute to the development of anemia during Al{sup 3+} intoxication.

  2. Does antiperspirant use increase the risk of aluminium-related disease, including Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Exley, C

    1998-03-01

    Aluminium salts are the major constituent of many widely used antiperspirant products. The use of such antiperspirants has been linked with the systemic accumulation of aluminium and an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. But can the frequent use of aluminium-based antiperspirants lead to the accumulation of toxic levels of aluminium? And are there measures that we can take to reduce such accumulation without reducing the effectiveness of antiperspirants? PMID:9575492

  3. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI cannot always be ingested as a single dose on an empty stomach with impunity. PMID:277126

  4. Modelling of micro- and macrosegregation for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, K.; Mortensen, D.; M'Hamdi, M.

    2015-06-01

    Realistic predictions of macrosegregation formation during casting of aluminium alloys requires an accurate modeling of solute microsegregation accounting for multicomponent phase diagrams and secondary phase formation. In the present work, the stand alone Alstruc model, a microsegregation model for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys, is coupled with the continuum model ALSIM which calculates the macroscopic transport of mass, enthalpy, momentum, and solutes as well as stresses and deformation during solidification of aluminium. Alstruc deals with multicomponent alloys accounting for temperature dependent partition coefficients, liquidus slopes and the precipitation of secondary phases. The challenge associated with computation of microsegregation for multicomponent alloys is solved in Alstruc by approximating the phase diagram data by simple, analytical expressions which allows for a CPU-time efficient coupling with the macroscopic transport model. In the present work, the coupled model has been applied in a study of macrosegregation including thermal and solutal convection, solidification shrinkage and surface exudation on an industrial DC-cast billet.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a new aluminium-based compound.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Cosp, José; Artiaga, Ramón; Corpas-Iglesias, Francisco; Benítez-Guerrero, Mónica

    2009-08-28

    A new aluminium polynuclear crystalline species, Al(13)(OH)(30)(H(2)O)(15)Cl(9) has been synthesized and characterized. It is a particular case of the Al(13)(OH)(30-y)(H(2)O)(18-x)Cl(9) x zH(2)O family. It has been obtained from aluminium waste cans treated with HCl solution in strong acid media, followed by an ageing period. The crystalline structure of the complex was determined by XRD spectroscopy. Twelve reflections were found and indexed with the DICVOL04 software. Morphologically, a flattened preferred orientation was observed by SEM and FESEM. The chemical structure was studied by several absorption spectroscopy techniques: FTIR, ATR-FTIR and Raman dispersion spectroscopy. The coordination of the aluminium nuclei was determined by Al-MAS-NMR. Only octahedral sites were observed. Thermal characterization of the compound was performed by evolved gas analysis (EGA) coupled to simultaneous TGA-DSC. PMID:19655063

  6. The Burning Rate of Aluminium Particles in Cylinder Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J.; Milne, Alec M.; Softley, Ian

    2002-07-01

    Aluminium is a common fuel component in propellants and explosives. There is a wealth of literature on Aluminium combustion in gases at relatively low pressure but limited data on combustion at high pressure (as in explosive detonation products). In this work we have carried out and analysed cylinder tests with Aluminium loaded explosives with a view to assessing the applicability of low pressure burning rates in this regime. The analysis makes use of detailed numerical two phase flow modelling and a range of experiments used to validate other relevant aspects of the physics, such as drag laws. We conclude that the burning rate is significantly faster than that implied by extrapolating laws applicable at lower pressures.

  7. Time-resolved aluminium laser-induced plasma temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmick, D. M.; Parigger, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    We seek to characterize the temperature decay of laser-induced plasma near the surface of an aluminium target from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of aluminium alloy sample. Laser-induced plasma are initiated by tightly focussing 1064 nm, nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation. Temperatures are inferred from aluminium monoxide spectra viewed at systematically varied time delays by comparing experimental spectra to theoretical calculations with a Nelder Mead algorithm. The temperatures are found to decay from 5173 ± 270 to 3862 ± 46 Kelvin from 10 to 100 ?s time delays following optical breakdown. The temperature profile along the plasma height is also inferred from spatially resolved spectral measurements and the electron number density is inferred from Stark broadened H? spectra.

  8. Different Approach to the Aluminium Oxide Topography Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poljacek, Sanja Mahovic; Gojo, Miroslav; Raos, Pero; Stoic, Antun

    2007-04-01

    Different surface topographic techniques are being widely used for quantitative measurements of typical industrial aluminium oxide surfaces. In this research, specific surface of aluminium oxide layer on the offset printing plate has been investigated by using measuring methods which have previously not been used for characterisation of such surfaces. By using two contact instruments and non-contact laser profilometer (LPM) 2D and 3D roughness parameters have been defined. SEM micrographs of the samples were made. Results have shown that aluminium oxide surfaces with the same average roughness value (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) typically used in the printing plate surface characterisation, have dramatically different surface topographies. According to the type of instrument specific roughness parameters should be used for defining the printing plate surfaces. New surface roughness parameters were defined in order to insure detailed characterisation of the printing plates in graphic reproduction process.

  9. Aluminium toxicity in the rat liver and brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1993-04-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we examined the brain and liver tissue uptake of aluminium 5-75 days after aluminium injection into healthy rats. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the brain and the brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the liver and the liver cell nuclei by PIXE analysis and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The morphological changes of the rat brain examined 75 days after the injection were similar to those which have been reportedly observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells.

  10. Different Approach to the Aluminium Oxide Topography Characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Poljacek, Sanja Mahovic; Gojo, Miroslav; Raos, Pero; Stoic, Antun

    2007-04-07

    Different surface topographic techniques are being widely used for quantitative measurements of typical industrial aluminium oxide surfaces. In this research, specific surface of aluminium oxide layer on the offset printing plate has been investigated by using measuring methods which have previously not been used for characterisation of such surfaces. By using two contact instruments and non-contact laser profilometer (LPM) 2D and 3D roughness parameters have been defined. SEM micrographs of the samples were made. Results have shown that aluminium oxide surfaces with the same average roughness value (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) typically used in the printing plate surface characterisation, have dramatically different surface topographies. According to the type of instrument specific roughness parameters should be used for defining the printing plate surfaces. New surface roughness parameters were defined in order to insure detailed characterisation of the printing plates in graphic reproduction process.

  11. Fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Osgood, G. L.; Reinhard, G. G.

    1984-11-13

    A novel nonacidic fuel additive which is soluable in gasoline, diesel fuels and other liquid aliphatic hydrocarbons, and which comprises the product produced by mixing ketone peroxides, ketones, a Group III metal, an alcohol, and borontrifloride, or liquid cobalt, or a chlorobenzine. The fuel additive further comprises a ketone solvent, said ketones preferrably being methyl etyhl ketones and their peroxides and solvents. The fuel additive of the present invention, serves to increase power output, lower the ignition point of the carrier fuel, increase mileage, and, especially when used with diesel, reduces the effect of cold temperatures on the viscosity, turbidity, and color of the diesel fuel to temperatures as severe as-40/sup 0/ C.

  12. Effects of complexed iron and aluminium on brain calcium.

    PubMed

    Anghileri, L J

    1992-01-01

    Ferric lactate increases Ca(2+)-uptake by Ehrlich carcinoma ascites cells as well as in vitro and in vivo Ca(2+)-uptake by the liver. Iron and aluminium are increased in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease and aluminium is suspected to be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. This study was conducted to determine if there is any relationship between iron and aluminium uptake and a possible calcium influx into brain tissue. Groups of Swiss mice were injected in the tail vein with 100 microliters of 0.05 M ferric lactate plus 2 microCi45CaCl2, or 100 microliters of 0.05 M aluminium lactate plus 2 microCi45CaCl2, or 100 microliters of saline plus 2 microCi45CaCl2. Twenty-four hr later they were sacrificed by decapitation. Samples of blood and the total brain were weighed and ashed. The ashes were dissolved and the solution transferred to counting vials evaporated to dryness. A scintillation solution was added to the vials and the radioactivity was counted. To accurately assess brain uptake in each animal the value of brain specific activity was related to blood specific activity. When compared to those of control animals, these values gave the 24 hr increase of 45Ca-uptake by brain of ferric lactate or aluminium lactate-treated animals. A significant increase of 45Ca-uptake was observed for ferric lactate (136% of control value, p less than 0.005), which is more important for aluminium lactate (163% of control value, p less than 0.001). The nature of the complexed metal-brain tissue interaction is not known, several mechanisms are discussed. PMID:1436761

  13. Characterisation of Ga-coated and Ga-brazed aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Ferchaud, E.; Christien, F.; Barnier, V.; Paillard, P.

    2012-05-15

    This work is devoted to the brazing of aluminium using liquid gallium. Gallium was deposited on aluminium samples at {approx} 50 Degree-Sign C using a liquid gallium 'polishing' technique. Brazing was undertaken for 30 min at 500 Degree-Sign C in air. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) characterisation of Ga-coated samples has shown that the Ga surface layer thickness is of ten (or a few tens of) nanometres. Furthermore, aluminium oxide layer (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was shown to be 'descaled' during Ga deposition, which ensures good conditions for further brazing. Cross-section examination of Ga-coated samples shows that liquid gallium penetrates into the aluminium grain boundaries during deposition. The thickness of the grain boundary gallium film was measured using an original EDS technique and is found to be of a few tens of nanometres. The depth of gallium grain boundary penetration is about 300 {mu}m at the deposition temperature. The fracture stress of the brazed joints was measured from tensile tests and was determined to be 33 MPa. Cross-section examination of brazed joints shows that gallium has fully dissolved into the bulk and that the joint is really autogenous. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium can be brazed using liquid gallium deposited by a 'polishing' technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aluminium oxide layer is 'descaled' during liquid Ga 'polishing' deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDS can be used for determination of surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness is of a few tens of nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface and grain boundary gallium dissolves in the bulk during brazing.

  14. Transport phenomena of aluminium oxide in metal halide lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, S.; Niemann, U.; Markus, T.

    2008-07-01

    A better understanding of the transport phenomena observed in metal halide lamps can be achieved using computer-based model calculations. The chemical transport of aluminium oxide in advanced high-pressure discharge vessels was calculated as a function of temperature and composition of the salt mixture relevant to the lamp. Below 1773 K chemical transport is the prevailing process; above this temperature the vaporization and condensation of the envelope material—aluminium oxide—become more important. The results of the calculations show that the amount of transported alumina increases linearly with the number of iteration cycles and exponentially with the temperature gradient.

  15. Effects of Aluminium on the compressibility of silicate perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, I.; Bass, J. D.; Fiquet, G.; Cardon, H.; Hanfland, M.

    2004-12-01

    Among the elements present in all mantle compositional models, aluminium oxide Al2O3 is estimated to amount 4 to 5 mole %. While aluminium is incorporated in specific minerals such as garnet and majorite in the upper mantle, it is believed to be incorporated into (Mg,Fe)SiO3-perovskite under the pressure and temperature conditions of the lower mantle. Recently, the effect of Al on the elastic parameters of perovskite has received extreme attention, since Zhang and Weidner [1] presented for an Al-bearing silicate perovskite a bulk modulus 10% smaller than that of the end-member MgSiO3-perovskite. However, the bulk moduli obtained afterwards at various alumina content were highly scattered. We present here a series of volume measurements up to 40 GPa, for Mg-perovskites with respectively 5, 7.7 and 20 mol % aluminium. Samples were either synthesized in a multi-anvil apparatus or in a diamond anvil cell by laser heating a 20 ?m thin glass slide of the relevant composition. Samples were studied in a diamond anvil cell with neon as a hydrostatic pressure transmitting medium and were annealed with a YAG laser within their pressure stability filed. Angle dispersive diffraction patterns were collected upon compression to the peak pressure and during decompression, at the ID9 dedicated high-pressure beamline of the ESRF. From the various data sets fitted to a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, we deduce that the the relationship between the bulk modulus of perovskite and the Al content is not a linear decrease. Whereas 5 mol % aluminium has no noticeable effect on the compressibility of silicate perovskite, increasing slightly the aluminium content of perovskite strongly decreases its bulk modulus. Moreover, as the aluminium is added into perovskite, the compression/decompression behaviour of the samples displays different regimes. These results can be related to the substitution mechanism of Al into perovskite, suggesting that the coupled substitution mechanism is probably efficient at low aluminium content, but might then replaced by the oxygen vacancy one at higher aluminium content. This indicates that the investigations of the chemical and petrological compositions of the uppermost lower mantle and of heterogeneities should definitely take into account the effect of Al on the thermoelastic properties of perovskite. This also suggests that the partitioning behaviour of some trace elements between perovskite and the other lower mantle phases might be different in deep subducted lithospheric plates than in the `mean' lower mantle. [1] Zhang, J., and D.J. Weidner,Science,284, 782, 1999.

  16. Towards an understanding of the adjuvant action of aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Marrack, Philippa; McKee, Amy S.; Munks, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of vaccines depends on the presence of an adjuvant in conjunction with the antigen. Of these adjuvants, the ones that contain aluminium, which were first discovered empirically in 1926, are currently the most widely used. However, a detailed understanding of their mechanism of action has only started to be revealed. In this Timeline article, we briefly describe the initial discovery of aluminium adjuvants and discuss historically important advances. We also summarize recent progress in the field and discuss their implications and the remaining questions on how these adjuvants work. PMID:19247370

  17. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  18. Accumulation of aluminium and physiological status of tree foliage in the vicinity of a large aluminium smelter.

    PubMed

    Wannaz, E D; Rodriguez, J H; Wolfsberger, T; Carreras, H A; Pignata, M L; Fangmeier, A; Franzaring, J

    2012-01-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al) and sulphur (S) as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products) were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health. PMID:22654642

  19. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  20. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  1. Characterisation of the anodic layers formed on 2024 aluminium alloy, in tetraborate electrolyte containing molybdate ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutarlier, V.; Pelletier, S.; Lallemand, F.; Gigandet, M. P.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Anodic layer growth on 2024 aluminium alloy at 70 °C, under 40 V, during 60 min, in 50 g L -1 di-sodium tetraborate solution containing di-sodium molybdate from 0.1 to 0.5 M (pH 10) is examined. Anodising behaviours strongly depend on additive concentration. Development of anodic films is favoured with weak molybdate additions (<0.3-0.4 M). The film thicknesses increase and the porosity of anodic layers decreases. Molybdenum (+VI), detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, is present in the anodic films and the Mo incorporation, studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, increases with molybdate concentration. However, for high molybdate concentrations (>0.4 M), anodising behaviour becomes complex with the formation of a blue molybdenum oxide at the cathode. The growth of aluminium oxide is hindered. As the anodic layers are thinner, the Mo(+VI) incorporation significantly decreases. These two configurations implicate different corrosion performances in 5% sodium chloride solution at 35 °C. As the alkaline anodic layer formed with 0.3 M molybdate species is the thickest and the Mo incorporation is the more pronounced, its corrosion resistance is the highest. The effect of morphology and composition of anodic films on pitting corrosion is also discussed.

  2. Laboratory studies on formation and minimisation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) in secondary aluminium process.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Dieter; Klobasa, Oliver; Pandelova, Marchela; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the formation mechanisms of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in thermal aluminium recycling processes by use of laboratory experiments. The pattern of isomers of PCDD/F indicates that de novo synthesis is important in aluminium smeltery. The mechanisms of PCDD/F formation in aluminium smelting are similar to that of various incineration processes of waste material. The results of bioanalysis (EROD-test) confirms the existence of de novo synthesis of PCDD/F, but points out to the existence to some additional, toxic compounds of unknown structure. To reduce the amount of PCDD/F the input of carbon at the metal should be reduced; in addition the metal smeltery plants should be cleaned from fly ash particles. It is suggested to use good primary methods in the technical plants like constant feeding of the metal into the oven will minimise PCDD/F concentration. The biological EROD-bioassay is a good tool to estimate PCDD/F-TEQ values also for this technical process simulated in the laboratory. PMID:22137557

  3. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Aluminium and Concrete Composite Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polus, ?ukasz; Szumiga?a, Maciej

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a numerical analysis of the resistance and stiffness of the aluminium and concrete composite beam is presented. Composite aluminium and concrete structures are quite new and they have not been thoroughly tested. Composite structures have a lot of advantages. The composite aluminium and concrete beam is more corrosion-resistant, fire-resistant and stiff than the aluminium beam. The contemporary idea of sustainable buildings relies on new solutions which are more environmentally friendly. Aluminium is lighter and more resistant to corrosion than steel, which is often used in composite structures.

  4. Effects of surface treatment of aluminium alloy 1050 on the adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Golru, S.; Attar, M. M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating on the adhesion properties and corrosion resistance of an epoxy/polyamide coating applied on the aluminium alloy 1050 (AA1050). Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measuring device were employed in order to characterize the surface characteristics of the Zr treated AA1050 samples. The epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and Zr treated samples. The epoxy coating adhesion to the aluminium substrate was evaluated by pull-off test before and after 30 days immersion in 3.5% w/w NaCl solution. In addition, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests were employed to characterize the corrosion protection properties of the epoxy coating applied on the AA1050 samples. Results revealed that the surface treatment of AA1050 by zirconium conversion coating resulted in the increase of surface free energy and surface roughness. The dry and recovery (adhesion strength after 30 days immersion in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solution) adhesion strengths of the coatings applied on the Zr treated aluminium samples were greater than untreated sample. In addition, the adhesion loss of the coating applied on the Zr treated aluminium substrate was lower than other samples. Also, the results obtained from EIS and salt spray test clearly revealed that the Zr conversion coating could enhance the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy coating significantly.

  5. Examples of liquiq metal embrittlement in industrial aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréchet, Y.; Rodine, A.; Véron, M.; Péron, S.; Deschamps, A.

    2002-09-01

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) phenomena were investigated in two industrial aluminium alloys. Gallium penetration in 7010 alloys was systematically investigated to shed light on the effect of microstructure and plasticity ahead of the crack tip. Hot temperature shortness in 5083 alloy is given as an example of cleavage induced by LME.

  6. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Alameda, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Araujo, J. P.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores??+??anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS-NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (~1.55) is quite lower (~22%) than the commonly used Al2O3 handbook value (~1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates.

  7. Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates Catalysed by Aluminium Heteroscorpionate Complexes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Javier; Castro-Osma, José A; Earlam, Amy; Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; Otero, Antonio; Lara-Sánchez, Agustín; North, Michael; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio

    2015-06-26

    New aluminium scorpionate based complexes have been prepared and used for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide. Bimetallic aluminium(heteroscorpionate) complexes 9-14 were synthesised in very high yields. The single-crystal X-ray structures of 12 and 13 confirm an asymmetric ?(2)-NO-?-O arrangement in a dinuclear molecular disposition. These bimetallic aluminium complexes were investigated as catalysts for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide in the presence of ammonium salts. Under the optimal reaction conditions, complex 9 in combination with tetrabutylammonium bromide acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the conversion of both monosubstituted and internal epoxides into the corresponding cyclic carbonates showing broad substrate scope. Complex 9 and tetrabutylammonium bromide is the second most efficient aluminium-based catalyst system for the reaction of internal epoxides with carbon dioxide. A kinetic study has been carried out and showed that the reactions were first order in complex 9 and tetrabutylammonium bromide concentrations. Based on the kinetic study, a catalytic cycle is proposed. PMID:26032761

  8. Sources and speciation of aluminium and silicon in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Farmer, V C

    1986-01-01

    The aluminosilicate minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks are mostly unstable in earth-surface weathering conditions. In the tropics and subtropics, they are transformed to stable end-products (crystalline clay minerals, oxides and hydroxides) that largely conserve aluminium and iron. In noncalcareous soils in temperature and boreal climates, aluminium can be markedly mobile, and is precipitated as metastable products that include hydrous aluminosilicates, hydroxyaluminium polymers in or on 2:1 layer silicates, and complexes with soil organic matter. The aluminosilicate precipitates formed at pH less than 5.5 have structures related to imogolite, a unidimensional crystal in the form of a tube of 2.3 nm outer diameter. These metastable precipitates, both organic and inorganic, are readily remobilized on further acidification, and can release aluminium into streams if the solutions are not neutralized in the subsoil. Three classes of soluble aluminium species in natural waters have been distinguished by their rate of reaction with complexing reagents, and their rate of adsorption on cation-exchange columns. These are: (a) unreactive, acid-soluble, Al, (b) labile monomeric Al, and (c) non-liable monomeric Al. Group (b) includes simple inorganic species (e.g. Al3+, AlOH2+, AlF2+), and group (c) is thought to include organic complexes. In contrast, silicon occurs dominantly as Si(OH)4 monomers in natural water. Its metastable precipitates include hydrous aluminosilicates and biogenic opal. PMID:3743232

  9. Molecular Characterization of Aluminium (aluminum) Tolerance in Rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to utilize moisture and nutrients by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of ...

  10. Porphyry copper enrichment linked to excess aluminium in plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, B. J.; Herrington, R. J.; Morris, A.

    2016-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits provide around 75%, 50% and 20% of world copper, molybdenum and gold, respectively. The deposits are mainly centred on calc-alkaline porphyry magmatic systems in subduction zone settings. Although calc-alkaline magmas are relatively common, large porphyry copper deposits are extremely rare and increasingly difficult to discover. Here, we compile existing geochemical data for magmatic plagioclase, a dominant mineral in calc-alkaline rocks, from fertile (porphyry-associated) and barren magmatic systems worldwide, barren examples having no associated porphyry deposit. We show that plagioclase from fertile systems is distinct in containing `excess’ aluminium. This signature is clearly demonstrated in a case study carried out on plagioclase from the fertile La Paloma and Los Sulfatos copper porphyry systems in Chile. Further, the presence of concentric zones of high excess aluminium suggests its incorporation as a result of magmatic processes. As excess aluminium has been linked to high melt water contents, the concentric zones may record injections of hydrous fluid or fluid-rich melts into the sub-porphyry magma chamber. We propose that excess aluminium may exclude copper from plagioclase, so enriching the remaining melts. Furthermore, this chemical signature can be used as an exploration indicator for copper porphyry deposits.

  11. Fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, R.H.

    1986-09-02

    A fuel is described for stored fuel capable of reducing the amount of macroscopic sludge particles formed from polymerization reactions promoted by bacteria and oxidation. More than about 50 parts by weight of the additive comprises an amine selected from the group consisting of polymerization products of ethylene diamine, polymerization products of analogs and homologs of ethylene diamine, and mixtures thereof, about 25 parts by weight of an aromatic solvent selected from the group consisting of naphtha products having a boiling range of from about 420/sup 0/F. (216/sup 0/C.) to about 545/sup 0/F. (285/sup 0/C.), about 25 parts by weight of a poly alpha olefin synthetic oil and an effective amount of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Tris(2 Hydroxyethyl)S-Triazine biocide.

  12. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  13. A Tapered Aluminium Microelectrode Array for Improvement of Dielectrophoresis-Based Particle Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Buyong, Muhamad Ramdzan; Larki, Farhad; Faiz, Mohd Syafiq; Hamzah, Azrul Azlan; Yunas, Jumrail; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the dielectrophoretic force (FDEP) response of Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays with tapered profile is investigated through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. A standard CMOS processing technique with a step for the formation of a tapered profile resist is implemented in the fabrication of Tapered Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays (TAMA). The FDEP is investigated through analysis of the Clausius-Mossotti factor (CMF) and cross-over frequency (fxo). The performance of TAMA with various side wall angles is compared to that of microelectrodes with a straight cut sidewall profile over a wide range of frequencies through FEM numerical simulations. Additionally, electric field measurement (EFM) is performed through scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in order to obtain the region of force focus in both platforms. Results showed that the tapered profile microelectrodes with angles between 60° and 70° produce the highest electric field gradient on the particles. Also, the region of the strongest electric field in TAMA is located at the bottom and top edge of microelectrode while the strongest electric field in microelectrodes with straight cut profile is found at the top corner of the microelectrode. The latter property of microelectrodes improves the probability of capturing/repelling the particles at the microelectrode’s side wall. PMID:25970255

  14. A tapered aluminium microelectrode array for improvement of dielectrophoresis-based particle manipulation.

    PubMed

    Buyong, Muhamad Ramdzan; Larki, Farhad; Faiz, Mohd Syafiq; Hamzah, Azrul Azlan; Yunas, Jumrail; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the dielectrophoretic force (F(DEP)) response of Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays with tapered profile is investigated through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. A standard CMOS processing technique with a step for the formation of a tapered profile resist is implemented in the fabrication of Tapered Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays (TAMA). The F(DEP) is investigated through analysis of the Clausius-Mossotti factor (CMF) and cross-over frequency (f(xo)). The performance of TAMA with various side wall angles is compared to that of microelectrodes with a straight cut sidewall profile over a wide range of frequencies through FEM numerical simulations. Additionally, electric field measurement (EFM) is performed through scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in order to obtain the region of force focus in both platforms. Results showed that the tapered profile microelectrodes with angles between 60° and 70° produce the highest electric field gradient on the particles. Also, the region of the strongest electric field in TAMA is located at the bottom and top edge of microelectrode while the strongest electric field in microelectrodes with straight cut profile is found at the top corner of the microelectrode. The latter property of microelectrodes improves the probability of capturing/repelling the particles at the microelectrode's side wall. PMID:25970255

  15. Development of a solid surface fluorescence-based sensing system for aluminium monitoring in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J F García; Barrales, P Ortega; Díaz, A Molina

    2005-03-15

    A novel, single and robust solid surface fluorescence-based sensing device assembled in a continuous flow system has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of aluminium in water samples. The proposed method is based on the transient immobilization of the target species on an appropriate active solid sensing zone (C(18) silica gel). The target species was the fluorogenic chelate, formed as a result of the on-line complexation of Al(III) with chromotropic acid (CA) at pH 4.1. The fluorescence of the complex is continuously monitored at an emission wavelength of 390nm upon excitation at 361nm. The instrumental, chemical and flow-injection variables affecting the fluorescence signal were carefully investigated and optimized. After selecting the most suitable conditions, the sensing system was calibrated in the range 10-500mugl(-1), obtaining a detection limit of 2.6mugl(-1), and a R.S.D. of 2.2%, with a sampling frequency of 24h(-1). In addition, the selectivity of the proposed methodology was evaluated by performing interference studies with different cations and anions which could affect the analytical response. Finally, the proposed method, which meets the EU regulations regarding the aluminium content in drinking waters, was satisfactorily applied to different water samples, with recoveries between 97 and 105%. The simplicity, low cost and easy operation are the main advantages of the present procedure. PMID:18969932

  16. Experimental evidence for a dynamical crossover in liquid aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmel, F.; Fraile, A.; Szubrin, D.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Morkel, C.

    2015-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor at next-neighbour distances has been investigated for liquid aluminium. This correlation function is a sensitive parameter for changes in the local environment and its Fourier transform was measured in a coherent inelastic neutron scattering experiment. The zero frequency amplitude decreases in a nonlinear way and indicates a change in dynamics around 1.4\\cdot {{T}\\text{melting}} . From that amplitude a generalized viscosity can be derived which is a measure of local stress correlations on next-neighbour distances. The derived generalized longitudinal viscosity shows a changing slope at the same temperature range. At this temperature the freezing out of degrees of freedom for structural relaxation upon cooling sets in which can be understood as a precursor towards the solid state. That crossover in dynamics of liquid aluminium shows the same signatures as previously observed in liquid rubidium and lead, indicating an universal character.

  17. Histopathological changes in cases of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sinha, U S; Kapoor, A K; Singh, A K; Gupta, A; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2005-04-01

    Of a total of 205 poisoning deaths in our hospital in 2003, 83 cases were due to Aluminium phosphide poisoning and were further analyzed. Most vulnerable age group was 21-40 years and M:F ratio was 2:1. On naked eye examination, almost all the vital organs were found to be congested. On microscopic study, the liver showed central venous congestion, degeneration, haemorrhage, sinusoidal dilation, bile stasis, centrilobular necrosis, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, infiltration by mononuclear cells and fatty change. Microscopy of the lungs revealed alveolar thickening, oedema, dilated capillaries, collapsed alveoli and haemorrhage. In the kidney, changes were degeneration, infiltration, tubular dilation and cloudy swelling. Changes in the brain included congestion and coagulative necrosis and in the stomach, congestion and haemorrhage. Easy availability of this cheap and highly toxic substance was responsible for the sudden spurt of poisoning with aluminium phosphide. PMID:16758658

  18. Experimental evidence for a dynamical crossover in liquid aluminium.

    PubMed

    Demmel, F; Fraile, A; Szubrin, D; Pilgrim, W-C; Morkel, C

    2015-11-18

    The temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor at next-neighbour distances has been investigated for liquid aluminium. This correlation function is a sensitive parameter for changes in the local environment and its Fourier transform was measured in a coherent inelastic neutron scattering experiment. The zero frequency amplitude decreases in a nonlinear way and indicates a change in dynamics around 1.4 ? Tmelting. From that amplitude a generalized viscosity can be derived which is a measure of local stress correlations on next-neighbour distances. The derived generalized longitudinal viscosity shows a changing slope at the same temperature range. At this temperature the freezing out of degrees of freedom for structural relaxation upon cooling sets in which can be understood as a precursor towards the solid state. That crossover in dynamics of liquid aluminium shows the same signatures as previously observed in liquid rubidium and lead, indicating an universal character. PMID:26465204

  19. Effects of nitrogen on the combustion of aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Boborykin, V.M.; Gremyachkin, V.M.; Istratov, A.G.; Kolesnikov-Svinarev, V.I.; Kuznetsov, G.P.; Leipunskii, O.I.; Puchkov, V.M.

    1983-11-01

    This article examines the burning rate of a drop of aluminium and the rates of accumulation or loss of condensed A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and ALN on the drop. The rates of mass change in the droplet and condensed products at the surface by using the conditions for heat and matter balance together with the conditions for local thermodynamic equilibrium. The results indicate that burning in mixtures containing nitrogen always gives an appreciably larger residue on the drop than is found for argon-oxygen mixtures. It is suggested that the two-stage process of combustion in air be checked by experiment and that aluminium nitride be observed at an early stage in the combustion.

  20. Results of the Experiment: Welding of Aluminium Alloy in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, S.; Amadori, K.; Boccalatte, A.; Alessandrini, M.; Freddi, A.; Persiani, F.; Poli, G.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment on "dendritic growth in aluminium alloy welding" was performed by the UNIBO team during the 3rd Student Parabolic Flight Campaign and the 30th Professional Parabolic Flight Campaign organised by ESA. Its purpose was to achieve a better understanding of crystal growth during tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of an aluminium alloy to define the main parameters affecting the process under microgravity condition. The experiment had 4 phases : The paper discusses different aspects of the research, paying particularly attention not only to the influence of gravity, but also to other factors influencing welding microstructure, such as the Marangoni effect and the thermal transfer from the electrode to the material. The paper conclude the dissertation of the results offering new perspectives for welding studies and proposing a new approach to the scientific community to investigate this materials processes for manufacturing.

  1. [The study of aluminium diffuser calibration in the UV].

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Wang, Yong-Mei; Zhang, Zhong-Mou

    2008-04-01

    A bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurement setup in the ultraviolet spectral range was established. The BRDF of the aluminium diffusers at a given orientation was measured. The relative accuracy of the BRDF measurement is better than 2.5%. The hemispheric reflectance of the aluminium diffusers was measured in the wavelength range from 250 to 650 nm. It increases with the wavelength, and changes about 6% from 300 to 360 nm. It decreases with the time. Since the diffuser was made (about one year ago), from 250 to 300 nm, the peak decrease in the hemispheric reflectance can reach 2.6%, and the average decrease is 1.5%. From 300 to 360 nm, it has an average decrease of 0.9% decrease, and 0.8% when wavelength is longer than 360 nm. PMID:18619317

  2. Experimental model of the interfacial instability in aluminium reduction cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedchenko, A.; Molokov, S.; Priede, J.; Lukyanov, A.; Thomas, P. J.

    2009-10-01

    A solution has been found to the long-standing problem of experimental modelling of the interfacial instability in aluminium reduction cells. The idea is to replace the electrolyte overlaying molten aluminium with a mesh of thin rods supplying current down directly into the liquid metal layer. This eliminates electrolysis altogether and all the problems associated with it, such as high temperature, chemical aggressiveness of media, products of electrolysis, the necessity for electrolyte renewal, high power demands, etc. The result is a room temperature, versatile laboratory model which simulates Sele-type, rolling pad interfacial instability. Our new, safe laboratory model enables detailed experimental investigations to test the existing theoretical models for the first time.

  3. Recovering obliterated engraved marks on aluminium surfaces by etching technique.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Mohd Izhar Mohd; Kuppuswamy, R; Rahman, Azari Abd

    2008-05-20

    A study has been made of the characteristics of restoration of obliterated engraved marks on aluminium surfaces by etching technique. By etching different reagents on 0.61mm thick sheets of aluminium (99wt%) on which some engraved marks had been erased to different depths it was found that the reagent 60% hydrochloric acid and 40% sodium hydroxide on alternate swabbing on the surfaces was found to be the most sensitive one for these metal surfaces. This reagent was able to restore marks in the above plates erased down to 0.04mm below the bottom of the engraving. The marks also presented excellent contrast with the background. This reagent was further experimented with similar aluminium surfaces, but of relatively greater thickness of 1.5mm. It was noticed that the recovery depth increased slightly to 0.06mm; this suggested the dependence of recovery depth on the thickness of the sheet metal. Further, the depth of restoration decreased in cases where the original number was erased and over which a new number was engraved; the latter results are similar to those of steel surfaces reported earlier [M.A.M. Zaili, R. Kuppuswamy, H. Harun, Restoration of engraved marks on steel surfaces by etching technique, Forensic Sci. Int. 171 (2007) 27-32]. PMID:18313246

  4. The disinfection of water by microalloyed aluminium-based composite.

    PubMed

    Boji?, A; Purenovi?, M; Koci?, B; Perovi?, J; Ursi?-Jankovi?, J; Boji?, D

    2003-03-01

    In the submitted paper the water disinfection capacity of the microalloyed aluminium based composite (MABC) was studied. MABC is material in the form of steel wire, plated with microalloyed aluminium. The effects of the composite are based on the very negative stationary potential of microalloyed aluminium, and its spontaneous dissolution in water with generation of AI(III) ions, and reduction of water with the generation of H2 and OH ions. As a final product of these reactions, a voluminous Al(OH)3 precipitate is formed. Having in mind its great efficacy in purification of different waters from many chemical pollutants we made the following hypothesis: reduction characteristics of the MABC surface, presence of Al(III) and OH ions, and coprecipitation on Al(OH)3, can be also toxic and destructive for bacteria in water. The experiments were carried out with the water model solutions (WMS) based on adapted natural surface water (NSW), inoculated with the Escherichia coli. All treatments were performed in the original semi-flow system (SFS), in which convection increases efficacy. The results show that approximately every 10 min the number of viable bacteria was reduced for about one log10 count, with the complete disinfected water phase as the outcome of the treatment. At the end of the treatment, the Al(OH)3 precipitate still contained a low amount of coprecipitated viable bacteria, which died within a relatively short period. PMID:12690801

  5. The disinfection of water by microalloyed aluminium-based composite.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Bojić A; Purenović M; Kocić B; Perović J; Ursi?-Janković J; Bojić D

    2003-03-01

    In the submitted paper the water disinfection capacity of the microalloyed aluminium based composite (MABC) was studied. MABC is material in the form of steel wire, plated with microalloyed aluminium. The effects of the composite are based on the very negative stationary potential of microalloyed aluminium, and its spontaneous dissolution in water with generation of AI(III) ions, and reduction of water with the generation of H2 and OH ions. As a final product of these reactions, a voluminous Al(OH)3 precipitate is formed. Having in mind its great efficacy in purification of different waters from many chemical pollutants we made the following hypothesis: reduction characteristics of the MABC surface, presence of Al(III) and OH ions, and coprecipitation on Al(OH)3, can be also toxic and destructive for bacteria in water. The experiments were carried out with the water model solutions (WMS) based on adapted natural surface water (NSW), inoculated with the Escherichia coli. All treatments were performed in the original semi-flow system (SFS), in which convection increases efficacy. The results show that approximately every 10 min the number of viable bacteria was reduced for about one log10 count, with the complete disinfected water phase as the outcome of the treatment. At the end of the treatment, the Al(OH)3 precipitate still contained a low amount of coprecipitated viable bacteria, which died within a relatively short period.

  6. Modelling of detonation cellular structure in aluminium suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, A.; Veyssiere, B.; Khasainov, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneous detonations involving aluminium suspensions have been studied for many years for industrial safety policies, and for military and propulsion applications. Owing to their weak detonability and to the lack of available experimental results on the detonation cellular structure, numerical simulations provide a convenient way to improve the knowledge of such detonations. One major difficulty arising in numerical study of heterogeneous detonations involving suspensions of aluminium particles in oxidizing atmospheres is the modelling of aluminium combustion. Our previous two-step model provided results on the effect on the detonation cellular structure of particle diameter and characteristic chemical lengths. In this study, a hybrid model is incorporated in the numerical code EFAE, combining both kinetic and diffusion regimes in parallel. This more realistic model provides good agreement with the previous two-step model and confirms the correlations found between the detonation cell width, and particle diameter and characteristic lengths. Moreover, the linear dependence found between the detonation cell width and the induction length remains valid with the hybrid model.

  7. Effect of ultrasonic energy on nanoscale interfacial structure in copper wire bonding on aluminium pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Liu, C.; Silberschmidt, V. V.; Chen, Z.; Acoff, V. L.

    2011-04-01

    The effect of ultrasonic vibration on nanoscale interfacial structure of thermosonic copper wire bonding on aluminium pads was investigated. It was found that bonding strength was determined by the extent of fragmentation of a native aluminium oxide overlayer (5-10 nm thick) on aluminium pads, forming paths for formation of intermetallic compound CuAl2 in areas of direct contact of bonded metal surfaces. The degree of fracture of the oxide layer was strongly affected by a level of ultrasonic power.

  8. Effect of oxide particles on the stabilization and final microstructure in aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Bachmaier, Andrea; Pippan, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Bulk aluminium samples containing alumina particles have been produced by different severe plastic deformation methods. Aluminium foils with different initial foil thicknesses were cold rolled to different amounts of strain and aluminium powders were consolidated and deformed by high pressure torsion (HPT). During processing, alumina particles from the foil or particle surface are easily incorporated and dispersed in the bulk material. The influence of these alumina particles on the developing microstructures and the mechanical properties has been studied. PMID:21976787

  9. Improving the wettability of 2024 aluminium alloy by means of cold plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polini, W.; Sorrentino, L.

    2003-05-01

    Aluminium alloys are heavily used to manufacture structural parts in the aeronautic industry because of its lightness and its corrosion resistance. These alloys are successfully used in other industrial fields too, such as railway, automotive and naval industries. The need to contrast the severe use conditions and the heavy stresses developing in aeronautic field implies to protect the surfaces of the structures in aluminium alloy by any deterioration. To preserve by deterioration, it is necessary to make aluminium more suitable to be coated by protective paint. In the aeronautic industry, a complex and critical process is used in order to enhance both wettability and adhesive properties of aluminium alloy surfaces. Cold plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate aluminium surfaces. The present work deals with air cold plasma treatment of 2024 aluminium alloy surfaces. The influence of dc electrical discharge cold plasma parameters on wettability of 2024 aluminium alloy surfaces has been studied. A set of process variables (voltage, time and air flow rate) has been identified and used to conduct some experimental tests on the basis of design of experiment (DOE) techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed plasma process may considerably increase aluminium alloy wettability. These results represent the first step in trying to optimise the aluminium adhesion by means of this non-conventional manufacturing process.

  10. Do aluminium-based phosphate binders continue to have a role in contemporary nephrology practice?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aluminium-containing phosphate binders have long been used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Their safety became controversial in the early 1980's after reports of aluminium related neurological and bone disease began to appear. Available historical evidence however, suggests that neurological toxicity may have primarily been caused by excessive exposure to aluminium in dialysis fluid, rather than aluminium-containing oral phosphate binders. Limited evidence suggests that aluminium bone disease may also be on the decline in the era of aluminium removal from dialysis fluid, even with continued use of aluminium binders. Discussion The K/DOQI and KDIGO guidelines both suggest avoiding aluminium-containing binders. These guidelines will tend to promote the use of the newer, more expensive binders (lanthanum, sevelamer), which have limited evidence for benefit and, like aluminium, limited long-term safety data. Treating hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients continues to represent a major challenge, and there is a large body of evidence linking serum phosphate concentrations with mortality. Most nephrologists agree that phosphate binders have the potential to meaningfully reduce mortality in dialysis patients. Aluminium is one of the cheapest, most effective and well tolerated of the class, however there are no prospective or randomised trials examining the efficacy and safety of aluminium as a binder. Aluminium continues to be used as a binder in Australia as well as some other countries, despite concern about the potential for toxicity. There are some data from selected case series that aluminium bone disease may be declining in the era of reduced aluminium content in dialysis fluid, due to rigorous water testing. Summary This paper seeks to revisit the contemporary evidence for the safety record of aluminium-containing binders in dialysis patients. It puts their use into the context of the newer, more expensive binders and increasing concerns about the risks of calcium binders, which continue to be widely used. The paper seeks to answer whether the continued use of aluminium is justifiable in the absence of prospective data establishing its safety, and we call for prospective trials to be conducted comparing the available binders both in terms of efficacy and safety. PMID:21569446

  11. Dietary Exposure to Aluminium and Health Risk Assessment in the Residents of Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0–2 and 3–13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China. PMID:24594670

  12. Galvanic interactions of aluminium 3004 and ? brass in tropical marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palraj, S.; Subramanian, G.; Palanichamy, S.

    2014-12-01

    The galvanic corrosion behaviour of aluminium 3004 - ? brass with different area ratios was studied in the tropical marine atmosphere at Tuticorin harbour over a period of 426 days. The area ratios, viz. A Aluminium: A ? brass, studied were 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8. The galvanic corrosion behaviour of the metals was studied in terms of the relative increase in the corrosion rate of aluminium due to galvanic coupling with ? brass, the relative decrease in the corrosion rate of ? brass due to galvanic coupling with aluminium, and the susceptibility of aluminium to pitting owing to galvanic coupling with ? brass. The galvanic potential and galvanic current of the system were monitored. Pits of different dimensions ranging from mild etchings to perforations were experienced on the borders and the surfaces of the interface of aluminium in contact with ? brass. The corrosion products resulting from galvanic corrosion were analysed using XRD and the pitting on aluminium as a result of galvanic corrosion was highlighted in terms of pit depth, size and density of pit, using a high resolution microscope. The most favourable area ratio of aluminium — ? brass in marine atmosphere in terms of gravimetric corrosion rate is 8:1 and the most unfavourable area ratio of aluminium — ? brass is 1:4.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPAR? antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPAR? receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation. PMID:25940660

  14. Studies of Splat Formation of Copper and Copper Aluminium on Ceramic Substrate in Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, A. T. T.; Hyland, M. M.; Fukumoto, M.; Munroe, P.

    2016-01-01

    Of the substrate-related factors that will influence splat formation, alloying elements has been little studied. In the present work, we have examined the role of alloying elements in controlling the extent of splashing of plasma-sprayed splats. Splats of copper (Cu) and copper alloyed with Al and Zr were deposited by plasma spray or as free-falling droplets. The splat formation and splat-substrate interfaces were characterized using SEM and FIB. It was found that the presence of aluminium in plasma-sprayed Cu-10%Al increased the portion of favorable disk-shaped splats compared to pure copper. It was also found that the disk-shaped splat proportion of Cu-10%Al at room temperature is nearly identical to that of Cu splat at 300 °C, indicating that the addition of Al in the alloy leads to the improvement of splat formation, correlating with the improvement in the interface bonding with the substrate.

  15. Laser-induced electrochemical de- and repassivation investigations on plasma-oxidized aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Tristan O.; Pacher, Ulrich; Giesriegl, Ariane; Soyka, Lukas; Trettenhahn, Günter; Kautek, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In situ laser depassivation of plasma electrolytically oxididized (PEO) coatings on aluminium was investigated with nanosecond pulses. Ultraviolet radiation of 266 nm was chosen in order to achieve a high absorption in the dielectric coating. The additive accumulation of laser-induced material defects (incubation) affected the depassivation processes. Incubation occurred only at the edges of the ablation craters irradiated by the outer region of the Gaussian beam profile, where the local fluence is below the ablation threshold. The ablation rate in the spot center did not exhibit an incubation effect. Repassivation was interpreted by a linear combination of a high-field and a point defect growth model. At low overpotentials, field gradients affect the process driving the oxide growth at the buried interface. At high fields, corrosion reactions dominate at the oxide/solution interface.

  16. Theoretical aspects of fluoride air contaminant formation in aluminium smelter potrooms.

    PubMed

    L'vov, Boris V; Polzik, Leonid K; Weinbruch, Stephan; Ellingsen, Dag G; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2005-05-01

    The amount of particulate fluorides evolved from aluminium electrolysis cells is not entirely accounted for by the fluorides entrained in the anode gas. The largest additional source of particulate fluoride formation is by direct evaporation of fluorides into the anode gas stream and subsequent condensation on the drops of electrolyte generated in the process of bubble burst. A theoretical model was used for the calculation of the main physical parameters responsible for the formation of particle nuclei when the hot anode-gas is mixed with ambient air. The results of these calculations are in agreement with experimental observations reported in the literature. In particular, the size distribution, composition and morphology of the nano-particles support the theory of a vapour condensation mechanism under conditions of extreme supersaturation, but further studies are necessary. PMID:15877162

  17. Studies of Splat Formation of Copper and Copper Aluminium on Ceramic Substrate in Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, A. T. T.; Hyland, M. M.; Fukumoto, M.; Munroe, P.

    2015-09-01

    Of the substrate-related factors that will influence splat formation, alloying elements has been little studied. In the present work, we have examined the role of alloying elements in controlling the extent of splashing of plasma-sprayed splats. Splats of copper (Cu) and copper alloyed with Al and Zr were deposited by plasma spray or as free-falling droplets. The splat formation and splat-substrate interfaces were characterized using SEM and FIB. It was found that the presence of aluminium in plasma-sprayed Cu-10%Al increased the portion of favorable disk-shaped splats compared to pure copper. It was also found that the disk-shaped splat proportion of Cu-10%Al at room temperature is nearly identical to that of Cu splat at 300 °C, indicating that the addition of Al in the alloy leads to the improvement of splat formation, correlating with the improvement in the interface bonding with the substrate.

  18. Light weight cellular structures based on aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, O.; Embury, J.D.; Sinclair, C.; Sang, H.; Silvetti, P.

    1997-02-01

    An interesting form of lightweight material which has emerged in the past 2 decades is metallic foam. This paper deals with the basic concepts of making metallic foams and a detailed study of foams produced from Al-SiC. In addition, some aspects of cellular solids based on honeycomb structures are outlined including the concept of producing both two-phase foams and foams with composite walls.

  19. The Potential of Aluminium Metal Powder as a Fuel for Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. M.; Osborne, B.; Welch, C. S.

    Metal powder propulsion systems have been addressed intermittently since the Second World War, initially in the field of underwater propulsion where research in the application of propelling torpedoes continues until this day. During the post war era, researchers attempted to utilise metal powders as a fuel for ram jet applications in missiles. The 1960's and 1970's saw additional interest in the use of `pure powder' propellants, i.e. fluidised metal fuel and oxidiser, both in solid particulate form. Again the application was for employment in space-constrained missiles where the idea was to maximise the performance of high energy density powder propellants in order to enhance the missile's flight duration. Metal powder as possible fuel was investigated for in-situ resource utilisation propulsion systems post-1980's where the emphasis was on the use of gaseous oxygen or liquid oxygen combined with aluminium metal powder for use as a ``lunar soil propellant'' or carbon dioxide and magnesium metal powder as a ``Martian propellant''.Albeit aluminium metal powder propellants are lower in performance than cryogenic and Earth storable propellants, the former does have an advantage inasmuch that the propulsion system is generic, i.e. it can be powered with chemicals mined and processed on Earth, the Moon and Mars. Thus, due to the potential refuelling capability, the lower performing aluminium metal powder propellant would effectively possess a much higher change in velocity (V) for multiple missions than the cryogenic or Earth storable propellant which is only suitable for one planet or one mission scenario, respectively.One of the principal limitations of long duration human spaceflight beyond cis-lunar orbit is the lack of refuelling capabilities on distant planets resulting in the reliance on con- ventional non-cryogenic, propellants produced on Earth. If one could develop a reliable propulsion system operating on pro- pellants derived entirely of ingredients found on nearby plan- etary bodies, then not only could mission duration be extended, larger amounts of payload could be ferried to and from the destination and eventually the cost of transporting propellant ingredients from Earth could be reduced, if not eliminated.

  20. The Tungsten Inert GAS (TIG) Process of Welding Aluminium in Microgravity: Technical and Economic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, S.; Amadori, K.; Boccalatte, A.; Alessandrini, M.; Freddi, A.; Persiani, F.; Poli, G.

    2002-01-01

    The UNIBO team composed of students and professors of the University of Bologna along with technicians and engineers from Alenia Space Division and Siad Italargon Division, took part in the 3rd Student Parabolic Flight Campaign of the European Space Agency in 2000. It won the student competition and went on to take part in the Professional Parabolic Flight Campaign of May 2001. The experiment focused on "dendritic growth in aluminium alloy weldings", and investigated topics related to the welding process of aluminium in microgravity. The purpose of the research is to optimise the process and to define the areas of interest that could be improved by new conceptual designs. The team performed accurate tests in microgravity to determine which phenomena have the greatest impact on the quality of the weldings with respect to penetration, surface roughness and the microstructures that are formed during the solidification. Various parameters were considered in the economic-technical optimisation, such as the type of electrode and its tip angle. Ground and space tests have determined the optimum chemical composition of the electrodes to offer longest life while maintaining the shape of the point. Additionally, the power consumption has been optimised; this offers opportunities for promoting the product to the customer as well as being environmentally friendly. Tests performed on the Al-Li alloys showed a significant influence of some physical phenomena such as the Marangoni effect and thermal diffusion; predictions have been made on the basis of observations of the thermal flux seen in the stereophotos. Space transportation today is a key element in the construction of space stations and future planetary bases, because the volumes available for launch to space are directly related to the payload capacity of rockets or the Space Shuttle. The research performed gives engineers the opportunity to consider completely new concepts for designing structures for space applications. In fact, once the optimised parameters are defined for welding in space, it could be possible to weld different parts directly in orbit to obtain much larger sizes and volumes, for example for space tourism habitation modules. The second relevant aspect is technology transfer obtained by the optimisation of the TIG process on aluminium which is often used in the automotive industry as well as in mass production markets.

  1. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups.

    PubMed

    van der Harst, Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-02-01

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup. The substitution and recycled-content method were next applied with actual rates for recycling, incineration and landfilling for both product systems in selected countries. The six methods differ in their approaches to credit recycling. The three substitution methods stimulate the recyclability of the product and assign credits for the obtained recycled material. The choice to either apply a correction factor, or to account for alternative substituted material has a considerable influence on the LCA results, and is debatable. Nevertheless, we prefer incorporating quality reduction of the recycled material by either a correction factor or an alternative substituted material over simply ignoring quality loss. The allocation-on-number-of-recycling-loops method focusses on the life expectancy of material itself, rather than on a specific separate product. The recycled-content method stimulates the use of recycled material, i.e. credits the use of recycled material in products and ignores the recyclability of the products. The equal-share method is a compromise between the substitution methods and the recycled-content method. The results for the aluminium can follow the underlying philosophies of the methods. The results for the PS cup are additionally influenced by the correction factor or credits for the alternative material accounting for the drop in PS quality, the waste treatment management (recycling rate, incineration rate, landfilling rate), and the source of avoided electricity in case of waste incineration. The results for the PS cup, which are less dominated by production of virgin material than aluminium can, furthermore depend on the environmental impact categories. This stresses the importance to consider other impact categories besides the most commonly used global warming impact. The multitude of available methods complicates the choice of an appropriate method for the LCA practitioner. New guidelines keep appearing and industries also suggest their own preferred method. Unambiguous ISO guidelines, particularly related to sensitivity analysis, would be a great step forward in making more robust LCAs. PMID:26440926

  2. Le nitrure d'aluminium : de la poudre au substrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrige, J.; Mexmain, J.; Oumaloul, M.; Bachelard, R.; Disson, J. P.

    1993-04-01

    The aluminium nitride is a material which should replace alumina or beryllia as substrate for power electronic applications. The powder, prepared by carbothermal nitridation, is dispersed in a butanone-2-ethanol azeotrop solvent with a phosphate ester. Electrical conductivity, sedimentation, viscosity have been used to determine which phenomena take place in the defloculation of the suspension. The stability of AlN suspensions is due mainly to an electrostatic mechanism, with a steric contribution. The aluminium nitride tape-casting slip has been sintered at 1 850°C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Removing of the binder and plasticizer can be performed in the same oven at 650°C, due to their nature and low concentration. The thermal conductivity of the substrates has been measured and is in the 160 to 200W/m.K range. Le nitrure d'aluminium est le matériau appelé à remplacer l'alumine ou l'oxyde de béryllium en tant que substrat dans les circuits de puissance en microélectronique. La poudre utilisée préparée par carbonitruration a été mise en suspension dans le milieu azéotropique butanone-2-éthanol en présence d'un ester phosphorique. Conductivité, sédimentation, viscosité ont permis d'appréhender les phénomènes qui permettent de défloculer la suspension. La stabilité est assurée par un mécanisme électrostatique ayant une contribution stérique. Le nitrure est coulé en bande puis fritté à 1?850°C sous azote. La qualité et la faible teneur du liant permettent de l'éliminer dans le même four à 650°C. Les conductivités thermiques des substrats sont comprises entre 160 et 200W/m.K.

  3. Aluminium control of argon solubility in silicate melts under pressure.

    PubMed

    Bouhifd, M Ali; Jephcoat, Andrew P

    2006-02-23

    Understanding of the crystal chemistry of the Earth's deep mantle has evolved rapidly recently with the gradual acceptance of the importance of the effect of minor elements such as aluminium on the properties of major phases such as perovskite. In the early Earth, during its formation and segregation into rocky mantle and iron-rich core, it is likely that silicate liquids played a large part in the transport of volatiles to or from the deep interior. The importance of aluminium on solubility mechanisms at high pressure has so far received little attention, even though aluminium has long been recognized as exerting strong control on liquid structures at ambient conditions. Here we present constraints on the solubility of argon in aluminosilicate melt compositions up to 25 GPa and 3,000 K, using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The argon contents reach a maximum that persists to pressures as high as 17 GPa (up to 500 km deep in an early magma ocean), well above that expected on the basis of Al-free melt experiments. A distinct drop in argon solubility observed over a narrow pressure range correlates well with the expected void loss in the melt structure predicted by recent molecular dynamics simulations. These results provide a process for noble gas sequestration in the mantle at various depths in a cooling magma ocean. The concept of shallow partial melting as a unique process for extracting noble gases from the early Earth, thereby defining the initial atmospheric abundance, may therefore be oversimplified. PMID:16495996

  4. Are aluminium potroom workers at increased risk of neurological disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Sim, M; Dick, R; Russo, J; Bernard, B; Grubb, P; Krieg, E; Mueller, C; McCammon, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether long term potroom workers in an aluminium smelter are at increased risk of neurological disorders. METHODS: Cross sectional study of 63 current and former aluminium potroom workers first employed before 1970 and with at least 10 years of service. A group of 37 cast house and carbon plant workers with similar durations of employment and starting dates in the same smelter were used as controls. The prevalence of neurological symptoms was ascertained by questionnaire. Objective tests of tremor in both upper and lower limbs, postural stability, reaction time, and vocabulary were conducted. All subjects were examined by a neurologist. RESULTS: No significant differences in age, race, or education were found between the two groups. Although the potroom group had higher prevalences for all but one of the neurological symptoms, only three odds ratios (ORs) were significantly increased; for incoordination (OR 10.6), difficulty buttoning (OR 6.2), and depression (OR 6.2). Tests of arm or hand and leg tremor in both the visible and non-visible frequencies did not show any significant differences between the two groups. Testing of postural stability showed no definitive pattern of neurologically meaningful differences between the groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups in reaction time, vocabulary score, or clinical neurological assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The objective measures of neurological function provided little support for the finding of increased neurological symptom prevalences in the potroom workers, although increased symptoms may be an indicator of early, subtle neurological changes. The results provide no firm basis for concluding that neurological effects among long term potroom workers are related to the working environment, in particular aluminium exposure, in potrooms. These findings should be treated with caution due to the low participation of former workers and the possibility of information bias in the potroom group. PMID:9166127

  5. Hexaaqua­aluminium(III) tris­(methane­sulfonate)

    PubMed Central

    Trella, Thomas; Frank, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [Al(H2O)6](CH3SO3)3 (common name: aluminium methane­sulfonate hexa­hydrate), was crystallized from an aqueous solution prepared by the precipitation reaction of aluminium sulfate and barium methane­sulfonate. Its crystal structure is the first of the boron group methane­sulfonates to be determined. The characteristic building block is a centrosymmetric unit containing two hexa­aqua­aluminium cations that are connected to each other by two O atoms of the –SO3 groups in an O—H?O?H—O sequence. Further O—H?O hydrogen bonding links these blocks in orthogonal directions – along [010] forming a double chain array, along [10-1] forming a layered arrangement of parallel chains and along [101] forming a three-dimensional network. As indicated by the O?O distances of 2.600?(3)–2.715?(3)?Å, the hydrogen bonds are from medium–strong to strong. A further structural feature is the arrangement of two and four methyl groups, respectively, establishing ‘hydro­phobic islands’ of different size, all positioned in a layer-like region perpendicular to [101]. The only other building block within this region is one of the –SO3 groups giving a local connection between the hydro­philic structural regions on both sides of the ‘hydro­phobic’ one. Thermal analysis indicates that a stepwise dehydration process starts at about 413?K and proceeds via the respective penta- and dihydrate until the compound completely decomposes at about 688?K. PMID:22904782

  6. Aluminium nanohole arrays enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectra in the near ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, YanQing; Dong, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Aluminium nanohole arrays with fixed diameter were fabricated by focused ion beam and the periodicities were turned. Aluminium nanohole arrays enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectra in the near ultraviolet region were studied experimentally and theoretically, which revealed that the SERRS enhancement factor was as high as 6 orders.

  7. Application of surface plasmon polaritons in the laser ablation and characterisation of thin aluminium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, G. F.; McNeill, D. A.; Dawson, P.

    1999-06-01

    Surface modification of thin aluminium films is both produced and characterised by exciting surface plasmon polaritons in an attenuated total reflection geometry: silica prism/aluminium/ aluminium oxide system. The modification is performed, under ambient conditions, by exposure to a low fluence (<50 mJ cm -2) single pulse of radiation from an excimer laser at wavelength 248 nm. Pre- and post-ablation characterisation of samples is performed at a centre wavelength of 250 nm by using a xenon lamp and optical filtration. Modelling of the characteristic reflectance-angle curves from areas exposed to the laser shows both an increased oxide thickness and the presence of an optically absorbing cermet layer, a region of mixed metal and oxide, between the aluminium and the aluminium oxide. Analysis of the results suggests that the interfacial aluminium/oxide region supporting the surface mode is ablated by means of a non-thermal, bond-breaking mechanism leading to further surface oxide formation and a progressively less complete oxidation process for a finite distance into the aluminium film. However, the ablation is frustrated in the sense that there is little or no net loss of aluminium from the system.

  8. Effects of silicon on gastrointestinal absorption of aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Edwardson, J.A.; Moore, P.B.; Ferrier, I.N.; Lilley, J.S.; Newton, G.W.A.; Barker, J.; Templar, J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-07-24

    The reported geographical association between Alzheimer's disease and levels of aluminium (Al) in water supplies may reflect the inverse relation between Al and silicon (Si) concentrations in water, and the potential for Si to reduce the bioavailability of the metal. The authors tested this hypothesis using isotopic [sup 26]Al tracer administered orally to five healthy volunteers in the presence and absence of Si. Dissolved Si, at a concentration found in some water supplies reduced the peak plasma [sup 26]Al concentration to 15% of the value obtained in the absence of Si. The results indicate that dissolved Si is an important factor in limiting the absorption of dietary Al.

  9. The fracture of boron fibre-reinforced 6061 aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. A.; Welch, D.; Jollay, J.

    1979-01-01

    The fracture of 6061 aluminium alloy reinforced with unidirectional and cross-plied 0/90 deg, 0/90/+ or - 45 deg boron fibres has been investigated. The results have been described in terms of a critical stress intensity, K(Q). Critical stress intensity factors were obtained by substituting the failure stress and the initial crack length into the appropriate expression for K(Q). Values were obtained that depended on the dimensions of the specimens. It was therefore concluded that, for the size of specimen tested, the values of K(Q) did not reflect any basic materials property.

  10. Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cambronero, L.E.G.; Ruiz-Roman, J.M.; Canadas, I.; Martinez, D.

    2010-06-15

    Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close to 300 W/cm{sup 2} on the mould is high enough to achieve complete foaming after heating for only 200 s. Under these conditions, the density and pore distribution in the foam change depending on the solar heating parameters and mould design. (author)

  11. Charge exchange of He +-ions with aluminium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rund, S.; Primetzhofer, D.; Markin, S. N.; Goebl, D.; Bauer, P.

    2011-06-01

    Charge exchange of 4He + and 3He + ions with surfaces of polycrystalline aluminium and Al(1 1 1) was investigated in the low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) regime. Ion spectra were recorded for primary energies ranging from 280 to 4000 eV by using an electrostatic analyzer (ESA). A very low threshold energy Eth for collision induced charge exchange (CI) was deduced from the shape of experimental spectra. Ion fractions P+ were evaluated. No systematic difference in P+ was observed for both, the two surfaces investigated and the two different projectiles.

  12. Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Korchazhkina, Olga; Job, Deborah; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Crome, Peter

    2006-09-01

    There are unexplained links between human exposure to aluminium and the incidence, progression and aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. The null hypothesis which underlies any link is that there would be no Alzheimer's disease in the effective absence of a body burden of aluminium. To test this the latter would have to be reduced to and retained at a level that was commensurate with an Alzheimer's disease-free population. In the absence of recent human interference in the biogeochemical cycle of aluminium the reaction of silicic acid with aluminium has acted as a geochemical control of the biological availability of aluminium. This same mechanism might now be applied to both the removal of aluminium from the body and the reduced entry of aluminium into the body while ensuring that essential metals, such as iron, are unaffected. Based upon the premise that urinary aluminium is the best non-invasive estimate of body burden of aluminium patients with Alzheimer's disease were asked to drink 1.5 L of a silicic acid-rich mineral water each day for five days and, by comparison of their urinary excretion of aluminium pre-and post this simple procedure, the influence upon their body burden of aluminium was determined. Drinking the mineral water increased significantly (P<0.001) their urinary excretion of silicic acid (34.3 +/- 15.2 to 55.7 +/- 14.2 micromol/mmol creatinine) and concomitantly reduced significantly P=0.037) their urinary excretion of aluminium (86.0 +/- 24.3 to 62.2 +/- 23.2 nmol/mmol creatinine). The latter was achieved without any significant (P>0.05) influence upon the urinary excretion of iron (20.7 +/- 9.5 to 21.7 +/- 13.8 nmol/mmol creatinine). The reduction in urinary aluminium supported the future longer-term use of silicic acid as non-invasive therapy for reducing the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:16988476

  13. Concentration of aluminium in breast cyst fluids collected from women affected by gross cystic breast disease.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Tonti, Gaetana A; Darbre, Philippa D

    2009-01-01

    Gross cystic breast disease (GCBD) is the most common benign breast disorder, but the molecular basis of cyst formation remains to be identified. If the use of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts is involved in the etiology of gross breast cyst formation, it might be expected that aluminium would be at elevated levels in human breast cyst fluid (BCF). Aluminium was measured by ICP-MS in 48 samples of BCF, 30 samples of human blood serum and 45 samples of human breast milk at different stages of lactation (colostrum, intermediate, mature). The median level of aluminium in apocrine type I BCF (n = 27, 150 microg l(-1)) was significantly higher than in transudative type II BCF (n = 21, 32 microg l(-1); P < 0.0001). By comparison, aluminium measurements gave a median concentration of 6 microg l(-1) in human serum and 25 microg l(-1) in human breast milk, with no difference between colostrum, intermediate and mature milk. Levels of aluminium were significantly higher in both types of BCF than in human serum (P < 0.0001). However when compared with human breast milk, aluminium levels were only significantly higher in apocrine type I BCF (P < 0.0001) and not in transudative type II BCF (P = 0.152). It remains to be identified why such high levels of aluminium were found in the apocrine type I BCF and from where the aluminium originated. However, if aluminium-based antiperspirants are found to be the source and to play any causal role in development of breast cysts, then it might become possible to prevent this common breast disorder. PMID:18785682

  14. Histological and electron microprobe studies of mineralisation in aluminium-related osteomalacia.

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, B. F.; Byars, J.; McWilliams, S.; Mocan, M. Z.; Elder, H. Y.; Boyle, I. T.; Junor, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine a possible mechanism to explain the presence of aluminium lines within fully calcified bone in aluminium-related osteomalacia. METHODS: Fifty five bone cases shown by bone biopsy to be aluminium-related osteomalacia were studied. In 38 specimens aluminium lines were identified within calcified bone by means of the Aluminon stain and a characteristic form of patchy mineralisation was seen within thickened osteoid seams. Five representative examples were analysed quantitatively by histomorphometry and electronprobe X-ray microanalysis and compared with five cases of vitamin D deficiency-related osteomalacia which also had patchy mineralisation. RESULTS: The patchy calcification occupied 40 +/- 8% (mean +/- SEM) of the osteoid and consisted of small focal deposits (less than 40 microns diameter), often (52%) around osteoid osteocytes (probably an underestimate of the association), and larger areas that extended to the aluminium lines at the underlying mineralisation front. Small and large mineralisation nuclei were seen ultrastructurally in the patchy calcification. Quantitative electronprobe X-ray microanalysis showed that calcium concentrations and calcium:phosphorus ratios in the mineralisation nuclei and in the superficial layer of the fully calcified bone of the aluminium-related osteomalacia cases were significantly less than values measured at similar sites in the vitamin D deficiency-related osteomalacia cases. Furthermore, aluminium could not be detected by means of this technique at the mineralisation front or along cement lines in these specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Calcification can occur in thickened osteoid seams in osteomalacia. It can begin around osteoid osteocytes as small deposits that enlarge within the osteoid and extend to the underlying mineralisation front or cement line where aluminium lines may become trapped. Complete calcification of osteoid could account for the presence of aluminium lines within fully calcified bone. The Aluminon stain appears to be a more sensitive method for the detection of aluminium in bone than electronprobe X-ray microanalysis. Images PMID:1624597

  15. Perforation of aluminium foam core sandwich panels under impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnasri, I.; Zhao, H.; Girard, Y.

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports an original inverse perforation tests on foam core sandwich panels under impact loading. The key point is the use of an instrumented Hopkinson pressure bar as a perforator and at the same time a measuring device. It aims at a high quality piercing force record during the whole perforation process, which is a lack of common free-flying projectile - target testing schemes. This new testing arrangement allows for the measurement of piercing force-displacement curves under quasi-static and impact loadings of sandwich samples, which is made of 40 mm AlSi7Mg0.5 Cymat foam cores and 0.8 mm thick 2024 T3 aluminium sheet as top and bottom skins. Compared with quasi-static top skin peak loads (the maximal load before the perforation of top skins) obtained under same geometric and clamping conditions and even in the case that the used foam core (Cymat) and aluminium skin sheet are known and have been confirmed rate insensitive, a significant enhancement under impact loading (25%) of the top skin peak load is found.

  16. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of trace aluminium with indigo carmine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huai-Li; Xiong, Wen-Qiang; Gong, Ying-Kun; Peng, De-Jun; Li, Ling-Chun

    2007-04-01

    A new catalytic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of trace amounts of Al(III). The methods based on catalytic action of Al(III) on the oxidation of indigo carmine (IC) by ammonium persulfate in hexamethylene tetramine-hydrochloric acid ((CH 2) 6N 4-HCl) buffer medium (pH 5.4) and in the presence of surfactant—TritonX-100. The effects of some factors on the reaction speed were investigated. Aluminium concentration is linear for 0-1.2 × 10 -7 g/ml in this method. The detection limit of the proposed method is 1.96 × 10 -8 g/ml. Most of the foreign ions except for Cu(II), Fe(III) do not interfere with the determination, and the interference of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in this method can be removed by extraction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate-carbon tetrachloride (DDTC-CCl 4). This system is a quasi-zero-order reaction for Al(III), but it is a quasi-first-order reaction for IC. The apparent rate constant is 2.62 × 10 -5 s -1 and the apparent activation energy is 6.60 kJ/mol in the system. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace aluminium(III) in real samples with satisfactory results.

  17. Controlling interferometric properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide.

    PubMed

    Kumeria, Tushar; Losic, Dusan

    2012-01-01

    A study of reflective interference spectroscopy [RIfS] properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide [AAO] with the aim to develop a reliable substrate for label-free optical biosensing is presented. The influence of structural parameters of AAO including pore diameters, inter-pore distance, pore length, and surface modification by deposition of Au, Ag, Cr, Pt, Ni, and TiO2 on the RIfS signal (Fabry-Perot fringe) was explored. AAO with controlled pore dimensions was prepared by electrochemical anodization of aluminium using 0.3 M oxalic acid at different voltages (30 to 70 V) and anodization times (10 to 60 min). Results show the strong influence of pore structures and surface modifications on the interference signal and indicate the importance of optimisation of AAO pore structures for RIfS sensing. The pore length/pore diameter aspect ratio of AAO was identified as a suitable parameter to tune interferometric properties of AAO. Finally, the application of AAO with optimised pore structures for sensing of a surface binding reaction of alkanethiols (mercaptoundecanoic acid) on gold surface is demonstrated. PMID:22280884

  18. Experimental study of friction in aluminium bolted joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croccolo, D.; de Agostinis, M.; Vincenzi, N.

    2010-06-01

    This study aims at developing an experimental tool useful to define accurately the friction coefficients in bolted joints and, therefore, at relating precisely the tightening torque to the bolt preloading force in some special components used in front motorbike suspensions. The components under investigation are some clamped joints made of aluminium alloy. The preloading force is achieved by applying a torque wrench to the bolt head. Some specific specimens have been appropriately designed and realized in order to study the tribological aspects of the tightening phase. Experimental tests have been performed by applying the Design of Experiment (DOE) method in order to obtain a mathematical model for the friction coefficients. Three replicas of a full factorial DOE at two levels for each variable have been carried out. The levels include cast versus forged aluminium alloy, anodized versus spray-painted surface, lubricated versus unlubricated screw, and first tightening (fresh unspoiled surfaces) versus sixth tightening (spoiled surfaces). The study considers M8x1.25 8.8 galvanized screws.

  19. Fabrication of superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface with excellent corrosion resistance by a facile and environment-friendly method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Libang; Che, Yanhui; Liu, Yanhua; Qiang, Xiaohu; Wang, Yanping

    2013-10-01

    This work develops a facile and environment-friendly method for preparing the superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface with excellent corrosion resistance. The superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface is fabricated by the boiling water treatment and stearic acid (STA) modification. Results show that the boiling water treatment endows the aluminium alloy surface with a porous and rough structure, while STA modification chemically grafts the long hydrophobic alkyl chains onto the aluminium alloy surface. Just grounded on the micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure along with the hydrophobic chemical composition, the superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface is endued the excellent corrosion resistance.

  20. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    PubMed

    Zio?a-Frankowska, Anetta; D?browski, Miko?aj; Kubaszewski, ?ukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Pozna? (Poland). PMID:26341598

  1. Aluminium adjuvants and adverse events in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sub-cutaneous immunotherapy is an effective treatment for allergy. It works by helping to modify or re-balance an individual’s immune response to allergens and its efficacy is greatly improved by the use of adjuvants, most commonly, aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts have been used in allergy therapy for many decades and are assumed to be safe with few established side-effects. This assumption belies their potency as adjuvants and their potential for biological reactivity both at injection sites and elsewhere in the body. There are very few data purporting to the safety of aluminium adjuvants in allergy immunotherapy and particularly so in relation to longer term health effects. There are, if only few, published reports of adverse events following allergy immunotherapy and aluminium adjuvants are the prime suspects in the majority of such incidents. Aluminium adjuvants are clearly capable of initiating unwanted side effects in recipients of immunotherapy and while there is as yet no evidence that such are commonplace it is complacent to consider aluminium salts as harmless constituents of allergy therapies. Future research should establish the safety of the use of aluminium adjuvants in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy. PMID:24444186

  2. Continuous flow analysis method for determination of soluble iron and aluminium in ice cores.

    PubMed

    Spolaor, A; Vallelonga, P; Gabrieli, J; Roman, M; Barbante, C

    2013-01-01

    Iron and aluminium are the two most abundant metals on the Earth's crust, but they display quite different biogeochemical properties. While iron is essential to many biological processes, aluminium has not been found to have any biological function at all. In environmental studies, iron has been studied in detail for its limiting role in the bioproductivity of high nutrient, low carbon oceanic zones, while aluminium is routinely used as a reference of crustal contributions to atmospheric deposition archives including peat bogs, lacustrine and marine sediments and ice sheets and glaciers. We report here the development of a flow injection analysis technique, which has been optimised for the simultaneous determination of soluble iron and aluminium in polar ice cores. Iron was determined by its catalytic role in the reduction of N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamene (DPD) to a semiquinonic form (DPDQ) and subsequent absorption spectroscopy at 514 nm. Aluminium was determined by spectroscopic analysis of an aluminium-lumogallion complex that exhibits fluorescence at 560 nm. These techniques have been applied to a section of Greenland ice dated to 1729-1733 AD and indicate that volcanism is a source of highly soluble aluminium and iron. PMID:22692592

  3. Effects on the nervous system among welders exposed to aluminium and manganese.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, B; Iregren, A; Frech, W; Hagman, M; Johansson, L; Tesarz, M; Wennberg, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The purpose was to study the effects on the nervous system in welders exposed to aluminium and manganese. METHODS--The investigation included questionnaires on symptoms, psychological methods (simple reaction time, finger tapping speed and endurance, digit span, vocabulary, tracking, symbol digit, cylinders, olfactory threshold, Luria-Nebraska motor scale), neurophysiological methods (electroencephalography, event related auditory evoked potential (P-300), brainstem auditory evoked potential, and diadochokinesometry) and assessments of blood and urine concentrations of metals (aluminium, lead, and manganese). RESULTS--The welders exposed to aluminium (n = 38) reported more symptoms from the central nervous system than the control group (n = 39). They also had a decreased motor function in five tests. The effect was dose related in two of these five tests. The median exposure of aluminium welders was 7065 hours and they had about seven times higher concentrations of aluminium in urine than the controls. The welders exposed to manganese (n = 12) had a decreased motor function in five tests. An increased latency of event related auditory evoked potential was also found in this group. The median manganese exposure was 270 hours. These welders did not have higher concentrations of manganese in blood than the controls. CONCLUSIONS--The neurotoxic effects found in the groups of welders exposed to aluminium and manganese are probably caused by the aluminium and manganese exposure, respectively. These effects indicate a need for improvements in the work environments of these welders. PMID:8563855

  4. Increasing aluminium concentrations in Southwest Nova Scotia Canada rivers from 1980 to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minichiello, Jeff; Sterling, Shannon; Ambrose, Sarah; Clair, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Elevated aluminum levels in rivers is known to be toxic for aquatic species, in particular Salmo salar; however it was only recently aluminium has been identified as a potential threat to Salmo salar populations in South Western Nova Scotia, Canada (SWNS) (Dennis and Clair 2012). Previously, it was thought SWNS rivers contained enough DOC to render the aluminium in rivers inactive. A key remaining question is whether aluminium levels are declining following atmospheric pollution reductions. Here we make a first assessment of long term (1980-2011) aluminium concentration trends in three watersheds located in SWNS, as measured by weekly grab samples. Our results show that total aluminium levels have significantly increased from 1980-2011 in all three sites. Estimates of ionic aluminium levels indicate that the ionic aluminum concentration frequently exceeds the threshold for the level of aquatic health determined by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (Howells et al. 1990). Data also indicates that calcium levels have yet to recover even with declining concentrations of riverine sulfate. This new knowledge that aluminium is at toxic levels and is worsening will have implications for policy on acidification mitigation in SWNS; this is an urgent issue as the local salmon population numbers currently are declining to near extirpation levels.

  5. Aluminium, chromium and manganese detoxification mechanisms in Pseudomonas syringae: an X-ray fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    al-Aoukaty, A; Appanna, V D; Huang, J

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae cultured in a defined citrate medium supplemented with 1 mM aluminium, chromium and manganese, respectively, appeared to elicit disparate biochemical responses. At the stationary phase of growth aluminium was predominantly present as an insoluble residue. Although virtually none of this metallic element was detected in the supernatant, the bacterial cells appeared to contain some aluminium. Following the initial uptake of chromium the microbe secreted the metal in the supernatant. Only a small fraction of the chromium was localised in the bacterial cells; 91% manganese was biotransformed into an insoluble pellet. No citrate was detected in the exocellular fluid at cessation of cellular growth. PMID:1501591

  6. Influence of chemical bonding on X-ray spectra of different aluminium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetto, Rita; Trincavelli, Jorge; Vasconcellos, Marcos

    2005-11-01

    Five minerals containing aluminium in different crystal configurations are studied. The different kinds of chemical bonding between aluminium and oxygen originate molecular orbitals with energy levels and transition probabilities varying from one compound to another. This effect appears as shifts and changes in relative intensities of K? emission lines and as modifications of the K? characteristic spectrum. In the present work, the aluminium K characteristic spectra obtained by means of an electron microprobe with a wavelength dispersive system are compared for topaz, albite, spodumene, biotite and corundum.

  7. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 ?g/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 ?g/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 ?g Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content in defatted tissue and oil from such tissues and thereby contribute towards our knowledge on aluminium and any role in breast cancer. PMID:23870171

  8. Quasiparticle spin resonance and coherence in superconducting aluminium.

    PubMed

    Quay, C H L; Weideneder, M; Chiffaudel, Y; Strunk, C; Aprili, M

    2015-01-01

    Conventional superconductors were long thought to be spin inert; however, there is now increasing interest in both (the manipulation of) the internal spin structure of the ground-state condensate, as well as recently observed long-lived, spin-polarized excitations (quasiparticles). We demonstrate spin resonance in the quasiparticle population of a mesoscopic superconductor (aluminium) using novel on-chip microwave detection techniques. The spin decoherence time obtained (?100?ps), and its dependence on the sample thickness are consistent with Elliott-Yafet spin-orbit scattering as the main decoherence mechanism. The striking divergence between the spin coherence time and the previously measured spin imbalance relaxation time (?10?ns) suggests that the latter is limited instead by inelastic processes. This work stakes out new ground for the nascent field of spin-based electronics with superconductors or superconducting spintronics. PMID:26497744

  9. Optimization of Aluminium-to-Magnesium Ultrasonic Spot Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteli, A.; Chen, Y.-C.; Strong, D.; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Prangnell, P. B.

    2012-03-01

    The ability to join dissimilar materials in the automotive industry will result in more efficient multimaterial structures. However, welding of aluminium (Al) to magnesium (Mg) alloys is problematic because of the rapid formation of brittle intermetallic phases at the weld interface. Ultrasonic welding (USW) is a solid-state joining technology that may offer a potential solution, but USW of Al to Mg is currently not well understood. Here, we have investigated the effect of process variables and energy input on joint formation between Al-6111 and Mg-AZ31 alloys, and we report on the optimum welding conditions, heat generation, and the formation of a significant intermetallic reaction layer. Furthermore, the factors influencing the interface reaction rate and the advantages of precoating the Mg with Al are discussed.

  10. Volume dependence of the melting temperature for aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Sharma, B. K.

    2010-08-01

    We present a simple and straightforward relationship for evaluating the volume dependence of melting temperature based on the Lindemann's melting equation (F.A. Lindemann, Z. Phys. 11 (1910) 609) and the Al'tshular et al. model for the volume dependence of the Gruneisen parameter (L.V. Al'tshuler, S.E. Brusnikin, E.A. Kuz' menkov, J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 28 (1987) 129). The formula for the volume dependence of melting temperature obtained in the present study has been used to determine the results for aluminium up to a pressure range of 77 GPa. The results obtained for the melting temperature present a good agreement with the available experimental data.

  11. Nanostructural hierarchy increases the strength of aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Liddicoat, Peter V; Liao, Xiao-Zhou; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian; Murashkin, Maxim Y; Lavernia, Enrique J; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Ringer, Simon P

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the strength of metallic alloys while maintaining formability is an interesting challenge for enabling new generations of lightweight structures and technologies. In this paper, we engineer aluminium alloys to contain a hierarchy of nanostructures and possess mechanical properties that expand known performance boundaries-an aerospace-grade 7075 alloy exhibits a yield strength and uniform elongation approaching 1 GPa and 5%, respectively. The nanostructural architecture was observed using novel high-resolution microscopy techniques and comprises a solid solution, free of precipitation, featuring (i) a high density of dislocations, (ii) subnanometre intragranular solute clusters, (iii) two geometries of nanometre-scale intergranular solute structures and (iv) grain sizes tens of nanometres in diameter. Our results demonstrate that this novel architecture offers a design pathway towards a new generation of super-strong materials with new regimes of property-performance space. PMID:20842199

  12. Pulmonary Fibrosis in Workers Exposed to Finely Powdered Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John; Manning, G. B.; Molyneux, M.; Lane, Ronald E.

    1961-01-01

    Of 30 workmen at risk 27 were examined and six found to have evidence of pulmonary fibrosis. In the two fatal cases the evidence for pulmonary fibrosis was conclusive and in three other cases it was sufficient; in one case it was suggestive. The clinical, radiological, and pathological features of these six cases are recorded. Results of respiratory function tests on the four non-fatal cases are given. The manufacturing process is described. An analysis of the powder is given, also the results of dust measurement in the contaminated atmosphere. The literature is reviewed and our own experience compared with reports from Germany and Canada. We concluded that the pulmonary fibrosis was caused by the dust inhaled at work and that the component responsible was finely divided aluminium. Images PMID:13771334

  13. Nanosecond laser texturing of aluminium for control of wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Martin C.; Rosowski, Adam P.; French, Paul W.

    2015-07-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of lasers to modify the wettability of surfaces. Here we report on the use of a 20W nS pulsed IR fibre laser to create strong hydrophobicity on the surface of aluminium sheets. This is unexpected, hydrophobicity is usually associated solely with femto- or pico- second laser processing. At a 20W average power level the area coverage rate is too small for many industrial applications. Further trials using a 800W DPSS laser are described and the ability of this system to change surface wettability at a much higher production rate are indicated. There is little reported literature on surface texturing at higher average power levels. Indications of the productivity, or surface coverage rate, are given.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of luminescent aluminium selenide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Balitskii, O.A.; Demchenko, P.Yu.; Mijowska, E.; Cendrowski, K.

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis procedure of size and sharp controlled Al{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystals is introduced. ► Obtained nanoparticles are highly crystalline of hexagonal wurtzite type. ► Colloidal Al{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystals are highly luminescent in the near UV spectral region. ► They can be implemented in light emitters/collectors, concurring with II–VI nanodots. -- Abstract: We propose the synthesis and characterization of colloidal aluminium selenide nanocrystals using trioctylphosphine as a solvent. The nanoparticles have several absorption bands in the spectral region 330–410 nm and are bright UV-blue luminescent, which is well demanded in light collecting and emitting devices, e.g. for tuning their spectral characteristics to higher energy solar photons.

  15. Quasiparticle spin resonance and coherence in superconducting aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Quay, C. H. L.; Weideneder, M.; Chiffaudel, Y.; Strunk, C.; Aprili, M.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional superconductors were long thought to be spin inert; however, there is now increasing interest in both (the manipulation of) the internal spin structure of the ground-state condensate, as well as recently observed long-lived, spin-polarized excitations (quasiparticles). We demonstrate spin resonance in the quasiparticle population of a mesoscopic superconductor (aluminium) using novel on-chip microwave detection techniques. The spin decoherence time obtained (∼100 ps), and its dependence on the sample thickness are consistent with Elliott–Yafet spin–orbit scattering as the main decoherence mechanism. The striking divergence between the spin coherence time and the previously measured spin imbalance relaxation time (∼10 ns) suggests that the latter is limited instead by inelastic processes. This work stakes out new ground for the nascent field of spin-based electronics with superconductors or superconducting spintronics. PMID:26497744

  16. On the compression of Aluminium foam structures under shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, David; Bourne, Neil K.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Wood, D.

    2015-06-01

    Foam-based materials have an important role as both blast and impact mitigators, with their extended sub-surface structures providing multiple redundant routes for load management and distribution in the event of failure. In order to further elucidate underlying stress management mechanisms at high strain-rates, here, a series of Aluminium foams manufactured via rapid prototyping techniques were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a quasi one-dimensional state of strain. The nature of pore collapse was monitored via manganin stress gauges at the target rear surface, with resultant data related back to changes in microstructure via microstructural and topographical analysis of both un-impacted and recovered target material.

  17. Frictional conditions between alloy AA6060 aluminium and tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widerøe, Fredrik; Welo, Torgeir

    2011-05-01

    The frictional conditions in the new process of screw extrusion of aluminium have been investigated. The contact behaviour between the aluminum alloy and the tool steel in the extruder is vital for understanding the extrusion process. Using a compressive-rotational method for frictional measurements the conditions for unlubricated sticking friction between aluminum alloy AA6060 and tool steel at different combinations of temperatures and pressures have been investigated. In this method the samples in the form of disks are put under hydrostatic pressure while simultaneously being rotated at one end. Pins made from contrast material have been inserted into the samples to measure the deformation introduced. This approach along with 3D simulations form a method for determining the frictional conditions. The paper describes the test method and the results. It was found that the necessary pressure for sticking to occur between the aluminum AA6060 and the different parts of the extruder is heavily influenced by the temperature.

  18. The adsorption and bonding of methanethiol on aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Nyberg, G. L.

    1993-10-01

    To further establish the nature of thiol adsorbate-species, and of their surface-bonding, the adsorption of methanethiol has been investigated on polycrystalline aluminium, using UPS, XPS and ??. The chemisorption proceeds through the loss of the thiol hydrogen, resulting in the corresponding mercaptide (as shown before also on copper). An assignment of the adsorbate-induced bands is made utilising previously developed techniques — an MO description of the "precursor" molecule, and the qualitative surface-molecule model for the adsorbate-substrate interaction. The latter is thus shown not to be confined just to copper, but to have general applicability. Comparison is also made of CH 3S and CH 3O bonding on Al and Cu, and its possible relationship to catalysis.

  19. Possibilities of UV laser oscillation on aluminium ion lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozeva, M.; Mihailova, D.; Sabotinov, N.

    2006-07-01

    An analysis of the general energy level structure of the singly ionised Al is made. It is found that in the UV spectrum of Al II there are many intensive lines starting from levels which can be populated selectively via charge transfer collisions with either helium or neon ions. The emission spectrum of aluminium in the 200-400 nm spectral range is measured in a cylindrical Al hollow cathode at discharge conditions typical for laser oscillation. An enhancement of the spontaneous emission intensity on a number of Al II lines in the UV spectral range in Ne compared to He discharges is observed. The Al atom density in the cathode for different values of current density and voltage are calculated.

  20. Materials Science Constraints on the Development of Aluminium Reduction Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metson, James; McIntosh, Grant; Etzion, Ronny

    The Hall-Heroult process for the production of Aluminium metal is some 125 years old. The process is energy constrained by the need to shed around half of the (electrical) energy supplied to the cell as waste heat. The molten cryolite electrolyte is sufficiently aggressive that the only reliable method of protecting the side wall of the cell is to maintain a frozen layer of electrolyte at the hot face of the sidewall. Thus the lack of a cryolite resistant sidewall is but one of several materials science constraints which still limit the energy efficiency of the process. An inert anode and non-consumable cathode are also significant challenges which limit cell life and energy efficiency. Thus there are major challenges in both materials development and new conceptual cell designs to improve the efficiency of this process.

  1. Microstructure characterization of hypereutectoid aluminium bronze composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucita, P.; Wang, S. C.; Li, W. S.; Cook, R. B.; Starink, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    Hypereutectoid aluminium bronze coating was deposited onto an E.N. 10503 steel substrate using plasma transferred arc welding (PTA). Microstructure characterisation of the coating and a section near the steel substrate joint was carried out using SEM, EBSD, EDS in conjunction with XRD and depth-sensing nano-indentation. The constituent phases in the coating were identified as: martensitic Cu3Al ?1' phase, solid solution of Al in Cu ? phase and the intermetallic Fe3Al ?1 phase. The region near the steel substrate was characterised by high hardness, large grains and presence of Cu precipitates. No cracks were observed in this region. The coating has high hardness of 4.9GPa and Young's modulus of 121.7GPa. This is attributed to homogeneous distribution of sub microns size Fe3Al intermetallic phase. The implications of the coating to the engineering application of sheet metal forming are discussed.

  2. Identification of AFLP and microsatellite markers linked with an aluminium tolerance gene in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, H.; Moroni, S.; Sato, K.; Read, J.; Scott, J.

    2002-08-01

    Barley is the most sensitive among the cereals to aluminium (Al) stress and breeding for more tolerant cultivars is a priority. To enhance selection efficiency for Al tolerance in barley, PCR-based AFLP and microsatellite markers linked to a locus conferring tolerance to aluminium were identified. The study used F(2) progeny derived from a single cross between Yambla (moderately tolerant of Al) and WB229 (tolerant of Al) and developed hydroponic pulse-recovery screening methods to assess tolerance of phenotypes based on root growth. The segregation ratios of tolerant and sensitive genotypes and F(3) progeny testing suggest that a single major gene controlled Al tolerance ( Alt). In order to determine the chromosomal location of the Alt gene, we used the AFLP technique coupled with bulk segregant analysis. We evaluated tolerant and sensitive bulks using 30 combinations of EcoRI/ MseI primers, and 12 of these permitted differentiation of the sensitive and tolerant bulks. More than 1,000 amplified fragments were obtained, and 98 polymorphic bands were scored. AFLP analysis of wheat-barley chromosome addition lines indicated that the Alt gene was located on barley chromosome 4H. Four chromosome 4H-specific microsatellite markers (Bmac310, Bmag353, HVM68 and HVMCABG) were tightly linked to Alt. The large allelic variation detected with microsatellite marker Bmag353 allowed us to implement this marker for routine marker-assisted selection for Al tolerance, and 396 plants could be screened on a single gel. PMID:12582551

  3. Application of Minkowski layer for intergranular fractal surfaces of multiphase active microalloyed and alloyed aluminium-silicate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purenović, J. M.; Randjelović, M. S.; Matović, B. Z.; Purenović, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Microalloyed and alloyed aluminium-silicate ceramics represents multiphase and multifunctional solid-solid system. The microstructure of aluminium-silicate ceramics matrix is arranged with favorable relationship between crystallinity and amorphousness. Numbered physical processes and interactions take place in very complex intergranular and interphase areas, making new boundaries and regions with fractal nature. Fractal nature of grains contours, macro, mezzo and micro pores and nanostructure phases at grain boundaries make this ceramics an active dielectric material. The synergistic effect of additives, dislocations and impurities leads to dislocations movement at grain boundaries and fragmentation of existing grains in a large number of micrograins with distinct fractal nature. Hence, permanent change of micromorphology occurs in intergranular area. Fractal analysis of intergranular microstructure has included application of Minkowski layer, correlated with fractal dimension. It represents convex layer of grains contour roughness and irregularity, determined in accordance with grain contours fractality. The introduction of fractal microstructure analysis allows better interpretation of many physical and physico-chemical processes, bearing in mind that Minkowski layer defines grains contact probability.

  4. The effect of iron, tin, aluminium, and chromium on fading, discoloration, and precipitation in berry and red beet juices.

    PubMed

    Kuusi, T; Pyysalo, H; Pippuri, A

    1977-03-21

    The effect of iron(II), tin(II), aluminium(III), and chromium(III) on the properties of red whortleberry, blackcurrant, and red beet juices was followed during storage for 10 months at 5 degrees C. The colour and pH changes were studied, and the precipitates formed were weighed and their metal contents assayed. Of the metals tested, only tin caused bluish discoloration in the berry juices. In the case of iron, aluminium, and chromium the low pH prevented this type of discoloration. In berry juices, some increases in colour intensity took place with the lowering of pH value, whereas in red beet juice the opposite change occurred. The colour changes due to storage appear to take place irrespective of the metals. Precipitation is enhanced in red whortleberry juice only by tin, and in blackcurrant juice by tin and iron. In red beet juice, precipitation is increased by the lowering of pH resulting from metal salt addition. In general, increase in the amount of metal added increased the metal content of the precipitate. Iron showed the greatest tendency to become bound in the precipitate, particularly in blackcurrant and red beet juice. The suitabilities of the metals for canning purposes are considered. Chromium, in particular, has interesting possibilities in view of the low degree of colour change associated with it. PMID:16411

  5. Laser welding of aluminium alloys 5083 and 6082 under conduction regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.; Delgado, T.; González-Rovira, L.; Botana, F. J.

    2009-09-01

    In this work, samples of aluminium alloys 5083-T0 and 6082-T6 have been welded under conduction regime, using a high power diode laser. The influence of experimental variables, as the laser power and the linear welding rate, on the sizes and properties of the butt weld beads has been studied. In addition to measure the depths and widths of the weld beads, their microstructure, microhardness profile and corrosion resistance have been analysed. The results obtained allow one to define the experimental conditions leading to good quality butt welds with higher penetration than those published in the recent literature under conduction regime. Maximum penetration values of 3 and 2.3 mm were obtained for 5083 and 6082, respectively. Additionally, a simple mathematical expression relating the weld depth ( d) with the laser power ( P) and the processing rate ( v) has been proposed: d=(P-bb)/(av)-(ba)/a, being a, a', b and b' constant values for each alloy and under the employed experimental conditions. The values of these coefficients have been estimated from the fitting to the experimental depth values of 5083 and 6082 butt welds generated under conduction regime.

  6. Sublethal effects in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to mixtures of copper, aluminium and gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Heier, Lene Sørlie; Teien, Hans Christian; Oughton, Deborah; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Olsvik, Pål A; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Lind, Ole Christian; Farmen, Eivind; Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit

    2013-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects in presmolt of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to copper (Cu), aluminium (Al) and gamma radiation, individually or in combination. Fish were exposed for 48 h to metals added to lake water; 10, 40 and 80 μg Cu/L, 250 μg Al/L and a combination of 40 μg Cu/L and 250 μg Al/L. In addition, gamma radiation (4-70 mGy delivered over 48 h) was added as an additional exposure stressor. Selected endpoints were chosen to reveal different toxic mechanisms and included Cu and Al accumulation on gills, blood chemistry and haematological variables (plasma sodium and chloride, haematocrit, glucose), hepatic levels of reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and hepatic transcriptional response of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), metallothionein (MT) and ubiquitin. Exposure to Cu alone resulted in gill accumulation of Cu, reduction of plasma ions and increased transcriptional response of GPx, MT and ubiquitin. Exposure to Al alone reduced plasma ion levels but did not affect any of the hepatic biomarkers except for ubiquitin. The combined metal exposure (Cu + Al) altered the GSH levels, however GPx and MT were not affected suggesting a different mode of detoxification in the combined exposure. Gamma radiation appeared to influence GSH and ubiquitin levels. The observed effects seemed to be both stressor and concentration dependent. PMID:22583837

  7. Dynamic crushing behaviour of aluminium tubes filled with cork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameiro, C. P.; Cirne, J.; Gary, G.

    2006-08-01

    Cork is a natural cellular material with unique remarkable properties such as low density, great elasticity, chemical stability and resilience, no permeability to liquid and gases and resistance to wear and fire. Besides, it is ecological, hygienic, easy to maintain and a very durable material. Unfortunately, there are still application fields that have not been explored yet for the use of cork, possibly due to the fact that it is a complex cellular material, characterized by very variable mechanical properties which clearly depend on its microstructure. The fundamental aspects of the static and dynamic mechanical behaviour of natural and agglomerate cork, used alone and as filler inside a tube with small dimensions, under axial compressive loading, have already been studied by the authors. Aluminium cork-filled tubes and their empty counterparts were tested experimentally and numerically at quasi-static and dynamic strain rates from 10 - 3s - 1 to 600 s - 1. Data from the Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar and “deconvolution” techniques were used to generate stress-strain curves for the structures composed of natural and agglomerate cork. The numerical simulations of the dynamic compression of the specimens were carried out using the finite element method software LS-DYNA^TM and showed quite good agreement with the experimental results. Hence, in this work, in order to extend the study started previously and investigate the possible advantages of cork-filling in longer tubes with a different section, the authors simulate, using the same software, the influence of the introduction of agglomerate cork in square and circular aluminium tubes with a diameter/width of 80 mm, a length of 300mm and a variable thickness. The mechanical properties of the structures composed of cork may constitute a potential for this material to be used in innovative applications related to diverse fields such as automotive, transport, ships and military applications.

  8. Preconcentration, separation and spectrophotometric determination of aluminium(III) in water samples and dialysis concentrates at trace levels with 8-hydroxyquinoline-cobalt(II) coprecipitation system.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Volkan Numan; Arslan, Deniz; Ozdes, Duygu; Soylak, Mustafa; Tufekci, Mehmet

    2010-10-15

    A separation-preconcentration procedure was developed for the determination of trace amounts of aluminium in water samples and dialysis concentrates by UV-vis Spectrophotometry after coprecipitation using 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) as a chelating agent and Co(II) as a carrier element. This procedure is based on filtration of the solution containing precipitate on a cellulose nitrate membrane filter following aluminium(III) coprecipitation with Co/8-HQ and then the precipitates together with membrane filter were dissolved in concentrated nitric acid. The metal contents of the final solution were determined by UV-vis Spectrophotometry with Erio Chrome Cyanine-R standard method. Several parameters including pH of sample solution, amount of carrier element and reagent, standing time, sample volume for precipitation and the effects of diverse ions were examined. The enrichment factor was calculated as 50 and the detection limits, corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank (N: 10), was found to be 0.2 microg L(-1). The accuracy of the method was tested with standard reference material (CRM-TMDW-500) and spiked addition. Determination of aluminium(III) was carried out in sea water, river water, tap water and haemodialysis fluids samples. The recoveries were >95%. The relative standard deviations of determination were less than 6%. PMID:20619964

  9. Matrix effect on leaching of Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from epoxy resin based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes into semi-solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Lipke, Uwe; Haverkamp, Jan Boris; Zapf, Thomas; Lipperheide, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    To study the impact of different semi-solid dosage form components on the leaching of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from the epoxy resin-based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes, the tubes were filled with different matrix preparations and stored at an elevated temperature. Despite compliance with the European Standards EN 15348 and EN 15766 on porosity and polymerisation of internal coatings of aluminium tubes, the commercially available tubes used in the study contained an increased amount of polymerisation residues, such as unbound BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives in the lacquer, as determined by acetonitrile extraction. Storage of Macrogol ointments in these tubes resulted in an almost quantitative migration of the unbound polymerisation residues from the coating into the ointment. In addition, due to alterations observed in the RP-HPLC chromatograms of the matrix spiked with BADGE and BADGE derivatives it is supposed that the leachates can react with formulation components. The contamination of the medicinal product by BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives can be precluded by using aluminium tubes with an internal lacquer with a low degree of unbound polymerisation residues. PMID:26724272

  10. Consequences of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in aluminium-related renal osteodystrophy and the role of endochondral ossification in the repair process.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, J; Smith, P S

    1983-01-01

    A patient with chronic renal failure, a dialysis encephalopathy syndrome and renal osteodystrophy associated with aluminium intoxication developed an avascular necrosis of the left femoral head. Histological examination of the excised head confirmed the zone of avascular necrosis and demonstrated an exuberant formation of cartilage around this zone. Calcification was sparse and the cartilage exhibited histological features similar to those seen in classical rickets. Histochemical and electron probe x-ray microanalysis demonstrated aluminium in the matrix around hypertrophic chondrocytes, at the tide mark of articular cartilage and at the mineralised tissue/osteoid interface of trabecular bone. Aluminium, therefore, preferentially localises at sites of calcification and possibly exerts an inhibitory effect on this reaction. This is taken to account for the relative failure of endochrondral ossification and the development of a rachitic appearance. A comparison with five other examples of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (occurring after renal transplantation, as an idiopathic phenomenon and as a complication of steroid therapy) showed that, in addition to the more commonly described appositional bone formation, cartilage formation and endochondral ossification were present in three of these comparison cases, although less prominent and of considerably less degree than in the main case. Images PMID:6402524

  11. Shape-diversified silver nanostructures uniformly covered on aluminium micro-powders as effective SERS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Highly-sensitive, reliable and reproducible Raman-active substrates via a facile and organic-free method are reported. These intriguing hierarchical structures are formed through the uniform incorporation of silver (Ag) nanoflowers with aluminium (Al) micro-supporters. The underlying mechanism is systematically investigated, visualizing that the solvents used in galvanic displacement have a major effect on diversifying the reaction kinetics of Ag deposition. Moreover, the exploration of AgNO3 concentrations reveals a drastic transition of Ag morphologies, driven by the elimination of high-energy surfaces of Ag. In addition, the surface-modified Al@Ag structures with octadecyltrichlorosilane demonstrate both the non-wetting (contact angle = 157.2°), as well as easy droplet roll-off (contact angle hysteresis = 5.4°) characteristics, which further enables the tested targets to avoid being pinned at a static position upon detection. Finally, we find that the Ag nanoflower surfaces are corrugated with numerous nanogaps at interparticle sites, in such a way that allows the abundant active sites (referred to as ``hot spots'') to amplify the Raman signal, and simultaneously maintain the sound reliability and reproducibility of Raman detection. These designs along with the fabrication strategy are anticipated to benefit versatile optical, optoelectronic and energy devices.Highly-sensitive, reliable and reproducible Raman-active substrates via a facile and organic-free method are reported. These intriguing hierarchical structures are formed through the uniform incorporation of silver (Ag) nanoflowers with aluminium (Al) micro-supporters. The underlying mechanism is systematically investigated, visualizing that the solvents used in galvanic displacement have a major effect on diversifying the reaction kinetics of Ag deposition. Moreover, the exploration of AgNO3 concentrations reveals a drastic transition of Ag morphologies, driven by the elimination of high-energy surfaces of Ag. In addition, the surface-modified Al@Ag structures with octadecyltrichlorosilane demonstrate both the non-wetting (contact angle = 157.2°), as well as easy droplet roll-off (contact angle hysteresis = 5.4°) characteristics, which further enables the tested targets to avoid being pinned at a static position upon detection. Finally, we find that the Ag nanoflower surfaces are corrugated with numerous nanogaps at interparticle sites, in such a way that allows the abundant active sites (referred to as ``hot spots'') to amplify the Raman signal, and simultaneously maintain the sound reliability and reproducibility of Raman detection. These designs along with the fabrication strategy are anticipated to benefit versatile optical, optoelectronic and energy devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04956f

  12. Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease: sites of aluminium binding in human neuroblastoma cells determined using 26Al and accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. J.; Templar, J.; Miller, R. V.; Day, J. P.; Dobson, C. B.; Itzhaki, R. F.; Fifield, L. K.; Allan, G. L.

    1994-06-01

    The aluminium distribution between the major cell compartments of human neuroblastoma cells grown in culture has been determined using 21Al and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Cells (IMR-32) were grown for eight days in a culture medium containing Al-EDTA (0.2mM) spiked with 26Al, harvested, and fractionated by standard biochemical techniques. 26Al in fractions after ashing to Al 2O 3 was determined by AMS using the 14UD accelerator at ANU Canberra. The cytoplasmic and nuclear cell compartments appeared to have reached diffusive equilibrium with the culture medium. Whilst 26Al was retained by the nuclear proteins and nuclear sap, 26Al did not appear to bind to the nucleic acids (DNA/RNA).

  13. Non-Contact Thickness and Profile Measurements of Rolled Aluminium Strip Using EMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbis, A.; Aruleswaran, A.

    2006-03-01

    Accurate measurement of strip thickness is a very high priority for the aluminium rolled product industry. This paper presents the findings of trials to measure the thickness of aluminium strip using a send-receive, radially polarised Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT). A broadband EMAT system, developed at Warwick University, UK with a centre frequency of approximately 5 MHz and frequency content up to 12 MHz was used. The resultant ultrasonic waveforms have been processed using Fourier analysis. Static measurements of aluminium alloy samples in the thickness range between 0.28 mm to 2.8 mm have been measured using this non-contact approach at stand-offs of up to 2 mm. Measurements across the aluminium strip width to evaluate its profile for quality control was also carried out successfully. Some of the experiments and results obtained are described in detail.

  14. Preparation of Wollastonite Coated with Nano-Aluminium Silicate and its Application in Filling PA6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Caili; Zheng, Shuilin; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Lijing; Huang, Peng; Wang, Zhaohua

    Taking wollastonite as raw material, aluminium sulfate and water glass as coating modifier, a new type of wollastonite coated with nano-aluminium silicate powder-materials was obtained by chemical depositing method. By modificating this powder-materials with silane and filling it in PA6, the PA6 composite materials were obtained. The modificated powder-materials were characterized by SEM, BET, XRD, EDX, and FT-IR. The mechanism of this powder-materials modificated by silane was discussed. It was shown that the surface of wollastonite was coated with nano-aluminium silicate evenly, the average grain size of aluminium silicate was 54 nm, filling 30% of this powder-materials modified by silane in PA6, the mechanical properties and the heat distortion temperature of the PA6 composites filled by it were notably enhanced.

  15. Non-aqueous aluminium-air battery based on ionic liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, Renaud; Audichon, Thomas; Gonzalez, Serge

    2014-12-01

    A promising metal-air secondary battery based on aluminium-oxygen couple is described. In this paper, we observed that an aluminium-air battery employing EMImCl, AlCl3 room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as electrolyte and aluminium as negative electrode, has an exceptional reduced self-discharged rate. Due to its new and innovative type of electrolyte, this aluminium-air battery can support relatively high current densities (up to 0.6 mA cm-2) and an average voltage of 0.6-0.8 V. Such batteries may find immediate applications, as they can provide an internal, built-in autonomous and self-sustained energy source.

  16. Numerical modelling of closed-cell aluminium foam under dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazell, Paul; Kader, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Escobedo, J. P.; Saadatfar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Closed-cell aluminium foams are extensively used in aerospace and automobile industries. The understanding of their behaviour under impact loading conditions is extremely important since impact problems are directly related to design of these engineering structures. This research investigates the response of a closed-cell aluminium foam (CYMAT) subjected to dynamic loading using the finite element software ABAQUS/explicit. The aim of this research is to numerically investigate the material and structural properties of closed-cell aluminium foam under impact loading conditions with interest in shock propagation and its effects on cell wall deformation. A μ-CT based 3D foam geometry is developed to simulate the local cell collapse behaviours. A number of numerical techniques are applied for modelling the crush behaviour of aluminium foam to obtain the more accurate results. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Comparison of the results shows a good correlation between the experimental results and numerical predictions.

  17. Nineteen cases of persistent pruritic nodules and contact allergy to aluminium after injection of commonly used aluminium-adsorbed vaccines.

    PubMed

    Bergfors, Elisabet; Björkelund, Cecilia; Trollfors, Birger

    2005-11-01

    Rare cases of persistent pruritic nodules, sometimes associated with aluminium (Al) allergy, have been reported after the use of several Al adsorbed vaccines. During vaccine trials in the 1990s a high incidence of pruritic nodules (645 cases/76,000 recipients), in 77% associated with Al allergy, was observed after the administration of diphtheria-tetanus / acellular pertussis (DT/aP) vaccines from a single producer. In the present report 19 children with pruritic nodules after vaccination with Al hydroxide-adsorbed DTaP/polio+Hib (Infanrix, Pentavac) are described. The children had intensely itching nodules at the injection site, often aggravated during upper respiratory tract infections, and local skin alterations. So far, the symptoms have persisted for up to 7 years. The median time between vaccination and onset of symptoms was 1 month. 16 children were epicutaneously tested for Al, all with positive reactions indicating delayed hypersensitivity to Al. The condition is not commonly known but is important to recognise, as the child and the family may suffer considerably. Future vaccinations with Al-adsorbed vaccines may cause aggravation of the symptoms and the Al allergy. Al-containing skin products, such as antiperspirants, may cause contact dermatitis. Nodules may be mistaken for tumours. Even though the incidence of itching nodules and Al allergy after administration of Infanrix, Pentavac and other Al-adsorbed vaccines is probably low, research to replace Al adjuvants seems appropriate. We conclude that intensely itching subcutaneous nodules, lasting for many years, and hypersensitivity to aluminium may occur after DTaP/polio+Hib vaccination of infants. PMID:16044278

  18. Effects of Shielding Gas on Absorption Energy of Nd-YAG Laser for Aluminium Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Mutlu, M.; Akman, E.; Demir, A.

    2007-04-23

    Aluminium is the one of the most abundant element situated in Earth's crust and using in thousands of industrial applications. In this study spectroscopic analysis for 1mm thick aluminium plates investigated and electron temperatures were calculated with using emission spectra obtained from plasma. The relation between electron temperature and shielding gas pressure, type, pulse energy, beam focus position and flow direction were observed. With using shielding gases Ar, He, N2 at different pressures the bead widths was measured.

  19. Aluminium Surface Atmospheric Pressure Dcsbd Plasma Treatment In Air And Nitrogen Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prysiazhnyi, V.

    2010-07-01

    The results of Atomic Force Microscopy and Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR for the analysis of aluminium surface changes by the Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge are presented in this contribution. Availability to use FTIR method for aluminium surface characterization was shown. Different behavior of surface changes was observed for different treating atmospheres: ambient air, nitrogen. Hypothesis about the possible reasons for different behavior was presented.

  20. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50?m did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems. PMID:26148645

  1. Galvanic corrosion behaviour of aluminium 3004 and copper in tropical marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, G.; Palraj, S.; Palanichamy, S.

    2014-06-01

    The galvanic corrosion behaviour of aluminium 3004 and copper with different area ratios were studied in the tropical marine atmosphere at Tuticorin harbour over a period of 426 days. The area ratios of A Al: A Cu, studied were 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1 & 8:1. The galvanic corrosion behaviour of metals was studied in terms of relative increase in the corrosion rate of aluminium due to galvanic coupling with copper, relative decrease in the corrosion rate of copper due to galvanic coupling with aluminium, and the susceptibility of aluminium to pitting owing to galvanic coupling with copper. The galvanic potential and galvanic current of the system were monitored. Pits of different dimensions ranging from mild etchings to perforations were experienced on the borders and the surfaces of the interface of aluminium in contact with copper. The weathering parameters and the environmental pollutants which have a major role in influencing the galvanic corrosion of metals were also monitored. The corrosion products resulting from galvanic corrosion were analysed using XRD and the pitting on aluminium resulting from galvanic corrosion has been highlighted in terms of pit depth, size and density of pit, using a high resolution microscope.

  2. Characterization of individual aerosol particles in workroom air of aluminium smelter potrooms.

    PubMed

    Hoflich, Burkard L W; Weinbruch, Stephan; Theissmann, Ralf; Gorzawski, Hauke; Ebert, Martin; Ortner, Hugo M; Skogstad, Asbjorn; Ellingsen, Dag G; Drablos, Per A; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2005-05-01

    Aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameters between 0.18 and 10 microm were collected in the workroom air of two aluminium smelter potrooms with different production processes (Soderberg and Prebake processes). Size, morphology and chemical composition of more than 2000 individual particles were determined by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Based on chemical composition and morphology, particles were classified into different groups. Particle groups with a relative abundance above 1%(by number) include aluminium oxides, cryolite, aluminium oxides-cryolite mixtures, soot, silicates and sea salt. In both production halls, mixtures of aluminium oxides and cryolite are the dominant particle group. Many particles have fluoride-containing surface coatings or show agglomerations of nanometer-sized fluoride-containing particles on their surface. The phase composition of approximately 100 particles was studied by transmission electron microscopy. According to selected area electron diffraction, sodium beta-alumina (NaAl(11)O(17)) is the dominant aluminium oxide and cryolite (Na(3)AlF(6)) the only sodium aluminium fluoride present. Implications of our findings for assessment of adverse health effects are discussed. PMID:15877161

  3. Risk minimisation of FGD gypsum leachates by incorporation of aluminium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X; Ballesteros, J C; Giménez, A

    2008-11-15

    The incorporation of aluminium sulphate to (flue gas desulphurisation) FGD gypsum before its disposal was investigated as a way to minimise the risk supposed by the high fluoride content of its leachates. Using a bath method the kinetic and equilibrium processes of fluoride removal by aluminium sulphate were studied at fluoride/aluminium molar concentration (F/Al) ratios in the range 1.75 10(-2)-1.75 under the pH conditions (about 6.5) of FGD gypsum leachates. It was found that fluoride removal was a very fast process at any of the (F/Al) ratios subject of study, with equilibrium attained within the first 15 min of interaction. High decreases in solution fluoride concentrations (50-80%) were found at the equilibrium state. The use of aluminium sulphate in the stabilization of FGD gypsum proved to greatly decrease its fluoride leachable content (in the range 20-90% for aluminium sulphate doses of 0.1-5%, as determined by the European standard EN 12457-4). Such fluoride leaching minimisation assures the characterization of this by-product as a waste acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous wastes according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. Furthermore, as derived from column leaching studies, the proposed stabilization system showed to be highly effective in simulated conditions of disposal, displaying fluoride leaching reduction values about 55 and 80% for aluminium sulphate added amounts of 1 and 2%, respectively. PMID:18799198

  4. Shape-diversified silver nanostructures uniformly covered on aluminium micro-powders as effective SERS substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2014-01-21

    Highly-sensitive, reliable and reproducible Raman-active substrates via a facile and organic-free method are reported. These intriguing hierarchical structures are formed through the uniform incorporation of silver (Ag) nanoflowers with aluminium (Al) micro-supporters. The underlying mechanism is systematically investigated, visualizing that the solvents used in galvanic displacement have a major effect on diversifying the reaction kinetics of Ag deposition. Moreover, the exploration of AgNO3 concentrations reveals a drastic transition of Ag morphologies, driven by the elimination of high-energy surfaces of Ag. In addition, the surface-modified Al@Ag structures with octadecyltrichlorosilane demonstrate both the non-wetting (contact angle = 157.2°), as well as easy droplet roll-off (contact angle hysteresis = 5.4°) characteristics, which further enables the tested targets to avoid being pinned at a static position upon detection. Finally, we find that the Ag nanoflower surfaces are corrugated with numerous nanogaps at interparticle sites, in such a way that allows the abundant active sites (referred to as "hot spots") to amplify the Raman signal, and simultaneously maintain the sound reliability and reproducibility of Raman detection. These designs along with the fabrication strategy are anticipated to benefit versatile optical, optoelectronic and energy devices. PMID:24258012

  5. In Situ Synchrotron Radiography and Spectrum Analysis of Transient Cavitation Bubbles in Molten Aluminium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanakis, I.; Xu, W. W.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Eskin, D. G.; Pericleous, K.; Lee, P. D.

    The melt processing of conventional and advanced metallic materials with high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations significantly improves the quality and properties of molten metals during their solidification. These improvements are primarily attributed to ultrasonic cavitation: the creation, growth, pulsation, and collapse of bubbles in the liquid. However, the development of practical applications is limited by the lack of fundamental knowledge on the dynamics of the cavitation bubbles; it is very difficult to directly observe ultrasonic cavitation using conventional techniques in molten metals due their high temperature and opaqueness. In this study, an in situ synchrotron radiography experiment was performed to investigate bubble dynamics in an Al-10 wt.% Cu alloy under an external ultrasound field at 30 kHz. Radiographs with an exposure time of 78 ms were collected continuously during the sonication of molten alloys at temperatures of 660±10 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that transient cavitation bubbles have been observed in liquid aluminium. Quantification of bubble parameters such as average size and time of collapse were evaluated from radiographs using advanced image analysis. Additionally, broadband noise associated with the acoustic emissions from shock waves of transient cavitation bubbles and estimation of the real-time acoustic pressure at the driving frequency were assessed using an advanced high-temperature cavitometer in separate bulk experiments.

  6. Fabrication of an AlN particulate aluminium matrix composite by a melt stirring method

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri-Nassaj, E.; Kobashi, M.; Choh, T.

    1995-06-15

    The physical and mechanical properties of metal matrix composites (MMCs) are extensively controlled by the structure and properties of the reinforcement/metal interface. From a metallurgical point of view, the ideal interfacial layer in a composite is expected to have some conditions: (a) the presence of intimate contact between the reinforcement and the matrix through satisfactory wetting of the reinforcement by the matrix to ensure enough adhesion and (b) the low rate of a chemical reaction at the interface to prevent degradation of the reinforcement. There are, however, various methods which can be used to improve the wetting characteristics of MMCs. The addition of alloying elements to the metal matrix has been shown to improve the metal/ceramic wettability by either reducing the metal/ceramic interfacial energy or reacting with the ceramic reinforcement to form interfacial reaction products. Although the thermal conductivity of AlN particles is less than that of SiC particles, it is likely that AlN is chemically more stable than SiC. Thus, the aim of the present paper is mainly to study the incorporation behavior of AlN particulates into aluminium melt.

  7. Deep surface rolling for fatigue life enhancement of laser clad aircraft aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, W.; Liu, Q.; Djugum, R.; Sharp, P. K.; Paradowska, A.

    2014-11-01

    Deep surface rolling can introduce deep compressive residual stresses into the surface of aircraft metallic structure to extend its fatigue life. To develop cost-effective aircraft structural repair technologies such as laser cladding, deep surface rolling was considered as an advanced post-repair surface enhancement technology. In this study, aluminium alloy 7075-T651 specimens with a blend-out region were first repaired using laser cladding technology. The surface of the laser cladding region was then treated by deep surface rolling. Fatigue testing was subsequently conducted for the laser clad, deep surface rolled and post-heat treated laser clad specimens. It was found that deep surface rolling can significantly improve the fatigue life in comparison with the laser clad baseline repair. In addition, three dimensional residual stresses were measured using neutron diffraction techniques. The results demonstrate that beneficial compressive residual stresses induced by deep surface rolling can reach considerable depths (more than 1.0 mm) below the laser clad surface.

  8. Microleakage of glass ionomer formulations after erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser preparation.

    PubMed

    Delmé, Katleen I M; Deman, Peter J; De Bruyne, Mieke A A; Nammour, Samir; De Moor, Roeland J G

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microleakage in class V cavities restored with four conventionally setting glass ionomers (CGIs) and one resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) following erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser or conventional preparation. Four hundred class V cavities were assigned to four groups: A and B were prepared by an Er:YAG laser; C and D were conventionally prepared. In groups B and D, the surface was additionally conditioned with Ketac conditioner. Each group was divided into five subgroups according to the glass ionomer cement (GIC) used: groups 1 (Ketac Fil), 2 (Ketac Molar), 3 (Ionofil Molar), 4 (Ionofil Molar Quick) and 5 (Photac Fil Quick). After thermocycling, a 2% methylene blue solution was used as dye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs were taken to show the conditioner's effect. Complete marginal sealing could not be reached. PhotacFil showed less microleakage than the conventionally setting glass ionomer cements (CGICs) investigated. Conditioning laser-prepared cavities did not negatively influence microleakage results except for Ionofil Molar Quick. PMID:18716828

  9. If exposure to aluminium in antiperspirants presents health risks, its content should be reduced.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Alain; Fauconneau, Bernard; Sappino, André-Pascal; Deloncle, Roger; Guillard, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Since aluminium (Al) pervades our environment, the scientific community has for many years raised concerns regarding its safety in humans. Al is present in numerous cosmetics such as antiperspirants, lipsticks and sunscreens. Al chlorohydrate is the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics and may constitute for Al a key exposure route to the human body and a potential source of damage. An in vitro study has demonstrated that Al from antiperspirant can be absorbed through viable human stripped skin. The potential toxicity of Al has been clearly shown and recent works convincingly argue that Al could be involved in cancerogenic processes. Nowadays, for example, Al is suspected of being involved in breast cancer. Recent work in cells in culture has lent credence to the hypothesis that this metal could accumulate in the mammary gland and selectively interfere with the biological properties of breast epithelial cells, thereby promoting a cascade of alterations reminiscent of the early phases of malignant transformation. In addition, several studies suggest that the presence of Al in human breast could influence metastatic process. As a consequence, given that the toxicity of Al has been widely recognized and that it is not a physiological component in human tissues, reducing the concentration of this metal in antiperspirants is a matter of urgency. PMID:24418462

  10. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of tetracycline in a pharmaceutical preparation by complexation with aluminium(III).

    PubMed

    Liawruangrath, Saisunee; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Watanesk, Surasak; Ruengsitagoon, Wirat

    2006-01-01

    A rapid flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric procedure for tetracycline determination is described. It is based on the injection of a 100 microl sample solution containing tetracycline into merged streams of aluminium(III) chloride (0.01 mol 1(-1)) and Tris-buffer in the presence of KCl (0.06 mol l(-1)), pH 7.0, with the same optimum flow rate of 3.2 ml min(-1). A yellow Al(III)-tetracycline complex was monitored at 376 nm. The flow injection system and the experimental conditions were optimized by means of the univariate method. The procedure was applied to the determination of tetracycline in pharmaceutical preparations with a high sampling rate of at least 165 h(-1). A high precision with a relative standard deviation was obtained less than 0.72 and 0.30% of 5.0 and 10 microg ml(-1) (n=11), respectively. The detection limit (3sigma) and the quantification limit (10sigma) were 0.07 and 0.72 mg l(-1), respectively. There were no interference effects from traditional excipients in the dosage forms when the method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations. The matrix effect could be reduced by the standard addition method. PMID:16429765

  11. The role of two superoxide dismutase mRNAs in rye aluminium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Parra, B; Figueiras, A M; Abd El-Moneim, D; Contreras, R; Rouco, R; Gallego, F J; Benito, C

    2015-05-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the main factor that limits crop production in acidic soils. There is evidence that antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) play a key role against Al-induced oxidative stress in several plant species. Rye is one of the most Al-tolerant cereals and exudes both citrate and malate from the roots in response to Al. The role of SOD against Al-induced oxidative stress has not been studied in rye. Al accumulation, lipid peroxidation, H?O? production and cell death were significantly higher in sensitive than in tolerant rye cultivars. Also, we characterised two genes for rye SOD: ScCu/ZnSOD and ScMnSOD. These genes were located on the chromosome arms of 2RS and 3RL, respectively, and their corresponding hypothetical proteins were putatively classified as cytosolic and mitochondrial, respectively. The phylogenetic relationships indicate that the two rye genes are orthologous to the corresponding genes of other Poaceae species. In addition, we studied Al-induced changes in the expression profiles of mRNAs from ScCu/ZnSOD and ScMnSOD in the roots and leaves of tolerant Petkus and sensitive Riodeva rye. These genes are mainly expressed in roots in both ryes, their repression being induced by Al. The tolerant cultivar has more of both mRNAs than the sensitive line, indicating that they are probably involved in Al tolerance. PMID:25359673

  12. An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210nanometres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniyasu, Yoshitaka; Kasu, Makoto; Makimoto, Toshiki

    2006-05-01

    Compact high-efficiency ultraviolet solid-state light sources-such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes-are of considerable technological interest as alternatives to large, toxic, low-efficiency gas lasers and mercury lamps. Microelectronic fabrication technologies and the environmental sciences both require light sources with shorter emission wavelengths: the former for improved resolution in photolithography and the latter for sensors that can detect minute hazardous particles. In addition, ultraviolet solid-state light sources are also attracting attention for potential applications in high-density optical data storage, biomedical research, water and air purification, and sterilization. Wide-bandgap materials, such as diamond and III-V nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlGaN and AlN; refs 3-10), are potential materials for ultraviolet LEDs and laser diodes, but suffer from difficulties in controlling electrical conduction. Here we report the successful control of both n-type and p-type doping in aluminium nitride (AlN), which has a very wide direct bandgap of 6eV. This doping strategy allows us to develop an AlN PIN (p-type/intrinsic/n-type) homojunction LED with an emission wavelength of 210nm, which is the shortest reported to date for any kind of LED. The emission is attributed to an exciton transition, and represents an important step towards achieving exciton-related light-emitting devices as well as replacing gas light sources with solid-state light sources.

  13. Roles of organic acid anion secretion in aluminium tolerance of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium (Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  14. Effect of aluminium on migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Darbre, Philippa D; Bakir, Ayse; Iskakova, Elzira

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) has been measured in human breast tissue, nipple aspirate fluid and breast cyst fluid, and recent studies have shown that at tissue concentrations, aluminium can induce DNA damage and suspension growth in human breast epithelial cells. This paper demonstrates for the first time that exposure to aluminium can also increase migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Long-term (32 weeks) but not short-term (1 week) exposure of MCF-7 cells to 10(-4) M aluminium chloride or 10(-4) M aluminium chlorohydrate increased motility of the cells as measured by live cell imaging (cumulative length moved by individual cells), by a wound healing assay and by migration in real time through 8 ?m pores of a membrane using xCELLigence technology. Long-term exposure (37 weeks) to 10(-4) M aluminium chloride or 10(-4) M aluminium chlorohydrate also increased the ability of MCF-7 cells to invade through a matrigel layer as measured in real time using the xCELLigence system. Although molecular mechanisms remain to be characterized, the ability of aluminium salts to increase migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 cells suggests that the presence of aluminium in the human breast could influence metastatic processes. This is important because mortality from breast cancer arises mainly from tumour spread rather than from the presence of a primary tumour in the breast. PMID:23896199

  15. Effects of Welding Processes and Post-Weld Aging Treatment on Fatigue Behavior of AA2219 Aluminium Alloy Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarvizhi, S.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-04-01

    AA2219 aluminium alloy square butt joints without filler metal addition were fabricated using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), electron beam welding (EBW), and friction stir welding (FSW) processes. The fabricated joints were post-weld aged at 175 °C for 12 h. The effect of three welding processes and post-weld aging (PWA) treatment on the fatigue properties is reported. Transverse tensile properties of the welded joints were evaluated. Microstructure analysis was also carried out using optical and electron microscopes. It was found that the post-weld aged FSW joints showed superior fatigue performance compared to EBW and GTAW joints. This was mainly due to the formation of very fine, dynamically recrystallized grains and uniform distribution of fine precipitates in the weld region.

  16. Modelling the role of marine particle on large scale 231Pa, 230Th, Iron and Aluminium distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutay, J.-C.; Tagliabue, A.; Kriest, I.; van Hulten, M. M. P.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of trace elements in the ocean is governed by the combined effects of various processes, and by exchanges with external sources. Modelling these represents an opportunity to better understand and quantify the mechanisms that regulate the oceanic tracer cycles. Observations collected during the GEOTRACES program provide an opportunity to improve our knowledge regarding processes that should be considered in biogeochemical models to adequately represent the distributions of trace elements in the ocean. Here we present a synthesis about the state of the art for simulating selected trace elements in biogeochemical models: Protactinium, Thorium, Iron and Aluminium. In this contribution we pay particular attention on the role of particles in the cycling of these tracers and how they may provide additional constraints on the transfer of matter in the ocean.

  17. Plasma renin activity in shock due to aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chugh, S N; Singhal, H R; Mehta, L; Chugh, K; Shankar, V; Malhotra, K C

    1990-06-01

    Plasma renin activity (PRA) was estimated in 30 patients with aluminium phosphide (AIP) poisoning (study group) admitted in shock. Ten patients in shock other than due to AIP poisoning (Group II A) and 20 normal healthy subjects (Group II B) served as controls. The PRA was significantly higher in the study group and group II A as compared to normal healthy subjects (p less than 0.001). Significantly higher PRA was found in the study group as compared to Group II A (p less than 0.001). The initial higher PRA continued to rise further in the study group but it started decreasing in Group II A as the duration of shock advanced. Continuation of shock in AIP poisoning was probably due to slow release of toxic PH3 gas, which was detected by positive silver nitrate paper test. The rise in PRA was directly proportional to the dose of pesticide consumed. There was direct relationship of mortality with increased PRA. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors may have a role in combating shock in AIp poisoning. PMID:2200784

  18. Electrocoagulation efficiency of the tannery effluent treatment using aluminium electrodes.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Fornari, Marilda M T; Módenes, Aparecido N; Palácio, Soraya M; Trigueros, Daniela E G; Borba, Fernando H; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2009-01-01

    An electro-coagulation laboratory scale system using aluminium plates electrodes was studied for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants as a by-product from leather finishing industrial process. A fractional factorial 2(3) experimental design was applied in order to obtain optimal values of the system state variables. The electro-coagulation (EC) process efficiency was based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total suspended solid, total fixed solid, total volatile solid, and chemical element concentration values. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for final pH, total fixed solid (TFS), turbidity and Ca concentration have confirmed the predicted models by the experimental design within a 95% confidence level. The reactor working conditions close to real effluent pH (7.6) and electrolysis time in the range 30-45 min were enough to achieve the cost effective reduction factors of organic and inorganic pollutants' concentrations. An appreciable improvement in COD removal efficiency was obtained for electro-coagulation treatment. Finally, the technical-economical analysis results have clearly shown that the electro-coagulation method is very promising for industrial application. PMID:19844065

  19. Aluminium stress disrupts metabolic performance of Plantago almogravensis plantlets transiently.

    PubMed

    Grevenstuk, Tomás; Moing, Annick; Maucourt, Mickaël; Deborde, Catherine; Romano, Anabela

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how tolerant plants cope with internalized aluminium (Al). Tolerant plants are known to deploy efficient detoxification mechanisms, however it is not known to what extent the primary and secondary metabolism is affected by Al. The aim of this work was to study the metabolic repercussions of Al stress in the tolerant plant Plantago almogravensis. P. almogravensis is well adapted to acid soils where high concentrations of free Al are found and has been classified as a hyperaccumulator. In vitro reared plantlets were used for this purpose in order to control Al exposure rigorously. The metabolome of P. almogravensis plantlets as well as its metabolic response to the supply of sucrose was characterized. The supply of sucrose leads to an accumulation of amino acids and secondary metabolites and consumption of carbohydrates that result from increased metabolic activity. In Al-treated plantlets the synthesis of amino acids and secondary metabolites is transiently impaired, suggesting that P. almogravensis is able to recover from the Al treatment within the duration of the trials. In the presence of Al the consumption of carbohydrate resources is accelerated. The content of some metabolic stress markers also demonstrates that P. almogravensis is highly adapted to Al stress. PMID:26433896

  20. Mackay icosahedron explaining orientation relationship of dispersoids in aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Muggerud, Astrid Marie F; Li, Yanjun; Holmestad, Randi; Andersen, Sigmund J

    2014-10-01

    The orientation relations (ORs) of the cubic icosahedral quasicrystal approximant phase ?-Al(Fe,Mn)Si have been studied after low temperature annealing of a 3xxx wrought aluminium alloy by transmission electron microscopy. From diffraction studies it was verified that the most commonly observed OR for the ?-Al(Fe,Mn)Si dispersoids is [1\\bar 11]? // [1\\bar 11]Al, (5\\bar 2\\bar 7)? // (011)Al. This orientation could be explained by assuming that the internal Mackay icosahedron (MI) in the ?-phase has a fixed orientation in relation to Al, similar to that of the icosahedral quasi-crystals existing in this alloy system. It is shown that mirroring of the normal-to-high-symmetry icosahedral directions of the MI explains the alternative orientations, which are therefore likely to be caused by twinning of the fixed MI. Only one exception was found, which was related to the Bergman icosahedron internal to the T-phase of the Al-Mg-Zn system. PMID:25274523

  1. Aspects of fabrication aluminium matrix heterophase composites by suspension method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolata, A. J.; Dyzia, M.

    2012-05-01

    Composites with an aluminium alloy matrix (AlMMC) exhibit several advantageous properties such as good strength, stiffness, low density, resistance and dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, good thermal expansion coefficient and particularly high resistance to friction wear. Therefore such composites are more and more used in modern engineering constructions. Composites reinforced with hard ceramic particles (Al2O3, SiC) are gradually being implemented into production in automotive or aircraft industries. Another application of AlMMC is in the electronics industry, where the dimensional stability and capacity to absorb and remove heat is used in radiators. However the main problems are still: a reduction of production costs, developing methods of composite material tests and final product quality assessment, standardisation, development of recycling and mechanical processing methods. AlMMC production technologies, based on liquid-phase methods, and the shaping of products by casting methods, belong to the cheapest production methods. Application of a suspension method for the production of composites with heterophase reinforcement may turn out to be a new material and technological solution. The article presents the material and technological aspects of the transfer procedures for the production of composite suspensions from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale.

  2. Aluminium intoxication in undialysed adults with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, L S; Beale, G; Sandroni, S; Ballinger, W E

    1992-01-01

    The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome (DES) consists of altered mental status, communication difficulty, seizures and myoclonus. It has been attributed to elevated serum aluminium (A1) levels. Two undialysed patients with chronic renal failure who presented with the characteristic syndrome are reported. The first, a 48 year old female, had used A1 containing phosphate binders for two years. Her serum A1 level was 25.34 mumol/L. Despite treatment with desferoximine and dialysis, she died. Necropsy revealed elevated A1 levels in the cerebral cortex (19 mcg/gm) and spongioform change in the outer three cortical layers. The second patient, a 46 year old woman, had a serum A1 of 8.70 mumol/L. She had never taken A1 containing phosphate binders but had taken several grams/day of citrate for at least six months. Treatment with haemodialysis and discontinuation of the citrate produced a resolution of symptoms and return of the A1 level to normal. During two years of haemodialysis there has been no recurrence. Images PMID:1527541

  3. Workplace noise exposure after modernisation of an aluminium processing complex.

    PubMed

    Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Lukić, Jela; Udovicić, Ruzica; Zuskin, Eugenija; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Zajec, Zdenko

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess to which extent modernisation of an aluminium production complex reduced occupational noise hazard for jobs with the highest potential of exposure. Periodical measurements of noise level were taken at the same workplaces using the same method, before and after modernisation of all plants. The results were compared with the recommended standard. After modernisation, the noise was significantly reduced in all sections of all plants. The greatest reduction was measured in the foundry. After modernisation, the portion of workplaces with excessive noise level dropped significantly (chisquare=21.315; p<0.0001) from 78.4% to 13%. Noise remained a problem in ingot casting and dross skimming section. In the anode plant, noise remained a problem in the green mill section where noise intensities generated by mills and vibrocompactors varied from 95 dB(A) to 102 dB(A). In the electrolysis plant, the portion of workplaces with extensive noise dropped from 77.8% to 39.3% after modernisation (p=0.0019). Noise remains to be a problem at the anode covering section where levels rise up to 100 dB(A). The modernisation of the factory has considerably reduced the noise level in the working environment of all plants, but it can not be reduced completely. PMID:19789164

  4. Asthma caused by potassium aluminium tetrafluoride: a case series.

    PubMed

    Laštovková, Andrea; Klusá?ková, Pavlina; Fenclová, Zdenka; Bonneterre, Vincent; Pelclová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe a case-series of potassium aluminium tetrafluoride (KAlF4)-induced occupational asthma (OA) and/or occupational rhinitis (OR). The study involves five patients from a heat-exchanger production line who were examined (including specific inhalation challenge tests) for suspected OA and/or OR caused by a flux containing almost 100% KAlF4 - with fluorides' workplace air concentrations ranging between 1.7 and 2.8?mg/m(3). No subject had a previous history of asthma. All five patients had a positive specific challenge test (three patients were diagnosed with OA alone, one with OR and one with both OR and OA). At the follow-up visit, after three years on average, all patients needed permanent corticosteroid therapy (four topical, one oral). After elimination from the exposure, only one of the observed subjects gave an indication of an improvement, two subjects stabilized and two worsened. Our case series focuses on the correlation between patients' exposure to fluorides in air-conditioner production and the subsequent occurrence of OR/OA. Currently, it is uncertain whether these OR/OA were caused by hypersensitivity or irritation. PMID:26212411

  5. Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion

    PubMed Central

    Vailionis, Arturas; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Yang, Wenge; Rode, Andrei V.; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2011-01-01

    At extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those inside planets and stars, common materials form new dense phases with compacted atomic arrangements and unusual physical properties. The synthesis and study of new phases of matter at pressures above 100 GPa and temperatures above 104 K—warm dense matter—may reveal the functional details of planet and star interiors, and may lead to materials with extraordinary properties. Many phases have been predicted theoretically that may be realized once appropriate formation conditions are found. Here we report the synthesis of a superdense stable phase of body-centred-cubic aluminium, predicted by first-principles theories to exist at pressures above 380 GPa. The superdense Al phase was synthesized in the non-equilibrium conditions of an ultrafast laser-induced microexplosion confined inside sapphire (?-Al2O3). Confined microexplosions offer a strategy to create and recover high-density polymorphs, and a simple method for tabletop study of warm dense matter. PMID:21863012

  6. The interpretation of polycrystalline coherent inelastic neutron scattering from aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Daniel L.; Ross, D. Keith; Gale, Julian D.; Taylor, Jon W.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to the interpretation and analysis of coherent inelastic neutron scattering from polycrystals (poly-CINS) is presented. This article describes a simulation of the one-phonon coherent inelastic scattering from a lattice model of an arbitrary crystal system. The one-phonon component is characterized by sharp features, determined, for example, by boundaries of the (Q, ω) regions where one-phonon scattering is allowed. These features may be identified with the same features apparent in the measured total coherent inelastic cross section, the other components of which (multiphonon or multiple scattering) show no sharp features. The parameters of the model can then be relaxed to improve the fit between model and experiment. This method is of particular interest where no single crystals are available. To test the approach, the poly-CINS has been measured for polycrystalline aluminium using the MARI spectrometer (ISIS), because both lattice dynamical models and measured dispersion curves are available for this material. The models used include a simple Lennard-Jones model fitted to the elastic constants of this material plus a number of embedded atom method force fields. The agreement obtained suggests that the method demonstrated should be effective in developing models for other materials where single-crystal dispersion curves are not available. PMID:24282332

  7. Laser welding of copper and aluminium battery interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bono, Paola; Blackburn, Jon

    2015-07-01

    The adoption of lithium-ion and/or super-capacitor battery technologies is a current hot topic in the automotive industry. For both battery types, the terminals and busbars are manufactured from copper (Cu) and/or aluminium-based (Al-based) alloys, as a result of their high electrical and thermal conductivities. Laser welding is considered an attractive process to industry due to its easy automotability, high processing speed and highly repeatable cost-effective processing. However, laser welding of Cu-Cu and Al-Al joints presents several difficulties due to the high surface reflectivity at infrared (IR) wavelengths. This behaviour becomes even more critical when processing thin sheets and foils.This paper summarises recent work performed to develop laser welding techniques suitable for monometallic joining of Cu-Cu and Al-Al electrical interconnections. Laser welding of multiple overlapped foils (with thickness in the range of 17μm-100μm) were investigated.

  8. Industrial hygiene survey in an aluminium reduction plant in India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashit K; Ravichandran, Beerappa; Bhattacharya, Sanat K; Roy, Sanjit K; Ahmed, Sabir; Thakur, Sridhar; Saiyed, Habibullah N

    2008-09-01

    This study reports a work-environmental assessment and workers' exposure in a major prebake type aluminium smelter in India. Levels of known health hazards in and near the main smelting operations viz., the Potroom, the Carbon area, the Butt section, the Rodding shop, the Bath preparing area and the Casthouse were measured. Dustiness in general was high to excessively high. Mean levels of respirable dust (PM10) in air in the three dustiest areas were 24.07 mg/m3 in the Carbon areas, 27.57 mg/m3 in the Bath preparing and 4.44 mg/m3 in the Rodding shop. 40- 60% of the particles were less than 5 microm in size. 0.5- 2.82% particulate fluoride was obtained in the size fraction 0.4- 4.7 microm of the Potroom air. Naturally, exposures to total dusts were very high in these processes. The background levels of NOx and SO2 and fluorides (gaseous and particulate) were found to be within the prescribed Indian Standards. Higher exposures to gaseous and particulate fluoride, 3.85 and 6.53 mg/m3 respectively, were observed among the Rodding shop workers. The levels ofpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were deemed to be excessive in the Carbon area. Measurements of heat stress were made in winter and were found to be lower than the prescribed limit. PMID:18783008

  9. Successful Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Rahimi, Mitra; Hajesmaeili, Mohammadreza; Taherkhani, Maryam; Sadeghi, Roxana

    2016-03-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is one of the most commonly used pesticides worldwide with high mortality rates. Cellular damage and cardiorespiratory failure are the most common causes of mortality and morbidity after poisoning. It is supposed that giving enough time to the patient to survive, the most critical hours after exposure may help the cardiovascular system to recover itself and save the patient's life. During a training workshop for medical extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a 28-year-old ALP-poisoned male was referred to us. Fifty minutes after admission, he developed hypotension and bradycardia and was transferred to ICU. On the second venous blood gas, he had severe metabolic acidosis. After starting the patient on the routine treatment of ALP poisoning, he was a candidate for veno-arterial (VA) ECMO. After three days, lactate level decreased and his general condition improved. On day four, the patient was completely separated from the ECMO machine with acceptable echocardiography and ejection fraction of 40%. One day later, he was extubated, sent to the ward and subsequently discharged in good condition. We suggest this method of treatment for severe ALP poisoning as well as any other poisoning that causes cell toxicity and abrupt cardiovascular or respiratory failure. PMID:26335576

  10. Electrocoagulation of cutting oil emulsions using aluminium plate electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bensadok, K; Benammar, S; Lapicque, F; Nezzal, G

    2008-03-21

    The treatment of very concentrated oil-water emulsions by electrocoagulation (EC) was experimentally investigated as a pre-treatment step prior to a membrane process. The oil-water emulsion was prepared from a cutting mineral oil B22 currently used for drilling and machining operations. The electrocoagulation progress was followed by the measurement of COD, turbidity and pH in a batch process with recirculation of the liquid. This study is mainly focused on the effects of operating parameters such as initial pH, current density, oil concentration and recirculation rate, on the de-emulsification efficiency. Kinetic curves showed that the EC process exhibits two phases: a "reactive phase" during which the COD and the turbidity removals increase with electrolysis, and a stationary phase for which further aluminium dissolution is useless in the pollution abatement. The results showed that the treatment efficiency increases with increasing current density, but decreases with oil concentration. It appears that treatment of the considered cutting oil is completed through dissolution of around 10mgAl/g oil, with a slight positive effect of the liquid flow rate. Best results are also obtained with initial pH near 7. PMID:17706345

  11. Quantitative prediction of solute strengthening in aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Leyson, Gerard Paul M; Curtin, William A; Hector, Louis G; Woodward, Christopher F

    2010-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computational materials science, a quantitative, parameter-free prediction of the mechanical properties of alloys has been difficult to achieve from first principles. Here, we present a new analytic theory that, with input from first-principles calculations, is able to predict the strengthening of aluminium by substitutional solute atoms. Solute-dislocation interaction energies in and around the dislocation core are first calculated using density functional theory and a flexible-boundary-condition method. An analytic model for the strength, or stress to move a dislocation, owing to the random field of solutes, is then presented. The theory, which has no adjustable parameters and is extendable to other metallic alloys, predicts both the energy barriers to dislocation motion and the zero-temperature flow stress, allowing for predictions of finite-temperature flow stresses. Quantitative comparisons with experimental flow stresses at temperature T=78 K are made for Al-X alloys (X=Mg, Si, Cu, Cr) and good agreement is obtained. PMID:20676087

  12. Heterometallic aluminates: alkali metals trapped by an aluminium aryloxide claw.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M Teresa; Cuenca, Tomás; Mosquera, Marta E G

    2014-10-14

    A series of heterometallic aluminium-alkali metal species [AlMMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}2]n have been isolated for lithium, sodium and potassium. These compounds can be generated by the reaction of [AlMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}]2 with the metallated phenol [M{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}]n or through the reaction of the mixture of AlMe3 and the appropriate alkali metal alkyl base with two equivalents of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. In the heterometallic species obtained, the {AlMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}2}(-) moiety is observed and could be described as a claw which fixes the alkali ion by the phenoxide oxygen atoms while the methoxy groups help to stabilize their coordination sphere. All compounds have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Catalytic studies reveal that these compounds are active in ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. PMID:24965205

  13. Superimposed ultrasonic oscillations in compression tests of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Daud, Yusof; Lucas, Margaret; Huang, Zhihong

    2006-12-22

    The application of ultrasonics in metal forming applications has been shown to reduce the forming load significantly in many research studies. The load reduction has been related to the stress superposition effect, rise in temperature and change in the friction condition between the specimen and die interfaces. This paper reports an investigation into the effects of superimposed ultrasonic oscillation of the die in compression tests on aluminium specimens. In particular, a finite element model is developed to simulate uniaxial compression and to model the effects of a change in the friction boundary condition when ultrasonic excitation is applied to the lower platen. The model predictions of the stress-strain relationship can be compared with test data to provide some insights into the effects of the interfacial condition. The paper shows how the analysis of the test data, combined with finite element models of ultrasonic compression test simulations, allows some initial conclusions to be drawn regarding the influence of the interfacial friction during ultrasonic compression. PMID:16814347

  14. Hydrogenation of palladium rich compounds of aluminium, gallium and indium

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlmann, H.

    2010-02-15

    Palladium rich intermetallic compounds of aluminium, gallium and indium have been studied before and after hydrogenation by powder X-ray diffraction and during hydrogenation by in situ thermal analysis (DSC) at hydrogen gas pressures up to 39 MPa and temperatures up to 700 K. Very weak DSC signals and small unit cell increases of below 1% for AlPd{sub 2}, AlPd{sub 3}, GaPd{sub 2}, Ga{sub 5}Pd{sub 13}, In{sub 3}Pd{sub 5}, and InPd{sub 2} suggest negligible hydrogen uptake. In contrast, for both tetragonal modifications of InPd{sub 3} (ZrAl{sub 3} and TiAl{sub 3} type), heating to 523 K at 2 MPa hydrogen pressure leads to a rearrangement of the intermetallic structure to a cubic AuCu{sub 3} type with an increase in unit cell volume per formula unit by 3.6-3.9%. Gravimetric analysis suggests a composition InPd{sub 3}H{sub a}pprox{sub 0.8} for the hydrogenation product. Very similar behaviour is found for the deuteration of InPd{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: In situ differential scanning calorimetry of the hydrogenation of tetragonal InPd{sub 3} (ZrAl{sub 3} type) at 1.3 MPa hydrogen pressure.

  15. Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion.

    PubMed

    Vailionis, Arturas; Gamaly, Eugene G; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Yang, Wenge; Rode, Andrei V; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2011-01-01

    At extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those inside planets and stars, common materials form new dense phases with compacted atomic arrangements and unusual physical properties. The synthesis and study of new phases of matter at pressures above 100 GPa and temperatures above 10(4) K--warm dense matter--may reveal the functional details of planet and star interiors, and may lead to materials with extraordinary properties. Many phases have been predicted theoretically that may be realized once appropriate formation conditions are found. Here we report the synthesis of a superdense stable phase of body-centred-cubic aluminium, predicted by first-principles theories to exist at pressures above 380 GPa. The superdense Al phase was synthesized in the non-equilibrium conditions of an ultrafast laser-induced microexplosion confined inside sapphire (?-Al(2)O(3)). Confined microexplosions offer a strategy to create and recover high-density polymorphs, and a simple method for tabletop study of warm dense matter. PMID:21863012

  16. Mechanism of stabilization of dicalcium silicate solid solution with aluminium.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Ana; Aranda, Miguel A G; Sanz, Jesús; de la Torre, Angeles G; Losilla, Enrique R

    2014-02-01

    Stoichiometric dicalcium silicate, Ca2SiO4, displays a well-known polymorphism with temperature. When this phase is doped by a range of elements, belite, one of the main phases of cements, is generated. Here, we thoroughly study the aluminum doping of dicalcium silicate. This type of study is important for cement characterization and also from a basic point of view. Ca2Si(1-2x)Al(2x)O(4-x)?(x) (x = 0, 0.010, 0.014, 0.03) has been prepared and studied by X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. The limiting composition has been established as Ca2Si0.972Al0.028O3.986?0.014. The (27)Al MAS NMR band located close to ~-70 ppm is ascribed to tetrahedral environments, in agreement with the proposed aliovalent Si/Al atomic substitution mechanism. Thermal analysis measurements under a wet atmosphere indirectly confirm the increase of oxygen vacancies as the amount of incorporated protons increases with the aluminium content. A thorough electrical characterization has been carried out including overall conductivity measurements under wet and dry atmospheres and conductivity as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. The samples show oxide anion conductivity with a small p-type electronic contribution under oxidizing conditions. These compounds display a very important proton contribution to the overall conductivities under humidified atmospheres. PMID:24292166

  17. Nano-crystalline P/M aluminium for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummert, K.; Schattevoy, R.; Broda, M.; Knappe, M.; Beiss, P.; Klubberg, F.; Schubert, T. H.; Leuschner, R.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction of total vehicle weight and lowering of moving masses within the engine are key elements to overcome future emission challenges of the automotive industry. Within a German BMBF funded project the melt spinning technology will be driven to a series production status. The very fast cooling condition of the melt leads to a nano-structure of the aluminium material. This results in new material properties of known alloys. The strength increases dramatically without lowered forming behaviour. With this process the freedom of designing complex alloys is very flexible. Different alloys have been investigated for several applications, where high strength at room and elevated temperatures and/or high wear resistance is required. This paper presents some results regarding the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of a developed Al-Ni-Fe alloy. This joined research project with partners from the automotive industry as well as automotive suppliers and universities is funded by the German BMBF "NanoMobile" Program under Project number 03X3008.

  18. Asthma caused by potassium aluminium tetrafluoride: a case series

    PubMed Central

    LAŠTOVKOVÁ, Andrea; KLUSÁČKOVÁ, Pavlina; FENCLOVÁ, Zdenka; BONNETERRE, Vincent; PELCLOVÁ, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe a case-series of potassium aluminium tetrafluoride (KAlF4)-induced occupational asthma (OA) and/or occupational rhinitis (OR). The study involves five patients from a heat-exchanger production line who were examined (including specific inhalation challenge tests) for suspected OA and/or OR caused by a flux containing almost 100% KAlF4 − with fluorides’ workplace air concentrations ranging between 1.7 and 2.8 mg/m3. No subject had a previous history of asthma. All five patients had a positive specific challenge test (three patients were diagnosed with OA alone, one with OR and one with both OR and OA). At the follow-up visit, after three years on average, all patients needed permanent corticosteroid therapy (four topical, one oral). After elimination from the exposure, only one of the observed subjects gave an indication of an improvement, two subjects stabilized and two worsened. Our case series focuses on the correlation between patients’ exposure to fluorides in air-conditioner production and the subsequent occurrence of OR/OA. Currently, it is uncertain whether these OR/OA were caused by hypersensitivity or irritation. PMID:26212411

  19. High temperature deformation of friction stir processed 7075 aluminium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaliere, P. . E-mail: pasquale.cavaliere@unile.it; Squillace, A.

    2005-08-15

    The mechanical and microstructural properties of 7075 aluminium alloy resulting from Friction Stir Processing (FSP), into sheets of 7 mm thickness, were analysed in the present study. The sheets were processed perpendicularly to the rolling direction; the tensile mechanical properties were evaluated at room temperature in the transverse and longitudinal directions with respect to the processing one. Tensile tests were also performed at higher temperatures and different strain rates in the nugget zone, in order to analyse the superplastic properties of the recrystallized material and to observe the differences from the parent material as a function of the strong grain refinement due to the Friction Stir Process. The high temperature behaviour of the material was studied, in the parallel direction, by means of tensile tests in the temperature and strain rate ranges of 150-500 deg. C and 10{sup -} {sup 2}-10{sup -} {sup 4} s{sup -} {sup 1} respectively, electron microscopy (FEGSEM) observations were carried out to investigate more closely the fracture surfaces of the specimens tested at different temperatures and strain rates.

  20. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Sivasubramanian, J.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J.; Raja, B.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278 ± 3.121 to 189.872 ± 2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749 ± 2.052 to 21.170 ± 1.311 and 13.167 ± 1.441 to 8.953 ± 0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicdbnd CH stretching band and Cdbnd O stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes.

  1. Simulation de la formabilite des alliages d'aluminium AA5754 et AA6063

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eljaafari, Samira

    Les besoins de reduction du poids se sont concretement traduits par l'introduction de nouvelles nuances plus legeres dans les structures automobiles. Ainsi, des alliages d'aluminium ont commence a etre integres dans les pieces de structure de plusieurs vehicules. La faible masse volumique des alliages d'aluminium (2,7g/cm3) permet d'alleger le poids du vehicule qui entraine une diminution de la consommation de carburant et, donc, des emissions de gaz a effet de serre. La striction et la rupture sont les principaux modes de defaillance qui entrainent le rebut systematique des pieces. C'est pourquoi, ameliorer la prediction d'apparition de ces defauts lors de la simulation va dans le sens d'une meilleure maitrise du procede. Dans le cadre de ce travail doctoral, deux modeles sont developpes pour simuler le comportement a grandes deformations d'alliages d'aluminium: un modele polycristallin de type Taylor et un modele a un ou plusieurs elements finis par grain. Les diagrammes limites de formage (DLF) pour les deux alliages d'aluminium AA5754 et AA6063 ont ete simules numeriquement en utilisant une formulation par elements finis pour les polycristaux basee sur l'hypothese de Taylor. Les DLF conventionnels et de l'hydroformage ont ete traces. L'effet des chemins de deformation sur la formabilite des alliages d'aluminium a aussi ete etudie. Finalement, des simulations numeriques avec les donnees de diffraction des electrons retrodiffuses (EBSD) pour 1'alliage d'aluminium AA5754 ont ete effectuees en utilisant le modele a un ou plusieurs elements par grain. Ces simulations sont executees avec differents modeles du durcissement (Asaro, Bassani et puissance). Mots-cles: Formabilite; Alliage d'aluminium; Hydroformage; Glissement cristallographique; Durcissement; Calcul parallele; Diagramme limite de formage (DLF); Diffraction electron.

  2. Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24 µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10 = 18 µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) < mussel Mytilus edulis plannulatus (EC10 = 250 µg Al/L, 72-h embryo development) < oyster Saccostrea echinata (EC10 = 410 µg Al/L, 48-h embryo development). Toxicity to these species was the result of the dissolved aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used. PMID:25318392

  3. Pulmonary Fibrosis and Encephalopathy Associated with the Inhalation of Aluminium Dust

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, A. I. G.; Kazantzis, G.; King, E.; Teare, Donald; Porter, R. J.; Owen, R.

    1962-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic, pathological, and environmental features of a case of extensive aluminium fibrosis of the lungs are reported in a man of 49 years of age who had worked for 13½ years in the ball-mill room of an aluminium powder factory. It is noteworthy that his symptoms were referable to the central nervous system, and that he died from terminal broncho-pneumonia following rapidly progressive encephalopathy, associated with epileptiform attacks. He had no presenting pulmonary symptoms, and ?-ray examination of the chest showed only slight abnormalities. Radiographic examination of the chests of 53 other workers in the same factory, and clinical examination with lung function tests of 23 of them revealed no other definite cases of aluminium fibrosis of the lung, nor any other cases with neurological signs and symptoms. Estimations of the aluminium contents of the body tissues such as the lungs, brain, liver, and bone are also recorded. When compared with normal values, it was found that the lungs and brain contained about 20 times and the liver 122 times more than normal. As a contribution to the study of the aluminium content of normal tissues, and as a control series for the results given by Tipton, Cook, Steiner, Foland, McDaniel, and Fentress (1957), and Tipton, Cook, Foland, Rittner, Hardwick, and McDaniel (1958, 1959), the aluminium content of eight “normal” brains was estimated and in all cases it was found to be less than 0·6 ?g. Al/g. wet weight. The results of a survey of the dust concentrations in the factory are also given. The use of aluminium compounds in the experimental production of epilepsy in primates is reviewed, and it is suggested that the neurological signs and symptoms with epileptiform convulsions which occurred in this case might have been related to aluminium intoxication. We hold the view, however, that the interstitial and nodular fibrosis found in the lungs was undoubtedly associated with the inhalation and retention of aluminium dust. Images PMID:13932137

  4. Aluminium impact on freshwater invertebrates at low pH: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Jan

    The state of knowledge on aluminium (Al) impact on freshwater invertebrates at low pH is reviewed. Mainly inorganic ions seem to be biologically harmful. Published effect/mechanism descriptions may seem somewhat contradictory, but this can be due to the heterogeneity of "the invertebrate group", as well as the multitude and complexity of occurring Al species, thereby also Al analysis problems. Addition of Al to streams has in some cases increased drift and death of mainly some "surface-dependent" species (chironomids, mayflies, dance flies, dixid midges), but also some strictly benthic animals (isopods, stoneflies), while other studies on a variety of animals do not record any change in neither drift, mortality nor biomass. In laboratory exposures Al has been shown to cause raised mortality for some daphnids and blackfly larvae at pH around 5; in the latter animals the effect was however mitigated by humus. A variety of other freshwater invertebrates were not affected. Moreover, at pH 4, Al has even been shown to improve the survival of mayfly nymphs and daphnids, otherwise impaired by the low pH in itself. The reason for this is not clear. Proofs for "food chain accumulation" of Al are still weak. Very high additions of Al have caused a decreased respiration rate in a dragonfly nymph, while a more field-relevant exposure level increased respiration in mayfly nymphs. This suggests a stress situation, probably due to impaired osmoregulation, indicating chemical or mechanical Al impact. The lowered oxygen uptake is then compensated for by improved respiration rate. A model for this is presented. Studies on crayfish, daphnids, mayflies and waterbugs indicate that Al can lower osmoregulatory efficiency and thereby affect the ion balance maintaining mechanisms of the animals. Such sublethal effects are important and should be studied further. The review also critically discusses the concepts mortality and bioavailability.

  5. Towards improvement of aluminium assay in quartz for in situ cosmogenic 26Al analysis at ANSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Toshiyuki; Fink, David; Mifsud, Charles

    2015-10-01

    Accuracy and precision in the measurement of natural aluminium abundances in quartz can affect the reliability of 26Al exposure dating and 26Al/10Be burial dating. At ANSTO, aliquots extracted from the HF solutions of dissolved quartz are treated in our laboratory, whereas ICP-OES analysis is performed at a commercial laboratory. The long-term inter-run reproducibility of our in-house standards show a limiting precision in Al measurements of 3-4% (1σ), which is lower than the claimed precision of Al analysis by ICP-OES. This indicates that unaccounted random errors are incorporated during our aliquot preparation. In this study, we performed several controlled tests to investigate effects of possible inconsistencies and variances during our aliquot preparation procedure. The results indicate that our procedure is robust against any subtle change in the preparation procedure, e.g., fuming temperatures, fuming reagents, and drying conditions. We found that the density of the solutions dispatched for ICP analysis is occasionally variable due to the presence of residual fuming reagents in the solution. A comparison of the results between the calibration curve and standard addition methods show that the former results are consistently lower than the latter by up to ∼14%. Similar offsets have been reported by previous studies. The reason for these discrepancies is mostly likely matrix effect, which is not accounted for by the calibration curve method. Further tests by varying matrix with impurities such as HF, HClO4, H2SO4 and Si identified that Si could cause lower offset in Al measurements; however, our ICP solutions are confirmed to be free from Si and the cause of matrix effect remains to be investigated. Hence, care must be taken for the measurement of Al concentrations in quartz by ICP-OES, either by ensuring that matrix effect is fully accounted for or by routinely employing standard additions when required.

  6. Modulatory Role of Simvastatin against Aluminium Chloride-Induced Behavioural and Biochemical Changes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nampoothiri, Madhavan; John, Jessy; Kumar, Nitesh; Mudgal, Jayesh; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Aluminium, a neurotoxic agent in humans, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we examined the behavioral and biochemical effects of aluminium in rats with special emphasis on memory centres, namely, hippocampus and frontal cortex. Further, the effect of simvastatin treatment on aluminium intoxication was evaluated. Methods. Rats were exposed to aluminium chloride (AlCl3) for 60 days. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg/p.o.) and rivastigmine (1 mg/kg/p.o.) were administered daily prior to AlCl3. Behavioral parameters were assessed using Morris water maze test and actophotometer followed by biochemical investigations, namely, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, TNF-α level, antioxidant enzymes (GSH, catalase), lipid peroxidation, and nitrite level in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels in serum were also determined. Key Findings. Simvastatin treatment improved cognitive function and locomotor activity in rats. Simvastatin reversed hyperlipidemia and significantly rectified the deleterious effect of AlCl3 on AChE activity. Further, in hippocampus and frontal cortex, aluminium-induced elevation in nitrite and TNF-α and reduction in antioxidant enzymes were inhibited by simvastatin. Conclusion. To conclude, the present study suggests that simvastatin per se protects the neurons in hippocampus and frontal cortex from AlCl3, an environmental toxin. PMID:25802481

  7. Tensile Strength and Hardness Correlations with Microscopy in Friction welded Aluminium to Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish, Rengarajan; Seshagiri Rao, Vaddi; Ananthapadmanaban, Dattaguru; Ravi, Balappa

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and copper are good conductors of heat and electricity, copper being the better conductor, is a costly metal indeed. On the other hand, aluminium is cheap, easily available and also has a lower density than copper. Hence, worldwide efforts are being made to partially replace copper wire. Solid state welding should be used to join aluminium to copper. This is because the use of fusion welding results in brittle phases formed in the weld interface. One of the solid state welding techniques used for joining aluminium to copper is friction welding. In this paper, an attempt has been made to join aluminium to copper by friction welding by varying the friction welding parameters, namely friction pressure, upset pressure, burn-off length and speed of rotation of the workpiece. Nine different friction welding parameter combinations were used during welding in accordance with ASTM standards and results have been reported. Tensile strength and hardness tests were carried out for each parameter combination. Optimum friction welding parameter combination was identified with respect to tensile strength. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron dispersive spectroanalysis were obtained to identify modes of fracture and presence of intermetallic phases for each friction welding combination with the aim to narrow down friction welding parameters that give good properties on the whole.

  8. Study of solid-solution hardening in binary aluminium-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draissia, Mohamed; Debili, Mohamed-Yacine

    2005-09-01

    Solid-solution formation in binary aluminium-based alloys is due essentially to the combined effects of the size and valence of solvent and solute atoms, as expected by the four Hume-Rothery rules. The lattice parameter of aluminium in the solid solution of the sputtered Al-Fe films is [Al-a (Å)=4.052-6.6×10-3Y]. The increasing and decreasing evolution of the lattice parameter of copper [Cu-a (Å)=3.612+1.8×10-3Z] and aluminium [Al-a (Å)=4.048-1.6×10-3X] in the sputtered Al-1.8 to 92.5 at. % Cu films is a result of the difference in size between the aluminium and copper atoms. The low solubility of copper in aluminium (<1.8 at % Cu) is due to the valences of solvent and solute atoms in contrast with other sputtered films prepared under similar conditions, such as Al-Mg (20 at. % Mg), Al-Ti (27 at. % Ti), Al-Cr (5at. % Cr) and Al-Fe (5.5 at. % Fe) where the solubility is due to the difference in size.

  9. Highly aluminium doped barium and strontium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by citrate auto-combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J. . E-mail: neil.shirtcliffe@ntu.ac.uk; Thompson, Simon; O'Keefe, Eoin S.; Appleton, Steve; Perry, Carole C. . E-mail: carole.perry@ntu.ac.uk

    2007-02-15

    Aluminium doped barium and strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles BaAl {sub x}Fe{sub (12-x)}O{sub 19} and SrAl {sub x}Fe{sub (12-x)}O{sub 19} were synthesised via a sol-gel route using citric acid to complex the ions followed by an auto-combustion reaction. This method shows promise for the synthesis of complex ferrite powders with small particle size. It was found that around half of the iron could be substituted for aluminium in the barium ferrite with structure retention, whereas strontium aluminium ferrites could be produced with any aluminium content including total substitution of the iron. All synthesised materials consisted of particles smaller than 1 {mu}m, which is the size of a single magnetic domain, and various doping levels were achieved with the final elemental composition being within the bounds of experimental error. The materials show structural and morphological changes as they move from iron to aluminium ferrites. Such materials may be promising for imaging applications.

  10. Tensile Strength and Hardness Correlations with Microscopy in Friction welded Aluminium to Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish, Rengarajan; Seshagiri Rao, Vaddi; Ananthapadmanaban, Dattaguru; Ravi, Balappa

    2015-03-01

    Aluminium and copper are good conductors of heat and electricity, copper being the better conductor, is a costly metal indeed. On the other hand, aluminium is cheap, easily available and also has a lower density than copper. Hence, worldwide efforts are being made to partially replace copper wire. Solid state welding should be used to join aluminium to copper. This is because the use of fusion welding results in brittle phases formed in the weld interface. One of the solid state welding techniques used for joining aluminium to copper is friction welding. In this paper, an attempt has been made to join aluminium to copper by friction welding by varying the friction welding parameters, namely friction pressure, upset pressure, burn-off length and speed of rotation of the workpiece. Nine different friction welding parameter combinations were used during welding in accordance with ASTM standards and results have been reported. Tensile strength and hardness tests were carried out for each parameter combination. Optimum friction welding parameter combination was identified with respect to tensile strength. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron dispersive spectroanalysis were obtained to identify modes of fracture and presence of intermetallic phases for each friction welding combination with the aim to narrow down friction welding parameters that give good properties on the whole.

  11. Effect of aluminium sulphate on interactions between silica surfaces studied by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Donose, Bogdan C; Nguyen, Anh V; Evans, Geoffrey M; Yan, Yaode

    2007-08-01

    Surface interaction forces between different types of silica surfaces (pure silica beads, borosilicate glass beads, polished silicon wafers and fused silica slides) were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in solutions of aluminium sulphate (alum) in order to understand the role of hydrated aluminium species on the coagulation of negatively charged oxide colloids in drinking water treatment. The alum coagulant concentration used in this study was 150 microM aluminium. The alum solutions were prepared from analytical grade Al2(SO4)3.16H2O. It was found that the presence of aluminium sulphate at a concentration close to the values typically used in industrial scale water treatment applications generally induced strong, long-range repulsive forces between the various types of surfaces studied. At this alum concentration streaming potential measurements indicated reversal in the sign of the surface charge. It was also found that whenever borosilicate glass beads were used, the interaction force became strongly attractive when the AFM cell was flushed with deionised water. It was argued that this attraction occurred because of the charge nonuniformity of the aluminium hydrates adsorbed at the glass surface. A mechanism was proposed to explain the observed interaction phenomena based on the deduced microstructure of the adsorbed surface layers and to rationalise the new findings for applications in drinking water treatment. PMID:17544476

  12. Formation mechanism of an aluminium-based chemical conversion coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Ping; Wang, Xi-Mei; Zhu, Li-Qun; Li, Wen

    2010-10-01

    An environmentally clean aluminium-based conversion coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was studied in aluminium nitrate solutions. The morphology, composition, structure, and formation mechanism of the coating were investigated in detail using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersion spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical corrosion tests. The results show that the conversion coating is composed of magnesium, aluminium, and oxygen, and shows an amorphous structure. In the initial stage of coating formation, the grain-like nucleus is composed of Al10O15· xH2O, (Al2O3)5.333, Al2O3, AlO(OH), MgAl2O4, (Mg0.88Al0.12)(Al0.94Mg0.06)2O4, and (Mg0.68Al0.32)(Al0.84Mg0.16)2O4. The conversion coating formed in the 0.01 mol/L aluminium nitrate solution for 15 min can improve the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy greatly. The discussion reveals that the possible formation mechanism for the aluminium-based conversion coating is the reduction reaction on micro-cathodic sites due to the electrochemically heterogeneous magnesium alloy substrate.

  13. Assessing aluminium toxicity in streams affected by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Waters, A S; Webster-Brown, J G

    2013-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has degraded water quality and ecology in streams on the Stockton Plateau, the site of New Zealand's largest open-cast coal mining operation. This has previously been attributed largely to the effects of acidity and elevated aluminium (Al) concentrations. However, the toxicity of dissolved Al is dependent on speciation, which is influenced by pH which affects Al hydrolysis, as well as the concentrations of organic carbon and sulphate which complex Al. Methods for the assessment of the toxic fraction of Al, by chemical analysis and geochemical modelling, have been investigated in selected streams on the Stockton Plateau, where dissolved Al concentrations ranged from 0.034 to 27 mg L(-1). Modelling using PHREEQC indicated that between 0.2 and 85% of the dissolved Al was present as the free ion Al(3+), the most toxic Al species, which dominated in waters of pH = 3.8-4.8. Al-sulphate complexation reduced the Al(3+) concentration at lower pH, while Al-organic and -hydroxide complexes dominated at higher pH. Macroinvertebrate richness in the streams identified an Al(3+) 'threshold' of approximately 0.42 mg/L, above which taxa declined rapidly. Colorimetric 'Aluminon' analysis on unpreserved, unfiltered waters provided a better estimation of Al(3+) concentrations than inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on filtered, acidified waters. The Aluminon method does not react with particulate Al or strong Al complexes, often registering as little as 53% of the dissolved Al concentration determined by ICP-MS. PMID:23579831

  14. Effect of aluminium on the polymerization of silicic acid in aqueous solution and the deposition of silica

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Tarutani, T. . Faculty of Science); Yamanaka, C. )

    1989-01-01

    The effect of aluminium on the polymerization of silicic acid was studied at pH 7, 8 and 9 in the aluminium concentration range of 0-26 ppm (Al) by spectrophotometry, gel chromatography and /sup 27/Al NMR. Retarding and accelerating effects of aluminium on the growth of polysilicic acid particles and on the reaction between monosilicic acid and polysilicic acid were observed by changing the pH. It is suggested that the accelerating effect on the reaction between polysilicic acid particles is due to the formation of aluminium hydroxide on the surface of polysilicic acid. The rate of decrease in the monosilicic acid concentration in the presence of aluminium was faster than that in the absence of aluminium at pH 9, because monosilicic acid could be adsorbed rapidly on the aluminium hydroxide. From the results it is presumed that the formation of aluminium hydroxide on the solid surface may accelerate the deposition of silicic acid from geothermal water.

  15. Indirect method for the determination of aluminium by atomic-absorption spectrometry using an air-acetylene flame.

    PubMed

    Ottaway, J M; Coker, D T; Singleton, B

    1972-06-01

    The enhancement of the atomic-absorption signals of iron, cobalt, nickel and chromium in a fuel-rich air-acetylene flame by small amounts of aluminium makes possible the indirect determination of aluminium in the concentration range 0.01-10 ppm. The optimization of working conditions and the occurrence of interferences are reported. PMID:18961114

  16. Development of graphene-nanometre-sized cerium oxide-incorporated aluminium and its electrochemical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, P. Muhamed; Thomas, Saly N.; Edwin, Leela

    2016-02-01

    Graphene-nanometre-sized cerium oxide-incorporated aluminium was prepared and its electrochemical and surface morphological characteristics were studied. The atomic force micrographs and scanning electron micrographs evaluation highlighted that the graphene and nanometre-sized cerium oxide in aluminium had decreased the surface roughness and improved the surface morphological characteristics. The graphene: nanometre-sized cerium oxide (ratios 1:2 or 2:1) with lesser amounts of particle in the matrix showed excellent corrosion resistance in the marine environment as evidenced by linear polarization, electrochemical impedance and weight loss studies. Introduction of graphene in the aluminium matrix showed a barrier separation between the outermost layer and inner layer, increased roughness and increased corrosion. The material is found to be a potential candidate for use in marine environment.

  17. Evaluation Of Four Welding Arc Processes Applied To 6061 Aluminium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, A.; Paillard, P.; Baudin, T.; Jobez, S.; Castagne, J.-F.

    2011-01-17

    At a time when greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced, the use of the aluminium alloys is expanding, in particular in the transportation industry. In order to extend the possibilities of aluminium assembly design, new Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding processes have been conceived. They work at lower temperatures than usual arc processes (classic MIG or Tungsten Inert Gas). This study compares four arc welding processes, applied to the 6061 aluminium alloy. These four weld processes have been studied through the metallurgical analysis of the weld beads. Metallography, micro-hardness testings, X Ray radiography have been carried out on the produced weld beads. The processes are classified according to the quality of the beads like geometry of beads, size of the heat affected zone and presence of defects.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of a 2-(diethylaminomethyl)indole ligated dimethyl-aluminium complex.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Logan E; Kingsley, Nicholas B

    2015-10-01

    The title compound, [Al(CH3)2(C13H17N2)] (systematic name; {2-[(di-ethyl-amino)-meth-yl]indol-1-yl-?(2) N,N'}di-methyl-aluminium), was prepared by methane elimination from the reaction of 2-(di-ethyl-amino-meth-yl)indole and tri-methyl-aluminium. The complex crystallizes readily from a concentrated toluene solution in high yield. The asymmetric unit contains two crystallographically independent mol-ecules. Each mol-ecule has a four-coordinate aluminium atom that has pseudo-tetra-hedral geometry. C-H?? inter-actions link the independent mol-ecules into chains extending along the b-axis direction. PMID:26594412

  19. Evaluation Of Four Welding Arc Processes Applied To 6061 Aluminium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, A.; Paillard, P.; Baudin, T.; Jobez, S.; Castagné, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    At a time when greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced, the use of the aluminium alloys is expanding, in particular in the transportation industry. In order to extend the possibilities of aluminium assembly design, new Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding processes have been conceived. They work at lower temperatures than usual arc processes (classic MIG or Tungsten Inert Gas). This study compares four arc welding processes, applied to the 6061 aluminium alloy. These four weld processes have been studied through the metallurgical analysis of the weld beads. Metallography, micro-hardness testings, X Ray radiography have been carried out on the produced weld beads. The processes are classified according to the quality of the beads like geometry of beads, size of the heat affected zone and presence of defects.

  20. Influence of humidity on atmospheric pressure air plasma treatment of aluminium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prysiazhnyi, V.; Zaporojchenko, V.; Kersten, H.; ?ernák, M.

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric pressure air plasma treatment of aluminium surfaces and its aging behaviour in different environments were studied. Two types of aluminium samples with different purity and surface morphology were treated using the diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD). Surface free energy (SFE) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been utilised to characterise changes induced by the plasma. A significant decrease of hydrocarbon contaminants after the plasma treatment was observed. It is concluded that besides the re-contamination by exposure to ambient air, the aging effect, i.e. decrease of the surface free energy of plasma treated surfaces, can be due by dehydration of aluminium oxide layer. Also, it was observed that the humid air plasma treatment resulted in generation of sbnd NOx surface groups.

  1. In situ nanoindentation study on plasticity and work hardening in aluminium with incoherent twin boundaries.

    PubMed

    Bufford, D; Liu, Y; Wang, J; Wang, H; Zhang, X

    2014-01-01

    Nanotwinned metals have been the focus of intense research recently, as twin boundaries may greatly enhance mechanical strength, while maintaining good ductility, electrical conductivity and thermal stability. Most prior studies have focused on low stacking-fault energy nanotwinned metals with coherent twin boundaries. In contrast, the plasticity of twinned high stacking-fault energy metals, such as aluminium with incoherent twin boundaries, has not been investigated. Here we report high work hardening capacity and plasticity in highly twinned aluminium containing abundant ?3{112} incoherent twin boundaries based on in situ nanoindentation studies in a transmission electron microscope and corresponding molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations also reveal drastic differences in deformation mechanisms between nanotwinned copper and twinned aluminium ascribed to stacking-fault energy controlled dislocation-incoherent twin boundary interactions. This study provides new insight into incoherent twin boundary-dominated plasticity in high stacking-fault energy twinned metals. PMID:25204688

  2. In situ nanoindentation study on plasticity and work hardening in aluminium with incoherent twin boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufford, D.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2014-09-01

    Nanotwinned metals have been the focus of intense research recently, as twin boundaries may greatly enhance mechanical strength, while maintaining good ductility, electrical conductivity and thermal stability. Most prior studies have focused on low stacking-fault energy nanotwinned metals with coherent twin boundaries. In contrast, the plasticity of twinned high stacking-fault energy metals, such as aluminium with incoherent twin boundaries, has not been investigated. Here we report high work hardening capacity and plasticity in highly twinned aluminium containing abundant ?3{112} incoherent twin boundaries based on in situ nanoindentation studies in a transmission electron microscope and corresponding molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations also reveal drastic differences in deformation mechanisms between nanotwinned copper and twinned aluminium ascribed to stacking-fault energy controlled dislocation-incoherent twin boundary interactions. This study provides new insight into incoherent twin boundary-dominated plasticity in high stacking-fault energy twinned metals.

  3. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part I Microstructural investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Piotrowska, Kamila; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    The surface treatment of aluminium alloys under steam containing KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in the formation of an oxide layer having a thickness of up to 825 nm. The use of KMnO4 and HNO3 in the steam resulted in incorporation of the respective chemical species into the oxide layer. Steam treatment with solution containing HNO3 caused dissolution of Cu and Si from the intermetallic particles in the aluminium substrate. The growth rate of oxide layer was observed to be a function of MnO4- and NO3- ions present in the aqueous solution. The NO3- ions exhibit higher affinity towards the intermetallic particles resulting in poor coverage by the steam generated oxide layer compared to the coating formed using MnO4- ions. Further, increase in the concentration of NO3- ions in the solution retards precipitation of the steam generated aluminium hydroxide layer.

  4. Complex behaviour of aluminium dissolution in alkaline aqueous 2-propanol solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Ambick; Basumallick, Indra N.

    The corrosion behaviour of pure aluminium in oxygenated 1 M potassium hydroxide using aqueous 2-propanol over a wide range of concentrations (0 to 56 vol.%) is examined by potentiodynamic Tafel polarization measurements at 25°C. Analysis of the corrosion potential ( Ecorr), corrosion current ( icorr), polarization resistance ( Rp), and cathodic ( icath) and anodic ( ianod) exchange currents reveals that 2-propanol at low concentration acts as a corrosion accelerator for aluminium. At high concentrations, however, corrosion is abated markedly, and at a concentration of 56 vol.% the corrosion rate almost vanishes. The results are explained in terms of weakening of the barrier-type, inner oxide film on aluminium at a low 2-propanol concentration and a blocking effect at a high concentration through interaction via the oxygen centre of the 2-propanol molecule.

  5. Protective Role of G6PD Deficiency in Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Humayun, Mohammad; Haider, Iqbal; Badshah, Aliena; Subhan, Fazle

    2015-04-01

    A 15-year-old boy was referred to the hospital from the periphery with a history of ingestion of 5 wheat pills (aluminium phosphide) 5 days back. He had been given a stomach wash in his village hospital prior to referral. On arrival, he was jaundiced and had developed haematuria too, but otherwise appeared well in himself. Four days after admission, his haemoglobin showed a marked drop and he was shifted to intensive care, keeping in mind the high mortality rate associated with aluminium phosphide intoxication. His G6PD levels were checked, and he turned out to be G6PD deficient. The patient was given intravenous magnesium sulphate and supportive care and he improved subsequently. Wheat pill poisoning carries a high mortality of 98% in some cases; despite the high mortality, this patient survived. This may mean that G6PD deficiency has a protective role in poisoning due to aluminium phosphide. PMID:25933472

  6. Aluminium Foams Fabricated by the PM Route using Nickel-coated Titanium Hydride Powders of Controlled Particle Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proa-Flores, Paula Mercedes

    To establish the effect of reducing the temperature mismatch between the TiH2 decomposition temperature and the aluminium melting point on the foams morphological features and their mechanical compression behavior, a nickel coating on TiH2 powders was used as a hydrogen diffusion barrier and the size of TiH2 powders was controlled to modify the hydrogen evolution temperature. The nickel diffusion barrier was produced by an electroless deposition technique and the hydrogen evolution behavior of coated powders was investigated by thermogravimetrical analysis. The effect of particle size was determined with powders of five particle size fractions along with powders of different particle size obtained from a supplier. Foamable precursors were obtained by hot pressing a mix of aluminium powders with 1 wt.% of TiH2 powders and foams were fabricated at 750 and 800 °C. The foams mechanical strength was investigated by uni-axial compression on foam cylinders with and without outer skin. Coating produced a continuous and homogeneous deposit of 96.5 wt.% nickel and reduced the initial temperature mismatch by approximately 70°C. Additionally, the coating adhesion proved to be good enough to withstand the mixing and compaction processes. Nickel-coated TiH2 powders generated foams with a more homogeneous and reproducible pore structure than foams produced with powders in the as-received and passivated condition. On the other hand, the hydrogen evolution onset of TiH2 shifted towards higher temperatures as the particle size increased. The particle size influenced the foam expansion and the porosity features. Powders of larger particle size produced foams with a more uniform pore distribution and size. Finally, compression tests on skinless foams containing nickel displayed quasi-horizontal energy regimes with longer stroke lengths than the rest, however the final energy absorption efficiencies (above 7.2 kJ·kg-1) were not remarkably increased.

  7. Exposure and inhalation risk assessment in an aluminium cast-house.

    PubMed

    Godderis, L; Vanderheyden, W; Van Geel, J; Moens, G; Masschelein, R; Veulemans, H

    2005-12-01

    To date the exposure, absorption and respiratory health effects of cast-house workers have not been described since most studies performed in the aluminium industry are focused on exposure and health effects of potroom personnel. In the present study, we assessed the external exposure and the absorbed dose of metals in personnel from the aluminium cast house. This was combined with an evaluation of respiratory complaints and the lung function of the personnel. 30 workers from an aluminium casting plant participated and 17 individuals of the packaging and distribution departments were selected as controls. The exposure was assessed by the quantification of total inhalable fume with metal fraction and by the determination of urinary aluminium, chromium, beryllium, manganese and lead concentration. Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), aldehydes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and man-made mineral fibres concentration were assessed as well. In order to evaluate their respiratory status each participant filled out a questionnaire and their lung function was tested by forced spirometry. Total inhalable fume exposure was maximum 4.37 mg m(-3). Exposure to the combustion gases, man-made mineral fibres and metal fume was well below the exposure limits. Beryllium could not be detected in the urine. The values of aluminium, manganese and lead in the urine were all under the respective reference value. One individual had a urinary chromium excretion above the ACGIH defined biological exposure index (BEI) of 30 microg g(-1) creatinine. There was no significant difference in any of the categories of the respiratory questionnaire and in the results of the spirometry between cast house personnel and referents (Chi-square, all p > 0.05). Exposure in cast houses seem to be acceptable under these conditions. However, peak exposure to fumes cannot be excluded and the potential risk of chromium and beryllium exposure due to the recycling of aluminium requires further attention. PMID:16307097

  8. PTMS on iron and aluminium oxide surfaces: a study of damped adsorption kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, J.; Dastoor, P.; Allison, W.

    1998-05-01

    The kinetic processes taking place during the adsorption of propyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS) onto polycrystalline iron and aluminium oxide surfaces have been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Although the adsorption of PTMS on iron reaches equilibrium within a few seconds, the adsorption of PTMS on aluminium exhibits a dramatic time dependence. The presence of a single oscillation in the adsorbate coverage as a function of time indicates the existence of two distinct surface species, each of whose coverage varies dynamically, confirming the predictions of an earlier model.

  9. Severe reversible myocardial injury associated with aluminium phosphide toxicity: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Elabbassi, Wael; Chowdhury, Mohammed Andaleeb; Fachtartz, Arif Al Nooryani

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide is commonly used as an insecticide and can be toxic to humans at the cellular level by interfering with mitochondrial energy metabolism. We report on three cases of severe aluminium phosphide cardio-toxicity, resulting in severe decrease in both ventricular heart functions. The first case succumbed to intractable ventricular arrhythmias complicated by multi-organ failure before she died; while the other two cases required invasive hemodynamic support and eventually improved over the course of 10–14 days. We describe our experience and the challenges faced while managing one of them. PMID:25278724

  10. Silica mesoporous thin films as containers for benzotriazole for corrosion protection of 2024 aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recloux, Isaline; Mouanga, Maixent; Druart, Marie-Eve; Paint, Yoann; Olivier, Marie-Georges

    2015-08-01

    This work contributes to the development of a new environmentally friendly alternative pretreatment for 2024 aluminium alloys to replace hexavalent chromium based conversion layers in the aeronautical field. A silica mesoporous thin film, synthesized through the evaporation induced self-assembly process, was doped with benzotriazole to obtain active corrosion protection. Inhibitor loading contents were correlated with pore characteristics. The release kinetics was studied as function of pH. The application of the doped mesoporous film on 2024 aluminium alloy revealed a slowing down of corrosion processes, demonstrating its potential as an active inhibitor storage layer.

  11. In situ observation and analysis of ultrasonic capillary effect in molten aluminium.

    PubMed

    Tzanakis, I; Xu, W W; Eskin, D G; Lee, P D; Kotsovinos, N

    2015-11-01

    An in situ synchrotron radiographic study of a molten Al-10 wt% Cu alloy under the influence of an external ultrasonic field was carried out using the Diamond-Manchester Branchline pink X-ray imaging at the Diamond Light Source in UK. A bespoke test rig was used, consisting of an acoustic transducer with a titanium sonotrode coupled with a PID-controlled resistance furnace. An ultrasonic frequency of 30 kHz, with a peak to peak amplitude at 140 microns, was used, producing a pressure output of 16.9 MPa at the radiation surface of the 1-mm diameter sonotrode. This allowed quantification of not only the cavitation bubble formation and collapse, but there was also evidence of the previously hypothesised ultrasonic capillary effect (UCE), providing the first direct observations of this phenomenon in a molten metallic alloy. This was achieved by quantifying the re-filling of a pre-existing groove in the shape of a tube (which acted as a micro-capillary channel) formed by the oxide envelope of the liquid sample. Analytical solutions of the flow suggest that the filling process, which took place in very small timescales, was related to micro-jetting from the collapsing cavitation bubbles. In addition, a secondary mechanism of liquid penetration through the groove, which is related with the density distribution of the oxides inside the groove, and practically to the filtration of aluminium melt from oxides, was revealed. The observation of the almost instantaneous re-filling of a micro-capillary channel with the metallic melt supports the hypothesised sono-capillary effect in technologically important liquids other than water, like metallic alloys with substantially higher surface tension and density. PMID:26186822

  12. Impact of aluminium, fluoride and fluoroaluminate complex on ATPase activity of Nostoc linckia and Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Husaini, Y; Rai, L C; Mallick, N

    1996-07-01

    This study demonstrates a pH-dependent inhibition of Mg(2+)- and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities of Nostoc linckia and Chlorella vulgaris exposed to AlCl3, AlF3, NaF and AlCl3+NaF together. AlF3 and the combination of AlCl3+NaF were more inhibitory to both the enzymes as compared with AlCl3 and NaF. Toxicity of the test compounds increased with increasing acidity. Interaction of AlCl3+NaF was additive on N. linckia and C. vulgaris, respectively, at pH 7.5 and 6.8, and synergistic at pH 6.0 and 4.5. In the presence of 60 and 100 microM PO4(3-) an increased NaF concentration (in the AlCl3+NaF combination) was required to produce the same degree of inhibition in ATP synthesis and ATPase activity. Toxicity of fluoroaluminate was reduced in the presence of EDTA and citrate. Except for beryllium to some extent, combinations of cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, tin and zinc with fluoride were not as effective as aluminium in inhibiting the ATPase activity. The presence of a 100 kDa protein band in SDS-PAGE of both control as well as AlCl3+NaF-treated samples suggested that AlF4- inhibits the ATPase activity by acting as a functional barrier without affecting the structure of the enzyme. PMID:8696079

  13. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  14. Numerical analysis of experiments on the generation of shock waves in aluminium under indirect (X-ray) action on the Iskra-5 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, S. V.; Dolgoleva, G. V.; Novikova, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    The dynamics of laser and X-ray radiation fields in experiments with cylindrical converter boxes (illuminators), which had earlier been carried out on the Iskra-5 laser facility (the second harmonic of iodine laser radiation, ? = 0.66 ?m) was investigated in a sector approximation using the SND-LIRA numerical technique. In these experiments, the X-ray radiation temperature in the box was determined by measuring the velocity of the shock wave generated in the sample under investigation, which was located at the end of the cylindrical illuminator. Through simulations were made using the SND-LIRA code, which took into account the absorption of laser driver radiation at the box walls, the production of quasithermal radiation, as well as the formation and propagation of the shock wave in the sample under investigation. An analysis of the experiments permits determining the electron thermal flux limiter f: for f = 0.03 it is possible to match the experimental scaling data for X-ray in-box radiation temperature to the data of our simulations. The shock velocities obtained from the simulations are also consistent with experimental data. In particular, in the experiment with six laser beams (and a laser energy EL = 1380 J introduced into the box) the velocity of the shock front (determined from the position of a laser mark) after passage through a 50-?m thick base aluminium layer was equal to 35+/-1.6 km s-1, and in simulations to 36 km s-1. In the experiment with four laser beams (for EL = 850 J) the shock velocity (measured from the difference of transit times through the base aluminium layer and an additional thin aluminium platelet) was equal to 30+/-3.6 km s-1, and in simulations to 30 km s-1.

  15. Numerical analysis of experiments on the generation of shock waves in aluminium under indirect (X-ray) action on the Iskra-5 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S V; Dolgoleva, G V; Novikova, E A

    2013-07-31

    The dynamics of laser and X-ray radiation fields in experiments with cylindrical converter boxes (illuminators), which had earlier been carried out on the Iskra-5 laser facility (the second harmonic of iodine laser radiation, {lambda} = 0.66 {mu}m) was investigated in a sector approximation using the SND-LIRA numerical technique. In these experiments, the X-ray radiation temperature in the box was determined by measuring the velocity of the shock wave generated in the sample under investigation, which was located at the end of the cylindrical illuminator. Through simulations were made using the SND-LIRA code, which took into account the absorption of laser driver radiation at the box walls, the production of quasithermal radiation, as well as the formation and propagation of the shock wave in the sample under investigation. An analysis of the experiments permits determining the electron thermal flux limiter f: for f = 0.03 it is possible to match the experimental scaling data for X-ray in-box radiation temperature to the data of our simulations. The shock velocities obtained from the simulations are also consistent with experimental data. In particular, in the experiment with six laser beams (and a laser energy E{sub L} = 1380 J introduced into the box) the velocity of the shock front (determined from the position of a laser mark) after passage through a 50-{mu}m thick base aluminium layer was equal to 35{+-}1.6 km s{sup -1}, and in simulations to 36 km s{sup -1}. In the experiment with four laser beams (for E{sub L} = 850 J) the shock velocity (measured from the difference of transit times through the base aluminium layer and an additional thin aluminium platelet) was equal to 30{+-}3.6 km s{sup -1}, and in simulations to 30 km s{sup -1}. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  16. Additives boost gasoline quality

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, L.M.

    1989-04-24

    Gasoline additives have become more important to the supply of high-quality finished gasoline. Additives are used for the inhibition of oxidation, rust, and gum formation, and for prevention of deposits on and in engine components. The demand for high-quality fuels has led to many different additives that are added at the refinery and downstream. This article describes some of the most important additives, what they are and what they do, and gives some guidelines on the selection and addition of them to the gasoline product.

  17. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  18. Aluminium deposition in liver and kidney following acute intravenous administration of aluminium chloride or citrate in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A J; Wood, J A; Saunders, H C; Freeman, M S; Lote, C J

    1995-10-01

    1. Plasma, urinary, liver and kidney cell aluminium (Al) levels were monitored in the rat, 1h after intravenous administration of 29630 nmol (800 micrograms) Al as either Al chloride or as Al citrate (Al chloride plus excess sodium citrate). Al levels were measured in plasma, urine and liver by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Liver and kidney Al content was measured at the cellular and subcellular level by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA). 2. Urinary excretion of Al was significantly higher (P < 0.01), when Al was given as the citrate than as the chloride. After 1h, plasma Al levels were significantly lower in the Al citrate group than the Al chloride group (59 +/- 3.7 vs 877 +/- 214 nmol ml-1, respectively; P < 0.01). 3. Al concentrations were significantly higher in the livers of rats receiving Al chloride (818 +/- 252 nmol g-1 wet weight; P < 0.05), than in either control or Al citrate groups (122 +/- 41 and 107 +/- 26 nmol g-1 wet weight, respectively). Al concentrations derived from EPXMA measurements were in agreement with AAS values for the three groups, with significantly higher Al concentrations in the Al chloride group (1.7 +/- 0.4 nmol mg-1 dry weight; P < 0.05) than in the control or Al citrate groups, where Al was not detectable. EPXMA analysis showed that Al was distributed in all liver organelles analysed (cytoplasm, mitochondria, nucleus, ER) and was not preferentially taken up by any one organelle in Al chloride treated rats. 4. Significant amounts of Al were found in cytoplasm and mitochondria of proximal tubule cells of rats given Al citrate (0.64 +/- 0.15 and 0.80 +/- 0.11 nmol mg-1 dry weight, respectively), but not in nuclei or lysosomes of these cells. Al levels were not detectable in control kidneys, in proximal tubule cells after Al chloride administration or distal tubule cells after either Al treatment. PMID:8562118

  19. Photophysical efficiency-boost of aqueous aluminium phthalocyanine by hybrid formation with nano-clays.

    PubMed

    Staniford, Mark C; Lezhnina, Marina M; Gruener, Malte; Stegemann, Linda; Kuczius, Rauni; Bleicher, Vera; Strassert, Cristian A; Kynast, Ulrich H

    2015-09-11

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprising nanoscaled layered silicates and native aluminium hydroxide phthalocyanine (Al(OH)Pc) allowed for the first time the exploitation of their unique photophysical properties in aqueous ambience. In particular, we were able to observe the efficient emission of Al(OH)Pc-nanoclay hybrids and generation of singlet oxygen in aqueous solution. PMID:26221639

  20. Aluminium substitution in iron(II III)-layered double hydroxides: Formation and cationic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Christian; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Aissa, Rabha; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Brunelli, Michela; François, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The formation and the modifications of the structural properties of an aluminium-substituted iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) of formula Fe4IIFe(2-6y)IIIAl6yIII (OH) 12 SO 4, 8H 2O are followed by pH titration curves, Mössbauer spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Rietveld refinements allow to build a structural model for hydroxysulphate green rust, GR(SO 42-), i.e. y=0, in which a bilayer of sulphate anions points to the Fe 3+ species. A cationic order is proposed to occur in both GR(SO 42-) and aluminium-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust when y<0.08. Variation of the cell parameters and a sharp decrease in average crystal size and anisotropy are detected for an aluminium content as low as y=0.01. The formation of Al-GR(SO 42-) is preceded by the successive precipitation of Fe III and Al III (oxy)hydroxides. Adsorption of more soluble Al III species onto the initially formed ferric oxyhydroxide may be responsible for this slowdown of crystal growth. Therefore, the insertion of low aluminium amount ( y˜0.01) could be an interesting way for increasing the surface reactivity of iron(II-III) LDH that maintains constant the quantity of the reactive Fe II species of the material.

  1. Process Simulation of Aluminium Sheet Metal Deep Drawing at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winklhofer, Johannes; Trattnig, Gernot; Lind, Christoph; Sommitsch, Christof; Feuerhuber, Hannes

    2010-06-01

    Lightweight design is essential for an economic and environmentally friendly vehicle. Aluminium sheet metal is well known for its ability to improve the strength to weight ratio of lightweight structures. One disadvantage of aluminium is that it is less formable than steel. Therefore complex part geometries can only be realized by expensive multi-step production processes. One method for overcoming this disadvantage is deep drawing at elevated temperatures. In this way the formability of aluminium sheet metal can be improved significantly, and the number of necessary production steps can thereby be reduced. This paper introduces deep drawing of aluminium sheet metal at elevated temperatures, a corresponding simulation method, a characteristic process and its optimization. The temperature and strain rate dependent material properties of a 5xxx series alloy and their modelling are discussed. A three dimensional thermomechanically coupled finite element deep drawing simulation model and its validation are presented. Based on the validated simulation model an optimised process strategy regarding formability, time and cost is introduced.

  2. Metallized graphite as an improved cathode material for aluminium/air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Ambick; N. Basumallick, Indra

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of metallized (Pt, Ni, Cu, Fe, Co) graphite cathodes by an electrodeposition method from an appropriate electrolytic bath, together with the performance characteristics of specially-designed aluminium/air cells that utilize these cathodes. In these cells, the aluminium electrodes were separated by a glass-jacket separator. The latter prevents mixing of hydrogen gas evolved due to the corrosion of the aluminium electrode. While the open-circuit voltage of the cells is virtually invariant, the short-circuit current and discharge behaviour are markedly dependent upon the choice of catalytic metal. The discharge profiles are improved markedly for cells with a Pt-, Ni- or Cu-coated graphite air cathode, but the reverse is found for Fe- and Co-coated cathodes. The behaviour is explained in terms of chemisorption and the better catalytic activity of Pt, Ni and Cu. These results suggest that Ni- and Cu-coated graphite air cathodes are promising low-cost and efficiennt electrodes for aluminium/air batteries.

  3. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Bare, Simon R.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Using a nearest-neighbour statistical analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al–Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming. PMID:26133270

  4. Application of laser in seam welding of dissimilar steel to aluminium joints for thick structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, S.; Pardal, G.; Ganguly, S.; Williams, S.; McPherson, N.

    2015-04-01

    Laser welding-brazing technique, using a continuous wave (CW) fibre laser with 8000 W of maximum power, was applied in conduction mode to join 2 mm thick steel (XF350) to 6 mm thick aluminium (AA5083-H22), in a lap joint configuration with steel on the top. The steel surface was irradiated by the laser and the heat was conducted through the steel plate to the steel-aluminium interface, where the aluminium melts and wets the steel surface. The welded samples were defect free and the weld micrographs revealed presence of a brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) layer resulting from reaction of Fe and Al atoms. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicated the stoichiometry of the IMC as Fe2Al5 and FeAl3, the former with maximum microhardness measured of 1145 HV 0.025/10. The IMC layer thickness varied between 4 to 21 μm depending upon the laser processing parameters. The IMC layer showed an exponential growth pattern with the applied specific point energy (Esp) at a constant power density (PD). Higher PD values accelerate the IMC layer growth. The mechanical shear strength showed a narrow band of variation in all the samples (with the maximum value registered at 31.3 kN), with a marginal increase in the applied Esp. This could be explained by the fact that increasing the Esp results into an increase in the wetting and thereby the bonded area in the steel-aluminium interface.

  5. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Bare, Simon R.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-07-01

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Using a nearest-neighbour statistical analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al-Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming.

  6. Radical Cyclisation of α-Halo Aluminium Acetals: A Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Bénéteau, Romain; Boussonnière, Anne; Rouaud, Jean-Christophe; Lebreton, Jacques; Graton, Jérôme; Jacquemin, Denis; Sebban, Muriel; Oulyadi, Hassan; Hamdoun, Ghanem; Hancock, Amber N; Schiesser, Carl H; Dénès, Fabrice

    2016-03-24

    α-Bromo aluminium acetals are suitable substrates for Ueno-Stork-like radical cyclisations affording γ-lactols and acid-sensitive methylene-γ-lactols in high yields. The mechanistic study herein sets the scope and limitation of this reaction. The influence of the halide (or chalcogenide) atom X (X=Cl, Br, I, SPh, SePh) in the precursors α-haloesters, as well as influence of the solvent and temperature was studied. The structure of the aluminium acetal intermediates resulting from the reduction of the corresponding α-haloesters has been investigated by low-temperature (13) C-INEPT diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) experiments and quantum calculations, providing new insights into the structures of these thermally labile intermediates. Oxygen-bridged dimeric structures with a planar Al2 O2 ring are proposed for the least hindered aluminium acetals, while monomeric structures seem to prevail for the most hindered species. A comparison against the radical cyclisation of aluminium acetals derived from allyl and propargyl alcohols with the parent Ueno-Stork has been made at the BHandHLYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory, highlighting mechanistic similarities and differences. PMID:26890896

  7. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Perea, Daniel E; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W; Lercher, Johannes A; Bare, Simon R; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Using a nearest-neighbour statistical analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al-Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming. PMID:26133270

  8. Tris(methyl 3-oxobutanoato-?2 O,O?)aluminium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Shivashankar, S. A.; Narasimhamurthy, T.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Al(C5H7O3)3], three acac-type ligands (methyl 3-oxobutanoate anions) chelate to the aluminium(III) cation in a slightly distorted AlO6 octa­hedral coordination geometry. Electron delocalization occurs within the chelating rings. PMID:21578687

  9. Fractal dimension values of cerebral and cerebellar activity in rats loaded with aluminium.

    PubMed

    Kekovic, Goran; Culic, Milka; Martac, Ljiljana; Stojadinovic, Gordana; Capo, Ivan; Lalosevic, Dusan; Sekulic, Slobodan

    2010-07-01

    Aluminium interferes with a variety of cellular metabolic processes in the mammalian nervous system and its intake might increase a risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). While cerebral involvement even at the early stages of intoxication is well known, the role of cerebellum is underestimated. Our aim was to investigate cerebral and cerebellar electrocortical activity in adult male rats exposed to chronic aluminium treatment by nonlinear analytic tools. The adult rats in an aluminium-treated group were injected by AlCl(3), intraperitoneally (2 mg Al/kg, daily for 4 weeks). Fractal analysis of brain activity was performed off-line using Higuchi's algorithm. The average fractal dimension of electrocortical activity in aluminium-treated animals was lower than the average fractal dimension of electrocortical activity in the control rats, at cerebral but not at cerebellar level. The changes in the stationary and nonlinear properties of time series were more expressed in cerebral electrocortical activity than in cerebellar activity. This can be useful for developing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20424923

  10. Electrodeposition of nano- and microcrystalline aluminium in three different air and water stable ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zein El Abedin, S; Moustafa, E M; Hempelmann, R; Natter, H; Endres, F

    2006-07-17

    The present work shows, for the first time, a comparative experimental study on the electrodeposition of aluminium in three different water and air stable ionic liquids, namely 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMP]Tf2N), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIm] Tf2N), and trihexyl-tetradecyl-phosphoniumbis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (P(14,6,6,6) Tf2N). The ionic liquids [BMP]Tf2N and [EMIm]Tf2N show biphasic behaviour in the AlCl3 concentration range from 1.6 to 2.5 mol L(-1) and 2.5 to 5 mol L(-1), respectively. The biphasic mixtures become monophasic at temperatures >/=80 degrees C. It was found that nanocrystalline aluminium can be electrodeposited in the ionic liquid [BMP]Tf2N saturated with AlCl3. The deposits obtained are generally uniform, dense, shining, and adherent with very fine crystallites in the nanometer size regime. However, coarse cubic-shaped aluminium particles in the micrometer range are obtained in the ionic liquid [EMIm]Tf2N. In this liquid the particle size significantly increases as the temperature rises. A very thin, mirrorlike aluminium film containing very fine crystallites of about 20 nm is obtained in the ionic liquid [trihexyl-tetradecyl-phosphonium]Tf(2)N at room temperature. At 150 degrees C, the average grain size is found to be 35 nm. PMID:16789040

  11. Heat transfer in He I for industrially manufactured aluminium plate heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, B.; Bon Mardion, G.; Claudet, G.; Desmaris, M.

    The heat transfer characteristics in boiling helium for commercially available aluminium plate heat exchangers, with and without fins, are given. In nucleate boiling both surfaces present the same heat transfer characteristics. For film boiling, the presence of fins improves heat transfer. It was also verified that for surfaces without fins, the peak nucleate boiling flux follows a Kutateladze law.

  12. Aspects of ultra-high-precision diamond machining of RSA 443 optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkoko, Z.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-08-01

    Optical aluminium alloys such as 6061-T6 are traditionally used in ultra-high precision manufacturing for making optical mirrors for aerospace and other applications. However, the optics industry has recently witnessed the development of more advanced optical aluminium grades that are capable of addressing some of the issues encountered when turning with single-point natural monocrystalline diamond cutters. The advent of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades has generally opened up new possibilities for ultra-high precision manufacturing of optical components. In this study, experiments were conducted with single-point diamond cutters on rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 443 material. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of depth of cut and feed rate at a fixed rotational speed on the tool wear rate and resulting surface roughness of diamond turned specimens. This is done to gain further understanding of the rate of wear on the diamond cutters versus the surface texture generated on the RSA 443 material. The diamond machining experiments yielded machined surfaces which are less reflective but with consistent surface roughness values. Cutting tools were observed for wear through scanning microscopy; relatively low wear pattern was evident on the diamond tool edge. The highest tool wear were obtained at higher depth of cut and increased feed rate.

  13. The stress-induced escape of migrating aluminium from silicide interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, A.

    2001-10-01

    Electromigration of foreign aluminium atoms, arising from contact pads, along polycrystalline molybdenum silicide (MoSi2) metallic interconnect lines has been studied. The MoSi2-lines with aluminium contact pads on both ends were exposed to electric direct current with densities of between 106 and 107 A cm-2 over 2000 h. While mass transport of constituent atoms of the line material was not observed, the atomic migration of aluminium is clearly directed from the cathode side toward the anode. Characteristic hillocking along the interconnect line is observed. This result is in accord with the action of a partially grain-blocked polycrystalline via due to clusters, which are present along the line. Compressive stress in front of blocking silicide grains is found to induce a positive mass flux through the line surface. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs, and energy-dispersive x-ray analyses are applied to identify the chemical nature of the degradation sites. It is found that aluminium from the cathode pad incorporates into the interconnect and migrates under the action of the electron wind.

  14. Determination of gallium in an iron-aluminium matrix by solvent extraction and flame emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cresser, M S; Torrent-Castellet, J

    1972-11-01

    Solvent extraction of gallium(III) into methyl isobutyl ketone from hydrochloric acid solutions containing titanium (III) sulphate provides a rapid method for separation of gallium from an iron/aluminium matrix and may be employed to eliminate the interference of these elements in the flame emission spectrometric determination of gallium. PMID:18961209

  15. An improved, automated xylenol orange method for the colorimetric determination of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A C; Cresser, M S

    1983-09-01

    An automated colorimetrie procedure is described for the determination of aluminium, based on its complex with Xylenol Orange. Ethanol is used to accelerate the reaction and EDTA to mask iron. The procedure has been applied successfully to natural waters, soil extracts and plant digests. PMID:18963448

  16. Aluminium content of drinking waters, fruit juices and soft drinks: contribution to dietary intake.

    PubMed

    López, Francisco F; Cabrera, Carmen; Lorenzo, M Luisa; López, M Carmen

    2002-06-26

    Concentrations of aluminium in drinking waters (tap water, still mineral water and sparkling mineral water), fruit juices and soft drinks were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) of samples processed with a HNO3-V205 acid digestion pre-treatment. In water samples, aluminium was determined directly. We verified the sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the method and ruled out matrix interferences. In analysed samples, aluminium values ranged from 4.2 to 165.3 microg/l in drinking water (n=41), from 49.3 to 1,144.6 microg/l in fruit juices (n=47), and from 44.6 to 1053.3 microg/l in soft drinks (n=88). According to the type of container (glass or can) statistically significant differences (P<0.01) have been demonstrated. Considering the mean daily individual consumption of these beverages in Spain, the daily dietary intake of Al supplied by this source is estimated as 156 microg/person/day. This study contributes new data on the Al content of a variety of foods and beverages in Spain and to estimate reliably the total dietary intake of aluminium. PMID:12146520

  17. Water purification and the incidence of fractures in patients receiving home haemodialysis supervised by a single centre: evidence for "safe" upper limit of aluminium in water.

    PubMed Central

    Platts, M M; Owen, G; Smith, S

    1984-01-01

    Between 1968 and 1980 fractures occurred in 56 of 284 patients treated by home haemodialysis in the Sheffield area for longer than one year. Patients sustained four times as many fractures while using dialysate prepared with water containing more than 1.0 mumol aluminium per 1 (2.7 micrograms/100 ml) than while using water containing a smaller concentration. When aluminium was removed from water by deionisation the incidence of fractures diminished during the next year and no patient developed dialysis encephalopathy. These findings show that 1.0 mumol/l is a safe maximum concentration of aluminium in water for use in home haemodialysis. It can be detected by the colorimetric aluminium analyses used by many water authorities. When financial resources are limited it is expedient to reserve aluminium analyses by electrothermal atomic absorption for plasma from patients receiving regular haemodialysis. Ingestion of aluminium hydroxide contributes significantly to the increased plasma aluminium concentration of these patients. PMID:6423163

  18. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J.L.; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10 mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits–NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: • Aluminium decreases the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and nuclear encoded subunits. • It decreases the mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial content in rat brain. • It down-regulates the mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1α, NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam. • It also disturbs the mitochondrial or nuclear architecture of neurons. • Finally it also decreases mitochondrial number in HC and CS regions of rat brain.

  19. Fracturing-fluid additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, P.C. )

    1988-10-01

    Fracturing-fluid additives serve two purposes: to enhance fracture creation and proppant-carrying capacity and to minimize formation damage. Additives that assist fracture creation include viscosifiers, temperature stabilizers, pH-control agents, and fluid-loss-control materials. Those used to minimize formation damage are gel breakers, biocides, surfactants, clay stabilizers, and gases. This paper discusses the qualities and applications of each of these additives.

  20. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S D; Jackson, G E; Platt, S R

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  1. Analysis of aluminium content and iron homeostasis in nipple aspirate fluids from healthy women and breast cancer-affected patients.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Tonti, Gaetana A; Medda, Virginia; Simone, Patrizia; Darbre, Philippa D

    2011-04-01

    Aluminium is not a physiological component of the breast but has been measured recently in human breast tissues and breast cyst fluids at levels above those found in blood serum or milk. Since the presence of aluminium can lead to iron dyshomeostasis, levels of aluminium and iron-binding proteins (ferritin, transferrin) were measured in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a fluid present in the breast duct tree and mirroring the breast microenvironment. NAFs were collected noninvasively from healthy women (NoCancer; n?=?16) and breast cancer-affected women (Cancer; n?=?19), and compared with levels in serum (n?=?15) and milk (n?=?45) from healthy subjects. The mean level of aluminium, measured by ICP-mass spectrometry, was significantly higher in Cancer NAF (268.4?±?28.1??g l(-1) ; n?=?19) than in NoCancer NAF (131.3?±?9.6??g l(-1) ; n?=?16; P?aluminium and ferritin in the Cancer NAF (correlation coefficient R?=?0.94, P?aluminium and modulation of proteins that regulate iron homeostasis as biomarkers for identification of women at higher risk of developing breast cancer. The reasons for the high levels of aluminium in NAF remain unknown but possibilities include either exposure to aluminium-based antiperspirant salts in the adjacent underarm area and/or preferential accumulation of aluminium by breast tissues. PMID:21337589

  2. Decrements in cognitive performance in metal inert gas welders exposed to aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Akila, R.; Stollery, B. T.; Riihimaki, V.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Often little has been discovered of the cognitive functions affected by occupational toxins because many functions cooperate to produce the single performance scores typically reported from neuropsychological tests. To facilitate the interpretation of neuropsychological scores, the issue of occupational exposure to aluminium was examined with an approach intended to increase understanding of those cognitive processes that may be affected. METHODS: The investigation was a cross sectional study of asymptomatic aluminium welders and a reference group of mild steel welders. Based on urinary aluminium concentrations, welders were classified into a reference (n = 28), low (n = 27), and high (n = 24) exposure group. The mean urinary aluminium concentrations were 0.46, 2.25, and 9.98 mumol/l, respectively. A comprehensive neuropsychological examination was undertaken to assess psychomotor function, simple visual reaction time, attention related tasks, verbal and visual or visuospatial abilities as well as verbal and visual learning and memory. RESULTS: Aluminium welders showed no impairment on the finger tapping, Santa Ana dexterity, simple visual reaction times, any of the verbal memory tasks, the similarities subtest of Wechsler adult intelligence scale, or the Stroop task. However, the low exposed group performed poorer on the memory for designs and on more difficult block design items demanding preliminary visuospatial analysis. The time limited synonym task, embedded figures, digit symbol speed, and the backward counting component of the divided attention task showed exposure-response relations. CONCLUSIONS: The impairments found were circumscribed. When the neuropsychological tasks were scored to show some of the underlying theoretical cognitive structures, the results indicated that performance difficulties were mainly detected in tasks requiring working memory, particularly that relating to processing of visuospatial information. There was also evidence that such impairments are more readily found in time limited tasks involving visually presented material, in which effective visual scanning combined with control of working memory is demanded.   PMID:10615297

  3. Exposures in the alumina and primary aluminium industry: an historical review.

    PubMed

    Benke, G; Abramson, M; Sim, M

    1998-04-01

    We reviewed specific chemical exposures and exposure assessment methods relating to published and unpublished epidemiological studies in the alumina and primary aluminium industry. Our focus was to review limitations in the current literature and make recommendations for future research. Although some of the exposures in the smelting of aluminium have been well characterised, particularly in potrooms, little has been published regarding the exposures in bauxite mining and alumina refining. Past epidemiological studies in the industry have concentrated on the smelting of aluminium, with many limitations in the methodology used in their exposure assessment. We found that in aluminium smelting, exposures to fluorides, coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have tended to decrease in recent years, but insufficient information exists for the other known exposures. Although excess cancers have been found among workers in the smelting of aluminium, the exposure assessment methods in future studies need to be improved to better characterise possible causative agents. The small number of cohort studies has been a factor in the failure to identify clear exposure-response relationships for respiratory diseases. A dose-response relationship has been recently described for fluoride exposure and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, but whether fluorides are the causative agent, co-agent or simply markers for the causative agent(s) for potroom asthma, remains to be determined. Published epidemiological studies and quantitative exposure data for bauxite mining and alumina refining are virtually non-existent. Determination of possible exposure-response relationships for this part of the industry through improved exposure assessment methods should be the focus of future studies. PMID:9684558

  4. Cold end additive compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sujdak, R.J.

    1980-09-23

    The present invention is drawn to ethylene polyamines in combination with certain alkanolamines as cold-end additives. More specifically, it has been discovered that if these additives are fed to the moving combustion gases of a combustion system which uses sulfur containing fuel and upstream of cold-end surfaces to be treated, the additive will travel along with the gases as vapor and/or liquid droplets and deposit on the cold-end surfaces. As a result, the amount of sulfuric acid corrosion of metallic cold-end surfaces is reduced.

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  7. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  8. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  9. Motor fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Dolhyj, S.R.; Guttmann, A.T.; Velenyi, L.J.

    1983-11-01

    Aryl ethers, e.g., cumylmethylether and anisole, are particularly effective additives for improving the octane number of motor fuels. These aryl ethers are especially useful in increasing the octane number of unleaded gasolines.

  10. The partial space qualification of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube coating on aluminium substrates for EO applications.

    PubMed

    Theocharous, Evangelos; Chunnilall, Christopher J; Mole, Ryan; Gibbs, David; Fox, Nigel; Shang, Naigui; Howlett, Guy; Jensen, Ben; Taylor, Rosie; Reveles, Juan R; Harris, Oliver B; Ahmed, Naseer

    2014-03-24

    The fabrication of NanoTube Black, a Vertically Aligned carbon NanoTube Array (VANTA) on aluminium substrates is reported for the first time. The coating on aluminium was realised using a process that employs top down thermal radiation to assist growth, enabling deposition at temperatures below the substrate's melting point. The NanoTube Black coatings were shown to exhibit directional hemispherical reflectance values of typically less than 1% across wavelengths in the 2.5 µm to 15 µm range. VANTA-coated aluminium substrates were subjected to space qualification testing (mass loss, outgassing, shock, vibration and temperature cycling) before their optical properties were re-assessed. Within measurement uncertainty, no changes to hemispherical reflectance were detected, confirming that NanoTube Black coatings on aluminium are good candidates for Earth Observation (EO) applications. PMID:24664077

  11. Aluminium oxide-hydroxides obtained by hydrothermal synthesis: influence of thermal treatment on phase composition and textural characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykova, A.; Livanova, A.; Kosova, N.; Godymchuk, A.; Mamontov, G.

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium oxide-hydroxides obtained by means of the hydrothermal synthesis of aluminium nanopowder are of great interest in terms of the potential supports for heterogeneous catalysts due its high specific surface area (200...300 m2/g) and pore size of 4...17 nm. In this work the influence of thermal treatment (150...1300 °C) on structural and phase composition, specific surface area and porosity of aluminium oxide-hydroxides has been investigated. Nanostructured γ-Al2O3 (T=400 °C) was found to have the specific surface area of 328 m2/g and average pore size of ∼9 nm. The thermal treatment of aluminium oxide- hydroxides at the temperature of higher and lower than 400 °C has caused the reduction of specific surface area and overall pore volume.

  12. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  13. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  14. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  15. Introgression of a 4D chromosomal fragment into durum wheat confers aluminium tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chang; Ryan, Peter R.; Yan, ZeHong; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Aluminium (Al3+) inhibits root growth of sensitive plant species and is a key factor that limits durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) production on acid soils. The aim of this study was to enhance the Al3+ tolerance of an elite durum cultivar by introgression of a chromosomal fragment from hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) that possesses an Al3+ tolerance gene. Methods A 4D(4B) substitution line of durum wheat ‘Langdon’ was backcrossed to ‘Jandaroi’, a current semi-dwarf Australian durum. In the second backcross, using ‘Jandaroi’ as the recurrent parent, a seedling was identified where TaALMT1 on chromosome 4D was recombined with the Rht-B1b locus on chromosome 4B to yield an Al3+-tolerant seedling with a semi-dwarf habit. This seedling was used in a third backcross to generate homozygous sister lines with contrasting Al3+ tolerances. The backcrossed lines were characterized and compared with selected cultivars of hexaploid wheat for their Al3+ and Na+ tolerances in hydroponic culture as well as in short-term experiments to assess their growth on acid soil. Key Results Analysis of sister lines derived from the third backcross showed that the 4D chromosomal fragment substantially enhanced Al3+ tolerance. The ability to exclude Na+ from leaves was also enhanced, indicating that the chromosomal fragment possessed the Kna1 salt tolerance locus. Although Al3+ tolerance of seminal roots was enhanced in acid soil, the development of fine roots was not as robust as found in Al3+-tolerant lines of hexaploid wheat. Analysis of plant characteristics in the absence of Al3+ toxicity showed that the introgressed fragment did not affect total grain yield but reduced the weight of individual grains. Conclusions The results show that it is possible to increase substantially the Al3+ tolerance of an elite durum wheat cultivar by introgression of a 4D chromosomal fragment. Further improvements are possible, such as introducing additional genes to enhance the Al3+ tolerance of fine roots and by eliminating the locus on the chromosomal fragment responsible for smaller grain weights. PMID:24737716

  16. Aluminium and breast cancer: Sources of exposure, tissue measurements and mechanisms of toxicological actions on breast biology.

    PubMed

    Darbre, Philippa D; Mannello, Ferdinando; Exley, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This review examines recent evidence linking exposure to aluminium with the aetiology of breast cancer. The human population is exposed to aluminium throughout daily life including through diet, application of antiperspirants, use of antacids and vaccination. Aluminium has now been measured in a range of human breast structures at higher levels than in blood serum and experimental evidence suggests that the tissue concentrations measured have the potential to adversely influence breast epithelial cells including generation of genomic instability, induction of anchorage-independent proliferation and interference in oestrogen action. The presence of aluminium in the human breast may also alter the breast microenvironment causing disruption to iron metabolism, oxidative damage to cellular components, inflammatory responses and alterations to the motility of cells. The main research need is now to investigate whether the concentrations of aluminium measured in the human breast can lead in vivo to any of the effects observed in cells in vitro and this would be aided by the identification of biomarkers specific for aluminium action. PMID:23899626

  17. Catchment characteristics controlling the mobilization and potential toxicity of aluminium fractions in the catchment of the River Dee, northeast Scotland.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M; Smart, R; Cresser, M; Langan, S

    2001-12-17

    Elevated streamwater concentrations of aluminium have been associated with the onset of acidification, both by natural and anthropogenic means. This has important implications for river water quality. Concentrations of total, labile-inorganic and non-labile-organic fractions of aluminium were determined across the River Dee catchment, northeast Scotland. Fifty-nine subcatchments, chosen to reflect the variety of soils, parent materials and land use patterns across this major river system were sampled bi-weekly for 1 year. The distribution of aluminium was closely linked to factors of parent material and organic soil cover. Strong spatial and temporal relationships were observed between pH and all fractions of aluminium. Significant episodic peaks in aluminium occurred, these being especially pronounced when a storm event followed a period of dry weather. A weathering rate index utilizing the Na dominance of base cations was found to be a predictor of potential streamwater toxicity implied through Ca/inorganic aluminium ratios. It was demonstrated that Al was mobilized from acid headwater streams, whilst concentrations in the main stem remained much lower. PMID:11778946

  18. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

  19. Additional Sources of Information

    Cancer.gov

    Additional Sources of Information Developing Medical Imaging Drug and Biological Products Part 1: Conducting Safety Assessments [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Part 2: Clinical Indications [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Content

  20. Fracturing products and additives

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This paper provides a consumer guide for the various propping and fracturing fluids available to the oil and gas industry. Products are subdivided into groups that have similar function and performance within each functional category. Where applicable, performance groups have been subdivided to reflect significant differences in additive or proppant chemical nature to emphasize uniqueness in company product lines.

  1. Maximum Likelihood Additivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio

    1982-01-01

    A maximum likelihood estimation procedure was developed to fit weighted and unweighted additive models of conjoint data obtained by categorical rating, paired comparisons or directional ranking methods. Practical uses of the procedure are presented to demonstrate various advantages of the procedure as a statistical method. (Author/JKS)

  2. Maximum Likelihood Additivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio

    A maximum likelihood estimation procedure is developed for the simple and the weighted additive models. The data are assumed to be taken by either one of the following methods: (1) categorical ratings--the subject is asked to rate a set of stimuli with respect to an attribute of the stimuli on rating scales with a relatively few observation…

  3. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part II corrosion performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    Surface treatment of aluminium alloys using steam with oxidative chemistries, namely KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys. Detailed investigation of the corrosion performance of the treated surfaces was carried out using potentiodynamic polarisation and standard industrial test methods such as acetic acid salt spray (AASS) and filiform corrosion on commercial AA6060 alloy. Barrier properties of the film including adhesion were evaluated using tape test under wet and dry conditions. Electrochemical results showed reduced cathodic and anodic activity, while the protection provided by steam treatment with HNO3 was a function of the concentration of NO3- ions. The coating generated by inclusion of KMnO4 showed highest resistance to filiform corrosion. Overall, the performance of the steam treated surfaces under filiform corrosion and AASS test was a result of the local coverage of the alloy microstructure resulting from steam containing with KMnO4 and HNO3.

  4. Growth of L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride single crystal for OLED and super-capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaivani, D.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2015-12-01

    L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride (LVAC), a novel semi-organic material, was grown using slow evaporation under isothermal condition. The single crystal data reveal that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The SEM micrographs give clear picture about the surface morphology. Further, they confirm the inclusion of aluminium chloride into atomic sites of L-Valine. The compositional elements present in the crystal were identified through EDAX analysis. The mass spectral analysis was carried out to determine the molecular weight of the grown crystal. The optical transparency of the grown crystal was investigated by UV-vis-NIR spectrum. FTIR spectral study was used to identify the functional groups present in the grown material. The luminescence characteristics of grown material were analysed to confirm the effect of metal ion on the ligand. This property makes the material suitable for OLED application. The supercapacitive performance of the grown crystal was finally studied using cyclic voltammetry.

  5. One-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge epitaxy on Si by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ziheng Hao, Xiaojing; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Green, Martin A.

    2014-02-03

    In this work, one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge on Si is achieved via magnetron sputtering by applying an in-situ low temperature (50?°C to 150?°C) heat treatment in between Al and Ge depositions. The effect of heat treatment on film properties and the growth mechanism of Ge epitaxy on Si are studied via X-ray diffraction, Raman and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Compared with the conventional two-step process, the one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization requires much lower thermal budget and results in pure Ge epitaxial layer, which may be suitable for use as a virtual substrate for the fabrication of III-V solar cells.

  6. Finite Element Analysis of Warpage in Laminated Aluminium Alloy Plates for Machining of Primary Aeronautic Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, A. C.; Menezes, M. A.; Moreira Filho, L. A.

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this paper consists in presenting a method of simulating the warpage in 7xxx series aluminium alloy plates. To perform this simulation finite element software MSC.Patran and MSC.Marc were used. Another result of this analysis will be the influence on material residual stresses induced on the raw material during the rolling process upon the warpage of primary aeronautic parts, fabricated through machining (milling) at Embraer. The method used to determinate the aluminium plate residual stress was Layer Removal Test. The numerical algorithm Modified Flavenot Method was used to convert layer removal and beam deflection in stress level. With such information about the level and profile of residual stresses become possible, during the step that anticipate the manufacturing to incorporate these values in the finite-element approach for modelling warpage parts. Based on that warpage parameter surely the products are manufactured with low relative vulnerability propitiating competitiveness and price.

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Warpage in Laminated Aluminium Alloy Plates for Machining of Primary Aeronautic Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, A. C.; Moreira Filho, L. A.; Menezes, M. A.

    2007-04-07

    The aim of this paper consists in presenting a method of simulating the warpage in 7xxx series aluminium alloy plates. To perform this simulation finite element software MSC.Patran and MSC.Marc were used. Another result of this analysis will be the influence on material residual stresses induced on the raw material during the rolling process upon the warpage of primary aeronautic parts, fabricated through machining (milling) at Embraer. The method used to determinate the aluminium plate residual stress was Layer Removal Test. The numerical algorithm Modified Flavenot Method was used to convert layer removal and beam deflection in stress level. With such information about the level and profile of residual stresses become possible, during the step that anticipate the manufacturing to incorporate these values in the finite-element approach for modelling warpage parts. Based on that warpage parameter surely the products are manufactured with low relative vulnerability propitiating competitiveness and price.

  8. Dynamic Crushing Response of Closed-cell Aluminium Foam at Variable Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. A.; Kader, M. A.; Escobedo, J. P.; Hazell, P. J.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Quadir, M. Z.

    2015-06-01

    The impact response of aluminium foams is essential for assessing their crashworthiness and energy absorption capacity for potential applications. The dynamic compactions of closed-cell aluminium foams (CYMAT) have been tested at variable strain rates. Microstructural characterization has also been carried out. The low strain rate impact test has been carried out using drop weight experiments while the high strain compaction test has been carried out via plate impact experiments. The post impacted samples have been examined using optical and electron microscopy to observe the microstructural changes during dynamic loading. This combination of dynamic deformation during impact and post impact microstructural analysis helped to evaluate the pore collapse mechanism and impact energy absorption characteristics.

  9. Duty cycle and modulation effects in aluminium alloy welding with high power Nd-YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kathuria, Y.P.; Tsuboi, Akihiko

    1996-12-31

    The demand for the light aluminum vehicles using aluminium alloys will be strengthened in the future. The development of aluminium alloys, e.g., Al-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg alloys is being actively considered and have resulted good results. In view of this, processing of Al-alloys, specially its weldability has been of much importance. Here, the modulation and duty cycle effects on Al-alloy welding with high power Nd-YAG laser are investigated. Microstructural characterization of the low and high duty welds with wave modulation identified the differences in the weld morphology. Welding depth, undercut and strength of fusion zone are discussed as a function of the processing parameters.

  10. In situ study of the initiation of hydrogen bubbles at the aluminium metal/oxide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, De-Gang; Wang, Zhang-Jie; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The presence of excess hydrogen at the interface between a metal substrate and a protective oxide can cause blistering and spallation of the scale. However, it remains unclear how nanoscale bubbles manage to reach the critical size in the first place. Here, we perform in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy experiments of the aluminium metal/oxide interface under hydrogen exposure. It is found that once the interface is weakened by hydrogen segregation, surface diffusion of Al atoms initiates the formation of faceted cavities on the metal side, driven by Wulff reconstruction. The morphology and growth rate of these cavities are highly sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the aluminium substrate. Once the cavities grow to a critical size, the internal gas pressure can become great enough to blister the oxide layer. Our findings have implications for understanding hydrogen damage of interfaces.

  11. In situ study of the initiation of hydrogen bubbles at the aluminium metal/oxide interface.

    PubMed

    Xie, De-Gang; Wang, Zhang-Jie; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The presence of excess hydrogen at the interface between a metal substrate and a protective oxide can cause blistering and spallation of the scale. However, it remains unclear how nanoscale bubbles manage to reach the critical size in the first place. Here, we perform in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy experiments of the aluminium metal/oxide interface under hydrogen exposure. It is found that once the interface is weakened by hydrogen segregation, surface diffusion of Al atoms initiates the formation of faceted cavities on the metal side, driven by Wulff reconstruction. The morphology and growth rate of these cavities are highly sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the aluminium substrate. Once the cavities grow to a critical size, the internal gas pressure can become great enough to blister the oxide layer. Our findings have implications for understanding hydrogen damage of interfaces. PMID:26121306

  12. Colloids from the aqueous corrosion of aluminium-based nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, M. D.; Goldberg, M. M.; Mertz, C. J.

    2005-12-01

    Nuclear wastes to be buried in the proposed repository underneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, may produce colloids and contribute to the release of radioactivity from the repository. As a component of non-commercial nuclear fuels slated for disposal, aluminium-based fuels may release the colloids during aqueous corrosion. This paper reports on the characterization of such colloids, which are predominantly clays >100 nm. Colloid concentrations never exceeded 8 × 10 11 particles/L, which is well within the range of values used in the repository release models. These colloids carry 99% of the released uranium and highlight the potential importance of the colloid phase in determining radionuclide transport from the uranium-aluminium fuels.

  13. Retention of fluoride from diets containing materials produced during aluminium smelting.

    PubMed

    Wright, D A; Thompson, A

    1978-07-01

    1. Using male rats, the availability of fluoride from five by products of the aluminium smelting industry was tested. This was done by considering the balance between fluoride administered in controlled diets and the total fluoride content of waste products eliminated over an experimental period of 1 week. 2. Results indicated that yields of available fluoride expressed as percentage weight of original material were cryolite (Na3ALF6), 45.9%; sodium fluoride (NaF), 41.7%; aluminium fluoride (AFL3.H20), 9.1%; mist eliminator grid solids (with CaF2), 9.4%; reclaimed alumina with adsorbed F, 0.27%. 3. Of the various tissues analysed for fluoride content, only the kidney and femur showed any significant correlation with the amounts of fluoride absorbed or retained. PMID:666997

  14. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wei Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Hai Feng; Zhou, Zhi Ping

    2015-04-01

    We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H2O, and then in boiling water) and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°.

  15. The effect of aluminium on mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of hadfield steel single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, E. G.; Kireeva, I. V.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Shul'Mina, A. A.; Sehitoglu, H.; Karaman, I.

    2004-06-01

    On single crystals of Hadfield steel (Fe-13Mn-1.3C, Fe-13Mn-2.7Al-1.3C, wt.%) the systematical investigations of deformation mechanisms - slip and twinning, stages of plastic flow, strain hardening coefficient depending on orientation of tensile axis have been carried out by methods of optical and electron microscopy, x-ray analysis. Is has been shown that the combination of low stacking fault energy (?{SF}=0.03J/m^2) with high concentration of carbon atoms in aluminium-free steel results in development of the mechanical twinning at room temperature in all crystal orientations. The new type of twinning with formation of extrinsic stacking fault has been found out in [001] single crystals. Experimentally it has been established that alloying with aluminium leads to increase of stacking fault energy of Hadfield steel and suppresses twinning in all orientations of crystals at preservation of high values of strain-hardening coefficients ?.

  16. Aluminium and hydrogen ions inhibit a mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, J. P.; Pickard, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    The tension-dependent activity of mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channels in excised plasmalemmal patches from onion bulb scale epidermis is modulated by pH in the physiologically meaningful range between 4.5 and 7.2. It is rapidly lowered by lowering pH and rapidly raised by raising pH. Channel activity is effectively inhibited by low levels of aluminium ions and activity can be partially restored by washing for a few minutes. We suggest that under normal conditions the sensitivity of the mechanosensory channels to pH of the wall free space plays important roles in regulation of plant activities such as growth. We further suggest that, when levels of acid and aluminium ions in the soil solution are high, they might inhibit similar sensory channels in cells of the root tip, thus contributing critically to the acid soil syndrome.

  17. Laser Surface Pre-treatment of Aluminium for Hybrid Joints with Glass Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckert, André; Zaeh, Michael F.

    Lightweight construction is a major trend in the automotive industry. Theconnection of fibre reinforced plastics with aluminium is consequently seen as promising prospect. In this regard, thermal joining can be applied for bonding of such hybrid joints. But in order to create a load bearing metal plastic joint, the surface of the metal has to be pre-treated. Recent research has shown that with laser surface pre-treatment high joint strengths are obtained. Yet there are a variety of laser sources and manufacturable surface topographies with structure sizes ranging from macroscopic to nanoscopic profiles. Within this work,macroscopic, microscopic and nanoscopic laser processed structures are created on aluminium and consequently joined to glass fibre reinforced thermoplastics of different fibre length and fibre content. High shear tensile strengths of up to 42 N/mm2 were obtained depending on the allocated material and the surface pre-treatment.

  18. Generation of nano aluminium powder through wire explosion process and its characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathi, R. . E-mail: rsarathi@iitm.ac.in; Sindhu, T.K.; Chakravarthy, S.R.

    2007-02-15

    The nano aluminium particles were produced in different ambience by the wire explosion process. The influence of pressure in the exploding wire chamber on the size of the particles was analyzed. Certain physico-chemical diagnostic studies, viz., wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), thermo-gravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) studies were carried out to characterize the produced nano aluminium powder. The compositions of the material were characterized through the energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) results. The size of the particles was measured using transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies and particle size distribution analyses were carried out by adopting log-normal distribution. The mechanism of formation of nano powder by wire explosion technique was explained in detail.

  19. Wettability behaviour of RTV silicone rubber coated on nanostructured aluminium surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Gelareh; Farzaneh, Masoud; Jafari, Reza

    2011-05-01

    A nanostructutered superhydrophobic surface was elaborated by applying an RTV silicone rubber coating on electrochemically processed aluminium substrates. Study of anodisation voltage on surface morphology showed that higher anodising voltage led to larger pore sizes. Scanning electron microscopy image analysis showed bird's nest and beehive structures formed on anodised surfaces at 50 V and 80 V. Water static contact angle on the treated surfaces reached up to 160° at room temperature. Study of superhydrophobic surfaces at super cooled temperature showed important delayed freezing time for RTV hydrophobic surfaces when compared to non-treated aluminium. However, lower wettability was observed when surface temperature went down from 20 °C to -10 °C. Also, it was found that the capacitance of superhydrophobic surfaces decreased with increasing anodising voltage.

  20. Comparison of cavitation intensity in water and in molten aluminium using a high-temperature cavitometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanakis, I.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Eskin, D. G.; Pericleous, K.

    2015-12-01

    The application of ultrasound to industrial casting processes has attracted research interest during the last 50 years. However, the transfer and scale-up of this advanced and promising technology to the industry have been hindered by difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal due to the lack of understanding of certain fundamentals. In the current study, experimental results on ultrasonic processing in deionised water and in liquid aluminium (Al) are reported. Cavitation activity was determined in both liquid environments using an advanced high-temperature cavitometer sensor. In water, the highest cavitation activity is obtained for the lowest sonotrode tip amplitudes. Below the sonotrode, the cavitation intensity in liquid aluminium is found to be four times higher than in water.

  1. Examination of aluminium and zinc plasmas from an inductive furnace by spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burm, K. T. A. L.; Burm

    2013-02-01

    The production of aluminium and zinc plasmas for the deposition of coatings upon steel strip is monitored by optical emission spectroscopy measurements. The plasma is created from an inductive source. The atom and the ion densities as well as the electron temperature are obtained such that the plasma can be characterized. It will be shown that the obtained plasmas are typically highly ionized and deviate from thermal equilibrium.

  2. A novel preparation technique for an aluminium-alumina MMC by a roll bonding process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.B. . Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering); Ralph, B. . Dept. of Materials Technology); Yuen, H.C. . Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering Brunel Univ., Uxbridge, Middlesex . Dept. of Materials Technology)

    1993-09-01

    The potential of fibre reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) has been known for many years and their common fabrication routes and the general characteristics of their properties are well documented. These manufacturing routes are usually expensive and consistent results are difficult to maintain. This paper introduces an economical process for the preparation of an aluminum matrix MMC reinforced with alumina (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The process involves the formation of thin Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] films on commercially pure (CP) aluminium foil by anodizing. The bonding between layers of foil and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] is achieved by hot rolling followed by cold rolling to further break up of the thin Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] film and disperse it into the aluminium matrix. The aim was to produce an MMC with a low volume fraction of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] finely dispersed in the aluminium matrix. The physical and mechanical properties of this material may not be comparable with MMCs produced by conventional techniques in terms of strength and stiffness. However, its inexpensive production route coupled with an increase Young's Modulus, strength and retained good electrical conductivity may well make it a valuable alternative material to be used in electricity transmission applications. The production technique used in making this MMC can readily be adopted by any aluminium sheet rolling plant. With minimal need for equipment alterations, they can convert to produce this form of MMC in semi or fully continuous production runs with their existing rolling mills. This process will greatly reduce the cost of an MMC and at the same time maintain consistent properties.

  3. Hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene in plasma of aluminium foundry workers using hexachloroethane for degassing.

    PubMed Central

    Seldén, A I; Nygren, Y; Westberg, H B; Bodin, L S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the load of selected organochlorine compounds in the blood of aluminium foundry workers who use hexachloroethane as a degassing agent for aluminium and to measure some possible effects on internal organs. METHODS: Plasma from nine male aluminium foundry workers with past experience of use of hexachloroethane and 18 controls (two controls per exposed case) matched for residence, sex, age, and socioeconomic status was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), (P-HCB), and octachlorostyrene (P-OCS) with low resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serum samples from the same subjects were analysed for standard kidney, pancreas, and liver function variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the triplets retained, a non-parametric test, and linear regression were used for the analysis. RESULTS: A fourfold increase of mean P-HCB was found among the exposed subjects compared with the controls (313.1 v 66.9 ng/g lipid; P < 0.01; (ANOVA model)). For P-OCS this difference was even larger (54.6 v 0.7 ng/g lipid; P < 0.01). Results were still significant (P < 0.05) with non-parametric testing. Within the exposed group there was a good correlation between the ln P-HCB (r = 0.80) and ln P-OCS (r = 0.91), respectively, with the cumulative number of years of exposure to hexachloroethane. No significant difference in kidney, pancreas, or liver function was found between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Aluminium degassing with hexachloroethane may increase the body burden of selected organochlorine compounds as reflected by HCB and OCS measurements. With the inherent limitations of this investigation no signs of subclinical organ toxicity were found. PMID:9326166

  4. Synthesis and photophysical properties of aluminium tris-(4-morpholine-8-hydroxyquinoline)

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Walaa A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium tris(4-morpholinyl-8-hydroxyquinoline) has been synthesized and characterized. The photoluminescence measurements showed that the new derivative is blue shifted and has relative photoluminescence quantum yield two times higher compared to the pristine Al tris(8-hydroxyquinoline). Deferential scanning colorimetric studies revealed that the newly synthesized Alq3 derivative in this work is amorphous material with the highest transition glass temperature value among the reported amorphous Alq3 derivatives. PMID:25685461

  5. Aluminium chloride promotes anchorage-independent growth in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sappino, André-Pascal; Buser, Raphaële; Lesne, Laurence; Gimelli, Stefania; Béna, Frédérique; Belin, Dominique; Mandriota, Stefano J

    2012-03-01

    Aluminium salts used as antiperspirants have been incriminated as contributing to breast cancer incidence in Western societies. To date, very little or no epidemiological or experimental data confirm or infirm this hypothesis. We report here that in MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells, a well-established normal human mammary epithelial cell model, long-term exposure to aluminium chloride (AlCl(3) ) concentrations of 10-300 µ m, i.e. up to 100 000-fold lower than those found in antiperspirants, and in the range of those recently measured in the human breast, results in loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth. These effects were preceded by an increase of DNA synthesis, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and senescence in proliferating cultures. AlCl(3) also induced DSBs and senescence in proliferating primary human mammary epithelial cells. In contrast, it had no similar effects on human keratinocytes or fibroblasts, and was not detectably mutagenic in bacteria. MCF-10A cells morphologically transformed by long-term exposure to AlCl(3) display strong upregulation of the p53/p21(Waf1) pathway, a key mediator of growth arrest and senescence. These results suggest that aluminium is not generically mutagenic, but similar to an activated oncogene, it induces proliferation stress, DSBs and senescence in normal mammary epithelial cells; and that long-term exposure to AlCl(3) generates and selects for cells able to bypass p53/p21(Waf1) -mediated cellular senescence. Our observations do not formally identify aluminium as a breast carcinogen, but challenge the safety ascribed to its widespread use in underarm cosmetics. PMID:22223356

  6. Czochralski growth and optical properties of magnesium-aluminium spinel doped with nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyon, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Auzel, F.

    1986-12-01

    Blue single crystals of magnesium aluminium spinel doped with nickel have been pulled from the melt, by the Czochralski technique. The transmission spectrum of doped samples show three broad absorption bands. According to the absorption map and the chemical analysis of these crystals, the effective segregation coefficient of Ni 2+ in MgAl 20 4 seems to be roughly 1. At T= 80 K. the expected tuning range of the stimulated emission lies from 1.2 to 1.4 ?m.

  7. The Relationship of Aluminium and Silver to Neural Tube Defects; a Case Control

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Altamirano, María de Jesús; Fenton-Navarro, Patricia; Sivet-Chiñas, Elvira; Harp-Iturribarria, Flor de María; Martínez-Cruz, Ruth; Cruz, Pedro Hernández; Cruz, Margarito Martínez; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship of neurotoxic inorganic elements in the hair of patients with the diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects. Our initial hypothesis was that neurotoxic inorganic elements were associated with Neural Tube Defects. Methods Twenty-three samples of hair from newborns were obtained from the General Hospital, “Aurelio Valdivieso” in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico. The study group included 8 newborn infants with neural tube pathology. The control group was composed of 15 newborns without this pathology. The presence of inorganic elements in the hair samples was determined by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (spectroscopic emission of the plasma). Findings The population of newborns with Neural Tube Defects showed significantly higher values of the following elements than the control group: Aluminium, Neural Tube Defects 152.77±51.06 µg/g, control group 76.24±27.89 µg/g; Silver, Neural Tube Defects 1.45±0.76, control group 0.25±0.53 µg/g; Potassium, Neural Tube Defects 553.87±77.91 µg/g, control group 341.13±205.90 µg/g. Association was found at 75 percentile between aluminium plus silver, aluminium plus potassium, silver plus potassium, and potassium plus sodium. Conclusion In the hair of newborns with Neural Tube Defects, the following metals were increased: aluminium, silver. Given the neurotoxicity of the same, and association of Neural Tube Defects with aluminum and silver, one may infer that they may be participating as factors in the development of Neural Tube Defects. PMID:23400307

  8. Ultrasonic ablation as a novel technique for producing pure aluminium nanoparticles dispersed in different liquids for different applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Yasser A. M.; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel physical method for producing surfactant-free aluminium nanoparticles (Al NPs) by irradiating ultrasonic waves on Al thin films immersed in different liquids used for different applications. We suggest naming this technique “ultrasonic ablation”. Our method has many advantages compared with other chemical and physical methods such as (1) fabrication of Al NPs using low-cost and easy procedures, (2) fabrication of pure Al NPs without any chemical additives, (3) fabrication of Al NPs dispersed in different liquids used for different applications, and (4) fabrication of individual Al NPs without aggregations. We have prepared Al NPs in 1,2-dichlorobenzene, which is used as a solvent for preparing active layer solutions of organic solar cells (OSCs), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-blend-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), which is a representative aqueous solution used as a buffer layer in OSCs, and ethanol, which is a representative polar solvent used for different applications. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical absorption techniques have verified the fabrication of individual and surfactant-free Al NPs dispersed in different liquids that can be safely used in different applications.

  9. High-resolution microcontact printing and transfer of massive arrays of microorganisms on planar and compartmentalized nanoporous aluminium oxide.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Colin; Bomer, Johan; Sprenkels, Ad; van den Berg, Albert; de Vos, Willem; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan

    2010-06-01

    Handling microorganisms in high throughput and their deployment into miniaturized platforms presents significant challenges. Contact printing can be used to create dense arrays of viable microorganisms. Such "living arrays", potentially with multiple identical replicates, are useful in the selection of improved industrial microorganisms, screening antimicrobials, clinical diagnostics, strain storage, and for research into microbial genetics. A high throughput method to print microorganisms at high density was devised, employing a microscope and a stamp with a massive array of PDMS pins. Viable bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Esherichia coli), yeast (Candida albicans) and fungal spores (Aspergillus fumigatus) were deposited onto porous aluminium oxide (PAO) using arrays of pins with areas from 5 x 5 to 20 x 20 microm. Printing onto PAO with up to 8100 pins of 20 x 20 microm area with 3 replicates was achieved. Printing with up to 200 pins onto PAO culture chips (divided into 40 x 40 microm culture areas) allowed inoculation followed by effective segregation of microcolonies during outgrowth. Additionally, it was possible to print mixtures of C. albicans and spores of A. fumigatus with a degree of selectivity by capture onto a chemically modified PAO surface. High resolution printing of microorganisms within segregated compartments and on functionalized PAO surfaces has significant advantages over what is possible on semi-solid surfaces such as agar. PMID:20480106

  10. New aluminium-rich alkali slag matrix with clay minerals for immobilizing simulated radioactive Sr and Cs waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Guangren; Sun, Darren Delai; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2001-12-01

    A new aluminium-rich alkali-activated slag matrix (M-AAS) with clay absorbents has been developed for immobilization of simulated radioactive Sr or Cs waste by introducing metakaolin, natural zeolite and NaOH-treated attapulgite clay minerals into alkali-activated slag matrix (AAS). The results revealed that the additions of metakaolin and clay absorbents into the cementitious matrixes would greatly enhance the distribution ratio, Rd, of selective adsorption whether the matrix was OPC matrix or AAS matrix. The new immobilizing matrix M-AAS not only exhibited the strongest selective adsorption for both Sr and Cs ions, but also was characterized by lower porosity and small pore diameter so that it exhibited the lowest leaching rate. Hydration product analyses also demonstrated that (Na+Al)-substituted C-S-H(I) and self-generated zeolite were major hydration products in the M-AAS matrix, which provided this new immobilizing matrix with better selective adsorption on Sr and Cs and lower leaching rate.

  11. A Macroporous TiO2 Oxygen Sensor Fabricated Using Anodic Aluminium Oxide as an Etching Mask

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Yong-Sheng; Huang, Jun-Wei; Chang, Chien-Kuo; Wu, Sheng-Po

    2010-01-01

    An innovative fabrication method to produce a macroporous Si surface by employing an anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) nanopore array layer as an etching template is presented. Combining AAO with a reactive ion etching (RIE) processes, a homogeneous and macroporous silicon surface can be effectively configured by modulating AAO process parameters and alumina film thickness, thus hopefully replacing conventional photolithography and electrochemical etch methods. The hybrid process integration is considered fully CMOS compatible thanks to the low-temperature AAO and CMOS processes. The gas-sensing characteristics of 50 nm TiO2 nanofilms deposited on the macroporous surface are compared with those of conventional plain (or non-porous) nanofilms to verify reduced response noise and improved sensitivity as a result of their macroporosity. Our experimental results reveal that macroporous geometry of the TiO2 chemoresistive gas sensor demonstrates 2-fold higher (?33%) improved sensitivity than a non-porous sensor at different levels of oxygen exposure. In addition, the macroporous device exhibits excellent discrimination capability and significantly lessened response noise at 500 °C. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid process of such miniature and macroporous devices are compatible as well as applicable to integrated next generation bio-chemical sensors. PMID:22315561

  12. Aluminium Toxicity in Rye (Secale cereale): Root Growth and Dynamics of Cytoplasmic Ca2+ in Intact Root Tips

    PubMed Central

    MA, QIFU; RENGEL, ZDENKO; KUO, JOHN

    2002-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity in rye (Secale cereale L.), an Al‐resistant crop, was examined by measuring root elongation and cytoplasmic free activity of calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) in intact root apical cells. Measurement of [Ca2+]cyt was achieved by loading a Ca2+‐sensitive fluorescent probe, Fluo‐3/AM ester, into root apical cells followed by detection of intracellular fluorescence using a confocal laser scanning microscope. After 20 min of exposure to 50 µm Al (pH 4·2) a slight increase in [Ca2+]cyt of root apical cells was observed, while the response of [Ca2+]cyt to 100 µm Al (pH 4·2) was faster and larger ([Ca2+]cyt increased by 46 % in 10 min). Increases in [Ca2+]cyt were correlated with inhibition of root growth, generally measurable after 2 h. Addition of 400 µm malic acid (pH 4·2) largely ameliorated the effect of 100 µm Al on [Ca2+]cyt in root apical cells and protected root growth from Al toxicity. These results suggest that an increase in [Ca2+]cyt in root apical cells in rye is an early effect of Al toxicity and is followed by the secondary effect on root elongation. PMID:12099355

  13. Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of a new aluminium complex [5-choloro-8-hydroxyquinoline] bis [2,2'bipyridine] Aluminium Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Bhargava, Parag; Srivastava, Ritu; Singh, Punita

    2015-11-01

    We have synthesized a new aluminium complex, [5-choloro-8-hydroxyquinoline] bis[2,2'bipyridine] Aluminium Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) and characterized it for structural, thermal and photoluminescence properties. The prepared material was characterized by Fourier -transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and photoluminescence. The prepared material showed thermal stability up to 240 °C. The photoluminescence spectrum of Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) in toluene solution showed peak at 515 nm. This material was used as an emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The fundamental structure of device is ITO/F4-TCNQ(1 nm)/α-NPD(35 nm)/Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) (35 nm)/BCP(6 nm)/Alq3(28 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(150 nm). The device emits an yellowish green light (CIE coordinates, x = 0.32, y = 0.52) with maximum luminescence 314 Cd/m2 at 18 V. The maximum current efficiency of OLED was 0.09 Cd/A and maximum power efficiency was 0.03 lm/W at 9 V respectively.

  14. Effects of aluminium chloride and aluminium chlorohydrate on DNA repair in MCF10A immortalised non-transformed human breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Farasani, A; Darbre, P D

    2015-11-01

    Use of underarm aluminium (Al)-based antiperspirant salts may be a contributory factor in breast cancer development. At the 10th Keele meeting, Al was reported to cause anchorage-independent growth and double strand DNA breaks in MCF10A immortalised non-transformed human breast epithelial cells. We now report that exposure of MCF10A cells to Al chloride or Al chlorohydrate also compromised DNA repair systems. Long-term (19-21weeks) exposure to Al chloride or Al chlorohydrate at a 10(-4)M concentration resulted in reduced levels of BRCA1 mRNA as determined by real-time RT-PCR and BRCA1 protein as determined by Western immunoblotting. Reduced levels of mRNA for other DNA repair genes (BRCA2, CHK1, CHK2, Rad51, ATR) were also observed using real-time RT-PCR. Loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene function has long been associated with inherited susceptibility to breast cancer but these results suggest that exposure to aluminium-based antiperspirant salts may also reduce levels of these key components of DNA repair in breast epithelial cells. If Al can not only damage DNA but also compromise DNA repair systems, then there is the potential for Al to impact on breast carcinogenesis. PMID:26319584

  15. Iron and aluminium oxides containing industrial wastes as adsorbents of heavy metals: Application possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Jacukowicz-Sobala, Irena; Ociński, Daniel; Kociołek-Balawejder, Elżbieta

    2015-07-01

    Industrial wastes with a high iron or aluminium oxide content are produced in huge quantities as by-products of water treatment (water treatment residuals), bauxite processing (red mud) and hard and brown coal burning in power plants (fly ash). Although they vary in their composition, the wastes have one thing in common--a high content of amorphous iron and/or aluminium oxides with a large specific surface area, whereby this group of wastes shows very good adsorbability towards heavy metals, arsenates, selenates, etc. But their physical form makes their utilisation quite difficult, since it is not easy to separate the spent sorbent from the solution and high bed hydraulic resistances occur in dynamic regime processes. Nevertheless, because of the potential benefits of utilising the wastes in industrial effluent treatment, this issue attracts much attention today. This study describes in detail the waste generation processes, the chemical structure of the wastes, their physicochemical properties, and the mechanisms of fixing heavy metals and semimetals on the surface of iron and aluminium oxides. Typical compositions of wastes generated in selected industrial plants are given. A detailed survey of the literature on the adsorption applications of the wastes, including methods of their thermal and chemical activation, as well as regeneration of the spent sorbents, is presented. The existing and potential ways of modifying the physical form of the discussed group of wastes, making it possible to overcome the basic limitation on their practical use, are discussed. PMID:26060197

  16. Fatigue Debonding Analysis of Repaired Aluminium Panels by Composite Patch using Interface Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Toudeshky, Hossein; Jasemzadeh, Ali; Mohammadi, Bijan

    2011-12-01

    Repaired panels with composite patches subjected to fatigue loading may fail due to the progressive debonding between the composite patch and aluminium panel. The objective of this paper is to study the initiation and propagation of a possible fatigue debonding in the adhesive layer while the crack also growths in the panel for single-side repaired aluminium panels. For this purpose three dimensional finite elements method with a thin layer solid like interface element is employed. Fracture mechanics approach is used for the analysis of crack growth in aluminium panel and the interface elements with fatigue constitutive law for mixed mode debonding growth in the adhesive layer. A user element routine and a damage model material routine were developed to include the interface element and to simulate the initiation and propagation of damage in adhesive layer under cyclic loading. It is shown that, the debonding propagation and crack growth rate of the repaired panels depend on the composite patch material and interface bonding properties significantly. It is also shown that using of patch material with higher elastic module leads to the faster damage or debonding growth in the adhesive layer during the fatigue loading.

  17. Electrodeposition of iron and iron-aluminium alloys in an ionic liquid and their magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Giridhar, P; Weidenfeller, B; El Abedin, S Zein; Endres, F

    2014-05-28

    In this work we show that nanocrystalline iron and iron-aluminium alloys can be electrodeposited from the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethylsulfonate, [Py1,4]TfO, at 100 °C. The study comprises CV, SEM, XRD, and magnetic measurements. Two different sources of iron(ii) species, Fe(TfO)2 and FeCl2, were used for the electrodeposition of iron in [Py1,4]TfO. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2, Fe(TfO)2, and (FeCl2 + AlCl3) in the employed ionic liquid. Thick iron deposits were obtained from FeCl2/[Py1,4]TfO at 100 °C. Electrodeposition of iron-aluminium alloys was successful in the same ionic liquid at 100 °C. The morphology and crystallinity of the obtained deposits were investigated using SEM and XRD, respectively. XRD measurements reveal the formation of iron-aluminium alloys. First magnetic measurements of some deposits gave relatively high coercive forces and power losses in comparison to commercial iron-silicon samples due to the small grain size in the nanometer regime. The present study shows the feasibility of preparing magnetic alloys from ionic liquids. PMID:24715034

  18. Crashworthiness of Aluminium Tubes; Part 2: Improvement of Hydroforming Operation to Increase Absorption Energy

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amours, Guillaume; Rahem, Ahmed; Mayer, Robert; Williams, Bruce; Worswick, Michael

    2007-05-17

    The motivation to reduce overall vehicle weight within the automotive sector drives the substitution of lightweight materials such as aluminium alloys for structural components. Such a substitution requires a significant amount of development to manufacture structurally parts such that the energy absorption characteristics are not sacrificed in the event of crash. The effects of the manufacturing processes on the crash performance of automotive structural components must be better understood to ensure improved crashworthiness. This paper presents results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the crash response and energy absorption properties of impacted hydroformed aluminium alloy tubes. Crash experiments on hydroformed tubes were performed using a deceleration sled test at the General Motors Technical Center. Results from axial crush testing showed that an important parameter that influences the energy absorption characteristics during crash was the thickness reduction caused by circumferential expansion of the tube during hydroforming. It was found that that the energy absorption decreased as the corner radius decreased, which results because of increased thinning. Sensitivity studies of end feeding parameters, such as end feed level and profile, were carried out to evaluate their impact on the energy absorption of the aluminium tubes.

  19. Two-port multimode interference reflectors based on aluminium mirrors in a thick SOI platform.

    PubMed

    Fandiño, Javier S; Doménech, José David; Muñoz, Pascual

    2015-08-10

    Multimode interference reflectors (MIRs) were recently introduced as a new type of photonic integrated devices for on-chip, broadband light reflection. In the original proposal, different MIRs were demonstrated based on total internal reflection mirrors made of two deep-etched facets. Although simpler to fabricate, this approach imposes certain limits on the shape of the field pattern at the reflecting facets, which in turn restricts the types of MIRs that can be implemented. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the use of aluminium-based mirrors for the design of 2-port MIRs with variable reflectivity. These mirrors do not impose any restrictions on the incident field, and thus give more flexibility at the design stage. Devices with different reflectivities in the range between 0 and 0.5 were fabricated in a 3 um thick SOI platform, and characterization of multiple dies was performed to extract statistical data about their performance. Our measurements show that, on average, losses both in the aluminium mirror and in the access waveguides reduce the reflectivities to about 79% of their target value. Moreover, standard deviations lower than ±5% are obtained over a 20 nm wavelength range (1540-1560 nm). We also provide a theoretical model of the aluminium mirror based on the effective index method and Fresnel equations in multilayer thin films, which shows good agreement with FDTD simulations. PMID:26367878

  20. Aluminium ultrahigh vacuum system for the 3 GeV TPS synchrotron light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, G. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, C. L.; Wu, L. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Chan, C. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Hsueh, H. P.; Hsu, S. N.; Chen, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The 3-GeV Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) is a large accelerator and synchrotron light source of circumference 518.4 m. The electron storage ring of TPS requires an ultrahigh-vacuum pressure per beam current less than 2×10-10 Pa/mA in the beam duct to maintain a long life of the circulating beam without scattering of ions by residual gases. Aluminium alloys used for the beam ducts have a benefit of greater thermal conductivity that simplifies the structure of vacuum vessels built with the cooling components. Machining completely free of oil applied to the aluminium chambers followed by cleaning with ozonized water and welding in house provide a precise dimensional control within 0.3 mm and a clean surface with a small rate ~ 6.4×10-12 Pa m/s of thermal outgassing after baking at 150 °C for 24 h. The assembled ion pump with non-evaporable getter pump is capable of evacuating the chamber to a pressure < 1×10-9 Pa. The average pressure inside the duct is expected to be sufficiently small. The clean process to manufacture the aluminium ultrahigh vacuum system is described.

  1. Crashworthiness of Aluminium Tubes; Part 2: Improvement of Hydroforming Operation to Increase Absorption Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amours, Guillaume; Rahem, Ahmed; Mayer, Robert; Williams, Bruce; Worswick, Michael

    2007-05-01

    The motivation to reduce overall vehicle weight within the automotive sector drives the substitution of lightweight materials such as aluminium alloys for structural components. Such a substitution requires a significant amount of development to manufacture structurally parts such that the energy absorption characteristics are not sacrificed in the event of crash. The effects of the manufacturing processes on the crash performance of automotive structural components must be better understood to ensure improved crashworthiness. This paper presents results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the crash response and energy absorption properties of impacted hydroformed aluminium alloy tubes. Crash experiments on hydroformed tubes were performed using a deceleration sled test at the General Motors Technical Center. Results from axial crush testing showed that an important parameter that influences the energy absorption characteristics during crash was the thickness reduction caused by circumferential expansion of the tube during hydroforming. It was found that that the energy absorption decreased as the corner radius decreased, which results because of increased thinning. Sensitivity studies of end feeding parameters, such as end feed level and profile, were carried out to evaluate their impact on the energy absorption of the aluminium tubes.

  2. Stimulated emission from aluminium anode oxide films doped with rhodamine 6G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, N. Kh; Zeinidenov, A. K.; Aimukhanov, A. K.; Napolskii, K. S.

    2015-07-01

    The spectral and luminescent properties of the rhodamine 6G dye in a porous matrix of aluminium anode oxide are studied. The films with a highly-ordered porous structure are produced using the method of two-stage anodic oxidation. By means of raster electron microscopy it is found that the diameter of the pores amounts to nearly 50 nm and the separation between the adjacent channels is almost 105 nm. The thickness of the films is equal to 55 ?m, and the specific surface area measured using the method of nitrogen capillary condensation is 15.3 m2 g-1. Fluorescence and absorption spectra of rhodamine 6G molecules injected into the pores of the aluminium anode oxide are measured. It is found that under the excitation of samples with the surface dye concentration 0.3 × 1014 molecules m-2 by the second harmonic of the Nd : YAG laser in the longitudinal scheme with the pumping intensity 0.4 MW cm-2, a narrow band of stimulated emission with the intensity maximum at the wavelength 572 nm appears against the background of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum. A further increase in the pumping radiation intensity leads to the narrowing of the stimulated emission band and an increase in its intensity. The obtained results demonstrate the potential possibility of using the porous films of aluminium anode oxide, doped with laser dyes, in developing active elements for quantum electronics.

  3. The protective properties of melatonin against aluminium-induced neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2015-06-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This experimental study investigated the neuroprotective effect of melatonin (Mel; 10 mg/kg bwt) on aluminium chloride (AlCl3 ; 34 mg/kg bwt) induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Adult male albino Wistar rats were injected with AlCl3 for 7 days. The effect on brain structure, lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO) levels, glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GR), apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bcl-2) and an apoptotic enzyme (caspase-3) was investigated. No apparent changes occurred following the injection of melatonin. Melatonin pretreatment of the AlCl3 -administered rats reduced brain damage, and the tissues appeared like those of the control rats. Compared to treatment with AlCl3 , pretreatment with melatonin decreased LPO and NO levels and increased the GSH content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, melatonin increased the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, decreased the levels of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, and inhibited caspase-3 activity. Therefore, our results indicate that melatonin may provide therapeutic value against aluminium-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alternations in the rat brain and that these effects may be related to anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activities. PMID:25891353

  4. Molybdenum, Tungsten, and Aluminium Substitution for Enhancement of the Thermoelectric Performance of Higher Manganese Silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhi Truong, D. Y.; Berthebaud, David; Gascoin, Franck; Kleinke, Holger

    2015-10-01

    An easy and efficient process involving ball milling under soft conditions and spark plasma sintering was used to synthesize higher manganese silicide (HMS)-based compounds, for example MnSi1.75Ge0.02, with different molybdenum, tungsten, and aluminium substitution. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the samples after sintering showed the main phase to be HMS with the presence of some side products. Molybdenum substitution enlarges the unit cells more than tungsten substitution, owing to its greater solubility in the HMS structure, whereas substitution with aluminium did not substantially alter the cell parameters. The electrical resistivity of HMS-based compounds was reduced by <10% by this substitution, because of increased carrier concentrations. Changes of the Seebeck coefficient were insignificant after molybdenum and aluminium substitution whereas tungsten substitution slightly reduced the thermopower of the base material by approximately 8% over the whole temperature range; this was ascribed to reduced carrier mobility as a result of enhanced scattering. Substitution with any combination of two of these elements resulted in no crucial modification of the electrical properties of the base material. Large decreases of lattice thermal conductivity were observed, because of enhanced phonon scattering, with the highest reduction up to 25% for molybdenum substitution; this resulted in a 20% decrease of total thermal conductivity, which contributed to improvement of the figure of merit ZT of the HMS-based materials. The maximum ZT value was approximately 0.40 for the material with 2 at.% molybdenum substitution at the Mn sites.

  5. [Determination of residual aluminium Ion in Huoxiang Zhengqi pellets by GFAAS with EDTA complexation extraction].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Na; Ran, Cong-Cong; Li, Qing-Lian; Du, Chao-Hui; Jiang, Ye

    2015-06-01

    To establish an EDTA complexation extraction pretreatment combining with GFAAS method for the determination of residual aluminium ion in Huoxiang zhengqi pellets without digestive treatment, systematical investigation was made on sample preparation, and EDTA was used for the complexation extraction of residual aluminium ion in samples. The pH, concentration and volume of extraction solution, the temperature and time of microwave extraction, and graphite furnace temperature program were investigated. The results were compared with the microwave digestion. It was showed that, 0.1 g of sample weight was added in 20 mL 0.05 mol x L(-1) EDTA solution (pH 3.5), followed by heating at 150 degrees C for 10 min in the microwave extraction device. The determination of GFAAS was performed at optimized detection wavelength (257.4 nm) as well as graphite furnace temperature program, the detection limits and quantification limits were 2.37 ?g x L(-1) and 7.89 ?g x L(-1), respectively. The precision (RSD) was less than 2.3%. The average recovery was 96.9% -101%. The present method is easy, rapid and accurate for the determination of residual aluminium ion in Huoxiang zhengqi pellets. PMID:26591522

  6. Kojic acid derivatives as powerful chelators for iron(III) and aluminium(III).

    PubMed

    Nurchi, Valeria M; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Crisponi, Guido; Murgia, Sergio; Arca, Massimiliano; Pintus, Anna; Gans, Peter; Niclos-Gutierrez, Juan; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Castineiras, Alfonso; Remelli, Maurizio; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Lis, Tadeusz

    2011-06-14

    Proceeding from a ligand constituted by two units of kojic acid linked by a methylene group, which proved a very promising chelator for excess iron(III) and aluminium(III) pathologies, two new ligands have been designed and synthesized: one by adding a vanillin molecule in the linker and the second by adding an o-vanillin molecule. Both these ligands, on the basis of complex formation studies presented here, show significant potential as therapeutic agents for iron and aluminium overload. Protonation constants of the pure ligands have been determined by potentiometry, and standard reaction heats by calorimetry. Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in the protonation reactions. The crystal structures of both ligands have furthermore been resolved. Complex formation equilibria for the iron complexes have been studied by combined potentiometry-spectrophotometry and those of aluminium by potentiometry alone. All complexes were found to contain two metal ions. NMR diffusion measurements hardly applied to complex formation equilibria and the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations were powerful tools in confirming the proposed reaction model and in evaluating the relative stabilities of the products. Further support was given by NMR chemical shift measurements and electrospray mass spectrometry. PMID:21552634

  7. Aluminium removal from wastewater by refused beach cast seaweed. Equilibrium and dynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Lodeiro, Pablo; Gudiña, Angel; Herrero, Luz; Herrero, Roberto; Sastre de Vicente, Manuel E

    2010-06-15

    Aluminium removal has been investigated in synthetic and real wastewaters provided by an aluminium surface treatment plant. Marine algae, obtained as beach cast seaweed (a refuse substance) were used as adsorption material. The influence of pH, metal concentration and time for aluminium elimination was studied by use of synthetic solutions. The optimum pH value was 4.0, which provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 22.5 mg g(-1). The adsorption percentage surpassed 80% in less than 30 min of contact time. Real solutions from the industrial unit were fully characterized and tested in two different fixed-bed columns. One column was filled with 27.5 g of dried beach cast seaweed. Three cycles of adsorption and two of desorption were carried out. The first cycle (12 mg g(-1) maximum sorption capacity) was enough to reach the maximum adsorption capacity at 15 mL min(-1) flow rate. The second column was packed with 1100 g of seaweed and its behaviour was compared to another column filled with activated charcoal, following both the same experimental procedure. Maximum sorption capacity was 14 mg g(-1) for seaweed, whereas the activated charcoal only reached 1.6 mg g(-1) (flow rate of 250 mL min(-1)). PMID:20189715

  8. Study of the biological films formed during the pitting of aluminium in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Salvarezza, R C; De Mele, M F; Videla, H A

    1984-01-01

    Film formation during the pitting corrosion of aluminium in human plasma is studied using conventional electrochemical techniques complemented with scanning electron microscopy as well as energy-dispersive x-ray, electron microprobe and immunoelectrophoresis analysis. The anodic polarization curve of aluminium in human plasma at 37 degrees C shows a passive region related to a low corrosion rate that extends up to -0.66 V (s.c.e.). At more positive potential values than -0.66 V, the breakdown of the oxide protective film occurs due to the chloride anions, leading to an intense localized dissolution of the metal (pitting corrosion). Scanning electron microscopy of the metal surface reveals a thick non-adherent precipitate covering pits of a crystallographic feature. Energy-dispersive x-ray and the microprobe analysis show the presence of aluminium, chloride and carbon signals. Immunoelectrophoresis of the precipitate resuspended in physiological solution shows a strong protein denaturization. Results suggest that the corrosion products are formed during pitting by the interaction of the saturated AlCl3 salt present within the pits and the adsorbed plasma proteins. PMID:6482506

  9. Modelling of stress fields during LFEM DC casting of aluminium billets by a meshless method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavri?, B.; Šarler, B.

    2015-06-01

    Direct Chill (DC) casting of aluminium alloys is a widely established technology for efficient production of aluminium billets and slabs. The procedure is being further improved by the application of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (LFEM) in the area of the mold. Novel LFEM DC processing technique affects many different phenomena which occur during solidification, one of them being the stresses and deformations present in the billet. These quantities can have a significant effect on the quality of the cast piece, since they impact porosity, hot-tearing and cold cracking. In this contribution a novel local radial basis function collocation method (LRBFCM) is successfully applied to the problem of stress field calculation during the stationary state of DC casting of aluminium alloys. The formulation of the method is presented in detail, followed by the presentation of the tackled physical problem. The model describes the deformations of linearly elastic, inhomogeneous isotropic solid with a given temperature field. The temperature profile is calculated using the in-house developed heat and mass transfer model. The effects of low frequency EM casting process parameters on the vertical, circumferential and radial stress and on the deformation of billet surface are presented. The application of the LFEM appears to decrease the amplitudes of the tensile stress occurring in the billet.

  10. Strengthening of aluminium-lithium alloys by long-range ordered {delta}{prime}-precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesier, C.; Nembach, E.

    1995-11-01

    Strengthening of aluminium-rich aluminium-lithium single crystals by spherical, coherent particles of the L1{sub 2}-long-range ordered {delta}{prime}-phase has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The total critical resolved shear stress {tau}{sub t} has been measured as a function of the radius r and the volume fraction f of the {delta}{prime}-particles. r and f covered the ranges 0.0--17.6 nm and 0.0--0.11, respectively. The {delta}{prime}-particles` contribution {tau}{sub p} and {tau}{sub t} is analyzed with reference to a model, which had originally been developed for the description of the strengthening effect of L1{sub 2}-long-range ordered {gamma}{prime}-particles in nickel-base superalloys. The experimental data {tau}{sub p}(r,f) of the present aluminium-lithium single crystals are well represented by this model. The specific antiphase boundary energy of the {delta}{prime}-particles has been found to be 0.070{+-}0.020 J/m{sup 2}. This value refers to {l_brace}111{r_brace}-planes.

  11. Shear Strength Response of the Aluminium Alloy 6082-T6 During One-Dimensional Shock Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, John; Millett, Jeremy; Bourne, Neil

    2007-06-01

    The measurement of shear strength via the use of lateral stress gauges has been shown to be a viable technique in a number of materials. An experimental investigation on the intermediate-rate behaviour and shock response of the aluminium alloy, 6082-T6, is reported here. Results obtained using the lateral stress gauge technique show that the shear strength increases with impact stress. The lateral stress behind the shock front is seen to be relatively flat, unlike many other face-centred cubic metals and alloys, where a decrease in lateral stress indicates an increase in shear strength. This unusual response may be a reflection of the high stacking fault energy of aluminium and its alloys resulting in a reduction of the work hardening (i.e. increases in dislocation and/or twin density). Further plate impact results show that the Hugoniot of 6082-T6 is in effect identical to that of the more widely known 6061-T6. Split Hopkinson pressure bar results are used to provide a fuller picture of the rate-dependant behaviour of 6082-T6 over a range loading rates and conditions. Key words: shear strength, aluminium alloy, one-dimensional shock

  12. Effects of aluminium ingestion on reproduction and postnatal survival in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.L.; Paternain, J.L.; Llobet, J.M.; Corbella, J.

    1987-08-31

    Aluminium nitrate was tested for its effects on reproduction, gestation, and lactation in Sprague-Dawley rats, at dosages of 0, 180, 360, and 720 mg/kg/day. Mature male rats were treated orally for 60 days prior to mating with mature virgin female rats treated for 14 days prior to mating with treatment continuing throughout mating, gestation, parturition, and weaning of the litters. One-half of the dams in each group were killed on day 13 of gestation and the remaining dams were allowed to deliver and wean their offspring. Postnatal development was monitored. No adverse effects on fertility or general reproductive parameters were evident at doses employed in these studies. However, the survival ratios were higher for the control group. Moreover, a dose-dependent delay in the growth of the living young could be observed in aluminium treated groups. Therefore, it would seem that high amounts of aluminium should not be ingested during the periods of gestation. 19 references, 3 tables.

  13. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-07-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  14. Particle Number Density Measurement of Sputtered Aluminium Atoms in an Argon Hollow Cathode Glow Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibner, Helmar; Behnke, Jürgen F.; Dinklage, Andreas; Franke, Steffen; Wilke, Christian

    2000-10-01

    Direct current hollow cathode glow discharges are qualified for spectroscopic application and for the study of sputtering processes. By means of diode laser spectroscopy the particle number density of sputtered aluminium atoms in the negative glow of a cylindrical dc hollow cathode glow discharge in argon was investigated (pressure p = 1.5 Torr, current i = 10 mA ldots 30 mA, aluminium hollow cathode: diameter d = 7 mm, lenght l = 30 mm). The absorption measurements followed on the both aluminium resonance lines (396.153 nm, 394.403 nm) combining with the two ground state sublevels ^2P_3/2 and ^2P_1/2. In contrast to earlier absorption measurements with a usual line radiator as light source here absorption line profiles were sampled by the narrowband radiation of a tunable blue-emitting GaN diode laser. The wavelength of the laser radiation was scanned with help of a piezoelectric element and the mode hop-free function of the diode laser was checked by a Fabry-Perot resonator with a free spectral range of 2 GHz. The investigations demonstrate the qualification of the blue-emitting laser diode for spectroscopic measurements and yield better absorption spectroscopic results on the basis of exact line profiles.

  15. Aluminium and strontium in calcium supplements and antacids: a concern to haemodialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Eric; Jakubovic, R; Pejovic-Milic, A; Heyd, D V

    2010-10-01

    Trace elements, most notably aluminium and strontium, have been noted for their role in the development of secondary bone disorders in haemodialysis patients. Due to the large dosages of calcium required for the maintenance of dialysis patients, this study investigated whether the source of calcium chosen for supplementation, including the form of administration (i.e. chewable forms or capsules), has an influence on the total amount of strontium and aluminium ingested daily. A convenience sample of various calcium supplement tablets and antacids was acquired, and strontium and aluminium quantification was performed by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The use of readily available oyster shell-based calcium was found potentially to increase the total amount of ingested strontium substantially with concentrations reaching (2.26 +/- 0.05) (mg Sr).(g Ca)(-1), while the use of antacids or chewable supplements was found to contain concentrations reaching as high as (1.2 +/- 0.3) (mg Al).(g Ca)(-1) in the supplements analysed within this work. It is recommended that the choice of calcium supplement prescribed to individuals undergoing haemodialysis be closely regulated and noted as a possible factor in the prevalence of bone disorders reported in these patients. PMID:20640960

  16. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 degrees C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 degrees C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 degrees C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics. PMID:14761750

  17. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  18. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  19. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  20. Synthetic gasoline additive packages

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The need for additives in modern fuels reflects significant changes recently to gasoline composition, with the incorporation of more cracked components and oxygenated supplements. The olefinic components produced by cracking are more prone to oxidation and have been linked to increased deposits in critical fuel metering areas in both carburetors and fuel injectors, and also in induction systems, especially in the intake ports and on intake valves. Heavy aromatics are also produced from severe refinery processing and have been shown to increase deposits in the combustion chamber and on piston crowns, and to correlate well with the octane requirement increase (ORI). In addition, oxygenates can affect intake valve deposits. MTBE was found to increase intake valve deposits in one engine family, as an example. More testing is needed, however, to define the oxygenates' effects on deposit formation more fully. This article describes new detergent additive system which may provide engine cleanliness without detrimental effects on emissions and vehicle performance, particularly octane requirements increase and intake valve sticking.

  1. Functional Generalized Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Mathew W.; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  2. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  3. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO4), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  4. Combination toxicity of etoposide (VP-16) and photosensitisation with a water-soluble aluminium phthalocyanine in K562 human leukaemic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gantchev, T. G.; Brasseur, N.; van Lier, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Etoposide (VP-16) is an anti-cancer drug commonly used against several types of tumours and leukaemia, either alone or in combination chemotherapy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is another, relatively new modality for treatment of various malignancies. The interactions between VP-16 and PDT, using aluminium tetrasulphophthalocyanine as photosensitiser, in K562 human leukaemic cells were investigated. Cell responses to individual and combined drug treatment under different experimental conditions revealed synergistic drug toxicity. The latter was evident from various events of cell response, including supra-additive accumulation of cells in G2/M cell cycle phase and endonucleolytic DNA fragmentation (apoptosis). The involvement of the cellular antioxidant system in the synergistic interactions of photosensitisation and VP-16 is proposed. Images Figure 5 PMID:8932337

  5. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  6. Electrochemical pitting evaluation of aluminium alloy 7075 in machining coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Stanaland, V.A.; Dillon, J.J.

    1984-08-24

    The corrosion rate of aluminum alloy 7075 in Trim Sol with a Tris-Nitro biocide addition is satisfactory. Both deaeration and increasing the nitrite addition decreased the stability of the passive film. Chloride contamination below 500 ppM does not cause pitting corrosion of aluminum alloy 7075 in the Trim Sol environment. The limit for chloride contamination is between 500 and 1000 ppM. The potentiodynamic, fast-scan-rate technique is satisfactory for evaluating the pitting tendency of the aluminum alloy 7075 in a Trim Sol environment. Consequently, the potentiodynamic, fast-scan-rate technique is recommended for use in conjunction with reverse scans to evaluate the quality of in-use machining coolants, that are suspected of causing contamination.

  7. Mechanisms and kinetics of reaction-bonded aluminium oxide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Suxing; Holz, D.; Claussen, N. . Advanced Ceramics Group)

    1993-04-01

    Reaction-bonded Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] (RBAO) ceramics were fabricated starting from mechanically alloyed Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/Al, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/Al/ZrO[sub 2], and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/Al/ZrO[sub 2]/Zr mixtures. Isopressed compacts were heat-treated in air up to 1,550 C. Reaction-bonding mechanisms, kinetics, and the influence of ZrO[sub 2] and Zr additions are investigated. Independent of additive, oxidation of Al proceeds both as solid/gas and liquid/gas reaction, and the reaction kinetics follow a parabolic rate law. The reaction rate depends strongly on the particle size of Al. The activation energy of the reaction depends essentially on green density. Below the melting temperature of Al, in samples containing 45 vol% Al and 55 vol% Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], it is 112 and 152 kJ/mol at [approximately]64% and [approximately]74% TD, respectively, while above the melting temperature, it lies in the range [approximately]26--33 kJ/mol. Zr additions reduce the activation energy to some extent. Samples with only ZrO[sub 2] additions exhibit nearly the same activation energies as ZrO[sub 2]-free samples, though ZrO[sub 2] has a very positive effect on the microstructural development in RBAO ceramics. Microstructure evolution and some strength data of RBAO bodies are also reported.

  8. Proppant flowback control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.D.; Weaver, J.D.; Parker, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the laboratory and field development of thermoplastic film materials used to reduce proppant flowback that can occur after fracturing treatments. The paper provides a summary of flowback mechanism theories and laboratory tests comparing flowback tendency for various types of treating procedures and materials. Some of these materials include angular proppant, proppant/fiber mixtures, and proppant with film strips tested over a wide range of temperature, closure stress, and flow-rate conditions. Field treatment procedures are discussed, and several case histories are presented. All of the methods evaluated were effective in reducing proppant flowback under certain conditions. Heat-shrink film cut into thin slivers proved to provide flowback reduction over broad temperature and closure stress ranges and was found to cause little impairment to fracture conductivity with some dependency on use concentration, temperature, and closure stress. The film materials were more resistant to damage caused by blending and pumping than all other materials evaluated. In addition, proppant packs, including consolidated packs, were significantly more tolerant of large, repeated stress changes. Field results indicate that the use of the heat-shrink film material as a flowback control agent permits more aggressive bean-up procedures following conventional fracturing treatments. Conventional dry-additive metering systems were used to add the film material to the fracturing fluid proppant slurry.

  9. Reinforcement with fluoroplastic additives

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Thomas, E.W.; Stahl, W.M.

    1991-05-01

    The use of high molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a reinforcing additive to improve the tear strength of elastomers was studied in silicone rubber by the mid-1950s and in fluoroelastomers by the late-1960s. Although the PTFE is added as a powder, the shear developed during compounding into an elastomer fibrillates the power into a continuous network of nodes and fibers. This network structure effectively reinforces elastomers but it also leads to distortion of finished parts and unacceptably high hardness and modulus of vulcanizates. A new high molecular weight TFE/HFP fluoroplastic micropowder has recently been developed (Teflon MP1500, Du Pont) which forms short fibers, ribbons or platelets when compounded with sufficient shear into elastomers. The controlled structure developed during compounding allows high levels of incorporation of the micropowder into elastomers with uniform dispersion and results in significant improvements in tear strength and abrasion resistance, as well as reduced coefficients of friction.

  10. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  11. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  12. Lubricating oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, R.; Jost, H.; Knoell, H.; Pennewiss, H.

    1981-09-22

    What is disclosed is a concentrated polymer emulsion useful as a lubricating oil additive for improving the viscosity index thereof, said emulsion comprising: (1) a dispersed phase of an olefinic copolymer having a molecular weight complementary with respect to the thickening effect desired; (2) a dispersing phase of a polymer predominantly comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of acrylate ester and methacrylate ester monomers; (3) a vehicle which is a good solvent for the esters in said dispersing phase and a substantially less good solvent for the olefinic copolymer by virtue of the esters dissolved in said vehicle; and (4) an emulsifier, stabilizing phase distribution, which is a member selected from the group consisting of graft copolymers and block copolymers formed from olefinic monomers and at least one member selected from the group consisting of acrylate ester and methacrylate ester monomers.

  13. The economics of shutting and restarting primary aluminium smelting capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, K.J.

    1996-10-01

    In recent years the aluminum industry in the Western world has been operating well below capacity, with cutbacks in production due largely to the depressed aluminum market conditions of 1992 and 1993. Since mid-1995, however, aluminum producers have begun restarting idled capacity. Extensive efforts and preparation are required both to close capacity in an orderly manner and to restart idled capacity. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the costs of shutting capacity, maintaining idled capacity, and restarting potlines. Costs have been calculated for a smelter which may be considered representative of the industry as a whole. Technical aspects and commercial data are outlined for the representative smelter, with costs presented under a variety of shutdown and restart conditions. Additionally, the time required to bring capacity back on-line is examined for several scenarios, and the economic impact of idled capacity is discussed.

  14. Nucleation of the diamond phase in aluminium-solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornbogen, E.; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.; Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Precipitation was studied from fcc solid solutions with silicon, germanium, copper and magnesium. Of all these elements only silicon and germanium form diamond cubic (DC) precipitates in fcc Al. Nucleation of the DC structure is enhanced if both types of atom are dissolved in the fcc lattice. This is interpreted as due to atomic size effects in the prenucleation stage. There are two modes of interference of fourth elements with nucleation of the DC phase in Al + Si, Ge. The formation of the DC phase is hardly affected if the atoms (for example, copper) are rejected from the (Si, Ge)-rich clusters. If additional types of atom are attracted by silicon and/or germanium, DC nuclei are replaced by intermetallic compounds (for example Mg2Si).

  15. Crystalline silicon growth in the aluminium-induced glass texturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying; Law, Felix; Widenborg, Per I.; Aberle, Armin G.

    2012-12-01

    Aluminium-induced texturing (AIT) is a method to texture glass surfaces by utilising the reaction between aluminium (Al) and glass at high temperature (above 500 °C) and a subsequent wet-chemical treatment that removes the reaction products. In this work, we studied the solid state reaction between a sputtered Al layer and a borosilicate glass sheet during AIT annealing. Raman spectroscopy showed that crystalline silicon (c-Si) is formed during the AIT process. An optical microscope was used to visualise the evolution of the c-Si growth. Plan-view scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations performed on samples after completed AIT reaction showed that separate c-Si clusters formed at the glass surface. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the c-Si clusters grew upwards and were on top of the glass surface. Cross-sectional SEM examination showed that the c-Si layer is not uniform and that crater-shaped nodules are embedded into the glass. The widths and depths of the nodules are in the micrometre range. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the nodules consist mainly of aluminium oxide (Al2O3). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the c-Si grains are preferentially (111) oriented. The activation energy of the reaction between Al and borosilicate glass is 3.0±0.2 eV based on in-situ XRD analysis of the c-Si growth. Finally, a phenomenological model of the AIT process is proposed and we suggest that the topology of the glass texture strongly depends on the size, depth and lateral separation of the Al2O3 nodules embedded in the glass.

  16. Steps toward interstellar silicate mineralogy. III. The role of aluminium in circumstellar amorphous silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutschke, H.; Begemann, B.; Dorschner, J.; Guertler, J.; Gustafson, B.; Henning, Th.; Stognienko, R.

    1998-05-01

    It is a well-known fact that the spectra of oxygen-rich circumstellar dust envelopes around evolved stars show great diversity, especially in the 10 mu m silicate band profiles, but also in the longer infrared wavelength range covered by ISO. This supports earlier conclusions that the concept of a universal cosmic silicate is inadequate and that it is reasonable to consider a wider variety of possible silicate analogues as the basis for an improved modelling of the observed spectra. In the course of an investigation of the role of aluminium in cosmic dust, aluminosilicate glasses (ASGs) have been suggested as interesting laboratory analogues for this purpose. In these glasses, silicon ions within the SiO_4 tetrahedra are partly substituted by fourfold coordinated aluminium. In a new laboratory approach to the silicate dust problem, 13 ASG samples were prepared. Apart from magnesium and iron, the cosmically most abundant metals, sodium and calcium, were incorporated as cations. In this paper, these new silicate dust analogues are analytically and spectroscopically characterized. The spectroscopic results were obtained in the range from the UV to the far-infrared, in the millimetre wave range, and by Raman spectroscopy. Optical constants have been derived for the wavenumbers 1500-20 cm(-1) (6.7-500 mu m) from infrared reflectance measurements and for the frequencies 110-75 GHz (2.7-4 mm) from angle-resolved millimetre-wave scattering at spherical samples from two of the ASGs. For the electronic and vibrational absorption features, the dependence on the aluminium/silicon substitution ratio and on the glass structure is discussed. Relations between the calculated (Rayleigh case) band positions, widths and strengths of the IR absorption bands and the chemical compositions are derived. The application of the new data to the reproduction of observed stardust spectra of the IRAS-LRS catalogue shows promising results.

  17. A numerical analysis of empty and foam-filled aluminium conical tubes under oblique impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat, Fauziah; Ismail, Khairul Azwan; Yaacob, Sazali

    2015-05-01

    In real impact applications, an energy absorber rarely sustains dynamic loading either axial or oblique but a combination of both. Established studies have proved that thin-walled tube is an excellent energy absorber under dynamic loading. Furthermore, the introduction of foam filling successfully enhanced the energy absorption capacity of thin-walled tube. However, the understanding of its response under oblique loading has yet been fully explored. Moreover, emerging in automotive industry has lead to increase interests on lightweight materials such as aluminium alloy. As such, this paper presents the crushing behaviour of empty and foam-filled aluminium alloy (AA6061-T6) conical tubes under oblique impact loading using a validated nonlinear finite element (FE) code, LS-DYNA. The study aims to assess the effect of foam filling on the energy absorption of AA6061-T6 tubes for variations in filler density. In fact, to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first attempt to evaluate a response of empty and foam-filled aluminum conical tube by using an experimentally validated model under oblique dynamic loading conditions. Good correlations between the numerical and experimental results were observed. The study show that initial peak force and the energy absorption increase with increasing filler density under axial and oblique loading. On the other hand, the effect of foam filling (0.534 g/cm3 aluminium foam filler) is less pronounced for the initial peak force under axial impact loading. Furthermore, the initial peak force and dynamic force of empty and foam-filled AA6061-T6 conical tubes decrease as the load angle increases from 0 deg to 20 deg hence reduces the energy absorption capacity.

  18. Acoustic neuroma: potential risk factors and audiometric surveillance in the aluminium industry

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Oyebode; Galusha, Deron; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Kirsche, Sharon; Cantley, Linda; Slade, Martin D; Cullen, Mark R; Donoghue, A Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To look for an association between acoustic neuroma (AN) and participation in a hearing conservation programme (HCP) and also for an association between AN and possible occupational risk factors in the aluminium industry. Methods We conducted a case–control analysis of a population of US aluminium production workers in 8 smelters and 43 other plants. Using insurance claims data, 97 cases of AN were identified between 1996 and 2009. Each was matched with four controls. Covariates included participation in a HCP, working in an aluminium smelter, working in an electrical job and hearing loss. Results In the bivariate analyses, covariates associated with AN were participation in the HCP (OR=1.72; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.69) and smelter work (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.36). Electrical work was not significant (OR=1.60; 95% CI 0.65 to 3.94). Owing to high participation in the HCP in smelters, multivariate subanalyses were required. In the multivariate analyses, participation in the HCP was the only statistically significant risk factor for AN. In the multivariate analysis restricted to employees not working in a smelter, the OR was 1.81 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.17). Hearing loss, an indirect measure of in-ear noise dose, was not predictive of AN. Conclusions Our results suggest the incidental detection of previously undiagnosed tumours in workers who participated in the company-sponsored HCP. The increased medical surveillance among this population of workers most likely introduced detection bias, leading to the identification of AN cases that would have otherwise remained undetected. PMID:25015928

  19. Oblique shock structures formed during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Niasse, N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Burdiak, G.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Bland, S. N.; De Grouchy, P.; Khoory, E.; Pickworth, L.; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.

    2013-02-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in order to investigate the azimuthal structures formed by the interactions of cylindrically converging plasma flows during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array Z pinch implosions. These experiments were carried out using the 1.4 MA, 240 ns MAGPIE generator at Imperial College London. The main diagnostic used in this study was a two-colour, end-on, Mach-Zehnder imaging interferometer, sensitive to the axially integrated electron density of the plasma. The data collected in these experiments reveal the strongly collisional dynamics of the aluminium ablation streams. The structure of the flows is dominated by a dense network of oblique shock fronts, formed by supersonic collisions between adjacent ablation streams. An estimate for the range of the flow Mach number (M = 6.2-9.2) has been made based on an analysis of the observed shock geometry. Combining this measurement with previously published Thomson Scattering measurements of the plasma flow velocity by Harvey-Thompson et al. [Physics of Plasmas 19, 056303 (2012)] allowed us to place limits on the range of the Z¯Te of the plasma. The detailed and quantitative nature of the dataset lends itself well as a source for model validation and code verification exercises, as the exact shock geometry is sensitive to many of the plasma parameters. Comparison of electron density data produced through numerical modelling with the Gorgon 3D MHD code demonstrates that the code is able to reproduce the collisional dynamics observed in aluminium arrays reasonably well.

  20. Determination of anisotropy in impact toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M. H.; Hashmi, F.; Junaid, A.

    The research was aimed to quantify the existence of anisotropy in fracture toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate (used in aircraft structural members). It was further needed to establish the direction in which the fracture toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate is maximum and minimum. This could help ascertain the structural integrity of aircraft structural components; also while designing new components, the knowledge of variation in toughness with respect to direction helps in economizing dead weight of the aircraft. In this research, pursued at the College of Aeronautical Engineering, the anisotropy in toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate was analysed using the Charpy V-notch impact toughness test. The effect of specimen orientation on the impact toughness values of the alloy was investigated and compared with known results to verify the reliability of the work and to ascertain the extent of anisotropy in fracture toughness of the said alloy. Charpy impact tests were carried out on ASTM E 23 standard specimens machined at a reference laboratory at room temperature (23° C +/- 2° C). Four different specimen orientations analysed for the purpose of this study were L-S, L-T, T-S and T-L directions. Subsequently, the results obtained at the research centre were then analysed and correlated with morphology of microstructure of the material to establish the reliability of the experimental results. Moreover, an analysis was also done to cater for the possible errors that could affect the fracture toughness values obtained from experimental results. It was concluded that the T-S orientation of the plate had maximum toughness, whereas, minimum toughness was observed in L-T direction.

  1. Differential activation of genes related to aluminium tolerance in two contrasting rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Maite; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet; Barceló, Juan; Llugany, Mercè

    2015-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a highly Al-tolerant crop. Among other mechanisms, a higher expression of STAR1/STAR2 (sensitive to Al rhizotoxicity1/2) genes and of Nrat1 (NRAMP Aluminium Transporter 1), and ALS1 (Aluminium sensitive 1) can at least in part be responsible for the inducible Al tolerance in this species. Here we analysed the responses to Al in two contrasting rice varieties. All analysed toxicity/tolerance markers (root elongation, Evans blue, morin and haematoxylin staining) indicated higher Al-tolerance in variety Nipponbare, than in variety Modan. Nipponbare accumulated much less Al in the roots than Modan. Aluminium supply caused stronger expression of STAR1 in Nipponbare than in Modan. A distinctively higher increase of Al-induced abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation was found in the roots of Nipponbare than in Modan. Highest ABA levels were observed in Nipponbare after 48h exposure to Al. This ABA peak was coincident in time with the highest expression level of STAR1. It is proposed that ABA may be required for cell wall remodulation facilitated by the enhanced UDP-glucose transport to the walls through STAR1/STAR2. Contrastingly, in the roots of Modan the expression of both Nrat1 coding for a plasma membrane Al-transporter and of ALS1 coding for a tonoplast-localized Al transporter was considerably enhanced. Moreover, Modan had a higher Al-induced expression of ASR1 a gene that has been proposed to code for a reactive oxygen scavenging protein. In conclusion, the Al-exclusion strategy of Nipponbare, at least in part mediated by STAR1 and probably regulated by ABA, provided better protection against Al toxicity than the accumulation and internal detoxification strategy of Modan mediated by Nrat1, ALS1 and ARS1. PMID:26337117

  2. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  3. Aluminium oxide in the optical spectrum of VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, T.; Schmidt, M. R.; Menten, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of the optical bands of the B 2Σ + -X 2Σ + system of AlO in the red supergiant VY CMa. In addition to TiO, VO, ScO, and YO, which were recognized in the optical spectrum of the star long time ago, AlO is another refractory molecule which displays strong emission bands in this peculiar star. Simulating the bands of AlO, we derive a rotational temperature of the circumstellar gas of Trot = 700 K. By resolving individual rotational components of the bands, we derive the kinematical characteristics of the gas, finding that the emission is centred at the stellar radial velocity and its intrinsic width is 13.5 km s-1 (full width at half maximum). It is the narrowest emission among all (thermal) features observed in VY CMa so far. The temperature and line widths suggest that the emission arises in gas located within ~20 stellar radii, where the outflow is still being accelerated. This result contradicts equilibrium-chemistry models which predict substantial AlO abundances only to within a few stellar radii. We argue that non-equilibrium models involving propagation of shocks are needed to explain the observations. This work makes use of data acquired within the ESO programmes 67.B-0504 and DDT 266.D-5655, and observations from the AAVSO International Database.

  4. Development and Mechanical Behavior of FML/Aluminium Foam Sandwiches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baştürk, S. B.; Tanoğlu, M.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the Fiber-Metal Laminates (FMLs) containing glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) and aluminum (Al) sheet were consolidated with Al foam cores for preparing the sandwich panels. The aim of this article is the comparison of the flexural properties of FML/Al foam sandwich panels bonded with various surface modification approaches (silane treatment and combination of silane treatment with polypropylene (PP) based film addition). The FML/foam sandwich systems were fabricated by laminating the components in a mould at 200 °C under 1.5 MPa pressure. The energy absorbtion capacities and flexural mechanical properties of the prepared sandwich systems were evaluated by mechanical tests. Experiments were performed on samples of varying foam thicknesses (8, 20 and 30 mm). The bonding among the sandwich components were achieved by various surface modification techniques. The Al sheet/Al foam sandwiches were also consolidated by bonding the components with an epoxy adhesive to reveal the effect of GFPP on the flexural performance of the sandwich structures.

  5. Inductively coupled plasma compared with direct current arc spectrometry for analysis of minor elements in aluminium baths.

    PubMed

    Antolín, Raquel; Borge, Gregorio; Posada, Tomás; Raposo, Juan C; Seara, Iker; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2004-01-01

    A validation study was carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the analysis of minor elements (manganese, chromium, copper, iron, and titanium) in aluminium alloys. Aluminium casting samples were obtained by adding compressed powder compacts of each alloying element and aluminium (minitablets) to aluminum baths in a laboratory crucible furnace. Digestion of solid samples was performed using concentrated HCI and H202 35% (v/v) previous to analysis by ICP-OES without any matrix separation. This solution-based method was validated considering direct current arc spectrometry as the reference method based on direct analysis without any pretreatment of the solid samples considered. Univariate statistical procedures were carried out, for which precision <3% and trueness of the analytical results were taken into account. PMID:15493681

  6. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of a 2-(diethylaminomethyl)indole ligated dimethyl­aluminium complex

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Logan E.; Kingsley, Nicholas B.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Al(CH3)2(C13H17N2)] (systematic name; {2-[(di­ethyl­amino)­meth­yl]indol-1-yl-κ2 N,N′}di­methyl­aluminium), was prepared by methane elimination from the reaction of 2-(di­ethyl­amino­meth­yl)indole and tri­methyl­aluminium. The complex crystallizes readily from a concentrated toluene solution in high yield. The asymmetric unit contains two crystallographically independent mol­ecules. Each mol­ecule has a four-coordinate aluminium atom that has pseudo-tetra­hedral geometry. C—H⋯π inter­actions link the independent mol­ecules into chains extending along the b-axis direction. PMID:26594412

  7. Effect of heat treatment in aluminium oxide preparation by UV/ozone oxidation for organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Chinnam, Krishna Chytanya; Gleskova, Helena

    2013-07-01

    Effect of heat treatment in aluminium oxide (AlO(x)) preparation employing UV/ozone exposure of thermally-evaporated aluminium is reported. AlO(x) is combined with 1-octylphosphonic acid to form a gate dielectric in low-voltage organic thin-film transistors based on pentacene. For short UV/ozone exposure times the 100 degrees C-heating step that immediately follows UV/ozone oxidation of aluminium leads to a decrease in the transistor threshold voltage of up to 8% and - fourfold reduction in the gate dielectric current density. Transistors with AlO(x) prepared by 60-minute UV/ozone oxidation do not exhibit such behaviour. These results are explained in terms of reduced density of charged oxygen vacancies in the UV/ozone oxidized AlO(x). PMID:23901550

  8. Investigation of the particle size distribution of the ejected material generated during the single femtosecond laser pulse ablation of aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Han; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, Xiaonong

    2014-10-01

    Single femtosecond laser pulses are employed to ablate an aluminium target in vacuum, and the particle size distribution of the ablated material deposited on a mica substrate is examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The recorded AFM images show that these particles have a mean radius of several tens of nanometres. It is also determined that the mean radius of these deposited nanoparticles increases when the laser fluence at the aluminium target increases from 0.44 J/cm2 to 0.63 J/cm2. The mechanism of the laser-induced nanoparticle generation is thought to be photomechanical tensile stress relaxation. Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm that the nanoparticles thus produced have the same structure as the bulk aluminium.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of a new aluminium-free paediatric alginate preparation and placebo in infants with recurrent gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Miller, S

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a new aluminium-free formulation of alginate with placebo in infants with recurrent gastro-oesophageal reflux. This was a double-blind, randomised, parallel-group study conducted at 25 centres in the UK. Of the 90 paediatric patients recruited in a general practice setting, 42 were randomised to receive alginate and 48 to receive placebo. Infants were assessed before treatment and again after seven and 14 days of treatment. Analyses were based on the last, valid, non-missing observation for each variable for the intent-to-treat (ITT) population of 42 alginate and 46 placebo patients. For the primary efficacy measure (number of vomitting/regurgitation episodes), alginate was significantly superior to placebo (p = 0.009). For the secondary efficacy measure (severity of vomiting), a trend in favour of alginate was observed (p = 0.061). Patients receiving alginate achieved superior assessments of treatment outcome by both investigators (p = 0.008) and parent/guardians (p = 0.002) alike. In addition, alginate achieved a significantly greater reduction in the mean severity of vomiting episodes recorded in a daily diary compared with placebo (p = 0.027) and resulted in more patients having at least 10% symptom-free days (p = 0.027). For none of the variables measured did placebo have a superior effect. More than one-half of all patients experienced some adverse event, although no statistically significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups (p > 0.1), and adverse events accounted for withdrawal in only 12.5% of the patients (alginate, n = 4; placebo, n = 7). Aluminium-free alginate demonstrated superior efficacy over placebo in treating recurrent gastro-oesophageal reflux in paediatric patients. The safety profile of alginate was similar to that of placebo. PMID:10621922

  10. A comparative assessment of crystallite size and lattice strain in differently cast A356 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Roy, H.; Lohar, A. K.; Samanta, S. K.; Tiwari, S.; Dutta, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this investigation, A356 aluminium alloy has been prepared by different routes viz. gravity casting, rheo pressure die casting (RPDC) and RPDC with T6 heat treatment. X-ray diffraction studies of these samples have been done in the scanning range of 20 - 90°. X-ray peak broadening analysis has been used to estimate the crystallite size and lattice stain, in all the samples. The sample prepared by RPDC with T6 treatment has comparatively smaller crystallite size and lesser lattice strain than gravity cast and RPDC samples.

  11. Aluminium substitution in iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxides: Formation and cationic order

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, Christian Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Aissa, Rabha; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Brunelli, Michela; Francois, Michel

    2008-09-15

    The formation and the modifications of the structural properties of an aluminium-substituted iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) of formula Fe{sub 4}{sup II}Fe{sub (2-6y)}{sup III}Al{sub 6y}{sup III} (OH){sub 12} SO{sub 4}, 8H{sub 2}O are followed by pH titration curves, Moessbauer spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Rietveld refinements allow to build a structural model for hydroxysulphate green rust, GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), i.e. y=0, in which a bilayer of sulphate anions points to the Fe{sup 3+} species. A cationic order is proposed to occur in both GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and aluminium-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust when y<0.08. Variation of the cell parameters and a sharp decrease in average crystal size and anisotropy are detected for an aluminium content as low as y=0.01. The formation of Al-GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) is preceded by the successive precipitation of Fe{sup III} and Al{sup III} (oxy)hydroxides. Adsorption of more soluble Al{sup III} species onto the initially formed ferric oxyhydroxide may be responsible for this slowdown of crystal growth. Therefore, the insertion of low aluminium amount (y{approx}0.01) could be an interesting way for increasing the surface reactivity of iron(II-III) LDH that maintains constant the quantity of the reactive Fe{sup II} species of the material. - Graphical abstract: (a) Crystallographical structure of sulphated green rust: SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} point to the Fe{sup 3+} cations (red) that form an ordered array with the Fe{sup 2+} cations (green). (b) Width and asymmetry of the synchrotron XRD peaks increase rapidly when some Al{sup 3+} species substitute the Fe{sup 3+} cations; z is molar ratio Al{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 3+}.

  12. Hot-crack test for aluminium alloys welds using TIG process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niel, A.; Deschaux-Beaume, F.; Bordreuil, C.; Fras, G.

    2010-06-01

    Hot cracking is a critical defect frequently observed during welding of aluminium alloys. In order to better understand the interaction between cracking phenomenon, process parameters, mechanical factors and microstructures resulting from solidification after welding, an original hot-cracking test during welding is developed. According to in-situ observations and post mortem analyses, hot cracking mechanisms are investigated, taking into account the interaction between microstructural parameters, depending on the thermal cycles, and mechanical parameters, depending on geometry and clamping conditions of the samples and on the thermal field on the sample. Finally, a process map indicating the limit between cracking and non-cracking zones according to welding parameters is presented.

  13. Grain boundary segregation and hydrogen-induced fracture in 7050 aluminium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, R.G.; Tseng, M.K.; Zhang, B.J.; Liu, J.; Jin, Z.H.; Shin, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The relationships between grain boundary segregation and crack growth of stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue in 7050 aluminium alloy have been investigated under various aging conditions; the effects of grain boundary segregation on intergranular fracture work have been calculated using a quasichemical approach. The results show that the hydrogen content at the crack tip and the crack growth rate increase with the concentration of solid solution Mg on increasing grain boundary; both Mg and H segregation induce the intergranular fracture work to decrease. Mg segregation accelerates H enriching and crack propagation. It is indicated that a Mg-H interaction occurs in the processes of corrosion fatigue as well as stress corrosion.

  14. Influence of interface compounds on interface bonding characteristics of aluminium and silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Sozhamannan, G.G.; Prabu, S. Balasivanandha

    2009-09-15

    The interface plays an important role in improving the mechanical properties of metal matrix composites. Hence, it is essential to evaluate interface bonding of Aluminium/Silicon carbide. The interface bonding of Aluminum/Silicon carbide samples were prepared by various processing temperatures at constant holding time. The interface compounds at the interface were evaluated by an energy dispersive spectroscope and diffusion length of compounds was calculated by Arrhenius equation. The interface structure was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope. The interface characteristics were evaluated by tensile test and microhardness test.

  15. DESIGN NOTE: The fabrication and characterization of granular aluminium/palladium bilayer microbolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. E.

    2007-07-01

    Superconducting granular aluminium/palladium bilayer microbolometers with subnanosecond response can be easily fabricated using an all lift-off process with image-reversal lithography. The palladium capping layer allows for convenient and reproducible Ohmic contacts to be made to the device. We report their fabrication, resistance-current calibration, responsivity and response time. Finally, a deconvolution algorithm is used to improve the time resolution to approximately 1 ns while obtaining the incident photon and phonon fluxes in both direct photoexcitation and phonon heat pulse experiments.

  16. Evidence of dilute ferromagnetism in rare-earth doped yttrium aluminium garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Warrick G.; Goryachev, Maxim; le Floch, Jean-Michel; Bushev, Pavel; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    This work demonstrates strong coupling regime between an erbium ion spin ensemble and microwave hybrid cavity-whispering gallery modes in a yttrium aluminium garnet dielectric crystal. Coupling strengths of 220 MHz and mode quality factors in excess of 106 are demonstrated. Moreover, the magnetic response of high-Q modes demonstrates behaviour which is unusual for paramagnetic systems. This behaviour includes hysteresis and memory effects. Such qualitative change of the system's magnetic field response is interpreted as a phase transition of rare earth ion impurities. This phenomenon is similar to the phenomenon of dilute ferromagnetism in semiconductors. The clear temperature dependence of the phenomenon is demonstrated.

  17. Multicycle water vapour stability of microporous breathing MOF aluminium isophthalate CAU-10-H.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Dominik; Henninger, Stefan Kai; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    The hydrothermal stability of aluminium hydroxide isophthalate MOF CAU-10-H was proven, under humid multi-cycling conditions. Detailed in situ thermogravimetric measurements and in situ powder X-ray diffraction analysis during water ad-/desorption were used. A reversible structural change during adsorption was detected and thereby exemplified the robustness of breathing-like MOFs over 700 water vapour ad/desorption cycles. In combination with high water adsorption capacity, hydrophilic CAU-10-H is the first breathing-like MOF with a structural change which is a promising candidate for the use in heat transformation processes. PMID:25189376

  18. Structure analysis of aluminium silicon manganese nitride precipitates formed in grain-oriented electrical steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bernier, Nicolas; Xhoffer, Chris; Van De Putte, Tom; Galceran, Montserrat; Godet, Stéphane

    2013-12-15

    We report a detailed structural and chemical characterisation of aluminium silicon manganese nitrides that act as grain growth inhibitors in industrially processed grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels. The compounds are characterised using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), while their crystal structures are analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM in electron diffraction (ED), dark-field, high-resolution and automated crystallographic orientation mapping (ACOM) modes. The chemical bonding character is determined using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Despite the wide variation in composition, all the precipitates exhibit a hexagonal close-packed (h.c.p.) crystal structure and lattice parameters of aluminium nitride. The EDX measurement of ? 900 stoichiometrically different precipitates indicates intermediate structures between pure aluminium nitride and pure silicon manganese nitride, with a constant Si/Mn atomic ratio of ? 4. It is demonstrated that aluminium and silicon are interchangeably precipitated with the same local arrangement, while both Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} are incorporated in the h.c.p. silicon nitride interstitial sites. The oxidation of the silicon manganese nitrides most likely originates from the incorporation of oxygen during the decarburisation annealing process, thus creating extended planar defects such as stacking faults and inversion domain boundaries. The chemical composition of the inhibitors may be written as (AlN){sub x}(SiMn{sub 0.25}N{sub y}O{sub z}){sub 1?x} with x ranging from 0 to 1. - Highlights: • We study the structure of (Al,Si,Mn)N inhibitors in grain oriented electrical steels. • Inhibitors have the hexagonal close-packed symmetry with lattice parameters of AlN. • Inhibitors are intermediate structures between pure AlN and (Si,Mn)N with Si/Mn ? 4. • Al and Si share the same local arrangement; Mn is incorporated in both Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+}. • Oxygen incorporation is invoked to account for the thermal stability of (Al,Si,Mn)N.

  19. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet ablative laser treatment for endogenous ochronosis.

    PubMed

    Chaptini, Cassandra; Huilgol, Shyamala C

    2015-08-01

    Ochronosis is a rare disease characterised clinically by bluish-grey skin discolouration and histologically by yellow-brown pigment deposits in the dermis. It occurs in endogenous and exogenous forms. Endogenous ochronosis, also known as alkaptonuria, is an autosomal recessive disease of tyrosine metabolism, resulting in the accumulation and deposition of homogentisic acid in connective tissue. We report a case of facial endogenous ochronosis and coexistent photodamage, which was successfully treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser resurfacing and deep focal point treatment to remove areas of residual deep pigment. PMID:25302636

  20. Controlling the anodizing conditions in preparation of an nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, Azadeh; Abolfazl, Seyed; Sadjadi, Seyed

    2014-12-01

    Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template is commonly used in the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanorods, due to its simple fabrication process. Controlling the anodizing conditions is important because of their direct influence on the size of AAO template pores; it affects the size of nanostructures that are fabricated in AAO template. In present study, several alumina templates were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical anodization in different conditions, such as the time of first process, its voltage, and electrolyte concentration. The effect of these factors on pore diameters of AAO templates was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  1. Exchangeable and Bioavailable Aluminium in the Mountain Forest Soil of Barania Góra Range (Silesian Beskids, Poland).

    PubMed

    Zołotajkin, Maria; Ciba, Jerzy; Kluczka, Joanna; Skwira, Monika; Smoliński, Adam

    2011-03-01

    The research was carried out in the spruce forests of Barania Góra (Silesian Beskids, Poland) affected by pandemic dying of trees. Twenty-seven samples were collected from the O layer in two plots: 17 in a cut down forest infested with insect pests (bark beetle) and ten in a 120-year-old healthy forest. The analyses covered basic parameters (pH(H2O), pH(KCl), w(org), C(tot), N(tot), CEC) and the concentrations of aluminium in the fractions leached with 0.1 M BaCl(2) (Al(exch)), 0.5 M CuCl(2) and 0.1 M Na(4)P(2)O(7) (Al(bio)) solutions. The total aluminium concentration in the soil was assayed digesting samples with hydrofluoric acid. The effect of pH and organic matter content on the amount of exchangeable (Al(exch)) and bioavailable (Al(exch)) aluminium in the soil was analysed. It has been found that the soils in both plots are strongly acidic and contain 550 to 1,700 mg kg(-1) of exchangeable aluminium and 1,200 to 4,800 mg kg(-1) of bioavailable aluminium. The lack of disease symptoms in the spruce trees in plot 2 can be explained by the higher content of organic matter in the soil. Unfortunately, one might expect that the high concentration of exchangeable aluminium will also cause the trees in the area to wither. PMID:21423335

  2. Microstructure strengthening mechanisms in an Al-Mg-Si-Sc-Zr equal channel angular pressed aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabibbo, Marcello

    2013-09-01

    Microstructure dislocation strengthening mechanisms in severely deformed aluminium strongly depend on the different boundary evolutions. Thereafter, models of proof stress determination should take into account the different nature of the boundaries that form during severe plastic deformation. In the last few decades, Hall-Petch modified relationship and other proof stress modelling were extensively discussed. This paper deals with further insights into the Hansen's and other authors approach to the modelling of aluminium poof stress after equal channel angular pressing. The present model is based on a detailed transmission electron microscopy microstructure characterization of the different strengthening contributions in an age-hardened Al-Mg-Si-Sc-Zr alloy.

  3. Fabrication of super slippery sheet-layered and porous anodic aluminium oxide surfaces and its anticorrosion property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tingting; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Yang, Wanlu; Chen, Rongrong; Jing, Xiaoyan; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by natural plants such as Nepenthes pitcher plants, super slippery surfaces have been developed to improve the attributes of repellent surfaces. In this report, super slippery porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) surfaces have fabricated by a simple and reproducible method. Firstly, the aluminium substrates were treated by an anodic process producing micro-nano structured sheet-layered pores, and then immersed in Methyl Silicone Oil, Fluororalkylsilane (FAS) and DuPont Krytox, respectively, generating super slippery surfaces. Such a good material with excellent anti-corrosion property through a simple and repeatable method may be potential candidates for metallic application in anti-corrosion and extreme environment.

  4. Iron and aluminium in relation to brain ferritin in normal individuals and Alzheimer's-disease and chronic renal-dialysis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dedman, D J; Treffry, A; Candy, J M; Taylor, G A; Morris, C M; Bloxham, C A; Perry, R H; Edwardson, J A; Harrison, P M

    1992-01-01

    Ferritin has been isolated and its subunit composition, iron and aluminium content determined in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of normal individuals and in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's-disease and renal-dialysis patients. An e.l.i.s.a. for ferritin has been developed and the ferritin, non-haem iron and aluminium content of the parietal cortex were determined in normal individuals and Alzheimer's-disease patients. It was found that ferritin from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of normal individuals had a high H-subunit content, similar to that of heart ferritin. The subunit composition of ferritin isolated from the cerebral cortex was not significantly altered in Alzheimer's-disease or renal-dialysis patients. Ferritin from the cerebral cortex of normal individuals had only approx. 1500 atoms of iron per molecule and the iron content of ferritin was not significantly changed in Alzheimer's-disease or renal-dialysis patients. Ferritin isolated from the cerebral cortex of normal, Alzheimer's-disease and renal-dialysis patients had less than 9 atoms of aluminium per molecule. The failure to find increased concentrations of aluminium associated with ferritin in dialysis patients, who had markedly increased concentrations of aluminium in the cerebral cortex, shows that aluminium does not accumulate in ferritin in vivo. This has important implications for the toxicity of aluminium, since it implies that cells are unable to detoxify aluminium by the same mechanism as that available for iron. Comparison of the concentrations of ferritin, aluminium and iron in the parietal cortex from normal and Alzheimer's-disease patients showed that, whereas the concentration of aluminium was not increased, both ferritin and iron were significantly increased in Alzheimer's disease. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1445209

  5. The effect of broadleaf woodland on aluminium speciation in stream water in an acid-sensitive area in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer L; Lynam, Philippa; Heal, Kate V; Palmer, Sheila M

    2012-11-15

    Acidification can result in the mobilisation and release of toxic inorganic monomeric aluminium (Al) species from soils into aquatic ecosystems. Although it is well-established that conifer trees enhance acidic atmospheric deposition and exacerbate soil and water acidification, the effect of broad-leaved woodland on soil and water acidification is less clear. This study investigated the effect of broadleaf woodland cover on the acid-base chemistry and Al species present in stream water, and processes controlling these in the acid-sensitive area around Loch Katrine, in the central Highlands, Scotland, UK, where broadleaf woodland expansion is occurring. A nested sampling approach was used to identify 22 stream sampling locations, in sub-catchments of 3.2-61 ha area and 0-45% broadleaf woodland cover. In addition, soils sampled from 68 locations were analysed to assess the influence of: (i) broadleaf woodland cover on soil characteristics and (ii) soil characteristics on stream water chemistry. Stream water pH was negatively correlated with sub-catchment % woodland cover, indicating that woodland cover is enhancing stream water acidification. Concentrations of all stream water Al species (monomeric total, organic and inorganic) were positively correlated with % woodland cover, although not significantly, but were below levels that are toxic to fish. Soil depth, O horizon depth and soil chemistry, particularly of the A horizon, appeared to be the dominant controls on stream water chemistry rather than woodland cover. There were significant differences in soil acid-base chemistry, with significantly lower O horizon pH and A horizon base saturation and higher A horizon exchangeable Al in the wooded catchments compared to the control. This is evidence that the mobile anion effect is already occurring in the study catchments and suggests that stream water acidification arising from broadleaf woodland expansion could occur, especially where tree density is high and acid deposition is predominantly in dry or occult forms. PMID:23085669

  6. Aluminium-induced DNA damage and adaptive response to genotoxic stress in plant cells are mediated through reactive oxygen intermediates.

    PubMed

    Murali Achary, V Mohan; Panda, Brahma B

    2010-03-01

    Experiments employing growing root cells of Allium cepa were conducted with a view to elucidate the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in aluminium (Al)-induced DNA damage, cell death and adaptive response to genotoxic challenge imposed by ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) or methyl mercuric chloride (MMCl). In a first set of experiments, root cells in planta were treated with Al at high concentrations (200-800 microM) for 3 h without or with pre-treatments of dihydroxybenzene disulphonic acid (Tiron) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU) for 2 h that trap O(2)(.-)and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), respectively. At the end of treatments, generation of O(2)(.-) and H(2)O(2), cell death and DNA damage were determined. In a second set of experiments, root cells in planta were conditioned by Al at low concentrations (5 or 10 microM) for 2 h and after a 2 h intertreatment interval challenged by MMCl or EMS for 3 h without or with a pre-treatment of Tiron or DMTU. Conditioning treatments, in addition, included two oxidative agents viz rose bengal and H(2)O(2) for comparison. Following treatments, root cells in planta were allowed to recover in tap water. Genotoxicity and DNA damage were evaluated by micronucleus (MN), chromosome aberration (CA) or spindle aberration (SA) and comet assays at different hours (0-30 h) of recovery. The results demonstrated that whereas Al at high concentrations induced DNA damage and cell death, in low concentrations induced adaptive response conferring genomic protection from genotoxic challenge imposed by MMCl, EMS and Al. Pre-treatments of Tiron and DMTU prevented Al-induced DNA damage, cell death, as well as genotoxic adaptation to MMCl and EMS, significantly. The findings underscored the biphasic (hormetic) mode of action of Al that at high doses induced DNA damage and at low non-toxic doses conferred genomic protection, both of which were mediated through ROI but perhaps involving different networks. PMID:19955331

  7. The influence of Si addition in 55AlZn bath on the coating structures obtained in the batch hot-dip metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendala, J.

    2011-05-01

    One of the methods of increasing the corrosion resistance of zinc coatings is the application of zinc and aluminium alloy baths in the metallization process. The coatings obtained are characterized by much better corrosion resistance thanks to the combination of aluminium properties, i.e. the barrier protection provided by naturally created aluminium oxides, with the capacity to protect the steel substrate, which is characteristic of zinc coatings. Zinc coatings with 55 wt. % Al and an addition of Si have gained industrial importance. The introduction of a third alloying component into the metallization bath is a technological addition, the aim of which is to reduce and possibly inhibit the aluminium diffusion towards the substrate. The article presents the results of the examination of coatings obtained in a 55AlZn bath at varied parameters of the technological process, as well as the specification of silicon addition influence on the structure and chemical composition of the coatings, and on the kinetics of growth. The coatings were obtained in three temperatures: 620, 640 and 660°C, and the process was conducted in a 55 wt. % Al bath with Si content of 0, 0.8 and 1.6 wt. % respectively, the remaining content was Zn. For the purposes of evaluating the microstructure and thickness of the coatings obtained, examinations on a light microscope were conducted. In order to determine the chemical composition of the coatings obtained, an EDS analysis was conducted. Quantitative examination of the chemical composition was carried out on the selected cross-sections of samples with coatings considered to be representative ones, using a SEM with a microanalysis system. Moreover, the linear distribution of elements on the cross-sections of the chosen coatings was determined. It is possible to state that the addition of silicon to 55AlZn baths allows reducing the uncontrolled growth of a layer. The layers obtained are more uniform, continuous and they show good adhesion to the substrate.

  8. Processing and mechanical behavior of aluminium oxide microstructure composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlacka, Robert J.

    We have proposed a new class of composites that accesses different component properties not through the use of distinct materials, but through the exploitation of the microstructure-property relationship within a single material. That is, we seek to adapt composite concepts to take advantage of the considerable variance in properties associated with different microstructures. This new class of composites is called microstructure composites. Microstructure composites are predominately single phase ceramics that utilize multiple distinct microstructure features in the same composite to obtain unique property combinations. Spatial control and composite connectivity of the individual microstructure components of a microstructure composite are ultimately the key to developing and controlling useful and unique properties. Microstructural features can be controlled via the starting location and transport of the dopants, minority second phases, and liquid phases that are used to manipulate microstructure development. This work focuses on textured-equiaxed microstructure in the Al2O 3 system. Texture is obtained in situ using templated grain growth (TGG). To control microstructure development locally during microstructure composite fabrication, it is important to use relatively low levels of dopant to mitigate the effects of dopant interdiffusion. Therefore, the development of texture in alpha-Al2O3 using TGG was explored under low liquid-phase dopant concentration conditions. High temperature dilatometry was performed to quantify the effect of template constraint on x-y plane shirinkage and the extent to which this constraint could be mitigated as a function of the dopant concentration. x-y plane shrinkage was observed to be increasingly constrained with increasing template loading and decreasing dopant concentration. Final x-y plane shrinkage was greater for samples with 0.14 wt% dopant than for those without dopant, despite have a much lower peak strain rate. It was concluded that densification was impeded by the dopant at lower temperatures but enhanced significantly above 1450°C. Texture is highly developed in samples with no dopant and 0.14 wt% dopant by 1550°C and in samples with 2 wt% dopant by 1350°C. We proposed a new class of composites (called microstructure composites) that accesses different component properties not through the use of distinct materials, but rather through the exploitation of the microstructure-property relationship within a single material. Microstructure composites, therefore, are single phase ceramics that combine components with distinct microstructures within a single composite to obtain unique property combinations. Spatial control and composite connectivity of the individual microstructural 'components' of a microstructure composite are ultimately the key to developing and controlling useful and unique properties. Microstructural components are developed by controlling the starting location and transport of dopants during processing and sintering. This work focuses on alpha-Al2O3 microstructure composites that combine textured components, developed in situ using templated grain growth (TGG), and fine-grained equiaxed components. To control microstructure development locally during composite fabrication, it is important to use relatively low levels of dopant to mitigate the effects of dopant interdiffusion. Therefore, the development of texture in alpha-Al 2O3 using low liquid-phase dopant concentrations was explored, with a focus on the effect of template constraint on texture plane shrinkage. High quality texture was obtained with just 0.14 wt% (SiO2 + CaO) dopant. Textured Al2O3 exhibited transgranular fracture, as well as lower strength and fracture toughness than the fine-grained equiaxed Al2O3. A processing strategy using tape casting was developed for the fabrication of textured-equiaxed Al2O3 microstructure composites with 2-2 connectivity. Dopants used to promote TGG (SiO2 + CaO) were included in the templated tapes and dopants used to prevent abnormal grain growth (MgO) were included in the non templated tapes, which are subsequently stacked, laminated, and co-sintered. Appropriate dopant concentrations and sintering conditions that enable the production of well-textured layers and fine-grained equiaxed layers seperated by a sharp interface were identified. It was found that densification and microstructure development within textured and equiaxed layers is affected by changes in both differential sintering stress and dopant diffusion distance associated with layer thickess and the volume percent of textured layers within the composite. Significant crack deflection was observed during bend testing of composites with porous textured layers (2-5 vol% porosity), resulting in highly non-catastrophic failure (with W.O.F. up to 1 kJ/m2). Crack deflection, often millimeters in length, occurred along the basal faces of templated grains within the textured. Textured layers that deflect cracks (i.e. those with porosity) had significantly lower interfacial fracture energies than textured layers that do not deflect cracks (i.e. those without porosity). It was determined that crack deflection is a composite effect and the result of the combination of the anisotropic fracture energy of textured Al2O3 and the residual compressive stresses developed from thermal expansion mismatch. Other observed fracture phenomena include multiple cracking/crack arrest and preliminary evidence of flaw tolerance. Textured-equiaxed Al2O3 microstructure composites of additional connectivities, (including 1-3, 0-3, and 3-3) were produced by screen printing and co-casting processes. Template alignment during the screen printing process was demonstrated, allowing the capability to print complex textured features. Co-casting was used to produce single tapes with templated and non-templated segments. A variety of stacking strategies were employed to generate various 1-3 and 3-3 composites (including cross-ply composites). Observations during fracture testing of complex composites included non-catastrophic failure without crack deflection and improved delamination resistance.

  9. Characterization and Catalytic Performance of Montmorillonites with Mixed Aluminium/Lanthanide Pillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, F.; Pesquera, C.; Blanco, C.

    Pillared montmorillonites with mixed Al/lanthanide pillars were prepared. The materials present characteristics that are very different from montmorillonite pillared with only aluminium. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated total absence of tetrahedral aluminium in the pillars when lanthanide cations are incorporated between the clay layers. They have a high thermal stability, high specific surface area and porosity, with pores at the limit between the microporosity and mesoporosity. The textural parameters maintained high values up to 700 °C. The number and the strength of the acid sites in these materials were also high. The increase of the conversion in dehydration of 1-butanol as in hydroisomerization of n-heptane shows their better behaviour as acid catalysts. The Al/lanthanide-pillared samples showed increased conversion and improved the selectivity towards the products of cracking. The study of 1-butanol dehydration showed that there is an increase in the acidity, thermal stability and smaller deactivation by carbonaceous deposits in the Al/lanthanide-pillared sample.

  10. Sorption of hydrophilic dyes on anodic aluminium oxide films and application to pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Silina, Yuliya E; Kuchmenko, Tatyana A; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2015-02-01

    The sorption of selected hydrophilic pH-sensitive dyes (bromophenol blue, bromothymol blue, bromocresol purple, alizarin red, methyl orange, congo red, rhodamine 6G) on films of anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) was investigated in this study. Depth and pore structure of the AAO channels were adjusted by changing electrolysis time and current density during treatment of aluminium foil in oxalic acid, sulfosalycilic acid and sulfuric acid at concentration levels between 0.2 and 0.6 M. The dyes were immobilized on the AAO surface by direct saturation of the films in dye solutions. It was shown by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral analysis that the dyes penetrated into the AAO channels by more than 1.5 μm, even at static saturation conditions. The anionic dyes linked to the porous AAO surface exhibited differential shifts of the UV absorption bands in their acidic/basic forms. By combining several dyes, the films have an application range between pH = 0.5-9 in aqueous media. The dye-modified AAO film was a simple, portable, inexpensive and reusable pH sensor with very fast response time and clear colour transitions. PMID:25436239

  11. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy of intermetallic phases in D.C. cast aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Forder, S.D.; Brooks, J.S.; Reeder, A.; Evans, P.V.

    1998-12-04

    Direct-chill (D.C.) casting is a widely used technique for casting industrial aluminium alloy ingots. Commercial purity alloys contain small amounts of iron and silicon. During casting, intermetallic phases are formed inter-dendritically from the final liquid to solidify. Since the solidification rate varies substantially with position in the ingot various phases can form, ranging from the equilibrium phase Al{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}, to increasingly metastable phases, such as Al{sub 6}Fe, Al{sub x}Fe, Al{sub m}Fe or alpha-AlFeSi, as the solidification rate increases. The phases formed may influence the ease of processing and the final gauge properties of the material. Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used previously to identify the intermetallic phases in situ in aluminium from Bridgman grown model alloys. Also variable temperature studies have been carried out on the phases extracted from the alloys by butanol dissolution. The work reported in this paper demonstrates how the Moessbauer data obtained from the previous studies can now be used to identify and quantify the proportion of different phases formed in ingots prepared by direct-chill casting and subsequent heat treatments.

  12. Symptoms of the musculoskeletal system and exposure to magnetic fields in an aluminium plant.

    PubMed Central

    Moen, B E; Drabløs, P A; Pedersen, S; Sjøen, M; Thommesen, G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The study was performed to examine the influence of the exposure to magnetic fields in the potrooms of an electrolysis plant on the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms among the employees. The study was performed after much discussion and worry in the aluminium industry about this issue. METHODS--A retrospective cohort study was performed at an aluminium plant. The occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms registered at health controls performed by the occupational health care unit in 1986 and 1991 was assessed from employees exposed to magnetic fields in the potrooms (n = 342) and from a control group (n = 277). The data were collected before the discussion about the effects of magnetic fields started. The exposure to static magnetic fields was found to be 3-20 mT inside the potrooms. Ripple components (alternating currents (AC fields)) were registered as well. RESULTS--No difference between the exposed and unexposed groups was found for the reported musculoskeletal symptoms in 1986 or in 1991. CONCLUSIONS--There seems to be no relation between work in potrooms with exposure to static magnetic fields and the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms. PMID:7663637

  13. Free-standing aluminium nanowire architectures made in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zein el-Abedin, Sherif; Endres, Frank

    2012-01-16

    We report on the electrochemical synthesis of free-standing aluminium nanowire architectures through a template-assisted electrodeposition technique. For this purpose, nuclear track-etched polycarbonate membranes were employed as templates. One side of the template was sputtered with a thin gold film to serve as a working electrode. Subsequently the nanowires were made in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl)/AlCl(3) (40/60 mol?%) under potentiostatic conditions. Two different electrodeposition procedures were employed to fabricate strongly adherent Al nanowire structures on an electrodeposited Al layer. In the first procedure, electrodeposition simultaneously occurs along the pores of the template and on the Au-sputtered side of the template. In the second procedure, electrodeposition takes place in two different steps: first a thick supporting film of Al is deposited on the sputtered side of the membrane and second Al nanowires are grown within the pores. After chemical dissolution of the membrane in dichloromethane, an aluminium foil of a controlled thickness with a three-dimensional nanowire structure on one side was obtained. Different nanowire architectures, such as free-standing nanowires, vertically aligned tree-shaped arrays, and bunched nanowire films, were obtained. Such nanowire architectures are of particular interest for applications in Li-ion micro-batteries. PMID:22120955

  14. Aluminium-catalysed intramolecular hydroamination of aminoalkenes: computational perusal of alternative pathways for aminoalkene activation.

    PubMed

    Tobisch, Sven

    2015-07-21

    A comprehensive computational examination of alternatively plausible mechanistic pathways for the intramolecular hydroamination (HA) of aminoalkenes utilising a recently reported novel phenylene-diamine aluminium amido compound is presented. On the one hand, a proton-assisted concerted N-C/C-H bond-forming pathway to afford the cycloamine in a single step can be invoked, and, on the other, a stepwise ?-insertive pathway that involves a relatively fast, reversible migratory olefin 1,2-insertion step linked to a less rapid, irreversible Al-C alkyl bond protonolysis. The present study, which employs a sophisticated and reliable computational methodology, supports the prevailing mechanism to be a stepwise ?-insertive pathway. The predicted effective barrier for turnover-limiting aminolysis compares favourably with reported catalytic performance data. Non-competitive kinetic demands militates against the operation of the concerted proton-assisted pathway, which describes N-C bond-forming ring closure triggered by concomitant amino proton delivery at the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C linkage evolving through a six-centre transition state structure. The valuable insights into mechanistic intricacies of aluminium-mediated intramolecular HA reported herein will help guide the rational design of group 13 metal-based HA catalysts. PMID:25801632

  15. Coenzyme Q10 Abrogated the 28 Days Aluminium Chloride Induced Oxidative Changes in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Anuradha S.; Nirwane, Abhijit; Kamble, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to elucidate the impact of oral administration of aluminium chloride for 28 days with respect to oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of female rats. Further, to investigate the potentials of Coenzyme (Co) Q10 (4, 8, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.) in mitigating the detrimental changes. Materials and Methods: Biochemical estimations of cerebral lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin E and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were carried out after 28 days of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) and Co Q10 exposures along with histopathological examination of cerebral cortex of the rats. Results: Subacute exposure to AlCl3(5 mg/kg) led to significant decrease in levels of GSH, vitamin E and activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and an increase in LPO of cerebral cortex. These aberrations were restored by Co Q10 (12 mg/kg, i.p.). This protection offered was comparable to that of L-deprenyl (1 mg/kg, i.p.) which served as a reference standard. Histopathological evaluations confirmed that the normal cerebral morphology was maintained by Co Q10. Conclusion: Thus, AlCl3 exposure hampers the activities of various antioxidant enzymes and induces oxidative stress in cerebral cortex of female Wistar rats. Supplementation with intraperitoneal Co Q10 abrogated these deleterious effects of AlCl3. PMID:25253934

  16. Acquisition of aluminium tolerance by modification of a single gene in barley

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Miho; Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Saisho, Daisuke; Yamane, Miki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Sato, Kazuhiro; Nakazono, Mikio; Ma, Jian Feng

    2012-01-01

    Originating from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, barley has now been cultivated widely on different soil types including acid soils, where aluminium toxicity is a major limiting factor. Here we show that the adaptation of barley to acid soils is achieved by the modification of a single gene (HvAACT1) encoding a citrate transporter. We find that the primary function of this protein is to release citrate from the root pericycle cells to the xylem to facilitate the translocation of iron from roots to shoots. However, a 1-kb insertion in the upstream of the HvAACT1 coding region occurring only in the Al-tolerant accessions, enhances its expression and alters the location of expression to the root tips. The altered HvAACT1 has an important role in detoxifying aluminium by secreting citrate to the rhizosphere. Thus, the insertion of a 1-kb sequence in the HvAACT1 upstream enables barley to adapt to acidic soils. PMID:22395604

  17. On the optimisation of machining parameters for dry drilling of aeronautic aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, G.; Girot, F.

    2003-09-01

    Machining aluminium alloys without lubrication seriously increases the tool wear because of the severe tribological conditions at the tool/chip interface. Indeed, metal cutting generates high temperatures and pressures due to the high strain rate (ge104 s^{-1}) and the friction between the tool and the chip. Thus, it is very important to be able to clearly identify the parameters influencing the machining quality. In order to study dry drilling with W-Co carbide tools, experiments were conducted using different drill geometries and varying cutting conditions. The workpiece material used in this work is the aluminium alloy 2024 T-351. Optimise drill geometries can be deducted from experimental results to obtain holes with an aerospace quality. The following parameters were used to evaluate the holes quality : the minimum and maximum diameter deviations, the burr height and the surface roughness. The microscope observation of the tool rake face shows that the main damage is adhesion and diffusion wear revealing the presence of high temperature. Cutting conditions were tested and chosen to limit the tool damage and by consequence to increase the tool life.

  18. Physically-based constitutive modelling of residual stress development in welding of aluminium alloy 2024

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.V.; Shercliff, H.R. . E-mail: hrs@eng.cam.ac.uk; Withers, P.J.; Smith, S.

    2004-10-04

    A finite element model has been developed to predict the evolution of residual stress and distortion which takes into account the history-dependence of the yield stress-temperature response of heat-treatable aluminium alloys during welding. The model was applied to TIG welding of 2024-T3 aluminium alloy, and the residual strain predictions validated using high resolution X-ray synchrotron diffraction. The goal was to capture the influence of the permanent evolution of the microstructure during the thermal cycle with a straightforward numerical procedure, while retaining a sound physical basis. Hardness and resistivity measurements after isothermal hold-and-quench experiments were used to identify salient temperatures for zero, partial and full dissolution of the initial hardening precipitates, and the extent of softening - both immediately after welding, and after natural ageing. Based on these data, a numerical procedure for weld modelling was proposed for tracking the different yield responses during heating and cooling based on the peak temperature reached locally. This history-dependent model was superior to a conventional model in predicting the peak tensile strains, but otherwise the effect of temperature history was weak for 2024-T3. Predictions of the hardness profile immediately after welding compared with the post-weld naturally aged hardness provided insight into the competition between dissolution and coarsening of the precipitates in the heat-affected zone.

  19. Propolis alleviates aluminium-induced lipid peroxidation and biochemical parameters in male rats.

    PubMed

    Newairy, Al-Sayeda A; Salama, Afrah F; Hussien, Hend M; Yousef, Mokhtar I

    2009-06-01

    Aluminium is present in many manufactured foods and medicines and is also added to drinking water during purification purposes. Therefore, the present experiment was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) on biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of male Wistar Albino rats. Animals were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control; 34 mg AlCl3/kg bw; 50 mg propolis/kg bw; AlCl3 (34 mg/kg bw) plus propolis (50 mg/kg bw), respectively. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 70 days. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was increased, and the activities of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in liver, kidney and brain of rats treated with AlCl3. While, TBARS was decreased and the antioxidant enzymes were increased in rats treated with propolis alone. Plasma transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, total lipid, cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-c were increased, while total protein, albumin and high HDL-c were decreased due to AlCl3 administration. The presence of propolis with AlCl3 alleviated its toxic effects in rats treated with AlCl3. It can be concluded that propolis has beneficial influences and could be able to antagonize AlCl3 toxicity. PMID:19425229

  20. Development of protective coatings using fly ash premixed with metal powder on aluminium substrates.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, Alok; Sahu, Suvendu Prasad; Mishra, Debadutta

    2010-07-01

    Fly ash is a solid waste generated in huge quantities from coal-fired thermal power stations during the combustion of coal. Rich in metal oxides, it has tremendous potential as a coating material on structural and engineering components. This work aims at developing and characterizing a new class of such coatings made of fly ash by a novel technique - plasma spraying. Plasma spray technology has the advantage of being able to process various low-grade ore minerals to obtain value-added products and also to deposit ceramics, metals and a combination of these, generating near-homogeneous coatings with the desired microstructure on a range of substrates. In the present investigation, coatings are developed on aluminium substrates using fly ash premixed with aluminium powder in different weight proportions at various plasma torch input power levels ranging from 9- 18 kW DC. The coatings are characterized in terms of interface adhesion strength and deposition efficiency. Maximum adhesion strength of about 35 MPa is recorded with coatings deposited at 12 kW power level. It was noticed that the quality and properties are significantly affected by the operating power level of the plasma sprayer. This work identifies fly ash as a potential coating material, suitable for possible tribological applications. PMID:19767327