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Sample records for aluminium arsenides

  1. Gallium Arsenide Domino Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Long; Long, Stephen I.

    1990-01-01

    Advantages include reduced power and high speed. Experimental gallium arsenide field-effect-transistor (FET) domino circuit replicated in large numbers for use in dynamic-logic systems. Name of circuit denotes mode of operation, which logic signals propagate from each stage to next when successive stages operated at slightly staggered clock cycles, in manner reminiscent of dominoes falling in a row. Building block of domino circuit includes input, inverter, and level-shifting substages. Combinational logic executed in input substage. During low half of clock cycle, result of logic operation transmitted to following stage.

  2. Aluminium plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we present an overview of 'aluminium plasmonics', i.e. the study of both fundamental and practical aspects of surface plasmon excitations in aluminium structures, in particular thin films and metal nanoparticles. After a brief introduction noting both some recent and historical contributions to aluminium plasmonics, we discuss the optical properties of aluminium and aluminium nanostructures and highlight a few selected studies in a host of areas ranging from fluorescence to data storage.

  3. Metal Insulator Semiconductor Structures on Gallium Arsenide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Sean Denis

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The compound semiconductor gallium arsenide and its associated aluminium alloys have been the subject of intensive research in recent years. These materials offer the advantage of high electron mobilities coupled with the ability to be 'barrier engineered' leading to high injection efficiencies in bipolar devices. From a technological viewpoint however these materials are difficult to work with and device realisation is a major problem. Both thermal and anodic oxidation of these materials fail to produce a dielectric of sufficient quality for device applications and as a result devices tend to be complex non planar, mesa structures. A technique is proposed whereby the electrical interface is separated from the dielectric by means of a thin layer of AlGaAs, carrier confinement in the active GaAs region being maintained by the potential barriers to holes and electrons formed by the GaAs-AlGaAs junction. The integrity of these barriers is maintained by the provision of a suitable 'capping' dielectric. The electrical characteristics of various dielectric systems on GaAs have been investigated by means of current -voltage, capacitance-voltage and electronic breakdown measurements. Transport mechanisms for leakage current through these systems are identified and the interface properties (viz Fermi level pinning etc.) assessed by means of a direct comparison between experimental capacitance-voltage curves and theoretical data obtained from classical theory. As a technique for producing a convenient, in house 'capping' dielectric with good electrical and mechanical properties, the plasma anodisation of deposited aluminium films has been investigated. The anodisation parameters have been optimised for oxidation of these films in a microwave sustained oxygen plasma to give alumina films of around 500 A. A qualitative model for the anodisation process, involving linear and parabolic growth kinetics is proposed and

  4. Far-Infrared and Optical Studies of Gallium Arsenide and Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Semiconductor Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanaway, Mark Brian

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis reports far-infrared (FIR) and photoluminescence studies, performed at low temperatures (4.2K) and at magnetic fields up to 25T, of selectively and inadvertently doped bulk and low dimensional gallium arsenide (GaAs) and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) semiconductor structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution FIR magnetospectroscopy of ultra -high mobility n-GaAs reveals a variety of shallow donor intra-impurity transitions plus spin-split higher Landau level transitions in the photoconductive response. The first observation of polarons bound to D^ - ions in bulk n-GaAs is reported. The excited state spectrum of the confined silicon donor in GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum wells (MQWs) has been examined. Narrower linewidths and more higher excited state donor transitions are noted in the present photoconductive investigation compared with previous reports. The electron recombination dynamics has been examined in silicon-doped GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs and homogeneous and sheet -doped bulk n-GaAs samples using time-resolved FIR photoconductivity. The extrinsic response of doped MQW structures suggests a potential use as a fast, sensitive detectors of FIR. FIR transmission measurements are reported for GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) of various widths in magnetic fields of up to 20T, tilted away from the normal to the QW plane by angles up to theta = 50^circ. Deviation of the cyclotron resonance field from a costheta law are interpreted using theoretical models describing Landau level/electric subband coupling. The in-plane magnetic field and excitation power dependence of the photoluminescence intensity of a GaAs/AlGaAs QW spectral feature is interpreted in terms of charge transfer in the QW, using a coupled oscillator model, and the efficiency of nonradiative electronic traps. In-plane magnetic field studies of the photoluminescence from a superlattice structure

  5. Thermal oxidation of gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, O.R.; Evans, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Here we present some results of transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy of thermally oxidized gallium arsenide with different types of dopants. At temperatures below 400 /sup 0/C an amorphous oxide is formed. Oxidation at temperatures between 500 and 600 /sup 0/C initially produces an epitaxial film of ..gamma..-Ga/sub 2/O/sub 3/. As the reaction proceeds, this film becomes polycrystalline and then transforms to ..beta..-Ga/sub 2/O/sub 3/. This film contains small crystallites of As/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the case of the chromium doped samples, whereas only the former was detected in the case of silicon and tellurium doped samples. Elemental arsenic was always found at the interface between the oxide and GaAs. Chromium doped gallium also exhibited a slower oxidation kinetics than the other materials.

  6. Development of gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of ion implantation as a means of developing gallium arsenide solar cells with high efficiency performance was investigated. Computer calculations on gallium arsenide cell characteristics are presented to show the effects of surface recombination, junction space-charge recombination, and built-in fields produced by nonuniform doping of the surface region. The fabrication technology is summarized. Electrical and optical measurements on samples of solar cells are included.

  7. Thin film gallium arsenide solar cell research. Third quarterly project report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980. [Antireflection coating

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S. S.

    1980-12-01

    The major objective of this contract is to produce gallium arsenide solar cells of 10% conversion efficiency in films of less than 10 micrometers thick which have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition on graphite or tungsten coated graphite substrates. Major efforts during this quarter were directed to: (1) the optimization of the deposition of gallium arsenide films of 10 ..mu..m thickness or less on tungsten/graphic substrates, (2) the investigation of the effectiveness of various grain boundary passivation techniques, (3) the deposition of tantalum pentoxide by ion beam sputtering as an antireflection coating, (4) the deposition of gallium aluminium arsenide by the organometallic process, and (5) the fabrication and characterization of large area Schottky barrier type solar cells from gallium arsenide films of about 10 ..mu..m thickness. Various grain boundary passivation techniques, such as the anodic oxidation, thermal oxidation, and ruthenium treatment, have been investigated. The combination of thermal oxidation and ruthenium treatment has been used to fabricate Schottky barrier type solar cells. Large area MOS solar cells of 9 cm/sup 2/ area with AMl efficiency of 8.5% have been fabricated from ruthenium treated gallium arsenide films of 10 ..mu..m thickness. The construction of the apparatus for the deposition of gallium aluminum arsenide by the organometallic process has been completed. The deposition of good quality tantalum pentoxide film as an antireflection coating has been carried out by the ion beam sputtering technique. The short-circuit current density and AMl efficiency of the solar cells are increased by approximately 60%, with a slight increase in the open-circuit voltage. Details are presented. (WHK)

  8. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  9. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Joslin, D.; Garlick, J.; Lillington, D.; Gillanders, M.; Cavicchi, B.; Scott-Monck, J.; Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) gallium arsenide cells were irradiated with 1 Mev electrons up to fluences of 1 times 10 to the 16th power cm-2. Measurements of spectral response and dark and illuminated I-V data were made at each fluence and then, using computer codes, the experimental data was fitted to gallium arsenide cell models. In this way it was possible to determine the extent of the damage, and hence damage coefficients in both the emitter and base of the cell.

  10. Evidence of aluminium accumulation in aluminium welders.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Ahrengart, L; Lidums, V; Pettersson, E; Sjögren, B

    1991-01-01

    Using atomic absorption spectrometry the aluminium concentrations in blood and urine and in two iliac bone biopsies obtained from welders with long term exposure to fumes containing aluminium were measured. The urinary excretion of two workers who had welded for 20 and 21 years varied between 107 and 351 micrograms Al/l, more than 10 times the concentration found in persons without occupational exposure. Urinary aluminium excretion remained high many years after stopping exposure. Blood and bone aluminium concentrations (4-53 micrograms Al/l and 18-29 micrograms Al/g respectively) were also raised but not to the same extent as urine excretion. It is concluded that long term exposure to aluminium by inhalation gives rise to accumulation of aluminium in the body and skeleton of health persons, and that the elimination of retained aluminium is very slow, in the order of several years. PMID:1954151

  11. Thin Films of Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Aluminum Arsenide by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Look, Edward Gene Lun

    Low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LPMOCVD) of thin films of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) was performed in a horizontal cold wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. The organometallic (group III) sources were triethylgallium (TEGa) and triethylaluminum (TEAl), used in conjunction with arsine (AsH_3) as the group V source. It was found that growth parameters such as growth temperature, pressure, source flow rates and temperatures have a profound effect on the film quality and composition. Depending on the particular combination of conditions, both the surface and overall morphologies may be affected. The films were nondestructively analyzed by Raman and photoreflectance spectroscopies, x-ray diffraction and rocking curve studies, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Hall measurements and film thicknesses were determined with a step profilometer.

  12. Joining of aluminium structures with aluminium foams

    SciTech Connect

    Burzer, J.; Bernard, T.; Bergmann, H.W.

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of new construction elements for applications in transportation industry which are based on new designs incorporating commonly applied aluminium structures and aluminium foams. The work includes the characterization of the joining process, the joining mechanism and the mechanical properties of the joining zone. A testing method for the joints is developed which is based on a common tensile test in order to evaluate the influence of the main laser welding parameters on the toughness of the joints and to afford a comparison between laser beam welding and gluing process. The analysis of the joining mechanism is investigated with the help of metallographic studies. In addition, the energy absorption properties of aluminium hollows filled and joined with foam structures are characterized.

  13. Gallium arsenide solar array subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs of a number of technology areas are examined for a gallium arsenide space solar array. Four specific configurations were addressed: (1) a 250 KWe LEO mission - planer array; (2) a 250 KWe LEO mission - with concentration; (3) a 50 KWe GEO mission planer array; (4) a 50 KWe GEO mission - with concentration. For each configuration, a baseline system conceptual design was developed and the life cycle costs estimated in detail. The baseline system requirements and design technologies were then varied and their relationships to life cycle costs quantified. For example, the thermal characteristics of the baseline design are determined by the array materials and masses. The thermal characteristics in turn determine configuration, performance, and hence life cycle costs.

  14. The interaction of gold with gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar-cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments designed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions have yielded several interesting results. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are also explained by invoking this mechanism.

  15. Gallium Arsenide solar cell radiation damage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.; Herbert, G. A.; Meulenberg, A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells for space applications from three different manufactures were irradiated with 10 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. The electrical performance of the cells was measured at several fluence levels and compared. Silicon cells were included for reference and comparison. All the GaAs cell types performed similarly throughout the testing and showed a 36 to 56 percent power areal density advantage over the silicon cells. Thinner (8-mil versus 12-mil) GaAs cells provide a significant weight reduction. The use of germanium (Ge) substrates to improve mechanical integrity can be implemented with little impact on end of life performance in a radiation environment.

  16. Contact formation in gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments were performed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are explained by invoking this mechanism.

  17. Producing gallium arsenide crystals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The production of high quality crystals in space is a promising near-term application of microgravity processing. Gallium arsenide is the selected material for initial commercial production because of its inherent superior electronic properties, wide range of market applications, and broad base of on-going device development effort. Plausible product prices can absorb the high cost of space transportation for the initial flights provided by the Space Transportation System. The next step for bulk crystal growth, beyond the STS, is planned to come later with the use of free flyers or a space station, where real benefits are foreseen. The use of these vehicles, together with refinement and increasing automation of space-based crystal growth factories, will bring down costs and will support growing demands for high quality GaAs and other specialty electronic and electro-optical crystals grown in space.

  18. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Garlick, G. F. J.

    1987-01-01

    High-efficiency gallium arsenide cells, made by the liquid epitaxy method (LPE), have been irradiated with 1-MeV electrons up to fluences of 10 to the 16th e/sq cm. Measurements have been made of cell spectral response and dark and light-excited current-voltage characteristics and analyzed using computer-based models to determine underlying parameters such as damage coefficients. It is possible to use spectral response to sort out damage effects in the different cell component layers. Damage coefficients are similar to other reported in the literature for the emitter and buffer (base). However, there is also a damage effect in the window layer and possibly at the window emitter interface similar to that found for proton-irradiated liquid-phase epitaxy-grown cells. Depletion layer recombination is found to be less than theoretically expected at high fluence.

  19. III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor are disclosed. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V materials varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V material can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  20. A terminal molybdenum arsenide complex synthesized from yellow arsenic.

    PubMed

    Curley, John J; Piro, Nicholas A; Cummins, Christopher C

    2009-10-19

    A terminal molybdenum arsenide complex is synthesized in one step from the reactive As(4) molecule. The properties of this complex with its arsenic atom ligand are discussed in relation to the analogous nitride and phosphide complexes. PMID:19764796

  1. Computer simulation of radiation damage in gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stith, John J.; Davenport, James C.; Copeland, Randolph L.

    1989-01-01

    A version of the binary-collision simulation code MARLOWE was used to study the spatial characteristics of radiation damage in proton and electron irradiated gallium arsenide. Comparisons made with the experimental results proved to be encouraging.

  2. Method of fabricating germanium and gallium arsenide devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzban (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of semiconductor diode fabrication is disclosed which relies on the epitaxial growth of a precisely doped thickness layer of gallium arsenide or germanium on a semi-insulating or intrinsic substrate, respectively, of gallium arsenide or germanium by either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The method involves: depositing a layer of doped or undoped silicon dioxide on a germanium or gallium arsenide wafer or substrate, selectively removing the silicon dioxide layer to define one or more surface regions for a device to be fabricated thereon, growing a matched epitaxial layer of doped germanium or gallium arsenide of an appropriate thickness using MBE or MOCVD techniques on both the silicon dioxide layer and the defined one or more regions; and etching the silicon dioxide and the epitaxial material on top of the silicon dioxide to leave a matched epitaxial layer of germanium or gallium arsenide on the germanium or gallium arsenide substrate, respectively, and upon which a field effect device can thereafter be formed.

  3. Silicon Nitride For Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagle, J.; Morgan, David V.

    1987-04-01

    Gallium Arsenide, unlike silicon does not have a natural oxide with the dielectric and interface qualities of SiO2. As a consequence alternative techniques have to be developed for device and IC processing applications. Plasma deposited silicon nitride films are currently being investigated in many laboratories. This paper will deal with the characterization of such films deposited under a range of gas and plasma deposition conditions. The techniques of Infra Red Spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering have been used for characterization of both "as deposited layers" and layers which have been annealed up to temperatures of 800 °C, after deposition. The use of RBS for silicon nitride on GaAs is limited since the relatively small nitride spectrum is superimposed on much larger GaAs spectrum. The problem can be removed by placing carbon test substrates alongside the GaAs wafers. This separates the silicon and nitrogen spectra from the substrate enabling enhanced accuracy to be obtained. In this paper the range of results obtained will be discussed in the context of the deposition condition in order to identify the optimum conditions for obtaining a stoichiometric compound and a high quality interface.

  4. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. Pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P- type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components an n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffused layer and the substrate layer, wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  6. Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, S.J.

    1983-03-13

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  7. Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Eric D.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.

  8. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sachin; Rani, Yashoda

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law. PMID:27486362

  9. Technique for depositing silicon dioxide on indium arsenide improves adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Planar array processing of indium arsenide wafers includes dicing into a prescribed geometry, then cleaning and drying, and finally pre-oxidizing in an oxygen atmosphere at 500 degrees C. The last step forms an oxide interface between the InAs surface and a glow discharge deposited layer of silicon dioxide.

  10. Aluminium and human breast diseases.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F

    2011-11-01

    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate. PMID:22099158

  11. Gallium arsenide pilot line for high performance components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vehse, Robert C.; Lapham, E. F.

    1991-08-01

    The Gallium Arsenide Pilot Line for High Performance Components (Pilot Line III) is to develop a facility for the fabrication of GaAs logic and memory chips. Physical and electrical analysis conclusively demonstrated that the EFET problem was caused by residual AlGaAs remaining in the EFET tubs. For our Self Aligned Refractory Gate Integrated Circuit (SARGIC) process to perform as designed, the FET gates must be placed directly on Gallium Arsenide. Residual AlGaAs increases the FET thresholds and thereby substantially changes device characteristics. We solved the problem by developing a new etch process using a PP etchant (H3PO4 and H2O2). AlGaAs is now completely removed from EFET tubs and EFET threshold control has been restored. With wafer starts suspended and other program work minimized to conserve resources, there was little primary circuit testing. A new result is that the 32-Bit Multiplier is functional at 60 MHz.

  12. Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jichi; Chiles, Jeff; Sharma, Yagya D; Krishna, Sanjay; Fathpour, Sasan

    2014-09-15

    The two-photon photovoltaic effect is demonstrated in gallium arsenide at 976 and 1550 nm wavelengths. A waveguide-photodiode biased in its fourth quadrant harvests electrical power from the optical energy lost to two-photon absorption. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulations based on nonlinear wave propagation in waveguides and the drift-diffusion model of carrier transport in semiconductors. Power efficiency of up to 8% is theoretically predicted in optimized devices. PMID:26466255

  13. Occupational lung fibrosis in an aluminium polisher.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, P; Dumortier, P; Rickaert, F; Van de Weyer, R; Lenclud, C; Yernault, J C

    1986-02-01

    An aluminium polisher developed severe lung fibrosis complicated by bronchial carcinoma. Although he was not submitted to the exposure risks usually described in aluminium lung (bauxite smelting, use of aluminium powders, aluminium welding), he worked in a high concentration of aluminium dust. This was demonstrated by mineralogical analyses which revealed large amounts of small metallic aluminium particles (0.5 micron - 5 micron) in bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue and lymph nodes 5 years after the end of exposure. Aluminium polishing seems to be a potential cause of aluminium lung. PMID:3699115

  14. Low temperature recombination and trapping analysis in high purity gallium arsenide by microwave photodielectric techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khambaty, M. B.; Hartwig, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Some physical theories pertinent to the measurement properties of gallium arsenide are presented and experimental data are analyzed. A model for explaining recombination and trapping high purity gallium arsenide, valid below 77 K is assembled from points made at various places and an appraisal is given of photodielectric techniques for material property studies.

  15. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  16. Ca4As3 – a new binary calcium arsenide

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Andrea V.; Hlukhyy, Viktor; Fässler, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the binary compound tetra­calcium triarsenide, Ca4As3, was investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Ca4As3 crystallizes in the Ba4P3 structure type and is thus a homologue of isotypic Sr4As3. The unit cell contains 32 Ca2+ cations, 16 As3− isolated anions and four centrosymmetric [As2]4– dumbbells. The As atoms in each of the dumbbells are connected by a single bond, thus this calcium arsenide is a Zintl phase. PMID:26870427

  17. Microwave dielectric constants of silicon, gallium arsenide, and quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Seeger, K.

    1988-06-01

    For a determination of the dielectric constants epsilon of semiconductors, a microwave transmission interference method has been applied. For the first time, a calculation is presented which yields the full interference spectrum, not only the position of the extremal points. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental spectra results in a higher precision than previously obtained. A metal evaporation of the sample faces which are in contact with the waveguide walls turns out to be very important. Relative dielectric constants of 11.6 for silicon, 12.8 for gallium arsenide, and 4.6 for crystalline quartz, all +- 0.05, have been obtained.

  18. Improved performance design of gallium arsenide solar cells for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parekh, R. H.; Barnett, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    An improved design, shallow junction heteroface, n-p, gallium arsenide solar cell for space applications is reported, with a predicted AM0 efficiency in the 21.9 to 23.0 percent range. The optimized n-p structure, while slightly more efficient, has the added advantage of being less susceptible to radiation-induced degradation by virtue of this thin top junction layer. Detailed spectral response curves and an analysis of the loss mechanisms are reported. The details of the design are readily measurable. The optimized designs were reached by quantifying the dominant loss mechanisms and then minimizing them by using computer simulations.

  19. Testing of gallium arsenide solar cells on the CRRES vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumble, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    A flight experiment was designed to determine the optimum design for gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell panels in a radiation environment. Elements of the experiment design include, different coverglass material and thicknesses, welded and soldered interconnects, different solar cell efficiencies, different solar cell types, and measurement of annealing properties. This experiment is scheduled to fly on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). This satellite will simultaneously measure the radiation environment and provide engineering data on solar cell degradation that can be directly related to radiation damage.

  20. The toxicity of aluminium in humans.

    PubMed

    Exley, C

    2016-06-01

    We are living in the 'aluminium age'. Human exposure to aluminium is inevitable and, perhaps, inestimable. Aluminium's free metal cation, Alaq(3+), is highly biologically reactive and biologically available aluminium is non-essential and essentially toxic. Biologically reactive aluminium is present throughout the human body and while, rarely, it can be acutely toxic, much less is understood about chronic aluminium intoxication. Herein the question is asked as to how to diagnose aluminium toxicity in an individual. While there are as yet, no unequivocal answers to this problem, there are procedures to follow to ascertain the nature of human exposure to aluminium. It is also important to recognise critical factors in exposure regimes and specifically that not all forms of aluminium are toxicologically equivalent and not all routes of exposure are equivalent in their delivery of aluminium to target sites. To ascertain if Alzheimer's disease is a symptom of chronic aluminium intoxication over decades or breast cancer is aggravated by the topical application of an aluminium salt or if autism could result from an immune cascade initiated by an aluminium adjuvant requires that each of these is considered independently and in the light of the most up to date scientific evidence. The aluminium age has taught us that there are no inevitabilities where chronic aluminium toxicity is concerned though there are clear possibilities and these require proving or discounting but not simply ignored. PMID:26922890

  1. Single event upsets in gallium arsenide dynamic logic

    SciTech Connect

    Fouts, D.J. . ECE Dept.); Weatherford, T. ); McMorrow, C.; Melinger, J.S.; Campbell, A.B. )

    1994-12-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using gallium arsenide (GaAs) dynamic logic in computers and digital systems are briefly discussed, especially with respect to space applications. A short introduction to the topology and operation of GaAs Two-Phase Dynamic FET Logic (TDFL) circuits is presented. Experiments for testing the SEU sensitivity of GaAs TDFL, using a laser to create charge collection events, are described. Results are used to estimate the heavy-ion, soft error rate for TDFL in a spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit, and the dependence of the SEU sensitivity on clock frequency, clock voltage, and clock phase. Analysis of the data includes a comparison between the SEU sensitivities of TDFL and the more common static form of GaAs logic, Directly Coupled FET Logic (DCFL). This is the first reported SEU testing of GaAs dynamic logic.

  2. Temperature dependence of carrier capture by defects in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, William R.; Modine, Normand A.

    2015-08-01

    This report examines the temperature dependence of the capture rate of carriers by defects in gallium arsenide and compares two previously published theoretical treatments of this based on multi phonon emission (MPE). The objective is to reduce uncertainty in atomistic simulations of gain degradation in III-V HBTs from neutron irradiation. A major source of uncertainty in those simulations is poor knowledge of carrier capture rates, whose values can differ by several orders of magnitude between various defect types. Most of this variation is due to different dependence on temperature, which is closely related to the relaxation of the defect structure that occurs as a result of the change in charge state of the defect. The uncertainty in capture rate can therefore be greatly reduced by better knowledge of the defect relaxation.

  3. Coated gallium arsenide neutron detectors : results of characterizationmeasurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.; Perret, G.; Sanders, J.

    2006-09-29

    Effective detection of special nuclear materials (SNM) is essential for reducing the threat associated with stolen or improvised nuclear devices. Passive radiation detection technologies are primarily based on gamma-ray detection and subsequent isotope identification or neutron detection (specific to neutron sources and SNM). One major effort supported by the Department of Homeland Security in the area of advanced passive detection is handheld or portable neutron detectors for search and localization tasks in emergency response and interdiction settings. A successful SNM search detector will not only be able to confirm the presence of fissionable materials but also establish the location of the source in as short of time as possible while trying to minimize false alarms due to varying background or naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). For instruments based on neutron detectors, this translates to detecting neutrons from spontaneous fission or alpha-n reactions and being able to determine the direction of the source (or localizing the source through subsequent measurements). Polyethylene-coated gallium arsenide detectors were studied because the detection scheme is based on measuring the signal in the gallium arsenide wafers from the electrical charge of the recoil protons produced from the scattering of neutrons from the hydrogen nucleus. The inherent reaction has a directional dependence because the neutron and hydrogen nucleus have equivalent masses. The assessment and measurement of polyethylene-coated gallium arsenide detector properties and characteristics was the first phase of a project being performed for the Department of Homeland Security and the results of these tests are reported in this report. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a man-portable neutron detection system that has the ability to determine the direction of the source from the detector. The efficiency of GaAs detectors for different sizes of polyethylene layers and

  4. Overlapping-Gate Ccd Imagers On Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosel, P. B.; Katzer, D. S.; Poore, R. E...

    1987-01-01

    Charge-coupled device (CCD) imagers have been fabricated on gallium arsenide (GaAs) with very closely spaced (<100nm) Schottky-barrier metal electrodes. The short interelectrode spacing was achieved by using anodic oxidation in an ethylene glycol based electrolyte. All the active device regions of the CCD imagers were formed by silicon implantation into semi-insulating GaAs substrates followed by rapid thermal activation. The photodetectors were Schottky barrier diodes formed with thin aluminum metal anodes over silicon-implanted active regions in the semi-insulating substrate. The detectors formed a linear array along one side of the CCD channel and a three-phase transfer electrode structure was used. The imagers have been tested with front side illumination at clocking speeds up to 25 MHz.

  5. Methods for forming group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  6. First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs : numerical supplement.

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2012-04-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz, 'First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in Aluminum Arsenide, AlAs', Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 1370 (2011; SAND2011-2436C), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

  7. Elastic Constants of Indium Arsenide at Room Temperature by Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arammash, Fouzi; Yin, Ming

    2013-03-01

    The three independent elastic constants, C11, C12, and C44 of indium arsenide (InAs) single crystal were determined at room temperature using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) technique. We will present and compare our results with those obtained from more conventional measurement techniques. We also compare our results to those of other III-V compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide (GaAs).

  8. Bit-systolic arithmetic arrays using dynamic differential gallium arsenide circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beagles, Grant; Winters, Kel; Eldin, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    A new family of gallium arsenide circuits for fine grained bit-systolic arithmetic arrays is introduced. This scheme combines features of two recent techniques of dynamic gallium arsenide FET logic and differential dynamic single-clock CMOS logic. The resulting circuits are fast and compact, with tightly constrained series FET propagation paths, low fanout, no dc power dissipation, and depletion FET implementation without level shifting diodes.

  9. Aluminium phosphide-induced leukopenia.

    PubMed

    Ntelios, Dimitrios; Mandros, Charalampos; Potolidis, Evangelos; Fanourgiakis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Acute intoxication from the pesticide aluminium phosphide is a relatively rare, life-threatening condition in which cardiovascular decompensation is the most feared problem. We report the case of a patient exposed to aluminium phosphide-liberated phosphine gas. It resulted in the development of a gastroenteritis-like syndrome accompanied by severe reduction in white blood cell numbers as an early and prominent manifestation. By affecting important physiological processes such as mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species homeostasis, phosphine could cause severe toxicity. After presenting the characteristics of certain leucocyte subpopulations we provide the current molecular understanding of the observed leukopenia which in part seems paradoxical. PMID:24172776

  10. Aluminium phosphide-induced leukopenia

    PubMed Central

    Ntelios, Dimitrios; Mandros, Charalampos; Potolidis, Evangelos; Fanourgiakis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Acute intoxication from the pesticide aluminium phosphide is a relatively rare, life-threatening condition in which cardiovascular decompensation is the most feared problem. We report the case of a patient exposed to aluminium phosphide-liberated phosphine gas. It resulted in the development of a gastroenteritis-like syndrome accompanied by severe reduction in white blood cell numbers as an early and prominent manifestation. By affecting important physiological processes such as mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species homeostasis, phosphine could cause severe toxicity. After presenting the characteristics of certain leucocyte subpopulations we provide the current molecular understanding of the observed leukopenia which in part seems paradoxical. PMID:24172776

  11. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    PubMed

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  12. Aluminium toxicity in chronic renal insufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Savory, J.; Bertholf, R.L.; Wills, M.R.

    1985-08-01

    Aluminium is a ubiquitous element in the environment and has been demonstrated to be toxic, especially in individuals with impaired renal function. Not much is known about the biochemistry of aluminium and the mechanisms of its toxic effects. Most of the interest in aluminium has been in the clinical setting of the hemodialysis unit. Here aluminium toxicity occurs due to contamination of dialysis solutions, and treatment of the patients with aluminium-containing phosphate binding gels. Aluminium has been shown to be the major contributor to the dialysis encephalopathy syndrome and an osteomalacic component of dialysis osteodystrophy. Other clinical disturbances associated with aluminium toxicity are a microcytic anemia and metastatic extraskeletal calcification. Aluminium overload can be treated effectively by chelation therapy with desferrioxamine and hemodialysis. Aluminium is readily transferred from the dialysate to the patient's -bloodstream during hemodialysis. Once transferred, the aluminium is tightly bound to non-dialysable plasma constituents. Very low concentrations of dialysate aluminium in the range of 10-15 micrograms/l are recommended to guard against toxic effects. Very few studies have been directed towards the separation of the various plasma species which bind eluminium. Gel filtration chromatography has been used to identify five major fractions, one of which is of low molecular weight and the others appear to be protein-aluminium complexes. Recommendations on aluminium monitoring have been published and provide safe and toxic concentrations. Also, the frequency of monitoring has been addressed. Major problems exist with the analytical methods for measuring aluminium which result from inaccurate techniques and contamination difficulties. 136 references.

  13. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  14. Noble Metal Arsenides and Gold Inclusions in Northwest Africa 8186

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Rahman, Z.; Keller, L. P.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are a highly thermally altered group of carbonaceous chondrites, experiencing temperatures ranging between approx.576-867 C. Additionally, the mineralogy of the CK chondrites record the highest overall oxygen fugacity of all chondrites, above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. Metallic Fe-Ni is extremely rare in CK chondrites, but magnetite and Fe,Ni sulfides are commonly observed. Noble metal-rich inclusions have previously been found in some magnetite and sulfide grains. These arsenides, tellurides, and sulfides, which contain varying amounts of Pt, Ru, Os, Te, As, Ir, and S, are thought to form either by condensation from a solar gas, or by exsolution during metamorphism on the chondritic parent body. Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is a highly metamorphosed CK chondrite. This meteorite is predominately composed of NiO-rich forsteritic olivine (Fo65), with lesser amounts of plagioclase (An52), augite (Fs11Wo49), magnetite (with exsolved titanomagnetite, hercynite, and titanohematite), monosulfide solid solution (with exsolved pentlandite), and the phosphate minerals Cl-apatite and merrillite. This meteorite contains coarse-grained, homogeneous silicates, and has 120deg triple junctions between mineral phases, which indicates a high degree of thermal metamorphism. The presence of NiO-rich olivine, oxides phases all bearing Fe3+, and the absence of metal, are consistent with an oxygen fugacity above the FMQ buffer. We also observed noble metal-rich phases within sulfide grains in NWA 8186, which are the primary focus of the present study.

  15. Gate modulation of anodically etched gallium arsenide nanowire random network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Shinya; Yamada, Kohei; Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko

    2016-06-01

    Gallium arsenide nanowires (GaAs NWs) formed by anodic etching show an electrically semi-insulating behavior because of charge carrier depletion caused by high interface state density. Here, we demonstrate the gate modulation of an anodically etched GaAs NW random network. By applying a reverse bias voltage after anodic etching of bulk GaAs, hydrogen ion exposure of the depleted NW region occurs, and then the interface state density is possibly decreased owing to the reduction in the amount of excess As generated at the interface between the amorphous Ga2O3 and GaAs layers. Consequently, the drain current of the thin-film transistor (TFT) with the GaAs NW random network was increased and was changed by the gate voltage. In contrast, the random network film remained in the insulator in the absence of reverse electrolysis treatment. The TFT performance is still insufficient but may be improved by optimizing the hydrogen ion exposure conditions.

  16. Greyscale proton beam writing in p-type Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diering, D.; Spemann, D.; Lenzner, J.; Müller, St.; Böntgen, T.; von Wenckstern, H.

    2013-07-01

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a well known method for micromachining, e.g. of semiconductors. Up to now, only few indication is given on how the resulting structure height in micromachined semiconductors can be controlled by means of fluence variation. This approach for 3D-microstructuring, called Greyscale PBW, was already successfully demonstrated for negative photoresists. In this study (1 0 0) p-type Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) was irradiated with 2.28 MeV protons and fluences in the range from 1.2×1014 H+ cm-2 to 1.0×1018 H+ cm-2 at the ion beam laboratory LIPSION and subsequently electrochemically etched with 10%-KOH. A linear dependency of structure height on ion fluence was established. In this way, pyramid-like structures as well as concave-shaped structures could be created. GaAs showed a lateral anisotropic etch behaviour during the development step with preferential etching along the [0 1 1] directions. On some structures the surface roughness and the change of conductivity were investigated by atomic force and scanning capacitance microscopy, respectively. The rms roughness of the surface of the structures was 5.4 nm and 10.6 nm for a fluence of 7.8×1015 H+ cm-2 and 1.2×1017 H+ cm-2, respectively. We observed an increasing etching rate for fluences larger than 1016 H+ cm-2.

  17. Gallium arsenide pilot line for high performance components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The Gallium Arsenide Pilot Line for High Performance Components (Pilot Line III) is to develop a facility for the fabrication of GaAs logic and memory chips. The first thirty months of this contract are now complete, and this report covers the period from March 27 through September 24, 1989. Similar to the PT-2M SRAM function for memories, the six logic circuits of PT-2L and PT-2M have served their functions as stepping stones toward the custom, standard cell, and cell array logic circuits. All but one of these circuits was right first time; the remaining circuit had a layout error due to a bug in the design rule checker that has since been fixed. The working devices all function over the full temperature range from -55 to 125 C. They all comfortably meet the 200 MHz requirement. They do not solidly conform to the required input and output voltage levels, particularly Vih. It is known that these circuits were designed with the older design models and that they came from an era where the DFET thresholds were often not on target.

  18. Synthesis of arsenic transition metal sulfides and metal arsenides

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, G.H.; Brown, L.D.; Ryan, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    One of the chief problems in upgrading shale oil is the presence of inherent arsenic which is known to poison downstream catalysts. Highly dispersed transition metal sulfides formed in situ from the decomposition of dithiocarbamate (DTC) complexes of transition metals show excellent potential as dearsenation agents. The authors have studied the reaction of these sulfides with various arsenic compositions and characterized the metal arsenides and arsenic metal sulfides formed as well as the ease of their formation. Thus, the reaction of bis(butyldithiocarbamato)Ni, (NiBuDTC) with model compounds was very facile and gave NiAs, NiAsS, and NiAs2=xSx. In general the effectiveness of the sulfides for dearsenation followed the sequence Ni>Mo{much_gt}Co, while iron sulfides were totally ineffective. Based upon these results, tests were run in autoclaves (as well as a fixed-bed flow-through unit) with NiBuDTC and shale oil having 73 ppm inherent As. Under optimum conditions, dearsenation down to les than 1 ppm was obtained.

  19. Properties of binary transition-metal arsenides (TAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitchell, Jonathan E.; Sefat, Athena S.

    2012-08-01

    We present thermodynamic and transport properties of transition-metal (T) arsenides, TAs, with T = Sc to Ni (3d), Zr, Nb, Ru (4d), Hf and Ta (5d). Characterization of these binaries is carried out with powder x-ray diffraction, temperature- and field-dependent magnetization and resistivity, temperature-dependent heat capacity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity. All binaries show metallic behavior except TaAs and RuAs. TaAs, NbAs, ScAs and ZrAs are diamagnetic, while CoAs, VAs, TiAs, NiAs and RuAs show approximately Pauli paramagnetic behavior. FeAs and CrAs undergo antiferromagnetic ordering below TN ≈ 71 K and TN ≈ 260 K, respectively. MnAs is a ferromagnet below TC ≈ 317 K and undergoes hexagonal-orthorhombic-hexagonal transitions at TS ≈ 317 K and 384 K, respectively. For TAs, Seebeck coefficients vary between + 40 and - 40 μV K-1 in the 2-300 K range, whereas thermal conductivity values stay below 18 W m-1 K-1. The Sommerfeld coefficients γ are less than 10 mJ K-2 mol-1. At room temperature with application of 8 T magnetic field, large positive magnetoresistance is found for TaAs (˜25%), MnAs (˜90%) and NbAs (˜75%).

  20. Investigation of radiation defects in gallium arsenide under hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Brudnyi, V.N.; Vilisov, A.A.; Diamant, V.M.; Krivorotov, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of gallium arsenide photodiodes irradiated with electrons (2 MeV, 300/sup 0/K) were used to study the influence of hydrostatic compression (up to 8 kbar) and temperature (77--300/sup 0/K) on the energy positions of radiation-defect levels. The pressure coefficients of the spectral positions of the impurity absorption bands at 1.2 and 1.37 eV indicated a genetic relationship between localized states H/sub 0/ (approx.E/sub v/+0.1 eV) and H/sub 1/ (approx.E/sub v/+0.25 eV) and the band extrema E/sub v/(GAMMA/sub 15/) and E/sub c/(GAMMA/sub 1/), respectively. The high piezoresistance coefficient (1/rho)(drho/dP)approx. =3.5 x 10/sup -4/ bar/sup -1/, recorded for the first time for n-type GaAs compensated by electron irradiation, was attributed to the influence of a state split off from the valence band and located in the upper half of the band gap at E/sub c/-0.3--0.4 eV. Isochronous annealing of radiation defects was investigated in the temperature range 300--35/sup 0/K.

  1. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    SciTech Connect

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna

    2015-05-15

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, P{sub max} was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  2. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources. PMID:1542992

  3. Preliminary survey report: control technology for gallium arsenide processing at Hewlett Packard, San Jose, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, K.L.

    1987-04-01

    A walk-through survey of the Hewlett Packard Company facility in San Jose, California, was prompted by an interest in the use of gallium arsenide as an alternative to silicon for the semiconductor industry. This facility produced gallium-arsenide and gallium phosphide Potential hazards existed from solvents, acids, and gases employed in wafer production. Some of the solvents included fluorocarbon compounds, xylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane Arsine, phosphine, hydrogen, and silane gases were used in the production processes. Worker exposures to gallium arsenide or arsenic dust were lower during the cleaning operation than they had been in other similar facilities, perhaps due to the small size of the crystal pullers used at this particular facility. According to the author, this facility is a possible candidate for an in-depth industry survey, but may not be representative of the entire industry.

  4. A study of the applicability of gallium arsenide and silicon carbide as aerospace sensor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, John S.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the piezoresistive sensors, to date, are made of silicon and germanium. Unfortunately, such materials are severly restricted in high temperature environments. By comparing the effects of temperature on the impurity concentrations and piezoresistive coefficients of silicon, gallium arsenide, and silicon carbide, it is being determined if gallium arsenide and silicon carbide are better suited materials for piezoresistive sensors in high temperature environments. The results show that the melting point for gallium arsenide prevents it from solely being used in high temperature situations, however, when used in the alloy Al(x)Ga(1-x)As, not only the advantage of the wider energy band gas is obtained, but also the higher desire melting temperature. Silicon carbide, with its wide energy band gap and higher melting temperature suggests promise as a high temperature piezoresistive sensor.

  5. Effect of fluorine ions on the growth and properties of anodic oxide layers of indium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, I.N.; Gat'ko, L.E.

    1985-09-01

    The practical use of multielement IR photodetectors and idium arsenide memory elements, developed in recent years, largely determines the possibilities of the technology of deposition of dielectric layers on the surface of a semiconductor. In this paper the authors present the results of a study of the effect of fluorine ions introduced into the electrolyte on the rate of the anodic process and on the electrophysical properties of the AOF/indium arsenide interface. It is concluded that: the introduction of ammonium fluoride into a nonaqueous solution of sulfosalicylic acid increases the electrical conductivity of the electrolyte and the rate of oxidation of the semiconductor, decreases the absolute value of the potential of flat bands and the density of surface states at the oxide/indium-arsenide interface, and has no effect on the stability of the electrophysical parameters of MIS structures.

  6. Combined Silicon and Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell UV Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willowby, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The near and long-term effect of UV on silicon solar cells is relatively understood. In an effort to learn more about the effects of UV radiation on the performance of GaAs/Ge solar cells, silicon and gallium arsenide on germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells were placed in a vacuum chamber and irradiated with ultraviolet light by a Spectrolab XT 10 solar simulator. Seventeen GaAs/Ge and 8 silicon solar cells were mounted on an 8 inch copper block. By having all the cells on the same test plate we were able to do direct comparison of silicon and GaAs/Ge solar cell degradation. The test article was attached to a cold plate in the vacuum chamber to maintain the cells at 25 degrees Celsius. A silicon solar cell standard was used to measure beam uniformity and any degradation of the ST-10 beam. The solar cell coverings tested included cells with AR-0213 coverglass, fused silica coverglass, BRR-0213 coverglass and cells without coverglass. Of interest in the test is the BRR-0213 coverglass material manufactured by OCLI. It has an added Infrared rejection coating to help reduce the solar cell operating temperature. This coverglass is relatively new and of interest to several current and future programs at Marshall. Due to moves of the laboratory equipment and location only 350 hours of UV degradation have been completed. During this testing a significant leveling off in the rate of degradation was reached. Data from the test and comparisons of the UV effect of the bare cells and cells with coverglass material will be presented.

  7. Noble Metal Arsenides and Gold Inclusions in Northwest Africa 8186

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Rahman, Z.; Keller, L. P.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are a highly thermally altered group of carbonaceous chondrites, experiencing temperatures ranging between approximately 576-867 degrees Centigrade. Additionally, the mineralogy of the CK chondrites record the highest overall oxygen fugacity of all chondrites, above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. Me-tallic Fe-Ni is extremely rare in CK chondrites, but magnetite and Fe,Ni sulfides are commonly observed. Noble metal-rich inclusions have previously been found in some magnetite and sulfide grains. These arsenides, tellurides, and sulfides, which contain varying amounts of Pt, Ru, Os, Te, As, Ir, and S, are thought to form either by condensation from a solar gas, or by exsolution during metamorphism on the chondritic parent body. Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is a highly metamorphosed CK chondrite. This meteorite is predominately composed of NiO-rich forsteritic olivine (Fo65), with lesser amounts of plagioclase (An52), augite (Fs11Wo49), magnetite (with exsolved titanomagnetite, hercynite, and titanohematite), monosulfide solid solution (with exsolved pentlandite), and the phosphate minerals Cl-apatite and merrillite. This meteorite contains coarse-grained, homogeneous silicates, and has 120-degree triple junctions between mineral phases, which indicates a high degree of thermal metamorphism. The presence of NiO-rich olivine, oxides phases all bearing Fe3 plus, and the absence of metal, are consistent with an oxygen fugacity above the FMQ buffer. We also observed noble metal-rich phases within sulfide grains in NWA 8186, which are the primary focus of the present study.

  8. Valley degeneracy in biaxially strained aluminum arsenide quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu-Gaunkar, S.; Birner, S.; Dasgupta, S.; Knaak, C.; Grayson, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a complete analytical formalism for calculating electron subband energy and degeneracy in strained multivalley quantum wells grown along any orientation with explicit results for AlAs quantum wells (QWs). In analogy to the spin index, the valley degree of freedom is justified as a pseudospin index due to the vanishing intervalley exchange integral. A standardized coordinate transformation matrix is defined to transform between the conventional-cubic-cell basis and the QW transport basis whereby effective mass tensors, valley vectors, strain matrices, anisotropic strain ratios, piezoelectric fields, and scattering vectors are all defined in their respective bases. The specific cases of (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented aluminum arsenide (AlAs) QWs are examined, as is the unconventional (411) facet, which is of particular importance in AlAs literature. Calculations of electron confinement and strain for the (001), (110), and (411) facets determine the critical well width for crossover from double- to single-valley degeneracy in each system. The biaxial Poisson ratio is calculated for the high-symmetry lower Miller index (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented QWs. An additional shear-strain component arises in the higher Miller index (411)-oriented QWs and we define and solve for a shear-to-biaxial strain ratio. The notation is generalized to address non-Miller-indexed planes so that miscut substrates can also be treated, and the treatment can be adapted to other multivalley biaxially strained systems. To help classify anisotropic intervalley scattering, a valley scattering primitive unit cell is defined in momentum space, which allows one to distinguish purely in-plane momentum scattering events from those that require an out-of-plane momentum component.

  9. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  10. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity. PMID:26610803

  11. Aluminium Diphosphamethanides: Hidden Frustrated Lewis Pairs.

    PubMed

    Styra, Steffen; Radius, Michael; Moos, Eric; Bihlmeier, Angela; Breher, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of two aluminium diphosphamethanide complexes, [Al(tBu)2 {κ(2) P,P'-Mes*PCHPMes*}] (3) and [Al(C6 F5 )2 {κ(2) P,P'-Mes*PCHPMes*}] (4), and the silylated analogue, Mes*PCHP(SiMe3 )Mes* (5), are reported. The aluminium complexes feature four-membered PCPAl core structures consisting of diphosphaallyl ligands. The silylated phosphine 5 was found to be a valuable precursor for the synthesis of 4 as it cleanly reacts with the diaryl aluminium chloride [(C6 F5 )2 AlCl]2 . The aluminium complex 3 reacts with molecular dihydrogen at room temperature under formation of the acyclic σ(2) λ(3) ,σ(3) λ(3) -diphosphine Mes*PCHP(H)Mes* and the corresponding dialkyl aluminium hydride [tBu2 AlH]3 . Thus, 3 belongs to the family of so-called hidden frustrated Lewis pairs. PMID:27271936

  12. Spontaneous atomic ordering in MOVPE grown gallium arsenide antimonide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weiyang

    process. It is unlikely that the ordering mechanism is similar to the dimer-induced strain models that have been successfully used to explain CuPt ordering in InGaP. We propose a simple model based on alternating incorporation of group V adatoms at step edges. Keywords. GaAsSb; MOVPE; Bi surfactant; TEM; CuAu ordering. Subject. Gallium Arsenide Antimonide; Metalorganic Vapor-phase Epitaxy; Bismuth Surfactant; Transmission Electron Microscopy; CuAu Ordering.

  13. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix J: Experiment M555 gallium arsenide single crystal growth (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for Experiment M555, Gallium Arsenide Single Crystal Growth (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions are presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  14. NMR microspectroscopy using 100 microns planar RF coils fabricated on gallium arsenide substrates.

    PubMed

    Peck, T L; Magin, R L; Kruse, J; Feng, M

    1994-07-01

    A family of planar gold RF microcoils were fabricated using microlithography on a gallium arsenide substrate. The microcoils were used in 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiments at 300 MHz (7.05 T). These new microcoils are a key component in the design of integrated MR coils and amplifiers for NMR microspectroscopy. PMID:7523278

  15. Electro-optic modulator for infrared laser using gallium arsenide crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, T. E.

    1968-01-01

    Gallium arsenide electro-optic modulator used for infrared lasers has a mica quarter-wave plate and two calcite polarizers to amplitude or phase modulate an infrared laser light source in the wavelength range from 1 to 3 microns. The large single crystal has uniformly high resistivities, is strain free, and comparable in quality to good optical glass.

  16. Biological indicators of exposure to total and respirable aluminium dust fractions in a primary aluminium smelter.

    PubMed Central

    Röllin, H B; Theodorou, P; Cantrell, A C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study attempts to define biological indicators of aluminium uptake and excretion in workers exposed to airborne aluminium compounds in a primary aluminium smelter. Also, this study defines the total and respirable aluminium dust fractions in two different potrooms, and correlates their concentrations with biological indicators in this group of workers. METHODS: Air was sampled at defined work sites. Non-destructive and conventional techniques were used to find total and respirable aluminium content of the dust. Blood and urine was collected from 84 volunteers employed at various work stations throughout the smelter and from two different cohorts of controls matched for sex, age, and socioeconomic status. Aluminium in serum samples and urine specimens was measured by flameless atomic absorption with a PE 4100 ZL spectrometer. RESULTS: The correlation of aluminium concentrations in serum and urine samples with the degree of exposure was assessed for three arbitrary exposure categories; low (0.036 mg Al/m3), medium (0.35 mg Al/m3) and high (1.47 mg Al/m3) as found in different areas of the smelter. At medium and high exposure, the ratio of respirable to total aluminium in the dust samples varied significantly. At high exposure, serum aluminium, although significantly raised, was still within the normal range of an unexposed population. The workers with low exposure excreted aluminium in urine at levels significantly higher than the controls, but still within the normal range of the population. However, potroom workers with medium and high exposure had significantly higher urinary aluminium than the normal range. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that only urinary aluminium constitutes a practical index of occupational exposure at or above 0.35 mg Al/m3, and that the respirable fraction of the dust may play a major role in the biological response to exposure to aluminium in a smelter environment. PMID:8758038

  17. Molecular beam epitaxy growth and characterization of dysprosium phosphide and dysprosium arsenide in gallium arsenide and gallium phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Paul Piyawong

    The ability to grow thermally stable Schottky/ohmic contacts and buried, epitaxial metallic or semimetallic layers on semiconductors has many potential applications in novel device structures. Many rare earth group-V compounds with the sodium chloride structure possess the properties that make them potential candidates for stable contacts, buried layers, and other applications. In this work, two novel rare earth compounds, namely dysprosium phosphide (DyP) and dysprosium arsenide (DyAs) have been studied for high temperature ohmic/Schottky contacts to III-V semiconductors as well as for buried metal layers in semiconductor/metal/semiconductor structures. DyP and DyAs have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs and GaP substrates. Both DyP and DyAs display metallic behavior and have room temperature resistivities of 8 x 10--5 and 1 x 10--4 Ocm, respectively. The electron concentrations for DyP and DyAs are about 4 x 1020 and 1 x 1021 cm--3, respectively. High quality DyP films as determined by XRD, AFM, and TEM can be achieved at a wide range of substrate temperatures (500°C to 600°C) with excess phosphorus pressure. Unlike most rare earth-group V compounds, DyP films are stable in air with no sign of oxidation. DyP films deposited on n-type GaAs and GaP exhibit Schottky behavior with room temperature barrier heights of 0.83 and 0.90 eV, respectively, with ideality factors close to unity and low reverse bias leakage current densities. These contacts are stable up to 250°C and 350°C for GaAs and GaP, respectively. DyAs films on the other hand, oxidize in air and display weak Schottky behavior on n-type GaAs. DyP has been grown as buried layers in both GaAs/DyP/GaAs and GaAs/DyP/GaP structures. Although high quality DyP layers have been achieved, the GaAs overlayers contain defects such as twins. The poor wetting of GaAs on DyP and the crystal symmetry between the two materials are responsible for the three-dimensional growth and the defects found in the Ga

  18. Alveolar proteinosis associated with aluminium dust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Chew, R; Nigam, S; Sivakumaran, P

    2016-08-01

    Secondary alveolar proteinosis is a rare lung disease which may be triggered by a variety of inhaled particles. The diagnosis is made by detection of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which appears milky white and contains lamellar bodies. Aluminium has been suggested as a possible cause, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this assertion. We report the case of a 46-year-old former boilermaker and boat builder who developed secondary alveolar proteinosis following sustained heavy aluminium exposure. The presence of aluminium was confirmed both by histological examination and metallurgical analysis of a mediastinal lymph node. Despite cessation of exposure to aluminium and treatment with whole-lung lavage which normally results in improvements in both symptoms and lung function, the outcome was poor and novel therapies are now being used for this patient. It may be that the natural history in aluminium-related alveolar proteinosis is different, with the metal playing a mediating role in the disease process. Our case further supports the link between aluminium and secondary alveolar proteinosis and highlights the need for measures to prevent excessive aluminium inhalation in relevant industries. PMID:27099254

  19. Aluminium in Biological Environments: A Computational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mujika, Jon I; Rezabal, Elixabete; Mercero, Jose M; Ruipérez, Fernando; Costa, Dominique; Ugalde, Jesus M; Lopez, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    The increased availability of aluminium in biological environments, due to human intervention in the last century, raises concerns on the effects that this so far “excluded from biology” metal might have on living organisms. Consequently, the bioinorganic chemistry of aluminium has emerged as a very active field of research. This review will focus on our contributions to this field, based on computational studies that can yield an understanding of the aluminum biochemistry at a molecular level. Aluminium can interact and be stabilized in biological environments by complexing with both low molecular mass chelants and high molecular mass peptides. The speciation of the metal is, nonetheless, dictated by the hydrolytic species dominant in each case and which vary according to the pH condition of the medium. In blood, citrate and serum transferrin are identified as the main low molecular mass and high molecular mass molecules interacting with aluminium. The complexation of aluminium to citrate and the subsequent changes exerted on the deprotonation pathways of its tritable groups will be discussed along with the mechanisms for the intake and release of aluminium in serum transferrin at two pH conditions, physiological neutral and endosomatic acidic. Aluminium can substitute other metals, in particular magnesium, in protein buried sites and trigger conformational disorder and alteration of the protonation states of the protein's sidechains. A detailed account of the interaction of aluminium with proteic sidechains will be given. Finally, it will be described how alumnium can exert oxidative stress by stabilizing superoxide radicals either as mononuclear aluminium or clustered in boehmite. The possibility of promotion of Fenton reaction, and production of hydroxyl radicals will also be discussed. PMID:24757505

  20. Investigation of the aluminium-aluminium oxide reversible transformation as observed by hot stage electron microscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, C. A.; Judd, G.; Ansell, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin foils of high purity aluminium and an Al-Al2O3 SAP type of alloy were oxidised in a specially designed hot stage specimen chamber in an electron microscope. Below 450 C, amorphous aluminium oxide formed on the foil surface and was first detectable at foil edges, holes, and pits. Islands of aluminium then nucleated in this amorphous oxide. The aluminium islands displayed either a lateral growth with eventual coalescence with other islands, or a reoxidation process which caused the islands to disappear. The aluminium island formation was determined to be related to the presence of the electron beam. A mechanism based upon electron charging due to the electron beam was proposed to explain the nucleation, growth, coalescence, disappearance, and geometry of the aluminium islands.

  1. Structural study of VO {sub x} doped aluminium fluoride and aluminium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Scheurell, Kerstin; Scholz, Gudrun; Kemnitz, Erhard

    2007-02-15

    The structural properties of vanadium doped aluminium oxyfluorides and aluminium oxides, prepared by a modified sol-gel synthesis route, were thoroughly investigated. The influence of the preparation technique and the calcination temperature on the coordination of vanadium, aluminium and fluorine was analysed by different spectroscopic methods such as Raman, MAS NMR and ESR spectroscopy. In all samples calcined at low temperatures (350 deg. C), vanadium coexists in two oxidation states V{sup IV} and V{sup V}, with V{sup IV} as dominating species in the vanadium doped aluminium oxyfluorides. In the fluoride containing solids aluminium as well as vanadium are coordinated by fluorine and oxygen. Thermal annealing of 800 deg. C leads to an extensive reorganisation of the original matrices and to the oxidation of V{sup IV} to V{sup V} in both systems. - Graphical abstract: Structure model for VO {sub x} doped aluminium oxide.

  2. Thin-film gallium arsenide solar-cell research. Annual project report, March 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    The optimization of the deposition of gallium arsenide films of 10 ..mu..m thickness or less has been carried out with the objective of obtaining gallium arsenide films with uniform microstructure and good electrical properties. Gallium arsenide films of 10 ..mu..m or less thickness deposited on tungsten/graphite substrates exhibit, in most cases, pronounced shunting effects in large area MOS solar cells due to grain boundaries. The effective passivation of grain boundaries is necessary to produce solar cells with good conversion efficiency. Different grain boundary passivation techniques have been investigated to determine their effectiveness for large area solar cells from the deposited gallium arsenide films. The combination of ruthenium treatment and thermal oxidation has been shown to be the most effective passivation technique for large area MOS solar cells. MOS solar cells have been fabricated from gallium arsenide films of 10 ..mu..m thickness. The gallium arsenide films were treated with ruthenium ion and followed by thermal oxidation. The solar cells are of the configuration TiO/sub 2//Ag(grid contact)/Au/oxide/n-GaAs/n/sup +/-GaAs/W/graphite. MOS solar cells of 9 cm/sup 2/ area with an AM1 efficiency of up to 8.5% have been prepared reproducibly. The fabrication and characterization of thin film gallium arsenide homojunction solar cells have been initiated. The p/sup +/-n junction was formed in-situ by depositing the Zn-doped p/sup +/-layer immediately after the deposition of n/n/sup +/-layers. Without any surface passivation treatment, solar cells of 8 cm/sup 2/ area with an AM1 efficiency of about 7% have been prepared. With proper optimization in the fabrication processes, the conversion efficiency should be greatly improved. Therefore homojunction structure is a promising approach for the fabrication of thin film gallium arsenide solar cells.

  3. The removal of iron from molten aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Donk, H.M. van der; Nijhof, G.H.; Castelijns, C.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    In this work an overview is given about the techniques available for the removal of metallic impurities from molten aluminium. The overview is focused on the removal of iron. Also, some experimental results are given about the creation of iron-rich intermetallic compounds in an aluminium system, which are subsequently removed by gravity segregation and filtration techniques. This work is part of an ongoing research project of three major European aluminium companies who are co-operating on the subject of recycling of aluminium packaging materials recovered from household waste by means of Eddy-Current techniques. Using this technique the pick-up of some contaminating metals, particularly iron, is almost unavoidable.

  4. First-Principles Determination of Ultrahigh Thermal Conductivity of Boron Arsenide: A Competitor for Diamond?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Reinecke, T. L.

    2013-07-01

    We have calculated the thermal conductivities (κ) of cubic III-V boron compounds using a predictive first principles approach. Boron arsenide is found to have a remarkable room temperature κ over 2000Wm-1K-1; this is comparable to those in diamond and graphite, which are the highest bulk values known. We trace this behavior in boron arsenide to an interplay of certain basic vibrational properties that lie outside of the conventional guidelines in searching for high κ materials, and to relatively weak phonon-isotope scattering. We also find that cubic boron nitride and boron antimonide will have high κ with isotopic purification. This work provides new insight into the nature of thermal transport at a quantitative level and predicts a new ultrahigh κ material of potential interest for passive cooling applications.

  5. An advanced space photovoltaic concentrator array using Fresnel lenses, gallium arsenide cells, and prismatic cell covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    The current status of a space concentrator array which uses refractive optics, gallium arsenide cells, and prismatic cell covers to achieve excellent performance at a very low array mass is documented. The prismatically covered cells have established records for space cell performance (24.2 percent efficient at 100 AM0 suns and 25 C) and terrestrial single-junction cell performance (29.3 percent efficient at 200 AM1.5 suns and 25 C).

  6. Arsenide-antimonide hetero-junction tunnel transistors for low power logic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohata, Dheeraj Kumar

    Aggressive supply voltage (VCC) scaling of future transistors without increasing the off-state leakage while maintaining performance remains an important challenge. Hetero-junction Tunnel FETs (HTFETs) with steep switching slope and high drive current at low supply voltage (below 0.35V) have emerged as promising low VCC device option. GaAs1-ySby source and InxGa1-xAs channel form lattice matched arsenide-antimonide staggered hetero-junctions with compositionally tunable effective tunnel barrier height. Unlike homo-junction Tunnel FETs, the effective barrier height of staggered hetero-junctions can be made negligibly small while maintaining large band-gaps in the respective source, channel and drain regions, thus, enabling TFETs to achieve MOSFET like drive currents while maintaining higher on-off ratio. This dissertation focuses on experimental demonstration of mixed arsenide-antimonide hetero-junction TFETs with nano-pillar tunnel transistor architecture exhibiting MOSFET-like on-current and high on-off ratio for ultra-low power logic applications. Within this dissertation, using experimental demonstration and detailed modeling, following aspects of the n-channel hetero-junction Tunnel FETs will be discussed: a) Material selection and device design; b) Nano-pillar TFET process flow development; c) Hetero-junction TFET growth and materials characterization; and d) Hetero-junction TFET transport study. The dissertation concludes with benchmarking of the performance of arsenide-antimonide n-channel Tunnel FETs with those reported till date, and an address to the feasibility of arsenide-antimonide based complementary Tunnel FET logic for future ultra low power logic applications.

  7. Aluminium in the blood and urine of industrially exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, B; Lundberg, I; Lidums, V

    1983-01-01

    Blood and urine aluminium concentrations were studied in industrially exposed workers using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Welders and workers making aluminium powder and aluminium sulphate had higher concentrations in blood and urine than non-exposed referents. Workers in the electrolytic production of aluminium had higher urine but not blood concentrations than the referents. Thus aluminium was found to be absorbed by all industrially exposed workers. Blood concentrations were lower than those presumably associated with aluminium induced encephalopathy in patients receiving dialysis. PMID:6871119

  8. Two years of on-orbit gallium arsenide performance from the LIPS solar cell panel experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, R. W.; Betz, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    The LIPS on-orbit performance of the gallium arsenide panel experiment was analyzed from flight operation telemetry data. Algorithms were developed to calculate the daily maximum power and associated solar array parameters by two independent methods. The first technique utilizes a least mean square polynomial fit to the power curve obtained with intensity and temperature corrected currents and voltages; whereas, the second incorporates an empirical expression for fill factor based on an open circuit voltage and the calculated series resistance. Maximum power, fill factor, open circuit voltage, short circuit current and series resistance of the solar cell array are examined as a function of flight time. Trends are analyzed with respect to possible mechanisms which may affect successive periods of output power during 2 years of flight operation. Degradation factors responsible for the on-orbit performance characteristics of gallium arsenide are discussed in relation to the calculated solar cell parameters. Performance trends and the potential degradation mechanisms are correlated with existing laboratory and flight data on both gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells for similar environments.

  9. Density Functional Theory insights into the mechanism of noncollinear incommensurate spin density waves in Iron Arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Robert; Clark, Stewart; Lancaster, Tom; Frawley, Thomas; Hatton, Peter

    Iron arsenide intersects interesting physics between novel superconductors and other helical magnetic ordering in Pnma metal arsenide materials. Recent diffraction data has found a more complex ordering than a simple helical incommensurate spin density wave. Instead iron arsenide exhibits a definite chirality to the helimagnetism, an ellipticity in the spiral not aligned with the crystal axis, and resonant diffraction peaks forbidden by the Pnma symmetry. From non-magnetic and collinear density functional theory calculations we present insight into the mechanisms for the formation of this helimagnetic state. We find that ferromagnetic superexchange is a likely mechanism for the spin ordering and that the noncollinear ordering under this regime is caused by the spins on neighbouring irons arranging to minimise direct exchange between iron atoms, and also minimize disruption of the ferromagnetic superexchange between priveleged iron-arsenic pairs. To explain the forbidden peaks in the diffraction we have performed second-order spin-orbit perturbation calculations on the nonmagnetic calculation, which finds that the orbital ordering on the iron atoms coupled to the helimagnetism will lead to the otherwise symmetry-forbidden peaks.

  10. Thermal expansion of gallium arsenide layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynski, M.; Walker, J. F.

    1993-03-01

    The thermal expansion of low-temperature (190-220 °C) MBE grown gallium arsenide (LT GaAs) was measured using x-ray diffraction methods. The experiment was performed in order to observe the influence of high nonstoichiometric excess (about 1%) of arsenic on the thermal expansion of gallium arsenide. The diffraction measurements enabled the simultaneous monitoring of the lattice constants of the LT GaAs layers and their semi-insulating GaAs substrates. Their lattice mismatch was only slightly temperature dependent and decreased by about 5% with a temperature rise from 77 K (in dark) up to 550 K. This means that the value of the thermal expansion coefficient of as-grown LT GaAs was lower only by about 0.05×10-6 K-1 than that of the semi-insulating GaAs substrate. Reduction of arsenic excess by air annealing at 420 °C resulted in the decrease of lattice mismatch and the difference in the thermal expansion. This means that both are related to such point defects as arsenic antisites and interstitials. The experimental results are compared with the previously published data for variously doped gallium arsenide samples.

  11. Surface modification for aluminium pigment inhibition.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Philip; Palmqvist, Anders E C; Holmberg, Krister

    2006-12-21

    This review concerns surface treatment of aluminium pigments for use in water borne coatings. Aluminium pigments are commonly used in coatings to give a silvery and shiny lustre to the substrate. Such paints and inks have traditionally been solvent borne, since aluminium pigment particles react with water. For environmental and health reasons solvent borne coatings are being replaced by water borne and the aluminium pigments then need to be surface modified in order to stand exposure to water. This process is called inhibition and both organic and inorganic substances are used as inhibiting agents. The organic inhibiting agents range from low molecular weight substances, such as phenols and aromatic acids, via surfactants, in particular alkyl phosphates and other anionic amphiphiles, to high molecular weight compounds, such as polyelectrolytes. A common denominator for them all is that they contain a functional group that interacts specifically with aluminium at the surface. A particularly strong interaction is obtained if the inhibiting agent contains functional groups that form chelating complex with surface Al(III). Encapsulation of the pigment can be made by in situ polymerization at the surface of the pigment and a recent approach is to have the polymerization occur within a double layer of adsorbed surfactant. The inorganic route is dominated by coating with silica, and recent progress has been made using an alkoxide, such as tetraethoxysilane as silica precursor. Such silica coated aluminium pigments are comparable in performance to chromate inhibited pigments and thus offer a possible heavy metal-free alternative. There are obvious connections between surface modifications made to prevent the pigment to react with water and inhibition of corrosion of macroscopic aluminium surfaces. PMID:17239333

  12. Aluminium and the human breast.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2016-06-01

    The human population is exposed to aluminium (Al) from diet, antacids and vaccine adjuvants, but frequent application of Al-based salts to the underarm as antiperspirant adds a high additional exposure directly to the local area of the human breast. Coincidentally the upper outer quadrant of the breast is where there is also a disproportionately high incidence of breast cysts and breast cancer. Al has been measured in human breast tissues/fluids at higher levels than in blood, and experimental evidence suggests that at physiologically relevant concentrations, Al can adversely impact on human breast epithelial cell biology. Gross cystic breast disease is the most common benign disorder of the breast and evidence is presented that Al may be a causative factor in formation of breast cysts. Evidence is also reviewed that Al can enable the development of multiple hallmarks associated with cancer in breast cells, in particular that it can cause genomic instability and inappropriate proliferation in human breast epithelial cells, and can increase migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. In addition, Al is a metalloestrogen and oestrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer known to influence multiple hallmarks. The microenvironment is established as another determinant of breast cancer development and Al has been shown to cause adverse alterations to the breast microenvironment. If current usage patterns of Al-based antiperspirant salts contribute to causation of breast cysts and breast cancer, then reduction in exposure would offer a strategy for prevention, and regulatory review is now justified. PMID:26997127

  13. Investigation of detonation initiation in aluminium suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veyssiere, B.; Khasainov, B. A.; Briand, A.

    2008-09-01

    Detonation initiation is investigated in aluminium/oxygen and aluminium/air mixtures. Critical conditions for initiation of spherical detonations are examined in analogy with the criteria defined for gaseous mixtures, which correlate critical parameters of detonation initiation to the characteristic size of the cellular structure. However, experimental data on the detonation cell size in these two-phase mixtures are very scarce, on account of the difficulty to perform large-scale experiments. Therefore, 2D numerical simulations of the detonation cellular structure have been undertaken, with the same combustion model for Al/air and Al/O2 mixtures. The cell size is found to be λ = 37.5 cm for a rich ( r = 1.61) aluminium-air mixture, and λ = 7.5 cm for a stoichiometric aluminium-oxygen mixture, which is in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. Calculations performed in large-scale configurations (up to 25 m in length and 1.5 m in lateral direction) suggest that the critical initiation energy and predetonation radius for direct initiation of the unconfined detonation in the aluminium-air mixture are, respectively, 10 kg of TNT and 8 m. Moreover, numerical simulations reveal that the structure of the detonation wave behind the leading front is even more complicated than in pure gaseous mixtures, due to two-phase flow effects.

  14. Hot tearing evaluation for aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brůna, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Hot tearing during solidification of aluminium alloys castings can be a serious problem. This phenomenon is well known but still insufficiently investigated. Hot tearing occurs in form of irregular cracks in metal castings that develop during solidification and cooling. The cause of hot tearing is generally attributed to the development of thermally induced tensile stresses and strains in a casting as the molten metal contracts during solidification and solid state shrinkage. Submited paper consists of two parts. The first part introduces the reader to the phenomenon of hot tearing. The second part describes newly developed method for assessing hot tearing susceptibility of aluminium alloys, and also gives the results on hot tearing for various aluminium alloys.

  15. Diamond grooving of rapidly solidified optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Ghobashy, Sameh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Mkoko, Zwelinzima

    2015-10-01

    Traditional optical aluminium grades such as Al 6061 are intensively used for making optical components for applications ranging from mould insert fabrication to laser machine making. However, because of their irregular microstructure and relative inhomogeneity of material properties at micro scale, traditional optical aluminium may exhibit some difficulties when ultra-high precision diamond turned. Inhomogeneity and micro-variation in the material properties combined with uneven and coarse microstructure may cause unacceptable surface finish and accelerated tool wear, especially in grooving operation when the diamond tool edge is fully immersed in the material surface. Recently, new grades of optical aluminium that are featured by their ultra-fine microstructure and improved material properties have been developed to overcome the problem of high tool wear rates. The new aluminium grades have been developed using rapid solidification process which results in extremely small grain sizes combined with improved mechanical properties. The current study is concerned with investigating the performance of single-point diamond turning when grooving two grades of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades: RSA905 which is a high-alloyed aluminium grade and RSA443 which has a high silicon content. In this study, two series of experiments employed to create radial microgrooves on the two RSA grades. The surface roughness obtained on the groove surface is measured when different combinations of cutting parameters are used. Cutting speed is varied while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant. The results show that groove surface roughness produced on RSA443 is higher than that obtained on RSA905. Also, the paper reports on the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness for each RSA grade.

  16. Effect of barrier height on friction behavior of the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishina, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Friction experiments were conducted for the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals. Polycrystalline titanium, tantalum, nickel, palladium, and platinum were made to contact a single crystal silicon (111) surface. Indium, nickel, copper, and silver were made to contact a single crystal gallium arsenide (100) surface. Sliding was conducted both in room air and in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 9th power torr. The friction of semiconductors in contact with metals depended on a Schottky barrier height formed at the metal semiconductor interface. Metals with a higher barrier height on semiconductors gave lower friction. The effect of the barrier height on friction behavior for argon sputtered cleaned surfaces in vacuum was more specific than that for the surfaces containing films in room air. With a silicon surface sliding on titanium, many silicon particles back transferred. In contrast, a large quantity of indium transferred to the gallium arsenide surface.

  17. The Construction and Characterization of Native Insulators on Gallium-Arsenide and Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisman, Everett Earle

    Because of the excellent electrical properties that are obtained at the interfaces between silicon and thermally grown "native" oxides and nitrides, metal-insulator -semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFET's) have become the basic elements in fast high density computer memories as well as a primary structure for probing semiconductor surface charge transport phenomena. As silicon surface mobilities approach the bulk mobility a physical constraint is also being approached with respect to speed and density. Other semiconductors with higher bulk mobilities have, therefore, been suggested as replacements for silicon: gallium arsenide because of its very high room temperature electron mobility and germanium because it is one of the few well studied semiconductors with electron and hole mobilities of nearly the same magnitude. Unlike silicon, Ge and GaAs do not react readily wit oxygen or nitrogen to form uniform layers of interface passivating "native" insulators. In this study, techniques are reported for making native insulators on gallium arsenide and germanium. On gallium arsenide, the insulator is an oxide formed by a plasma oxidation technique (POX). On germanium, oxides have been formed by a high pressure oxidation technique (HPO) and these subsequently have been converted to nitrides (or oxynitride) by reaction with ammonia gas. Details of the formation techniques and basic characterization of the insulators and insulator/semiconductor interface electrical properties are present. Surface mobilities of about 20% of the bulk values were measured for MISFET's constructed on both GaAs and Ge using native oxides as the insulator. Fixed interface charge density in the low to mid 10('11)/cm('2) and midgap densities of states in the high 10('11)/cm('2)-eV range were also measured on similar MIS capacitors. On germanium nitride structures fixed surface charge density and interface density of states were both measured to be on the order of 10('10). Characterization

  18. Effect of aluminium chloride on human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, S.

    1988-03-01

    Aluminium (Al), which is the most prevalent metal in the earth's crust, has been implicated as an etiological factor in a variety of clinical disorders. Only recently Al has been discussed in the pathogenesis of the parenteral nutrition - associated liver disease. Included in this report are the preliminary findings on its effects on the reproductive functions of human beings.

  19. Molecular breeding of cereals for aluminium resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...

  20. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g-1 (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg-1), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  1. Development of gallium arsenide high-speed, low-power serial parallel interface modules: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Final report to NASA LeRC on the development of gallium arsenide (GaAS) high-speed, low power serial/parallel interface modules. The report discusses the development and test of a family of 16, 32 and 64 bit parallel to serial and serial to parallel integrated circuits using a self aligned gate MESFET technology developed at the Honeywell Sensors and Signal Processing Laboratory. Lab testing demonstrated 1.3 GHz clock rates at a power of 300 mW. This work was accomplished under contract number NAS3-24676.

  2. Indium arsenide nanowire field-effect transistors for pH and biological sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, S.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J.; Frederiksen, R.; Lloret, N.; Martinez, K. L.; De Vico, L.; Jensen, J. H.

    2014-05-19

    Indium Arsenide is a high mobility semiconductor with a surface electron accumulation layer that allows ohmic electrical contact to metals. Here, we present nanowire devices based on this material as a platform for chemical and biological sensing. The sensing principle involves the binding of a charged species at the sensor surface transduced via field effect into a change in current flowing through the sensor. We show the sensitivity of the platform to the H{sup +} ion concentration in solution as proof of principle and demonstrate the sensitivity to larger charged protein species. The sensors are highly reproducible and reach a detection limit of 10 pM for Avidin.

  3. Functional renormalization group study of an 8-band model for the iron arsenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honerkamp, Carsten; Lichtenstein, Julian; Maier, Stefan A.; Platt, Christian; Thomale, Ronny; Andersen, Ole Krogh; Boeri, Lilia

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the superconducting pairing instabilities of eight-band models for 1111 iron arsenides. Using a functional renormalization group treatment, we determine how the critical energy scale for superconductivity depends on the electronic band structure. Most importantly, if we vary the parameters from values corresponding to LaFeAsO to SmFeAsO, the pairing scale is strongly enhanced, in accordance with the experimental observation. We analyze the reasons for this trend and compare the results of the eight-band approach to those found using five-band models.

  4. On-orbit performance of LIPS gallium arsenide solar cell experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavaro, T.; Francis, R.; Pennell, M.

    1984-01-01

    Telemetry from the Living Plume Shield's gallium arsenide solar panel experiment was evaluated to determine degradation. The data were culled to preclude spurious results from possible shadowing or inaccurate measurements on a cold array. Two independent methods were then used to obtain the maximum power points and the various characteristics of the solar array. Fill factor, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and series and shunt resistances were examined. The data analysis concluded that, to date, nearly all of the solar array degradation is due to the reduction in the short circuit current.

  5. Gallium Arsenide Layers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on Single Crystalline Germanium Islands on Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Mikio; Tanigawa, Takaho; Minamisono, Tadanori; Gamo, Kenji; Namba, Susumu

    1984-05-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) layers have successfully been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on single crystalline germanium (Ge) islands, recrystallized by zone melting with SiO2 capping layers, on thermally-oxidized Si-wafers. The GaAs layers, grown on the single crystalline Ge islands, show smooth surfaces without any grain-boundaries, while those, grown on the Ge islands with grain-boundaries and on the SiO2, have grain-boundaries. The GaAs layers on the single crystalline Ge islands emit photoluminescence, the intensity of which is almost comparable to that of GaAs layers on bulk Ge crystals.

  6. Analytical and experimental procedures for determining propagation characteristics of millimeter-wave gallium arsenide microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    In this report, a thorough analytical procedure is developed for evaluating the frequency-dependent loss characteristics and effective permittivity of microstrip lines. The technique is based on the measured reflection coefficient of microstrip resonator pairs. Experimental data, including quality factor Q, effective relative permittivity, and fringing for 50-omega lines on gallium arsenide (GaAs) from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz are presented. The effects of an imperfect open circuit, coupling losses, and loading of the resonant frequency are considered. A cosine-tapered ridge-guide text fixture is described. It was found to be well suited to the device characterization.

  7. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as <0.025μm filtered, <0.45μm filtered (dissolved) and unfiltered (total) present in solution over the 72-h bioassay. The chronic population growth rate inhibition after aluminium exposure varied between diatom species. C. closterium was the most sensitive species (10% inhibition of growth rate (72-h IC10) of 80 (55-100)μg Al/L (95% confidence limits)) while M. polymorphus (540 (460-600)μg Al/L) and P. tricornutum (2100 (2000-2200)μg Al/L) were less sensitive (based on measured total aluminium). Dissolved aluminium was the primary contributor to toxicity in C. closterium, while a combination of dissolved and precipitated aluminium forms contributed to toxicity in M. polymorphus. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the most tolerant diatom P. tricornutum was due predominantly to precipitated aluminium. Preliminary investigations revealed the sensitivity of C. closterium and M. polymorphus to aluminium was influenced by initial cell density with aluminium toxicity significantly (p<0.05) increasing with initial cell density from 10(3) to 10(5)cells/mL. No effects on plasma membrane permeability were observed for any of the three diatoms suggesting that mechanisms of aluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated

  8. Ab initio study of the unusual thermal transport properties of boron arsenide and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broido, D. A.; Lindsay, L.; Reinecke, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, using a first principles approach, we predicted that zinc blende boron arsenide (BAs) will have an ultrahigh lattice thermal conductivity, κ, of over 2000 Wm-1K-1 at room temperature (RT), comparable to that of diamond. Here, we provide a detailed ab initio examination of phonon thermal transport in boron arsenide, contrasting its unconventional behavior with that of other related materials, including the zinc blende crystals boron nitride (BN), boron phosphide, boron antimonide, and gallium nitride (GaN). The unusual vibrational properties of BAs contribute to its weak phonon-phonon scattering and phonon-isotope scattering, which are responsible for its exceptionally high κ. The thermal conductivity of BAs has contributions from phonons with anomalously large mean free paths (˜2 μm), two to three times those of diamond and BN. This makes κ in BAs sensitive to phonon scattering from crystal boundaries. An order of magnitude smaller RT thermal conductivity in a similar material, zinc blende GaN, is connected to more separated acoustic phonon branches, larger anharmonic force constants, and a large isotope mixture on the heavy rather than the light constituent atom. The striking difference in κ for BAs and GaN demonstrates the importance of using a microscopic first principles thermal transport approach for calculating κ. BAs also has an advantageous RT coefficient of thermal expansion, which, combined with the high κ value, suggests that it is a promising material for use in thermal management applications.

  9. Optimal power settings of aluminum gallium arsenide lasers in caries inhibition — An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonali; Hegde, Mithra N; Sadananda, Vandana; Mathews, Blessen

    2016-01-01

    Context: Incipient carious lesions are characterized by subsurface dissolution due to more fluoride ions in the 50-100 microns of the tooth's outer surface. Aims: To determine an optimal power setting for 810 nm aluminum gallium arsenide laser for caries inhibition. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four caries-free extracted teeth were sectioned mesiodistally. The samples were divided into 18 groups for each power setting being evaluated. Each group had six samples. The laser used is 810 nm aluminum gallium arsenide laser with power setting from 0.1 watts to 5 watts. Laser fluorescence based device was used to evaluate the effect of irradiation. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired “t” test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's post hoc test, and the Pearson's correlation test. Results: The paired t-test showed that there is minimum divergence from the control for 3.5 watts. Tukey's post hoc test also showed statistically significantly results for 3.5 watts. The Pearson's correlation test showed that there was negative correlation between the watts and irradiation. Conclusions: The power setting that gave statistically significant results was 3.5 watts. PMID:27099427

  10. Liquid immiscibility between arsenide and sulfide melts: evidence from a LA-ICP-MS study in magmatic deposits at Serranía de Ronda (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, R.; Gervilla, F.; Barnes, S.-J.; Ortega, L.; Lunar, R.

    2015-03-01

    The chromite-Ni arsenide (Cr-Ni-As) and sulfide-graphite (S-G) deposits from the Serranía de Ronda (Málaga, South Spain) contain an arsenide assemblage (nickeline, maucherite and nickeliferous löllingite) that has been interpreted to represent an arsenide melt and a sulfide-graphite assemblage (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite and graphite) that has been interpreted to represent a sulfide melt, both of which have been interpreted to have segregated as immiscible liquids from an arsenic-rich sulfide melt. We have determined the platinum-group element (PGE), Au, Ag, Se, Sb, Bi and Te contents of the arsenide and sulfide assemblages using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to establish their partitioning behaviour during the immiscibility of an arsenide melt from a sulfide melt. Previous experimental work has shown that PGE partition more strongly into arsenide melts than into sulfide melts and our results fit with this observation. Arsenide minerals are enriched in all PGE, but especially in elements with the strongest affinity for the arsenide melt, including Ir, Rh and Pt. In contrast and also in agreement with previous studies, Se and Ag partition preferentially into the sulfide assemblage. The PGE-depleted nature of sulfides in the S-G deposits along with the discordant morphologies of the bodies suggest that these sulfides are not mantle sulfides, but that they represent the crystallization product of a PGE-depleted sulfide melt due to the sequestering of PGE by an arsenide melt.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of transition metal arsenide nanocrystals and the metastability and magneto-structural phase transition behavior of manganese arsenide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanhua

    This dissertation study focuses on (1) probing the magneto-structural phase transformation in nanoscale MnAs; (2) evaluation of the size-dependent phase stability of type-B MnAs (prepared by rapid injection); and (3) developing a general synthetic method for transition metal arsenide nanoparticles. Discrete MnAs nanoparticles that adopt different structures at room temperature (type-A, α-structure and type-B, beta-structure) have been prepared by the solution-phase arrested precipitation method. Atomic pair distribution and Rietveld refinement were employed on synchrotron data to explore the structural transitions of the bulk and nanoparticle samples, and these results were compared to AC magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples. The results confirm that the structural transition and the magnetic transition are highly correlated in bulk MnAs and suggest that for type-A MnAs nanoparticles, there is a similar magneto-structural phase transition occurring in the same temperature region as that for bulk MnAs. However, for type-B MnAs nanoparticles, there is no magneto-structural phase transition, consistent with that type-B MnAs nanoparticles being kinetically trapped in the beta-structure. Type-B MnAs nanoparticles adopting the beta-strucuture undergo a transformation from beta to α upon cooling. Temperature dependent XRD studies and magnetic measurements suggest that the TP for α → beta conversion is suppressed to lower temperatures relative to bulk and type-A MnAs nanoparticles and that the transformation is reversible but has an enhanced hysteresis, which results in a large coexistence temperature range for the α and beta structure. The transformation temperature correlated with the compression of the lattice parameters of the type-B MnAs nanoparticles due to the decrease in the particle size or the presence of chemical doping, or both. A new general synthetic method for transition metal arsenide (Ni 11As8, FeAs and CoAs) nanocrystals synthesis was

  12. Bladder cancer in the aluminium industry.

    PubMed

    Thériault, G; Tremblay, C; Cordier, S; Gingras, S

    1984-04-28

    The incidence of bladder cancer is unusually high in aluminium smelter workers. An epidemiological study showed that workers in Soderberg potrooms are at highest risk for bladder cancer, the adjusted overall relative risk being 2.39 (1.34-4.28). Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, of which benz(a)pyrene (BaP) served as an indicator, seems to be the causative factor. The relative risk was evaluated at 12.38 for workers with 20 or more equivalent years of BaP exposure. Cigarette smoking contributed significantly to the appearance of bladder cancer in the population studied. There is a synergistic effect when cigarette smoking and BaP exposure are combined; the numbers in our population are too small to determine whether this interaction effect is multiplicative or additive. It is concluded that bladder cancer is associated with aluminium smelting (primarily with the Soderberg process). PMID:6143877

  13. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-16

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts; ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g(-1) and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g(-1) (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg(-1)), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay. PMID:25849777

  14. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  15. Inhalation exposure in secondary aluminium smelting.

    PubMed

    Healy, J; Bradley, S D; Northage, C; Scobbie, E

    2001-04-01

    Inhalation exposure at seven UK secondary aluminium smelters was investigated to quantify the main exposures and identify their sources. The substances monitored were gases (carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen dioxide), total inhalable dust, metals, ammonia, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particulate fluoride salts and acids. The results showed that people were exposed to a range of workplace air pollutants. Personal exposure results for total inhalable dust were between 700 and 5600 microg x m(-3) and the maximum personal exposure result for particulate fluoride salts was 690 microg x m(-3) (as F). The maximum aluminium, total PAH and lead personal exposure results were 900, 19 and 18 microg x m(-3) respectively. The average proportion of aluminium in total inhalable dust samples was 13% and rotary furnace processes generated the most dust. Particulate fluoride salt exposure was more widespread than hydrofluoric acid exposure. The source of the salt exposure was fluoride containing fluxes. The lead exposure source was lead solder contamination in the furnace charge. PMID:11295145

  16. Plasmonic enhancement of photoluminescence from aluminium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Chris; Stewart, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) films were grown on c-plane sapphire wafers by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) under aluminium-rich conditions. The excess aluminium (Al) accumulated on the surface of the films as micro-scale droplets 1-10 μm in size, and as Al nanoparticles with diameters in the range 10-110 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on the AlN samples using a 193 nm Excimer laser as the excitation source. Prior to PL measurements the wafers were cleaved in half. One half of each wafer was submitted to a 10 min treatment in H3PO4 heated to 70 °C to remove the excess Al from the film surface. The remaining half was left in the as-deposited condition. The mean intensities of the near-band-edge PL peaks of the as-deposited samples were 2.0-3.4 times higher compared to the samples subjected to the H3PO4 Al-removal treatment. This observation motivated calculations to determine the optimal Al surface nanosphere size for plasmonic enhancement of PL from AlN. The PL enhancement was found to peak for an Al nanosphere radius of 15 nm, which is within the range of the experimentally-observed Al nanoparticle sizes.

  17. Improving the Crashworthiness of Aluminium Rail Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangani, Donato; Robinson, Mark; Kotsikos, George

    An experimental and modelling programme of work have been undertaken to predict the performance of aluminium welds in rail vehicles under highly dynamic loading conditions and provide design guidelines to reduce the likelihood of the occurrence of weld unzipping. Modelling of weld unzipping in large rail structures is a challenging task since it requires to deal with material instability, to take into account the uncertainties in material parameters and to address the problem of mesh resolution which together pose severe challenges to computability. The proposed methodology to the prediction of weld failure is based on the validation of the numerical models through correlation with laboratory scale tearing tests. The tearing tests were conducted on samples taken from real rail extrusions with the purpose of obtaining the failure parameters under dynamic loading and understanding the effect of weld material composition on joint behaviour. The validated material models were used to construct a FEA simulation of the collision of an aluminium rail car and investigate the effect of both joint geometry and welding techniques on the failure mechanism. Comparisons of the model with the failures observed in an aluminium rail vehicle that was involved in a high speed collision, have shown that it is possible to model the phenomenon of weld unzipping with good accuracy. The numerical models have also been used as a tool for the optimisation of joint design to improve crashworthiness.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium-aluminium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Chukin, A. V.; Smolenski, V. V.; Novoselova, A. V.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga-Al alloys containing 0.014-20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated.

  19. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Methods Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Results Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. Conclusions All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium. PMID:24103160

  20. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium-aluminium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Chukin, A. V.; Smolenski, V. V.; Novoselova, A. V.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga-Al alloys containing 0.014-20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated.

  1. Cold-impregnated aluminium. A new source of nickel exposure.

    PubMed

    Lidén, C

    1994-07-01

    A new technique for finishing anodized aluminium was introduced during the 1980s--cold impregnation with nickel. Nickel is available on the surface of cold-impregnated aluminium, as shown by the dimethylglyoxime test. Chemical analysis with EDXA showed that nickel was in the form of NiSO4. A case of work-related allergic contact dermatitis in an engraver with nickel allergy is reported. It transpired that the patient was exposed to nickel in connection with aluminium. It is concluded that cold-impregnated aluminium is a new source of nickel exposure, probably previously unknown to dermatologists. PMID:7924288

  2. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, M.; Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L.; Afshari, A.

    2014-03-01

    Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface roughness was also observed.

  3. Production of aluminium metal matrix composites by liquid processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Kumar, R.; Tharmaraj, R.; Velu, P. Shenbaga

    2016-05-01

    Owing to high strength to low weight ratio, Aluminium matrix composites are widely used in diverse applications of many industries. This lucrative property is achieved by reinforcing the brittle ceramic particles in the aluminium matrix. Aluminium matrix composites are produced by liquid processing methods and solid processing methods. Nevertheless, liquidprocessing techniques stand out because of its simplicity and its suitability for mass production. In this review article, the production of aluminium matrix composites by different liquid processing technique is discussed and a comparative study is carried out.

  4. Gold/niobium thin film metallizations for gallium arsenide devices and circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Robert Henry

    As the information age opens, the demand for high performance electronics is increasing exponentially. High-speed communications devices and equipment are at the heart of this expansion. Gallium arsenide field effect transistors are the building blocks for those devices. GaAs FETs provide operation at speeds more than six times that of conventional silicon devices. There is a need to develop and expand the materials knowledge base in all aspects to the fabrication of III/V semiconductors. Of particular interest is developing a metallization for gallium arsenide circuits and devices that will provide a high quality diffusion barrier. The metallization must provide adhesion to the GaAs surface. It must be thermally and chemically stable. It must be compatible with the other materials encountered in semiconductor processing and packaging. A niobium/gold thin film system for first level metallization on GaAs is proposed and examined. Niobium displays good adhesion to other semiconductor substrates such as Si, SiO2, and diamond. It is corrosion resistant. Niobium has the third lowest resistance of the refractory metals. Finally, the melting point of TM = 2467°C suggests that niobium will have high temperature stability and low interdiffusion coefficients. The kinetics of Nb/Au thin films was examined using sheet resistance measurements, X-Ray diffraction and Auger Electron Spectroscopy depth profiling techniques. The data is analyzed using the Matano method and a technique proposed by Zhang and Wong to take into account the fort-nation of an intermediate intermetallic phase. The relevant diffusion coefficients for two kinetics regimes are presented. Finally, niobium/gold was used as a Schottky contact on GaAs and subjected to an anneal study. It was found that the series resistance of Schottky diodes decreased with a 1 hour anneal at 250°C to 12.5O, and remained stable for temperatures of 250°C for 672 hours. It was found that the series resistance degraded

  5. Straw man trade between multi-junction, gallium arsenide, and silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward M.

    1995-01-01

    Multi-junction (MJ), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon (Si) solar cells have respective test efficiencies of approximately 24%, 18.5% and 14.8%. Multi-junction and gallium arsenide solar cells weigh more than silicon solar cells and cost approximately five times as much per unit power at the cell level. A straw man trade is performed for the TRMM spacecraft to determine which of these cell types would have offered an overall performance and price advantage to the spacecraft. A straw man trade is also performed for the multi-junction cells under the assumption that they will cost over ten times that of silicon cells at the cell level. The trade shows that the TRMM project, less the cost of the instrument, ground systems and mission operations, would spend approximately $552 thousand dollars per kilogram to launch and service science in the case of the spacecraft equipped with silicon solar cells. If these cells are changed out for gallium arsenide solar cells, an additional 31 kilograms of science can be launched and serviced at a price of approximately $90 thousand per kilogram. The weight reduction is shown to derive from the smaller area of the array and hence reductions in the weight of the array substrate and supporting structure. If the silicon solar cells are changed out for multi-junction solar cells, an additional 45 kilograms of science above the silicon base line can be launched and serviced at a price of approximately $58 thousand per kilogram. The trade shows that even if the multi-junction arrays are priced over ten times that of silicon cells, a price that is much higher than projected, that the additional 45 kilograms of science are launched and serviced at $182 thousand per kilogram. This is still much less than original $552 thousand per kilogram to launch and service the science. Data and qualitative factors are presented to show that these figures are subject to a great deal of uncertainty. Nonetheless, the benefit of the higher efficiency

  6. Straw man trade between multi-junction, gallium arsenide, and silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddy, E.M.

    1995-10-01

    Multi-junction (MJ), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon (Si) solar cells have respective test efficiencies of approximately 24%, 18.5% and 14.8%. Multi-junction and gallium arsenide solar cells weigh more than silicon solar cells and cost approximately five times as much per unit power at the cell level. A straw man trade is performed for the TRMM spacecraft to determine which of these cell types would have offered an overall performance and price advantage to the spacecraft. A straw man trade is also performed for the multi-junction cells under the assumption that they will cost over ten times that of silicon cells at the cell level. The trade shows that the TRMM project, less the cost of the instrument, ground systems and mission operations, would spend approximately $552 thousand dollars per kilogram to launch and service science in the case of the spacecraft equipped with silicon solar cells. If these cells are changed out for gallium arsenide solar cells, an additional 31 kilograms of science can be launched and serviced at a price of approximately $90 thousand per kilogram. The weight reduction is shown to derive from the smaller area of the array and hence reductions in the weight of the array substrate and supporting structure. If the silicon solar cells are changed out for multi-junction solar cells, an additional 45 kilograms of science above the silicon base line can be launched and serviced at a price of approximately $58 thousand per kilogram. The trade shows that even if the multi-junction arrays are priced over ten times that of silicon cells, a price that is much higher than projected, that the additional 45 kilograms of science are launched and serviced at $182 thousand per kilogram. This is still much less than original $552 thousand per kilogram to launch and service the science. Data and qualitative factors are presented to show that these figures are subject to a great deal of uncertainty.

  7. A Study of Hydrogen Anion Substitution in 1111-type Iron Arsenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo

    2014-03-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest bipolar element and its valence state can be controlled from +1 to -1. We have synthesized the 1111-type iron arsenides CaFeAsH and LnFeAsO1 -xHx (Ln = lanthanide; 0 <= x <= 0.5) with the ZrCuSiAs type structure by a high-pressure synthesis method. The position and valence state of the substituted H were determined by neutron diffraction and density functional theory calculations. The close similarity in the structural and electrical properties of CaFeAsH and CaFeAsF indicated the formation of the hydride ion (H -) , which is isovalent with the fluoride ion (F -) , in the 1111-type iron arsenides. When some of the O2 - ions in LnFeAsO are replaced by H -, superconductivity is induced by electron doping to the FeAs-layer to maintain charge neutrality. Since the substitution limit of hydrogen in LnFeAsO (x ~ 0.5) is much higher than that of fluorine (x ~ 0.2), the hydrogen substitution technique provides an effective pathway for high-density electron-doping, making it possible to draw the complete electronic phase diagram of LnFeAsO. The x-T diagrams of LnFeAsO1-xHx (Ln = La, Ce, Sm, Gd) have a wide superconducting (SC) region spanning the range x = 0.04 to 0.4, which is far from the parent antiferromagnetic region near x = 0.0. For LaFeAsO1-xHx, another SC dome region was found in the range x = ~ 0.2 to ~ 0.5 with a maximum Tc = 36 K, in addition to a conventional SC dome located at x ~ 0.08 with maximum Tc = 29 K. Density functional theory calculations performed for LaFeAsO1-xHx using virtual crystal approximation indicated that the newly observed Tc is correlated with the appearance of degeneration of the Fe 3d bands (dxy, dyz and dzx), which is caused not only by regularization of the tetrahedral shape of FeAs4 due to chemical pressure effects but also by selective band occupation with doped electrons. Very recently, a new AFM phase was found around x =0.5, suggesting that the double dome Tc structure reflects the presence of two AFM

  8. Cost Trade Between Multi-Junction, Gallium Arsenide, and Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward M.

    1995-01-01

    Multi-junction (MJ), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon (Si) solar cells have respective test efficiencies of approximately 24%, 18.5% and 14.8%. Multi-junction and gallium arsenide solar cells weigh more than silicon solar 2 cells and cost approximately five times as much per unit power at the cell level. A trade is performed for the TRMM spacecraft to determine which of these cell types would have offered an overall performance and price advantage to the spacecraft. A trade is also performed for the multi-junction cells under the assumption that they will cost over ten times that of silicon cells at the cell level. The trade shows that the TRMM project, less the cost of the instrument, ground systems and mission operations, would spend approximately $552,000 dollars per kilogram to launch and suppon3science in the case of the spacecraft equipped with silicon solar cells. If these cells are changed out for gallium arsenide solar cells, an additional 31 kilograms of science can be launched and serviced at a price of approximately $90 thousand per kilogram. The weight reduction is shown to derive from the smaller area of the array and hence reductions in the weight of the array substrate and supporting structure. ff the silicon solar cells are changed out for multi-junction solar cells, an additional 45 kilograms of science above the silicon base line can be launched and supported at a price of approximately $58,000 per kilogram. The trade shows that even if the multi-junction cells are priced over ten times that of silicon cells, a price that is much higher than projected, that the additional 45 kilograms of science are launched and serviced at $180,000 per kilogram. This is still much less than the original $552,000 per kilogram to launch and service the science. Data and qualitative factors are presented to show that these figures are subject to a great deal of uncertainty. Nonetheless, the benefit of the higher efficiency solar cells for TRMM is far greater

  9. Straw man trade between multi-junction, gallium arsenide, and silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddy, Edward M.

    1995-10-01

    Multi-junction (MJ), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon (Si) solar cells have respective test efficiencies of approximately 24%, 18.5% and 14.8%. Multi-junction and gallium arsenide solar cells weigh more than silicon solar cells and cost approximately five times as much per unit power at the cell level. A straw man trade is performed for the TRMM spacecraft to determine which of these cell types would have offered an overall performance and price advantage to the spacecraft. A straw man trade is also performed for the multi-junction cells under the assumption that they will cost over ten times that of silicon cells at the cell level. The trade shows that the TRMM project, less the cost of the instrument, ground systems and mission operations, would spend approximately $552 thousand dollars per kilogram to launch and service science in the case of the spacecraft equipped with silicon solar cells. If these cells are changed out for gallium arsenide solar cells, an additional 31 kilograms of science can be launched and serviced at a price of approximately $90 thousand per kilogram. The weight reduction is shown to derive from the smaller area of the array and hence reductions in the weight of the array substrate and supporting structure. If the silicon solar cells are changed out for multi-junction solar cells, an additional 45 kilograms of science above the silicon base line can be launched and serviced at a price of approximately $58 thousand per kilogram. The trade shows that even if the multi-junction arrays are priced over ten times that of silicon cells, a price that is much higher than projected, that the additional 45 kilograms of science are launched and serviced at $182 thousand per kilogram. This is still much less than original $552 thousand per kilogram to launch and service the science. Data and qualitative factors are presented to show that these figures are subject to a great deal of uncertainty. Nonetheless, the benefit of the higher efficiency

  10. Electrodeposition of aluminium, aluminium/magnesium alloys, and magnesium from organometallic electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-01

    The electrodeposition of aluminum, magnesium, and the combination of these metals from nonaqueous media is discussed. Plating baths for depositing Al/Mg alloys or for plating essentially pure Mg were developed. These solutions contain alkali meal fluoride or quaternary ammonium halide/aluminium alkyl complexes and dialkyl magnesium dissolved in aromatic hydrocarbons. Alloy deposits over the whole composition range can be plated from these solutions by varying the relative quantities of the aluminium and magnesium alkyls and by changing the bath-operating parameters. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-06-01

    We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

  12. A I-V analysis of irradiated Gallium Arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heulenberg, A.; Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program was used to analyze the illuminated I-V characteristics of four sets of gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells irradiated with 1-MeV electrons and 10-MeV protons. It was concluded that junction regions (J sub r) dominate nearly all GaAs cells tested, except for irradiated Mitsubishi cells, which appear to have a different doping profile. Irradiation maintains or increases the dominance by J sub r. Proton irradiation increases J sub r more than does electron irradiation. The U.S. cells were optimized for beginning of life (BOL) and the Japanese for end of life (EOL). I-V analysis indicates ways of improving both the BOL and EOL performance of GaAs solar cells.

  13. Structure and electrical characterization of gallium arsenide nanowires with different V/III ratio growth parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammad, R.; Ahamad, R.; Ibrahim, Z.; Othaman, Z.

    2014-03-05

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires were grown vertically on GaAs(111)B substrate by gold-assisted using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and conductivity atomic force microscopy (CAFM) analysis were carried out to investigate the effects of V/III ratio on structural properties and current-voltage changes in the wires. Results show that GaAs NWs grow preferably in the wurtzite crystal structure than zinc blende crystal structure with increasing V/III ratio. Additionally, CAFM studies have revealed that zincblende nanowires indicate ohmic characteristic compared to oscillation current occurred for wurtzite structures. The GaAs NWs with high quality structures are needed in solar cells technology for trapping energy that directly converts of sunlight into electricity with maximum capacity.

  14. Induced superconductivity in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in gallium arsenide heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhong; Kazakov, Aleksandr; Manfra, Michael J; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken W; Rokhinson, Leonid P

    2015-01-01

    Search for Majorana fermions renewed interest in semiconductor-superconductor interfaces, while a quest for higher-order non-Abelian excitations demands formation of superconducting contacts to materials with fractionalized excitations, such as a two-dimensional electron gas in a fractional quantum Hall regime. Here we report induced superconductivity in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in gallium arsenide heterostructures and development of highly transparent semiconductor-superconductor ohmic contacts. Supercurrent with characteristic temperature dependence of a ballistic junction has been observed across 0.6 μm, a regime previously achieved only in point contacts but essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (>16 T) in NbN contacts enables investigation of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a two-dimensional electron gas at high magnetic fields. PMID:26067452

  15. Induced superconductivity in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in gallium arsenide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhong; Kazakov, Aleksandr; Manfra, Michael J.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.; Rokhinson, Leonid P.

    2015-06-01

    Search for Majorana fermions renewed interest in semiconductor-superconductor interfaces, while a quest for higher-order non-Abelian excitations demands formation of superconducting contacts to materials with fractionalized excitations, such as a two-dimensional electron gas in a fractional quantum Hall regime. Here we report induced superconductivity in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in gallium arsenide heterostructures and development of highly transparent semiconductor-superconductor ohmic contacts. Supercurrent with characteristic temperature dependence of a ballistic junction has been observed across 0.6 μm, a regime previously achieved only in point contacts but essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (>16 T) in NbN contacts enables investigation of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a two-dimensional electron gas at high magnetic fields.

  16. Induced superconductivity in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in gallium arsenide heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Zhong; Kazakov, Aleksandr; Manfra, Michael J.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.; Rokhinson, Leonid P.

    2015-01-01

    Search for Majorana fermions renewed interest in semiconductor–superconductor interfaces, while a quest for higher-order non-Abelian excitations demands formation of superconducting contacts to materials with fractionalized excitations, such as a two-dimensional electron gas in a fractional quantum Hall regime. Here we report induced superconductivity in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in gallium arsenide heterostructures and development of highly transparent semiconductor–superconductor ohmic contacts. Supercurrent with characteristic temperature dependence of a ballistic junction has been observed across 0.6 μm, a regime previously achieved only in point contacts but essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (>16 T) in NbN contacts enables investigation of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a two-dimensional electron gas at high magnetic fields. PMID:26067452

  17. Carrier depletion and electrical optimization of gallium arsenide plasmonic solar cell with a rear metallic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Aixue; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively considered for photovoltaics due to the outstanding light-trapping capability; however, the intrinsic processes of carrier transport, recombination and collection have seldom been concerned. We report a complete optoelectronic investigation for plasmonic gallium arsenide solar cells (SCs) with a rear silver grating, by especially quantifying the plasmonics-induced photocurrent loss. It is found that, although the plasmonic design shows indeed much improved output photocurrent, its potential in improving the performance of SCs has not been fully exploited since a lot of energy has been wasted in the form of carrier depletion. A further design which electrically separates the plasmonic nanostructure from the core PN junction is verified to be an effective solution in improving the electrical performance of the SCs. The complete optoelectronic consideration is expected to advance the design of plasmonic SCs for thin-film and high-efficiency.

  18. Single event upsets in gallium arsenide pseudo-complementary MESFET logic

    SciTech Connect

    Fouts, D.J.; Wolfe, K.; Van Dyk, S.E.; Weatherford, T.R.; McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.S.; Tran, L.H.; Campbell, A.B.

    1995-12-01

    An introduction to gallium arsenide (GaAs) Pseudo-Complementary MESFET Logic (PCML) circuits is presented. PCML was developed to reduce the sensitivity of high-speed GaAs logic to radiation-induced single event upsets (SEUs). Experiments for testing the single-event upset (SEU) sensitivity of GaAs PCML integrated circuits (ICs) are described. The results of the experiments are analyzed. This new type of high-speed, low-power, GaAs logic provides decreased sensitivity to SEUs compared to more traditional circuit designs such as Directly-Coupled FET Logic (DCFL). PCML is fully compatible with existing GaAs E/D MESFET fabrication processes, such as those commonly used to make DCFL.

  19. Thermal Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficients of Icosahedral Boron Arsenide Films on Silicon Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Y Gong; Y Zhang; M Dudley; Y Zhang; J Edgar; P Heard; M Kuball

    2011-12-31

    The thermal conductivity of icosahedral boron arsenide (B{sub 12}As{sub 2}) films grown on (0001) 6H-SiC substrates by chemical vapor deposition was studied by the 3{omega} technique. The room temperature thermal conductivity decreased from 27.0 to 15.3 W/m K as the growth temperature was decreased from 1450 to 1275 C. This is mainly attributed to the differences in the impurity concentration and microstructure, determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Callaway's theory was applied to calculate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, and the results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Seebeck coefficients were determined as 107 {micro}V/K and 136 {micro}V/K for samples grown at 1350 C with AsH{sub 3}/B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow ratio equals to 1:1 and 3:5, respectively.

  20. NMR investigation of iron-selenide and iron-arsenide high Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the electronic, magnetic, and superconducting properties of the iron-selenide high Tc superconductor KxFe2-ySez (Tc=33 K) with ^77Se NMR [1]. We will compare the results with those observed for FeSe in ambient and applied pressures (Tc>9 K) [2], and with iron-arsenides [3]. Similarities and dissimilarities will be pointed out, with primary focus on the anomalous normal state properties. Our latest work on KxFe2-ySez was carried out in collaboration with D. Torchetti, M. Fu, D. Christensen, K. Nelson (McMaster), H. Lei, and C. Petrovic (Brookhaven National Lab).[4pt] [1] D. Torchetti et al., PR B83, 104508 (2011).[0pt] [2] T. Imai et al. PRL 102, 177005 (2009).[0pt] [3] F.L. Ning et al., PRL 104, 037001 (2010); JPSJ 78, 103711 (2009).

  1. Lattice distortion in single crystal rare-earth arsenide/GaAs nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A. J.; Schultz, B. D.; Palmstrøm, C. J.

    2014-02-17

    Epitaxial single crystal nanocomposites comprised of rare-earth arsenide nanoparticles embedded in GaAs (001) layers produce a larger change in lattice parameter than expected from the lattice parameters of relaxed films. Despite similar cubic structures and lattice parameters, elongation of the interfacial bond length between the two materials induces additional strain causing an expansion in the nanocomposite lattice. The interface bond length is material dependent with an average atomic layer spacing at the ErAs:GaAs interface of 1.9 Å while the spacing at the ScAs:GaAs interface is only 1.4 Å. Implications for lattice matching various single crystal epitaxial nanostructures in semiconductors are discussed.

  2. Growth and characterization of thin film zinc-silicon-arsenide for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igwe, G. A.

    Conditions for good morphology synthesis and epilayer growth of thin film Zinc Silicon Arsenide (ZnSiAs2) by the metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) technique have been investigated. Structural, electrical and optical properties of such ZnSiAs2 layers were studied using several diverse methods including electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron beam induced currents, photovoltaic spectral response, current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of heterostructures. Many problems generally associated with heteroepitaxial growth of semiconducting materials were much in evidence. In particular, interfacial diffusion resulting in autodoping of both substrate and the grown epilayer precluded rectifying heterojunction formation for ZnSiAs2 layers grown on Ge, GaAs or Si substrate. The lattice mismatch of about three percent between silicon and ZnSiAs2 provided additional problems of microcracks in and nonadherence of the epilayers.

  3. Morphology dependence of interfacial oxidation states of gallium arsenide under near ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xueqiang; Lamere, Edward; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Liu, Xinyu; Furdyna, Jacek K.

    2014-05-05

    The manipulation of semiconductor surfaces by tuning their electronic properties and surface chemistry is an essential ingredient for key applications in areas such as electronics, sensors, and photovoltaic devices. Here, in-situ surface reactions on gallium arsenide (GaAs) are monitored for two morphologies: a simple planar crystalline surface with (100) orientation and an ensemble of GaAs nanowires, both exposed to oxygen environment. A variety of oxide surface species, with a significant enhancement in oxidation states in the case of nanowires, are detected via near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This enhancement in oxidation of GaAs nanowires is due to their higher surface area and the existence of more active sites for O{sub 2} dissociation.

  4. Commercial and industrial applications of indium gallium arsenide near-infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marshall J.; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Lange, Michael J.; Olsen, Gregory H.

    1999-07-01

    Sensors Unlimited, Inc. has developed focal pane arrays (FPAs) fabricated with indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) photodiode arrays and silicon CMOS readout integrated circuits. These devices are readily available in a wide variety of formats suitable for commercial and industrial applications. InGaAs FPAs are sensitive to the near IR, operate without cooling, and come in both 2D formats and 1D formats. 1D InGaAs FPAs are used as both spectroscopic detectors and line scan imagers. Key applications include miniature spectrometers used for wavelength control and monitoring of WDM laser sources, octane determination, the sorting o plastics during recycling, and web process control. 2D InGaAs FPAs find use in applications such as laser beam profiling, visualization of 'clear' ice on aircraft and roadways, and industrial thermal imaging.

  5. Development of a dome Fresnel lens/gallium arsenide photovoltaic concentrator for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    A novel photovoltaic concentrator system is currently being developed. Phase I of the program, completed in late 1986, produced a conceptual design for the concentrator system, including an array weight and performance estimates based on optical, electrical, and thermal analyses. Phase II of the program, just underway, concerns the fabrication and testing of prototype concentrator panels of the design. The concentrator system uses dome Fresnel lenses for optical concentration; gallium arsenide concentrator cells for power generation; prismatic cell covers to eliminate gridline obscuration losses; a backplane radiator for heat rejection; and a honeycomb structure for the deployable panel assembly. The conceptual design of the system, its anticipated performance, and its estimated weight are reported.

  6. Gallium arsenide quantum well-based far infrared array radiometric imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, Kathrine A.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.

    1991-01-01

    We have built an array-based camera (FIRARI) for thermal imaging (lambda = 8 to 12 microns). FIRARI uses a square format 128 by 128 element array of aluminum gallium arsenide quantum well detectors that are indium bump bonded to a high capacity silicon multiplexer. The quantum well detectors offer good responsivity along with high response and noise uniformity, resulting in excellent thermal images without compensation for variation in pixel response. A noise equivalent temperature difference of 0.02 K at a scene temperature of 290 K was achieved with the array operating at 60 K. FIRARI demonstrated that AlGaAS quantum well detector technology can provide large format arrays with performance superior to mercury cadmium telluride at far less cost.

  7. One-dimensional behavior and high thermoelectric power factor in thin indium arsenide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Mensch, P.; Karg, S. Schmidt, V.; Gotsmann, B.; Schmid, H.; Riel, H.

    2015-03-02

    Electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of quasi-one-dimensional indium arsenide (InAs) nanowires with 20 nm diameter are investigated. The carrier concentration of the passivated nanowires was modulated by a gate electrode. A thermoelectric power factor of 1.7 × 10{sup −3} W/m K{sup 2} was measured at room temperature. This value is at least as high as in bulk-InAs and exceeds by far typical values of thicker InAs nanowires with three-dimensional properties. The interpretation of the experimental results in terms of power-factor enhancement by one-dimensionality is supported by model calculations using the Boltzmann transport formalism.

  8. Methods for forming group III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III--arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  9. Advances in gallium arsenide monolithic microwave integrated-circuit technology for space communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. In this paper, current developments in GaAs MMIC technology are described, and the status and prospects of the technology are assessed.

  10. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 13: Electrical characteristics of Hughes LPE gallium arsenide solar cells as a function of intensity and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of Hughes Liquid phase epitaxy, P/N gallium aluminum arsenide solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity and temperature.

  11. Analysis of Nitrogen Incorporation in Group III-Nitride-Arsenide Materials Using a Magnetic Sector Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) Instrument: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R. C.; Geisz, J. F.; Kurtz, S. R.; Adams, R. O.; Perkins, C. L.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Group III-nitride-arsenide materials were studied by SIMS, XRD, and Profiler to determine small amounts of nitrogen that can lower the alloys bandgap significantly.

  12. Inelastic neutron scattering studies of the spin and lattice dynamics in iron arsenide compounds.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.; Rosenkranz, S.; Goremychkin, E. A.; Christianson, A. D.

    2009-03-20

    Although neutrons do not couple directly to the superconducting order parameter, they have nevertheless played an important role in advancing our understanding of the pairing mechanism and the symmetry of the superconducting energy gap in the iron arsenide compounds. Measurements of the spin and lattice dynamics have been performed on non-superconducting 'parent' compounds based on the LaFeAsO ('1111') and BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} ('122') crystal structures, and on electron and hole-doped superconducting compounds, using both polycrystalline and single crystal samples. Neutron measurements of the phonon density-of-state, subsequently supported by single crystal inelastic X-ray scattering, are in good agreement with ab initio calculations, provided the magnetism of the iron atoms is taken into account. However, when combined with estimates of the electron-phonon coupling, the predicted superconducting transition temperatures are less than 1 K, making a conventional phononic mechanism for superconductivity highly unlikely. Measurements of the spin dynamics within the spin density wave phase of the parent compounds show evidence of strongly dispersive spin waves with exchange interactions consistent with the observed magnetic order and a large anisotropy gap. Antiferromagnetic fluctuations persist in the normal phase of the superconducting compounds, but they are more diffuse. Below T{sub c}, there is evidence in three '122' compounds that these fluctuations condense into a resonant spin excitation at the antiferromagnetic wavevector with an energy that scales with T{sub c}. Such resonances have been observed in the high-T{sub c} copper oxides and a number of heavy fermion superconductors, where they are considered to be evidence of d-wave symmetry. In the iron arsenides, they also provide evidence of unconventional superconductivity, but a comparison with ARPES and other measurements, which indicate that the gaps are isotropic, suggests that the symmetry is more likely

  13. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Spin and Lattice Dynamics inIron Arsenide Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, Andrew D; Osborn, R.; Rosenkranz, Stephen; Goremychkin, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    Although neutrons do not couple directly to the superconducting order parameter, they have nevertheless played an important role in advancing our understanding of the pairing mechanism and the symmetry of the superconducting energy gap in the iron arsenide compounds. Measurements of the spin and lattice dynamics have been performed on non-superconducting 'parent' compounds based on the LaFeAsO ('1111') and BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} ('122') crystal structures, and on electron and hole-doped superconducting compounds, using both polycrystalline and single crystal samples. Neutron measurements of the phonon density-of-state, subsequently supported by single crystal inelastic X-ray scattering, are in good agreement with ab initio calculations, provided the magnetism of the iron atoms is taken into account. However, when combined with estimates of the electron-phonon coupling, the predicted superconducting transition temperatures are less than 1 K, making a conventional phononic mechanism for superconductivity highly unlikely. Measurements of the spin dynamics within the spin density wave phase of the parent compounds show evidence of strongly dispersive spin waves with exchange interactions consistent with the observed magnetic order and a large anisotropy gap. Antiferromagnetic fluctuations persist in the normal phase of the superconducting compounds, but they are more diffuse. Below T{sub c}, there is evidence in three '122' compounds that these fluctuations condense into a resonant spin excitation at the antiferromagnetic wavevector with an energy that scales with T{sub c}. Such resonances have been observed in the high-T{sub c} copper oxides and a number of heavy fermion superconductors, where they are considered to be evidence of d-wave symmetry. In the iron arsenides, they also provide evidence of unconventional superconductivity, but a comparison with ARPES and other measurements, which indicate that the gaps are isotropic, suggests that the symmetry is more likely

  14. Prevalence of beryllium sensitization among aluminium smelter workers

    PubMed Central

    Slade, M. D.; Cantley, L. F.; Kirsche, S. R.; Wesdock, J. C.; Cullen, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Beryllium exposure occurs in aluminium smelters from natural contamination of bauxite, the principal source of aluminium. Aims To characterize beryllium exposure in aluminium smelters and determine the prevalence rate of beryllium sensitization (BeS) among aluminium smelter workers. Methods A population of 3185 workers from nine aluminium smelters owned by four different aluminium-producing companies were determined to have significant beryllium exposure. Of these, 1932 workers participated in medical surveillance programmes that included the serum beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), confirmation of sensitization by at least two abnormal BeLPT test results and further evaluation for chronic beryllium disease in workers with BeS. Results Personal beryllium samples obtained from the nine aluminium smelters showed a range of <0.01–13.00 μg/m3 time-weighted average with an arithmetic mean of 0.25 μg/m3 and geometric mean of 0.06 μg/m3. Nine workers were diagnosed with BeS (prevalence rate of 0.47%, 95% confidence interval = 0.21–0.88%). Conclusions BeS can occur in aluminium smelter workers through natural beryllium contamination of the bauxite and further concentration during the refining and smelting processes. Exposure levels to beryllium observed in aluminium smelters are similar to those seen in other industries that utilize beryllium. However, compared with beryllium-exposed workers in other industries, the rate of BeS among aluminium smelter workers appears lower. This lower observed rate may be related to a more soluble form of beryllium found in the aluminium smelting work environment as well as the consistent use of respiratory protection. PMID:20610489

  15. Aluminium composite materials for multichip modules

    SciTech Connect

    Premkumar, M.K.; Hunt, W.H. Jr.; Sawtell, R.R. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that, as a result of continued advances in microelectronics, packaging technologies have become ital to the success of advanced designs. Progress in this field has been driven by advances in active device technologies that have resulted in significant miniaturization, increased functional density, and higher operating frequencies. These developments have produced ever-increasing power densities requiring improve thermal management schemes. In particular, multichip modules (MCMs) present challenges because they contain several devices in close proximity. The alternatives to improve cooling schemes-higher junction temperatures and decreased reliability-are clearly unacceptable. Requirements for improved cooling are complicated further in avionics systems by the need to minimize system weight and in automotive systems by the need to provide protection from a more hostile environment while maintaining low cost. These needs are driving materials developments along a number of fonts, as reviewed in Carl Zweben's article in this issue. Unfortunately, no current-generation material can meet all of these challenges. The use of aluminum or copper results in unacceptable expansion stress on silicon- or gallium arsenide-based devices. Kovar is costly to manufacture in complex configurations and ins inherently poor in thermal conductivity. The Cu/W and Cu/Mo blends, either in the form of metallurgical or macroscopic composites, offer good thermal conductivity but are inherently heavy and are manufactured from expensive raw materials.

  16. Aluminium salt slag characterization and utilization--a review.

    PubMed

    Tsakiridis, P E

    2012-05-30

    Aluminium salt slag (also known as aluminium salt cake), which is produced by the secondary aluminium industry, is formed during aluminium scrap/dross melting and contains 15-30% aluminium oxide, 30-55% sodium chloride, 15-30% potassium chloride, 5-7% metallic aluminium and impurities (carbides, nitrides, sulphides and phosphides). Depending on the raw mix the amount of salt slag produced per tonne of secondary aluminium ranges from 200 to 500 kg. As salt slag has been classified as toxic and hazardous waste, it should be managed in compliance with the current legislation. Its landfill disposal is forbidden in most of the European countries and it should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This paper presents a review of the aluminium salt slag chemical and mineralogical characteristics, as well as various processes for metal recovery, recycling of sodium and potassium chlorides content back to the smelting process and preparation of value added products from the final non metallic residue. PMID:22480708

  17. Deviatoric response of the aluminium alloy, 5083

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Hazell, Paul; Millett, Jeremy; Bourne, Neil

    2009-06-01

    Aluminium alloys such as 5083 are established light weight armour materials. As such, the shock response of these materials is of great importance. The shear strength of a material under shock loading provides an insight into its ballistic performance. In this investigation embedded manganin stress gauges have been employed to measure both the longitudinal and lateral components of stress during plate impact experiments over a range of impact stresses. In turn, these results were used to determine the shear strength and to investigate the time dependence of lateral stress behind the shock front to give an indication of material response.

  18. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  19. Galvanised steel to aluminium joining by laser and GTAW processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, G.; Peyre, P.; Deschaux Beaume, F. Stuart, D.; Fras, G.

    2008-12-15

    A new means of assembling galvanised steel to aluminium involving a reaction between solid steel and liquid aluminium was developed, using laser and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes. A direct aluminium melting strategy was investigated with the laser process, whereas an aluminium-induced melting by steel heating and heat conduction through the steel was carried out with the GTAW process. The interfaces generated during the interaction were mainly composed of a 2-40 {mu}m thick intermetallic reaction layers. The linear strength of the assemblies can be as high as 250 N/mm and 190 N/mm for the assemblies produced respectively by laser and GTAW processes. The corresponding failures were located in the fusion zone of aluminium (laser assemblies), or in the reaction layer (GTAW assemblies)

  20. Multilayer roll bonded aluminium foil: processing, microstructure and flow stress

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, C.Y.; Nielsen, P.; Hansen, N

    2004-08-02

    Bulk aluminium has been produced by warm-rolling followed by cold-rolling of commercial purity (99% purity) aluminium foil. The bonding appeared perfect from observation with the naked eye, light and transmission electron microscopy. By comparison with bulk aluminium of similar purity (AA1200) rolled to a similar strain (90%RA), the roll-bonded metal showed a much higher density of high-angle grain boundaries, similar strength and improved thermal stability. This study has implications for a number of applications in relation to the processing of aluminium. Roll bonding is of interest as a method for grain size refinement; oxide-containing materials have increased strength, enhanced work-hardening behaviour, and exhibit alterations in recrystallisation behaviour. The behaviour of the hard oxide film is of interest in aluminium processing, and has been investigated by characterising the size and distribution of oxide particles in the roll-bonded samples.

  1. Usage of Neural Network to Predict Aluminium Oxide Layer Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Kučerka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A·dm−2 and 3 A·dm−2 for creating aluminium oxide layer. PMID:25922850

  2. Usage of neural network to predict aluminium oxide layer thickness.

    PubMed

    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Kučerka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A · dm(-2) and 3 A · dm(-2) for creating aluminium oxide layer. PMID:25922850

  3. Albumin adsorption on to aluminium oxide and polyurethane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sharma, C P; Sunny, M C

    1990-05-01

    The changes in protein adsorption onto aluminium surfaces coated with different thicknesses of oxide layers were examined. The oxide layers on aluminium substrates were derived by the anodizing technique. Protein adsorption studies were conducted using 125I-labelled albumin and the amount of albumin adsorbed was estimated with the help of a gamma counter. An increase in albumin adsorption was observed on oxide layer coated aluminium surfaces. The effect of anti-Hageman factor on albumin and fibrinogen adsorption on to bare aluminium, oxide layer coated aluminium and bare polyether urethane urea surfaces was also investigated. It was observed that the presence of anti-Hageman factor increased the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen on to all these substrates. PMID:2383620

  4. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  5. The Coefficients of Thermal Expansion of Boron Arsenide (B12As2) Between 25 C and 850 C

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, Clinton E.; Kirkham, Melanie J; Edgar, J H

    2013-01-01

    The semiconductor boron arsenide has a high 10B density, a wide bandgap, and a high melting temperature, all of which make it an interesting candidate for high-temperature electronic devices and radiation detectors. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion for boron arsenide. B12As2 powder was synthesized from boron and arsenic heated in a sealed quartz ampoule at 1100 C for 72 hrs with excess boron. Using high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) between 25 C and 850 C, the average lattice coefficients of thermal expansion were measured perpendicular and parallel to the <111> axis in the rhombohedral setting (equivalent to the a and c axes in the hexagonal setting): 4.9x10-6 K-1 and 5.3x10-6 K-1, respectively. The average unit cell volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion was determined to be 1.5x10-5 K-1.

  6. In-Plane Electronic Anisotropy of Underdoped ___122___ Fe-Arsenide Superconductors Revealed by Measurements of Detwinned Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ian Randal

    2012-05-08

    The parent phases of the Fe-arsenide superconductors harbor an antiferromagnetic ground state. Significantly, the Neel transition is either preceded or accompanied by a structural transition that breaks the four fold symmetry of the high-temperature lattice. Borrowing language from the field of soft condensed matter physics, this broken discrete rotational symmetry is widely referred to as an Ising nematic phase transition. Understanding the origin of this effect is a key component of a complete theoretical description of the occurrence of superconductivity in this family of compounds, motivating both theoretical and experimental investigation of the nematic transition and the associated in-plane anisotropy. Here we review recent experimental progress in determining the intrinsic in-plane electronic anisotropy as revealed by resistivity, reflectivity and ARPES measurements of detwinned single crystals of underdoped Fe arsenide superconductors in the '122' family of compounds.

  7. Hearing conservation in the primary aluminium industry

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, N.; Dixon-Ernst, C.; Chesson, B. J.; Cullen, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Noise-induced hearing loss has been an intractable problem for heavy industry. Aims To report our experience in reducing the incidence of age-corrected confirmed 10 dB hearing shifts (averaged over 2, 3 and 4kHz) in employees in the primary aluminium industry in Australia over the period 2006–13. Methods We analysed annual audiometric data to determine the number of permanent hearing shifts that occurred in employees in two bauxite mines, three alumina refineries and two aluminium smelters. Annual hearing shift rates were calculated based on the number of employees tested per year. Hearing conservation initiatives undertaken during the study period are described. An assessment of similar exposure group noise exposures was also undertaken to determine the magnitude of noise exposure reduction during the study period. Results Across all operations, hearing shift rates declined from 5.5% per year in 2006 to 1.3% per year in 2013 (P < 0.001). The decline in shift rates was greater in mines and refineries, where baseline shift rates were higher, than in smelter workers. Modest reductions in noise exposure occurred during the study period. Conclusions We observed a substantial decline in hearing shift rates during the study period. We describe the hearing conservation initiatives that were collectively associated with this decline. We suspect these initiatives could be deployed relatively easily and at modest cost in other industries with noise-exposed employees. PMID:26470945

  8. Accidents in the aluminium smelting industry.

    PubMed

    Das, B C; Chaudhury, S

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the accident records of an aluminium smelting industry, covering about 2,100 employees, over a period of three years, showed a total of 465 accidents of male employees. Out of these, 5 were fatal, 40.86% were from contacts with extreme temperatures, causing burn injury to 42.58%. Hot materials were the agents causing 44.52% of the burn injuries. Molten aluminium constituted 43.96% amongst hot materials. Injury to lower limbs constituted 38.71% and that to upper limbs 36.99%. The accidents occurring to the employees, in the age group of 26-33 years, amounted to 61.72% of the total accidents. The average number of man-days lost per year was 11,153. Average frequency rate of accidents was 30.75 accidents per million man-hours worked. Severity rate of accidents was 2.196 per million man-hours worked. Incident rate per thousand employees was 73.81. Average number of days lost per accidents was 71.95 days and average duration of man-hours between accidents was 32,516. Mean age of the employees, who met with the accidents were 29.53 years. Share of accidents in the second half of each shift was always more than that in the first half, and this average was 66.66%. PMID:8557540

  9. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    PubMed

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals. PMID:23421286

  10. Study on aluminium-based single films.

    PubMed

    Vinod Kumar, G S; García-Moreno, F; Babcsán, N; Brothers, A H; Murty, B S; Banhart, J

    2007-12-28

    In the present paper the authors studied isolated metallic films made from the same material used for making metallic foams, and then characterised their properties. Metal films were made from a liquid aluminium alloy reinforced with ceramic particles of known concentration. Melts without such particles were also investigated. It is shown that stable films could not be made from Al-Si alloy having no particles, and just extremely thin and fragile films could be made from commercially-pure Al. In contrast, aluminium alloys containing particles such as SiC and TiB(2) allowed pulling thin, stable films, which did not rupture. Significant thinning of films was observed when the particle concentration in the melt decreased. By in situ X-ray monitoring of liquid films during pulling, film thickness and drainage effects within the liquid film could be studied. The morphology and microstructure of films was characterised after solidification. Our work shows that the question of how foams are stabilised can be studied using a simplified system such as a film, instead of having to deal with the multitude of different structural elements present in a foam. PMID:18060172

  11. Boron Arsenide and Boron Phosphide for High Temperature and Luminescent Devices. [semiconductor devices - crystal growth/crystal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal growth of boron arsenide and boron phosphide in the form of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers on suitable substrates is discussed. The physical, chemical, and electrical properties of the crystals and epitaxial layers are examined. Bulk crystals of boron arsenide were prepared by the chemical transport technique, and their carrier concentration and Hall mobility were measured. The growth of boron arsenide crystals from high temperature solutions was attempted without success. Bulk crystals of boron phosphide were also prepared by chemical transport and solution growth techniques. Techniques required for the fabrication of boron phosphide devices such as junction shaping, diffusion, and contact formation were investigated. Alloying techniques were developed for the formation of low-resistance ohmic contacts to boron phosphide. Four types of boron phosphide devices were fabricated: (1) metal-insulator-boron phosphide structures, (2) Schottky barriers; (3) boron phosphide-silicon carbide heterojunctions; and (4) p-n homojunctions. Easily visible red electroluminescence was observed from both epitaxial and solution grown p-n junctions.

  12. Nickel-cobalt-iron-copper sulfides and arsenides in solution-collapse breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wenrich, K.J. ); Hlava, P.F. )

    1993-04-01

    An extensive suite of Ni-Co-Fe-Cu sulfides and arsenides lies within the matrix of solution-collapse breccias buried deep within the plateaus of the Grand Canyon region. Ceilings over large caverns in the Redwall collapsed, brecciating the overlying sandstone and forming cylindrical breccia pipes up to 300 ft in diameter that extend vertically as much as 3,000 ft. These highly permeable breccias served as a host for the precipitation of a suite of over 100 minerals, including uraninite, sphalerite, galena and various copper phases, in addition to the Ni-Co-bearing-phase discussed here. Intricately zoned crystals of small (<1 mm), euhedral Ni-Co-Fe-As-S minerals were the first to form during the second major episode of mineralization in these pipes. Several of these phases replace minerals, such as barite and anhydrite, from the first episode. Extensive microprobe work has been done on samples from two breccia pipe mines, the Hack 2 and Orphan, which are about 50 miles apart. Mineral compositions are similar except that no copper is found in the Ni-Co-Fe phases from the Hack 2 mine, while pyrites containing 1 wt % Cu are common from the Orphan, which was mined for copper. In some of these pyrites', Cu is dominant and the mineral is actually villamaninite. Pyrites from both mines characteristically contain 0.5 to 3 wt % As. Metal contents in zones pyrite-bravoite-vaesite (M[sub 1]S[sub 2]) crystals at the Hack 2 mine range from Fe[sub 1] to Fe[sub .12], Ni[sub 0] to Ni[sub .86], and Co[sub 0] to Co[sub .10]. The metal content for polydymite-siegenite-violarite averages about (Ni[sub 2.33]Co[sub .39]Fe[sub .23])(S[sub 3.9]As[sub .1]). Orphan mine pyrite-bravoite-vaesite-villamaninite ranges in composition from pure FeS[sub 2] to (Ni[sub .6]Fe[sub .21]Co[sub .17])S[sub 2], and (Cu[sub .46]Ni[sub .27]Fe[sub .21]Co[sub .13])S[sub 2]. Of all the sulfides or arsenides found in these breccia pipes, only nickeline consistently occurs as the pure end member.

  13. The varied functions of aluminium-activated malate transporters-much more than aluminium resistance.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Antony J; Baker, Alison; Muench, Stephen P

    2016-06-15

    The ALMT (aluminium-activated malate transporter) family comprises a functionally diverse but structurally similar group of ion channels. They are found ubiquitously in plant species, expressed throughout different tissues, and located in either the plasma membrane or tonoplast. The first family member identified was TaALMT1, discovered in wheat root tips, which was found to be involved in aluminium resistance by means of malate exudation into the soil. However, since this discovery other family members have been shown to have many other functions such as roles in stomatal opening, general anionic homoeostasis, and in economically valuable traits such as fruit flavour. Recent evidence has also shown that ALMT proteins can act as key molecular actors in GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) signalling, the first evidence that GABA can act as a signal transducer in plants. PMID:27284052

  14. A quest for super dense aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiquet, G.; Narayana, C.; Bellin, C.; Shukla, A.; Esteve, I.; Mezouar, N.

    2013-12-01

    The extreme pressure phase diagram of materials is important not only for understanding the interiors of planets or stars, but also for the fundamental understanding of the relation between crystal structure and electronic structure. Structural transitions induced by extreme pressure are governed by the deformation of valence electron charge density which bears the brunt of increasing compression while the relative volume occupied by the nearly incompressible ionic core electrons increases. At extreme pressures common materials are expected to transform into new dense phases with extremely compact atomic arrangements that may also have unusual physical properties. In this report, we present new experiments carried out on aluminium. A simple system like Al is not only important as a benchmark for theory, but can also be used as a standard for pressures in the TPa range and beyond which are targeted at new dynamic compression facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the US or Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) in Bordeaux in France. For aluminium, first principle calculations have consistently predicted a phase transition sequence from fcc to hcp and hcp to bcc in a pressure range below 0.5 TPa [Tambe et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 172102, 2008]. The hcp phase was identified at 217 GPa in a recent experiment [Akahama et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 45505, 2006] but the detection of the predicted bcc phase has been hampered by the difficulty of routine static high pressure experiments beyond 350 GPa. Here, we report on the overcoming of this obstacle and the detection of all the structural phase transitions predicted in Al by achieving a pressure in excess of 500 GPa in the static regime in a diamond-anvil cell. In particular, using X-ray diffraction at the high-pressure beamline ID27 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), we find a bcc super-dense phase of aluminium at a pressure of 380 GPa. In this report

  15. Aluminium and iron air pollution near an iron casting and aluminium foundry in Turin district (Italy).

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Salvatore; Ferrara, Mauro; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Barbero, Domenico; Baccolo, Tiziana

    2007-09-01

    This work reports the results of an environmental survey carried out in an industrial area in the Province of Turin: its main aim is to assess the levels of iron and aluminium in the outside air during the period from July to September to assess the influence of industrial activity (a cast-iron and aluminium foundry) which is interrupted during the month of August, on the level of metals present in the air. Conducting the analysis during this period of time made it possible to avoid the confounding effect of pollution due to domestic central heating. The measurements were taken from nine areas at different distances from the foundry in the area and according to the direction of the prevailing winds, as deduced from the historical data. The results of this survey show a statistically significant difference in iron and aluminium levels in the outside air in the geographic areas between the two main periods examined: during August (no foundry activity) v/s July-September (foundry activity). The values recorded are: Aluminium 0.4+/-0.45 microg/m(3) v/s 1.12+/-1.29 microg/m(3) (p<0.0001); Iron 0.95+/-0.56 microg/m(3) v/s 1.6+/-1.0 microg/m(3) (p<0.0001). There were no statistically significant differences between the nine sampling points from the point of view of the sampling sites, climate conditions and wind directions. We found no correlation with car traffic, in terms of the number of vehicles, and metals. The values of iron tended to be higher in the areas farther away from the foundry site in the areas located along the path of the prevailing winds. PMID:17637476

  16. Melt spun aluminium alloys for moulding optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbels, G.; Tegelaers, L.; Senden, R.

    2013-09-01

    Melt spinning is a rapid quenching process that makes it possible to create materials with a very fine microstructure. Due to this very fine microstructure the melt spinning process is an enabler for diamond turning optics and moulds without the need of post-polishing. Using diamond turning of melt spun aluminium one can achieve <=2 nm Rq surface roughness. Application areas are imaging and projection optics, mirrors, moulds for contact lenses and spectacles. One of the alloys that RSP produces is RSA-905. This alloy has a solid track record as a better and cheaper concept in the application of moulds for optical components such as contact lenses. The RSA-905 is a dispersion hardened amorphous-like alloy that keeps its properties when exposed to elevated temperatures (up to 380°C). This gives the material unique features for optics moulding applications. RSA-905 moulds are cheaper and better than traditional mould concepts such as copper or brass with or without NiP plating. In addition logistics can be simplified significantly: from typical weeks-months into days-week. Lifetime is typically in the range of 100.000 - 200.000 shots. For high volume production typically ranging from several 100.000 - several 1.000.000 shots, NiP plated steel moulds are typically used. By using an appropriate optical coating concept RSA-905 can be upgraded to a competitive alternative to steel in terms of price, performance and logistics. This paper presents some recent developments for improved mould performance of such concept. Hardness, wear resistance and adhesion are topics of interest and they can be applied by special coatings such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and chromium nitride (CrN). These coatings make the aluminium alloy suitable for moulding mass production of small as well as larger optics, such as spectacle lenses.

  17. Ab-initio Electronic, Transport and Related Properties of Zinc Blende Boron Arsenide (zb-BAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwigboji, Ifeanyi H.; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola

    We present results from ab-initio, self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) calculations of electronic, transport, and bulk properties of zinc blende boron arsenide (zb-BAs). We utilized a local density approximation (LDA) potential and the linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) formalism. Our computational technique follows the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin. Our results include electronic energy bands, densities of states, and effective masses. We explain the agreement between these findings, including the indirect band gap, and available, corresponding, experimental ones. This work confirms the capability of DFT to describe accurately properties of materials, provided the computations adhere to the conditions of validity of DFT [AIP Advances, 4, 127104 (2014)]. Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR] and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy - National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE- NA0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.

  18. High stability of negative electron affinity gallium arsenide photocathodes activated with Cs and NF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanlek, N.; Herbert, J. D.; Jones, R. M.; Jones, L. B.; Middleman, K. J.; Militsyn, B. L.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we report the first time demonstration under extremely high vacuum (XHV) conditions of the influence of O2, CO2, CO, N2, H2 and CH4 on the quantum efficiency (QE) of negative electron affinity (NEA) gallium arsenide (GaAs) photocathodes activated with Cs and NF3. The photocathodes were exposed to a small quantity (<0.25 Langmuirs) of each gas species under test in a vacuum chamber with a typical base pressure of 1.5× {{10}-11} mbar, thereby minimising the influence of the residual gas in the photocathode response. It was found that exposure to N2, H2 and CH4 does not affect the QE of the photocathodes, whereas exposure to O2 and CO2 lead to a substantial reduction in the QE of the photocathodes. Only small degradation in the QE under CO exposure was observed. Compared to those activated with Cs and O2 in our previous study [1], photocathodes activated with Cs and NF3 are more stable, especially under exposure to CO.

  19. Ab initio study of the effect of vacancies on the thermal conductivity of boron arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protik, Nakib Haider; Carrete, Jesús; Katcho, Nebil A.; Mingo, Natalio; Broido, David

    2016-07-01

    Using a first principles theoretical approach, we show that vacancies give anomalously strong suppression of the lattice thermal conductivity κ of cubic Boron arsenide (BAs), which has recently been predicted to have an exceptionally high κ . This effect is tied to the unusually large phonon lifetimes in BAs and results in a stronger reduction in the BAs κ than occurs in diamond. The large changes in bonding around vacancies cannot be accurately captured using standard perturbative methods and are instead treated here using an ab initio Green function approach. As and B vacancies are found to have similar effects on κ . In contrast, we show that commonly used mass disorder models for vacancies fail for large mass ratio compounds such as BAs, incorrectly predicting much stronger (weaker) phonon scattering when the vacancy is on the heavy (light) atom site. The quantitative treatment given here contributes to fundamental understanding of the effect of point defects on thermal transport in solids and provides guidance to synthesis efforts to grow high quality BAs.

  20. Radiation effects in silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells using isotropic and normally incident radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, B.E.; Downing, R.G.

    1984-09-01

    Several types of silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells were irradiated with protons with energies between 50 keV and 10 MeV at both normal and isotropic incidence. Damage coefficients for maximum power relative to 10 MeV were derived for these cells for both cases of omni-directional and normal incidence. The damage coefficients for the silicon cells were found to be somewhat lower than those quoted in the Solar Cell Radiation Handbook. These values were used to compute omni-directional damage coefficients suitable for solar cells protected by coverglasses of practical thickness, which in turn were used to compute solar cell degradation in two proton-dominated orbits. In spite of the difference in the low energy proton damage coefficients, the difference between the handbook prediction and the prediction using the newly derived values was negligible. Damage coefficients for GaAs solar cells for short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and maximum power were also computed relative to 10 MeV protons. They were used to predict cell degradation in the same two orbits and in a 5600 nmi orbit. Results show the performance of the GaAs solar cells in these orbits to be superior to that of the Si cells.

  1. Analysis of costs of gallium arsenide and silicon solar arrays for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    A parametric analysis was performed to compare the costs of silicon and gallium arsenide arrays for Earth orbital missions. The missions included electric power in low Earth orbit (LEO), electric power in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), and power for electric propulsion of a LEO to GEO orbit transfer mission. Inputs to the analysis for all missions included launch and purchase costs of the array. For the orbit transfer mission, the launch and purchase costs of the electric propulsion system were added. Radiation flux as a function of altitude and rediation tolerance as a function of cell type were used to determine power degradation for each mission. Curves were generated that show the sensitivity of launch-array cost and total mission cost to a variety of input parameters for each mission. These parameters included mission duration, cover glass thickness, array specific cost, array specific mass, and solar cell efficiency. Solar concentration was considered and the sensitivities of cost to concentration ratio, concentrator costs, and concentrator mass were also evaluated. Results indicate that solar cell development should give a high priority to reducing array costs and that the development of low cost, lightweight, solar concentrators should be pursued.

  2. In vitro toxicity of gallium arsenide in alveolar macrophages evaluated by magnetometry, cytochemistry and morphology.

    PubMed

    Okada, M; Karube, H; Niitsuya, M; Aizawa, Y; Okayasu, I; Kotani, M

    1999-12-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a chemical compound of gallium and arsenic, causes various toxic effects including pulmonary diseases in animals. Since the toxicity is not completely investigated, GaAs has been used in workplaces as the material of various semiconductor products. The present study was conducted to clarify the toxicity of GaAs particles in the alveolar macrophages of hamsters using magnetometry, enzyme release assays and morphological examinations. Alveolar macrophages obtained from hamsters by tracheobronchial lavage and adhered to the disks in the bottom of wells were exposed to ferrosoferric oxide and GaAs particles. Ferrosoferric oxide particles were magnetized externally and the remanent magnetic field was measured. Relaxation, a fast decline of the remanent magnetic fields radiated from the alveolar macrophages, was delayed and decay constants were decreased dose-dependently due to exposure to GaAs. Because the relaxation is thought to be associated with cytoskeleton, the exposure of GaAs may have impaired the motor function of them. Enzyme release assay and morphological findings indicated the damage to the macrophages. Thus the cytotoxicity causes cytostructural changes and cell death. According to DNA electrophoresis and the TUNEL method, necrotic changes occur more frequently than apoptotic changes. PMID:10739163

  3. Model for transport and reaction of defects and carriers within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, William R. Myers, Samuel M.

    2015-01-28

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at evolving displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with the details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers, and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster of defects. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were determined through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to displacement damage from energetic particle irradiation.

  4. Theory, design, and simulation of GASP: A block data flow architecture for gallium arsenide supercomputers

    SciTech Connect

    Fouts, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using high-speed gallium arsenide (GaAs) logic for implementing digital systems are reviewed. A set of design guidelines is presented for systems that will be constructed with high-speed technologies such as GaAs and silicon emitter coupled logic (ECL). A new class of computer and digital system architectures, known as functionally modular architectures, is defined and explained. Functionally modular architectures are ideal for implementation in GaAs because they adhere to the design guidelines. GASP, a new, functionally modular, block data flow computer architecture is then described. SPICE simulations indicate that if constructed with existing GaAs IC technology, parts of GASP could run at a clock speed of 1 GHz, with the rest of the architecture using a 500 MHz clock. The new architecture uses data flow techniques at a program block level, which allows efficient execution of parallel programs while maintaining reasonably good performance on sequential programs. A simulation study of the architecture's best case and worst case performance is presented. Simulations of GASP executing a highly parallel program indicate that an instruction execution rate of over 30,000 MIPS can be attained with a 65 processor system.

  5. Itinerant Double-Q Spin-Density Wave in Iron Arsenide Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Raymond; Allred, Jared; Chmaissem, Omar; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Brown, Dennis; Taddei, Keith; Krogstad, Matthew; Bugaris, Daniel; Chung, Duck-Young; Claus, Helmut; Lapidus, Saul; Kanatzidis, Mercouri; Kang, Jian; Fernandes, Rafael; Eremin, Ilya

    The recent observation of a tetragonal magnetic (C4) phase in hole-doped iron arsenide superconductors has provided evidence of a magnetic origin for the electronic nematicity in the C2 phase of these compounds. Now, Mössbauer data shows that the new phase also establishes the itinerant character of the antiferromagnetism of these materials and the primary role played by magnetic over orbital degrees of freedom. Neutron diffraction had shown that the magnetic order in the C4 phase was compatible with a double-Q structure arising from a collinear spin-density wave along both the X and Y directions simultaneously. The coherent superposition of the two modulations produces a non-uniform magnetic structure, in which the spin amplitudes vanish on half of the sites and double on the others, a uniquely itinerant effect that is incompatible with local moment magnetism. Mössbauer spectra in the C4 phase confirm this double-Q structure, with 50% of the spectral weight in a zero-moment peak and 50% with double the magnetic splitting seen in the C2 phase. Supported by the US DOE Office of Science, Materials and Engineering Division.

  6. Arsenic moiety in gallium arsenide is responsible for neuronal apoptosis and behavioral alterations in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Flora, Swaran J.S. Bhatt, Kapil; Mehta, Ashish

    2009-10-15

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), an intermetallic semiconductor finds widespread applications in high frequency microwave and millimeter wave, and ultra fast supercomputers. Extensive use of GaAs has led to increased exposure to humans working in semiconductor industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties at physiological pH and might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, the principle moiety (Ga or As) in GaAs to cause neurological dysfunction based on its ability to cause apoptosis, in vivo and in vitro and if this neuronal dysfunction translated to neurobehavioral changes in chronically exposed rats. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, both in vitro and in vivo. Increased ROS further caused apoptosis via mitochondrial driven pathway. Effects of oxidative stress were also confirmed based on alterations in antioxidant enzymes, GPx, GST and SOD in rat brain. We noted that ROS induced oxidative stress caused changes in the brain neurotransmitter levels, Acetylcholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase, leading to loss of memory and learning in rats. The study demonstrates for the first time that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress induced apoptosis in neuronal cells causing behavioral changes.

  7. Enhancing the three-dimensional electronic structure in 1111-type iron arsenide superconductors by H substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraba, Yoshinori; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-03-01

    The 1111-type iron arsenide hydride CaFe1-xCoxAsH was synthesized by high-pressure solid-state reaction, and its electronic structure and superconducting properties were investigated. Bulk superconductivity was observed at x = 0.09-0.26. A maximum superconducting critical temperature (Tc max) of 23 K was observed at x = 0.09. These values are in agreement with those of CaFe1-xCoxAsF. The calculated Fermi surface of CaFeAsH has a small three-dimensional (3D) hole pocket around the Γ point. This is a result of weak covalent bonding between the As 4p and H 1s orbitals. No such covalency exists in CaFeAsF, because the energy level of the F 2p orbital is sufficiently deep to inhibit overlap with the As 4p orbital. The similar superconductivities of CaFe1-xCoxAsH and CaFe1-xCoxAsF are explained with the nesting scenario. The small 3D hole pocket of CaFe1-xCoxAsH does not significantly contribute to electron excitation. These findings encourage exploration of hydrogen-containing 1111-type iron-based materials with lower anisotropies and higher Tc applicable to superconducting wires and tapes.

  8. Structural anomalies in undoped Gallium Arsenide observed in high resolution diffraction imaging with monochromatic synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, B.; Kuriyama, M.; Dobbyn, R. C.; Laor, U.; Larson, D.; Brown, M.

    1988-01-01

    Novel, streak-like disruption features restricted to the plane of diffraction have recently been observed in images obtained by synchrotron radiation diffraction from undoped, semi-insulating gallium arsenide crystals. These features were identified as ensembles of very thin platelets or interfaces lying in (110) planes, and a structural model consisting of antiphase domain boundaries was proposed. We report here the other principal features observed in high resolution monochromatic synchrotron radiation diffraction images: (quasi) cellular structure; linear, very low-angle subgrain boundaries in (110) directions, and surface stripes in a (110) direction. In addition, we report systematic differences in the acceptance angle for images involving various diffraction vectors. When these observations are considered together, a unifying picture emerges. The presence of ensembles of thin (110) antiphase platelet regions or boundaries is generally consistent not only with the streak-like diffraction features but with the other features reported here as well. For the formation of such regions we propose two mechanisms, operating in parallel, that appear to be consistent with the various defect features observed by a variety of techniques.

  9. Radiation effects in silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells using isotropic and normally incident radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Several types of silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells were irradiated with protons with energies between 50 keV and 10 MeV at both normal and isotropic incidence. Damage coefficients for maximum power relative to 10 MeV were derived for these cells for both cases of omni-directional and normal incidence. The damage coefficients for the silicon cells were found to be somewhat lower than those quoted in the Solar Cell Radiation Handbook. These values were used to compute omni-directional damage coefficients suitable for solar cells protected by coverglasses of practical thickness, which in turn were used to compute solar cell degradation in two proton-dominated orbits. In spite of the difference in the low energy proton damage coefficients, the difference between the handbook prediction and the prediction using the newly derived values was negligible. Damage coefficients for GaAs solar cells for short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and maximum power were also computed relative to 10 MeV protons. They were used to predict cell degradation in the same two orbits and in a 5600 nmi orbit. Results show the performance of the GaAs solar cells in these orbits to be superior to that of the Si cells.

  10. Transport-reaction model for defect and carrier behavior within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.

    2014-02-01

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Charging of the defects can produce high electric fields within the cluster which may influence transport and reaction of carriers and defects, and which may enhance carrier recombination through band-to-trap tunneling. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to pulsed neutron irradiation.

  11. Forward-biased current annealing of radiation degraded indium phosphide and gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, Sherif; Cypranowski, Corinne; Anspaugh, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary results of a novel approach to low-temperature annealing of previously irradiated indium phosphide and gallium arsenide solar cells are reported. The technique is based on forward-biased current annealing. The two types of III-V solar cells were irradiated with 1-MeV electrons to a fluence level of (1-10) x 10 to the 14th electrons/sq cm. Several annealing attempts were made, varying all conditions. Optimum annealing was achieved when cells were injected with minority currents at a constant 90 C. The current density for each type of cell was also determined. Significant recovery of degraded parameters was achieved in both cases. However, the InP cell recovery notably exceeded the recovery in GaAs cells. The recovery is thought to be caused by current-stimulated reordering of the radiator-induced displacement damage. Both types of cell were then subjected to several cycles of irradiation and annealing. The results were also very promising. The significant recovery of degraded cell parameters at low temperature might play a major role in considerably extending the end of life of future spacecraft.

  12. Resonant photo-thermal modification of vertical gallium arsenide nanowires studied using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walia, Jaspreet; Boulanger, Jonathan; Dhindsa, Navneet; LaPierre, Ray; (Shirley Tang, Xiaowu; Saini, Simarjeet S.

    2016-06-01

    Gallium arsenide nanowires have shown considerable promise for use in applications in which the absorption of light is required. When the nanowires are oriented vertically, a considerable amount of light can be absorbed, leading to significant heating effects. Thus, it is important to understand the threshold power densities that vertical GaAs nanowires can support, and how the nanowire morphology is altered under these conditions. Here, resonant photo-thermal modification of vertical GaAs nanowires was studied using both Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy techniques. Resonant waveguiding, and subsequent absorption of the excited optical mode reduces the irradiance vertical GaAs nanowires can support relative to horizontal ones, by three orders of magnitude before the onset of structural changes occur. A power density of only 20 W mm‑2 was sufficient to induce local heating in the nanowires, resulting in the formation of arsenic species. Upon further increasing the power, a hollow nanowire morphology was realized. These findings are pertinent to all optical applications and spectroscopic measurements involving vertically oriented GaAs nanowires. Understanding the optical absorption limitations, and the effects of exceeding these limitations will help improve the development of all III–V nanowire devices.

  13. Model for transport and reaction of defects and carriers within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at evolving displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with the details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers, and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster of defects. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were determined through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to displacement damage from energetic particle irradiation.

  14. A stress gettering mechanism in semi-insulating, copper-contaminated gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Nam Soo; Zirkle, Thomas E.; Schroder, Dieter K.

    1992-07-01

    We have demonstrated a stress gettering mechanism in semi-insulating, copper-contaminated gallium arsenide (GaAs) using cathodoluminescence (CL), thermally stimulated current spectroscopy (TSC), and low temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cathodoluminescence shows a local gettering effect around dislocation cores in bulk semi-insulating GaAs qualitatively. This gettering result was confirmed by low temperature FTIR data, which show absorption features resulting from the transition of electrons from the valence band to copper levels. The energy level of each absorption shoulder corresponds to the various copper levels in GaAs. After gettering, the absorption depth at each shoulder decreases. Thermally stimulated current measurements show changes after copper doping. The characteristic returns to that of uncontaminated GaAs after gettering. On the basis of these qualitative and quantitative data, we conclude that copper was gettered, and we propose a stress gettering mechanism in semi-insulating, copper-contaminated GaAs on the basis of dislocation cores acting as localized gettering sites.

  15. Thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficients of icosahedral boron arsenide films on silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Y.; Kuball, M.; Zhang, Y.; Dudley, M.; Zhang, Y.; Edgar, J. H.; Heard, P. J.

    2010-10-15

    The thermal conductivity of icosahedral boron arsenide (B{sub 12}As{sub 2}) films grown on (0001) 6H-SiC substrates by chemical vapor deposition was studied by the 3{omega} technique. The room temperature thermal conductivity decreased from 27.0 to 15.3 W/m K as the growth temperature was decreased from 1450 to 1275 deg. C. This is mainly attributed to the differences in the impurity concentration and microstructure, determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Callaway's theory was applied to calculate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, and the results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Seebeck coefficients were determined as 107 {mu}V/K and 136 {mu}V/K for samples grown at 1350 deg. C with AsH{sub 3}/B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow ratio equals to 1:1 and 3:5, respectively.

  16. Pulmonary clearance and toxicity of respirable gallium arsenide particulates intratracheally instilled into rats

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, D.R.; Wilson, S.E.; Carter, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is an intermetallic compound that is recognized as a potential toxicological risk to workers occupationally exposed to its dust. Previous results have shown that rats intratracheally instilled with a fraction of GaAs particulates, characterized with a mean count diameter of 8.30 ..mu..m and a mean volume diameter of 12.67 ..mu..m, developed signs of systemic arsenic intoxication, pulmonary inflammation, and pneumocyte hyperplasia. The results of the present study confirm these findings and also show that a significantly smaller fraction of GaAs is a relatively more severe pneumotoxicant. Decreasing the particle mean count and mean volume diameter to 1.63 ..mu..m and 5.82 ..mu..m, respectively, increased in vivo dissolution rate of GaAs, increased the severity of pulmonary lesions previously associated with GaAs exposure, and resulted in unique pathological sequalae in affected lung tissue. Pulmonary fibrosis, as indicated by analysis of lung 4-hydroxyproline content, was not considered statistically significant although histological examination of lung tissue revealed a mild fibrotic response. These results provide additional evidence that pulmonary exposure to respirable GaAs particulates is a potential health hazard in the semiconductor industry.

  17. Discovery of a Weyl fermion state with Fermi arcs in niobium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidoust, Nasser; Xu, Su-Yang; Belopolski, Ilya; Bian, Guang; Zheng, Hao; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Neupert, Titus; Hasan, M. Zahid; Yuan, Zhujun; Zhang, Chenglong; Jia, Shuang; Mou, Daixiang; Wu, Yun; Huang, Lunan; Kaminski, Adam; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Wang, Baokai; Bansil, Arun; Chang, Tay-Rong; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Chang, Guoqing; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Lin, Hsin

    Three types of fermions play a fundamental role in our understanding of nature: Dirac, Majorana and Weyl. A Weyl semimetal is a novel crystal whose low-energy electronic excitations behave as Weyl fermions. Here, we present the experimental discovery of the Weyl semimetal state in an inversion-symmetry-breaking single-crystalline solid, niobium arsenide (NbAs). Utilizing the combination of soft X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, we systematically study both the surface and bulk electronic structure of NbAs. We experimentally observe both the Weyl cones in the bulk and the Fermi arcs on the surface of this system. Our ARPES data, in agreement with our theoretical calculations, identify the Weyl semimetal state in NbAs, which provides a platform to test the potential of Weyltronics. The work at Princeton and Princeton-led ARPES measurements were supported by Gordon and Betty Moore Foundations EPiQS Initiative, Grant GBMF4547 (Hasan), and by U.S. DOE DE-FG-02-05ER46200.

  18. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants. PMID:19423581

  19. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. PMID:26365318

  20. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  1. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy. PMID:22749723

  2. Aluminium content of some foods and food products in the USA, with aluminium food additives.

    PubMed

    Saiyed, Salim M; Yokel, Robert A

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective was to determine the aluminium (Al) content of selected foods and food products in the USA which contain Al as an approved food additive. Intake of Al from the labeled serving size of each food product was calculated. The samples were acid or base digested and analysed for Al using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Quality control (QC) samples, with matrices matching the samples, were generated and used to verify the Al determinations. Food product Al content ranged from <1-27,000 mg kg(-1). Cheese in a serving of frozen pizzas had up to 14 mg of Al, from basic sodium aluminium phosphate; whereas the same amount of cheese in a ready-to-eat restaurant pizza provided 0.03-0.09 mg. Many single serving packets of non-dairy creamer had approximately 50-600 mg Al kg(-1) as sodium aluminosilicate, providing up to 1.5 mg Al per serving. Many single serving packets of salt also had sodium aluminosilicate as an additive, but the Al content was less than in single-serving non-dairy creamer packets. Acidic sodium aluminium phosphate was present in many food products, pancakes and waffles. Baking powder, some pancake/waffle mixes and frozen products, and ready-to-eat pancakes provided the most Al of the foods tested; up to 180 mg/serving. Many products provide a significant amount of Al compared to the typical intake of 3-12 mg/day reported from dietary Al studies conducted in many countries. PMID:16019791

  3. An Indium Gallium Arsenide Visible/SWIR Focal Plane Array for Low Light Level Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marshall J.; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Lange, Michael J.; Olsen, Gregory H.

    1999-01-01

    PIN photodiodes fabricated from indium gallium arsenide lattice-matched to indium phosphide substrates (In(.53)Ga(.47)As/InP) exhibit low reverse saturation current densities (JD < 10(exp -8) A/sq cm), and high shunt resistance-area products (RoA > 10(exp 6) omega-sq cm) at T=290K. Backside-illuminated, hybrid-integrated InGaAs FPAs are sensitive from 0.9 micrometers to 1.7 micrometers. 290K detectivities, D(*), greater than 10(exp 14) cm-(square root of Hz/W) are demonstrated. This represents the highest room temperature detectivity of any infrared material. The long wavelength cutoff (1.7 micrometers) makes In(.53)Ga(.47)As an idea match to the available airglow that has major peaks at 1.3 micrometers and 1.6 micrometers. The short wavelength 'cut-on' at 0.9 micrometers is due to absorption in the InP substrate. We will report on new InGaAs FPA epitaxial structures and processing techniques. These have resulted in improved performance in the form of a 10 x increase in detectivity and visible response via removal of the InP substrate. The resulting device features visible and SWIR response with greater than 15% quantum efficiency at 0.5 micrometers while maintaining the long wavelength cutoff. Imaging has been demonstrated under overcast starlight/urban glow conditions with cooling provided by a single stage thermoelectric cooler. Details on the material structure and device fabrication, quantitative characterization of spectral response and detectivity, as well as examples of night vision imagery are presented.

  4. Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin

    2014-03-07

    Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2 kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1 μJ arrival, the structure with thickness of 650 μm reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (∼4 kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ∼4 kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed.

  5. Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin

    2014-03-01

    Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2 kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1 μJ arrival, the structure with thickness of 650 μm reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (˜4 kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ˜4 kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed.

  6. Coherent detection of THz waves based on THz-induced time-resolved luminescence quenching in bulk gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zheng; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Kejia

    2012-05-01

    A kind of photoluminescence quenching, in which the time-resolved photoluminescence is modulated by a THz pulse, has been theoretically investigated by performing the ensemble Monte Carlo method in bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) at room temperature. The quenching ratio could reach up to 50% under a strong THz field (100  kV/cm). The range in which luminescence quenching is linearly proportional to the THz field could be over 60  kV/cm. On the basis of these results, a principle for THz modulation and coherent detection is proposed. PMID:22555695

  7. Elevated urinary excretion of aluminium and iron in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Mamutse, Godwin; Korchazhkina, Olga; Pye, Eleanor; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Hawkins, Clive

    2006-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of as yet unknown aetiology. A consensus of opinion has suggested that the disorder is the result of an interplay between environmental factors and susceptibility genes. We have used a battery of analytical techniques to determine if the urinary excretion of i) markers of oxidative damage; ii) iron and iii) the environmental toxin aluminium and its antagonist, silicon, are altered in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Urinary concentrations of oxidative biomarkers, MDA and TBARS, were not found to be useful indicators of inflammatory disease in MS. However, urinary concentrations of another potential marker for inflammation and oxidative stress, iron, were significantly increased in SPMS (P<0.01) and insignificantly increased in RRMS (P>0.05). Urinary concentrations of aluminium were also significantly increased in RRMS (P<0.001) and SPMS (P <0.05) such that the levels of aluminium excretion in the former were similar to those observed in individuals undergoing metal chelation therapy. The excretion of silicon was lower in MS and significantly so in SPMS (P<0.05). Increased excretion of iron in urine supported a role for iron dysmetabolism in MS. Levels of urinary aluminium excretion similar to those seen in aluminium intoxication suggested that aluminium may be a hitherto unrecognized environmental factor associated with the aetiology of MS. If aluminium is involved in MS then an increased dietary intake of its natural antagonist, silicon, might be a therapeutic option. PMID:17086897

  8. Orthorhombic aluminium oxyfluoride, AlOF.

    PubMed

    Vasiliev, Alexander D; Melnikova, Svetlana V; Isaenko, Lyudmila I

    2009-04-01

    Crystals of the title compound were extracted from the bulk of grown SrAlF(5) crystals as unexpected inclusions that were identified as the long sought after aluminium oxyfluoride. The structure of AlOF is built up from tetrahedral and octahedral polyhedra. Each tetrahedron is bisected by a mirror plane, with the Al atom and two vertex anions in the plane. All tetrahedral vertices are positions of competing oxide and fluoride ions and are shared with octahedra. These shared vertices belong to two octahedral edges which join the octahedra to form infinite zigzag chains. The chains are strung along twofold screw axes that run parallel to the unit-cell b axis. The remaining two octahedral vertices are occupied only by fluoride ions. A small deficiency in the occupation of the octahedral Al position was suggested by the refinement. However, the stoichiometry of the compound is AlOF within experimental uncertainty. The Al-F(O) distances are separated into three groups with average values of 1.652 (3) (tetrahedra), 1.800 (2) (octahedra) and 1.894 (2) A (octahedra). This structure differs widely from the reported tetragonal phase Al(1-x)O(1-3x)F(1+3x) (x = 0.0886) [Kutoglu (1992). Z. Kristallogr. 199, 197-201], which consists solely of octahedral structural units. PMID:19346595

  9. Adsorption of aluminium by stream particulates.

    PubMed

    Tipping, E; Ohnstad, M; Woof, C

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the adsorption of aluminium by fine particulates from Whitray Beck, a hill stream in NW England. Adsorption increased with Al(3) activity, pH and concentration of particles, and could be quantitatively described by the empirical equation: [Formula: see text] [particles] where square brackets indicate concentrations, curly brackets, activities, and alpha, beta and gamma are constants with values of 5.14x10(-10) (mol litre(-1))(2.015) (g particles litre(-1))(-1), 0.457, and 1.472, respectively. For the experimental data, the equation gave a correlation ratio of 0.99. The equation accounts reasonably well for the adsorption of Al by particulates from seven other streams. In applying the equation, it must be borne in mind that the desorption kinetics of Al depend on pH, and rapid reversibility (<15min) can only be assumed for pHor=10%) of total monomeric Al. PMID:15092454

  10. A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

  11. Fuzzy Multicriteria Ranking of Aluminium Coating Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    This work deals with multicriteria ranking of aluminium coating methods. The alternatives used are: sulfuric acid anodization, A1; oxalic acid anodization, A2; chromic acid anodization, A3; phosphoric acid anodization, A4; integral color anodizing, A5; chemical conversion coating, A6; electrostatic powder deposition, A7. The criteria used are: cost of production, f1; environmental friendliness of production process, f2; appearance (texture), f3; reflectivity, f4; response to coloring, f5; corrosion resistance, f6; abrasion resistance, f7; fatigue resistance, f8. Five experts coming from relevant industrial units set grades to the criteria vector and the preference matrix according to a properly modified Delphi method. Sensitivity analysis of the ranked first alternative A1 against the `second best', which was A3 at low and A7 at high resolution levels proved that the solution is robust. The dependence of anodized products quality on upstream processes is presented and the impact of energy price increase on industrial cost is discussed.

  12. Improving Efficiency of Aluminium Sacrificial Anode Using Cold Work Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Ann, Chang Tai

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium is one of the preferred materials to be used as sacrificial anode for carbon steel protection. The efficiency of these can be low due to the formation of oxide layer which passivate the anodes. Currently, to improve its efficiency, there are efforts using a new technique called surface modifications. The objective of this research is to study corrosion mechanism of aluminium sacrificial anode which has been processed by cold work. The cold works are applied by reducing the thickness of aluminium sacrificial anodes at 20% and 40% of thickness reduction. The cathodic protection experiments were performed by immersion of aluminium connected to carbon steel cylinder in 3% NaCl solutions. Visual inspections using SEM had been conducted during the experiments and corrosion rate data were taken in every week for 8 weeks of immersion time. Corrosion rate data were measured using weight loss and linear polarization technique (LPR). From the results, it is observed that cold worked aluminium sacrificial anode have a better corrosion performance. It shows higher corrosion rate and lower corrosion potential. The anodes also provided a long functional for sacrificial anode before it stop working. From SEM investigation, it is shown that cold works have changed the microstructure of anodes which is suspected in increasing corrosion rate and cause de-passivate of the surface anodes.

  13. Ternary rare-earth iron arsenides RE12Fe57.5As41 (RE = La, Ce).

    PubMed

    Stoyko, Stanislav S; Blanchard, Peter E R; Mar, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    The rare-earth iron arsenides RE(12)Fe(57.5)As(41) (RE = La, Ce) have been prepared by direct reactions of the elements in the presence of a Sn flux. Analysis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data reveals that they adopt a new orthorhombic structure type (Pearson symbol oP236, space group Pmmn, Z = 2; a = 10.8881(9) A, b = 25.753(2) A, c = 12.5436(10) A for RE = La; a = 10.8376(8) A, b = 25.639(2) A, c = 12.4701(9) A for RE = Ce). In this metal-rich arsenide, the complex three-dimensional network (derived from 4 RE, 24 Fe, and 17 As sites) can be described as being built from unusual wavelike layers of connected As-centered trigonal prisms. Five of the Fe sites are partially occupied. The electronic structure of these compounds was probed through core-line X-ray photoelectron spectra. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicated ferromagnetic ordering at T(C) = 125 and 95 K for the La and Ce compounds, respectively. Electrical resistivity measurements on single crystals of Ce(12)Fe(57.5)As(41) showed metallic behavior with a prominent transition that coincides closely with the ferromagnetic ordering temperature. PMID:20128600

  14. Revealing the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of the Zintl quaternary arsenides ACdGeAs{sub 2} (A = K, Rb)

    SciTech Connect

    Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Zintl tetragonal phase ACdGeAs{sub 2} (A = K, Rb) are chalcopyrite and semiconductors. • Their direct band gap is suitable for PV, optolectronic and thermoelectric applications. • Combination of DFT and Boltzmann transport theory is employed. • The present arsenides are found to be covalent materials. - Abstract: Chalcopyrite semiconductors have attracted much attention due to their potential implications in photovoltaic and thermoelectric applications. First principle calculations were performed to investigate the electronic, optical and thermoelectric properties of the Zintl tetragonal phase ACdGeAs{sub 2} (A = K, Rb) using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method and the Engle–Vosko GGA (EV–GGA) approximation. The present compounds are found semiconductors with direct band gap and covalent bonding character. The optical transitions are investigated via the dielectric function (real and imaginary parts) along with other related optical constants including refractive index, reflectivity and energy-loss spectrum. Combining results from DFT and Boltzmann transport theory, we reported the thermoelectric properties such as the Seebeck’s coefficient, electrical and thermal conductivity, figure of merit and power factor as function of temperatures. The present chalcopyrite Zintl quaternary arsenides deserve to be explored for their potential applications as thermoelectric materials and for photovoltaic devices.

  15. Corrosion of aluminium metal in OPC- and CAC-based cement matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Hajime; Swift, Paul; Utton, Claire; Carro-Mateo, Beatriz; Collier, Nick; Milestone, Neil

    2013-08-15

    Corrosion of aluminium metal in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based pastes produces hydrogen gas and expansive reaction products causing problems for the encapsulation of aluminium containing nuclear wastes. Although corrosion of aluminium in cements has been long known, the extent of aluminium corrosion in the cement matrices and effects of such reaction on the cement phases are not well established. The present study investigates the corrosion reaction of aluminium in OPC, OPC-blast furnace slag (BFS) and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) based systems. The total amount of aluminium able to corrode in an OPC and 4:1 BFS:OPC system was determined, and the correlation between the amount of calcium hydroxide in the system and the reaction of aluminium obtained. It was also shown that a CAC-based system could offer a potential matrix to incorporate aluminium metal with a further reduction of pH by introduction of phosphate, producing a calcium phosphate cement.

  16. Stimulation of eryptosis by aluminium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Niemoeller, Olivier M.; Kiedaisch, Valentin; Dreischer, Peter; Wieder, Thomas; Lang, Florian . E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de

    2006-12-01

    Aluminium salts are utilized to impede intestinal phosphate absorption in chronic renal failure. Toxic side effects include anemia, which could result from impaired formation or accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Erythrocytes may be cleared secondary to suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the erythrocyte surface. As macrophages are equipped with PS receptors, they bind, engulf and degrade PS-exposing cells. The present experiments have been performed to explore whether Al{sup 3+} ions trigger eryptosis. The PS exposure was estimated from annexin binding and cell volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis. Exposure to Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 10 {mu}M Al{sup 3+} for 24 h) indeed significantly increased annexin binding, an effect paralleled by decrease of forward scatter at higher concentrations ({>=} 30 {mu}M Al{sup 3+}). According to Fluo3 fluorescence Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 30 {mu}M for 3 h) increased cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} activity. Al{sup 3+} ions ({>=} 10 {mu}M for 24 h) further decreased cytosolic ATP concentrations. Energy depletion by removal of glucose similarly triggered annexin binding, an effect not further enhanced by Al{sup 3+} ions. The eryptosis was paralleled by release of hemoglobin, pointing to loss of cell membrane integrity. In conclusion, Al{sup 3+} ions decrease cytosolic ATP leading to activation of Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cation channels, Ca{sup 2+} entry, stimulation of cell membrane scrambling and cell shrinkage. Moreover, Al{sup 3+} ions lead to loss of cellular hemoglobin, a feature of hemolysis. Both effects are expected to decrease the life span of circulating erythrocytes and presumably contribute to the development of anemia during Al{sup 3+} intoxication.

  17. IEC 61267: Feasibility of type 1100 aluminium and a copper/aluminium combination for RQA beam qualities.

    PubMed

    Leong, David L; Rainford, Louise; Zhao, Wei; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    In the course of performance acceptance testing, benchmarking or quality control of X-ray imaging systems, it is sometimes necessary to harden the X-ray beam spectrum. IEC 61267 specifies materials and methods to accomplish beam hardening and, unfortunately, requires the use of 99.9% pure aluminium (Alloy 1190) for the RQA beam quality, which is expensive and difficult to obtain. Less expensive and more readily available filters, such as Alloy 1100 (99.0% pure) aluminium and copper/aluminium combinations, have been used clinically to produce RQA series without rigorous scientific investigation to support their use. In this paper, simulation and experimental methods are developed to determine the differences in beam quality using Alloy 1190 and Alloy 1100. Additional simulation investigated copper/aluminium combinations to produce RQA5 and outputs from this simulation are verified with laboratory tests using different filter samples. The results of the study demonstrate that although Alloy 1100 produces a harder beam spectrum compared to Alloy 1190, it is a reasonable substitute. A combination filter of 0.5 mm copper and 2 mm aluminium produced a spectrum closer to that of Alloy 1190 than Alloy 1100 with the added benefits of lower exposures and lower batch variability. PMID:26776501

  18. Comparative studies of the scanning tunneling spectra in cuprate and iron-arsenide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, N.-C.; Teague, M. L.; Beyer, A. D.; Shen, B.; Wen, H.-H.

    2012-12-01

    We report scanning tunneling spectroscopic studies of cuprate and iron-arsenic superconductors, including YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y-123, Tc = 93 K), Sr0.9La0.1CuO2 (La-112, Tc = 43 K), and the “122” compounds Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 (Co-122 with x = 0.06, 0.08, 0.12 for Tc = 14, 24, 20 K). In zero field (H = 0), spatially homogeneous coherence peaks at energies ω = ± ΔSC flanked by spectral “shoulders” at ±Δeff are found in hole-type Y-123. In contrast, only a pair of spatially homogeneous peaks is seen in electron-type La-112 at ± Δeff. For H > 0, pseudogap (ΔPG) features are revealed inside the vortices, with ΔPG = [(Δeff)2-(ΔSC)2]1/2 > ΔSC in Y-123 and ΔPG < ΔSC in La-112, suggesting that the physical origin of ΔPG is a competing order coexisting with superconductivity. Additionally, Fourier transformation (FT) of the Y-123 spectra exhibits two types of spectral peaks, one type is associated with ω-dependent quasiparticle interference (QPI) wave-vectors and the other consists of ω-independent wave-vectors due to competing orders and (π,π) magnetic resonances. For the multi-band Co-122 compounds, two-gap superconductivity is found for all doping levels. Magnetic resonant modes that follow the temperature dependence of the superconducting gaps are also identified. These findings, together with the ω- and x-dependent QPI spectra, are consistent with a sign-changing s-wave pairing symmetry in the Co-122 iron arsenides. Our comparative studies suggest that the commonalities among the cuprate and the ferrous superconductors include the proximity to competing orders, antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin fluctuations and magnetic resonances in the superconducting (SC) state, and the unconventional pairing symmetries with sign-changing order parameters on different parts of the Fermi surface.

  19. Understanding charge carrier relaxation processes in terbium arsenide nanoparticles using transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderhoef, Laura R.

    Erbium arsenide nanoparticles epitaxially grown within III-V semiconductors have been shown to improve the performance of devices for applications ranging from thermoelectrics to THz pulse generation. The small size of rare-earth nanoparticles suggests that interesting electronic properties might emerge as a result of both spatial confinement and surface states. However, ErAs nanoparticles do not exhibit any signs of quantum confinement or an emergent bandgap, and these experimental observations are understood from theory. The incorporation of other rare-earth monopnictide nanoparticles into III-V hosts is a likely path to engineering carrier excitation, relaxation and transport dynamics for optoelectronic device applications. However, the electronic structure of these other rare-earth monopnictide nanoparticles remains poorly understood. The objective of this research is to explore the electronic structure and optical properties of III-V materials containing novel rare-earth monopnictides. We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to investigate the electronic structure of TbAs nanoparticles in III-V hosts. We start with TbAs:GaAs, which was expected to be similar to ErAs:GaAs. We study the dynamics of carrier relaxation into the TbAs states using optical pump terahertz probe transient absorption spectroscopy. By analyzing how the carrier relaxation rates depend on pump fluence and sample temperature, we conclude that the TbAs states are saturable. Saturable traps suggest the existence of a bandgap for TbAs nanoparticles, in sharp contrast with previous results for ErAs. We then apply the same experimental technique to two samples of TbAs nanoparticles in InGaAs with different concentrations of TbAs. We observe similar relaxation dynamics associated with trap saturation, though the ability to resolve these processes is contingent upon a high enough TbAs concentration in the sample. We have also constructed an optical pump optical probe transient absorption

  20. Different Approach to the Aluminium Oxide Topography Characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Poljacek, Sanja Mahovic; Gojo, Miroslav; Raos, Pero; Stoic, Antun

    2007-04-07

    Different surface topographic techniques are being widely used for quantitative measurements of typical industrial aluminium oxide surfaces. In this research, specific surface of aluminium oxide layer on the offset printing plate has been investigated by using measuring methods which have previously not been used for characterisation of such surfaces. By using two contact instruments and non-contact laser profilometer (LPM) 2D and 3D roughness parameters have been defined. SEM micrographs of the samples were made. Results have shown that aluminium oxide surfaces with the same average roughness value (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) typically used in the printing plate surface characterisation, have dramatically different surface topographies. According to the type of instrument specific roughness parameters should be used for defining the printing plate surfaces. New surface roughness parameters were defined in order to insure detailed characterisation of the printing plates in graphic reproduction process.

  1. Time-resolved aluminium laser-induced plasma temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmick, D. M.; Parigger, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    We seek to characterize the temperature decay of laser-induced plasma near the surface of an aluminium target from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of aluminium alloy sample. Laser-induced plasma are initiated by tightly focussing 1064 nm, nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation. Temperatures are inferred from aluminium monoxide spectra viewed at systematically varied time delays by comparing experimental spectra to theoretical calculations with a Nelder Mead algorithm. The temperatures are found to decay from 5173 ± 270 to 3862 ± 46 Kelvin from 10 to 100 μs time delays following optical breakdown. The temperature profile along the plasma height is also inferred from spatially resolved spectral measurements and the electron number density is inferred from Stark broadened Hβ spectra.

  2. Modelling of micro- and macrosegregation for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, K.; Mortensen, D.; M'Hamdi, M.

    2015-06-01

    Realistic predictions of macrosegregation formation during casting of aluminium alloys requires an accurate modeling of solute microsegregation accounting for multicomponent phase diagrams and secondary phase formation. In the present work, the stand alone Alstruc model, a microsegregation model for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys, is coupled with the continuum model ALSIM which calculates the macroscopic transport of mass, enthalpy, momentum, and solutes as well as stresses and deformation during solidification of aluminium. Alstruc deals with multicomponent alloys accounting for temperature dependent partition coefficients, liquidus slopes and the precipitation of secondary phases. The challenge associated with computation of microsegregation for multicomponent alloys is solved in Alstruc by approximating the phase diagram data by simple, analytical expressions which allows for a CPU-time efficient coupling with the macroscopic transport model. In the present work, the coupled model has been applied in a study of macrosegregation including thermal and solutal convection, solidification shrinkage and surface exudation on an industrial DC-cast billet.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a new aluminium-based compound.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Cosp, José; Artiaga, Ramón; Corpas-Iglesias, Francisco; Benítez-Guerrero, Mónica

    2009-08-28

    A new aluminium polynuclear crystalline species, Al(13)(OH)(30)(H(2)O)(15)Cl(9) has been synthesized and characterized. It is a particular case of the Al(13)(OH)(30-y)(H(2)O)(18-x)Cl(9) x zH(2)O family. It has been obtained from aluminium waste cans treated with HCl solution in strong acid media, followed by an ageing period. The crystalline structure of the complex was determined by XRD spectroscopy. Twelve reflections were found and indexed with the DICVOL04 software. Morphologically, a flattened preferred orientation was observed by SEM and FESEM. The chemical structure was studied by several absorption spectroscopy techniques: FTIR, ATR-FTIR and Raman dispersion spectroscopy. The coordination of the aluminium nuclei was determined by Al-MAS-NMR. Only octahedral sites were observed. Thermal characterization of the compound was performed by evolved gas analysis (EGA) coupled to simultaneous TGA-DSC. PMID:19655063

  4. Aluminium toxicity in the rat liver and brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1993-04-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we examined the brain and liver tissue uptake of aluminium 5-75 days after aluminium injection into healthy rats. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the brain and the brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the liver and the liver cell nuclei by PIXE analysis and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The morphological changes of the rat brain examined 75 days after the injection were similar to those which have been reportedly observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells.

  5. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. volume 14: electrical characteristics of hughes liquid phase epitaxy gallium arsenide solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, B.E.; Downing, R.G.; Miyahira, T.F.; Weiss, R.S.

    1981-11-01

    Electrical characteristics of liquid phase epitaxy, P/N gallium aluminum arsenide solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity and temperature. The solar cells were exposed to 1 MeV electron fluences of, respectively, 0, one hundred trillion, one quadrillion, and ten quadrillion e/sq cm.

  6. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 14: Electrical characteristics of Hughes liquid phase epitaxy gallium arsenide solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature and irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of liquid phase epitaxy, P/N gallium aluminum arsenide solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity and temperature. The solar cells were exposed to 1 MeV electron fluences of, respectively, 0, one hundred trillion, one quadrillion, and ten quadrillion e/sq cm.

  7. Laser micro welding of copper and aluminium using filler materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Gerd; Mys, Ihor; Schmidt, Michael H.

    2004-10-01

    The most evident trend in electronics production is towards miniaturization. Regarding the materials involved, another trend can be observed: intelligent combinations of different materials. One example is the combination of copper and aluminium. Copper is the material of choice for electronic packaging applications due to its superior electrical and thermal conductivity. On the other hand, aluminium offers technical and economical advantages with respect to cost and component weight -- still providing thermal and electrical properties acceptable for numerous applications. Especially for high volume products, the best solution often seems to be a combination of both materials. This fact raises the question of joining copper and aluminium. With respect to miniaturization laser micro welding is a very promising joining technique. Unfortunately, the metallurgical incompatibility of copper and aluminium easily results in the formation of brittle intermetallic phases and segregations during laser welding, thus generating an unacceptable quality of the joints. This paper presents investigations on enhancing the quality during laser micro welding of copper and aluminium for applications in electronics production. In order to eliminate the formation of brittle intermetallic phases, the addition of a filter material in form of a foil has been investigated. It can be shown that the addition of pure metals such as nickel and especially silver significantly reduces the occurrence of brittle phases in the joining area and therefore leads to an increase in welding quality. The proper control of the volume fractions of copper, aluminium and filler material in the melting zone helps to avoid materials segregation and reduces residual stress, consequently leading to a reduction of crack affinity and a stabilization of the mechanical and electrical properties.

  8. Carbon treated commercial aluminium alloys as anodes for aluminium-air batteries in sodium chloride electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Herranz, D.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2016-09-01

    An easy treatment based in carbon layer deposition into aluminium alloys is presented to enhance the performance of Al-air primary batteries with neutral pH electrolyte. The jellification of aluminate in the anode surface is described and avoided by the carbon covering. Treated commercial Al alloys namely Al1085 and Al7475 are tested as anodes achieving specific capacities above 1.2 Ah g-1vs 0.5 Ah g-1 without carbon covering. The influence of the binder proportion in the treatment as well as different carbonaceous materials, Carbon Black, Graphene and Pyrolytic Graphite are evaluated as candidates for the covering. Current densities of 1-10 mA cm-2 are measured and the influence of the alloy explored. A final battery design of 4 cells in series is presented for discharges with a voltage plateau of 2 V and 1 Wh g-1 energy density.

  9. Synthesis and structural, magnetic, thermal, and transport properties of several transition metal oxides and arsenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Supriyo

    Several transition metal oxides and arsenides have been synthesized and their magnetic, thermal, structural, and transport properties have been studied in this thesis. Magnetically pure spinel compound LiV2O4 is a rare d-electron heavy fermion. The presence of small concentrations of magnetic defects, which are produced by the crystal defects in the spinel structure, strongly affect the physical properties of LiV2O 4. The phase relations in the Li2O-V2O3-V 2O5 ternary system at 700°C for compositions in equilibrium with LiV2O4 are reported. This study clarified the synthesis conditions under which low and high magnetic defect concentrations can be obtained within the spinel structure of LiV2O4. We confirmed that the LiV2O4 phase can be obtained containing low (0.006 mol%) to high (0.83 mol%) magnetic defect concentrations ndefect and with consistently high magnetic defect spin S values between 3 and 6.5. The high ndefect values were obtained in the LiV 2O4 phase in equilibrium with V2O3, Li3VO4, or LiVO2 and the low values in the LiV2O4 phase in equilibrium with V3O 5. A model is suggested to explain this correlation. We grew single crystals of LiV2O4 using Li3VO4 as a self-flux. The magnetic susceptibility of some as-grown crystals show a Curie-like upturn at low temperatures, showing the presence of magnetic defects within the spinel structure. The magnetic defects could be removed in some of the crystals by annealing them at 700°C. A very high specific heat coefficient gamma = 450 mJ/(mol K2) was obtained at a temperature of 1.8 K for a crystal containing a magnetic defect concentration ndefect = 0.5 mol%. A crystal with ndefect = 0.01 mol% showed a residual resistivity ratio of 50. To search for superstructure peaks or other evidence of spatial correlations in the arrangement of the crystal defects with in the crystal structure which give rise to magnetic defects, we carried out high-energy x-ray diffraction studies on LiV2O4 single crystals. Entire

  10. Accumulation of aluminium and physiological status of tree foliage in the vicinity of a large aluminium smelter.

    PubMed

    Wannaz, E D; Rodriguez, J H; Wolfsberger, T; Carreras, H A; Pignata, M L; Fangmeier, A; Franzaring, J

    2012-01-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al) and sulphur (S) as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products) were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health. PMID:22654642

  11. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    PubMed Central

    Wannaz, E. D.; Rodriguez, J. H.; Wolfsberger, T.; Carreras, H. A.; Pignata, M. L.; Fangmeier, A.; Franzaring, J.

    2012-01-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al) and sulphur (S) as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products) were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health. PMID:22654642

  12. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Aluminium and Concrete Composite Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polus, Łukasz; Szumigała, Maciej

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a numerical analysis of the resistance and stiffness of the aluminium and concrete composite beam is presented. Composite aluminium and concrete structures are quite new and they have not been thoroughly tested. Composite structures have a lot of advantages. The composite aluminium and concrete beam is more corrosion-resistant, fire-resistant and stiff than the aluminium beam. The contemporary idea of sustainable buildings relies on new solutions which are more environmentally friendly. Aluminium is lighter and more resistant to corrosion than steel, which is often used in composite structures.

  13. Porphyry copper enrichment linked to excess aluminium in plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, B. J.; Herrington, R. J.; Morris, A.

    2016-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits provide around 75%, 50% and 20% of world copper, molybdenum and gold, respectively. The deposits are mainly centred on calc-alkaline porphyry magmatic systems in subduction zone settings. Although calc-alkaline magmas are relatively common, large porphyry copper deposits are extremely rare and increasingly difficult to discover. Here, we compile existing geochemical data for magmatic plagioclase, a dominant mineral in calc-alkaline rocks, from fertile (porphyry-associated) and barren magmatic systems worldwide, barren examples having no associated porphyry deposit. We show that plagioclase from fertile systems is distinct in containing `excess’ aluminium. This signature is clearly demonstrated in a case study carried out on plagioclase from the fertile La Paloma and Los Sulfatos copper porphyry systems in Chile. Further, the presence of concentric zones of high excess aluminium suggests its incorporation as a result of magmatic processes. As excess aluminium has been linked to high melt water contents, the concentric zones may record injections of hydrous fluid or fluid-rich melts into the sub-porphyry magma chamber. We propose that excess aluminium may exclude copper from plagioclase, so enriching the remaining melts. Furthermore, this chemical signature can be used as an exploration indicator for copper porphyry deposits.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Aluminium (aluminum) Tolerance in Rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to utilize moisture and nutrients by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of ...

  15. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Alameda, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Araujo, J. P.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS-NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (~1.55) is quite lower (~22%) than the commonly used Al2O3 handbook value (~1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates.

  16. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake. PMID:24779693

  17. The effects of ingested aluminium on brain cytochrome oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, N; Alleyne, T; Adogwa, A

    2009-11-01

    Aluminium has a unique combination of physical and chemical properties which has enabled man to put this metal to very wide and varied use. However prolonged exposure to aluminium ions may lead to adverse health effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary aluminium on the protein composition and the intrinsic activity of cytochrome oxidase (COX) for brain mitochondria. New Zealand white rabbits were maintained on a diet of commercial rabbit pellets and distilled water for a period of 12 weeks. For the experimental group, AlCl3, 330 mg/kg/L was added to the drinking water. When compared to the control, mitochondria isolated from the brains of the AICl3 fed rabbits showed no change in Km but an approximate 35% decrease in both the low and high affinity Vmax values. Also, whereas the protein composition of the mitochondria from both sources appeared to be normal, isolation of highly purified COX proved to be difficult and for the AlCl3 fed rabbits, a number of the enzyme's low molecular weight subunits were absent. These results appear to confirm a relationship between long term aluminium consumption and low brain COX activity; they further suggest that an altered COX structure may be the cause of the low enzymic activity. PMID:20441059

  18. LASERS IN MEDICINE: Two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkin, Yu P.; Alfimov, E. E.; Vasil'ev, N. E.; Denisov, A. N.; Makukha, V. K.; Ogirenko, A. P.

    1999-12-01

    A demonstration is given of the feasibility of two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanine and of the pharmaceutical preparation 'Fotosens', used in photodynamic therapy. The excitation source was an Nd:YAG laser emitting at the 1064 nm wavelength. The spectra of the two-photon-excited luminescence were obtained and the two-photon absorption cross sections were determined.

  19. Aluminium hydride: a reversible material for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L; Fewox, Christopher S; Stowe, Ashley C; Gray, Joshua R; Harter, Andrew G

    2009-07-01

    Aluminium hydride has been synthesized electrochemically, providing a synthetic route which closes a reversible cycle for regeneration of the material and bypasses expensive thermodynamic costs which have precluded AlH(3) from being considered as a H(2) storage material. PMID:19557259

  20. Characteristics of trap-filled gallium arsenide photoconductive switches used in high gain pulsed power applications

    SciTech Connect

    ISLAM,N.E.; SCHAMILOGLU,E.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; JOSHI,R.P.

    2000-05-30

    The electrical properties of semi-insulating (SI) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) have been investigated for some time, particularly for its application as a substrate in microelectronics. Of late this material has found a variety of applications other than as an isolation region between devices, or the substrate of an active device. High resistivity SI GaAs is increasingly being used in charged particle detectors and photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS). PCSS made from these materials operating in both the linear and non-linear modes have applications such as firing sets, as drivers for lasers, and in high impedance, low current Q-switches or Pockels cells. In the non-linear mode, it has also been used in a system to generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) High Power Microwaves (HPM). The choice of GaAs over silicon offers the advantage that its material properties allow for fast, repetitive switching action. Furthermore photoconductive switches have advantages over conventional switches such as improved jitter, better impedance matching, compact size, and in some cases, lower laser energy requirement for switching action. The rise time of the PCSS is an important parameter that affects the maximum energy transferred to the load and it depends, in addition to other parameters, on the bias or the average field across the switch. High field operation has been an important goal in PCSS research. Due to surface flashover or premature material breakdown at higher voltages, most PCSS, especially those used in high power operation, need to operate well below the inherent breakdown voltage of the material. The lifetime or the total number of switching operations before breakdown, is another important switch parameter that needs to be considered for operation at high bias conditions. A lifetime of {approximately} 10{sup 4} shots has been reported for PCSS's used in UWB-HPM generation [5], while it has exceeded 10{sup 8} shots for electro-optic drivers. Much effort is currently

  1. A gallium-arsenide digital phase shifter for clock and control signal distribution in high-speed digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouts, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    The design, implementation, testing, and applications of a gallium-arsenide digital phase shifter and fan-out buffer are described. The integrated circuit provides a method for adjusting the phase of high-speed clock and control signals in digital systems, without the need for pruning cables, multiplexing between cables of different lengths, delay lines, or similar techniques. The phase of signals distributed with the described chip can be dynamically adjusted in eight different steps of approximately 60 ps per step. The IC also serves as a fan-out buffer and provides 12 in-phase outputs. The chip is useful for distributing high-speed clock and control signals in synchronous digital systems, especially if components are distributed over a large physical area or if there is a large number of components.

  2. The electrical properties of 60 keV zinc ions implanted into semi-insulating gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlejohn, M. A.; Anikara, R.

    1972-01-01

    The electrical behavior of zinc ions implanted into chromium-doped semiinsulating gallium arsenide was investigated by measurements of the sheet resistivity and Hall effect. Room temperature implantations were performed using fluence values from 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 15th power/sq cm at 60 keV. The samples were annealed for 30 minutes in a nitrogen atmosphere up to 800 C in steps of 200 C and the effect of this annealing on the Hall effect and sheet resistivity was studied at room temperature using the Van der Pauw technique. The temperature dependence of sheet resistivity and mobility was measured from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. Finally, a measurement of the implanted profile was obtained using a layer removal technique combined with the Hall effect and sheet resistivity measurements.

  3. An experiment to test the viability of a gallium-arsenide cathode in a SRF electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Wu, Q.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

    2009-05-04

    Strained gallium arsenide cathodes are used in electron guns for the production of polarized electrons. In order to have a sufficient quantum efficiency lifetime of the cathode the vacuum in the gun must be 10{sup -11} Torr or better, so that the cathode is not destroyed by ion back bombardment or through contamination with residual gases. All successful polarized guns are DC guns, because such vacuum levels can not be obtained in normal conducting RF guns. A superconductive RF gun may provide a sufficient vacuum level due to cryo-pumping of the cavity walls. We report on the progress of our experiment to test such a gun with normal GaAs-Cs crystals.

  4. Aluminium in allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy--a German perspective.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Matthias F; Heath, Matthew D

    2014-07-16

    We are living in an "aluminium age" with increasing bioavailability of the metal for approximately 125 years, contributing significantly to the aluminium body burden of humans. Over the course of life, aluminium accumulates and is stored predominantly in the lungs, bones, liver, kidneys and brain. The toxicity of aluminium in humans is briefly summarised, highlighting links and possible causal relationships between a high aluminium body burden and a number of neurological disorders and disease states. Aluminium salts have been used as depot-adjuvants successfully in essential prophylactic vaccinations for almost 100 years, with a convincing positive benefit-risk assessment which remains unchanged. However, allergen-specific immunotherapy commonly consists of administering a long-course programme of subcutaneous injections using preparations of relevant allergens. Regulatory authorities currently set aluminium limits for vaccines per dose, rather than per treatment course. Unlike prophylactic vaccinations, numerous injections with higher proportions of aluminium-adjuvant per injection are applied in subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and will significantly contribute to a higher cumulative life dose of aluminium. While the human body may cope robustly with a daily aluminium overload from the environment, regulatory cumulative threshold values in immunotherapy need further addressing. Based on the current literature, predisposing an individual to an unusually high level of aluminium, such as through subcutaneous immunotherapy, has the potential to form focal accumulations in the body with the propensity to exert forms of toxicity. Particularly in relation to longer-term health effects, the safety of aluminium adjuvants in immunotherapy remains unchallenged by health authorities - evoking the need for more consideration, guidance, and transparency on what is known and not known about its safety in long-course therapy and what measures can be taken to prevent or

  5. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    PubMed

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples. PMID:27092423

  6. Performance of commercial aluminium alloys as anodes in gelled electrolyte aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of commercial aluminium alloys, namely, Al2024, Al7475 and Al1085, for Al-air batteries is performed. Pure Al cladded Al2024 and Al7475 are also evaluated. Current rates from 0.8 mA cm-2 to 8.6 mA cm-2 are measured in a gel Al-air cell composed of the commercial alloy sample, a commercial air-cathode and an easily synthesizable gelled alkaline electrolyte. The influence of the alloying elements and the addition to the electrolyte of ZnO and ZnCl2, as corrosion inhibitors is studied and analysed via EDX/SEM. Specific capacities of up to 426 mAh/g are obtained with notably flat potential discharges of 1.3-1.4 V. The competition between self-corrosion and oxidation reactions is also discussed, as well as the influence of the current applied on that process. Al7475 is determined to have the best behaviour as anode in Al-air primary batteries, and cladding process is found to be an extra protection against corrosion at low current discharges. Conversely, Al1085 provided worse results because of an unfavourable metallic composition.

  7. Electron tunneling transport across heterojunctions between europium sulfide and indium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallaher, Raymond L.

    This dissertation presents research done on utilizing the ferromagnetic semiconductor europium sulfide (EuS) to inject spin polarized electrons into the non-magnetic semiconductor indium arsenide (InAs). There is great interest in expanding the functionality of modern day electronic circuits by creating devices that depend not only on the flow of charge in the device, but also on the transport of spin through the device. Within this mindset, there is a concerted effort to establish an efficient means of injecting and detecting spin polarized electrons in a two dimensional electron system (2DES) as the first step in developing a spin based field effect transistor. Thus, the research presented in this thesis has focused on the feasibility of using EuS, in direct electrical contact with InAs, as a spin injecting electrode into an InAs 2DES. Doped EuS is a concentrated ferromagnetic semiconductor, whose conduction band undergoes a giant Zeeman splitting when the material becomes ferromagnetic. The concomitant difference in energy between the spin-up and spin-down energy bands makes the itinerant electrons in EuS highly spin polarized. Thus, in principle, EuS is a good candidate to be used as an injector of spin polarized electrons into non-magnetic materials. In addition, the ability to adjust the conductivity of EuS by varying the doping level in the material makes EuS particularly suited for injecting spins into non-magnetic semiconductors and 2DES. For this research, thin films of EuS have been grown via e-beam evaporation of EuS powder. This growth technique produces EuS films that are sulfur deficient; these sulfur vacancies act as intrinsic electron donors and the resulting EuS films behave like heavily doped ferromagnetic semiconductors. The growth parameters and deposition procedures were varied and optimized in order to fabricate films that have minimal crystalline defects. Various properties and characteristics of these EuS films were measured and compared to

  8. Study of the structure of a thin aluminum layer on the vicinal surface of a gallium arsenide substrate by high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lovygin, M. V. Borgardt, N. I.; Seibt, M.; Kazakov, I. P.; Tsikunov, A. V.

    2015-12-15

    The results of electron-microscopy studies of a thin epitaxial aluminum layer deposited onto a misoriented gallium-arsenide substrate are reported. It is established that the layer consists of differently oriented grains, whose crystal lattices are coherently conjugated with the substrate with the formation of misfit dislocations, as in the case of a layer on a singular substrate. Atomic steps on the substrate surface are visualized, and their influence on the growth of aluminum crystal grains is discussed.

  9. Ultra large deflection of thin PZT/aluminium cantilever beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seveno, Raynald; Guiffard, Benoit; Regoin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Flexible piezoelectric cantilever beam has been realized by depositing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film (4.5 μm) by chemical solution deposition (CSD) onto very thin aluminium foil (16 μm). The tip deflection of the beam has been measured as a function of the frequency of the applied sinusoidal voltage to the PZT film for different amplitudes. Resonance curves have been compared to a classical model of an oscillating system under sinusoidal stress with a very good agreement. Despite of weak ferroelectric properties (remnant polarization: 13 μC/cm2), ultra-large deflection amplitudes have been measured under very moderate applied voltage values: 750 μm@10 V for quasi-static mode and 5 mm@10 V at the resonance frequency ( 12 Hz), which makes this PZT/aluminium composite film very promising for highly flexible actuation applications where large displacements are wanted.

  10. Histopathological changes in cases of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sinha, U S; Kapoor, A K; Singh, A K; Gupta, A; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2005-04-01

    Of a total of 205 poisoning deaths in our hospital in 2003, 83 cases were due to Aluminium phosphide poisoning and were further analyzed. Most vulnerable age group was 21-40 years and M:F ratio was 2:1. On naked eye examination, almost all the vital organs were found to be congested. On microscopic study, the liver showed central venous congestion, degeneration, haemorrhage, sinusoidal dilation, bile stasis, centrilobular necrosis, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, infiltration by mononuclear cells and fatty change. Microscopy of the lungs revealed alveolar thickening, oedema, dilated capillaries, collapsed alveoli and haemorrhage. In the kidney, changes were degeneration, infiltration, tubular dilation and cloudy swelling. Changes in the brain included congestion and coagulative necrosis and in the stomach, congestion and haemorrhage. Easy availability of this cheap and highly toxic substance was responsible for the sudden spurt of poisoning with aluminium phosphide. PMID:16758658

  11. Experimental evidence for a dynamical crossover in liquid aluminium.

    PubMed

    Demmel, F; Fraile, A; Szubrin, D; Pilgrim, W-C; Morkel, C

    2015-11-18

    The temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor at next-neighbour distances has been investigated for liquid aluminium. This correlation function is a sensitive parameter for changes in the local environment and its Fourier transform was measured in a coherent inelastic neutron scattering experiment. The zero frequency amplitude decreases in a nonlinear way and indicates a change in dynamics around 1.4 ∙ Tmelting. From that amplitude a generalized viscosity can be derived which is a measure of local stress correlations on next-neighbour distances. The derived generalized longitudinal viscosity shows a changing slope at the same temperature range. At this temperature the freezing out of degrees of freedom for structural relaxation upon cooling sets in which can be understood as a precursor towards the solid state. That crossover in dynamics of liquid aluminium shows the same signatures as previously observed in liquid rubidium and lead, indicating an universal character. PMID:26465204

  12. Experimental evidence for a dynamical crossover in liquid aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmel, F.; Fraile, A.; Szubrin, D.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Morkel, C.

    2015-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor at next-neighbour distances has been investigated for liquid aluminium. This correlation function is a sensitive parameter for changes in the local environment and its Fourier transform was measured in a coherent inelastic neutron scattering experiment. The zero frequency amplitude decreases in a nonlinear way and indicates a change in dynamics around 1.4\\cdot {{T}\\text{melting}} . From that amplitude a generalized viscosity can be derived which is a measure of local stress correlations on next-neighbour distances. The derived generalized longitudinal viscosity shows a changing slope at the same temperature range. At this temperature the freezing out of degrees of freedom for structural relaxation upon cooling sets in which can be understood as a precursor towards the solid state. That crossover in dynamics of liquid aluminium shows the same signatures as previously observed in liquid rubidium and lead, indicating an universal character.

  13. The precipitation of potassium aluminium sulphate from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, J. W.; Žáček, S.

    1981-06-01

    A precipitation study has been made with potassium aluminium sulphate (potash alum) produced by mixing aqueous solutions of its constituent salts. Rates of nucleation, as indicated by the induction period, were measured for both agitated and non-agitated solutions over the temperature range 15-35°C. Nucleation rates increase with increases in agitation, temperature and supersaturation, but the latter has the dominant effect, as predicted by classical nucleation theory. The temperature-dependence of the interfacial tension is evaluated.

  14. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity. PMID:27025067

  15. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China. PMID:26727195

  16. Aluminium localization in root tips of the aluminium-accumulating plant species buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Klug, Benjamin; Specht, André; Horst, Walter J

    2011-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) uptake and transport in the root tip of buckwheat is not yet completely understood. For localization of Al in root tips, fluorescent dyes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were compared. The staining of Al with morin is an appropriate means to study qualitatively the radial distribution along the root tip axis of Al which is complexed by oxalate and citrate in buckwheat roots. The results compare well with the distribution of total Al determined by LA-ICP-MS which could be reliably calibrated to compare with Al contents by conventional total Al determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Al localization in root cross-sections along the root tip showed that in buckwheat Al is highly mobile in the radial direction. The root apex predominantly accumulated Al in the cortex. The subapical root section showed a homogenous Al distribution across the whole section. In the following root section Al was located particularly in the pericycle and the xylem parenchyma cells. With further increasing distance from the root apex Al could be detected only in individual xylem vessels. The results support the view that the 10 mm apical root tip is the main site of Al uptake into the symplast of the cortex, while the subapical 10-20 mm zone is the main site of xylem loading through the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells. Progress in the better molecular understanding of Al transport in buckwheat will depend on the consideration of the tissue specificity of Al transport and complexation. PMID:21831842

  17. High rate constitutive modeling of aluminium alloy tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.

    2006-08-01

    As the need for fuel efficient automobiles increases, car designers are investigating light-weight materials for automotive bodies that will reduce the overall automobile weight. Aluminium alloy tube is a desirable material to use in automotive bodies due to its light weight. However, aluminium suffers from lower formability than steel and its energy absorption ability in a crash event after a forming operation is largely unknown. As part of a larger study on the relationship between crashworthiness and forming processes, constitutive models for 3mm AA5754 aluminium tube were developed. A nominal strain rate of 100/s is often used to characterize overall automobile crash events, whereas strain rates on the order of 1000/s can occur locally. Therefore, tests were performed at quasi-static rates using an Instron test fixture and at strain rates of 500/s to 1500/s using a tensile split Hopkinson bar. High rate testing was then conducted at rates of 500/s, 1000/s and 1500/s at 21circC, 150circC and 300circC. The generated data was then used to determine the constitutive parameters for the Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong material models.

  18. Pulse electrodeposition of adherent nickel coatings onto anodized aluminium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantz, Cédric; Vichery, Charlotte; Zechner, Johannes; Frey, Damian; Bürki, Gerhard; Cebeci, Halil; Michler, Johann; Philippe, Laetitia

    2015-03-01

    Aluminium is one of the mostly used elements in the industry because of its abundance and low weight. However, the deposition of a metallic coating requires performing the so-called zincate pre-treatment in order to allow the formation of inter-metallic bonds and thereby achieving sufficient adherence. In this work, porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) is used as an anchoring intermediate layer for nickel coatings. AAO is grown anodically in sulfuric acid and nickel coatings are deposited by potentiostatic reverse pulse electrodeposition onto as-anodized aluminium surfaces. The electrodeposition of nickel is initiated onto the electrochemically thinned barrier layer of AAO and pursued until the complete covering of the oxide. The electrochemical behavior of Watts and sulfamate baths is investigated by cyclic voltammetry for different barrier layer thickness, allowing to validate the thinning conditions and to determine the appropriate deposition potential of nickel. GD-OES measurements show that low duty cycles are necessary to achieve high filling ratio of the AAO. SEM micrographs show that a smooth uniform coating is obtained when nickel is deposited in presence of additives.

  19. Modelling of detonation cellular structure in aluminium suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, A.; Veyssiere, B.; Khasainov, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneous detonations involving aluminium suspensions have been studied for many years for industrial safety policies, and for military and propulsion applications. Owing to their weak detonability and to the lack of available experimental results on the detonation cellular structure, numerical simulations provide a convenient way to improve the knowledge of such detonations. One major difficulty arising in numerical study of heterogeneous detonations involving suspensions of aluminium particles in oxidizing atmospheres is the modelling of aluminium combustion. Our previous two-step model provided results on the effect on the detonation cellular structure of particle diameter and characteristic chemical lengths. In this study, a hybrid model is incorporated in the numerical code EFAE, combining both kinetic and diffusion regimes in parallel. This more realistic model provides good agreement with the previous two-step model and confirms the correlations found between the detonation cell width, and particle diameter and characteristic lengths. Moreover, the linear dependence found between the detonation cell width and the induction length remains valid with the hybrid model.

  20. Recycling of aluminium scrap for secondary Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Eulogio; Nino, Jose

    2011-07-01

    An increasing amount of recycled aluminium is going into the production of aluminium alloy used for automotive applications. In these applications, it is necessary to control and remove alloy impurities and inclusions. Cleaning and fluxing processes are widely used during processing of the alloys for removal of inclusions, hydrogen and excess of magnesium. These processes use salt fluxes based in the system NaCl-KCl, injection of chlorine or mixture of chlorine with an inert gas. The new systems include a graphite wand and a circulation device to force convection in the melt and permit the bubbling and dispersion of reactive and cleaning agents. This paper discusses the recycling of aluminium alloys in rotary and reverberatory industrial furnaces. It focuses on the removal of magnesium during the melting process. In rotary furnaces, the magnesium lost is mainly due to the oxidation process at high temperatures. The magnesium removal is carried out by the reaction between chlorine and magnesium, with its efficiency associated to kinetic factors such as concentration of magnesium, mixing, and temperature. These factors are also related to emissions generated during the demagging process. Improvements in the metallic yield can be reached in rotary furnaces if the process starts with a proper salt, with limits of addition, and avoiding long holding times. To improve throughput in reverberatories, start the charging with high magnesium content material and inject chlorine gas if the molten metal is at the right temperature. Removal of magnesium through modern technologies can be efficiently performed to prevent environmental problems. PMID:20837560

  1. Control of Microthrix parvicella by aluminium salts addition.

    PubMed

    Durban, N; Juzan, L; Krier, J; Gillot, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and iron chloride were added to a biological nutrient removal pilot plant (1,500 population equivalent) treating urban wastewater to investigate the control of Microthrix parvicella bulking and foaming by metallic salts. Monitoring plant performance over two 6-month periods showed a slight impact on the removal efficiencies. Addition of metallic salts (Me; aluminium or aluminium + iron) at a concentration of 41 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) (MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids) over 70 days allowed a stabilization of the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI), whereas higher dosages (94 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 35 days or 137 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 14 days induced a significant improvement of the settling conditions. Microscopic observations showed a compaction of biological aggregates with an embedding of filamentous bacteria into the flocs that is not specific to M. parvicella as bacteria from phylum Chloroflexi are embedded too. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting M. parvicella further indicated a possible growth limitation in addition to the flocculation impact at the high dosages of metallic salts investigated. DSVI appeared to be correlated with the relative abundance of M. parvicella. PMID:26819398

  2. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2013-04-01

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

  3. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate.

    PubMed

    Warren, L M; Mackenzie, A; Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2013-04-01

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image. PMID:23470559

  4. Thermoelectric power in low-density interstitial-free iron-aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Radhakanta; Liu, Cheng

    2013-09-01

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) studies on low-density interstitial-free iron-aluminium alloys reveal that the TEP decreases with increase in the aluminium content on account of the introduction of lattice dispersion centres. The TEP coefficients, determined from the Nordheim-Gorter law, for 6.8 and 8.1 wt.% aluminium additions to α-iron are found to be higher than values reported in previous literature for small aluminium additions. The grain size has a very weak effect on the TEP of these alloys.

  5. Dietary Exposure to Aluminium and Health Risk Assessment in the Residents of Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0–2 and 3–13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China. PMID:24594670

  6. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPARγ receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation. PMID:25940660

  7. Do aluminium-based phosphate binders continue to have a role in contemporary nephrology practice?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aluminium-containing phosphate binders have long been used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Their safety became controversial in the early 1980's after reports of aluminium related neurological and bone disease began to appear. Available historical evidence however, suggests that neurological toxicity may have primarily been caused by excessive exposure to aluminium in dialysis fluid, rather than aluminium-containing oral phosphate binders. Limited evidence suggests that aluminium bone disease may also be on the decline in the era of aluminium removal from dialysis fluid, even with continued use of aluminium binders. Discussion The K/DOQI and KDIGO guidelines both suggest avoiding aluminium-containing binders. These guidelines will tend to promote the use of the newer, more expensive binders (lanthanum, sevelamer), which have limited evidence for benefit and, like aluminium, limited long-term safety data. Treating hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients continues to represent a major challenge, and there is a large body of evidence linking serum phosphate concentrations with mortality. Most nephrologists agree that phosphate binders have the potential to meaningfully reduce mortality in dialysis patients. Aluminium is one of the cheapest, most effective and well tolerated of the class, however there are no prospective or randomised trials examining the efficacy and safety of aluminium as a binder. Aluminium continues to be used as a binder in Australia as well as some other countries, despite concern about the potential for toxicity. There are some data from selected case series that aluminium bone disease may be declining in the era of reduced aluminium content in dialysis fluid, due to rigorous water testing. Summary This paper seeks to revisit the contemporary evidence for the safety record of aluminium-containing binders in dialysis patients. It puts their use into the context of the newer, more expensive binders and increasing

  8. CO{sub 2} laser-based dispersion interferometer utilizing orientation-patterned gallium arsenide for plasma density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bamford, D. J.; Cummings, E. A.; Panasenko, D.; Fenner, D. B.; Hensley, J. M.; Boivin, R. L.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2013-09-15

    A dispersion interferometer based on the second-harmonic generation of a carbon dioxide laser in orientation-patterned gallium arsenide has been developed for measuring electron density in plasmas. The interferometer includes two nonlinear optical crystals placed on opposite sides of the plasma. This instrument has been used to measure electron line densities in a pulsed radio-frequency generated argon plasma. A simple phase-extraction technique based on combining measurements from two successive pulses of the plasma has been used. The noise-equivalent line density was measured to be 1.7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −2} in a detection bandwidth of 950 kHz. One of the orientation-patterned crystals produced 13 mW of peak power at the second-harmonic wavelength from a carbon dioxide laser with 13 W of peak power. Two crystals arranged sequentially produced 58 mW of peak power at the second-harmonic wavelength from a carbon dioxide laser with 37 W of peak power.

  9. Ternary rare-earth zinc arsenides RE Zn 1- x As 2 ( RE =La-Nd, Sm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Mar, Arthur

    2011-09-01

    The ternary rare-earth zinc arsenides REZn 1- xAs 2 ( RE=La-Nd, Sm) were prepared by reaction of the elements at 800 °C. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a defect SrZnBi 2-type average structure for the La member (Pearson symbol tI16, space group I4/ mmm, Z=4; a=4.0770(9) Å, c=20.533(5) Å), in contrast to defect HfCuSi 2-type average structures for the remaining RE members (Pearson symbol tP8, space group P4/ nmm, Z=2; a=4.0298(5)-3.9520(4) Å, c=10.222(1)-10.099(1) Å in the progression from Ce to Sm). The homogeneity range is not appreciable (estimated to be narrower than 0.6<1- x<0.7 in SmZn 1- xAs 2) and the formula REZn 0.67As 2 likely represents the Zn-rich phase boundary. The Ce-Nd members are Curie-Weiss paramagnets. LaZn 0.67As 2 shows activated behavior in its electrical resistivity, whereas SmZn 0.67As 2 exhibits anomalies in its temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity.

  10. Ternary arsenides ATt3As3 (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) with layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Mansura; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Mar, Arthur

    2016-06-01

    The four ternary arsenides ATt3As3 (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) were obtained by reaction of the elements at 600-650 °C. They adopt an orthorhombic structure (space group Pnma, Z=4, with cell parameters ranging from a=9.9931(11) Å, b=3.7664(4) Å, c=18.607(2) Å for KGe3As3 to a=10.3211(11) Å, b=4.0917(4) Å, c=19.570(2) Å for RbSn3As3) containing corrugated [Tt3As3] layers built from Tt-centred trigonal pyramids and tetrahedra forming five-membered rings decorated with As handles. They can be considered to be Zintl phases with Tt atoms in +4, +3, and +1 oxidation states. Band structure calculations predict that these compounds are semiconductors with narrow band gaps (0.71 eV in KGe3As3, 0.50 eV in KSn3As3).

  11. Light-trapping and recycling for extraordinary power conversion in ultra-thin gallium-arsenide solar cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eyderman, Sergey; John, Sajeev

    2016-06-23

    Here, we demonstrate nearly 30% power conversion efficiency in ultra-thin (~200 nm) gallium arsenide photonic crystal solar cells by numerical solution of the coupled electromagnetic Maxwell and semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. Our architecture enables wave-interference-induced solar light trapping in the wavelength range from 300-865 nm, leading to absorption of almost 90% of incoming sunlight. Our optimized design for 200 nm equivalent bulk thickness of GaAs, is a square-lattice, slanted conical-pore photonic crystal (lattice constant 550 nm, pore diameter 600 nm, and pore depth 290 nm), passivated with AlGaAs, deposited on a silver back-reflector, with ITO upper contact and encapsulated with SiO2.more » Our model includes both radiative and non-radiative recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. When all light from radiative recombination is assumed to escape the structure, a maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) of 27.6 mA/cm2 is obtained from normally incident AM 1.5 sunlight. For a surface non-radiative recombination velocity of 103 cm/s, this corresponds to a solar power conversion efficiency of 28.3%. When all light from radiative recombination is trapped and reabsorbed (complete photon recycling) the power conversion efficiency increases to 29%. If the surface recombination velocity is reduced to 10 cm/sec, photon recycling is much more effective and the power conversion efficiency reaches 30.6%.« less

  12. CO2 laser-based dispersion interferometer utilizing orientation-patterned gallium arsenide for plasma density measurements.

    PubMed

    Bamford, D J; Cummings, E A; Panasenko, D; Fenner, D B; Hensley, J M; Boivin, R L; Carlstrom, T N; Van Zeeland, M A

    2013-09-01

    A dispersion interferometer based on the second-harmonic generation of a carbon dioxide laser in orientation-patterned gallium arsenide has been developed for measuring electron density in plasmas. The interferometer includes two nonlinear optical crystals placed on opposite sides of the plasma. This instrument has been used to measure electron line densities in a pulsed radio-frequency generated argon plasma. A simple phase-extraction technique based on combining measurements from two successive pulses of the plasma has been used. The noise-equivalent line density was measured to be 1.7 × 10(17) m(-2) in a detection bandwidth of 950 kHz. One of the orientation-patterned crystals produced 13 mW of peak power at the second-harmonic wavelength from a carbon dioxide laser with 13 W of peak power. Two crystals arranged sequentially produced 58 mW of peak power at the second-harmonic wavelength from a carbon dioxide laser with 37 W of peak power. PMID:24089824

  13. Structural anomalies in undoped gallium arsenide observed in high-resolution diffraction imaging with monochromatic synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, B.; Kuriyama, M.; Dobbyn, R. C.; Laor, U.; Larson, D.

    1989-01-01

    Novel, streak-like disruption features restricted to the plane of diffraction have recently been observed in images obtained by synchrotron radiation diffraction from undoped, semi-insulating gallium arsenide crystals. These features were identified as ensembles of very thin platelets or interfaces lying in (110) planes, and a structural model consisting of antiphase domain boundaries was proposed. We report here the other principal features observed in high resolution monochromatic synchrotron radiation diffraction images: (quasi) cellular structure; linear, very low-angle subgrain boundaries in (110) directions, and surface stripes in a (110) direction. In addition, we report systematic differences in the acceptance angle for images involving various diffraction vectors. When these observations are considered together, a unifying picture emerges. The presence of ensembles of thin (110) antiphase platelet regions or boundaries is generally consistent not only with the streak-like diffraction features but with the other features reported here as well. For the formation of such regions we propose two mechanisms, operating in parallel, that appear to be consistent with the various defect features observed by a variety of techniques.

  14. Development of a unique laboratory standard: Indium gallium arsenide detector for the 500-1700 nm spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A planar (5 mm diameter) indium gallium arsenide detector having a high (greater than 50 pct) quantum efficiency from the visible into the infrared spectrum (500 to 1700 nm) was fabricated. Quantum efficiencies as high as 37 pct at 510 nm, 58 pct at 820 nm and 62 pct at 1300 nm and 1550 nm were measured. A planar InP/InGaAs detector structure was also fabricated using vapor phase epitaxy to grow device structures with 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 micrometer thick InP caps. Quantum efficiency was studied as a function of cap thickness. Conventional detector structures were also used by completely etching off the InP cap after zinc diffusion. Calibrated quantum efficiencies were measured. Best results were obtained with devices whose caps were completely removed by etching. Certain problems still remain with these detectors including non-uniform shunt resistance, reproducibility, contact resistance and narrow band anti-reflection coatings.

  15. Epitaxial dysprosium phosphide grown by gas-source and solid-source MBE on gallium arsenide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadwick, L. P.; Lee, P. P.; Patel, M.; Nikols, M.; Hwu, R. J.; Shield, J. E.; Streit, D. C.; Brehmer, D.; McCormick, K.; Allen, S. J.; Gedridge, R. W.

    1996-07-01

    We report the first known study of the growth of epitaxial dysprosium phosphide (DyP) grown on gallium arsenide (GaAs). DyP is lattice matched to GaAs, with the room-temperature mismatch being less than 0.01%. We have grown DyP on GaAs by gas-source and by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy using custom-designed group V thermal cracker cells and group III high temperature effusion cells. X-ray diffraction results show the DyP epilayer to be (001) single crystal on GaAs(001) substrate. Electrical and optical measurements performed to date are inconclusive as to whether DyP is a semi-metal or a semiconductor with a small band gap. The undoped films are n-type with measured electron concentrations on the order of 5 × 10 19-6 × 10 20cm -3 with mobilities of 1-10 cm 2/V · s. {DyP}/{GaAs} is stable in air with no apparent oxidation taking place, even after months of exposure to ambient untreated air. Material and surface science properties measured for {DyP}/{GaAs} include Hall measurements, 2ϑ and double-crystal X-ray diffraction spectra and photothermal deflection spectroscopy.

  16. Synthesis of transition metal arsenides and arsenic metal sulfides and their role in the dearsenation of shale oils

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, G.H.; Brown, L.D.; Ryan, D.F. )

    1994-04-01

    One of the chief problems in upgrading shale oil is the presence of inherent arsenic, which is known to poison downstream catalysts. Highly dispersed transition metal sulfides formed in situ from the decomposition of dithiocarbamate (DTC) complexes of transition metals show excellent potential as dearsenation agents. The authors have studied the reaction of these sulfides with various arsenic compositions, and characterized the metal arsenides and arsenic metal sulfides formed as well as the ease of their formation. Thus, the reaction of bis(butyldithiocarbamato)Ni, (NiBuDTC), with model compounds was very facile and gave NiAs, NiAsS, and NiAs[sub 2[minus]x]S[sub x]. In general, the effectiveness of the sulfides for dearsenation followed the sequence Ni > Mo [much gt] Co, while iron sulfides were totally ineffective. Based upon these results, tests where run in autoclaves (as well as a fixed-bed flow-through unit) with Ni BuDTC and shale oil having 73 ppm inherent As. Under optimum conditions, dearsenation down to less than 1 ppm was obtained.

  17. Non-local exchange correlation functionals impact on the structural, electronic and optical properties of III-V arsenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najwa Anua, N.; Ahmed, R.; Shaari, A.; Saeed, M. A.; Haq, Bakhtiar Ul; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2013-10-01

    Exchange correlation (XC) energy functionals play a vital role in the efficiency of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, more soundly in the calculation of fundamental electronic energy bandgap. In the present DFT study of III-arsenides, we investigate the implications of XC-energy functional and corresponding potential on the structural, electronic and optical properties of XAs (X = B, Al, Ga, In). Firstly we report and discuss the optimized structural lattice parameters and the band gap calculations performed within different non-local XC functionals as implemented in the DFT-packages: WIEN2k, CASTEP and SIESTA. These packages are representative of the available code in ab initio studies. We employed the LDA, GGA-PBE, GGA-WC and mBJ-LDA using WIEN2k. In CASTEP, we employed the hybrid functional, sX-LDA. Furthermore LDA, GGA-PBE and meta-GGA were employed using SIESTA code. Our results point to GGA-WC as a more appropriate approximation for the calculations of structural parameters. However our electronic bandstructure calculations at the level of mBJ-LDA potential show considerable improvements over the other XC functionals, even the sX-LDA hybrid functional. We report also the optical properties within mBJ potential, which show a nice agreement with the experimental measurements in addition to other theoretical results.

  18. Novel Indium Arsenide double gate and gate all around nanowire MOSFETs for diminishing the exchange correlation effect: A quantum study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Nejaty, Mohammad; Mohtasham, Alireza

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we present novel double gate (DG) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and gate all around (GAA) nanowire metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (NWT) with a diminished exchange-correlation (Ex-Corr) effect. The key idea in this work is to use Indium Arsenide (InAs) semiconductor instead of Si. We have evaluated and compared different parameters of DG-MOSFET and GAA-NWTs such as threshold voltage, sub-threshold slope, drain induced barrier lowering and ON and OFF state currents from quantum view. Quantum mechanical transport approach based on non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) has been performed in the frame work of effective mass theory in consideration with Ex-Corr effect. This simulation method consists of three dimensional Poisson's equation in which a Schrodinger equation is first solved in each slice of the device to find Eigen energies and Eigen functions. Then, a transport equation of electrons moving in the sub-bands is solved. This fully quantum method treats such effects as source-to-drain tunneling, ballistic transport, and quantum confinement on equal footing. The results show that only a few lowest Eigen sub-bands are occupied and the upper sub-bands can be safely neglected. Also, the interaction between electrons and Ex-Corr effect is diminished in the proposed structure.

  19. High-performance organic/inorganic hybrid heterojunction based on Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) substrates and a conjugated polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameel, D. A.; Felix, J. F.; Aziz, M.; Al Saqri, N.; Taylor, D.; de Azevedo, W. M.; da Silva, E. F.; Albalawi, H.; Alghamdi, H.; Al Mashary, F.; Henini, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present an extensive study of the electrical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunctions. Polyaniline (PANI) thin films were deposited by a very simple technique on (1 0 0) and (3 1 1)B n-type Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) substrates to fabricate hybrid devices with excellent electrical properties. The hybrid devices were electrically characterized using current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements in the temperature range 20-440 K. The analysis of I-V characteristics based on the thermionic emission mechanism has shown a decrease of the barrier height and an increase of the ideality factor at lower temperatures for both hybrid devices. The interface states were analyzed by series resistance obtained using the C-G-V methods. The interface state density (Dit) of PANI/(1 0 0) GaAs devices is approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of PANI/(3 1 1)B GaAs devices. This behaviour is attributed to the effect of crystallographic orientation of the substrates, and was confirmed by DLTS results as well. Additionally, the devices show excellent air stability, with rectification ratio values almost unaltered after two years of storage under ambient conditions, making the polyaniline an interesting conductor polymer for future devices applications.

  20. The chemical transformation of copper in aluminium oxide during heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Wang, Hsi-Chih; Yang, Yaw-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2004-08-01

    Thermal treatment has recently been emerging as a promising environmental technology to stabilize heavy metal-containing industrial sludge. This study used x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the species of copper contaminant contained in aluminium oxide that is one of the main compositions of sludge and soil. Results indicate that the originally loaded copper nitrate was transformed into Cu(OH)2 after its dissolution in the aluminium oxide slurry. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) fitting indicates that the main copper species in the 105 °C dried Cu(NO3)2-loaded aluminium oxide is Cu(OH)2 which accounts for ca. 75% of the loaded copper. After thermal treatment at 500 °C for 1 h, both x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and EXAFS fitting results show that CuO became the prevailing copper species (about 85%); the rest of the copper consisted of {\\sim }15{%} Cu(OH)2 and a negligible amount of Cu(NO3)2. It was found that most Cu(OH)2 and Cu(NO3)2 decomposed into CuO at 500 °C. Further increase of the heating temperature from 500 to 900 °C resulted in more decomposition of Cu(OH)2 and Cu(NO3)2; therefore CuO remained as the main copper species. However, it was suggested that about 15% of the loaded copper formed CuAl2O4 through the chemical reaction between CuO and Al2O3 at 900 °C.

  1. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations

    PubMed Central

    Mold, Matthew; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al3+ in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, potentially generating a greater inflammatory response at the site of simulated injection. The cellular uptake of aluminium based adjuvants (ABAs) used in clinically approved vaccinations are compared to a commonly used experimental ABA, in an in vitro THP-1 cell model. Using lumogallion as a direct-fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium, complemented with transmission electron microscopy provides further insight into the morphology of internalised particulates, driven by the physicochemical variations of the ABAs investigated. We demonstrate that not all aluminium adjuvants are equal neither in terms of their physical properties nor their biological reactivity and potential toxicities both at the injection site and beyond. High loading of aluminium oxyhydroxide in the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells without immediate cytotoxicity might predispose this form of aluminium adjuvant to its subsequent transport throughout the body including access to the brain. PMID:27515230

  2. The effect of aluminium chlorhydrate on sweat gland activity in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rees-Jones, A M; Jenkinson, D M

    1978-03-01

    Topical application of aluminium chlorhydrate had no appreciable antiperspirant action on the epitrichial glands of cattle. There was no evidence of penetration of the salt into the dermis or of any change in the morphology of the glands. It is probable that the antiperspirant activity of aluminium chlorhydrate in the human axilla, is only on the atrichial glands. PMID:632617

  3. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Mold, Matthew; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al(3+) in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, potentially generating a greater inflammatory response at the site of simulated injection. The cellular uptake of aluminium based adjuvants (ABAs) used in clinically approved vaccinations are compared to a commonly used experimental ABA, in an in vitro THP-1 cell model. Using lumogallion as a direct-fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium, complemented with transmission electron microscopy provides further insight into the morphology of internalised particulates, driven by the physicochemical variations of the ABAs investigated. We demonstrate that not all aluminium adjuvants are equal neither in terms of their physical properties nor their biological reactivity and potential toxicities both at the injection site and beyond. High loading of aluminium oxyhydroxide in the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells without immediate cytotoxicity might predispose this form of aluminium adjuvant to its subsequent transport throughout the body including access to the brain. PMID:27515230

  4. A cluster of equine granulomatous enteritis cases: the link with aluminium.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, U; Perl, D; Good, P; Ensley, S; Seawright, A; Noonan, J

    1998-10-01

    A cluster of 6 cases of equine granulomatous enteritis is described. Aluminium was demonstrated in the tissues and lesions of these horses and in the intimal bodies of intestinal vessels. The relationship between granulomatous lesions, aluminium, acidity and invading microorganisms, particularly parasites, is presented and discussed. PMID:9778770

  5. Deviatoric Response of AN Armour-Grade Aluminium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hazell, P. J.; Millett, J.; Bourne, N. K.

    2009-12-01

    Aluminium alloys such as 5083 H32 are established light-weight armour materials. As such, the shock response of these materials is of great importance. The shear strength of a material under shock loading provides an insight into its ballistic performance. In this investigation embedded manganin stress gauges have been employed to measure both the longitudinal and lateral components of stress during plate-impact experiments over a range of impact stresses. In turn, these results were used to determine the shear strength and to investigate the time dependence of lateral stress behind the shock front to give an indication of material response.

  6. Determination of phosphorus in hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys.

    PubMed

    Mukai, K

    1972-04-01

    A reproducible method is described for determination of small amounts of phosphorus (from 0.0005% to 0.02%) in hypereutectic aluminium-silicon complex alloys. The method permits the separate determination of phosphorus in acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions. Phosphomolybdate is extracted with n-butanol-chloroform solvent mixture and back-extracted with a btannous chloride reducing solution. The phosphorus content of a sample cut into small pieces decreases during storage; loss of phosphorus is negligible on acid dissolution under oxidizing conditions. PMID:18961077

  7. Modeling of recrystallization texture of aluminium: symmetric and asymmetric rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbanowski, K.; Kotra, M.; Wronski, M.; Sztwiertnia, K.; Wronski, S.; Lodini, A.

    2015-04-01

    In some metallic materials the dominating recrystallization mechanism can be described by the oriented growth behaviour. Phenomenological laws state that in selected materials only these nuclei grow intensively which have a given misorientation relation with the deformed matrix. This description is frequently verified in f.c.c. metals and generally reported misorientations correspond approximately to 400 rotation around the <111> axis. Basing on the above ideas the recrystallization model, including the compromise condition, was formulated and applied to the study of recrystallization textures of rolled polycrystalline aluminium.

  8. Compressive tensile and shear testing of melt-foamed aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Von Hagen, H.; Bleck, W.

    1998-12-31

    For construction purposes it is utterly important to get detailed information on the possible influence of the foam thickness on the mechanical properties and on the deformation behavior of metallic foams. The effect of compressive, tensile and shear loads on aluminium foam samples has been examined with the testing methods for sandwich material as described in German and ASTM-standards. The aim is to provide more data on these mechanical properties varying the sample density and thickness. Regarding the results the most reliable material parameters as well as steps towards a relationship between the different strength parameters can be obtained.

  9. Mechanism of aluminium bio-mineralization in the apoferritin cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarpotto, M.; Ciasca, G.; Vassalli, M.; Rossi, C.; Campi, G.; Ricci, A.; Bocca, B.; Pino, A.; Alimonti, A.; De Sole, P.; Papi, M.

    2013-08-01

    Many experimental evidences point out the correlation between the presence of aluminum-ferritin complex and neursopathological disorders. In these complexes, two different ranges of Aluminium (Al) atoms are usually found, i.e., just few atoms or several hundreds. Here, we investigated the in-vitro Al-apoferritin binding, with the aim to elucidate the mechanism behind the formation of Al-ferritin complexes in-vivo. To this purpose, we studied the mineralization of Al in its ionic and complexed form with citrate demonstrating that high Al levels found in clinical studies can be obtained only conveying Al by small physiological ligands.

  10. Modelling work hardening of aluminium alloys containing dispersoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qinglong; Holmedal, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    The influence of dispersoids on tensile deformation behaviour has been studied by comparison of aluminium alloys containing different dispersoid densities. It was found that a fine dispersion of non-shearable particles led to an increased work hardening at the initial plastic deformation, but the effect was opposite at higher strains. The reason has been attributed to the generation of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). A new model has been proposed for the evolution of GNDs based on a balance of storage and dynamic recovery of GNDs. The model predicts a rapid saturation of GNDs and a reduced work hardening at small strains, consistent with the experimental results.

  11. Effects of silicon on gastrointestinal absorption of aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Edwardson, J.A.; Moore, P.B.; Ferrier, I.N.; Lilley, J.S.; Newton, G.W.A.; Barker, J.; Templar, J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-07-24

    The reported geographical association between Alzheimer's disease and levels of aluminium (Al) in water supplies may reflect the inverse relation between Al and silicon (Si) concentrations in water, and the potential for Si to reduce the bioavailability of the metal. The authors tested this hypothesis using isotopic [sup 26]Al tracer administered orally to five healthy volunteers in the presence and absence of Si. Dissolved Si, at a concentration found in some water supplies reduced the peak plasma [sup 26]Al concentration to 15% of the value obtained in the absence of Si. The results indicate that dissolved Si is an important factor in limiting the absorption of dietary Al.

  12. The fracture of boron fibre-reinforced 6061 aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. A.; Welch, D.; Jollay, J.

    1979-01-01

    The fracture of 6061 aluminium alloy reinforced with unidirectional and cross-plied 0/90 deg, 0/90/+ or - 45 deg boron fibres has been investigated. The results have been described in terms of a critical stress intensity, K(Q). Critical stress intensity factors were obtained by substituting the failure stress and the initial crack length into the appropriate expression for K(Q). Values were obtained that depended on the dimensions of the specimens. It was therefore concluded that, for the size of specimen tested, the values of K(Q) did not reflect any basic materials property.

  13. A lead-film electrode on an aluminium substrate to serve as a lead-acid battery plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolshina, L. A.; Kudyakov, V. Ya; Zyryanov, V. G.

    Compact lead layers have been deposited on the surfaces of aluminium and aluminium alloys. These coatings are uniform in thickness and have high porosity. The lead-film electrode produced on aluminium plate can be used as the positive electrode in a lead-acid battery.

  14. A novel in-situ method for inhibiting surface roughening during the thermal oxide desorption etching of silicon and gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Arthur Fong-Yuen

    A method inhibiting surface roughening of silicon and gallium arsenide wafers during the thermal desorption of their native oxide layers is proposed and tested experimentally, with silicon results indicating a 75% reduction in surface roughness from an averaged value of 2.20 nm to 0.56 nm, and gallium arsenide results indicating a 76% reduction from an averaged surface roughness of 1.6 nm to 0.4 nm. This method does not significantly alter the semiconductor crystalline surface, thus retaining suitability for subsequent epitaxial growth, as demonstrated experimentally. The method is readily implementable in currently utilized deposition systems, subject to the requirements of material growth, substrate heating, and producing a non-oxidizing environment, either inert atmosphere or reduced pressures. The technique involves depositing a thin sacrificial film directly onto the native oxide surface at lower temperatures, of which the thickness is dependent on both the native oxide thickness and the oxide stochiometry initially present within the oxide layer, but has been found experimentally to be on the order of 0.5 nm -- 4 nm for a 2 nm to 4 nm air-formed native oxide layer. Upon heating this structure to high temperatures, the native oxide preferentially reacts with the sacrificial deposited film instead of the bulk wafer, resulting in the chemical reduction to volatile components, which are evaporated at these temperatures. This method is developed for silicon and gallium arsenide and examined experimentally utilizing atomic force microscopy and reflection high-energy electron diffraction. Different native oxide preparation techniques are theorized to yield varying chemical stochiometries, with experimental results elucidating information regarding these differences. Further, a modified tri-layer implementation, in which the deposited film is re-oxidized, is tested for applicability as a novel wafer pacification technique.

  15. A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Goryachev, Maxim; Kostylev, Nikita; Sercombe, Timothy B.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals, in particular, has found a number of applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Although many techniques are used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a microwave cavity (resonant frequencies 9.9 and 11.2 GHz) 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable with the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The result is achieved even with a very large concentration of non-superconducting silicon in the alloy of 12.18%, compared with Al-6061, which has between 0.4% and 0.8%. Our results may pave the way for the possibility of 3D printing superconducting cavity configurations that are otherwise impossible to machine.

  16. Multiscale modelling of gallium induced embrittlement in aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhogireddy, Venkata Sai Pavan Kumar; Todorova, Mira; Spatschek, Robert; Neugebauer, Jörg

    Liquid metal embrittlement is a degradation phenomenon in which a solid metal undergoes brittle failure when it is stressed while in contact with a liquid metal. The transition from ductile to brittle metal failure manifests itself by rapid crack propagations which reduces the elongation to failure ratio. Combining density functional theory calculations with continuum methods, we study the liquid metal embrittlement of aluminium in contact with gallium. Comparing ab initio calculated energies for a Σ 3 and a Σ 5 Al grain boundary and their corresponding surface energies in the presence and absence of Ga, we identify critical Ga concentrations which result in a weakening of the mechanical strength of aluminium. Parametrising the DFT results in continuum model we obtain the concentration as a function of the strain in the system. In a final step we extend this approach and compute the stress field induced by cracks in bulk and at grain boundaries. The stress field explains the large segregation of gallium atoms at the crack tip and the crack tip's subsequent propagation.

  17. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of trace aluminium with indigo carmine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huai-Li; Xiong, Wen-Qiang; Gong, Ying-Kun; Peng, De-Jun; Li, Ling-Chun

    2007-04-01

    A new catalytic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of trace amounts of Al(III). The methods based on catalytic action of Al(III) on the oxidation of indigo carmine (IC) by ammonium persulfate in hexamethylene tetramine-hydrochloric acid ((CH 2) 6N 4-HCl) buffer medium (pH 5.4) and in the presence of surfactant—TritonX-100. The effects of some factors on the reaction speed were investigated. Aluminium concentration is linear for 0-1.2 × 10 -7 g/ml in this method. The detection limit of the proposed method is 1.96 × 10 -8 g/ml. Most of the foreign ions except for Cu(II), Fe(III) do not interfere with the determination, and the interference of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in this method can be removed by extraction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate-carbon tetrachloride (DDTC-CCl 4). This system is a quasi-zero-order reaction for Al(III), but it is a quasi-first-order reaction for IC. The apparent rate constant is 2.62 × 10 -5 s -1 and the apparent activation energy is 6.60 kJ/mol in the system. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace aluminium(III) in real samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Aluminium surface treatment with ceramic phases using diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labisz, K.; Tański, T.; Brytan, Z.; Pakieła, W.; Wiśniowski, M.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic particles powder feeding into surface layer of engineering metal alloy is a well-known and widely used technique. New approach into the topic is to obtain finely distributed nano-sized particles involved in the aluminium matrix using the traditional laser technology. In this paper are presented results of microstructure investigation of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloys surface layer after heat treatment and alloying with ceramic carbides of WC and ZrO2 using high-power diode laser. The surface layer was specially prepared for the reason of reducing the reflectivity, which is the main problem in the up-to-date metal matrix composites production. With scanning electron microscopy, it was possible to determine the deformation process and distribution of WC and ZrO2 ceramic powder phase. Structure of the surface after laser treatment changes, revealing three zones—remelting zone, heat-affected zone and transition zone placed over the Al substrate. The structural changes of ceramic powder, its distribution and morphology as well as microstructure of the matrix material influence on functional properties, especially wear resistance and hardness of the achieved layer, were investigated.

  19. High-Rate Compaction of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, J. J.; Hung, Y.-C.; Tan, P. J.; Bourne, N. K.; Withers, P. J.; Reid, S. R.; Millett, J. C. F.; Milne, A. M.

    2006-07-28

    The response of aluminium foams to impact can be categorised according to the impact velocity. Tests have been carried out at a range of impact velocities from quasi-static to velocities approaching the speed of sound in the foam. Various experimental arrangements have been employed including pneumatic launcher tests and plate impact experimants at velocities greater than 1000 m s-1. The quasi-static compression behaviour was approximately elastic, perfectly-plastic, locking. For static and dynamic compression at low impact velocities the deformation pattern was through the cumulative multiplication of discrete, non-contiguous crush bands. Selected impact tests are presented here for which the impact velocity is less than the velocity of sound, but above a certain critical impact velocity so that the plastic compression occurs in a shock-like manner and the specimens deform by progressive cell crushing. Laboratory X-ray microtomography has been employed to acquire tomographic datasets of aluminium foams before and after tests. The morphology of the underformed foam was used as the input dataset to an Eulerian code. Hydrocode simulations were then carried out on a real microstructure. These simulations provide insight to mechanisms associated with the localization of deformation.

  20. High-Rate Compaction of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, J. J.; Millett, J. C. F.; Milne, A. M.

    2005-07-01

    The response of aluminium foams to impact can be categorised by the impact velocity. Tests are reported ranging from quasi-static to impact velocities greater than the speed of sound in the foam. The techniques used ranging from drop-hammer and pneumatic launcher tests, to plate impact at velocities greater than 1000 m s-1. The quasi-static compression behaviour was elastic, perfectly-plastic, locking. For static and dynamic compression at low impact velocities, post-impact examination of partially crushed specimens showed that deformation was through the cumulative multiplication of crush bands. If the impact velocity is less than the velocity of sound, but above a certain critical impact velocity, the plastic compression occurs in a shock-like manner and the specimens deform by progressive cell crushing. At higher impact velocities the compaction front is not preceded by an elastic wave. Laboratory X-ray microtomography has been employed to acquire tomographic datasets of aluminium foams before and after tests. The morphology of the underformed foam was input as the input dataset to an Eulerian code. Hydrocode simulations were then carried out on real microstructure. These simulations provide insight to mechanisms associated with the localization of deformation.

  1. High-Rate Compaction of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, J. J.; Hung, Y.-C.; Tan, P. J.; Bourne, N. K.; Withers, P. J.; Reid, S. R.; Millett, J. C. F.; Milne, A. M.

    2006-07-01

    The response of aluminium foams to impact can be categorised according to the impact velocity. Tests have been carried out at a range of impact velocities from quasi-static to velocities approaching the speed of sound in the foam. Various experimental arrangements have been employed including pneumatic launcher tests and plate impact experimants at velocities greater than 1000 m s-1. The quasi-static compression behaviour was approximately elastic, perfectly-plastic, locking. For static and dynamic compression at low impact velocities the deformation pattern was through the cumulative multiplication of discrete, non-contiguous crush bands. Selected impact tests are presented here for which the impact velocity is less than the velocity of sound, but above a certain critical impact velocity so that the plastic compression occurs in a shock-like manner and the specimens deform by progressive cell crushing. Laboratory X-ray microtomography has been employed to acquire tomographic datasets of aluminium foams before and after tests. The morphology of the underformed foam was used as the input dataset to an Eulerian code. Hydrocode simulations were then carried out on a real microstructure. These simulations provide insight to mechanisms associated with the localization of deformation.

  2. Light-trapping and recycling for extraordinary power conversion in ultra-thin gallium-arsenide solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Eyderman, Sergey; John, Sajeev

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate nearly 30% power conversion efficiency in ultra-thin (~200 nm) gallium arsenide photonic crystal solar cells by numerical solution of the coupled electromagnetic Maxwell and semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. Our architecture enables wave-interference-induced solar light trapping in the wavelength range from 300–865 nm, leading to absorption of almost 90% of incoming sunlight. Our optimized design for 200 nm equivalent bulk thickness of GaAs, is a square-lattice, slanted conical-pore photonic crystal (lattice constant 550 nm, pore diameter 600 nm, and pore depth 290 nm), passivated with AlGaAs, deposited on a silver back-reflector, with ITO upper contact and encapsulated with SiO2. Our model includes both radiative and non-radiative recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. When all light from radiative recombination is assumed to escape the structure, a maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) of 27.6 mA/cm2 is obtained from normally incident AM 1.5 sunlight. For a surface non-radiative recombination velocity of 103 cm/s, this corresponds to a solar power conversion efficiency of 28.3%. When all light from radiative recombination is trapped and reabsorbed (complete photon recycling) the power conversion efficiency increases to 29%. If the surface recombination velocity is reduced to 10 cm/sec, photon recycling is much more effective and the power conversion efficiency reaches 30.6%. PMID:27334045

  3. Light-trapping and recycling for extraordinary power conversion in ultra-thin gallium-arsenide solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyderman, Sergey; John, Sajeev

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate nearly 30% power conversion efficiency in ultra-thin (~200 nm) gallium arsenide photonic crystal solar cells by numerical solution of the coupled electromagnetic Maxwell and semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. Our architecture enables wave-interference-induced solar light trapping in the wavelength range from 300–865 nm, leading to absorption of almost 90% of incoming sunlight. Our optimized design for 200 nm equivalent bulk thickness of GaAs, is a square-lattice, slanted conical-pore photonic crystal (lattice constant 550 nm, pore diameter 600 nm, and pore depth 290 nm), passivated with AlGaAs, deposited on a silver back-reflector, with ITO upper contact and encapsulated with SiO2. Our model includes both radiative and non-radiative recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. When all light from radiative recombination is assumed to escape the structure, a maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) of 27.6 mA/cm2 is obtained from normally incident AM 1.5 sunlight. For a surface non-radiative recombination velocity of 103 cm/s, this corresponds to a solar power conversion efficiency of 28.3%. When all light from radiative recombination is trapped and reabsorbed (complete photon recycling) the power conversion efficiency increases to 29%. If the surface recombination velocity is reduced to 10 cm/sec, photon recycling is much more effective and the power conversion efficiency reaches 30.6%.

  4. Development and testing of gallium arsenide photoconductive detectors for ultra-fast, high dose rate electron and photon radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharashvili, George

    Real time radiation dose measurements often present a challenge in high dose rate environments, like those needed for testing survivability of electronic devices or biological agents. Dosimetry needs at particle accelerator facilities require development of devices with fast (tens of picoseconds or less) response to pulsed radiation, linear response over a wide range of dose rates (up to 1011 Gy/s), high resistance to radiation damage, and successful operation in mixed gamma and neutron environments. Gallium arsenide photoconductive detectors (GaAs PCDs) have been shown to exhibit many of these desirable characteristics, especially the fast time response, when neutron irradiation is used to introduce displacement damage in the crystalline lattice of GaAs, hence improving the time response characteristics of the devices at the expense of their sensitivity. The objective of this project was to develop and test GaAs PCDs for ultra fast, high dose rate electron and bremsstrahlung radiation measurements. Effects of neutron pre-irradiation and detector size on the PCD properties were also investigated. GaAs PCDs with three different neutron irradiation levels (0, ˜1014, and 5 x 1015 n/cm 2 (1-MeV equivalent in GaAs) were fabricated. The devices were tested with 7, 20 and 38-MeV electron pulses produced by linear accelerators operating at the L-band frequency of 1.3-GHz and the S-band frequency of 2.8-GHz. In addition, detector responses at high dose rates were tested with 33-ns wide, 7-MeV maximum energy bremsstrahlung pulses produced by a pulse-power accelerator. The time response characteristics and the dose-rate ranges of application of the GaAs PCDs were determined. Several operational issues were identified. Recommendations on how to improve the PCD fabrication procedure and diagnostic capabilities for the high intensity radiation research are also discussed.

  5. Light-trapping and recycling for extraordinary power conversion in ultra-thin gallium-arsenide solar cells.

    PubMed

    Eyderman, Sergey; John, Sajeev

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate nearly 30% power conversion efficiency in ultra-thin (~200 nm) gallium arsenide photonic crystal solar cells by numerical solution of the coupled electromagnetic Maxwell and semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. Our architecture enables wave-interference-induced solar light trapping in the wavelength range from 300-865 nm, leading to absorption of almost 90% of incoming sunlight. Our optimized design for 200 nm equivalent bulk thickness of GaAs, is a square-lattice, slanted conical-pore photonic crystal (lattice constant 550 nm, pore diameter 600 nm, and pore depth 290 nm), passivated with AlGaAs, deposited on a silver back-reflector, with ITO upper contact and encapsulated with SiO2. Our model includes both radiative and non-radiative recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. When all light from radiative recombination is assumed to escape the structure, a maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) of 27.6 mA/cm(2) is obtained from normally incident AM 1.5 sunlight. For a surface non-radiative recombination velocity of 10(3) cm/s, this corresponds to a solar power conversion efficiency of 28.3%. When all light from radiative recombination is trapped and reabsorbed (complete photon recycling) the power conversion efficiency increases to 29%. If the surface recombination velocity is reduced to 10 cm/sec, photon recycling is much more effective and the power conversion efficiency reaches 30.6%. PMID:27334045

  6. Fabrication of superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface with excellent corrosion resistance by a facile and environment-friendly method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Libang; Che, Yanhui; Liu, Yanhua; Qiang, Xiaohu; Wang, Yanping

    2013-10-01

    This work develops a facile and environment-friendly method for preparing the superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface with excellent corrosion resistance. The superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface is fabricated by the boiling water treatment and stearic acid (STA) modification. Results show that the boiling water treatment endows the aluminium alloy surface with a porous and rough structure, while STA modification chemically grafts the long hydrophobic alkyl chains onto the aluminium alloy surface. Just grounded on the micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure along with the hydrophobic chemical composition, the superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface is endued the excellent corrosion resistance.

  7. Nouveau procédé de synthèse du nitrure d'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussonne, J. M.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J. P.; Lostec, L.; Sadou, S.

    1993-04-01

    Thermodynamic considerations show that, even at room temperature, pure aluminium can react with nitrogen to form the aluminium nitride AlN. However, pure aluminium does not exist: it is always surrounded by an alumina shell that protects the metal from further reactions. Furthermore, in the hypothesis where one has been able to make aluminium react with nitrogen, an aluminium nitride shell will protect as well the metal core from further oxidation. Prompted by the Lanxide process allowing to form Al/Al2O3 composites, we have mixed aluminium powders with lithium salts, and easily synthesized pure aluminium nitride by heating the mixed powders in nitrogen at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 °C. Starting from aluminium powders with a specific area ranging from 0.3 to 4 m^2/g, we have been able to produce aluminium nitride with specific are ranging from 1 to 20 m^2/g. Mixed with Y203-CaO and sintered at 1720 °C in N2, we obtained AIN ceramics owning 92% density and 160 W/m.K thermal conductivity. Les calculs thermodynamiques montrent que, même à température ambiante, l'aluminium pur peut réagir avec l'azote pour former le nitrure d'aluminium AlN. Cependant, la poudre d'aluminium pur n'existe pas : ses grains sont toujours entourés d'une couche d'alumine protectrice. De plus, dans l'hypothèse où l'on pourrait faire réagir de la poudre d'aluminium avec de l'azote, il se formerait de même une couche protectrice de nitrure d'aluminium qui empêcherait le centre des grains de réagir. S'inspirant du “procédé Lanxide” permettant de réaliser des composites Al/Al2O3, nous avons mélangé de la poudre d'aluminium avec des sels de lithium, et synthétisé du nitrure d'aluminium pur en portant ce mélange dans l'azote à une température pouvant être comprise entre 800 et 1 200 °C. Utilisant des poudres d'aluminium possédant une surface spécifique comprise entre 0,3 et 4 m^2/g, nous avons obtenu une poudre de nitrure d'aluminium avec une surface sp

  8. Effects on the nervous system among welders exposed to aluminium and manganese.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, B; Iregren, A; Frech, W; Hagman, M; Johansson, L; Tesarz, M; Wennberg, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The purpose was to study the effects on the nervous system in welders exposed to aluminium and manganese. METHODS--The investigation included questionnaires on symptoms, psychological methods (simple reaction time, finger tapping speed and endurance, digit span, vocabulary, tracking, symbol digit, cylinders, olfactory threshold, Luria-Nebraska motor scale), neurophysiological methods (electroencephalography, event related auditory evoked potential (P-300), brainstem auditory evoked potential, and diadochokinesometry) and assessments of blood and urine concentrations of metals (aluminium, lead, and manganese). RESULTS--The welders exposed to aluminium (n = 38) reported more symptoms from the central nervous system than the control group (n = 39). They also had a decreased motor function in five tests. The effect was dose related in two of these five tests. The median exposure of aluminium welders was 7065 hours and they had about seven times higher concentrations of aluminium in urine than the controls. The welders exposed to manganese (n = 12) had a decreased motor function in five tests. An increased latency of event related auditory evoked potential was also found in this group. The median manganese exposure was 270 hours. These welders did not have higher concentrations of manganese in blood than the controls. CONCLUSIONS--The neurotoxic effects found in the groups of welders exposed to aluminium and manganese are probably caused by the aluminium and manganese exposure, respectively. These effects indicate a need for improvements in the work environments of these welders. PMID:8563855

  9. Increasing aluminium concentrations in Southwest Nova Scotia Canada rivers from 1980 to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minichiello, Jeff; Sterling, Shannon; Ambrose, Sarah; Clair, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Elevated aluminum levels in rivers is known to be toxic for aquatic species, in particular Salmo salar; however it was only recently aluminium has been identified as a potential threat to Salmo salar populations in South Western Nova Scotia, Canada (SWNS) (Dennis and Clair 2012). Previously, it was thought SWNS rivers contained enough DOC to render the aluminium in rivers inactive. A key remaining question is whether aluminium levels are declining following atmospheric pollution reductions. Here we make a first assessment of long term (1980-2011) aluminium concentration trends in three watersheds located in SWNS, as measured by weekly grab samples. Our results show that total aluminium levels have significantly increased from 1980-2011 in all three sites. Estimates of ionic aluminium levels indicate that the ionic aluminum concentration frequently exceeds the threshold for the level of aquatic health determined by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (Howells et al. 1990). Data also indicates that calcium levels have yet to recover even with declining concentrations of riverine sulfate. This new knowledge that aluminium is at toxic levels and is worsening will have implications for policy on acidification mitigation in SWNS; this is an urgent issue as the local salmon population numbers currently are declining to near extirpation levels.

  10. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland). PMID:26341598

  11. Identification and estimation of extra-framework aluminium in acidic mazzite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanjanchi, M. A.; Razavi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been used to investigate structural modification of mazzite zeolite subjected to calcination, acid leaching and acetylacetone treatments. Extra-framework aluminium species, formed upon expulsion of aluminium from the framework, are detected by DRS because they are involved in aluminium-oxygen charge transfer transitions. Impregnation of the calcined ammonium-exchanged and acid leached samples with ethanolic acetylacetone will convert the broadened 260-280 nm band of extra-framework aluminium with distorted symmetry to a distinct well-defined 285 nm band. The appearance of this band is due to the transformation of the aluminium atoms with a different coordination number to structures with highly ordered octahedral symmetry. Washing the acetylacetone treated samples with hot ethanol leads to extraction of some of the complexed aluminium. The presence of an extracted aluminium triacetylacetonate complex in the eluant is verified by the same spectrophotometer used in its conventional mode. This suggests that a dual DR and UV-VIS spectrophotometry is an appropriate approach to study such topics.

  12. Aluminium adjuvants and adverse events in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sub-cutaneous immunotherapy is an effective treatment for allergy. It works by helping to modify or re-balance an individual’s immune response to allergens and its efficacy is greatly improved by the use of adjuvants, most commonly, aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts have been used in allergy therapy for many decades and are assumed to be safe with few established side-effects. This assumption belies their potency as adjuvants and their potential for biological reactivity both at injection sites and elsewhere in the body. There are very few data purporting to the safety of aluminium adjuvants in allergy immunotherapy and particularly so in relation to longer term health effects. There are, if only few, published reports of adverse events following allergy immunotherapy and aluminium adjuvants are the prime suspects in the majority of such incidents. Aluminium adjuvants are clearly capable of initiating unwanted side effects in recipients of immunotherapy and while there is as yet no evidence that such are commonplace it is complacent to consider aluminium salts as harmless constituents of allergy therapies. Future research should establish the safety of the use of aluminium adjuvants in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy. PMID:24444186

  13. Effect of Fiber Surface Structure on Interfacial Reaction between Carbon Fiber and Aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kuang-Chih; Matsugi, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Gen; Yanagisawa, Osamu

    Surface structure of carbon fiber and interfacial reaction between fiber and aluminium in carbon fiber reinforced aluminium composites were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Low and high graphitized carbon fiber reinforced pure aluminium composites were prepared by ultrasonic liquid infiltration. Vapor grown carbon nano fiber (VGCF) reinforced pure aluminium composites were prepared by hot-pressing. Heteroatoms, which existed abundantly in the surface of low graphitized carbon fiber, caused carbon lamellar structure in the fiber surface pronounced curvature. VGCF surface structure appeared regular and linear graphitic lamellae. Low graphitized fiber reinforced pure aluminium composites revealed serious interfacial reaction produced crystalline aluminium carbides (Al4C3), compared to composites reinforced by high graphitized fiber. On the other hand, Al4C3 crystalline reactants were not found at the interface of VGCF reinforced pure aluminium composites, but formation of interlayer was observed. In order to promote Al4C3 growth, carbon fiber reinforced composites were heat-treated at 573K and 873K for 1.8ks. Al4C3 interfacial phases in low and high graphitized fiber reinforced aluminium composites grew with the rise in the temperature. The heat-treatment resulted in the formation of non-crystalline Al4C3 interlayer by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of electron microscopy. At high temperature, Al4C3 was not grew and increased merely at the interface between carbon fiber and pure aluminium matrix, and moreover, the formation of new Al4C3 crystal occurred in this interlayer.

  14. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  15. Frictional conditions between alloy AA6060 aluminium and tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widerøe, Fredrik; Welo, Torgeir

    2011-05-01

    The frictional conditions in the new process of screw extrusion of aluminium have been investigated. The contact behaviour between the aluminum alloy and the tool steel in the extruder is vital for understanding the extrusion process. Using a compressive-rotational method for frictional measurements the conditions for unlubricated sticking friction between aluminum alloy AA6060 and tool steel at different combinations of temperatures and pressures have been investigated. In this method the samples in the form of disks are put under hydrostatic pressure while simultaneously being rotated at one end. Pins made from contrast material have been inserted into the samples to measure the deformation introduced. This approach along with 3D simulations form a method for determining the frictional conditions. The paper describes the test method and the results. It was found that the necessary pressure for sticking to occur between the aluminum AA6060 and the different parts of the extruder is heavily influenced by the temperature.

  16. Microstructure characterization of hypereutectoid aluminium bronze composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucita, P.; Wang, S. C.; Li, W. S.; Cook, R. B.; Starink, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    Hypereutectoid aluminium bronze coating was deposited onto an E.N. 10503 steel substrate using plasma transferred arc welding (PTA). Microstructure characterisation of the coating and a section near the steel substrate joint was carried out using SEM, EBSD, EDS in conjunction with XRD and depth-sensing nano-indentation. The constituent phases in the coating were identified as: martensitic Cu3Al β1' phase, solid solution of Al in Cu α phase and the intermetallic Fe3Al κ1 phase. The region near the steel substrate was characterised by high hardness, large grains and presence of Cu precipitates. No cracks were observed in this region. The coating has high hardness of 4.9GPa and Young's modulus of 121.7GPa. This is attributed to homogeneous distribution of sub microns size Fe3Al intermetallic phase. The implications of the coating to the engineering application of sheet metal forming are discussed.

  17. Nanosecond laser texturing of aluminium for control of wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Martin C.; Rosowski, Adam P.; French, Paul W.

    2015-07-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of lasers to modify the wettability of surfaces. Here we report on the use of a 20W nS pulsed IR fibre laser to create strong hydrophobicity on the surface of aluminium sheets. This is unexpected, hydrophobicity is usually associated solely with femto- or pico- second laser processing. At a 20W average power level the area coverage rate is too small for many industrial applications. Further trials using a 800W DPSS laser are described and the ability of this system to change surface wettability at a much higher production rate are indicated. There is little reported literature on surface texturing at higher average power levels. Indications of the productivity, or surface coverage rate, are given.

  18. On the compression of Aluminium foam structures under shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, David; Bourne, Neil K.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Wood, D.

    2015-06-01

    Foam-based materials have an important role as both blast and impact mitigators, with their extended sub-surface structures providing multiple redundant routes for load management and distribution in the event of failure. In order to further elucidate underlying stress management mechanisms at high strain-rates, here, a series of Aluminium foams manufactured via rapid prototyping techniques were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a quasi one-dimensional state of strain. The nature of pore collapse was monitored via manganin stress gauges at the target rear surface, with resultant data related back to changes in microstructure via microstructural and topographical analysis of both un-impacted and recovered target material.

  19. Neutron irradiation influence on magnesium aluminium spinel inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsova, V.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Ulmanis, U.

    2002-05-01

    Grown by the Verneuil method MgO · nAl 2O 3 single crystals and natural spinel crystal have been studied using X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectra. The fast neutron irradiation of magnesium aluminium spinel leads to the lattice parameter decrease. The bond lengths of Mg-O and Al-O vary with the u-parameter and the lattice parameter. On the other hand, the bond lengths are related with the inversion parameter. Using changes of the lattice parameter during irradiation we have calculated the inversion parameter, which is 15-20%. In the luminescence spectra, the fast neutron radiation (fluence 10 16 cm -2) produces an increase in the intensity ratio of the N- to R-lines by 5-20%. Taking into account that intensity of the N-lines is closely associated with the inversion parameter, it is possible to state that the neutron irradiation causes the increasing of the spinel inversion.

  20. Quasiparticle spin resonance and coherence in superconducting aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Quay, C. H. L.; Weideneder, M.; Chiffaudel, Y.; Strunk, C.; Aprili, M.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional superconductors were long thought to be spin inert; however, there is now increasing interest in both (the manipulation of) the internal spin structure of the ground-state condensate, as well as recently observed long-lived, spin-polarized excitations (quasiparticles). We demonstrate spin resonance in the quasiparticle population of a mesoscopic superconductor (aluminium) using novel on-chip microwave detection techniques. The spin decoherence time obtained (∼100 ps), and its dependence on the sample thickness are consistent with Elliott–Yafet spin–orbit scattering as the main decoherence mechanism. The striking divergence between the spin coherence time and the previously measured spin imbalance relaxation time (∼10 ns) suggests that the latter is limited instead by inelastic processes. This work stakes out new ground for the nascent field of spin-based electronics with superconductors or superconducting spintronics. PMID:26497744

  1. Natural gas anodes for aluminium electrolysis in molten fluorides.

    PubMed

    Haarberg, Geir Martin; Khalaghi, Babak; Mokkelbost, Tommy

    2016-08-15

    Industrial primary production of aluminium has been developed and improved over more than 100 years. The molten salt electrolysis process is still suffering from low energy efficiency and considerable emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 and PFC). A new concept has been suggested where methane is supplied through the anode so that the CO2 emissions may be reduced significantly, the PFC emissions may be eliminated and the energy consumption may decrease significantly. Porous carbon anodes made from different graphite grades were studied in controlled laboratory experiments. The anode potential, the anode carbon consumption and the level of HF gas above the electrolyte were measured during electrolysis. In some cases it was found that the methane oxidation was effectively participating in the anode process. PMID:27210046

  2. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  3. Compressive strength of the mineral reinforced aluminium alloy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Rama; Sharma, Anju; Kumar, Suresh; Singh, Gurmel; Pandey, O. P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of quasi-static compressive strength of aluminium alloy reinforced with different concentration of rutile mineral particles. The reinforced material shows increase in compressive strength with 5wt% rutile concentration as compared to the base alloy. This increase in compressive strength of composite is attributed to direct strengthening due to transfer of load from lower stiffness matrix (LM13 alloy) to higher stiffness reinforcement (rutile particles). Indirect strengthening mechanisms like increase in dislocation density at the matrix-reinforcement interface, grain size refinement of the matrix and dispersion strengthening are also the contributing factors. The decrease in compressive strength of composite with the increased concentration of rutile concentration beyond 5 wt.% can be attributed to the increase in dislocation density due to the void formation at the matrix-reinforcement interface.

  4. Recent advances in joining of aluminium metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Threadgill, P.L.

    1994-12-31

    Studies have been made of the use of friction welding and gas tungsten arc welding to join several types of SiC particulate reinforced aluminium alloys. The joints have been subjected to detailed metallographic assessment, and some mechanical property data are also reported. Friction welding has been shown to be a very suitable process, and good joints were obtained with relative ease. Although bond line strength in the as-welded condition is less than parent material strength, a full solution treatment and age will restore properties. GTA welding is possible on reinforced 2080 and 7475 sheet materials, using either autogenous welding or a 4047A filler. No evidence for particle/matrix reactions was observed, although SiC particles in the melt zone were often surrounded by eutectic or interdendritic phases. Mechanical properties were variable, but could be significantly improved by postweld heat treatment.

  5. Effect of calcium ions on agglomeration of bayer aluminium trihydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, N.

    1988-10-01

    Small amounts of calcium ions in caustic aluminate solution can lead to enhanced agglomeration of aluminium trihydroxide [Al(OH) 3] particles in the crystallization step of the Bayer process. The present study shows that the magnitude of the effect is strongly dependent on the nature and polycrystallinity of the Al(OH) 3 seed crystals. The more irregular and polycrystalline the seed crystals, the smaller is the optimum amount of added calcium for maximum coarsening ( ≈ 50 mg/l, expressed as CaO). While the same degree of agglomeration can be achieved using well-rounded, smooth-surfaced seed crystals of the same overall size, more calcium is required (75-100 mg/l, expressed as CaO) and the agglomerated particles formed are weaker and less resistant to size reduction on handling.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of luminescent aluminium selenide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Balitskii, O.A.; Demchenko, P.Yu.; Mijowska, E.; Cendrowski, K.

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis procedure of size and sharp controlled Al{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystals is introduced. ► Obtained nanoparticles are highly crystalline of hexagonal wurtzite type. ► Colloidal Al{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystals are highly luminescent in the near UV spectral region. ► They can be implemented in light emitters/collectors, concurring with II–VI nanodots. -- Abstract: We propose the synthesis and characterization of colloidal aluminium selenide nanocrystals using trioctylphosphine as a solvent. The nanoparticles have several absorption bands in the spectral region 330–410 nm and are bright UV-blue luminescent, which is well demanded in light collecting and emitting devices, e.g. for tuning their spectral characteristics to higher energy solar photons.

  7. Materials Science Constraints on the Development of Aluminium Reduction Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metson, James; McIntosh, Grant; Etzion, Ronny

    The Hall-Heroult process for the production of Aluminium metal is some 125 years old. The process is energy constrained by the need to shed around half of the (electrical) energy supplied to the cell as waste heat. The molten cryolite electrolyte is sufficiently aggressive that the only reliable method of protecting the side wall of the cell is to maintain a frozen layer of electrolyte at the hot face of the sidewall. Thus the lack of a cryolite resistant sidewall is but one of several materials science constraints which still limit the energy efficiency of the process. An inert anode and non-consumable cathode are also significant challenges which limit cell life and energy efficiency. Thus there are major challenges in both materials development and new conceptual cell designs to improve the efficiency of this process.

  8. Substructure drag effects and recrystallization textures in aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, R.; Bate, P.

    1999-03-10

    Many important recrystallization texture components in metals such as aluminium originate from nuclei in which the mobile high-angle boundary exists prior to, or is formed in the early stages of, annealing. Nucleation can then occur by a process known as strain-induced boundary migration (SIBM). It is possible that this process will involve several growing subgrains, and the drag from that substructure can then have a significant effect. A simple model is used to demonstrate how changes in the overall driving force for recrystallization and Zener drag can affect recrystallization textures when SIBM is involved. This is discussed in relation to experimental observations and the evidence for this process is reviewed.

  9. Shock wave synthesis of aluminium nitride with rocksalt structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, K.; Schlothauer, T.; Schwarz, M.; Heide, G.; Kroke, E.

    2012-03-01

    The high pressure phase of aluminium nitride with rocksalt structure (rs) is a ceramic with high potential and a challenging material to investigate. The rs-AlN was synthesised and recovered by shock wave experiments using the flyer-plate method with multiple reflections at peak pressures between 15 and 43 GPa. Successful syntheses were carried out using AlN nanopowder with ambient pressure wurtzite structure (w-AlN) as starting material. The high pressure modification could, however, not be obtained when starting from submicron w-AlN. The recovery of rs-AlN is sensitive to the synthesis conditions as these influence the reconversion of rs-AlN to w-AlN.

  10. Nanostructural hierarchy increases the strength of aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Liddicoat, Peter V; Liao, Xiao-Zhou; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian; Murashkin, Maxim Y; Lavernia, Enrique J; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Ringer, Simon P

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the strength of metallic alloys while maintaining formability is an interesting challenge for enabling new generations of lightweight structures and technologies. In this paper, we engineer aluminium alloys to contain a hierarchy of nanostructures and possess mechanical properties that expand known performance boundaries-an aerospace-grade 7075 alloy exhibits a yield strength and uniform elongation approaching 1 GPa and 5%, respectively. The nanostructural architecture was observed using novel high-resolution microscopy techniques and comprises a solid solution, free of precipitation, featuring (i) a high density of dislocations, (ii) subnanometre intragranular solute clusters, (iii) two geometries of nanometre-scale intergranular solute structures and (iv) grain sizes tens of nanometres in diameter. Our results demonstrate that this novel architecture offers a design pathway towards a new generation of super-strong materials with new regimes of property-performance space. PMID:20842199

  11. Quasiparticle spin resonance and coherence in superconducting aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quay, C. H. L.; Weideneder, M.; Chiffaudel, Y.; Strunk, C.; Aprili, M.

    2015-10-01

    Conventional superconductors were long thought to be spin inert; however, there is now increasing interest in both (the manipulation of) the internal spin structure of the ground-state condensate, as well as recently observed long-lived, spin-polarized excitations (quasiparticles). We demonstrate spin resonance in the quasiparticle population of a mesoscopic superconductor (aluminium) using novel on-chip microwave detection techniques. The spin decoherence time obtained (~100 ps), and its dependence on the sample thickness are consistent with Elliott-Yafet spin-orbit scattering as the main decoherence mechanism. The striking divergence between the spin coherence time and the previously measured spin imbalance relaxation time (~10 ns) suggests that the latter is limited instead by inelastic processes. This work stakes out new ground for the nascent field of spin-based electronics with superconductors or superconducting spintronics.

  12. Dynamic crushing behaviour of aluminium tubes filled with cork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameiro, C. P.; Cirne, J.; Gary, G.

    2006-08-01

    Cork is a natural cellular material with unique remarkable properties such as low density, great elasticity, chemical stability and resilience, no permeability to liquid and gases and resistance to wear and fire. Besides, it is ecological, hygienic, easy to maintain and a very durable material. Unfortunately, there are still application fields that have not been explored yet for the use of cork, possibly due to the fact that it is a complex cellular material, characterized by very variable mechanical properties which clearly depend on its microstructure. The fundamental aspects of the static and dynamic mechanical behaviour of natural and agglomerate cork, used alone and as filler inside a tube with small dimensions, under axial compressive loading, have already been studied by the authors. Aluminium cork-filled tubes and their empty counterparts were tested experimentally and numerically at quasi-static and dynamic strain rates from 10 - 3s - 1 to 600 s - 1. Data from the Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar and “deconvolution” techniques were used to generate stress-strain curves for the structures composed of natural and agglomerate cork. The numerical simulations of the dynamic compression of the specimens were carried out using the finite element method software LS-DYNA^TM and showed quite good agreement with the experimental results. Hence, in this work, in order to extend the study started previously and investigate the possible advantages of cork-filling in longer tubes with a different section, the authors simulate, using the same software, the influence of the introduction of agglomerate cork in square and circular aluminium tubes with a diameter/width of 80 mm, a length of 300mm and a variable thickness. The mechanical properties of the structures composed of cork may constitute a potential for this material to be used in innovative applications related to diverse fields such as automotive, transport, ships and military applications.

  13. A final report for: Gallium arsenide P-I-N detectors for high-sensitivity imaging of thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Stanley M.

    1999-04-01

    This SBIR Phase I developed neutron detectors made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-type/ intrinsic/n-type (P-I-N) diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto semi-insulating (S1) bulk GaAs wafers. A layer of isotonically enriched boron-10 evaporated onto the front surface serves to convert incoming neutrons into lithium ions and a 1.47 MeV alpha particle which creates electron-hole pairs that are detected by the GaAs diode. Various thicknesses of ''intrinsic'' (I) undoped GaAs were tested, as was use of a back-surface field (BSF) formed from a layer of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As. Schottky-barrier diodes formed from the same structures without the p+ GaAs top layer were tested as a comparison. After mesa etching and application of contacts, devices were tested in visible light before application of the boron coating. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the best diode near the GaAs bandedge is over 90%. The lowest dark current measured is 1 x 10{sup -12} amps at -1 V on a 3mm x 3mm diode, or a density of 1.1 x 10{sup -11} amps cm{sup -2}, with many of the diode structures tested having nearly similar results. The PIN diodes were significantly better than the Schottky barrier device, which had six orders of magnitude higher dark current. Diodes were characterized in terms of their current-mode response to 5.5 MeV alpha particles from 241-Americium. These radiation-induced currents were as high as 9.78 x 10{sup -7} A cm{sup -1} on a PIN device with an Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As BSF. Simple PIN diodes had currents as high as 2.44 x 10{sup -7} A cm{sup -2}, with thicker undoped layers showing better sensitivity. Boron coatings were applied, and response to neutrons tested at University of Michigan by Dr. Doug McGregor. Devices with PIN and Schottky barrier designs showed neutron detection efficiencies as high as 2% on 5 {micro}m thick devices, with no need for external bias voltages. PIN diodes showed higher breakdown voltages and lower noise

  14. Shear Strength of Single Lap Joint Aluminium-Thermoplastic Natural Rubber (Al-TPNR) Laminated Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzakkar, M. Z.; Ahmad, S.; Yarmo, M. A.; Jalar, A.; Bijarimi, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of surface treatment on the aluminium surface and a coupling agent to improve adhesion between aluminium with organic polymer. Thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) matrix was prepared by melt blending of natural rubber (NR), liquid natural rubber (LNR) compatibilizer, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The PEgMAH concentration used was varied from 0% - 25%. In addition, the aluminium surface was pre-treated with 3-glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane (3-GPS) to enhance the mechanical properties of laminated composite. It was found that the shear strength of single lap joint Al-TPNR laminated composite showing an increasing trend as a function of PE-g-MAH contents for the 3-GPS surface treated aluminium. Moreover, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the strength improvement was associated with the chemical state of the compound involved.

  15. [B-cell pseudolymphoma caused by aluminium hydroxide following hyposensitization therapy].

    PubMed

    Hernández, I; Sanmartín, O; Cardá, C; Góme, S; Alfaro, A

    2008-04-01

    Aluminium hydroxide is used as an adjuvant in vaccines. We describe the case of a patient who presented a persistent adverse local reaction to aluminium hydroxide due to hyposensitization therapy to dust mites. Multiple painful and pruriginous subcutaneous nodules were observed in both arms, along with hypertrichosis at the injection site. Histology revealed a pseudolymphomatous B cell reaction predominantly involving cells that were CD20 positive, did not express bcl-2, and did not display the t(14-18) translocation. The cells also exhibited polyclonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chains. X-ray spectral microanalysis revealed deposits of inorganic aluminium in the granular histiocytes among the germinal centers. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous B-cell pseudolymphoma due to aluminium hydroxide as a result of immunotherapy. PMID:18358197

  16. COMMENT: Comment on 'Synthesis of nanowires and nanoparticles of cubic aluminium nitride'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondare, V. N.

    2004-09-01

    Contradictory claims about synthesized nanoscopic aluminium nitride material have been communicated in the same month to two different journals (Balasubramanian et al 2004 Nanotechnology 15 370; 2004 Chem. Phys. Lett. 383 188) when citing an article in Applied Physics Letters (Tondare et al 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 4813). The contradiction arises because two different claims have been made about the synthesized nanoscopic material as aluminium nitride nanotubes and as aluminium nitride nanowires. The authors of the article published in Nanotechnology have re-interpreted the results of the field emission micrographs published in the article mentioned above (2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 4813). This comment explains in detail that their re-interpretation lacks a scientific basis. It also provides a few prominent articles for the reader to refer to on the synthesis of aluminium nitride nanotubes and nanowires, which have not been cited in the articles mentioned above by Balasubramanian and co-workers.

  17. Analysis of compressive strength in flatwise and edgewise direction to characterize Al-7000 aluminium foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutarno, Soepriyanto, Syoni; Korda, Akhmad A.; Dirgantara, Tatacipta

    2015-09-01

    The physical mechanical properties of Al-7000 aluminium foam product and processing has been evaluated in this study. The characterization through the compressive testing refers to flatwise direction provided more confident result than edgewise direction. This experiment may correlate with formation of side products of calcia alumina and alumina silica that involved in metal mixture of aluminium foam. These compounds are formed from additional calcium carbonate and silica in the mixture. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) roles as a blowing agent source of carbon dioxide (CO2). The formation of calcia alumina (CaO.Al2O3) may role to strengthen of cell wall of aluminium foam and to improve the viscosity of melting metal. The Al-7000 aluminium foam indicated a decrease of compressive strength probably due to existence of alumina silica (3Al2O3.SiO2) in the metal mixture.

  18. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Calcium-Aluminium-Rich Inclusions: A Tool to Detect Primitive Asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melwani Daswani, M.; Morlok, A.; Wolters, S. D.; Grady, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in Vigarano, Ornans and Allende have characteristic refractory components that may help us identify primitive near-Earth asteroids through mid-IR space telescope spectrometers. We have identified some features.

  19. Direct determination of fluoride in aluminium reduction materials by using an ion-selective electrode.

    PubMed

    Palmer, T A

    1972-10-01

    Macro amounts of fluoride in aluminium reduction materials are successfully determined with a fluoride electrode. Except for anhydrous aluminium fluoride, which requires fusion with sodium hydroxide, samples are dissolved in aqueous media. Cryolite and sodium fluorosilicatc are dissolved in boiling sodium hydroxide solution. Other materials containing fluoride, such as fluorspar and the reduction cell bath and pot-lining, require dissolution in a hydrochloric acid solution of aluminium chloride. Potential interference from large amounts of aluminium (and calcium, if present) is eliminated and pH control attained by using ammoniacal sulphosalicylate (and EDTA). The procedures are reasonably rapid. Relative errors of less than 2% and a relative standard deviation of 1% are achieved. PMID:18961164

  20. Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease: sites of aluminium binding in human neuroblastoma cells determined using 26Al and accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. J.; Templar, J.; Miller, R. V.; Day, J. P.; Dobson, C. B.; Itzhaki, R. F.; Fifield, L. K.; Allan, G. L.

    1994-06-01

    The aluminium distribution between the major cell compartments of human neuroblastoma cells grown in culture has been determined using 21Al and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Cells (IMR-32) were grown for eight days in a culture medium containing Al-EDTA (0.2mM) spiked with 26Al, harvested, and fractionated by standard biochemical techniques. 26Al in fractions after ashing to Al 2O 3 was determined by AMS using the 14UD accelerator at ANU Canberra. The cytoplasmic and nuclear cell compartments appeared to have reached diffusive equilibrium with the culture medium. Whilst 26Al was retained by the nuclear proteins and nuclear sap, 26Al did not appear to bind to the nucleic acids (DNA/RNA).

  1. Naturally occurring radioactive material from the aluminium industry--a case study: the Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abbady, Adel G E; El-Arabi, A M

    2006-12-01

    The activity concentrations and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined in samples of bauxite, alumina and aluminium dross tailings industrial waste (used to produce two types of alums) using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometry. The bauxite and alumina are imported by Egyptalum (The Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt) from Guinea and India. The activity concentrations in the bauxite range from 29 +/- 1 to 112 +/- 6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, and 151 +/- 8 to 525 +/- 12 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, with mean values of 62 +/- 8 and 378 +/- 50 Bq kg(-1), respectively. With respect to alumina and tail, the mean values are 5.7 +/- 1.1 and 8.4 +/- 0.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and 7.2 +/- 1.6 and 10.7 +/- 1.2 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th. Potassium-40 was not detected in any of the studied samples. The measured activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in bauxite are higher than the world average while in alumina and tail they are lower. As a measure of radiation hazard to the occupational workers and members of the public, the Ra equivalent activities and external gamma dose rates due to natural radionuclides at 1 m above the ground surface were calculated. The external gamma-radiation doses received by the Egyptalum workers are 97, 409, 8.5 and 12.7 microSv y(-1) for the Guinean and Indian bauxite, the alumina and tail, respectively, which is well below the recommended allowed dose of 1 mSv y(-1) for non-exposed workers. PMID:17146126

  2. Effects of aluminium on electrical and mechanical properties of frog atrial muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Meiri, H.; Shimoni, Y.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of aluminium on membrane ionic currents were studied in single cardiac myocytes. Most of the work was done on frog atrial cells, but some experiments were also carried out on single cells isolated from rabbit ventricles and atria. 2. The effects of aluminium on the force of contraction of frog atrial trabeculae were also investigated. 3. Aluminium was prepared from AlCl3 as a stock 0.5 M solution which has a pH of 3.5. Before each experiment, this solution was added to the control solution, to give a final concentration of 20-100 micrograms ml-1 aluminium (0.75-3.75 mM AlCl3). The solutions were brought to a pH of 7.4 or 7.6. at which they consist of a mixture of amorphous aluminium hydroxides and a very small amount of soluble ionic aluminium complexes: free aluminium cations (less than 10 pM), aluminohydroxide anions (less than 8 microM). The addition of this suspension reduced the peak inward calcium currents in single rabbit atrial and ventricular cells and in frog atrial cells. In the latter, the peak current was reduced (at + 10 mV) to 45% of control (mean of 9 cells). This effect was reversible upon washout, and was obtained at all membrane potentials, with no shift of the calcium current voltage relationship along the voltage axis. 4. Aluminium also reduced the time-dependent potassium current IK. This reduction was observed at all membrane potentials. For example, at + 10 mV, the mean reduction of IK (n = 9) was to 69% of the control amplitude. This effect, which was very difficult to reverse, was not due to IK rundown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2015425

  3. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50μm did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems. PMID:26148645

  4. Further evidence of centrophenoxine mediated protection in aluminium exposed rats by biochemical and light microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Nehru, Bimla; Bhalla, Punita; Garg, Aarti

    2007-12-01

    The environmental agent aluminium has been intensively investigated in the initiation and progression of various neurological disorders and the role of oxidative stress in these disorders is a widely discussed phenomenon. In this light, the present study is focused on the role of aluminium in mediating oxidative stress, which may help in better understanding its role in neuronal degeneration. Further, we have exploited a known anti-aging drug centrophenoxine to explore its potential in the conditions of metal induced oxidative damage. Aluminium was administered orally at a dose level of 100 mg/kg b.wt./day for a period of 6 weeks followed by a post treatment of centrophenoxine at a dose level of 100 mg/kg b.wt./day for another 6 weeks. Following aluminium exposure, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels (estimated by MDA) were observed which was accompanied by a decrease in reduced glutathione content in both cerebrum and cerebellum of rat brain. Post treatment of centrophenoxine significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation levels and also increased the reduced glutathione content in both the regions. Histologically observed marked deteriorations in the organization of various cellular layers in both cerebrum and cerebellum were observed after aluminium administration. Centrophenoxine treated animals showed an appreciable improvement in the histoarchitecture of the cellular layers. Our results indicate that centrophenoxine has an antioxidant potential and should be examined further in aluminium toxic conditions. PMID:17688990

  5. Characterization of individual aerosol particles in workroom air of aluminium smelter potrooms.

    PubMed

    Hoflich, Burkard L W; Weinbruch, Stephan; Theissmann, Ralf; Gorzawski, Hauke; Ebert, Martin; Ortner, Hugo M; Skogstad, Asbjorn; Ellingsen, Dag G; Drablos, Per A; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2005-05-01

    Aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameters between 0.18 and 10 microm were collected in the workroom air of two aluminium smelter potrooms with different production processes (Soderberg and Prebake processes). Size, morphology and chemical composition of more than 2000 individual particles were determined by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Based on chemical composition and morphology, particles were classified into different groups. Particle groups with a relative abundance above 1%(by number) include aluminium oxides, cryolite, aluminium oxides-cryolite mixtures, soot, silicates and sea salt. In both production halls, mixtures of aluminium oxides and cryolite are the dominant particle group. Many particles have fluoride-containing surface coatings or show agglomerations of nanometer-sized fluoride-containing particles on their surface. The phase composition of approximately 100 particles was studied by transmission electron microscopy. According to selected area electron diffraction, sodium beta-alumina (NaAl(11)O(17)) is the dominant aluminium oxide and cryolite (Na(3)AlF(6)) the only sodium aluminium fluoride present. Implications of our findings for assessment of adverse health effects are discussed. PMID:15877161

  6. Water defluoridation by aluminium oxide-manganese oxide composite material.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Sheta; Mulugeta, Eyobel; Zewge, Feleke; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2014-08-01

    In this study, aluminium oxide-manganese oxide (AOMO) composite material was synthesized, characterized, and tested for fluoride removal in batch experiments. AOMO was prepared from manganese(II) chloride and aluminium hydroxide. The surface area of AOMO was found to be 30.7m2/g and its specific density was determined as 2.78 g/cm3. Detailed investigation of the adsorbent by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and ion chromatography (for sulphate only) showed that it is composed of Al, Mn, SO4, and Na as major components and Fe, Si, Ca, and Mg as minor components. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the thermal behaviour of AOMO. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the adsorbent is poorly crystalline. The point of zero charge was determined as 9.54. Batch experiments (by varying the proportion of MnO, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial F concentration, and raw water pH) showed that fluoride removal efficiency ofAOMO varied significantly with percentage of MnO with an optimum value of about I11% of manganese oxide in the adsorbent. The optimum dose of the adsorbent was 4 g/L which corresponds to the equilibrium adsorption capacity of 4.8 mg F-/g. Both the removal efficiency and adsorption capacity showed an increasing trend with an increase in initial fluoride concentration of the water. The pH for optimum fluoride removal was found to be in the range between 5 and 7. The adsorption data were analysed using the Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinirn-Radushkevich models. The minimum adsorption capacity obtained from the non-linear Freundlich isotherm model was 4.94 mg F-/g and the maximum capacity from the Langmuir isotherm method was 19.2mg F-/g. The experimental data of fluoride adsorption on AOMO fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption is well described by a non-linear pseudo-second-order reaction model with an average rate constant of 3

  7. Gallium arsenide electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Chuni

    The DOD has instituted a development program for microwave/mm-wave monolithic ICs ('MMICs') that are based on GaAs, in the hope of reducing the cost of EW equipment and of 'smart weapons' employing mm-wave radar guidance, as well as of increasing such electronics' resistance to radiation. MMICs involve the implantation of a complete functional subsystem on a single GaAs chip without internal wire-bonding. While near-term applications are primarily industrial, commercial sales of GaAs MMICs are expected to outnumber military sales by 4:1.

  8. Two new arsenides, Eu7Cu44As23 and Sr7Cu44As23, with a new filled variety of the BaHg11 structure.

    PubMed

    Charkin, Dmitri O; Demchyna, Roman; Prots, Yurii; Borrmann, Horst; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Schwarz, Ulrich; Schnelle, Walter; Plokhikh, Igor V; Kazakov, Sergey M; Abakumov, Artem M; Batuk, Dmitry; Verchenko, Valery Yu; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Curfs, Caroline; Grin, Yuri; Shevelkov, Andrei V

    2014-10-20

    Two new ternary arsenides, namely, Eu7Cu44As23 and Sr7Cu44As23, were synthesized from elements at 800 °C. Their crystal structure represents a new filled version of the BaHg11 motif with cubic voids alternately occupied by Eu(Sr) and As atoms, resulting in a 2 × 2 × 2 superstructure of the aristotype: space group Fm3̅m, a = 16.6707(2) Å and 16.7467(2) Å, respectively. The Eu derivative exhibits ferromagnetic ordering below 17.5 K. In agreement with band structure calculations both compounds are metals, exhibiting relatively low thermopower, but high electrical and low thermal conductivity. PMID:25265469

  9. Novel approach to realizing quasi-phase-matched gallium arsenide optical parametric oscillators for use in mid-IR laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul D.; McBrearty, Euan J.; Orchard, David A.; Harris, Michael R.; Lewis, Keith L.

    2004-06-01

    Most of the applications that require frequency agile solid state laser systems for use in the mid-infrared are centred on the development of optical parametric oscillators. These exploit the non-linear optical characteristics of non-centrosymmetric materials, in particular the chalcopyrite class of materials that includes AgGaSe2 and ZnGeP2. Whilst such materials are generally difficult to produce, major strides have been made in recent years to optimise crystal growth processes which have enabled the generation of moderate laser output powers. Other approaches have been centred on the use of periodically poled lithium niobate and diffusion bonded gallium arsenide. The latter system is particularly attractive because it exploits a readily available crystalline material, but its implementation is difficult because of the need for an ultra-clean processing environment and relatively high bonding temperatures. This paper describes progress in the development of a new, low-temperature approach for achieving quasi-phase matched gallium arsenide by bonding with an index-matched chalcogenide glass. A major advantage of this approach is the tolerance to GaAs wafer thickness variations and to defects at the surface of the GaAs wafers. Several glass compositions in the germanium-arsenic-selenium-tellurium system have the desired refractive indices, but only some provide the characteristics necessary to ensure the formation of stable low-loss bonds. The glass bonding process begins by RF sputtering films of the glass from pre-manufactured targets onto each side of individual GaAs substrates. These coated substrates are then assembled in a vacuum oven and uniaxially pressed under carefully controlled conditions until a single composite assembly is formed. Issues such as glass purity, the integrity of the sputtering process and choice of pressing conditions are important in ensuring that a high quality non-linear crystal is produced.

  10. Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24 µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10 = 18 µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) < mussel Mytilus edulis plannulatus (EC10 = 250 µg Al/L, 72-h embryo development) < oyster Saccostrea echinata (EC10 = 410 µg Al/L, 48-h embryo development). Toxicity to these species was the result of the dissolved aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used. PMID:25318392

  11. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Sivasubramanian, J.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J.; Raja, B.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278 ± 3.121 to 189.872 ± 2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749 ± 2.052 to 21.170 ± 1.311 and 13.167 ± 1.441 to 8.953 ± 0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicdbnd CH stretching band and Cdbnd O stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes.

  12. Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion

    PubMed Central

    Vailionis, Arturas; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Yang, Wenge; Rode, Andrei V.; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2011-01-01

    At extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those inside planets and stars, common materials form new dense phases with compacted atomic arrangements and unusual physical properties. The synthesis and study of new phases of matter at pressures above 100 GPa and temperatures above 104 K—warm dense matter—may reveal the functional details of planet and star interiors, and may lead to materials with extraordinary properties. Many phases have been predicted theoretically that may be realized once appropriate formation conditions are found. Here we report the synthesis of a superdense stable phase of body-centred-cubic aluminium, predicted by first-principles theories to exist at pressures above 380 GPa. The superdense Al phase was synthesized in the non-equilibrium conditions of an ultrafast laser-induced microexplosion confined inside sapphire (α-Al2O3). Confined microexplosions offer a strategy to create and recover high-density polymorphs, and a simple method for tabletop study of warm dense matter. PMID:21863012

  13. Nano-crystalline P/M aluminium for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummert, K.; Schattevoy, R.; Broda, M.; Knappe, M.; Beiss, P.; Klubberg, F.; Schubert, T. H.; Leuschner, R.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction of total vehicle weight and lowering of moving masses within the engine are key elements to overcome future emission challenges of the automotive industry. Within a German BMBF funded project the melt spinning technology will be driven to a series production status. The very fast cooling condition of the melt leads to a nano-structure of the aluminium material. This results in new material properties of known alloys. The strength increases dramatically without lowered forming behaviour. With this process the freedom of designing complex alloys is very flexible. Different alloys have been investigated for several applications, where high strength at room and elevated temperatures and/or high wear resistance is required. This paper presents some results regarding the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of a developed Al-Ni-Fe alloy. This joined research project with partners from the automotive industry as well as automotive suppliers and universities is funded by the German BMBF "NanoMobile" Program under Project number 03X3008.

  14. Aspects of fabrication aluminium matrix heterophase composites by suspension method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolata, A. J.; Dyzia, M.

    2012-05-01

    Composites with an aluminium alloy matrix (AlMMC) exhibit several advantageous properties such as good strength, stiffness, low density, resistance and dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, good thermal expansion coefficient and particularly high resistance to friction wear. Therefore such composites are more and more used in modern engineering constructions. Composites reinforced with hard ceramic particles (Al2O3, SiC) are gradually being implemented into production in automotive or aircraft industries. Another application of AlMMC is in the electronics industry, where the dimensional stability and capacity to absorb and remove heat is used in radiators. However the main problems are still: a reduction of production costs, developing methods of composite material tests and final product quality assessment, standardisation, development of recycling and mechanical processing methods. AlMMC production technologies, based on liquid-phase methods, and the shaping of products by casting methods, belong to the cheapest production methods. Application of a suspension method for the production of composites with heterophase reinforcement may turn out to be a new material and technological solution. The article presents the material and technological aspects of the transfer procedures for the production of composite suspensions from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale.

  15. Aluminium intoxication in undialysed adults with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, L S; Beale, G; Sandroni, S; Ballinger, W E

    1992-01-01

    The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome (DES) consists of altered mental status, communication difficulty, seizures and myoclonus. It has been attributed to elevated serum aluminium (A1) levels. Two undialysed patients with chronic renal failure who presented with the characteristic syndrome are reported. The first, a 48 year old female, had used A1 containing phosphate binders for two years. Her serum A1 level was 25.34 mumol/L. Despite treatment with desferoximine and dialysis, she died. Necropsy revealed elevated A1 levels in the cerebral cortex (19 mcg/gm) and spongioform change in the outer three cortical layers. The second patient, a 46 year old woman, had a serum A1 of 8.70 mumol/L. She had never taken A1 containing phosphate binders but had taken several grams/day of citrate for at least six months. Treatment with haemodialysis and discontinuation of the citrate produced a resolution of symptoms and return of the A1 level to normal. During two years of haemodialysis there has been no recurrence. Images PMID:1527541

  16. Industrial hygiene survey in an aluminium reduction plant in India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashit K; Ravichandran, Beerappa; Bhattacharya, Sanat K; Roy, Sanjit K; Ahmed, Sabir; Thakur, Sridhar; Saiyed, Habibullah N

    2008-09-01

    This study reports a work-environmental assessment and workers' exposure in a major prebake type aluminium smelter in India. Levels of known health hazards in and near the main smelting operations viz., the Potroom, the Carbon area, the Butt section, the Rodding shop, the Bath preparing area and the Casthouse were measured. Dustiness in general was high to excessively high. Mean levels of respirable dust (PM10) in air in the three dustiest areas were 24.07 mg/m3 in the Carbon areas, 27.57 mg/m3 in the Bath preparing and 4.44 mg/m3 in the Rodding shop. 40- 60% of the particles were less than 5 microm in size. 0.5- 2.82% particulate fluoride was obtained in the size fraction 0.4- 4.7 microm of the Potroom air. Naturally, exposures to total dusts were very high in these processes. The background levels of NOx and SO2 and fluorides (gaseous and particulate) were found to be within the prescribed Indian Standards. Higher exposures to gaseous and particulate fluoride, 3.85 and 6.53 mg/m3 respectively, were observed among the Rodding shop workers. The levels ofpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were deemed to be excessive in the Carbon area. Measurements of heat stress were made in winter and were found to be lower than the prescribed limit. PMID:18783008

  17. Modelling of Local Necking and Fracture in Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achani, D.; Eriksson, M.; Hopperstad, O. S.; Lademo, O.-G.

    2007-05-01

    Non-linear Finite Element simulations are extensively used in forming and crashworthiness studies of automotive components and structures in which fracture need to be controlled. For thin-walled ductile materials, the fracture-related phenomena that must be properly represented are thinning instability, ductile fracture and through-thickness shear instability. Proper representation of the fracture process relies on the accuracy of constitutive and fracture models and their parameters that need to be calibrated through well defined experiments. The present study focuses on local necking and fracture which is of high industrial importance, and uses a phenomenological criterion for modelling fracture in aluminium alloys. As an accurate description of plastic anisotropy is important, advanced phenomenological constitutive equations based on the yield criterion YLD2000/YLD2003 are used. Uniaxial tensile tests and disc compression tests are performed for identification of the constitutive model parameters. Ductile fracture is described by the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion and an in-plane shear tests is performed to identify the fracture parameter. The reason is that in a well designed in-plane shear test no thinning instability should occur and it thus gives more direct information about the phenomenon of ductile fracture. Numerical simulations have been performed using a user-defined material model implemented in the general-purpose non-linear FE code LS-DYNA. The applicability of the model is demonstrated by correlating the predicted and experimental response in the in-plane shear tests and additional plane strain tension tests.

  18. Electrocoagulation of cutting oil emulsions using aluminium plate electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bensadok, K; Benammar, S; Lapicque, F; Nezzal, G

    2008-03-21

    The treatment of very concentrated oil-water emulsions by electrocoagulation (EC) was experimentally investigated as a pre-treatment step prior to a membrane process. The oil-water emulsion was prepared from a cutting mineral oil B22 currently used for drilling and machining operations. The electrocoagulation progress was followed by the measurement of COD, turbidity and pH in a batch process with recirculation of the liquid. This study is mainly focused on the effects of operating parameters such as initial pH, current density, oil concentration and recirculation rate, on the de-emulsification efficiency. Kinetic curves showed that the EC process exhibits two phases: a "reactive phase" during which the COD and the turbidity removals increase with electrolysis, and a stationary phase for which further aluminium dissolution is useless in the pollution abatement. The results showed that the treatment efficiency increases with increasing current density, but decreases with oil concentration. It appears that treatment of the considered cutting oil is completed through dissolution of around 10mgAl/g oil, with a slight positive effect of the liquid flow rate. Best results are also obtained with initial pH near 7. PMID:17706345

  19. Asthma caused by potassium aluminium tetrafluoride: a case series.

    PubMed

    Laštovková, Andrea; Klusáčková, Pavlina; Fenclová, Zdenka; Bonneterre, Vincent; Pelclová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe a case-series of potassium aluminium tetrafluoride (KAlF(4))-induced occupational asthma (OA) and/or occupational rhinitis (OR). The study involves five patients from a heat-exchanger production line who were examined (including specific inhalation challenge tests) for suspected OA and/or OR caused by a flux containing almost 100% KAlF(4) - with fluorides' workplace air concentrations ranging between 1.7 and 2.8 mg/m(3). No subject had a previous history of asthma. All five patients had a positive specific challenge test (three patients were diagnosed with OA alone, one with OR and one with both OR and OA). At the follow-up visit, after three years on average, all patients needed permanent corticosteroid therapy (four topical, one oral). After elimination from the exposure, only one of the observed subjects gave an indication of an improvement, two subjects stabilized and two worsened. Our case series focuses on the correlation between patients' exposure to fluorides in air-conditioner production and the subsequent occurrence of OR/OA. Currently, it is uncertain whether these OR/OA were caused by hypersensitivity or irritation. PMID:26212411

  20. Modelling of Local Necking and Fracture in Aluminium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Achani, D.; Eriksson, M.; Hopperstad, O. S.; Lademo, O.-G.

    2007-05-17

    Non-linear Finite Element simulations are extensively used in forming and crashworthiness studies of automotive components and structures in which fracture need to be controlled. For thin-walled ductile materials, the fracture-related phenomena that must be properly represented are thinning instability, ductile fracture and through-thickness shear instability. Proper representation of the fracture process relies on the accuracy of constitutive and fracture models and their parameters that need to be calibrated through well defined experiments. The present study focuses on local necking and fracture which is of high industrial importance, and uses a phenomenological criterion for modelling fracture in aluminium alloys. As an accurate description of plastic anisotropy is important, advanced phenomenological constitutive equations based on the yield criterion YLD2000/YLD2003 are used. Uniaxial tensile tests and disc compression tests are performed for identification of the constitutive model parameters. Ductile fracture is described by the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion and an in-plane shear tests is performed to identify the fracture parameter. The reason is that in a well designed in-plane shear test no thinning instability should occur and it thus gives more direct information about the phenomenon of ductile fracture. Numerical simulations have been performed using a user-defined material model implemented in the general-purpose non-linear FE code LS-DYNA. The applicability of the model is demonstrated by correlating the predicted and experimental response in the in-plane shear tests and additional plane strain tension tests.

  1. Optimization of phosphate removal in anodizing aluminium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chimenos, J M; Fernández, A I; Hernández, A; Haurie, L; Espiell, F; Ayora, C

    2006-01-01

    The wastewater produced after brightening and anodizing aluminium has high concentrations of phosphates and sulphates. The addition of MgO in a first physico-chemical wastewater treatment step makes the selective recovery of phosphates in the form of magnesium phosphates feasible, which may be reused as fertilizer. The proposed wastewater treatment process allows manufacturers to reduce more than 70% of the volume of the precipitate in the sedimentation reactor and more than 50% of the weight of the final disposal sludge. In this study, the use of an alternative low-grade MgO (LG-MgO) as a source of magnesium, which is cheaper than pure MgO, is investigated. The phosphate concentration and pH of the treated wastewater is controlled by the formation and precipitation of newberyite or bobierrite as a function of the magnesium source added. According to experimental data, a reaction mechanism is proposed. Although LG-MgO reacts more slowly than pure MgO and it is necessary to add 3-4 times the stoichiometric amount, this procedure has considerable economic and technical advantages. PMID:16343583

  2. Aluminium exposure disrupts elemental homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans†

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kathryn E.; White, Keith N.; McCrohan, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is highly abundant in the environment and can elicit a variety of toxic responses in biological systems. Here we characterize the effects of Al on Caenorhabditis elegans by identifying phenotypic abnormalities and disruption in whole-body metal homeostasis (metallostasis) following Al exposure in food. Widespread changes to the elemental content of adult nematodes were observed when chronically exposed to Al from the first larval stage (L1). Specifically, we saw increased barium, chromium, copper and iron content, and a reduction in calcium levels. Lifespan was decreased in worms exposed to low levels of Al, but unexpectedly increased when the Al concentration reached higher levels (4.8 mM). This bi-phasic phenotype was only observed when Al exposure occurred during development, as lifespan was unaffected by Al exposure during adulthood. Lower levels of Al slowed C. elegans developmental progression, and reduced hermaphrodite self-fertility and adult body size. Significant developmental delay was observed even when Al exposure was restricted to embryogenesis. Similar changes in Al have been noted in association with Al toxicity in humans and other mammals, suggesting that C. elegans may be of use as a model for understanding the mechanisms of Al toxicity in mammalian systems. PMID:22534883

  3. Electrocoagulation efficiency of the tannery effluent treatment using aluminium electrodes.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Fornari, Marilda M T; Módenes, Aparecido N; Palácio, Soraya M; Trigueros, Daniela E G; Borba, Fernando H; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2009-01-01

    An electro-coagulation laboratory scale system using aluminium plates electrodes was studied for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants as a by-product from leather finishing industrial process. A fractional factorial 2(3) experimental design was applied in order to obtain optimal values of the system state variables. The electro-coagulation (EC) process efficiency was based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total suspended solid, total fixed solid, total volatile solid, and chemical element concentration values. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for final pH, total fixed solid (TFS), turbidity and Ca concentration have confirmed the predicted models by the experimental design within a 95% confidence level. The reactor working conditions close to real effluent pH (7.6) and electrolysis time in the range 30-45 min were enough to achieve the cost effective reduction factors of organic and inorganic pollutants' concentrations. An appreciable improvement in COD removal efficiency was obtained for electro-coagulation treatment. Finally, the technical-economical analysis results have clearly shown that the electro-coagulation method is very promising for industrial application. PMID:19844065

  4. Laser welding of copper and aluminium battery interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bono, Paola; Blackburn, Jon

    2015-07-01

    The adoption of lithium-ion and/or super-capacitor battery technologies is a current hot topic in the automotive industry. For both battery types, the terminals and busbars are manufactured from copper (Cu) and/or aluminium-based (Al-based) alloys, as a result of their high electrical and thermal conductivities. Laser welding is considered an attractive process to industry due to its easy automotability, high processing speed and highly repeatable cost-effective processing. However, laser welding of Cu-Cu and Al-Al joints presents several difficulties due to the high surface reflectivity at infrared (IR) wavelengths. This behaviour becomes even more critical when processing thin sheets and foils.This paper summarises recent work performed to develop laser welding techniques suitable for monometallic joining of Cu-Cu and Al-Al electrical interconnections. Laser welding of multiple overlapped foils (with thickness in the range of 17μm-100μm) were investigated.

  5. Successful Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Rahimi, Mitra; Hajesmaeili, Mohammadreza; Taherkhani, Maryam; Sadeghi, Roxana

    2016-03-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is one of the most commonly used pesticides worldwide with high mortality rates. Cellular damage and cardiorespiratory failure are the most common causes of mortality and morbidity after poisoning. It is supposed that giving enough time to the patient to survive, the most critical hours after exposure may help the cardiovascular system to recover itself and save the patient's life. During a training workshop for medical extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a 28-year-old ALP-poisoned male was referred to us. Fifty minutes after admission, he developed hypotension and bradycardia and was transferred to ICU. On the second venous blood gas, he had severe metabolic acidosis. After starting the patient on the routine treatment of ALP poisoning, he was a candidate for veno-arterial (VA) ECMO. After three days, lactate level decreased and his general condition improved. On day four, the patient was completely separated from the ECMO machine with acceptable echocardiography and ejection fraction of 40%. One day later, he was extubated, sent to the ward and subsequently discharged in good condition. We suggest this method of treatment for severe ALP poisoning as well as any other poisoning that causes cell toxicity and abrupt cardiovascular or respiratory failure. PMID:26335576

  6. Laser ablation of copper and aluminium in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yueyuan; Mei, Liangmo; Tan, Chunyu; Liu, Xiangdong; Wang, Qingpu; Yue, Shubin

    1991-06-01

    The ablation behavior of copper alloy and aluminium irradiated in air by 1.06 μm, 10 ns pulsed laser with power density of 6.4×109W/cm2 was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), MCS-RBS and X-ray microanalysis. Evidence of bulk vaporization via bubble formation was observed for the copper alloy under the laser irradiation. Silver-enrichment microregions were found in the ablation crater created by the laser shots on the copper alloy sample. Material removal rates of these materials were determined by crater shape-profile measurement. Using self-similar solutions of the gas-dynamic equations, gas-dynamic parameters of the vaporization waves are obtained. These parameters are used to calculate material removal rates and impulse coupling coefficients of these materials under the pulsed laser irradiation. The calculated mass removal rates and the coupling coefficients are compared with the corresponding experimentally determined values. The surface kinetic energy of the irradiated area on the Al sample is estimated. Possible mechanisms for laser ablation of the materials under study are discussed.

  7. Aluminium stress disrupts metabolic performance of Plantago almogravensis plantlets transiently.

    PubMed

    Grevenstuk, Tomás; Moing, Annick; Maucourt, Mickaël; Deborde, Catherine; Romano, Anabela

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how tolerant plants cope with internalized aluminium (Al). Tolerant plants are known to deploy efficient detoxification mechanisms, however it is not known to what extent the primary and secondary metabolism is affected by Al. The aim of this work was to study the metabolic repercussions of Al stress in the tolerant plant Plantago almogravensis. P. almogravensis is well adapted to acid soils where high concentrations of free Al are found and has been classified as a hyperaccumulator. In vitro reared plantlets were used for this purpose in order to control Al exposure rigorously. The metabolome of P. almogravensis plantlets as well as its metabolic response to the supply of sucrose was characterized. The supply of sucrose leads to an accumulation of amino acids and secondary metabolites and consumption of carbohydrates that result from increased metabolic activity. In Al-treated plantlets the synthesis of amino acids and secondary metabolites is transiently impaired, suggesting that P. almogravensis is able to recover from the Al treatment within the duration of the trials. In the presence of Al the consumption of carbohydrate resources is accelerated. The content of some metabolic stress markers also demonstrates that P. almogravensis is highly adapted to Al stress. PMID:26433896

  8. Spall fracture in aluminium alloy at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, K. D.; Rav, Amit; Sur, Amit; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-05-01

    Spall fracture strength and dynamic yield strength has been measured in 8mm thick target plates of aluminium alloy Al2024-T4 at high strain rates generated in three plate impact experiments carried out at impact velocities of 180 m/s, 370 m/s and 560m/s, respectively, using single stage gas gun facility. In each experiment, the free surface velocity history of the Al2024-T4 sample plate measured employing velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to determine the spall strength and dynamic yield strength of this material. The spall strength of 1.11 GPa, 1.16 GPa and 1.43 GPa, determined from measured free surface velocity history of sample material in three experiments performed at impact velocity of 180 m/s, 370 m/s and 560 m/s, respectively, are higher than the quasi static value of 0.469 GPa and display almost linearly increasing trend with increasing impact velocity or equivalently with increasing strain rates. The average strain rates just ahead of the spall fracture are determined to be 1.9×10 4/s, 2.0×104/s and 2.5×104/s, respectively. The dynamic yield strength determined in the three experiments range from 0.383 GPa to 0.407 GPa, which is higher than the quasi static value of 0.324GPa.

  9. The interpretation of polycrystalline coherent inelastic neutron scattering from aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Daniel L.; Ross, D. Keith; Gale, Julian D.; Taylor, Jon W.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to the interpretation and analysis of coherent inelastic neutron scattering from polycrystals (poly-CINS) is presented. This article describes a simulation of the one-phonon coherent inelastic scattering from a lattice model of an arbitrary crystal system. The one-phonon component is characterized by sharp features, determined, for example, by boundaries of the (Q, ω) regions where one-phonon scattering is allowed. These features may be identified with the same features apparent in the measured total coherent inelastic cross section, the other components of which (multiphonon or multiple scattering) show no sharp features. The parameters of the model can then be relaxed to improve the fit between model and experiment. This method is of particular interest where no single crystals are available. To test the approach, the poly-CINS has been measured for polycrystalline aluminium using the MARI spectrometer (ISIS), because both lattice dynamical models and measured dispersion curves are available for this material. The models used include a simple Lennard-Jones model fitted to the elastic constants of this material plus a number of embedded atom method force fields. The agreement obtained suggests that the method demonstrated should be effective in developing models for other materials where single-crystal dispersion curves are not available. PMID:24282332

  10. Epitaxial growth of silicon nanowires using an aluminium catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yewu; Schmidt, Volker; Senz, Stephan; Gösele, Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    Silicon nanowires have been identified as important components for future electronic and sensor nanodevices. So far gold has dominated as the catalyst for growing Si nanowires via the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Unfortunately, gold traps electrons and holes in Si and poses a serious contamination problem for Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. Although there are some reports on the use of non-gold catalysts for Si nanowire growth, either the growth requires high temperatures and/or the catalysts are not compatible with CMOS requirements. From a technological standpoint, a much more attractive catalyst material would be aluminium, as it is a standard metal in Si process lines. Here we report for the first time the epitaxial growth of Al-catalysed Si nanowires and suggest that growth proceeds via a vapour-solid-solid (VSS) rather than a VLS mechanism. It is also found that the tapering of the nanowires can be strongly reduced by lowering the growth temperature. PMID:18654184

  11. Mackay icosahedron explaining orientation relationship of dispersoids in aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Muggerud, Astrid Marie F; Li, Yanjun; Holmestad, Randi; Andersen, Sigmund J

    2014-10-01

    The orientation relations (ORs) of the cubic icosahedral quasicrystal approximant phase α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si have been studied after low temperature annealing of a 3xxx wrought aluminium alloy by transmission electron microscopy. From diffraction studies it was verified that the most commonly observed OR for the α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si dispersoids is [1\\bar 11]α // [1\\bar 11]Al, (5\\bar 2\\bar 7)α // (011)Al. This orientation could be explained by assuming that the internal Mackay icosahedron (MI) in the α-phase has a fixed orientation in relation to Al, similar to that of the icosahedral quasi-crystals existing in this alloy system. It is shown that mirroring of the normal-to-high-symmetry icosahedral directions of the MI explains the alternative orientations, which are therefore likely to be caused by twinning of the fixed MI. Only one exception was found, which was related to the Bergman icosahedron internal to the T-phase of the Al-Mg-Zn system. PMID:25274523

  12. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with

  13. Modulatory Role of Simvastatin against Aluminium Chloride-Induced Behavioural and Biochemical Changes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nampoothiri, Madhavan; John, Jessy; Kumar, Nitesh; Mudgal, Jayesh; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Aluminium, a neurotoxic agent in humans, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we examined the behavioral and biochemical effects of aluminium in rats with special emphasis on memory centres, namely, hippocampus and frontal cortex. Further, the effect of simvastatin treatment on aluminium intoxication was evaluated. Methods. Rats were exposed to aluminium chloride (AlCl3) for 60 days. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg/p.o.) and rivastigmine (1 mg/kg/p.o.) were administered daily prior to AlCl3. Behavioral parameters were assessed using Morris water maze test and actophotometer followed by biochemical investigations, namely, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, TNF-α level, antioxidant enzymes (GSH, catalase), lipid peroxidation, and nitrite level in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels in serum were also determined. Key Findings. Simvastatin treatment improved cognitive function and locomotor activity in rats. Simvastatin reversed hyperlipidemia and significantly rectified the deleterious effect of AlCl3 on AChE activity. Further, in hippocampus and frontal cortex, aluminium-induced elevation in nitrite and TNF-α and reduction in antioxidant enzymes were inhibited by simvastatin. Conclusion. To conclude, the present study suggests that simvastatin per se protects the neurons in hippocampus and frontal cortex from AlCl3, an environmental toxin. PMID:25802481

  14. Tensile Strength and Hardness Correlations with Microscopy in Friction welded Aluminium to Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish, Rengarajan; Seshagiri Rao, Vaddi; Ananthapadmanaban, Dattaguru; Ravi, Balappa

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and copper are good conductors of heat and electricity, copper being the better conductor, is a costly metal indeed. On the other hand, aluminium is cheap, easily available and also has a lower density than copper. Hence, worldwide efforts are being made to partially replace copper wire. Solid state welding should be used to join aluminium to copper. This is because the use of fusion welding results in brittle phases formed in the weld interface. One of the solid state welding techniques used for joining aluminium to copper is friction welding. In this paper, an attempt has been made to join aluminium to copper by friction welding by varying the friction welding parameters, namely friction pressure, upset pressure, burn-off length and speed of rotation of the workpiece. Nine different friction welding parameter combinations were used during welding in accordance with ASTM standards and results have been reported. Tensile strength and hardness tests were carried out for each parameter combination. Optimum friction welding parameter combination was identified with respect to tensile strength. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron dispersive spectroanalysis were obtained to identify modes of fracture and presence of intermetallic phases for each friction welding combination with the aim to narrow down friction welding parameters that give good properties on the whole.

  15. ET-AAS determination of aluminium in dialysis concentrates after continuous flow solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Komárek, J; Cervenka, R; Růzicka, T; Kubán, V

    2007-11-01

    Conditions of a continuous flow extraction (CFE) of aluminium acetylacetonate in acetylacetone and aluminium 8-hydroxyquinolinate into methylisobutylketone (lengths of reaction and extraction coils, flow rates of aqueous and organic phases and their flow rate ratio, pH of aqueous phase, lengths of coils for transport of aqueous and organic phases and effect of salts) were studied. The analytical signal of the aluminium chelates present in the organic phase was measured at 309.3 nm using atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization (ET-AAS) at the flow rate ratio F aq/F org=3 for aqueous and organic phases. The five points calibration curves were linear (R2 0.9973 and 0.9987) up to 21 microgl(-1) Al with the limits of detection of 0.3 microgl(-1) and the recovery 100+/-2% and precision of 3% at 2-10-fold dilution of the dialysis concentrates. The acetylacetonate method was applied to the determination of aluminium in real dialysis concentrates. Aluminium in concentrations 5-6 microgl(-1) (R.S.D.s 5-10% in real samples) were found and the results were in the very good agreement with those obtained by an ET-AAS using preconcentration of Al(III) on a Spheron-Salicyl chelating sorbent (absolute and relative differences were under 0.4 microgl(-1) and 8.2%, respectively). PMID:17897803

  16. Tensile and fatigue behaviour of self-piercing rivets of CFRP to aluminium for automotive application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Rao, H.; Zhang, R.; Avery, K.; Su, X.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the tensile and fatigue behaviour of self-piercing rivets (SPRs) in carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) to aluminium 6111 T82 alloys were evaluated. An average maximum lap-shear tensile load capacity of 3858 N was achieved, which is comparable to metal-to-metal SPR lap-shear joints. The CFRP-Al SPRs failed in lap-shear tension due to pull-out of the rivet head from the CFRP upper sheet. The CFRP-Al SPR lap- shear specimens exhibited superior fatigue life compared to previously studied aluminium-to- aluminium SPR lap-shear joints. The SPR lap-shear joints under fatigue loads failed predominantly due to kinked crack growth along the width of the bottom aluminium sheet. The fatigue cracks initiated in the plastically deformed region of the aluminium sheet close to the rivet shank in the rivet-sheet interlock region. Scatter in fatigue life and failure modes was observed in SPR lap-shear specimens tested close to maximum tensile load.

  17. Effect of atomic parameters on determination of aluminium abundance in atmospheres of late-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzhevitski, V. S.; Shimanskaya, N. N.; Shimansky, V. V.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.

    2014-04-01

    We study the effect of the photoionization cross sections for the ground state of Al I on the inferred aluminium abundance in stellar atmospheres. We match the theoretical and observed line profiles of the resonance λλ 3944.01, 3961.52 Å and subordinate λλ 6696.03, 6698.68 Å doublets in high-resolution spectra of the metal-poor solar-type stars HD22879 and HD201889. We determine the parameters of these stars from their photometric and spectroscopic data. Our computations show that the profiles can be matched and a single aluminium abundance inferred simultaneously from both groups of spectral lines only with low photoionization cross sections (about 10-12 Mb). Larger cross sections (about 58-65 Mb) make such fits impossible. We therefore conclude that small photoionization cross sections should be preferred for the determination of aluminium abundances in metal-poor stars. We redetermine the aluminium abundances in the atmospheres of halo stars. The resulting abundances prove to be lower by 0.1-0.15 dex than our earlier determinations which does not affect the conclusions based on our earlier estimates. In particular, the NLTE [Al/Fe]-[Fe/H] dependence, on the whole, agrees only qualitatively with the results of theoretical predictions. Therefore further refinement of the theory of nuclear synthesis of aluminium in the process of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy remains a task of current importance.

  18. Development of biodegradable aluminium carboxymethylcellulose matrices for mosquito larvicides.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nisha; Kalyanasundaram, Muthuswami

    2004-07-01

    The use of ecofriendly biodegradable controlled-release formulations of mosquito larvicides could reduce the frequency of application and losses due to degradation of the insecticide compared with conventional formulations. Among the 20 matrices developed by entrapping the organophosphorus mosquito larvicide, fenthion, in carboxymethylcellulose ionotropically cross-linked with aluminium ions which were studied for release profiles, two matrices, CRF3b and CRF5b, were found to be stable for 16 and 14 weeks under simulated field conditions. The average concentration of fenthion released per week ranged from 0.06 to 3.5 mg litre(-1) for CRF3b and 0.09 to 2.72 mg litre(-1) for CRF5b. Of these two formulations, CRF3b was the more stable, maintaining the concentration of the active ingredient at the level required to effect mosquito control. The cumulative release of fenthion per pellet was 80% from CRF3b and 72% from CRF5b. Based on the study with fenthion, two similar matrices for triflumuron, a benzoylphenylurea insect growth regulator, STAR3b and STAR5b were developed. These matrices were stable up to 16 weeks with the average concentration of triflumuron released per week ranging from 0.05 to 3.44 mg litre(-1) for STAR3b and 0.07 to 2.71 mg litre(-1) for STARSb. The cumulative release of triflumuron per pellet was 75% from STAR3b and 76% from STAR5b. From the results of this study under simulated conditions, it is estimated that the application of four pellets of either fenthion or triflumuron per square metre of the breeding surface may play a useful role in controlling Culex quinquefasciatus Say in larval habitats for about 4 months. PMID:15260300

  19. Kinetics and nature of aluminium rhizotoxic effects: a review.

    PubMed

    Kopittke, Peter M; Menzies, Neal W; Wang, Peng; Blamey, F Pax C

    2016-08-01

    Acid soils with elevated levels of soluble aluminium (Al) comprise ~40% of the world's arable land, but there remains much uncertainty regarding the mechanisms by which Al is rhizotoxic. This review examines the kinetics of the toxic effects of Al on the root elongation rate (RER), its effects on root tissues, and its location at a subcellular level. Depending upon the concentration and plant species, soluble Al decreases the RER in a median time of 73min, but in as little as 5min in soybean. This is initially due to a decreased rate at which cells expand anisotropically in the elongation zone. Thereafter, rhizodermal and outer cortical cells rupture through decreased cell wall relaxation. It is in this region where most Al accumulates in the apoplast. Subsequently, Al impacts root growth at a subcellular level through adverse effects on the plasma membrane (PM), cytoplasm, and nucleus. At the PM, Al alters permeability, fluidity, and integrity in as little as 0.5h, whilst it also depolarizes the PM and reduces H(+)-ATPase activity. The Al potentially crosses the PM within 0.5h where it is able to bind to the nucleus and inhibit cell division; sequestration within the vacuole is required to reduce the toxic effects of Al within the cytoplasm. This review demonstrates the increasing evidence of the importance of the initial Al-induced inhibition of wall loosening, but there is evidence also of the deleterious effects of Al on other cellular processes which are important for long-term root growth and function. PMID:27302129

  20. Peak exposures in aluminium potrooms: instrument development and field calibration.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stephanie R; Seixas, Noah S; Thompson, Mary Lou; Yost, Michael G

    2004-11-01

    Aluminium smelter potrooms are unique in that workplace exposures to hydrogen fluoride (HF), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter occur simultaneously for some tasks. The peak exposures to these contaminants are of increasing interest in discovering the etiology of respiratory health effects. While a variety of direct-reading instruments are available for sulfur dioxide and particulate matter, only a few exist for hydrogen fluoride. The sensors in these HF instruments have a cross-sensitivity to sulfur dioxide making it difficult to monitor HF in an environment that also contains SO2. To overcome this problem, we assessed the simultaneous use of two electrochemical instruments: one with a SO2 sensor that does not respond to HF and the second with a hydrogen fluoride sensor that responds to both HF and SO2 in a 1 : 1 ratio, termed 'total acid gas'. The difference in the response between the two instruments should indicate the HF concentration: [HF + SO2] minus SO2 equals HF. The performance characteristics of this sampling train were evaluated in the laboratory through the generation of both HF and SO2 with permeation tubes. The response and recovery times for the SO2 only instrument were acceptable (6 and 15 s, respectively), but the "total acid gas" instrument exhibited both slow response and slow recovery approaching three and six min. The association between the traditional integrated filter sampling method and the direct-reading instrument for SO2 is 0.80 (Spearman's rho). The use of the digital filter strengthens the association between the HF direct-reading instrument and the integrated samples from 0.41 to 0.68. PMID:15536509

  1. Occupational exposure to beryllium in primary aluminium production.

    PubMed

    Skaugset, Nils Petter; Ellingsen, Dag G; Dahl, Kari; Martinsen, Ivar; Jordbekken, Lars; Drabløs, Per Arne; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2012-02-01

    Alumina used in the production of primary aluminium contains Be which partly vaporises from the cryolite bath into the workroom atmosphere. Since Be may be toxic at lower exposure levels than previously thought, the personal exposure to Be among workers in 7 Norwegian primary smelters has been assessed. In total, 480 personal Respicon® virtual impactor full shift air samples have been collected during 2 sampling campaigns and analysed for water soluble Be, Al and Na using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. In addition, water soluble F(-) has been measured by ion chromatography. The Be air concentrations in the inhalable, thoracic and respirable aerosol fractions have been calculated. The Be concentrations in the inhalable aerosol fraction vary between the different smelters. The highest GM concentration of Be in the inhalable fraction (122 ng m(-3), n = 30) was measured in the prebake pot room of a smelter using predominantly Jamaican alumina where also the highest individual air concentration of 270 ng m(-3) of Be was identified. The relative distribution of Be in the different aerosol fractions was fairly constant with the mean Be amount for the two sampling campaigns between 44-49% in the thoracic fraction expressed as % of the inhalable amount. Linear regression analysis shows a high correlation between water soluble Be, Al, F and Na describing an average measured chemical bulk composition of the water soluble thoracic fraction as Na(5.7)Al(3.1)F(18). Be is likely to be present as traces in this particulate matter by replacing Al atoms in the condensed fluorides and/or as a major element in a nanoparticle sized fluoride. Thus, the major amount of Be present in the work room atmosphere of Al smelter pot rooms will predominantly be present in combination with substantial amounts of water soluble Al, F and Na. PMID:21993554

  2. In situ nanoindentation study on plasticity and work hardening in aluminium with incoherent twin boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufford, D.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2014-09-01

    Nanotwinned metals have been the focus of intense research recently, as twin boundaries may greatly enhance mechanical strength, while maintaining good ductility, electrical conductivity and thermal stability. Most prior studies have focused on low stacking-fault energy nanotwinned metals with coherent twin boundaries. In contrast, the plasticity of twinned high stacking-fault energy metals, such as aluminium with incoherent twin boundaries, has not been investigated. Here we report high work hardening capacity and plasticity in highly twinned aluminium containing abundant Σ3{112} incoherent twin boundaries based on in situ nanoindentation studies in a transmission electron microscope and corresponding molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations also reveal drastic differences in deformation mechanisms between nanotwinned copper and twinned aluminium ascribed to stacking-fault energy controlled dislocation-incoherent twin boundary interactions. This study provides new insight into incoherent twin boundary-dominated plasticity in high stacking-fault energy twinned metals.

  3. Aldose-ketose interconversion in pyridine in the presence of aluminium oxide.

    PubMed

    Ekeberg, Dag; Morgenlie, Svein; Stenstrøm, Yngve

    2007-10-15

    The reaction rate of the Lobry de Bruyn-Alberda van Ekenstein transformation of aldoses to ketoses in boiling pyridine was strongly increased by the addition of aluminium oxide. In addition to aldose-ketose transformation, 2-epimers of the starting aldoses and 3-epimers of the primarily produced ketoses were formed to some extent, as reported also when these reactions are carried out without aluminium oxide. The relative amounts of the primary ketose and the starting aldose in the reaction mixtures may be explained on the basis of their stability, predicted from reported free energy calculations. Isomerisation of ketoses to aldoses was much slower than the reverse reaction. The relative free energies are also in these cases important, the very stable xylo-2-hexulose gave only 7% and 6% of the aldoses gulose and idose, respectively, after boiling for 7h in pyridine in the presence of aluminium oxide. PMID:17606255

  4. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part I Microstructural investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Piotrowska, Kamila; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    The surface treatment of aluminium alloys under steam containing KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in the formation of an oxide layer having a thickness of up to 825 nm. The use of KMnO4 and HNO3 in the steam resulted in incorporation of the respective chemical species into the oxide layer. Steam treatment with solution containing HNO3 caused dissolution of Cu and Si from the intermetallic particles in the aluminium substrate. The growth rate of oxide layer was observed to be a function of MnO4- and NO3- ions present in the aqueous solution. The NO3- ions exhibit higher affinity towards the intermetallic particles resulting in poor coverage by the steam generated oxide layer compared to the coating formed using MnO4- ions. Further, increase in the concentration of NO3- ions in the solution retards precipitation of the steam generated aluminium hydroxide layer.

  5. Self-Pierce Riveting of Three Aluminium Alloy and Mild Steel Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.; Abe, Y.; Sakai, S.; Kato, T.

    2010-06-15

    Three aluminium alloy and steel sheets were joined with a self-piercing rivet. Self-pierce riveting has the function of joining steel and aluminium alloys having very different melting points due to plastic joining. The requisites for joining the three sheets are the driving of the rivet leg through the middle sheet, the flaring of the rivet leg in the lower sheet and the prevention of the fracture of the lower sheet. The joinability for various combinations of the three sheets was determined. When the rivet leg is small, no driving through the middle sheet occurs, the lower sheet ruptures for a large rivet leg. In addition, 980 MPa high strength steel, mild steel and aluminium alloy sheets were joined by the self-pierce riveting.

  6. Development of graphene-nanometre-sized cerium oxide-incorporated aluminium and its electrochemical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, P. Muhamed; Thomas, Saly N.; Edwin, Leela

    2016-02-01

    Graphene-nanometre-sized cerium oxide-incorporated aluminium was prepared and its electrochemical and surface morphological characteristics were studied. The atomic force micrographs and scanning electron micrographs evaluation highlighted that the graphene and nanometre-sized cerium oxide in aluminium had decreased the surface roughness and improved the surface morphological characteristics. The graphene: nanometre-sized cerium oxide (ratios 1:2 or 2:1) with lesser amounts of particle in the matrix showed excellent corrosion resistance in the marine environment as evidenced by linear polarization, electrochemical impedance and weight loss studies. Introduction of graphene in the aluminium matrix showed a barrier separation between the outermost layer and inner layer, increased roughness and increased corrosion. The material is found to be a potential candidate for use in marine environment.

  7. Investigation of structural, morphological, luminescent and thermal properties of combusted aluminium-based iron oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, S. S.; Rajpure, K. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Nanocomposites of aluminium integrated hematite α-Fe 2O 3 are synthesized by combustion route using aqueous solutions of AR grade ferric trichloride and aluminium nitrate as precursors. The influence of aluminium incorporation on to the morphology, XPS, photoluminescence and thermal properties has been investigated. The FESEM and AFM micrographs depict that the samples are compact and have homogeneously distributed grains of varying sizes (˜20-60 nm). Chemical composition and valence states of constituent elements in hematite are analyzed by XPS. In room temperature photoluminescence (PL) study, we observed strong violet emission around 436 nm without any deep-level emission and a small PL FWHM indicating that the concentrations of defects are responsible for deep-level emissions. The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant. We studied interparticle interactions using complex impedance spectroscopy. We report a new potential candidate for its possible applications in optoelectronics and magnetic devices.

  8. Evaluation Of Four Welding Arc Processes Applied To 6061 Aluminium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, A.; Paillard, P.; Baudin, T.; Jobez, S.; Castagne, J.-F.

    2011-01-17

    At a time when greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced, the use of the aluminium alloys is expanding, in particular in the transportation industry. In order to extend the possibilities of aluminium assembly design, new Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding processes have been conceived. They work at lower temperatures than usual arc processes (classic MIG or Tungsten Inert Gas). This study compares four arc welding processes, applied to the 6061 aluminium alloy. These four weld processes have been studied through the metallurgical analysis of the weld beads. Metallography, micro-hardness testings, X Ray radiography have been carried out on the produced weld beads. The processes are classified according to the quality of the beads like geometry of beads, size of the heat affected zone and presence of defects.

  9. Image analysis of atmospheric corrosion of field exposure high strength aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Lei; Song, Shizhe; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zheng; Lu, Feng

    2008-08-01

    The corrosion morphology image acquisition system which can be used in the field was established. In Beijing atmospheric corrosion exposure station, the image acquisition system was used to capture the early stage corrosion morphology of five types of high strength aluminium alloy specimens. After the denoise treatment, wavelet-based image analysis method was applied to decompose the improved images and energies of sub-images were extracted as character information. Based on the variation of image energy values, the corrosion degree of aluminium alloy specimens was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The conclusion was basically identical with the result based on the corrosion weight loss. This method is supposed to be effective to analysis and quantify the corrosion damage from image of field exposure aluminium alloy specimens.

  10. Exposure and inhalation risk assessment in an aluminium cast-house.

    PubMed

    Godderis, L; Vanderheyden, W; Van Geel, J; Moens, G; Masschelein, R; Veulemans, H

    2005-12-01

    To date the exposure, absorption and respiratory health effects of cast-house workers have not been described since most studies performed in the aluminium industry are focused on exposure and health effects of potroom personnel. In the present study, we assessed the external exposure and the absorbed dose of metals in personnel from the aluminium cast house. This was combined with an evaluation of respiratory complaints and the lung function of the personnel. 30 workers from an aluminium casting plant participated and 17 individuals of the packaging and distribution departments were selected as controls. The exposure was assessed by the quantification of total inhalable fume with metal fraction and by the determination of urinary aluminium, chromium, beryllium, manganese and lead concentration. Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), aldehydes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and man-made mineral fibres concentration were assessed as well. In order to evaluate their respiratory status each participant filled out a questionnaire and their lung function was tested by forced spirometry. Total inhalable fume exposure was maximum 4.37 mg m(-3). Exposure to the combustion gases, man-made mineral fibres and metal fume was well below the exposure limits. Beryllium could not be detected in the urine. The values of aluminium, manganese and lead in the urine were all under the respective reference value. One individual had a urinary chromium excretion above the ACGIH defined biological exposure index (BEI) of 30 microg g(-1) creatinine. There was no significant difference in any of the categories of the respiratory questionnaire and in the results of the spirometry between cast house personnel and referents (Chi-square, all p > 0.05). Exposure in cast houses seem to be acceptable under these conditions. However, peak exposure to fumes cannot be excluded and the potential risk of chromium and beryllium exposure due to the recycling of aluminium requires further attention

  11. Accumulation of aluminium in lamellar bone after implantation of titanium plates, Ti-6Al-4V screws, hydroxyapatite granules.

    PubMed

    Zaffe, Davide; Bertoldi, Carlo; Consolo, Ugo

    2004-08-01

    Titanium plates, Ti6Al4V screws and surrounding tissues, and biopsies of hydroxyapatite (Osprovit) grafts of maxillary sinus lifting were investigated to evaluate the release and accumulation of ions. Optical microscopy, SEM and X-ray microanalysis were carried out to evaluate the plates and screws removed from patients presenting inflammation and biopsies. Ions release from metallic appliances or leaching from granules towards soft tissues was observed. An accumulation of aluminium but not titanium was found in soft tissues. A peculiar accumulation of aluminium in the dense lamella of newly formed bone was recorded. The results seem to indicate that biological perturbations may be related to aluminium release from the tested biomaterials. The aluminium content of these biomaterials, its diffusion and accumulation are discussed. Further studies on ion release from biomaterials and aluminium fate in skeletal tissues are suggested. PMID:15020159

  12. Performance of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline ethylene glycol electrolyte with dicarboxylic acids additives for aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, DaPeng; Zhang, DaQuan; Lee, KangYong; Gao, LiXin

    2015-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acid compounds, i.e. succinic acid (SUA), adipic acid (ADA) and sebacic acid (SEA), are used as electrolyte additives in the alkaline ethylene glycol solution for AA5052 aluminium-air batteries. It shows that the addition of dicarboxylic acids lowers the hydrogen gas evolution rate of commercial AA5052 aluminium alloy anode. AA5052 aluminium alloy has wide potential window for electrochemical activity and better discharge performance in alkaline ethylene glycol solution containing dicarboxylic acid additives. ADA has the best inhibition effect for the self-corrosion of AA5052 anode among the three dicarboxylic acid additives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) reveals that dicarboxylic acids and aluminium ions can form coordination complexes. Quantum chemical calculations shows that ADA has a smaller energy gap (ΔE, the energy difference between the lowest unoccupied orbital and the highest occupied orbital), indicating that ADA has the strongest interaction with aluminium ions.

  13. Spatial aluminium sensitivity of root apices of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes with contrasting aluminium resistance.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Andrés F; Rao, Idupulapati M; Horst, Walter J

    2007-01-01

    The initial response of plants to aluminium (Al) is an inhibition of root elongation. In the present study, short and medium-term effects of Al treatment (20 muM) on root growth and Al accumulation of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes, VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) and Quimbaya (Al-resistant), were studied. Root elongation of both genotypes was severely inhibited during the first 3-4 h of Al treatment. Thereafter, both genotypes showed gradual recovery. However, this recovery continued in genotype Quimbaya until the root elongation rate reached the level of the control (without Al) while the genotype VAX-1 was increasingly damaged by Al after 12 h of Al treatment. Short-term Al treatment (90 microM Al) to different zones of the root apex using agarose blocks corroborated the importance of the transition zone (TZ, 1-2 mm) as a main target of Al. However, Al applied to the elongation zone (EZ) also contributed to the overall inhibition of root elongation. Enhanced inhibition of root elongation during the initial 4 h of Al treatment was related to high Al accumulation in root apices in both genotypes (Quimbaya>VAX-1). Recovery from Al stress was reflected by decreasing Al contents especially in the TZ, but also in the EZ. After 24 h of Al treatment the high Al resistance of Quimbaya was reflected by much lower Al contents in the entire root apex. The results confirmed that genotypic differences in Al resistance in common bean are built up during medium-term exposure of the roots to Al. For this acquisition of Al resistance, the activation and maintenance of an Al exclusion mechanism, especially in the TZ but also in the EZ, appears to be decisive. PMID:17975208

  14. Silica mesoporous thin films as containers for benzotriazole for corrosion protection of 2024 aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recloux, Isaline; Mouanga, Maixent; Druart, Marie-Eve; Paint, Yoann; Olivier, Marie-Georges

    2015-08-01

    This work contributes to the development of a new environmentally friendly alternative pretreatment for 2024 aluminium alloys to replace hexavalent chromium based conversion layers in the aeronautical field. A silica mesoporous thin film, synthesized through the evaporation induced self-assembly process, was doped with benzotriazole to obtain active corrosion protection. Inhibitor loading contents were correlated with pore characteristics. The release kinetics was studied as function of pH. The application of the doped mesoporous film on 2024 aluminium alloy revealed a slowing down of corrosion processes, demonstrating its potential as an active inhibitor storage layer.

  15. PIXE analysis for the study of toxic effects of aluminium in vines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. R.; Le Roux, E.; Renan, M. J.; Peisach, M.

    1984-04-01

    Elemental concentrations of Mg, A1, Si, P, S, Cl, K and Ca were determined by PIXE in various parts of grape vines grown in a Hoagland water culture with and without added aluminium. The presence of Al enhanced the uptake of P, S and K in leaves and stems, but depressed Mg and Ca. In the roots the Al concentration was very high, while that of Mg was reduced compared to the control samples. The toxic effects of aluminium produced symptoms reminiscent of calcium deficiency.

  16. Severe reversible myocardial injury associated with aluminium phosphide toxicity: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Elabbassi, Wael; Chowdhury, Mohammed Andaleeb; Fachtartz, Arif Al Nooryani

    2014-10-01

    Aluminium phosphide is commonly used as an insecticide and can be toxic to humans at the cellular level by interfering with mitochondrial energy metabolism. We report on three cases of severe aluminium phosphide cardio-toxicity, resulting in severe decrease in both ventricular heart functions. The first case succumbed to intractable ventricular arrhythmias complicated by multi-organ failure before she died; while the other two cases required invasive hemodynamic support and eventually improved over the course of 10-14 days. We describe our experience and the challenges faced while managing one of them. PMID:25278724

  17. Effect of copper ions on the crystallization of bayer aluminium trihydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, N.

    1988-02-01

    The effect of copper ions on the crystallization of Bayer aluminium trihydroxide has been examined using the SEM/EDAX technique and particle size analyses. The presence of copper ions, presumably stabilised in solution as the cuprate(II) ion, disrupts the normal crystal growth process and induces secondary nucleation on the aluminium trihydroxide seed crystal surfaces. Although the copper ions adsorb preferentially on the (001) seed crystal surfaces, most of the new crystal formation occurs on the prismatic faces of the pseudo-hexagonal seed crystals. The roughened seed crystal surfaces and the tiny crystalline protrusions promote agglomeration of the seed crystals during subsequent crystallization.

  18. Analysis of cutting forces during dry turning processes of UNS A92024-T3 aluminium bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Agustina, B.; Rubio, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    In the aeronautical and aerospace industries there is a great demand of materials with high resistance and low weight such as the aluminium alloys for the production of different elements that conforms the airships and aerospace vehicles. In this work, an experimental study was carried out in order to analyse the influence of the cutting parameters (feed rate, cutting speed and type of tool) on the forces generated during dry turning tests of UNS A92024-T3 aluminium bars. The main influents factors on the forces were the feed rate and the interaction between type of tool and the spindle speed.

  19. A time-course study on effects of aluminium on mitotic cell division in Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Roy, A K; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

    1989-12-01

    Cytotoxic effects of aluminium sulphate on root-tip cells of Allium sativum during a time-course study and during recovery were observed. The endpoints considered were mitotic index and frequencies of aberrant cells and micronuclei induced. Chronic exposure induced mitotic depression and abnormal cells to a degree directly proportional to the concentration used and the period of treatment up to 24 h. A reduction of the early higher level of toxicity was noticed following 48 h of treatment and subsequent recovery in aluminium-free nutrient media in experiments carried out with lower concentrations. PMID:2586548

  20. Piezoelectric Behaviour of Sputtered Aluminium Nitride Thin Film for High Frequency Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, T.; Walter, S.; Bartzsch, H.; Gittner, M.; Gloess, D.; Heuer, H.

    2011-06-01

    Many new materials and processes require non destructive evaluation in higher resolutions by phased array ultrasonic techniques in a frequency range up to 250 MHz. This paper presents aluminium nitride, a promising material for the use as a piezoelectric sensor material in the considered frequency range, which contains the potential for high frequency phased array application in the future. This work represents the fundamental development of piezoelectric aluminium nitride films with a thickness of up to 10 μm. We have investigated and optimized the deposition process of the aluminium nitride thin film layers regarding their piezoelectric behavior. Therefore a specific test setup and a measuring station were created to determine the piezoelectric charge constant (d33) and the electro acoustic behavior of the sensor. Single element transducers were deposited on silicon substrates with aluminium electrodes for top and bottom, using different parameters for the magnetron sputter process, like pressure and bias voltage. Afterwards acoustical measurements up to 500 MHz in pulse echo mode have been carried out and the electrical and electromechanical properties were qualified. In two different parameter sets for the sputtering process excellent piezoelectric charge constant of about 8.0 pC/N maximum were obtained.

  1. Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, R K; Coquet, M; Cherin, P; Belec, L; Moretto, P; Dreyfus, P A; Pellissier, J F; Chariot, P; Authier, F J

    2001-09-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition of unknown cause, detected in patients with diffuse arthromyalgias and fatigue, and characterized by muscle infiltration by granular periodic acid-Schiff's reagent-positive macrophages and lymphocytes. Intracytoplasmic inclusions have been observed in macrophages of some patients. To assess their significance, electron microscopy was performed in 40 consecutive cases and chemical analysis was done by microanalysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Inclusions were constantly detected and corresponded to aluminium hydroxide, an immunostimulatory compound frequently used as a vaccine adjuvant. A lymphocytic component was constantly observed in MMF lesions. Serological tests were compatible with exposure to aluminium hydroxide-containing vaccines. History analysis revealed that 50 out of 50 patients had received vaccines against hepatitis B virus (86%), hepatitis A virus (19%) or tetanus toxoid (58%), 3-96 months (median 36 months) before biopsy. Diffuse myalgias were more frequent in patients with than without an MMF lesion at deltoid muscle biopsy (P < 0.0001). Myalgia onset was subsequent to the vaccination (median 11 months) in 94% of patients. MMF lesion was experimentally reproduced in rats. We conclude that the MMF lesion is secondary to intramuscular injection of aluminium hydroxide-containing vaccines, shows both long-term persistence of aluminium hydroxide and an ongoing local immune reaction, and is detected in patients with systemic symptoms which appeared subsequently to vaccination. PMID:11522584

  2. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Bare, Simon R.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-07-02

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Ultimately, using a nearest-neighbour statistical analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al–Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming.

  3. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Bare, Simon R.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Using a nearest-neighbour statistical analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al–Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming. PMID:26133270

  4. Aspects of ultra-high-precision diamond machining of RSA 443 optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkoko, Z.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-08-01

    Optical aluminium alloys such as 6061-T6 are traditionally used in ultra-high precision manufacturing for making optical mirrors for aerospace and other applications. However, the optics industry has recently witnessed the development of more advanced optical aluminium grades that are capable of addressing some of the issues encountered when turning with single-point natural monocrystalline diamond cutters. The advent of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades has generally opened up new possibilities for ultra-high precision manufacturing of optical components. In this study, experiments were conducted with single-point diamond cutters on rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 443 material. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of depth of cut and feed rate at a fixed rotational speed on the tool wear rate and resulting surface roughness of diamond turned specimens. This is done to gain further understanding of the rate of wear on the diamond cutters versus the surface texture generated on the RSA 443 material. The diamond machining experiments yielded machined surfaces which are less reflective but with consistent surface roughness values. Cutting tools were observed for wear through scanning microscopy; relatively low wear pattern was evident on the diamond tool edge. The highest tool wear were obtained at higher depth of cut and increased feed rate.

  5. Aluminium salalens vs. salans: "Initiator Design" for the isoselective polymerisation of rac-lactide.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Paul; Davidson, Matthew G; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Jones, Matthew D

    2016-08-16

    We report the rationalised design of aluminium initiators and their application for ROP of rac-lactide (rac-LA). A very minor change to the ligand backbone (imine reduction) to give secondary amines was found to have a dramatic effect on activity and selectivity with isotactic PLA being realised. PMID:27487791

  6. Fabrication of GaN nanotubular material using MOCVD with an aluminium oxide membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo-Gwang; Jung, Se-Hyuck; Kung, Patrick; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2006-01-01

    GaN nanotubular material is fabricated with an aluminium oxide membrane in MOCVD. SEM, XRD, TEM and PL are employed to characterize the fabricated GaN nanotubular material. An aluminium oxide membrane with ordered nanoholes is used as a template. Gallium nitride is deposited at the inner wall of the nanoholes in the aluminium oxide template, and the nanotubular material with high aspect ratio is synthesized using the precursors of TMG and ammonia gas. Optimal synthesis conditions in MOCVD are obtained successfully for the gallium nitride nanotubular material in this research. The diameter of the GaN nanotube fabricated is approximately 200-250 nm and the wall thickness is about 40-50 nm. GaN nanotubular material consists of numerous fine GaN particulates with size range 15-30 nm. The composition of gallium nitride is confirmed to be stoichiometrically 1:1 for Ga and N by EDS. XRD and TEM analyses indicate that the grains in GaN nanotubular material have a nano-crystalline structure. No blue shift is found in the PL spectrum on the GaN nanotubular material fabricated in an aluminium oxide template.

  7. Application of laser in seam welding of dissimilar steel to aluminium joints for thick structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, S.; Pardal, G.; Ganguly, S.; Williams, S.; McPherson, N.

    2015-04-01

    Laser welding-brazing technique, using a continuous wave (CW) fibre laser with 8000 W of maximum power, was applied in conduction mode to join 2 mm thick steel (XF350) to 6 mm thick aluminium (AA5083-H22), in a lap joint configuration with steel on the top. The steel surface was irradiated by the laser and the heat was conducted through the steel plate to the steel-aluminium interface, where the aluminium melts and wets the steel surface. The welded samples were defect free and the weld micrographs revealed presence of a brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) layer resulting from reaction of Fe and Al atoms. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicated the stoichiometry of the IMC as Fe2Al5 and FeAl3, the former with maximum microhardness measured of 1145 HV 0.025/10. The IMC layer thickness varied between 4 to 21 μm depending upon the laser processing parameters. The IMC layer showed an exponential growth pattern with the applied specific point energy (Esp) at a constant power density (PD). Higher PD values accelerate the IMC layer growth. The mechanical shear strength showed a narrow band of variation in all the samples (with the maximum value registered at 31.3 kN), with a marginal increase in the applied Esp. This could be explained by the fact that increasing the Esp results into an increase in the wetting and thereby the bonded area in the steel-aluminium interface.

  8. Process Simulation of Aluminium Sheet Metal Deep Drawing at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Winklhofer, Johannes; Trattnig, Gernot; Sommitsch, Christof

    2010-06-15

    Lightweight design is essential for an economic and environmentally friendly vehicle. Aluminium sheet metal is well known for its ability to improve the strength to weight ratio of lightweight structures. One disadvantage of aluminium is that it is less formable than steel. Therefore complex part geometries can only be realized by expensive multi-step production processes. One method for overcoming this disadvantage is deep drawing at elevated temperatures. In this way the formability of aluminium sheet metal can be improved significantly, and the number of necessary production steps can thereby be reduced. This paper introduces deep drawing of aluminium sheet metal at elevated temperatures, a corresponding simulation method, a characteristic process and its optimization. The temperature and strain rate dependent material properties of a 5xxx series alloy and their modelling are discussed. A three dimensional thermomechanically coupled finite element deep drawing simulation model and its validation are presented. Based on the validated simulation model an optimised process strategy regarding formability, time and cost is introduced.

  9. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Perea, Daniel E; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W; Lercher, Johannes A; Bare, Simon R; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Using a nearest-neighbour statistical analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al-Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming. PMID:26133270

  10. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Bare, Simon R.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-07-01

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Using a nearest-neighbour statistical analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al-Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming.

  11. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Bare, Simon R.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-07-02

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Ultimately, using a nearest-neighbour statisticalmore » analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al–Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming.« less

  12. Predicting the thermal conductivity of aluminium alloys in the cryogenic to room temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcraft, Adam L.

    2005-06-01

    Aluminium alloys are being used increasingly in cryogenic systems. However, cryogenic thermal conductivity measurements have been made on only a few of the many types in general use. This paper describes a method of predicting the thermal conductivity of any aluminium alloy between the superconducting transition temperature (approximately 1 K) and room temperature, based on a measurement of the thermal conductivity or electrical resistivity at a single temperature. Where predictions are based on low temperature measurements (approximately 4 K and below), the accuracy is generally better than 10%. Useful predictions can also be made from room temperature measurements for most alloys, but with reduced accuracy. This method permits aluminium alloys to be used in situations where the thermal conductivity is important without having to make (or find) direct measurements over the entire temperature range of interest. There is therefore greater scope to choose alloys based on mechanical properties and availability, rather than on whether cryogenic thermal conductivity measurements have been made. Recommended thermal conductivity values are presented for aluminium 6082 (based on a new measurement), and for 1000 series, and types 2014, 2024, 2219, 3003, 5052, 5083, 5086, 5154, 6061, 6063, 6082, 7039 and 7075 (based on low temperature measurements in the literature).

  13. Photophysical efficiency-boost of aqueous aluminium phthalocyanine by hybrid formation with nano-clays.

    PubMed

    Staniford, Mark C; Lezhnina, Marina M; Gruener, Malte; Stegemann, Linda; Kuczius, Rauni; Bleicher, Vera; Strassert, Cristian A; Kynast, Ulrich H

    2015-09-11

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprising nanoscaled layered silicates and native aluminium hydroxide phthalocyanine (Al(OH)Pc) allowed for the first time the exploitation of their unique photophysical properties in aqueous ambience. In particular, we were able to observe the efficient emission of Al(OH)Pc-nanoclay hybrids and generation of singlet oxygen in aqueous solution. PMID:26221639

  14. Alkali-Activated Aluminium-Silicate Composites as Insulation Materials for Industrial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembovska, L.; Bajare, D.; Pundiene, I.; Bumanis, G.

    2015-11-01

    The article reports on the study of thermal stability of alkali-activated aluminium- silicate composites (ASC) at temperature 800-1100°C. ASC were prepared by using calcined kaolinite clay, aluminium scrap recycling waste, lead-silicate glass waste and quartz sand. As alkali activator, commercial sodium silicate solution modified with an addition of sodium hydroxide was used. The obtained alkali activation solution had silica modulus Ms=1.67. Components of aluminium scrap recycling waste (aluminium nitride (AlN) and iron sulphite (FeSO3)) react in the alkali media and create gases - ammonia and sulphur dioxide, which provide the porous structure of the material [1]. Changes in the chemical composition of ASC during heating were identified and quantitatively analysed by using DTA/TG, dimension changes during the heating process were determined by using HTOM, pore microstructure was examined by SEM, and mineralogical composition of ASC was determined by XRD. The density of ASC was measured in accordance with EN 1097-7. ASC with density around 560 kg/m3 and heat resistance up to 1100°C with shrinkage less than 5% were obtained. The intended use of this material is the application as an insulation material for industrial purposes at elevated temperatures.

  15. Simple collectors for cathodoluminescence in the SEM made from aluminium foil.

    PubMed

    Boyde, A; Reid, S A

    1983-11-01

    Inexpensive cathodoluminescence collectors for scanning electron microscopes can easily be made from aluminium foil fashioned as tubes which abut against the window of the photomultiplier at one end and shroud the specimen at the other. Their use in the study of fluorescent labelled mineralized tissues is illustrated. PMID:6644803

  16. Radical Cyclisation of α-Halo Aluminium Acetals: A Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Bénéteau, Romain; Boussonnière, Anne; Rouaud, Jean-Christophe; Lebreton, Jacques; Graton, Jérôme; Jacquemin, Denis; Sebban, Muriel; Oulyadi, Hassan; Hamdoun, Ghanem; Hancock, Amber N; Schiesser, Carl H; Dénès, Fabrice

    2016-03-24

    α-Bromo aluminium acetals are suitable substrates for Ueno-Stork-like radical cyclisations affording γ-lactols and acid-sensitive methylene-γ-lactols in high yields. The mechanistic study herein sets the scope and limitation of this reaction. The influence of the halide (or chalcogenide) atom X (X=Cl, Br, I, SPh, SePh) in the precursors α-haloesters, as well as influence of the solvent and temperature was studied. The structure of the aluminium acetal intermediates resulting from the reduction of the corresponding α-haloesters has been investigated by low-temperature (13) C-INEPT diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) experiments and quantum calculations, providing new insights into the structures of these thermally labile intermediates. Oxygen-bridged dimeric structures with a planar Al2 O2 ring are proposed for the least hindered aluminium acetals, while monomeric structures seem to prevail for the most hindered species. A comparison against the radical cyclisation of aluminium acetals derived from allyl and propargyl alcohols with the parent Ueno-Stork has been made at the BHandHLYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory, highlighting mechanistic similarities and differences. PMID:26890896

  17. Use of Propranolol-Magnesium Aluminium Silicate Intercalated Complexes as Drug Reservoirs in Polymeric Matrix Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Pongjanyakul, T.; Rojtanatanya, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of propranolol–magnesium aluminium silicate intercalated complexes as drug reservoirs in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose tablets. The matrix tablets containing the complexes were prepared and characterised with respect to propranolol release and were subsequently compared with those loading propranolol or a propranolol–magnesium aluminium silicate physical mixture. Additionally, the effects of varying viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, compression pressures and calcium acetate incorporation on the drug release characteristics of the complex-loaded tablets were also examined. The results showed that the complex-loaded tablets have higher tablet hardness than those containing propranolol or a physical mixture. The drug release from the complex-loaded tablets followed a zero-order release kinetic, whereas an anomalous transport was found in the propranolol or physical mixture tablets. The drug release rate of the complex tablet significantly decreased with increasing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose viscosity grade. Increase in the compression pressure caused a decrease in the drug release rate of the tablets. Furthermore, the incorporation of calcium ions could accelerate propranolol release, particularly in acidic medium, because calcium ions could be exchanged with propranolol molecules intercalated in the silicate layers of magnesium aluminium silicate. These findings suggest that propranolol-magnesium aluminium silicate intercalated complexes show strong potential for use as drug reservoirs in matrix tablets intended for modifying drug release. PMID:23626384

  18. Water purification and the incidence of fractures in patients receiving home haemodialysis supervised by a single centre: evidence for "safe" upper limit of aluminium in water.

    PubMed Central

    Platts, M M; Owen, G; Smith, S

    1984-01-01

    Between 1968 and 1980 fractures occurred in 56 of 284 patients treated by home haemodialysis in the Sheffield area for longer than one year. Patients sustained four times as many fractures while using dialysate prepared with water containing more than 1.0 mumol aluminium per 1 (2.7 micrograms/100 ml) than while using water containing a smaller concentration. When aluminium was removed from water by deionisation the incidence of fractures diminished during the next year and no patient developed dialysis encephalopathy. These findings show that 1.0 mumol/l is a safe maximum concentration of aluminium in water for use in home haemodialysis. It can be detected by the colorimetric aluminium analyses used by many water authorities. When financial resources are limited it is expedient to reserve aluminium analyses by electrothermal atomic absorption for plasma from patients receiving regular haemodialysis. Ingestion of aluminium hydroxide contributes significantly to the increased plasma aluminium concentration of these patients. PMID:6423163

  19. Chemical states and electronic properties of the interface between aluminium and a photoluminescent conjugated copolymer containing europium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Q. J.; Ling, Q. D.; Li, S.; Zhu, F. R.; Huang, Wei; Kang, E. T.; Neoh, K. G.

    2004-01-01

    The chemical states and electronic properties of the interface between thermally evaporated aluminium and a photoluminescent conjugated copolymer containing 9,9'-dihexylfluorene and europium complex-chelated benzoate units in the main chain (PF6-Eu(dbm) 2phen) were studied in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The changes in C 1s, Eu 3d, N 1s, and Al 2p core-level lineshapes with progressive deposition of aluminium atoms were carefully monitored. Aluminium was found to interact with the conjugated backbone of the copolymer to form the Al carbide, Al-O-C complex, and Al(III)-N chelate at the interface. In addition, the europium ions were reduced to the metallic state by the deposited aluminium atoms, which were oxidized and chelated by the 1,10-phenanthroline ligands (phen). The changes in chemical states at the interface suggest that the intramolecular energy transfer process in this copolymer had been affected. Moreover, aluminium also interacted with the bulk-adsorbed oxygen, which migrates to the surface in response to the deposition of aluminium atoms, to form a layer of metal oxides. On the other hand, the evolution of the UPS spectra suggests that the π-states of the conjugated system were affected and an unfavorable dipole layer was induced by the deposited aluminium atoms.

  20. Experimental synovitis induced by aluminium phosphate in rabbits. Comparison of the changes produced in synovial tissue and in articular cartilage by aluminium phosphate, carrageenin, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, and natural diamond powder.

    PubMed

    Delongeas, J L; Netter, P; Boz, P; Faure, G; Royer, R J; Gaucher, A

    1984-01-01

    The goal of this experimental study was to examine the effect on articular tissue of tribasic aluminium phosphate (crystalline and amorphous forms) after intraarticular injection in rabbit and to compare it with that of various phlogistic compounds such as carrageenin, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate and diamond powder, as a control. Synovium and cartilage were studied with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive micro-analysis (EDM). Crystalline and amorphous aluminium phosphate could induce a synovitis with articular effusion in rabbits. With TEM, lysosomal inclusions of phagocytosed material were observed. Through SEM coupled with EDM, aluminium associated with phosphate was found in cellular elements. PMID:6087947

  1. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J.L.; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10 mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits–NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: • Aluminium decreases the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and nuclear encoded

  2. Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Mashiko, M.; Yamamura, Y. )

    1989-11-01

    In an attempt to establish a method for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure, the chemical species of arsenic were measured in the urine and hair of gallium arsenide (GaAs) plant and copper smelter workers. Determination of urinary inorganic arsenic concentration proved sensitive enough to monitor the low-level inorganic arsenic exposure of the GaAs plant workers. The urinary inorganic arsenic concentration in the copper smelter workers was far higher than that of a control group and was associated with high urinary concentrations of the inorganic arsenic metabolites, methylarsonic acid (MAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The results established a method for exposure level-dependent biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure. Low-level exposures could be monitored only by determining urinary inorganic arsenic concentration. High-level exposures clearly produced an increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentration, with an increased sum of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites (inorganic arsenic + MAA + DMAA). The determination of urinary arsenobetaine proved to determine specifically the seafood-derived arsenic, allowing this arsenic to be distinguished clearly from the arsenic from occupational exposure. Monitoring arsenic exposure by determining the arsenic in the hair appeared to be of value only when used for environmental monitoring of arsenic contamination rather than for biological monitoring.

  3. Doping evolution of the superconducting gap structure in the underdoped iron arsenide Ba1 -xKxFe2As2 revealed by thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J.-Ph.; Tanatar, M. A.; Luo, X. G.; Shakeripour, H.; de Cotret, S. René; Juneau-Fecteau, A.; Chang, J.; Shen, B.; Wen, H.-H.; Kim, H.; Prozorov, R.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Taillefer, Louis

    2016-06-01

    The thermal conductivity κ of the iron-arsenide superconductor Ba1 -xKxFe2As2 was measured for heat currents parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis at temperatures down to 50 mK and in magnetic fields up to 15 T. Measurements were performed on samples with compositions ranging from optimal doping (x =0.34 , Tc=39 K) down to dopings deep into the region where antiferromagnetic order coexists with superconductivity (x =0.16 , Tc=7 K). In zero field, there is no residual linear term in κ (T ) as T →0 at any doping, whether for in-plane or interplane transport. This shows that there are no nodes in the superconducting gap. However, as x decreases into the range of coexistence with antiferromagnetism, the residual linear term grows more and more rapidly with applied magnetic field. This shows that the superconducting energy gap develops minima at certain locations on the Fermi surface and these minima deepen with decreasing x . We propose that the minima in the gap structure arise when the Fermi surface of Ba1 -xKxFe2As2 is reconstructed by the antiferromagnetic order.

  4. Note: All solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator based on bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Fan, Yajun; Liu, Chunliang

    2016-08-01

    An all solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator featuring low-energy-triggered bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switches and a step-type transmission line is presented. The step-type transmission line with two stages is charged to a potential of 5.0 kV also biasing at the switches. The bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch closes within sub-nanosecond range when illuminated with approximately 87 nJ of laser energy at 905 nm in a single pulse. An asymmetric dipolar pulse with peak-to-peak amplitude of 9.6 kV and risetime of 0.65 ns is produced on a resistive load of 50 Ω. A technique that allows for repetition-rate multiplication of pulse trains experimentally demonstrated that the parallel-connected bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switches are triggered in sequence. The highest repetition rate is decided by recovery time of the bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch, and the operating result of 100 kHz of the generator is discussed.

  5. Note: All solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator based on bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switches.

    PubMed

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Fan, Yajun; Liu, Chunliang

    2016-08-01

    An all solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator featuring low-energy-triggered bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switches and a step-type transmission line is presented. The step-type transmission line with two stages is charged to a potential of 5.0 kV also biasing at the switches. The bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch closes within sub-nanosecond range when illuminated with approximately 87 nJ of laser energy at 905 nm in a single pulse. An asymmetric dipolar pulse with peak-to-peak amplitude of 9.6 kV and risetime of 0.65 ns is produced on a resistive load of 50 Ω. A technique that allows for repetition-rate multiplication of pulse trains experimentally demonstrated that the parallel-connected bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switches are triggered in sequence. The highest repetition rate is decided by recovery time of the bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch, and the operating result of 100 kHz of the generator is discussed. PMID:27587178

  6. Exposures in the alumina and primary aluminium industry: an historical review.

    PubMed

    Benke, G; Abramson, M; Sim, M

    1998-04-01

    We reviewed specific chemical exposures and exposure assessment methods relating to published and unpublished epidemiological studies in the alumina and primary aluminium industry. Our focus was to review limitations in the current literature and make recommendations for future research. Although some of the exposures in the smelting of aluminium have been well characterised, particularly in potrooms, little has been published regarding the exposures in bauxite mining and alumina refining. Past epidemiological studies in the industry have concentrated on the smelting of aluminium, with many limitations in the methodology used in their exposure assessment. We found that in aluminium smelting, exposures to fluorides, coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have tended to decrease in recent years, but insufficient information exists for the other known exposures. Although excess cancers have been found among workers in the smelting of aluminium, the exposure assessment methods in future studies need to be improved to better characterise possible causative agents. The small number of cohort studies has been a factor in the failure to identify clear exposure-response relationships for respiratory diseases. A dose-response relationship has been recently described for fluoride exposure and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, but whether fluorides are the causative agent, co-agent or simply markers for the causative agent(s) for potroom asthma, remains to be determined. Published epidemiological studies and quantitative exposure data for bauxite mining and alumina refining are virtually non-existent. Determination of possible exposure-response relationships for this part of the industry through improved exposure assessment methods should be the focus of future studies. PMID:9684558

  7. Alteration of aluminium inhibition of synaptosomal (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase by colestipol administration.

    PubMed

    Silva, V S; Oliveira, L; Gonçalves, P P

    2013-11-01

    The ability of aluminium to inhibit the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity has been observed by several authors. During chronic dietary exposure to AlCl3, brain (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity drops, even if no alterations of catalytic subunit protein expression and of energy charge potential are observed. The aluminium effect on (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity seems to implicate the reduction of interacting protomers within the oligomeric ensemble of the membrane-bound (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase. The activity of (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase is altered by the microviscosity of lipid environment. We studied if aluminium inhibitory effect on (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase is modified by alterations in synaptosomal membrane cholesterol content. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to chronic dietary AlCl3 exposure (0.03 g/day of AlCl3) and/or to colestipol, a hypolidaemic drug (0.31 g/day) during 4 months. The activity of (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase was studied in brain cortex synaptosomes with different cholesterol contents. Additionally, we incubate synaptosomes with methyl-β-cyclodextrin for both enrichment and depletion of membrane cholesterol content, with or without 300 μM AlCl3. This enzyme activity was significantly reduced by micromolar AlCl3 added in vitro and when aluminium was orally administered to rats. The oral administration of colestipol reduced the cholesterol content and concomitantly inhibited the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase. The aluminium inhibitory effect on synaptosomal (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase was reduced by cholesterol depletion both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23829947

  8. Comparative studies of thin film growth on aluminium by AFM, TEM and GDOES characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jiantao; Thompson, George E.

    2016-07-01

    In this present study, comparative studies of trivalent chromium conversion coating formation, associated with aluminium dissolution process, have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). High-resolution electron micrographs revealed the evident and uniform coating initiation on the whole surface after conversion treatment for only 30 s, although a network of metal ridges was created by HF etching pre-treatment. In terms of conversion treatment process on electropolished aluminium, constant kinetics of coating growth, ∼0.30 ± 0.2 nm/s, were found after the prolonged conversion treatment for 600 s. The availability of electrolyte anions for coating deposition determined the growth process. Simultaneously, a proceeding process of aluminium dissolution during conversion treatment, of ∼0.11 ± 0.02 nm/s, was found for the first time, indicating constant kinetics of anodic reactions. The distinct process of aluminium consumption was assigned with loss of corrosion protection of the deposited coating material as evidenced in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Based on the present data, a new mechanism of coating growth on aluminium was proposed, and it consisted of an activation period (0-30 s), a linear growth period (0.30 nm/s, up for 600 s) and limited growth period (0.17 nm/s, 600-1200 s). In addition, the air-drying post-treatment and a high-vacuum environment in the microscope revealed a coating shrinkage, especially in the coatings after conversion treatments for longer time.

  9. Life and death in aluminium-exposed cultures of rat lactotrophs studied by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Calejo, Ana I; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Silva, Virgília S; Jorgacevski, Jernej; Stenovec, Matjaz; Kreft, Marko; Santos, Conceição; Zorec, Robert; Gonçalves, Paula P

    2010-08-01

    Prolonged exposure to aluminium may impact health. Aluminium's deleterious effects are mostly attributed to its selective accumulation in particular organs and cell types. Occupational exposure to aluminium is allied with a reduced level of serum prolactin, a stress peptide hormone mainly synthesised and secreted by the anterior pituitary lactotrophs. Our aim was to study the effect of aluminium on the viability of rat lactotrophs in primary suspension cultures where multicellular aggregates tend to form, comprising approximately two thirds of the total cell population as confirmed by confocal microscopy. Flow cytometric light scattering of calcein acetoxymethyl ester and ethidium homodimer-1 labelled cells was used to define subpopulations of live and dead cells in heterogeneous suspensions comprised of single cells and multicellular aggregates of distinct size. Concentration-dependent effects of AlCl(3) were observed on aggregate size and cell survival. After 24-h exposure to 3 mM AlCl(3), viability of single cells declined from 5% to 3%, while in multicellular aggregates, viability declined from 23% to 20%. The proportion of single cells increased from 30% to 42% within the same concentration range, while in large aggregates, the proportion remained approximately constant representing 35% of the cell suspension. In large aggregates, cell viability (75%) remained unaltered after exposure to AlCl(3) concentrations up to 300 microM, while in single cells, viability was halved at 30 microM. In conclusion, our finding indicates that prolonged exposure to aluminium may lead to significant loss of pituitary cells. PMID:20052527

  10. The partial space qualification of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube coating on aluminium substrates for EO applications.

    PubMed

    Theocharous, Evangelos; Chunnilall, Christopher J; Mole, Ryan; Gibbs, David; Fox, Nigel; Shang, Naigui; Howlett, Guy; Jensen, Ben; Taylor, Rosie; Reveles, Juan R; Harris, Oliver B; Ahmed, Naseer

    2014-03-24

    The fabrication of NanoTube Black, a Vertically Aligned carbon NanoTube Array (VANTA) on aluminium substrates is reported for the first time. The coating on aluminium was realised using a process that employs top down thermal radiation to assist growth, enabling deposition at temperatures below the substrate's melting point. The NanoTube Black coatings were shown to exhibit directional hemispherical reflectance values of typically less than 1% across wavelengths in the 2.5 µm to 15 µm range. VANTA-coated aluminium substrates were subjected to space qualification testing (mass loss, outgassing, shock, vibration and temperature cycling) before their optical properties were re-assessed. Within measurement uncertainty, no changes to hemispherical reflectance were detected, confirming that NanoTube Black coatings on aluminium are good candidates for Earth Observation (EO) applications. PMID:24664077

  11. Reversal of an aluminium induced alteration in redox status in different regions of rat brain by administration of centrophenoxine.

    PubMed

    Nehru, Bimla; Bhalla, Punita

    2006-10-01

    Aluminium is one of the most studied neurotoxin, and its effects on nervous system are both structural and functional, involving various regions of brain. Aluminium toxicity is known to have multiple mechanisms of action in the central nervous system. Affinity of aluminium for thiol substrates is considered a possible molecular mechanism involved in aluminium neurotoxicity. The reduced glutathione (GSH) is especially important for cellular defence against aluminium toxicity. This study pertains to the modulatory action of centrophenoxine on GSH status in aluminium exposed different brain regions of the female rats. Aluminium was administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/Kg x b x wt x /day for a period of eight weeks whereas, centrophenoxine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/Kg x b x wt x /day for a period of six weeks. The study was carried out in different regions of brain namely cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and hypothalamus. Animals exposed to aluminum, registered a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione as well as in the activity of glutathione reductase in all the different regions studied when compared to normal control animals. Post-treatment with centrophenoxine, showed a significant improvement in the thiol levels in different regions. Centrophenoxine when administered alone also had a profound effect on the levels of reduced glutathione as well as on the activity of glutathione reductase. From the present results, it can be stated that centrophenoxine administration, as a thiol-antioxidant, arrests the aluminium induced cellular damage by improving the thiol status in brain regions. PMID:16969688

  12. Aluminium-induced imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant determinants in brain regions of female rats: protection by centrophenoxine.

    PubMed

    Nehru, Bimla; Bhalla, Punita

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of centrophenoxine in modulating aluminium-induced neurotoxicity. Female Sprague Dawley rats were administered aluminium chloride orally (40 mg/kg b.w./day) for a period of 8 weeks. At the end of respective treatment, various markers of oxidative stress were determined in four different regions of brain: cerebrum cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and hypothalamus. Lipid peroxidation assay was also carried out using standard techniques. Simultaneously, the centrophenoxine group (100 mg/kg b.w./day) for 6 weeks was also run long to understand the role in ameliorating oxidative damage. A significant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase was noticed in all the four regions, the most significant being in the hypothalamus (0.603 +/- .06) and cerebrum (0.038 +/- .01). Due to aluminium toxicity, peroxidation of lipids was also found to be elevated in cerebrum (0.424 +/- .03), cerebellum (0.341 +/- .03), hypothalamus (1.018 +/- .007), and medulla oblongata (0.304 +/- .05). However, posttreatment with centrophenoxine significantly elevated the superoxide and catalase activities in different regions. In addition, lipid peroxidation status of membranes was significantly reduced after centrophenoxine posttreatment to aluminium-exposed animals. Centrophenoxine has proved to be beneficial in combating the damage caused by aluminium toxicity. However, further research is needed to have a better understanding of the molecular basis of aluminium-induced oxidative damage. In addition, the different aspects of centrophenoxine need to be unmasked. PMID:20021037

  13. Synergic phototoxic effect of visible light or Gallium-Arsenide laser in the presence of different photo-sensitizers on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Habibollah; Mousavi, Seyed Amir; Forouzanfar, Ali; Zakeri, Mahdi; Shafaee, Hooman; Shahnaseri, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to the development of resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria following treatment with antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, alternative approaches such as lethal photosensitization are being used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of visible light and laser beam radiation in conjugation with three different photosensitizers on the survival of two main periodontopathogenic bacteria including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in different exposure periods. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro prospective study, strains of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. were exposed to visible light at wavelengths of 440 nm and diode laser light, Gallium-Arsenide, at wavelength of 830 nm in the presence of a photosensitizer (erythrosine, curcuma, or hydrogen peroxide). They were exposed 1-5 min to each light. Each experiment was repeated 3 times for each strain of bacteria. Data were analyzed by two-ways ANOVA and least significant difference post-hoc tests. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. After 4 days the colonies were counted. Results: Viability of P. gingivalis was reduced 10% and 20% subsequent to exposure to visible light and diode laser, respectively. The values were 65% and 75% for F. nucleatum in a period of 5-min, respectively. Exposure to visible light or laser beam in conjugation with the photosensitizers suspension caused significant reduction in the number of P. gingivalis in duration of 5-min, suggesting a synergic phototoxic effect. However, the survival rate of F. nucleatum following the exposure to laser with hydrogen peroxide, erythrosine and rhizome of Curcuma longa (curcumin) after 5-min was 10%, 20% and 90% respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the synergic phototoxic effect of visible light in combination with each of the photosensitizers on P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. However, the synergic phototoxic effect of laser exposure and hydrogen peroxide and curcumin as

  14. Influence of Sulphur Impurities on the Interfacial Tension between Aluminium and Cryolite Alumina Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenko, Michal

    2007-06-01

    The interfacial tension (IFT) between aluminium and cryolite melts containing different salt additions (AlF3, NaF,Na2SO4) has been measured during electrolysis by the capillary depression method. The technique is based on the measurement of the capillary depression occurring when a capillary, which is moved vertically down through the molten salt layer, passes through the metal/salt interface. The depression is measured by simultaneous video recording of the immersion height of the alumina capillary. The interfacial tension is strongly dependent on the n(NaF)/n(AlF3) ratio. The addition of Na2SO4 decreases the IFT of the aluminium/electrolyte interface. We also found the different influence of the conditions of electrolysis on the IFT in systems with and without Na2SO4. In systems without Na2SO4 the IFT decreases with increasing current density, and in systems with Na2SO4 it increases.

  15. Growth of L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride single crystal for OLED and super-capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaivani, D.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2015-12-01

    L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride (LVAC), a novel semi-organic material, was grown using slow evaporation under isothermal condition. The single crystal data reveal that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The SEM micrographs give clear picture about the surface morphology. Further, they confirm the inclusion of aluminium chloride into atomic sites of L-Valine. The compositional elements present in the crystal were identified through EDAX analysis. The mass spectral analysis was carried out to determine the molecular weight of the grown crystal. The optical transparency of the grown crystal was investigated by UV-vis-NIR spectrum. FTIR spectral study was used to identify the functional groups present in the grown material. The luminescence characteristics of grown material were analysed to confirm the effect of metal ion on the ligand. This property makes the material suitable for OLED application. The supercapacitive performance of the grown crystal was finally studied using cyclic voltammetry.

  16. In situ study of the initiation of hydrogen bubbles at the aluminium metal/oxide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, De-Gang; Wang, Zhang-Jie; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The presence of excess hydrogen at the interface between a metal substrate and a protective oxide can cause blistering and spallation of the scale. However, it remains unclear how nanoscale bubbles manage to reach the critical size in the first place. Here, we perform in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy experiments of the aluminium metal/oxide interface under hydrogen exposure. It is found that once the interface is weakened by hydrogen segregation, surface diffusion of Al atoms initiates the formation of faceted cavities on the metal side, driven by Wulff reconstruction. The morphology and growth rate of these cavities are highly sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the aluminium substrate. Once the cavities grow to a critical size, the internal gas pressure can become great enough to blister the oxide layer. Our findings have implications for understanding hydrogen damage of interfaces.

  17. Comparison of cavitation intensity in water and in molten aluminium using a high-temperature cavitometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanakis, I.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Eskin, D. G.; Pericleous, K.

    2015-12-01

    The application of ultrasound to industrial casting processes has attracted research interest during the last 50 years. However, the transfer and scale-up of this advanced and promising technology to the industry have been hindered by difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal due to the lack of understanding of certain fundamentals. In the current study, experimental results on ultrasonic processing in deionised water and in liquid aluminium (Al) are reported. Cavitation activity was determined in both liquid environments using an advanced high-temperature cavitometer sensor. In water, the highest cavitation activity is obtained for the lowest sonotrode tip amplitudes. Below the sonotrode, the cavitation intensity in liquid aluminium is found to be four times higher than in water.

  18. Fabrication of Nano-Composite Surface Layers on Aluminium Employing Friction Stir Processing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozorg, S. F. K.; Zarghani, A. S.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.

    2010-03-01

    Al/Al2O3 nano-composite surface layer was fabricated via friction stir processing technique. Commercial AA6082 aluminium alloy extruded bar and nanometric Al2O3 powder were subjected to friction stir processing at a substrate travel speed of 80 mm/min and a tool rotation speed of 1000 rpm using a hardened H-13 tool steel. The grain structure and reinforcement particles were investigated by using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that Al2O3 particles can be more uniformly dispread in aluminium substrate by increasing the number of processing passes. Also, hardness enhancement of the nano-composite surface layer was found. This is attributed to uniform dispersion of Al2O3 particles.

  19. Unequivocal identification of intracellular aluminium adjuvant in a monocytic THP-1 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Mold, Matthew; Eriksson, Håkan; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium-based adjuvants (ABA) are the predominant adjuvants used in human vaccinations. While a consensus is yet to be reached on the aetiology of the biological activities of ABA several studies have identified shape, crystallinity and size as critical factors affecting their adjuvanticity. In spite of recent advances, the fate of ABA following their administration remains unclear. Few if any studies have demonstrated the unequivocal presence of intracellular ABA. Herein we demonstrate for the first time the unequivocal identification of ABA within a monocytic T helper 1 (THP-1) cell line, using lumogallion as a fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium. Use of these new methods revealed that particulate ABA was only found in the cell cytoplasm. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ABA were contained within vesicle-like structures of approximately 0.5–1 μm in diameter. PMID:25190321

  20. Fabrication of Nano-Composite Surface Layers on Aluminium Employing Friction Stir Processing Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorg, S. F. K.; Zarghani, A. S.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.

    2010-03-11

    Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-composite surface layer was fabricated via friction stir processing technique. Commercial AA6082 aluminium alloy extruded bar and nanometric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder were subjected to friction stir processing at a substrate travel speed of 80 mm/min and a tool rotation speed of 1000 rpm using a hardened H-13 tool steel. The grain structure and reinforcement particles were investigated by using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles can be more uniformly dispread in aluminium substrate by increasing the number of processing passes. Also, hardness enhancement of the nano-composite surface layer was found. This is attributed to uniform dispersion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles.

  1. Composite Ni-Co-fly ash coatings on 5083 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, C. N.; Georgiou, E. P.; Tsopani, A.; Piperi, L.

    2011-03-01

    Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were deposited on zincate treated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of the electrodeposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced composite coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were found to consist of a crystalline Ni-Co solid solution with dispersed fly ash particles. In addition, chemical analysis of the Ni-Co matrix showed that it consisted of 80 wt.% Ni and 20 wt.% Co. The co-deposition of fly ash particles leads to a significant increase of the microhardness of the coating. The corrosion behaviour of the Ni-Co-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy, in a 0.3 M NaCl solution (pH = 3.5), was studied by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments.

  2. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souček, P.; Cassayre, L.; Eloirdi, R.; Malmbeck, R.; Meier, R.; Nourry, C.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys, which originate from pyrochemical recovery of actinides from spent metallic nuclear fuel by electrochemical methods in molten LiCl-KCl. In the present work, the most important steps of this route were experimentally tested using U-Pu-Al alloy prepared by electrodeposition of U and Pu on solid aluminium plate electrodes. The investigated processes were vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the alloy by chlorine gas and sublimation of the AlCl3 formed. The processes parameters were set on the base of a previous thermochemical study and an experimental work using pure UAl3 alloy. The present experimental results indicated high efficiency of salt distillation and chlorination steps, while the sublimation step should be further optimised.

  3. Investigation of femtosecond collisional ionization rates in a solid-density aluminium plasma.

    PubMed

    Vinko, S M; Ciricosta, O; Preston, T R; Rackstraw, D S; Brown, C R D; Burian, T; Chalupský, J; Cho, B I; Chung, H-K; Engelhorn, K; Falcone, R W; Fiokovinini, R; Hájková, V; Heimann, P A; Juha, L; Lee, H J; Lee, R W; Messerschmidt, M; Nagler, B; Schlotter, W; Turner, J J; Vysin, L; Zastrau, U; Wark, J S

    2015-01-01

    The rate at which atoms and ions within a plasma are further ionized by collisions with the free electrons is a fundamental parameter that dictates the dynamics of plasma systems at intermediate and high densities. While collision rates are well known experimentally in a few dilute systems, similar measurements for nonideal plasmas at densities approaching or exceeding those of solids remain elusive. Here we describe a spectroscopic method to study collision rates in solid-density aluminium plasmas created and diagnosed using the Linac Coherent light Source free-electron X-ray laser, tuned to specific interaction pathways around the absorption edges of ionic charge states. We estimate the rate of collisional ionization in solid-density aluminium plasmas at temperatures ~30 eV to be several times higher than that predicted by standard semiempirical models. PMID:25731816

  4. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Wei Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Hai Feng Zhou, Zhi Ping

    2015-04-15

    We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H{sub 2}O, and then in boiling water) and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°.

  5. One-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge epitaxy on Si by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ziheng Hao, Xiaojing; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Green, Martin A.

    2014-02-03

    In this work, one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge on Si is achieved via magnetron sputtering by applying an in-situ low temperature (50 °C to 150 °C) heat treatment in between Al and Ge depositions. The effect of heat treatment on film properties and the growth mechanism of Ge epitaxy on Si are studied via X-ray diffraction, Raman and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Compared with the conventional two-step process, the one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization requires much lower thermal budget and results in pure Ge epitaxial layer, which may be suitable for use as a virtual substrate for the fabrication of III-V solar cells.

  6. Dynamic Crushing Response of Closed-cell Aluminium Foam at Variable Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. A.; Kader, M. A.; Escobedo, J. P.; Hazell, P. J.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Quadir, M. Z.

    2015-06-01

    The impact response of aluminium foams is essential for assessing their crashworthiness and energy absorption capacity for potential applications. The dynamic compactions of closed-cell aluminium foams (CYMAT) have been tested at variable strain rates. Microstructural characterization has also been carried out. The low strain rate impact test has been carried out using drop weight experiments while the high strain compaction test has been carried out via plate impact experiments. The post impacted samples have been examined using optical and electron microscopy to observe the microstructural changes during dynamic loading. This combination of dynamic deformation during impact and post impact microstructural analysis helped to evaluate the pore collapse mechanism and impact energy absorption characteristics.

  7. Microstructure and texture of asymmetrically rolled aluminium and titanium after deformation and recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronski, M.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Wronski, S.; Bacroix, B.

    2015-08-01

    Asymmetric rolling is used to modify material properties and to reduce forces and torques applied during deformation. This geometry of deformation is relatively easy to implement on existing industrial rolling mills and it can provide large volumes of a material. The results of the study of microstructure and crystallographic texture in asymmetrically rolled aluminium 6061 and titanium (grade 2) are presented in this work. These characteristics were determined using the EBSD technique and X-ray diffraction. The rolling asymmetry was realized using two identical rolls, driven by independent motors, rotating with different angular velocities. It was found that asymmetric rolling leads to microstructural refinement and texture rotation (around the transverse direction). The impact of asymmetric rolling on microstructural refinement appears also in recrystallized samples of both materials. On the other hand, texture rotation, caused by asymmetric rolling, persists after annealing in titanium but not in aluminium samples.

  8. Phosphate sensor based on immobilized aluminium-morin in poly (glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Amalina; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Suhud, Khairi; Zaini, Norhadisah Mohd; Heng, Lee Yook

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports the development of dihydrogen phosphate ion (H2PO4-) sensor in free solution and immobilized aluminium-morin (Al-Mo) complex on poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (pGMA) microspheres. The immobilization was carried out by suspension photopolymerization technique. Based on Al-Mo solution work, phosphate can be detected from 0.1 - 15.0 ppm of dihydrogen phosphate at pH 5. Phosphate detection only takes about 5 minutes. Morphology analyses showed that the immobilization of Aluminium-Morin complex maintained the size of the microspheres and proved that entrapment involves in the formation of the microspheres. This result is further explained by Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) spectrum which does not show any formation of new bands. The microspheres were then used for further applications.

  9. Aluminium and hydrogen ions inhibit a mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, J. P.; Pickard, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    The tension-dependent activity of mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channels in excised plasmalemmal patches from onion bulb scale epidermis is modulated by pH in the physiologically meaningful range between 4.5 and 7.2. It is rapidly lowered by lowering pH and rapidly raised by raising pH. Channel activity is effectively inhibited by low levels of aluminium ions and activity can be partially restored by washing for a few minutes. We suggest that under normal conditions the sensitivity of the mechanosensory channels to pH of the wall free space plays important roles in regulation of plant activities such as growth. We further suggest that, when levels of acid and aluminium ions in the soil solution are high, they might inhibit similar sensory channels in cells of the root tip, thus contributing critically to the acid soil syndrome.

  10. Microstructure heterogeneity after the ECAP process and its influence on recrystallization in aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Wronski, S.; Tarasiuk, J.; Bacroix, B.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Paul, H.

    2013-04-15

    The main purpose of the present work is to describe the qualitative and quantitative behaviours of aluminium during high strain plastic deformation and the effect of deformation on the subsequent recrystallization process. An Electron Backscatter Diffraction analysis of aluminium after the Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and recrystallization process is presented. In order to do this, several topological maps are measured for samples processed by 4 and 8 passes and recrystallized. The processing was conducted with route C. For all samples, distributions of grain size, misorientation, image quality factor (IQ) and texture were preceded and then analysed in some detail. - Highlights: ► Describe the microstructure fragmentation in aluminum. ► High strain plastic deformation and effect of deformation on recrystallization. ► The microstructure fragmentation and its influence on recrystallization. ► Image quality factor and misorientation characteristics are examined using EBSD.

  11. Wettability behaviour of RTV silicone rubber coated on nanostructured aluminium surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Gelareh; Farzaneh, Masoud; Jafari, Reza

    2011-05-01

    A nanostructutered superhydrophobic surface was elaborated by applying an RTV silicone rubber coating on electrochemically processed aluminium substrates. Study of anodisation voltage on surface morphology showed that higher anodising voltage led to larger pore sizes. Scanning electron microscopy image analysis showed bird's nest and beehive structures formed on anodised surfaces at 50 V and 80 V. Water static contact angle on the treated surfaces reached up to 160° at room temperature. Study of superhydrophobic surfaces at super cooled temperature showed important delayed freezing time for RTV hydrophobic surfaces when compared to non-treated aluminium. However, lower wettability was observed when surface temperature went down from 20 °C to -10 °C. Also, it was found that the capacitance of superhydrophobic surfaces decreased with increasing anodising voltage.

  12. Fabrication of porous aluminium with directional pores through thermal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Y Kim, S.; Park, J. S.

    2009-05-01

    Lotus-type porous metals were fabricated by unidirectional solidification in pressurized gas atmosphere. The elongated pres are evolved by insoluble gas resulted from the solubility gap between liquid and solid when the melt is solidified. Recently we developed a novel fabrication technique, in which gas compounds are used as a source of dissolving gas instead of the high pressure. In the present work this gas compound method was applied to fabrication of lotus aluminium. Hydrogen decomposed from calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate and titanium hydride evolves cylindrical pores in aluminium. The porosity is about 20%. The pore size decreases and the pore number density increases with increasing amount of calcium hydroxide, which is explained by increase in pore nucleation sites.

  13. Synthesis of ettringite: a way to deal with the acid wastewaters of aluminium anodising industry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Nugteren, H W

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of ettringite from acid wastewaters of the aluminium anodising industry has been studied as a possible route of reducing the emissions to the environment, recovering at the same time resource materials as a useful marketable mineral. Wastewaters of different concentrations have been subjected to the process of synthesis suspending calcium oxide and calcium aluminate powders at different time and pH conditions. High caustic alkalinity (pH approximately 12) and low sulphate concentrations (<0.1 M) are the most suitable conditions to synthesise ettringite. The mineral characterisation has been performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), proving the high purity of the pursued solid product when hydrated in the appropriate sodium hydroxide concentrations. In such conditions, around 90% of the aluminium initially present in the wastewater solutions is recovered in the form of ettringite. PMID:15607165

  14. Modification of anodised aluminium surfaces using a picosecond fibre laser for printing applications.

    PubMed

    Ansari, I A; Watkins, K G; Sharp, M C; Hutchinson, R A; Potts, R M; Clowes, J

    2012-06-01

    The use of an ultrafast fibre laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm has allowed the surface modification of anodised aluminium plates coated with a 2 micron thick anodised layer for potential industrial applications. The micro- and nano-scale structuring of the anodised aluminium using picosecond pulses of approximately 25 ps duration at 200 kHz repetition rate was investigated. The interaction of the laser with the substrate created a hydrophilic surface, giving a contact angle of less than 10 degrees. On examination under a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), a morphology created due to laser induced spallation was observed. It has been found that these laser processed hydrophilic surfaces revert to a hydrophobic state with time. This has potential for application in the printing industry and offers reusability and sustainability of the process materials. This has been confirmed in initial trials. PMID:22905556

  15. Retention of fluoride from diets containing materials produced during aluminium smelting.

    PubMed

    Wright, D A; Thompson, A

    1978-07-01

    1. Using male rats, the availability of fluoride from five by products of the aluminium smelting industry was tested. This was done by considering the balance between fluoride administered in controlled diets and the total fluoride content of waste products eliminated over an experimental period of 1 week. 2. Results indicated that yields of available fluoride expressed as percentage weight of original material were cryolite (Na3ALF6), 45.9%; sodium fluoride (NaF), 41.7%; aluminium fluoride (AFL3.H20), 9.1%; mist eliminator grid solids (with CaF2), 9.4%; reclaimed alumina with adsorbed F, 0.27%. 3. Of the various tissues analysed for fluoride content, only the kidney and femur showed any significant correlation with the amounts of fluoride absorbed or retained. PMID:666997

  16. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part II corrosion performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    Surface treatment of aluminium alloys using steam with oxidative chemistries, namely KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys. Detailed investigation of the corrosion performance of the treated surfaces was carried out using potentiodynamic polarisation and standard industrial test methods such as acetic acid salt spray (AASS) and filiform corrosion on commercial AA6060 alloy. Barrier properties of the film including adhesion were evaluated using tape test under wet and dry conditions. Electrochemical results showed reduced cathodic and anodic activity, while the protection provided by steam treatment with HNO3 was a function of the concentration of NO3- ions. The coating generated by inclusion of KMnO4 showed highest resistance to filiform corrosion. Overall, the performance of the steam treated surfaces under filiform corrosion and AASS test was a result of the local coverage of the alloy microstructure resulting from steam containing with KMnO4 and HNO3.

  17. Comparison of nickel silicide and aluminium ohmic contact metallizations for low-temperature quantum transport measurements

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We examine nickel silicide as a viable ohmic contact metallization for low-temperature, low-magnetic-field transport measurements of atomic-scale devices in silicon. In particular, we compare a nickel silicide metallization with aluminium, a common ohmic contact for silicon devices. Nickel silicide can be formed at the low temperatures (<400°C) required for maintaining atomic precision placement in donor-based devices, and it avoids the complications found with aluminium contacts which become superconducting at cryogenic measurement temperatures. Importantly, we show that the use of nickel silicide as an ohmic contact at low temperatures does not affect the thermal equilibration of carriers nor contribute to hysteresis in a magnetic field. PMID:21968083

  18. In situ study of the initiation of hydrogen bubbles at the aluminium metal/oxide interface.

    PubMed

    Xie, De-Gang; Wang, Zhang-Jie; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The presence of excess hydrogen at the interface between a metal substrate and a protective oxide can cause blistering and spallation of the scale. However, it remains unclear how nanoscale bubbles manage to reach the critical size in the first place. Here, we perform in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy experiments of the aluminium metal/oxide interface under hydrogen exposure. It is found that once the interface is weakened by hydrogen segregation, surface diffusion of Al atoms initiates the formation of faceted cavities on the metal side, driven by Wulff reconstruction. The morphology and growth rate of these cavities are highly sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the aluminium substrate. Once the cavities grow to a critical size, the internal gas pressure can become great enough to blister the oxide layer. Our findings have implications for understanding hydrogen damage of interfaces. PMID:26121306

  19. Laser Surface Pre-treatment of Aluminium for Hybrid Joints with Glass Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckert, André; Zaeh, Michael F.

    Lightweight construction is a major trend in the automotive industry. Theconnection of fibre reinforced plastics with aluminium is consequently seen as promising prospect. In this regard, thermal joining can be applied for bonding of such hybrid joints. But in order to create a load bearing metal plastic joint, the surface of the metal has to be pre-treated. Recent research has shown that with laser surface pre-treatment high joint strengths are obtained. Yet there are a variety of laser sources and manufacturable surface topographies with structure sizes ranging from macroscopic to nanoscopic profiles. Within this work,macroscopic, microscopic and nanoscopic laser processed structures are created on aluminium and consequently joined to glass fibre reinforced thermoplastics of different fibre length and fibre content. High shear tensile strengths of up to 42 N/mm2 were obtained depending on the allocated material and the surface pre-treatment.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Warpage in Laminated Aluminium Alloy Plates for Machining of Primary Aeronautic Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, A. C.; Moreira Filho, L. A.; Menezes, M. A.

    2007-04-07

    The aim of this paper consists in presenting a method of simulating the warpage in 7xxx series aluminium alloy plates. To perform this simulation finite element software MSC.Patran and MSC.Marc were used. Another result of this analysis will be the influence on material residual stresses induced on the raw material during the rolling process upon the warpage of primary aeronautic parts, fabricated through machining (milling) at Embraer. The method used to determinate the aluminium plate residual stress was Layer Removal Test. The numerical algorithm Modified Flavenot Method was used to convert layer removal and beam deflection in stress level. With such information about the level and profile of residual stresses become possible, during the step that anticipate the manufacturing to incorporate these values in the finite-element approach for modelling warpage parts. Based on that warpage parameter surely the products are manufactured with low relative vulnerability propitiating competitiveness and price.

  1. The Relationship of Aluminium and Silver to Neural Tube Defects; a Case Control

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Altamirano, María de Jesús; Fenton-Navarro, Patricia; Sivet-Chiñas, Elvira; Harp-Iturribarria, Flor de María; Martínez-Cruz, Ruth; Cruz, Pedro Hernández; Cruz, Margarito Martínez; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship of neurotoxic inorganic elements in the hair of patients with the diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects. Our initial hypothesis was that neurotoxic inorganic elements were associated with Neural Tube Defects. Methods Twenty-three samples of hair from newborns were obtained from the General Hospital, “Aurelio Valdivieso” in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico. The study group included 8 newborn infants with neural tube pathology. The control group was composed of 15 newborns without this pathology. The presence of inorganic elements in the hair samples was determined by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (spectroscopic emission of the plasma). Findings The population of newborns with Neural Tube Defects showed significantly higher values of the following elements than the control group: Aluminium, Neural Tube Defects 152.77±51.06 µg/g, control group 76.24±27.89 µg/g; Silver, Neural Tube Defects 1.45±0.76, control group 0.25±0.53 µg/g; Potassium, Neural Tube Defects 553.87±77.91 µg/g, control group 341.13±205.90 µg/g. Association was found at 75 percentile between aluminium plus silver, aluminium plus potassium, silver plus potassium, and potassium plus sodium. Conclusion In the hair of newborns with Neural Tube Defects, the following metals were increased: aluminium, silver. Given the neurotoxicity of the same, and association of Neural Tube Defects with aluminum and silver, one may infer that they may be participating as factors in the development of Neural Tube Defects. PMID:23400307

  2. The inhibitive effect of some quaternary ammonium salts towards corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A.-M. K.; Al-Nadjm, A.; Fouda, A.-A. S.

    1998-10-01

    The inhibitive action of some quaternary ammonium salts towards the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid was tested by thermometric, mass loss and polarization measurements. Parallelism between the different methods was established. It is suggested that the tested compounds act as cathodic inhibitors. The inhibitors appear to function through adsorption, following the Temkin adsorption isotherm. The values of free energy of adsorption have been calculated and discussed. The inhibitor character of the additives depends upon the concentration as well as the composition of the inhibitor. Within the given homolegous series the contribution of the functional group to adsorption increases with the length of the chain. The aim of this article is to throw some light on the mechanism of inhibition of these bulky molecules on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid. L'action inhibitrice de certains sels d'ammonium quaternaires vis-à-vis de la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique en solution a été testée par des mesures thermiques de perte de matière et de polarisation. Il est suggéré que les composés testés agissent comme des inhibiteurs cathodiques, fonctionnant par adsorption suivant l'isotherme de Temkin. Les énergies libres d'adsorption ont été calculées et discutées. Le caractère inhibiteur des additifs dépend aussi bien de leur concentration que de leur composition. Pour une série d'inhibiteurs homologues, la contribution à l'adsorption du groupe fonctionnel augmente avec la longueur de la chaîne. Le but de cet article est de mieux comprendre le mécanisme d'inhibition de ces grosses molécules sur la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique.

  3. Application of thermoelectric potential measurements in chemical analysis-II Determination of aluminium in iron alloys.

    PubMed

    Krajina, A; Dolezal, J

    1967-12-01

    A method is proposed for the rapid determination of aluminium in iron alloys by means of thermoelectric potential measurement. An instrument has been modified, and a method devised for thermoelectro-analytical measurements. The thermoelectric potential of iron-germanium and iron-zinc alloys has been measured, and an attempt made at a theoretical explanation of the influence of alloying elements on the thermoelectric properties of transition metals. PMID:18960250

  4. Phase analysis of aluminium modified GeSbTe bulk prepared from XRD of samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Sharanjit; Singh, D.; Kumar, S.; Thangaraj, R.

    2016-05-01

    Various compositions of Aluminium modified GST as Alx(Ge2Sb2Te5)1-x x= 0, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 are prepared to study as a phase change material. Bulk prepared is studied with XRD scans for various phases formed. Phases other than Ge2Sb2Te5 do come in but dominated one is Ge2Sb2Te5 hexagonal phase.

  5. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in <0.05-mm aggregates. Organic carbon stability in micro-aggregates was higher than that in macro-aggregates and became more stable. Organic carbon contents in total residues, and within different aggregate sizes, were all negatively correlated with PAD. It indicated that organic materials had a more significant effect on macro-aggregate stability and the effects of iron-aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates. PMID:26832865

  6. Development of aluminium-clad steel sheet by roll-bonding for the automotive industry

    SciTech Connect

    Buchner, M.; Buchmayr, B.; Bichler, Ch.; Riemelmoser, F.

    2007-04-07

    The objective of the present work is a basic study of production, modelling and validation of sheet composites of AA6xxx-automotive alloy and IF-steel. In this context the influence of surface preparation, pre-heating temperature of aluminium and steel plate, and thickness reduction on the bond strength of the composites as well as on the formation of intermetallic interface layers is analysed by shear tests and metallographic evaluations of the interface.

  7. Examination of aluminium and zinc plasmas from an inductive furnace by spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burm, K. T. A. L.; Burm

    2013-02-01

    The production of aluminium and zinc plasmas for the deposition of coatings upon steel strip is monitored by optical emission spectroscopy measurements. The plasma is created from an inductive source. The atom and the ion densities as well as the electron temperature are obtained such that the plasma can be characterized. It will be shown that the obtained plasmas are typically highly ionized and deviate from thermal equilibrium.

  8. New developments on optimizing properties of high-Zn aluminium cast alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, W. K.; Buras, J.; Krajewski, P. K.; Greer, A. L.; Schumacher, P.; Haberl, K.

    2016-07-01

    Foundry alloys with Al-based matrices have a wide range of uses in today's global economy and there is a high demand for castings of Al alloys, including Al-Zn alloys. In this paper, investigations on the grain refinement of high-Zn aluminium cast alloys are presented. Aluminium alloys with relatively high zinc content have a tendency to be coarse-grained, especially in the case of castings with low cooling rates such as are found in sand moulds. The coarse-grained structure degrades the plasticity, specifically the elongation. Therefore, for aluminium alloys of high (10-30 wt.%) zinc content, inoculation is attractive, aiming to break up the primary dendrites of the a-phase solid solution of zinc in aluminium. Such dendrites are the principal microstructural component in these alloys. On the other hand, a finer grain structure usually reduces the damping (e.g. as measured by attenuation of ultrasound) in these alloys. In the present investigations, a binary sand-cast Al-20 wt.% Zn alloy was inoculated with different additions of AlTi3C0.15 (TiCAl) and ZnTi-based master alloys. The sand-cast samples were subjected to mechanical-property measurements (tensile strength and elongation), image analysis to determine grain size, and measurements of the attenuation of 1 MHz ultrasound. It is found that both of the master alloys used cause significant refinement of the a-AlZn primary dendrites and change their morphology from linear-branched to semi-globular, increase the elongation by about 40%, and decrease the attenuation coefficient by about 25% in comparison with the initial alloy without inoculation.

  9. Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of a new aluminium complex [5-choloro-8-hydroxyquinoline] bis [2,2'bipyridine] Aluminium Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Bhargava, Parag; Srivastava, Ritu; Singh, Punita

    2015-11-01

    We have synthesized a new aluminium complex, [5-choloro-8-hydroxyquinoline] bis[2,2'bipyridine] Aluminium Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) and characterized it for structural, thermal and photoluminescence properties. The prepared material was characterized by Fourier -transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and photoluminescence. The prepared material showed thermal stability up to 240 °C. The photoluminescence spectrum of Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) in toluene solution showed peak at 515 nm. This material was used as an emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The fundamental structure of device is ITO/F4-TCNQ(1 nm)/α-NPD(35 nm)/Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) (35 nm)/BCP(6 nm)/Alq3(28 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(150 nm). The device emits an yellowish green light (CIE coordinates, x = 0.32, y = 0.52) with maximum luminescence 314 Cd/m2 at 18 V. The maximum current efficiency of OLED was 0.09 Cd/A and maximum power efficiency was 0.03 lm/W at 9 V respectively.

  10. Experimental measurements of the collisional absorption of XUV radiation in warm dense aluminium.

    PubMed

    Kettle, B; Dzelzainis, T; White, S; Li, L; Dromey, B; Zepf, M; Lewis, C L S; Williams, G; Künzel, S; Fajardo, M; Dacasa, H; Zeitoun, Ph; Rigby, A; Gregori, G; Spindloe, C; Heathcote, R; Riley, D

    2016-08-01

    The collisional (or free-free) absorption of soft x rays in warm dense aluminium remains an unsolved problem. Competing descriptions of the process exist, two of which we compare to our experimental data here. One of these is based on a weak scattering model, another uses a corrected classical approach. These two models show distinctly different behaviors with temperature. Here we describe experimental evidence for the absorption of 26-eV photons in solid density warm aluminium (T_{e}≈1 eV). Radiative x-ray heating from palladium-coated CH foils was used to create the warm dense aluminium samples and a laser-driven high-harmonic beam from an argon gas jet provided the probe. The results indicate little or no change in absorption upon heating. This behavior is in agreement with the prediction of the corrected classical approach, although there is not agreement in absolute absorption value. Verifying the correct absorption mechanism is decisive in providing a better understanding of the complex behavior of the warm dense state. PMID:27627403

  11. Electrodeposition of iron and iron-aluminium alloys in an ionic liquid and their magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Giridhar, P; Weidenfeller, B; El Abedin, S Zein; Endres, F

    2014-05-28

    In this work we show that nanocrystalline iron and iron-aluminium alloys can be electrodeposited from the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethylsulfonate, [Py1,4]TfO, at 100 °C. The study comprises CV, SEM, XRD, and magnetic measurements. Two different sources of iron(ii) species, Fe(TfO)2 and FeCl2, were used for the electrodeposition of iron in [Py1,4]TfO. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2, Fe(TfO)2, and (FeCl2 + AlCl3) in the employed ionic liquid. Thick iron deposits were obtained from FeCl2/[Py1,4]TfO at 100 °C. Electrodeposition of iron-aluminium alloys was successful in the same ionic liquid at 100 °C. The morphology and crystallinity of the obtained deposits were investigated using SEM and XRD, respectively. XRD measurements reveal the formation of iron-aluminium alloys. First magnetic measurements of some deposits gave relatively high coercive forces and power losses in comparison to commercial iron-silicon samples due to the small grain size in the nanometer regime. The present study shows the feasibility of preparing magnetic alloys from ionic liquids. PMID:24715034

  12. The first data from the Orion laser: measurements of the spectrum of hot dense aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarty, D. J.; Allan, P.; James, S. F.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hobbs, L. M. R.; Hill, M. P.; Harris, J. W. O.; Morton, J.; Brookes, M. G.; Shepherd, R.; Dunn, J.; Chen, H.; Von Marley, E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chung, H. K.; Lee, R. W.; Brown, G.; Emig, J.

    2016-03-01

    The newly commissioned Orion laser system has been used to study dense plasmas created by a combination of short pulse laser heating and compression by laser driven shocks. Thus the plasma density was systematically varied between 1 and 10g/cc by using aluminium samples buried in plastic foils or diamond sheets. The aluminium was heated to electron temperatures between 500eV and 700eV allowing the plasma conditions to be diagnosed by K- shell emission spectroscopy. The K-shell spectra show the effect of the ionization potential depression as a function of density via the delocalization of n=3 levels and disappearance of n=3 transitions in He-like and H-like aluminium. The data are compared to simulated spectra, which account for the change in the ionization potential by the commonly used Stewart and Pyatt prescription; a simple ion sphere model and an alternative due to Ecker and Kroll suggested by recent X-ray free-electron laser experiments. The experimental data are in reasonable agreement with the model of Stewart and Pyatt, but are in better agreement with a simple ion sphere model. The data indicate that the Ecker and Kröll model overestimates substantially the ionization potential depression in this regime.

  13. Study on optimal surface property of WC-Co cutting tool for aluminium alloy cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizar, Mohd; Arimatsu, Naoya; Kawamitsu, Hiroshi; Takai, Kazuteru; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    The light weight property as well as high corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy has increased their demand especially in automobile industries. Aluminium alloy as a matter of fact has a low melting point and high ductility that severely adhere to the cutting tool surface and cause deterioration of chip evacuation. This problem often resulting in tools breakage. In this paper, in order to impart functions of anti-adhesion, we propose a technique by controlling the grinding marks micro texture on the tool surface by using the blast polishing treatment without any coating technologies. The results show that the tool which underwent polishing treatment reduces the cutting force as well as the aluminium adherence during the initial cutting process, and become worst as the process cutting continues. These results indicate that grinding mark texture improves the anti-adhesion by reducing the contact area during cutting and provide storage for the lubricant. In addition, too much polishing on the tool surface may remove these textures and resultantly worsen the tool performance.

  14. Modelling of stress fields during LFEM DC casting of aluminium billets by a meshless method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrič, B.; Šarler, B.

    2015-06-01

    Direct Chill (DC) casting of aluminium alloys is a widely established technology for efficient production of aluminium billets and slabs. The procedure is being further improved by the application of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (LFEM) in the area of the mold. Novel LFEM DC processing technique affects many different phenomena which occur during solidification, one of them being the stresses and deformations present in the billet. These quantities can have a significant effect on the quality of the cast piece, since they impact porosity, hot-tearing and cold cracking. In this contribution a novel local radial basis function collocation method (LRBFCM) is successfully applied to the problem of stress field calculation during the stationary state of DC casting of aluminium alloys. The formulation of the method is presented in detail, followed by the presentation of the tackled physical problem. The model describes the deformations of linearly elastic, inhomogeneous isotropic solid with a given temperature field. The temperature profile is calculated using the in-house developed heat and mass transfer model. The effects of low frequency EM casting process parameters on the vertical, circumferential and radial stress and on the deformation of billet surface are presented. The application of the LFEM appears to decrease the amplitudes of the tensile stress occurring in the billet.

  15. Stimulated emission from aluminium anode oxide films doped with rhodamine 6G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, N. Kh; Zeinidenov, A. K.; Aimukhanov, A. K.; Napolskii, K. S.

    2015-07-01

    The spectral and luminescent properties of the rhodamine 6G dye in a porous matrix of aluminium anode oxide are studied. The films with a highly-ordered porous structure are produced using the method of two-stage anodic oxidation. By means of raster electron microscopy it is found that the diameter of the pores amounts to nearly 50 nm and the separation between the adjacent channels is almost 105 nm. The thickness of the films is equal to 55 μm, and the specific surface area measured using the method of nitrogen capillary condensation is 15.3 m2 g-1. Fluorescence and absorption spectra of rhodamine 6G molecules injected into the pores of the aluminium anode oxide are measured. It is found that under the excitation of samples with the surface dye concentration 0.3 × 1014 molecules m-2 by the second harmonic of the Nd : YAG laser in the longitudinal scheme with the pumping intensity 0.4 MW cm-2, a narrow band of stimulated emission with the intensity maximum at the wavelength 572 nm appears against the background of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum. A further increase in the pumping radiation intensity leads to the narrowing of the stimulated emission band and an increase in its intensity. The obtained results demonstrate the potential possibility of using the porous films of aluminium anode oxide, doped with laser dyes, in developing active elements for quantum electronics.

  16. Crashworthiness of Aluminium Tubes; Part 2: Improvement of Hydroforming Operation to Increase Absorption Energy

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amours, Guillaume; Rahem, Ahmed; Mayer, Robert; Williams, Bruce; Worswick, Michael

    2007-05-17

    The motivation to reduce overall vehicle weight within the automotive sector drives the substitution of lightweight materials such as aluminium alloys for structural components. Such a substitution requires a significant amount of development to manufacture structurally parts such that the energy absorption characteristics are not sacrificed in the event of crash. The effects of the manufacturing processes on the crash performance of automotive structural components must be better understood to ensure improved crashworthiness. This paper presents results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the crash response and energy absorption properties of impacted hydroformed aluminium alloy tubes. Crash experiments on hydroformed tubes were performed using a deceleration sled test at the General Motors Technical Center. Results from axial crush testing showed that an important parameter that influences the energy absorption characteristics during crash was the thickness reduction caused by circumferential expansion of the tube during hydroforming. It was found that that the energy absorption decreased as the corner radius decreased, which results because of increased thinning. Sensitivity studies of end feeding parameters, such as end feed level and profile, were carried out to evaluate their impact on the energy absorption of the aluminium tubes.

  17. A new view of the onset of plasticity during the nanoindentation of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Minor, Andrew M; Asif, S A Syed; Shan, Zhiwei; Stach, Eric A; Cyrankowski, Edward; Wyrobek, Thomas J; Warren, Oden L

    2006-09-01

    In nanoscale contact experiments, it is generally believed that the shear stress at the onset of plasticity can approach the theoretical shear strength of an ideal, defect-free lattice, a trend also observed in idealized molecular dynamics simulations. Here we report direct evidence that plasticity in a dislocation-free volume of polycrystalline aluminium can begin at very small forces, remarkably, even before the first sustained rise in repulsive force. However, the shear stresses associated with these very small forces do approach the theoretical shear strength of aluminium (approximately 2.2 GPa). Our observations entail correlating quantitative load-displacement measurements with individual video frames acquired during in situ nanoindentation experiments in a transmission electron microscope. We also report direct evidence that a submicrometre grain of aluminium plastically deformed by nanoindentation to a dislocation density of approximately 10(14) m(-2) is also capable of supporting shear stresses close to the theoretical shear strength. This result is contrary to earlier assumptions that a dislocation-free volume is necessary to achieve shear stresses near the theoretical shear strength of the material. Moreover, our results in entirety are at odds with the prevalent notion that the first obvious displacement excursion in a nanoindentation test is indicative of the onset of plastic deformation. PMID:16906139

  18. Molybdenum, Tungsten, and Aluminium Substitution for Enhancement of the Thermoelectric Performance of Higher Manganese Silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhi Truong, D. Y.; Berthebaud, David; Gascoin, Franck; Kleinke, Holger

    2015-10-01

    An easy and efficient process involving ball milling under soft conditions and spark plasma sintering was used to synthesize higher manganese silicide (HMS)-based compounds, for example MnSi1.75Ge0.02, with different molybdenum, tungsten, and aluminium substitution. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the samples after sintering showed the main phase to be HMS with the presence of some side products. Molybdenum substitution enlarges the unit cells more than tungsten substitution, owing to its greater solubility in the HMS structure, whereas substitution with aluminium did not substantially alter the cell parameters. The electrical resistivity of HMS-based compounds was reduced by <10% by this substitution, because of increased carrier concentrations. Changes of the Seebeck coefficient were insignificant after molybdenum and aluminium substitution whereas tungsten substitution slightly reduced the thermopower of the base material by approximately 8% over the whole temperature range; this was ascribed to reduced carrier mobility as a result of enhanced scattering. Substitution with any combination of two of these elements resulted in no crucial modification of the electrical properties of the base material. Large decreases of lattice thermal conductivity were observed, because of enhanced phonon scattering, with the highest reduction up to 25% for molybdenum substitution; this resulted in a 20% decrease of total thermal conductivity, which contributed to improvement of the figure of merit ZT of the HMS-based materials. The maximum ZT value was approximately 0.40 for the material with 2 at.% molybdenum substitution at the Mn sites.

  19. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-07-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  20. Fires in storages of LFO: Analysis of hazard of structural collapse of steel-aluminium containers.

    PubMed

    Rebec, A; Kolšek, J; Plešec, P

    2016-04-01

    Pool fires of light fuel oil (LFO) in above-ground storages with steel-aluminium containers are discussed. A model is developed for assessments of risks of between-tank fire spread. Radiative effects of the flame body are accounted for by a solid flame radiation model. Thermal profiles evolved due to fire in the adjacent tanks and their consequential structural response is pursued in an exact (materially and geometrically non-linear) manner. The model's derivation is demonstrated on the LFO tank storage located near the Port of Koper (Slovenia). In support of the model, data from literature are adopted where appropriate. Analytical expressions are derived correspondingly for calculations of emissive characteristics of LFO pool fires. Additional data are collected from experiments. Fire experiments conducted on 300cm diameter LFO pans and at different wind speeds and high-temperature uniaxial tension tests of the analysed aluminium alloys types 3xxx and 6xxx are presented. The model is of an immediate fire engineering practical value (risk analyses) or can be used for further research purposes (e.g. sensitivity and parametric studies). The latter use is demonstrated in the final part of the paper discussing possible effects of high-temperature creep of 3xxx aluminium. PMID:26802486

  1. Preparation and characterization of thermoluminescent aluminium oxide doped with Tb3+ and Tb3+-Mg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, V. S. M.; Azevedo, W. M.; Khoury, H. J.; Linhares Filho, P.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents the preparation method and the thermoluminescence analysis of aluminium oxide doped with Tb3+ and Tb3+-Mg2+ obtained by Combustion Synthesis (CS). An aqueous solution containing stoichiometric amounts of aluminium, terbium, magnesium nitrates and urea were mixed and introduced in a muffle furnace pre-heated to 500°C. After combustion, the samples were thermally treated at 1300°C and irradiated with a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The TL glow curves of the annealed Al2O3:Tb and Al2O3:Tb,Mg samples presented a well defined TL peak at approximately 200 °C, whereas the samples without heat-treatment presented a large number of TL peaks in the range from 150 to 500°C. These peaks were attributed to amorphous and phase impurities (γ-Al2O3 mixed with the α-phase) still present in the sample. Dose response analysis showed a linear response in the dose range from 0.5 to 5 Gy. These results strongly suggest that CS is a suitable technique to prepare doped aluminium oxide for TL dosimetric applications.

  2. The protective properties of melatonin against aluminium-induced neuronal injury

    PubMed Central

    Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This experimental study investigated the neuroprotective effect of melatonin (Mel; 10 mg/kg bwt) on aluminium chloride (AlCl3; 34 mg/kg bwt) induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Adult male albino Wistar rats were injected with AlCl3 for 7 days. The effect on brain structure, lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO) levels, glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GR), apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bcl-2) and an apoptotic enzyme (caspase-3) was investigated. No apparent changes occurred following the injection of melatonin. Melatonin pretreatment of the AlCl3-administered rats reduced brain damage, and the tissues appeared like those of the control rats. Compared to treatment with AlCl3, pretreatment with melatonin decreased LPO and NO levels and increased the GSH content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, melatonin increased the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, decreased the levels of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, and inhibited caspase-3 activity. Therefore, our results indicate that melatonin may provide therapeutic value against aluminium-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alternations in the rat brain and that these effects may be related to anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activities. PMID:25891353

  3. Iron and aluminium oxides containing industrial wastes as adsorbents of heavy metals: Application possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Jacukowicz-Sobala, Irena; Ociński, Daniel; Kociołek-Balawejder, Elżbieta

    2015-07-01

    Industrial wastes with a high iron or aluminium oxide content are produced in huge quantities as by-products of water treatment (water treatment residuals), bauxite processing (red mud) and hard and brown coal burning in power plants (fly ash). Although they vary in their composition, the wastes have one thing in common--a high content of amorphous iron and/or aluminium oxides with a large specific surface area, whereby this group of wastes shows very good adsorbability towards heavy metals, arsenates, selenates, etc. But their physical form makes their utilisation quite difficult, since it is not easy to separate the spent sorbent from the solution and high bed hydraulic resistances occur in dynamic regime processes. Nevertheless, because of the potential benefits of utilising the wastes in industrial effluent treatment, this issue attracts much attention today. This study describes in detail the waste generation processes, the chemical structure of the wastes, their physicochemical properties, and the mechanisms of fixing heavy metals and semimetals on the surface of iron and aluminium oxides. Typical compositions of wastes generated in selected industrial plants are given. A detailed survey of the literature on the adsorption applications of the wastes, including methods of their thermal and chemical activation, as well as regeneration of the spent sorbents, is presented. The existing and potential ways of modifying the physical form of the discussed group of wastes, making it possible to overcome the basic limitation on their practical use, are discussed. PMID:26060197

  4. Experimental measurements of the collisional absorption of XUV radiation in warm dense aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, B.; Dzelzainis, T.; White, S.; Li, L.; Dromey, B.; Zepf, M.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Williams, G.; Künzel, S.; Fajardo, M.; Dacasa, H.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Rigby, A.; Gregori, G.; Spindloe, C.; Heathcote, R.; Riley, D.

    2016-08-01

    The collisional (or free-free) absorption of soft x rays in warm dense aluminium remains an unsolved problem. Competing descriptions of the process exist, two of which we compare to our experimental data here. One of these is based on a weak scattering model, another uses a corrected classical approach. These two models show distinctly different behaviors with temperature. Here we describe experimental evidence for the absorption of 26-eV photons in solid density warm aluminium (Te≈1 eV). Radiative x-ray heating from palladium-coated CH foils was used to create the warm dense aluminium samples and a laser-driven high-harmonic beam from an argon gas jet provided the probe. The results indicate little or no change in absorption upon heating. This behavior is in agreement with the prediction of the corrected classical approach, although there is not agreement in absolute absorption value. Verifying the correct absorption mechanism is decisive in providing a better understanding of the complex behavior of the warm dense state.

  5. Aluminium ultrahigh vacuum system for the 3 GeV TPS synchrotron light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, G. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, C. L.; Wu, L. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Chan, C. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Hsueh, H. P.; Hsu, S. N.; Chen, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The 3-GeV Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) is a large accelerator and synchrotron light source of circumference 518.4 m. The electron storage ring of TPS requires an ultrahigh-vacuum pressure per beam current less than 2×10-10 Pa/mA in the beam duct to maintain a long life of the circulating beam without scattering of ions by residual gases. Aluminium alloys used for the beam ducts have a benefit of greater thermal conductivity that simplifies the structure of vacuum vessels built with the cooling components. Machining completely free of oil applied to the aluminium chambers followed by cleaning with ozonized water and welding in house provide a precise dimensional control within 0.3 mm and a clean surface with a small rate ~ 6.4×10-12 Pa m/s of thermal outgassing after baking at 150 °C for 24 h. The assembled ion pump with non-evaporable getter pump is capable of evacuating the chamber to a pressure < 1×10-9 Pa. The average pressure inside the duct is expected to be sufficiently small. The clean process to manufacture the aluminium ultrahigh vacuum system is described.

  6. Investigation of structural, morphological, luminescent and thermal properties of combusted aluminium-based iron oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shinde, S.S.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2010-12-15

    Nanocomposites of aluminium integrated hematite {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are synthesized by combustion route using aqueous solutions of AR grade ferric trichloride and aluminium nitrate as precursors. The influence of aluminium incorporation on to the morphology, XPS, photoluminescence and thermal properties has been investigated. The FESEM and AFM micrographs depict that the samples are compact and have homogeneously distributed grains of varying sizes ({approx}20-60 nm). Chemical composition and valence states of constituent elements in hematite are analyzed by XPS. In room temperature photoluminescence (PL) study, we observed strong violet emission around 436 nm without any deep-level emission and a small PL FWHM indicating that the concentrations of defects are responsible for deep-level emissions. The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant. We studied interparticle interactions using complex impedance spectroscopy. We report a new potential candidate for its possible applications in optoelectronics and magnetic devices. -- Graphical abstract: Frequency and temperature dependent interparticle interactions like grains, grain boundary effects using complex impedance spectroscopy of pure and 10 at% Al:Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been studied. Display Omitted

  7. Crashworthiness of Aluminium Tubes; Part 2: Improvement of Hydroforming Operation to Increase Absorption Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amours, Guillaume; Rahem, Ahmed; Mayer, Robert; Williams, Bruce; Worswick, Michael

    2007-05-01

    The motivation to reduce overall vehicle weight within the automotive sector drives the substitution of lightweight materials such as aluminium alloys for structural components. Such a substitution requires a significant amount of development to manufacture structurally parts such that the energy absorption characteristics are not sacrificed in the event of crash. The effects of the manufacturing processes on the crash performance of automotive structural components must be better understood to ensure improved crashworthiness. This paper presents results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the crash response and energy absorption properties of impacted hydroformed aluminium alloy tubes. Crash experiments on hydroformed tubes were performed using a deceleration sled test at the General Motors Technical Center. Results from axial crush testing showed that an important parameter that influences the energy absorption characteristics during crash was the thickness reduction caused by circumferential expansion of the tube during hydroforming. It was found that that the energy absorption decreased as the corner radius decreased, which results because of increased thinning. Sensitivity studies of end feeding parameters, such as end feed level and profile, were carried out to evaluate their impact on the energy absorption of the aluminium tubes.

  8. Surface formation in direct chill (DC) casting of 6082 aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, N.; Carlberg, T.

    2016-03-01

    Surface defects in aluminium billet production are a real problem for the subsequent extrusion procedure. Extrusion productivity can be influenced by the surface properties, which is defined as surface appearance, surface segregation zone depth and large Mg2Si and β-particles (Al5FeSi). In this research the surface formation during DC casting of 6082 aluminium billets produced by the air slip technology is studied. The surface microstructures of 6082 aluminium alloys with smooth and wavy surface appearances were investigated, including segregation zone depths and phase formation. The results were discussed based on the exudation of liquid metal through the mushy zone. The specific appearance of the wavy surface of 6082 alloys was correlated to how the oxide skin adheres to the underlying mushy zone and coupled to the dendritic coherency and surface tension of the skin. The occurrence of different phases at the very surface and in the layer just below was explained by variations in solidification directions and subsequent segregation patterns.

  9. Aluminium and calcium in soil and food from Guam, Palau and Jamaica: Implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia syndromes of Guam.

    PubMed

    Crapper McLachlarf, D R; McLachlan, C D; Krishnan, B; Krishnan, S S; Dalton, A J; Steele, J C

    1989-06-01

    Low calcium and high aluminium concentrations in the soils, waters and native foods have been hypothesised as environmental factors contributing to the unusually high incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism with dementia (ALS-PD) found on the island of Guam. The amounts of elemental aluminium and calcium were measured in foods of the native diet of the Chamorro people of Guam. The amount of aluminium eluted from topsoil by water at pH 7 at 22 °C was also measured. For comparison, food, water and soil samples were collected from two islands which have not reported a high incidence of ALS-PD syndromes: Palau and Jamaica.Compared with agricultural soils of Jamaica or Palau, the agricultural soils of Guam averaged 42-fold higher yield of elutable aluminium. The food data, however, do not indicate a differentially high exposure to elemental aluminium or low calcium intake in the diet of any one population. While this study did not detect an unusually high dietary aluminium or low dietary calcium content, the soils and possibly the dusts of Guam may be a major source of aluminium entering the body of the native people, particularly through the respiratory epithelium. Since iipid soluble organic ligands of aluminium more readily penetrate epithelial membranes, further study of soil aluminium ligands is required. PMID:24202289

  10. A density functional theory study of the structure of pure-silica and aluminium-substituted MFI nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Roldan, Alberto; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2016-05-01

    The layered MFI zeolite allows a straightforward hierarchization of the pore system which accelerates mass transfer and increases its lifetime as a catalyst. Here, we present a theoretical study of the structural features of the pure-silica and aluminium-substituted MFI nanosheets. We have analysed the effects of aluminium substitution on the vibrational properties of silanols as well as the features of protons as counter-ions. The formation of the two-dimensional system did not lead to appreciable distortions within the framework. Moreover, the effects on the structure due to the aluminium dopants were the same in both the bulk and the slab. The principal differences were related to the silanol groups that form hydrogen-bonds with neighbouring aluminium-substituted silanols, whereas intra-framework hydrogen-bonds increase the stability of aluminium-substituted silanols toward dehydration. Thus, we have complemented previous experimental and theoretical studies, showing the lamellar MFI zeolite to be a very stable material of high crystallinity regardless of its very thin structure.

  11. Treatment of highly concentrated tannery wastewater using electrocoagulation: Influence of the quality of aluminium used for the electrode.

    PubMed

    Elabbas, S; Ouazzani, N; Mandi, L; Berrekhis, F; Perdicakis, M; Pontvianne, S; Pons, M-N; Lapicque, F; Leclerc, J-P

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the ability of electrocoagulation (EC) to remove simultaneously COD and chromium from a real chrome tanning wastewater in a batch stirred electro-coagulation cell provided with two aluminium-based electrodes (aluminium/copper/magnesium alloy and pure aluminium). Effects of operating time, current density and initial concentration of Cr(III) and COD have been investigated. The concentrations of pollutants have been successfully reduced to environmentally acceptable levels even if the concentrated effluent requires a long time of treatment of around 6h with a 400A/m(2) current density. The aluminium alloy was found to be more efficient than pure aluminium for removal of COD and chromium. Dilution of the waste has been tested for treatment: high abatement levels could be obtained with shorter time of treatment and lower current densities. Energy consumption of the electrocoagulation process was also discussed. The dilution by half of the concentrated waste leads to a higher abatement performance of both COD and chromium with the best energy efficiency. PMID:26777109

  12. Acoustic neuroma: potential risk factors and audiometric surveillance in the aluminium industry

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Oyebode; Galusha, Deron; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Kirsche, Sharon; Cantley, Linda; Slade, Martin D; Cullen, Mark R; Donoghue, A Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To look for an association between acoustic neuroma (AN) and participation in a hearing conservation programme (HCP) and also for an association between AN and possible occupational risk factors in the aluminium industry. Methods We conducted a case–control analysis of a population of US aluminium production workers in 8 smelters and 43 other plants. Using insurance claims data, 97 cases of AN were identified between 1996 and 2009. Each was matched with four controls. Covariates included participation in a HCP, working in an aluminium smelter, working in an electrical job and hearing loss. Results In the bivariate analyses, covariates associated with AN were participation in the HCP (OR=1.72; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.69) and smelter work (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.36). Electrical work was not significant (OR=1.60; 95% CI 0.65 to 3.94). Owing to high participation in the HCP in smelters, multivariate subanalyses were required. In the multivariate analyses, participation in the HCP was the only statistically significant risk factor for AN. In the multivariate analysis restricted to employees not working in a smelter, the OR was 1.81 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.17). Hearing loss, an indirect measure of in-ear noise dose, was not predictive of AN. Conclusions Our results suggest the incidental detection of previously undiagnosed tumours in workers who participated in the company-sponsored HCP. The increased medical surveillance among this population of workers most likely introduced detection bias, leading to the identification of AN cases that would have otherwise remained undetected. PMID:25015928

  13. The influence of aluminium availability on phosphate uptake in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaseolus lunatus L.

    PubMed

    Mimmo, Tanja; Sciortino, Marco; Ghizzi, Massimiliano; Gianquinto, Giorgio; Gessa, Carlo E

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium toxicity is one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity on acid soils. High levels of available aluminium in soil may induce phosphorus deficiency in plants. This study investigates the influence of Aluminium (Al) on the phosphate (P(i)) uptake of two Phaseolus species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney and Phaseolus lunatus L. The two bean species were treated first with solutions of Al at different concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100microM, pH 4.50) and second with solutions of P(i) (150microM) at pH 4.50. The higher the Al concentration the higher the Al concentration sorbed but P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney adsorbed significantly more Al than P. lunatus L. Both species released organic acids: P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney released fumaric acid and P. lunatus L. fumaric and oxalic acids which could have hindered further Al uptake. The two bean species showed a sigmoid P(i) uptake trend but with two different mechanisms. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney showed a starting point of 3h whereas P. lunatus L. adsorbed P(i) immediately within the first minutes. In addition, P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney presented significantly higher P(i) uptake (higher uptake rate 'k' and higher maximum adsorption 'a' of the kinetic uptake model). The Al treatments did not significantly influence P(i) uptake. Results suggest that P. lunatus L. might adopt an external Al detoxification mechanism by the release of oxalic acid. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney on the other hand seemed to adopt an internal detoxification mechanism even if the Al sorbed is poorly translocated into the shoots. More detailed studies will be necessary to better define Al tolerance and/or resistance of Phaseolus spp. PMID:18996705

  14. The effects of ionization potential depression on the spectra emitted by hot dense aluminium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Thomas R.; Vinko, Sam M.; Ciricosta, Orlando; Chung, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Richard W.; Wark, Justin S.

    2013-06-01

    Recent experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) have demonstrated that the standard model used for simulating ionization potential depression (IPD) in a plasma (the Stewart-Pyatt (SP) model, J.C. Stewart and K.D. Pyatt Jr., Astrophysical Journal 144 (1966) 1203) considerably underestimates the degree of IPD in a solid density aluminium plasma at temperatures up to 200 eV. In contrast, good agreement with the experimental data was found by use of a modified Ecker-Kröll (mEK) model (G. Ecker and W. Kröll, Physics of Fluids 6 (1963) 62-69). We present here detailed simulations, using the FLYCHK code, of the predicted spectra from hot dense, hydrogenic and helium-like aluminium plasmas ranging in densities from 0.1 to 4 times solid density, and at temperatures up to 1000 eV. Importantly, we find that the greater IPDs predicted by the mEK model result in the loss of the n = 3 states for the hydrogenic ions for all densities above ≈0.8 times solid density, and for the helium-like ions above ≈0.65 solid density. Therefore, we posit that if the mEK model holds at these higher temperatures, the temperature of solid density highly-charged aluminium plasmas cannot be determined by using spectral features associated with the n = 3 principal quantum number, and propose a re-evaluation of previous experimental data where high densities have been inferred from the spectra, and the SP model has been used.

  15. Oblique shock structures formed during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Niasse, N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Burdiak, G.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Bland, S. N.; De Grouchy, P.; Khoory, E.; Pickworth, L.; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.

    2013-02-15

    A series of experiments has been conducted in order to investigate the azimuthal structures formed by the interactions of cylindrically converging plasma flows during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array Z pinch implosions. These experiments were carried out using the 1.4 MA, 240 ns MAGPIE generator at Imperial College London. The main diagnostic used in this study was a two-colour, end-on, Mach-Zehnder imaging interferometer, sensitive to the axially integrated electron density of the plasma. The data collected in these experiments reveal the strongly collisional dynamics of the aluminium ablation streams. The structure of the flows is dominated by a dense network of oblique shock fronts, formed by supersonic collisions between adjacent ablation streams. An estimate for the range of the flow Mach number (M = 6.2-9.2) has been made based on an analysis of the observed shock geometry. Combining this measurement with previously published Thomson Scattering measurements of the plasma flow velocity by Harvey-Thompson et al.[Physics of Plasmas 19, 056303 (2012)] allowed us to place limits on the range of the ZT{sub e} of the plasma. The detailed and quantitative nature of the dataset lends itself well as a source for model validation and code verification exercises, as the exact shock geometry is sensitive to many of the plasma parameters. Comparison of electron density data produced through numerical modelling with the Gorgon 3D MHD code demonstrates that the code is able to reproduce the collisional dynamics observed in aluminium arrays reasonably well.

  16. Determination of anisotropy in impact toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M. H.; Hashmi, F.; Junaid, A.

    The research was aimed to quantify the existence of anisotropy in fracture toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate (used in aircraft structural members). It was further needed to establish the direction in which the fracture toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate is maximum and minimum. This could help ascertain the structural integrity of aircraft structural components; also while designing new components, the knowledge of variation in toughness with respect to direction helps in economizing dead weight of the aircraft. In this research, pursued at the College of Aeronautical Engineering, the anisotropy in toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate was analysed using the Charpy V-notch impact toughness test. The effect of specimen orientation on the impact toughness values of the alloy was investigated and compared with known results to verify the reliability of the work and to ascertain the extent of anisotropy in fracture toughness of the said alloy. Charpy impact tests were carried out on ASTM E 23 standard specimens machined at a reference laboratory at room temperature (23° C +/- 2° C). Four different specimen orientations analysed for the purpose of this study were L-S, L-T, T-S and T-L directions. Subsequently, the results obtained at the research centre were then analysed and correlated with morphology of microstructure of the material to establish the reliability of the experimental results. Moreover, an analysis was also done to cater for the possible errors that could affect the fracture toughness values obtained from experimental results. It was concluded that the T-S orientation of the plate had maximum toughness, whereas, minimum toughness was observed in L-T direction.

  17. Crystalline silicon growth in the aluminium-induced glass texturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying; Law, Felix; Widenborg, Per I.; Aberle, Armin G.

    2012-12-01

    Aluminium-induced texturing (AIT) is a method to texture glass surfaces by utilising the reaction between aluminium (Al) and glass at high temperature (above 500 °C) and a subsequent wet-chemical treatment that removes the reaction products. In this work, we studied the solid state reaction between a sputtered Al layer and a borosilicate glass sheet during AIT annealing. Raman spectroscopy showed that crystalline silicon (c-Si) is formed during the AIT process. An optical microscope was used to visualise the evolution of the c-Si growth. Plan-view scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations performed on samples after completed AIT reaction showed that separate c-Si clusters formed at the glass surface. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the c-Si clusters grew upwards and were on top of the glass surface. Cross-sectional SEM examination showed that the c-Si layer is not uniform and that crater-shaped nodules are embedded into the glass. The widths and depths of the nodules are in the micrometre range. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the nodules consist mainly of aluminium oxide (Al2O3). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the c-Si grains are preferentially (111) oriented. The activation energy of the reaction between Al and borosilicate glass is 3.0±0.2 eV based on in-situ XRD analysis of the c-Si growth. Finally, a phenomenological model of the AIT process is proposed and we suggest that the topology of the glass texture strongly depends on the size, depth and lateral separation of the Al2O3 nodules embedded in the glass.

  18. Three-dimensional cellular structure of detonations in suspensions of aluminium particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasainov, B.; Virot, F.; Veyssière, B.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, we have used scarce available data on the detonation cell size in suspensions of aluminium particles in air and oxygen to adjust the kinetic parameters of our two-phase model of detonations in these mixtures. The calculated detonation cell width was derived by means of two-dimensional (2D) unsteady simulations using an assumption of cylindrical symmetry of the flow in the tube. However, in reality, the detonation cells are three-dimensional (3D). In this work, we have applied the same detonation model which is based on the continuous mechanics of two-phase flows, for 3D numerical simulations of cellular detonation structures in aluminium particle suspensions in oxygen. Reasonable agreement on the detonation cell width was obtained with the aforementioned 2D results. The range of tube diameters where detonations in { Al/O}_2 mixture at a given particle size and concentration would propagate in the spinning mode has been estimated (these results make a complement to our previous analysis of spinning detonations in Al/air mixtures). Coupling these results with the dependencies of detonation cell size on the mean particle diameter is of great interest for the understanding of fundamental mechanisms of detonation propagation in solid particle suspensions in gas and can help to better guide the experimental studies of detonations in aluminium suspensions. It is shown that the part of detonation wave energy used for transverse kinetic energy of both gas and particles is quite small, which explains why the propagation velocity of spinning and multi-headed detonations reasonably agrees with the ideal CJ values.

  19. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study (P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration

  20. Fabrication of ultra-fine grained aluminium tubes by RTES technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarzadeh, H. Abrinia, K.

    2015-04-15

    Recently, repetitive tube expansion and shrinking have been exploited as a means for producing ultra-fine grained and nano-crystalline microstructures for magnesium alloy tubes. This method includes two different half-cycles and was based on pressing a tubular part through an angular channel die with two shear zones. Since the aluminium alloys are the most widely used materials in industries, in this study, repetitive tube expansion and shrinking as a new severe plastic deformation technique was applied to commercially pure aluminium for fabricating ultra-fine grained aluminium tubes for the first time and the ability of this process in significant grain refinement is determined even after single cycle. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the microstructure of the repetitive tube expansion and shrinking processed materials and the examinations showed ultra-fine grains with the average grain size of 320 nm after one cycle of repetitive tube expansion and shrinking. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength increased notably by the factor of 2.17 and 1.27 respectively, after one cycle of repetitive tube expansion and shrinking, whereas the elongation to failure as well as the uniform elongation decreased. Furthermore, micro-hardness distribution through the part's section proposed the hardness increasing to ~ 55 HV from the initial value of ~ 28 HV after one cycle of repetitive tube expansion and shrinking. - Highlights: • RTES was introduced for fabricating the UFGed AA1050 tubes for the first time. • Nano-grained AA1050 tube was obtained by RTES process. • Grain size of ~ 320 nm was obtained after two half-cycles of RTES process. • Yield and ultimate strength increased by the factor of 2.17 and 1.27 respectively. • The microhardness increased to ~ 55 HV from the initial value of ~ 28 HV.