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Sample records for amar matrimonio normas

  1. Astronomía y Física: un matrimonio Sartriano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Desde el siglo XVII, Física y Astronomía han formado un matrimonio similar al de Sartre y Beauvoir: lleno de amores contingentes, pero firme y duradero. En la charla examino tres de los frutos más recientes de este matrimonio: - La confirmación de la Relatividad General con datos astronómicos. - Astrofísica y Física de neutrinos. - Teorías de supercuerdas y astronomía.

  2. Wake Up, It Is 2013! Commentary on Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper's Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muysken, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and presents a critique of the research that went into the theory. Topics discussed include the allegation that the bilinguals and second language learners in the original article are primarily students in an academic setting, Amaral…

  3. Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

  4. Omnivorous Representation Might Lead to Indigestion: Commentary on Amaral and Roeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabakova, Roumyana

    2014-01-01

    This article offers commentary that the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper (A&R) in the present issue lacks elaboration of the psychological mechanisms at work in second language acquisition. Topics discussed include optionality in a speaker's grammar and the rules of verb position in…

  5. Felsic plutonism in the Al AmarIdsas area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bel, L.; Laval, M.

    A tonalitetrondhjemite suite, calc-alkalic plutons and alkali-feldspar granites dated 670 and 580 Ma, intrude thick volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Al Amar group E of the Al Amar fault and the Abt schist W of the fault. The tonalitetrondhjemite suite (group I) is characterized by low Rb (50 ppm) and Sr (100-400 ppm) and by weakly fractionated rare-earth patterns (La/Yb Nca 2-3) with a weak negative Eu anomaly. Calc-alkalic plutons (group II) are richer in Rb (50-150 ppm), contain variable Sr (50-1000 ppm), and have strongly fractionated rare-earth patterns (La/Yb Nca 6-22) with no Eu anomaly. Alkali-feldspar granite (group III) is characterized by high Rb (150-200 ppm) and shows fractionated rare-earth patterns (La/Yb Nca 6-18) with a well-developed Eu anomaly. Group III includes 'specialized granites' with high Rb (300-400 ppm) and Sn (28-66 ppm), and rare-earth patterns showing a distinctive 'sea gull' profile with a very strong Eu anomaly (Eu*/Eu = 20). Oxygen isotope geochemistry suggests that group I rocks (x ?18O ca 7.0) were mantle-derived, and that group II and III rocks intruding the Al Amar group ( ?18O ca 7.9 and 8.8 respectively) were derived by remelting of group I, whereas those intruding Abt schist ( ?18O ca 8.7 and 10.8 respectively) were partially derived by anatexis of the Afif block. Magmatogenesis reflects an island-arc development. Rocks of group I represent the initial subduction phase. Syn- to late-tectonic plutons of group II intruded the arc east of the Al Amar fault and the accretionary prism (Abt schist) to the west, which was in collision with the older Afif block. Post-tectonic group III rocks were emplaced in an already cratonized area.

  6. E-Interview: Norma Fox Mazer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Norma Fox Mazer, a writer of children's books. Describes how she creates a story. Discusses how writing a story, whether a short story or a novel, is an intricate balance of character, event, and voice. (SG)

  7. Teaching Labor Relations with "Norma Rae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Vicki Fairbanks; Provitera, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate business students in North America are often unfamiliar with the labor organizing process and frequently fail to identify with the reasons why workers join unions. This article suggests a discussion exercise based on the 1979 film, "Norma Rae," by 20th Century Fox, as an effective tool for familiarizing students with fundamental

  8. Teaching Labor Relations with "Norma Rae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Vicki Fairbanks; Provitera, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate business students in North America are often unfamiliar with the labor organizing process and frequently fail to identify with the reasons why workers join unions. This article suggests a discussion exercise based on the 1979 film, "Norma Rae," by 20th Century Fox, as an effective tool for familiarizing students with fundamental…

  9. Application of kinematic vorticity techniques for mylonitized Rocks in Al Amar suture, eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamimi, Z.; Kassem, O. M. K.; El-Sabrouty, M. N.

    2015-09-01

    The rotation of rigid objects within a flowing viscous medium is a function of several factors including the degree of non-coaxiality. The relationship between the orientation of such objects and their aspect ratio can be used in vorticity analyses in a variety of geological settings. Method for estimation of vorticity analysis to quantitative of kinematic vorticity number (Wm) has been applied using rotated rigid objects, such as quartz and feldspar objects. The kinematic vorticity number determined for high temperature mylonitic Abt schist in Al Amar area, extreme eastern Arabian Shield, ranges from ˜0.8 to 0.9. Obtained results from vorticity and strain analyses indicate that deformation in the area deviated from simple shear. It is concluded that nappe stacking occurred early during an earlier thrusting event, probably by brittle imbrications. Ductile strain was superimposed on the nappe structure at high-pressure as revealed by a penetrative subhorizontal foliation that is developed subparallel to tectonic contacts versus the underlying and overlying nappes. Accumulation of ductile strain during underplating was not by simple shear but involved a component of vertical shortening, which caused the subhorizontal foliation in the Al Amar area. In most cases, this foliation was formed concurrently with thrust sheets imbrications, indicating that nappe stacking was associated with vertical shortening.

  10. V390 Nor = Nova Normae 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2007-06-01

    Nova Normae 2007 was discovered photographically by William Liller on June 15.086 UT at magnitude 9.4. Precise position measured by G. Bolt from his unfiltered CCD image of June 16.7 UT: 16:32:11.51 -45:09:13.4 (2000.0). Giorgio Di Scala reported to the AAVSO that a low-resolution spectrum indicates a nova a week or so after outburst, with strong H-alpha emission. E. Kazarovets, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, reports that N Nor 07 has been assigned the name V390 Nor. Discovery originally announced in IAU Central Bureau Electronic Telegram 982 (Daniel W. E. Green) and AAVSO Special Notice #49 (Arne Henden). Information in this Alert Notice was received at AAVSO from William Liller, Giorgio Di Scala, or via IAU Circular No. 8850, ed. Daniel W. E. Green. A chart for V390 Nor is available via the Variable Star Plotter (VSP). Go to: http://www.aavso.org/observing/charts/vsp/ and enter the name V390 NOR.

  11. A Receding Halo Sub-structure Towards Norma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    We present results from follow-up spectroscopic observations of clustered Cepheid candidates identified from K-band light curves towards the Norma constellation (Chakrabarti et al. 2015), as well as others that we have found more recently. The average radial velocity of these stars is ~ 200 km/s, which is large and distinct from that of the Galaxy's stellar disk. These objects at l ~ -27 and b ~ -1 are therefore halo stars; using the period-luminosity relation of Type I Cepheids, they are at ~ 90 kpc. While the spectra do not have sufficient S/N to independently determine the metallicity and spectral type of the stars, there is a clear correspondence between the observed Brackett series lines in these observations and in known Type I Cepheids. Distances determined from the K-band period-luminosity relation (Matsunaga et al. 2013) and the 3.6 μm period-luminosity relation (Scowcroft et al. 2011) agree closely, and I-band observations have confirmed the periods of these sources. The extinction corrected J - Ks colors of these sources are comparable to known Type I Cepheids (Persson et al. 2004). The observed radial velocity of these stars agrees with predictions from dynamical models (Chakrabarti & Blitz 2009). If these stars are indeed members of the predicted dark-matter dominated dwarf galaxy that perturbed the outer HI disk of the Milky Way, this would represent the first application of Galactoseismology. These observations also challenge models of the Galactic halo. Young Cepheid variables are unexpected in models of the Galactic halo, though star formation due to infall of gas-rich dwarf galaxies may well produce a small population of yet undiscovered Cepheids in the outer halo.

  12. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    SciTech Connect

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A.; An, Hongjun; Rahoui, Farid; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Bauer, Franz E.; Stern, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ≈20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ≥3σ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ∼50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ≈ 10{sup –14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  13. Effects of contaminated soils from a former iron mine (Ait Amar, Morocco) on enchytraeids (Enchytraeus bigeminus) and predatory mites (Hypoaspis aculeifer) in standard laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Madani, Safoura; Coors, Anja; Haddioui, Abdelmajid; Ksibi, Mohamed; Pereira, Ruth; Paulo Sousa, José; Römbke, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    Mining activity is an important economic activity in several North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and North African countries. Within their territory derelict or active mining explorations represent risks to surrounding ecosystems, but engineered-based remediation processes are usually too expensive to be an option for the reclamation of these areas. A project funded by NATO was performed, with the aim of finding a more eco-friendly solution for reclamation of these areas. As part of an overall risk assessment, the risk of contaminated soils to selected soil organisms was evaluated. The main question addressed was: Does the metal-contaminated soils from a former iron mine located at Ait Amar (Morocco),which was abandoned in the mid-Sixties, affect the reproduction of enchytraeids (Enchytraeus bigeminus) and predatory mites (Hypoaspis aculeifer)? Soil samples were taken at 20 plots along four transects covering the mine area and at a reference site about 15km away from the mine. The soils were characterized pedologically and chemically, which showed a heterogeneous pattern of metal contamination (mainly cadmium, copper, and chromium, sometimes at concentrations higher than European soil trigger values). The reproduction of enchytraeids (Enchytraeus bigeminus) and predatory mites (Hypoaspis aculeifer) was studied using standard laboratory tests according to OECD guidelines 220 (2004) and 226 (2008). The number of juveniles of E. bigeminus was reduced at several plots with high concentrations of Cd or Cu (the latter in combination with low pH values). There was nearly no effect of the metal contaminated soils on the reproduction of H. aculeifer. The overall lack of toxicity at the majority of the studied plots is probably caused by the low availability of the metals in these soils unless soil pH was very low. Different exposure pathways are likely responsible for the different reaction of mites and enchytraeids (hard-bodied versus soft-bodied organisms). The results of this study can be used not only for assessing the risk of contaminated soils but also could play a role for the identification of soil remediation programs. PMID:25985252

  14. Librarian of the Year 2008: New Jersey State Librarian Norma Blake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles "Library Journal's" (LJ) chosen 2008 Librarian of the Year. Librarians and officials in education and government all recount the leadership and creativity brought to library service in New Jersey by State Librarian Norma Blake. She has sparked proactive, collaborative initiatives that have taken libraries of all types "out of…

  15. Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Mathematics Teaching (NORMA-94) Lahti 1994. Research Report 141.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.

    This report contains papers from the Nordic Conference on Mathematics Teaching (NORMA-94). The first three papers are plenary talks aimed at giving the participants an opportunity to form a coherent view of the new theories of learning. The themes of the paper sessions addressed a variety of topics on different levels from elementary school to…

  16. Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Zhang, William W.

    2014-08-10

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-Ray Telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg{sup 2} of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630–47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433–473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time: CXOU J163329.5–473332, CXOU J163350.9–474638, and CXOU J163355.1–473804. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3-79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5–473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9–474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a distant X-ray binary or possibly a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1–473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. Additional surveys are planned for the Norma Arm and Galactic Center, and those NuSTAR observations will benefit from the lessons learned during this pilot study.

  17. Initial Results from NuSTAR Observations of the NORMA ARM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Barriere, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-Ray Telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 sq deg of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630-47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433-473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time: CXOU J163329.5-473332, CXOU J163350.9-474638, and CXOU J163355.1-473804. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3-79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5-473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9-474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a distant X-ray binary or possibly a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1-473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. Additional surveys are planned for the Norma Arm and Galactic Center, and those NuSTAR observations will benefit from the lessons learned during this pilot study.

  18. Cranial vault shape in fossil hominids: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    PubMed

    Lestrel, P E; Ohtsuki, F; Wolfe, C A

    2010-10-01

    Two major views of human evolution have elicited considerable controversy. These are: [1] the "out of Africa" hypothesis and [2] the "multiregional" hypothesis. This paper is an attempt to try to reconcile these two scenarios using hominid cranial vault data. Elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs) were used to describe, in visual and numerical terms, the shape of the human cranial vault in norma lateralis. Using jpeg images, contours of the cranial vault of a large sample of hominid specimens were pre-processed in Photoshop CS and rotated in 2D space (positional-orientation) so that a line drawn from nasion to porion was horizontal. The cranial vault image was then digitized with 72 closely-spaced points and submitted to a specially written routine that computed EFFs normalized by scaling (size-standardization). This ensured that the representation was invariant with respect to starting point, size and orientation. Statistically significant differences were found between the H. sapiens sample and both the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis groups, leading to three conclusions: [1] the similarity in cranial vault shape between H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis suggests a single gradually evolving lineage; [2] The taxon H. heidelbergensis can be embedded into the H. erectus→H. neanderthalensis line; and [3] H. sapiens seems to be a separate evolutionary development and is considered here either as a separate species or as a possible example of an allopatric semispecies (Grant, 1977). The results here suggest that human evolution over the last 2 Ma may turn out to be neither totally multiregional or simply out of Africa but rather represents a considerably more complicated picture. PMID:20801442

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 new Chandra sources in the Norma arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahoui, F.; Tomsick, J. A.; Fornasini, F. M.; Bodaghee, A.; Bauer, F. E.

    2014-08-01

    We report on CTIO/NEWFIRM and CTIO/OSIRIS photometric and spectroscopic observations of 20 new X-ray (0.5-10 keV) emitters discovered in the Norma arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS). NEWFIRM photometry was obtained to pinpoint the near-infrared counterparts of NARCS sources, while OSIRIS spectroscopy was used to help identify 20 sources with possible high mass X-ray binary properties. We find that (1) two sources are WN8 Wolf-Rayet stars, maybe in colliding wind binaries, part of the massive star cluster Mercer 81; (2) two are emission-line stars, possibly in X-ray binaries, that exhibit near- and mid-infrared excesses either due to free-free emission from the decretion discs of Be stars or warm dust in the stellar winds of peculiar massive stars such as B[e] supergiants or luminous blue variables; (3) one is a B8-A3 IV-V star that could be in a quiescent high mass X-ray binary system; (4) two are cataclysmic variables including one intermediate polar; (5) three may be neutron star symbiotic binaries; (6) five are most likely white dwarf symbiotic binaries; and (7) five exhibit properties more consistent with isolated giant/dwarf stars. The possible detection of one to three high mass X-ray binaries is in good agreement with our predictions. However, our study illustrates the difficulty of clearly differentiating quiescent or intermediate X-ray luminosity systems from isolated massive stars, which may lead to an underestimation of the number of known high mass X-ray binaries.

  20. The Norma cluster (ACO 3627) - III. The distance and peculiar velocity via the near-infrared Ks-band Fundamental Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabazi, T.; Blyth, S. L.; Woudt, P. A.; Lucey, J. R.; Jarrett, T. H.; Bilicki, M.; Schrder, A. C.; Moore, S. A. W.

    2014-04-01

    While Norma (ACO 3627) is the richest cluster in the Great Attractor (GA) region, its role in the local dynamics is poorly understood. The Norma cluster has a mean redshift (zCMB) of 0.0165 and has been proposed as the `core' of the GA. We have used the Ks-band Fundamental Plane (FP) to measure Norma cluster's distance with respect to the Coma cluster. We report FP photometry parameters (effective radii and surface brightnesses), derived from ESO New Technology Telescope Son of ISAAC images, and velocity dispersions, from Anglo-Australian Telescope 2dF spectroscopy, for 31 early-type galaxies in the cluster. For the Coma cluster we use Two Micron All Sky Survey images and Sloan Digital Sky Survey velocity dispersion measurements for 121 early-type galaxies to generate the calibrating FP data set. For the combined Norma-Coma sample we measure FP coefficients of a = 1.465 0.059 and b = 0.326 0.020. We find an rms scatter, in log ?, of 0.08 dex which corresponds to a distance uncertainty of 28 per cent per galaxy. The zero-point offset between Norma's and Coma's FPs is 0.154 0.014 dex. Assuming that the Coma cluster is at rest with respect to the cosmic microwave background frame and zCMB(Coma) = 0.0240, we derive a distance to the Norma cluster of 5026 160 km s-1, and the derived peculiar velocity is -72 170 km s-1, i.e. consistent with zero. This is lower than previously reported positive peculiar velocities for clusters/groups/galaxies in the GA region and hence the Norma cluster may indeed represent the GA's `core'.

  1. NormaCurve: A SuperCurve-Based Method That Simultaneously Quantifies and Normalizes Reverse Phase Protein Array Data

    PubMed Central

    Troncale, Sylvie; Barbet, Aurélie; Coulibaly, Lamine; Henry, Emilie; He, Beilei; Barillot, Emmanuel; Dubois, Thierry; Hupé, Philippe; de Koning, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    Motivation Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) is a powerful dot-blot technology that allows studying protein expression levels as well as post-translational modifications in a large number of samples simultaneously. Yet, correct interpretation of RPPA data has remained a major challenge for its broad-scale application and its translation into clinical research. Satisfying quantification tools are available to assess a relative protein expression level from a serial dilution curve. However, appropriate tools allowing the normalization of the data for external sources of variation are currently missing. Results Here we propose a new method, called NormaCurve, that allows simultaneous quantification and normalization of RPPA data. For this, we modified the quantification method SuperCurve in order to include normalization for (i) background fluorescence, (ii) variation in the total amount of spotted protein and (iii) spatial bias on the arrays. Using a spike-in design with a purified protein, we test the capacity of different models to properly estimate normalized relative expression levels. The best performing model, NormaCurve, takes into account a negative control array without primary antibody, an array stained with a total protein stain and spatial covariates. We show that this normalization is reproducible and we discuss the number of serial dilutions and the number of replicates that are required to obtain robust data. We thus provide a ready-to-use method for reliable and reproducible normalization of RPPA data, which should facilitate the interpretation and the development of this promising technology. Availability The raw data, the scripts and the NormaCurve package are available at the following web site: http://microarrays.curie.fr. PMID:22761696

  2. FOUR HIGHLY LUMINOUS MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN THE NORMA SPIRAL ARM. II. DEEP NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    ChavarrIa, L.; Mardones, D.; Garay, G.; Escala, A.; Bronfman, L.; Lizano, S.

    2010-02-10

    We present sensitive near-infrared (J, H, and K) imaging observations toward four luminous massive star-forming regions in the Norma Spiral Arm: G324.201+0.119, G328.307+0.432, G329.337+0.147, and G330.949-0.174. We identify three clusters of young stellar objects (YSOs) based on surface density diagnostics. We also find that sources detected only in the H and K bands and with colors corresponding to spectral types earlier than B2, are likely YSOs. We analyze the spatial distribution of stars of different masses and find signatures in two clusters of primordial mass segregation that cannot be explained as due to incompleteness effects. We show that dynamic interactions of cluster members with the dense gas from the parent core can explain the observed mass segregation, indicating that the gas plays an important role in the dynamics of young clusters.

  3. Whole-Genome Sequence of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Hardjo Subtype Hardjoprajitno Strain Norma, Isolated from Cattle in a Leptospirosis Outbreak in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Soares, S. C.; Mendes, T. A.; Raittz, R. T.; Moreira, E. C.; Leite, R.; Fernandes, G. R.; Haddad, J. P. A.; Ortega, J. Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira spp. This neglected re-emergent disease has global distribution and relevance in veterinary production. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence and annotation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo subtype Hardjoprajitno strain Norma, isolated from cattle in a livestock leptospirosis outbreak in Brazil. PMID:26543126

  4. Whole-Genome Sequence of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Hardjo Subtype Hardjoprajitno Strain Norma, Isolated from Cattle in a Leptospirosis Outbreak in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cosate, M R V; Soares, S C; Mendes, T A; Raittz, R T; Moreira, E C; Leite, R; Fernandes, G R; Haddad, J P A; Ortega, J Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira spp. This neglected re-emergent disease has global distribution and relevance in veterinary production. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence and annotation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo subtype Hardjoprajitno strain Norma, isolated from cattle in a livestock leptospirosis outbreak in Brazil. PMID:26543126

  5. NGC 2401: a template of the young population of the Norma-Cygnus arm in the Third Galactic Quadrant*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baume, G.; Moitinho, A.; Vázquez, R. A.; Solivella, G.; Carraro, G.; Villanova, S.

    2006-04-01

    Based on a deep optical CCD [UBV(RI)C] photometric survey and on the Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) data, we derived the main parameters of the open cluster NGC 2401. We found that this cluster is placed at 6.3 +/- 0.5 kpc (VO-MV= 14.0 +/- 0.2) from the Sun and is 25 Myr old, which allows us to identify NGC 2401 as a member of the young population belonging to the innermost side of the extension of the Norma-Cygnus spiral arm in the Third Galactic Quadrant. A spectroscopic study of the emission star LSS 440 that lies in the cluster area revealed that it is a B0Ve star; however, we could not confirm that it is a cluster member. We also constructed the cluster luminosity function (LF) down to V~ 22 and the cluster initial mass function (IMF) for all stars with masses above M~ 1-2Msolar. It was found that the slope of the cluster IMF is x~ 1.8 +/- 0.2. The presence of a probable pre-main-sequence (PMS) star population associated with the cluster is weakly revealed. Based on observations collected at CTIO and the ESO and CASLEO; data are only available in electronic form at the Centre de Donnes astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). E-mail: gbaume@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar

  6. Investigating CXOU J163802.6–471358: A new pulsar wind nebula in the norma region?

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsen, Simone J.; Watson, Darach; Tomsick, John A.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2014-06-01

    We present the first analysis of the extended source CXOU J163802.6–471358, which was discovered serendipitously during the Chandra X-ray survey of the Norma region of the Galactic spiral arms. The X-ray source exhibits a cometary appearance with a point source and an extended tail region. The complete source spectrum is fitted well with an absorbed power law model and jointly fitting the Chandra spectrum of the full source with one obtained from an archived XMM-Newton observation results in best fit parameters N {sub H} =1.5{sub −0.5}{sup +0.7}×10{sup 23} cm{sup −2} and Γ=1.1{sub −0.6}{sup +0.7} (90% confidence uncertainties). The unabsorbed luminosity of the full source is then L{sub X}∼4.8×10{sup 33}d{sub 10}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1} with d {sub 10} = d/10 kpc, where a distance of 10 kpc is a lower bound inferred from the large column density. The radio counterpart found for the source using data from the Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey epoch-2 shows an elongated tail offset from the X-ray emission. No infrared counterpart was found. The results are consistent with the source being a previously unknown pulsar driving a bow shock through the ambient medium.

  7. Etnografía acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre género y sexualidad en hombres puertorriqueños heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcción de roles de género dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal razón se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al género en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervención que facilite la transformación de normas sociales del género y de prácticas sexuales en hombres puertorriqueños. La intervención propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al género y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de líderes de opinión. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as líderes de opinión diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevención del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervención es discutida en este artículo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnografía acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervención y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnográficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervención para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  8. NIPS-NORMA station-A combined facility for neutron-based nondestructive element analysis and imaging at the Budapest Neutron Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Zoltán; Szentmiklósi, László; Belgya, Tamás

    2015-04-01

    Neutron attenuation, scattering or radiative capture are used in various non-destructive methods to gain morphological, structural, elemental or isotopic information about the sample under study. The combined use of position-sensitive prompt gamma-ray detection (i.e. prompt gamma-ray activation imaging, PGAI) and neutron radiography/tomography (NR/NT) makes it possible to determine the 3D distribution of major elements and to visualize internal structures of heterogeneous objects in a non-destructive way. Based on earlier experience, the first ever permanent facility for this purpose, NIPS-NORMA, was constructed at the Budapest Neutron Centre, Hungary in 2012. The installation consists of a well-shielded, Compton-suppressed HPGe detector; a CCD-camera based imaging equipment and a motorized positioning system with sample support. Conventional PGAA measurements and NR/NT imaging using guided cold neutrons are the basic methods that form the basis of the more sophisticated experimental method called NR/NT-driven PGAI. The current status of the experimental station and its characteristics are described in the present paper.

  9. Abundant molecular gas and inefficient star formation in intracluster regions: ram pressure stripped tail of the Norma galaxy ESO137-001

    SciTech Connect

    Jáchym, Pavel; Combes, Françoise; Cortese, Luca; Sun, Ming; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, we reveal large amounts of cold molecular gas in a ram-pressure-stripped tail, out to a large 'intracluster' distance from the galaxy. With the Actama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope, we have detected {sup 12}CO(2-1) emission corresponding to more than 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} of H{sub 2} in three Hα bright regions along the tail of the Norma cluster galaxy ESO 137-001, out to a projected distance of 40 kpc from the disk. ESO 137-001 has an 80 kpc long and bright X-ray tail associated with a shorter (40 kpc) and broader tail of numerous star forming H II regions. The amount of ∼1.5 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} of H{sub 2} found in the most distant region is similar to molecular masses of tidal dwarf galaxies, though the standard Galactic CO-to-H{sub 2} factor could overestimate the H{sub 2} content. Along the tail, we find the amount of molecular gas to drop, while masses of the X-ray-emitting and diffuse ionized components stay roughly constant. Moreover, the amounts of hot and cold gas are large and similar, and together nearly account for the missing gas from the disk. We find a very low SFE (τ{sub dep} > 10{sup 10} yr) in the stripped gas in ESO 137-001 and suggest that this is due to a low average gas density in the tail, or turbulent heating of the interstellar medium that is induced by a ram pressure shock. The unprecedented bulk of observed H{sub 2} in the ESO 137-001 tail suggests that some stripped gas may survive ram pressure stripping in the molecular phase.

  10. THE DISCOVERY OF A MOLECULAR CAVITY IN THE NORMA NEAR ARM ASSOCIATED WITH H.E.S.S {gamma}-RAY SOURCE LOCATED IN THE DIRECTION OF WESTERLUND 1

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, Abraham; Mayya, Y. D.; Carrasco, Luis; Bronfman, Leonardo

    2010-04-10

    We report on the discovery of a molecular cavity in the Norma near arm in the general direction of Westerlund 1 (Wd1), but not associated with it. The cavity has a mean radial velocity of -91.5 km s{sup -1}, which differs by as much as {approx}40 km s{sup -1} from the mean radial velocity of the Wd1 stars. The cavity is surrounded by a fragmented molecular shell of an outer diameter of about 100 pc and 10{sup 6} M {sub sun}, which is expanding at velocities of 6 to 8 km s{sup -1}. The amount of kinetic energy involved in the expanding shell is {approx}10{sup 51} erg. Inside this cavity, the atomic H I gas surface density is also the lowest. Structure of the extended Very High Energetic {gamma}-ray emission, recently reported by the H.E.S.S. collaboration, coincides with the cavity. The observed morphology suggests that the inner wall of the molecular shell is the zone of the {gamma}-ray emission, and not the dense gas surrounding massive stars of Wd1 as had been speculated by the H.E.S.S. collaboration. A likely candidate responsible for creating the observed cavity and the {gamma}-ray emission is the pulsar PSR J1648 - 4611.

  11. Osteology and Cartilaginous Elements of Trilepida salgueiroi (Amaral, 1954) (Scolecophidia: Leptotyphlopidae).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Roberta R; Martins, Angele R; Curcio, Felipe; Ramos, Luciana de O

    2015-10-01

    Morphological and anatomical studies on the Leptotyphlopidae have increased in the past 10 years, providing important data on the systematics of this group, mainly focused on the skull and lower jaw morphology. However, most studies are based on a single specimen, rarely combining more than one single method of assessing morphological information. Therefore, several data on postcranial morphology, sexual dimorphism, and ontogenetic and intraspecific variation of leptotyphlopids remain poorly understood. Herein, we provide a detailed description of the cranial and postcranial skeleton of Trilepida salgueiroi based on more than 20 specimens (including males, females and juveniles), as well as a description of osteology and cartilaginous elements through the use of combined methodologies such as X-ray scanning, high resolution CT-scanning, and clearing and staining of articulated and disarticulated specimens. We also provide data on the presence/absence of dimorphic and intraspecific variation of the observed characters. The presence of a statolithic mass in the cavum vestibuli differs from the pattern found in other scolecophidians. A correlation of dorsal vertebrae with ventral and subcaudal scales was found (1:1), as well as total number of vertebrae with middorsal scales (1:1), thoracolumbar vertebrae and ventral scales (1:1), and a higher number of caudal vertebra with subcaudal scales (1.23:1). Intraspecific variation was found in several elements of the skull, lower jaw, pelvic girdle and vertebral number, but no evidence of sexual dimorphism was found in any of the species characters analysed. The homologies of several elements are discussed, although still remaining poorly understood and unknown. PMID:26119424

  12. IM Normae: A Second T Pyx? (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.; Monard, B.; Warhurst, P.; Myers, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) T Pyx is the Galaxy's most famous recurrent nova, erupting to magnitude 6 about every 20 years. For nova hunters and variable-star observers generally, it should be quite easy to discover stars with similar properties. There are probably half a million CVs out to the distance of T Pyx, and most have an underlying structure similar to that of T Pyx: low-mass secondary, fairly massive white dwarf, short orbital period. But of these half million stars, there is no second T Pyx. The star is unique in another way: its orbital period is increasing on a timescale of 300,000 years. Like the proverbial bat out of hell. A 2002 nova eruption nominated a second star for this elite club: IM Nor, a short-orbital-period (2.5 hours) star which previously erupted in 1920. We began a program of time-series photometry to track the shallow eclipses—to test for orbital period change, the other signature of T Pyx resemblance. By 2015 we found this effect: Porb increases on a timescale of 2 million years. Thus, the two stars appear to be blowing themselves apart on a timescale of roughly a million years. This could explain why the stars are so rare: because they are rapidly self-immolating. And that could happen because the classical-nova outburst overwhelms the low-mass secondaries that live in short-period CVs—leading to unstable mass transfer which quickly evaporates the secondary. This implies that all short-Porb classical novae should be "recurrent" (erupting on a timescale of decades). Greater attention to CP Pup (1942), RW UMi (1956), GQ Mus (1983), and V Per (1887) is definitely warranted.

  13. Rediscovery of the earless microteiid lizard Anotosaura collaris Amaral, 1933 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae): a redescription complemented by osteological, hemipenial, molecular, karyological, physiological and ecological data.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Teixeira, Mauro; Vechio, Francisco Dal; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Nisa, Carolina; Guerrero, Agustín Camacho; Damasceno, Roberta; Roscito, Juliana Gusson; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Recoder, Renato Sousa

    2013-01-01

    More than a century after its discovery by Ernest Garbe, and almost 80 years after its original description, we obtained a series of specimens of the earless gymnophthalmid Anotosaura collaris, the type species of the genus, up to now known only by a single specimen. On the basis of the material obtained at and close to the type locality we redescribe the species, adding information about the external and hemipenial morphology, osteology and karytoype. Molecular data confirm its sister relationship with Anotosaura vanzolinia as well as the close relationship of Anotosaura with the Ecpleopodini Colobosauroides and Dryadosaura. We supplement this information with thermophysiological, ecogeographical, karyotypic and ecological data. PMID:25277577

  14. Discovery of a new bona fide luminous blue variable in Norma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of optical spectroscopy of the candidate evolved massive star MN44 revealed via detection of a circular shell with the Spitzer Space Telescope. First spectra taken in 2009 May-June showed the Balmer lines in emission as well as numerous emission lines of iron, which is typical of luminous blue variables (LBVs) near the visual maximum. New observations carried out in 2015 May-September detected significant changes in the spectrum, indicating that the star became hotter. We found that these changes are accompanied by significant brightness variability of MN44. In particular, the Ic-band brightness decreased by ≈ 1.6 mag during the last six years and after reaching its minimum in 2015 June has started to increase. Using archival data, we also found that the Ic-band brightness increased by ≈3 mag in ≈30 yr preceding our observations. MN44 therefore represents the 17th known example of the Galactic bona fide LBVs. We detected a nitrogen-rich knot to the north-west of the star, which might represent an interstellar cloudlet interacting with the circumstellar shell. We discuss a possible association between MN44 and the INTEGRAL transient source of hard X-ray emission IGR J16327-4940, implying that MN44 might be either a colliding-wind binary or a high-mass X-ray binary.

  15. Anchors for the cosmic distance scale: the Cepheid QZ Normae in the open cluster NGC 6067

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaess, D.; Sturch, L.; Moni Bidin, C.; Soto, M.; Gieren, W.; Cohen, R.; Mauro, F.; Geisler, D.; Bonatto, C.; Borissova, J.; Minniti, D.; Turner, D.; Lane, D.; Madore, B.; Carraro, G.; Berdnikov, L.

    2013-09-01

    Cepheids are key to establishing the cosmic distance scale. Therefore it's important to assess the viability of QZ Nor, V340 Nor, and GU Nor as calibrators for Leavitt's law via their purported membership in the open cluster NGC 6067. The following suite of evidence confirms that QZ Nor and V340 Nor are members of NGC 6067, whereas GU Nor likely lies in the foreground: (i) existing radial velocities for QZ Nor and V340 Nor agree with that established for the cluster () to within 1 km/s, whereas GU Nor exhibits a markedly smaller value; (ii) a steep velocity-distance gradient characterizes the sight-line toward NGC 6067, thus implying that objects sharing common velocities are nearly equidistant; (iii) a radial profile constructed for NGC 6067 indicates that QZ Nor is within the cluster bounds, despite being 20' from the cluster center; (iv) new BVJH photometry for NGC 6067 confirms the cluster lies d=1.75±0.10 kpc distant, a result that matches Wesenheit distances computed for QZ Nor/V340 Nor using the Benedict et al. (Astron. J. 133:1810, 2007, HST parallaxes) calibration. QZ Nor is a cluster Cepheid that should be employed as a calibrator for the cosmic distance scale.

  16. Mandibular shape analysis in fossil hominins: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    PubMed

    Lestrel, P E; Wolfe, C A; Bodt, A

    2013-08-01

    Biological shape can be defined as the boundary of a form in 2-space (R(2)). An earlier study (Lestrel et al., 2010, HOMO-J. Comp. Hum. Biol.) of the cranial vault found that there were statistically significant differences between each of the three groups: H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and H. neanderthalensis compared with H. sapiens. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference among the first three groups. These results suggest that these three groups may have formed single evolving lineage while H. sapiens represents a separate evolutionary development. The purpose of the current research was to discern if the mandible reflected a similar pattern as the cranial vault data. This study used lateral jpeg images of the mandible. Five fossil samples were used: A. robustus (n=7), H. erectus (n=12), H. heidelbergensis (n=4), H. neanderthalensis (n=22) and H. sapiens (n=61). Each mandible image was pre-processed with Photoshop Elements. Each image was then submitted to a specially written routine that digitized the 84 points along the mandible boundary. Each mandible was fitted with elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs). Procrustes superimposition was imposed to insure minimum shape differences. The mandible results largely mirrored the earlier cranial vault study with one exception. Statistically significant results were obtained for the mandible between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples in contrast to the earlier cranial vault data. F-tests disclosed that the statistical significance was limited to the anterior symphysis of the mandible. This mosaic pattern may be explained by the reduction in prognathism with the concomitant if rudimentary development of the chin as seen in H. neanderthalensis compared to H. erectus. PMID:23769600

  17. The slow decline of the Galactic recurrent novae T Pyxidis, IM Normae, and CI Aquilae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleo, Andrea; Shore, Steven N.

    2015-05-01

    A distinguishing trait of the three known Galactic recurrent novae with the shortest orbital periods, T Pyx, IM Nor, and CI Aql, is that their optical decline time-scales are significantly longer than those of the other recurrent systems. On the other hand, some estimates of the mass of the ejecta, the velocity of the ejecta, and the duration of the soft X-rays emission of these systems are of the order of those of the other recurrent systems and the fast classical novae. We put forth a tentative explanation of this phenomenon. We propose that in these systems part of the material transferred from the companion during the first few days of the eruption remains within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf, preventing the radiation from ionizing the ejecta of the system and increasing the optical decline time-scale. We explain why this phenomenon is more likely in systems with a high mass transfer rate and a short orbital period. Finally, we present a schematic model that shows that the material transferred from the companion is sufficient to absorb the radiation from the white dwarf in these systems, ultimately supporting this scenario as quantitatively realistic.

  18. "Amar te Duele" ("love hurts"): sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs' relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners' depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship. PMID:24743959

  19. Amar te Duele” (“Love Hurts”): Sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs’ relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners’ depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship. PMID:24743959

  20. The Start of the Sagittarius Spiral Arm (Sagittarius Origin) and the Start of the Norma Spiral Arm (Norma Origin): Model-computed and Observed Arm Tangents at Galactic Longitudes -20° < l < +23°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we fitted a four-arm spiral model to the more accurate data on global arm pitch angle and arm longitude tangents to get the start of each spiral arm near the galactic nucleus. We find that the tangent to the “start of the Sagittarius” spiral arm (arm middle) is at l = -17° ± 0.°5, while the tangent to the “start of the Norma” spiral arm (arm middle) is at l = +20° ± 0.°5. Earlier, we published a compilation of observations and analysis of the tangent to each spiral arm tracer from longitudes +23° to +340° in this paper we cover the arm tracers in the remaining longitudes +340 (=-20°) to +23°. Our model arm tangents are confirmed through the recent observed masers data (at the arm's inner edge). Observed arm tracers in the inner Galaxy show an offset from the mid arm; this was also found elsewhere in the Milky Way disk. In addition, we collated the observed tangents to the so-called 3 kpc arm features; statistically they are found to be near l = -18° ± 2° and near l = +21° ± 2°, after excluding misidentified spiral arms. We find that the model-computed arm tangents in the inner Galaxy are spatially coincident with the mean longitude of the observed tangents to the 3 kpc arm features (same galactic longitudes, within the errors). These spatial similarities may be suggestive of a contiguous space.

  1. El Escritor y las Normas del Canon Literario (The Writer and the Norms of the Literary Canon).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policarpo, Alcibiades

    This paper speculates about whether a literary canon exists in contemporary Latin American literature, particularly in the prose genre. The paper points to Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Mario Vargas Llosa as the three authors who might form this traditional and liberal canon with their works "La Muerte de Artemio Cruz" (Fuentes),…

  2. FOUR HIGHLY LUMINOUS MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN THE NORMA SPIRAL ARM. I. MOLECULAR GAS AND DUST OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Bronfman, Leonardo; May, Jorge; Chavarria, Luis; Nyman, Lars-Ake

    2010-02-10

    We report molecular line and dust continuum observations, made with the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope, toward four young high-mass star-forming regions associated with highly luminous (L>6x10{sup 5}L{sub odot}) Infrared Astronomical Satellite sources (15290-5546, 15502-5302, 15567-5236, and 16060-5146). Molecular emission was mapped in three lines of CS (J = 2 -> 1, 3 -> 2, and 5 -> 4), two lines of SiO (J = 2 -> 1 and 3 -> 2), two rotational transitions of CH{sub 3}OH (J{sub k} = 3{sub k} -> 2{sub k} and 2{sub k} -> 1{sub k}), and in the C{sup 34}S(J = 3 -> 2) line. In addition, single spectra at the peak position were taken in the CO(J = 1 -> 0), {sup 13}CO(J = 1 -> 0), and C{sup 18}O(J = 1 -> 0) lines. We find that the luminous star-forming regions are associated with molecular gas and dust structures with radii of typically 0.5 pc, masses of {approx}5 x 10{sup 3} M{sub sun}, column densities of {approx}5 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}, molecular hydrogen densities of typically {approx}2 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and dust temperatures of {approx}40 K. The 1.2 mm dust continuum observations further indicate that the cores are centrally condensed, having radial density profiles with power-law indices in the range 1.9-2.3. We find that under these conditions dynamical friction by the gas plays an important role in the migration of high-mass stars toward the central core region, providing an explanation for the observed stellar mass segregation within the cores. The CS profiles show two distinct emission components: a bright component, with line widths of typically 5 km s{sup -1} (FWHM), and a weaker and wider velocity component, which typically extends up to +-13 km s{sup -1} from the ambient cloud velocity. The SiO profiles also show emission from both components, but the intensity of the pedestal feature relative to that of the bright component is stronger than for CS. The narrow SiO component is likely to trace warm ambient gas close to the recently formed massive stars, whereas the high velocity emission indicates mass outflows produced by either the expansion of the H II regions, stellar winds, and/or collimated outflows. We find that the abundances of CS, CH{sub 3}OH, and SiO, relative to H{sub 2}, in the warm ambient gas of the massive cores are typically 4 x 10{sup -8}, 6 x 10{sup -9}, and 5 x 10{sup -11}, respectively.

  3. Implications for Child Bilingual Acquisition, Optionality and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serratrice, Ludovica

    2014-01-01

    Amaral & Roeper's Multiple Grammars (MG) proposal offers an appealingly simple way of thinking about the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. This article presents a commentary on the MG language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue, focusing on the theory's implications for child…

  4. What Is a Rule of Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lardiere, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article offers commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue. It argues that more precise definitions are needed for the terms "rule," "simple," and "productive." Topics discussed include Amaral and Roeper's verb second (V2) rule,…

  5. Implications for Child Bilingual Acquisition, Optionality and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serratrice, Ludovica

    2014-01-01

    Amaral & Roeper's Multiple Grammars (MG) proposal offers an appealingly simple way of thinking about the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. This article presents a commentary on the MG language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue, focusing on the theory's implications for child

  6. Standards for University Libraries = Normes pour les bibliotheques universitaires = Richtwerte fur Universitatsbibliotheken = Normas de bibliotecas universitarias. IFLA Professional Reports No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Beverly P., Ed.

    This statement prepared by the International Federation of Library Associations' Section of University Libraries and Other General Research Libraries presents standards of general principles designed to accomplish the following: (1) provide a means by which the quality of the library serving a university can be assessed; (2) offer guidance for…

  7. Standards for University Libraries = Normes pour les bibliotheques universitaires = Richtwerte fur Universitatsbibliotheken = Normas de bibliotecas universitarias. IFLA Professional Reports No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Beverly P., Ed.

    This statement prepared by the International Federation of Library Associations' Section of University Libraries and Other General Research Libraries presents standards of general principles designed to accomplish the following: (1) provide a means by which the quality of the library serving a university can be assessed; (2) offer guidance for

  8. Classes of real-world 'small-world' networks: From the neural network of C. Elegans to the web of human sexual contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes Amaral, Luis A.

    2002-03-01

    We study the statistical properties of a variety of diverse real-world networks including the neural network of C. Elegans, food webs for seven distinct environments, transportation and technological networks, and a number of distinct social networks [1-5]. We present evidence of the occurrence of three classes of small-world networks [2]: (a) scale-free networks, characterized by a vertex connectivity distribution that decays as a power law; (b) broad-scale networks, characterized by a connectivity distribution that has a power-law regime followed by a sharp cut-off; (c) single-scale networks, characterized by a connectivity distribution with a fast decaying tail. Moreover, we note for the classes of broad-scale and single-scale networks that there are constraints limiting the addition of new links. Our results suggest that the nature of such constraints may be the controlling factor for the emergence of different classes of networks. [See http://polymer.bu.edu/ amaral/Networks.html for details and htpp://polymer.bu.edu/ amaral/Professional.html for access to PDF files of articles.] 1. M. Barthélémy, L. A. N. Amaral, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3180-3183 (1999). 2. L. A. N. Amaral, A. Scala, M. Barthélémy, H. E. Stanley, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 11149-11152 (2000). 3. F. Liljeros, C. R. Edling, L. A. N. Amaral, H. E. Stanley, and Y. Åberg, Nature 411, 907-908 (2001). 4. J. Camacho, R. Guimera, L.A.N. Amaral, Phys. Rev. E RC (to appear). 5. S. Mossa, M. Barthelemy, H.E. Stanley, L.A.N. Amaral (submitted).

  9. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  10. The Legal Impact of Bologna Implementation: Exploring Criticisms and Critiques of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfreyman, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the critical assessments of the Bologna Process, notably by Neave and Amaral and Teichler. Other secondary material referred to includes Reinalda and Kulesza, Corbett and Greatrix. It is arguable that the Bologna Process is part of the generally over-bureaucratic and very costly context of European Union (EU)

  11. Why Minimal Multiple Rules Provide a Unique Window into UG and L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article clarifies some ideas presented in this issue's keynote article (Amaral and Roeper, this issue) and discusses several issues raised by the contributors' comments on the nature of the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory. One of the key goals of the article is to unequivocally state that MG is not a parametric theory and that its…

  12. NCI Center of Excellence in Chromosome Biology

    Cancer.gov

    Chromosome Structure/Segregation Munira Basrai, Ph.D. Dhruba Chattoraj, Ph.D.Julie Cooper, Ph.D. Yamini Dalal, Ph.D. Shiv Grewal, Ph.D. Alexander Kelly, Ph.D. Amar Klar, Ph.D. Vladimir Larionov, Ph.D. David Levens, M.D., Ph.D. Michael Lichten, Ph.D. Tom M

  13. CCR RNA Biology Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    Synthesis and applications of RNAs with position-selective labelling and mosaic composition Yu Liu,  Erik Holmstrom,  Jinwei Zhang,  Ping Yu,  Jinbu Wang,  Marzena A. Dyba,  De Chen, Jinfa Ying,  Stephen Lockett,  David J. Nesbitt,  Adrian R. Ferré-D’Amar

  14. Multiple Grammars: Old Wine in Old Bottles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) argue that all speakers -- regardless of whether monolingual or bilingual -- have multiple grammars in their mental language representations. They further claim that this simple assumption can explain many things: optionality in second language (L2) language behaviour, multilingualism, language…

  15. Contradictory Information in the Input as the Cause of Multiple Grammars: Predictions for Bilingual Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The central claim in Amaral and Roeper's (this issue; henceforth A&R) keynote article is that everyone is multilingual, whether they speak one or more languages. In a nutshell, the idea is that each speaker has multiple grammars or "sub-sets of rules (or sub-grammars) that co-exist". Thus, rather than positing complex rules to…

  16. Final Report: Fourth Peer Review of the CMAQ Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ Model External Peer Review Panel conducted a two and a half day review view on June 27, 28, and 29, 2011. This report summarizes its findings, and follows other reviews conducted in 2004, 2005, and 2006 [Amar et al., 2004; 2005 and 2007].

  17. Complexity and Conflicting Grammars in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westergaard, Marit

    2014-01-01

    The article by Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) presents many interesting ideas about first and second language acquisition as well as some experimental data convincingly illustrating the difference between production and comprehension. The article extends the concept of Universal Bilingualism proposed in Roeper (1999) to second

  18. Learning English, Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Using science notebooks effectively in the classroom can encourage students who are learning English to keep up and keep interested. English language proficiency might head the list of content areas that schools can teach properly and effectively through science. Amaral, Garrison, and Klentschy (2002) reported that a successful inquiry-based…

  19. Pollen Grain Size, Density, and Settling Velocity for Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmer amaranth has known resistance to several herbicides, including glyphosate, and there is concern that the resistance traits are being transferred between spatially segregated populations via pollen movement. The objective of this study was to describe the physical properties of Palmer amarant...

  20. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a

  1. Complexity and Conflicting Grammars in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westergaard, Marit

    2014-01-01

    The article by Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) presents many interesting ideas about first and second language acquisition as well as some experimental data convincingly illustrating the difference between production and comprehension. The article extends the concept of Universal Bilingualism proposed in Roeper (1999) to second…

  2. Perturbative stability of catenoidal soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Soumya; Kar, Sayan

    2013-09-01

    The perturbative stability of catenoidal soap films formed between parallel, equal radii, coaxial rings is studied using analytical and semi-analytical methods. Using a theorem on the nature of eigenvalues for a class of Sturm-Liouville operators, we show that, for the given boundary conditions, azimuthally asymmetric perturbations are stable, while symmetric perturbations lead to an instability --a result demonstrated in Ben Amar et al. (Eur. Phys. J. B 3, 197 (1998)) using numerics and experiment. Further, we show how to obtain the lowest real eigenvalue of perturbations, using the semi-analytical Asymptotic Iteration Method (AIM). Conclusions using AIM support the analytically obtained result as well as the results by Ben Amar et al.. Finally, we compute the eigenfunctions and show, pictorially, how the perturbed soap film evolves in time.

  3. Statistical Physics Applied to Human Heartbeat Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2000-03-01

    A major problem in biology is the quantitative analysis of nonstationary time series. A central question is whether such noisy fluctuating signals contain information useful for understanding underlying physiological mechanisms. This review talk summarizes recent work that analyzes physiological signals--principally lengthy time series of interbeat heart intervals--using a range of approaches adapted from modern statistical mechanics. These approaches include (i) detrended fluctuation analysis of long-range anticorrelations, (ii) wavelet analysis, and (iii) multifractal analysis. The work reported here was carried out primarily by L. A. Nunes Amaral, A. L. Goldberger, S. Havlin, P. Ch. Ivanov, C.-K. Peng, M. G. Rosenblum, and Z. Struzik; see [1-5] and references therein for details. [1] For an overview, see H. E. Stanley, L. A. N. Amaral, A. L. Goldberger, S. Havlin, P. Ch. Ivanov, and C.-K. Peng, ``Statistical Physics and Physiology: Monofractal and Multifractal Approaches,'' Physica A 270 (1999) 309. [2] C.-K. Peng, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, and A. L. Goldberger, ``Quantification of Scaling Exponents and Crossover Phenomena in Nonstationary Heartbeat Time Series,'' Chaos 5 (1995) 82. [3] L. A. N. Amaral, A. L. Goldberger, P. Ch. Ivanov, and H. E. Stanley, ``Scale-Independent Measures and Pathologic Cardiac Dynamics,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 (1998) 2388. [4] P. Ch. Ivanov, A. L. Goldberger, S. Havlin, C.-K. Peng, and H. E. Stanley, ``Wavelets in Medicine and Physiology,'' in Wavelets, edited by H. C. van den Berg (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999). [5] P. Ch. Ivanov, L. A. N. Amaral, A. L. Goldberger, S. Havlin, M. G. Rosenblum, Z. Struzik, and H. E. Stanley, ``Multifractality in Human Heartbeat Dynamics,'' Nature 399 (1999) 461.

  4. Adaptive mesh and algorithm refinement using direct simulation Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.L.; Bell, J.B.; Crutchfield, W.Y.; Alder, B.J.

    1999-09-01

    Adaptive mesh and algorithm refinement (AMAR) embeds a particle method within a continuum method at the finest level of an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hierarchy. The coupling between the particle region and the overlaying continuum grid is algorithmically equivalent to that between the fine and coarse levels of AMR. Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is used as the particle algorithm embedded within a Godunov-type compressible Navier-Stokes solver. Several examples are presented and compared with purely continuum calculations.

  5. Un gran proyecto en crisis: el estudio coordinado de la norma linguistica culta de las principales ciudades de Iberoamerica y de la peninsula Iberica (A Great Project in Crisis: the Coordinated Study of the Educated Linguistic Norm of the Principal Cities of Latin America and of the Iberian Peninsula)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado de Val, Manuel

    1975-01-01

    The controversy holding back the project is what approach should be used in data collecting, controlled interviews or spontaneous recordings. The author favors the latter. To be scientific, the analysis of the data should be psycholinguistic rather than stylistic. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  6. Nutriendo la Promesa: Materiales Para la Aplicacion de las Normas de Ejecucion del Programa Head Start. Guia Para la Utilizacion de los Materiales [y] Transparencias (Nurturing the Promise: Set of Training Materials on the Head Start Program Performance Standards. User's Guide [and] Set of Transparencies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Since 1975, the Head Start Program Performance Standards have defined the services that local programs are required to provide to enrolled children and families. With revisions effective in 1998, the Program Performance Standards translate the Head Start vision into quality practices implemented at the local level. This document is comprised of a…

  7. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Bebes y "Toddlers": Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Infant/Toddler Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for caregivers working in center-based infant and toddler day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system. Part 2 explains…

  8. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

  9. Identification and Characterization of the Androgen Receptor From the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Kohno, Satomi; Doheny, Brenna M; Ogino, Yukiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-08-01

    Androgens are essential for the development, reproduction, and health throughout the life span of vertebrates, particularly during the initiation and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Androgen signaling is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors, such as exogenous hormones or contaminants that mimic hormones, can disrupt endocrine signaling and function. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a unique model for ecological research in that it exhibits environment-dependent sex determination, is oviparous and long lived. Alligators from a contaminated environment exhibit low reproductive success and morphological disorders of the testis and phallus in neonates and juveniles, both associated with androgen signaling; thus, the alterations are hypothesized to be related to disrupted androgen signaling. However, this line of research has been limited because of a lack of information on the alligator AR gene. Here, we isolated A mississippiensis AR homologs (AmAR) and evaluated receptor-hormone/chemical interactions using a transactivation assay. We showed that AmAR responded to all natural androgens and their effects were inhibited by cotreatment with antiandrogens, such as flutamide, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and vinclozolin. Intriguingly, we found a spliced form of the AR from alligator cDNA, which lacks seven amino acids within the ligand-binding domain that shows no response to androgens. Finally, we have initial data on a possible dominant-negative function of the spliced form of the AR against androgen-induced AmAR. PMID:25974402

  10. Three-dimensional Hybrid Continuum-Atomistic Simulations for Multiscale Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, S; Hornung, R; Garcia, A; Hadjiconstantinou, N

    2004-04-15

    We present an adaptive mesh and algorithmic refinement (AMAR) scheme for modeling multi-scale hydrodynamics. The AMAR approach extends standard conservative adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithms by providing a robust flux-based method for coupling an atomistic fluid representation to a continuum model. The atomistic model is applied locally in regions where the continuum description is invalid or inaccurate, such as near strong flow gradients and at fluid interfaces, or when the continuum grid is refined to the molecular scale. The need for such ''hybrid'' methods arises from the fact that hydrodynamics modeled by continuum representations are often under-resolved or inaccurate while solutions generated using molecular resolution globally are not feasible. In the implementation described herein, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) provides an atomistic description of the flow and the compressible two-fluid Euler equations serve as our continuum-scale model. The AMR methodology provides local grid refinement while the algorithm refinement feature allows the transition to DSMC where needed. The continuum and atomistic representations are coupled by matching fluxes at the continuum-atomistic interfaces and by proper averaging and interpolation of data between scales. Our AMAR application code is implemented in C++ and is built upon the SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) framework developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SAMRAI provides the parallel adaptive gridding algorithm and enables the coupling between the continuum and atomistic methods.

  11. The neuromechanism underlying verbal analogical reasoning of metaphorical relations: an event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Meng, Huishan; Xu, Zhiyuan; Du, Fenglei; Liu, Tao; Li, Yongxin; Chen, Feiyan

    2011-11-24

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), this study investigated the neuromechanism underlying verbal analogical reasoning of two different metaphorical relations: attributive metaphor and relational metaphor. The analogical reasoning of attributive metaphor (AM-AR) involves a superficial similarity between analogues, while the analogical reasoning of relational metaphor (RM-AR) requires a structural similarity. Subjects were asked to judge whether one word pair was semantically analogous to another word pair. Results showed that the schema induction stage elicited a greater N400 component at the right anterior scalp for the AM-AR and RM-AR tasks, possibly attributable to semantic processing of metaphorical word pairs. The N400 was then followed by a widely distributed P300 and a late negative component (LNC1) at the left anterior scalp. The P300 was possibly related to the formation of a relational category, while the LNC1 was possibly related to the maintenance of a reasoning cue in working memory. The analogy mapping stage elicited broadly distributed N400 and LNC2, which might indicate the presence of semantic retrieval and analogical transfer. In the answer production stage, all conditions elicited the P2 component due to early stimulus encoding. The largest P2 amplitude was in the RM-AR task. The RM-AR elicited a larger LPC than did the AM-AR, even though the baseline correction was taken as a control for the differential P2 effect. The LPC effect might suggest that relational metaphors involved more integration processing than attributive metaphors. PMID:22018690

  12. GIANT: A Cytoscape Plugin for Modular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cumbo, Fabio; Paci, Paola; Santoni, Daniele; Di Paola, Luisa; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Network analysis provides deep insight into real complex systems. Revealing the link between topological and functional role of network elements can be crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying the system. Here we propose a Cytoscape plugin (GIANT) to perform network clustering and characterize nodes at the light of a modified Guimerà-Amaral cartography. This approach results into a vivid picture of the a topological/functional relationship at both local and global level. The plugin has been already approved and uploaded on the Cytoscape APP store. PMID:25275465

  13. Genetics Research Discovered in a Bestseller | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer One morning in early January, Amar Klar sat down at his computer and found an e-mail with a curious message from a colleague. While reading a bestselling novel, The Marriage Plot by Jeffrey Eugenides, his colleague, a professor at Princeton University, found a description of research on yeast genetics that was surprisingly similar to Klar’s early research. Even the laboratory in the novel was reminiscent of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where Klar had conducted his research.

  14. Meeting contribution: Let's collaborate! ? a professional's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henden, A.

    2007-04-01

    Dr Henden remarked in opening that he had always considered himself a professional astronomer, but had also always felt the line between amateurs and professionals to be a very grey one. After all, the word 'amateur' derived from the Latin verb 'amare' (to love), and whilst he was a professional in the sense that he earned his livelihood by his work, was he not also an amateur if he loved doing it? With this thought in mind, he was keen for both astronomical communities to acknowledge the common passion that they shared.

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

  16. Protecting Holden Caulfield and His Friends from the Censors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkinson, Edward B.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys the textbook censorship picture over the past decade with particular attention to the activities of Tim LaHaye and Norma and Mel Gabler. Suggests 10 steps teachers can take to try and protect controversial texts from censorship. (RBW)

  17. ANALYSIS OF HYDROPONIC FERTILIZER MATRIXES FOR PERCHLORATE: COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven retail hydroponic nitrate fertilizer products, two liquid and five solid, were comparatively analyzed for the perchlorate anion (ClO4-) by ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection, complexation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (cESI-MS), norma...

  18. Asteroids Observed from GMARS and Santana Observatories: 2011 October- December

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Robert D.

    2012-04-01

    Lightcurves of six asteroids were obtained from Santana Observatory and Goat Mountain Astronomical Research Station (GMARS): 555 Norma, 1028 Lydina, 1123 Shapleya, 1178 Irmela, 3436 Ibadinov, and 6042 Cheshirecat.

  19. Sublattice parallel replica dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Enrique; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Voter, Arthur F.

    2014-06-01

    Exascale computing presents a challenge for the scientific community as new algorithms must be developed to take full advantage of the new computing paradigm. Atomistic simulation methods that offer full fidelity to the underlying potential, i.e., molecular dynamics (MD) and parallel replica dynamics, fail to use the whole machine speedup, leaving a region in time and sample size space that is unattainable with current algorithms. In this paper, we present an extension of the parallel replica dynamics algorithm [A. F. Voter, Phys. Rev. B 57, R13985 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevB.57.R13985] by combining it with the synchronous sublattice approach of Shim and Amar [Y. Shim and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125432 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevB.71.125432], thereby exploiting event locality to improve the algorithm scalability. This algorithm is based on a domain decomposition in which events happen independently in different regions in the sample. We develop an analytical expression for the speedup given by this sublattice parallel replica dynamics algorithm and compare it with parallel MD and traditional parallel replica dynamics. We demonstrate how this algorithm, which introduces a slight additional approximation of event locality, enables the study of physical systems unreachable with traditional methodologies and promises to better utilize the resources of current high performance and future exascale computers.

  20. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  1. Geology and metallogeny of the Ar Rayn terrane, eastern Arabian shield: Evolution of a Neoproterozoic continental-margin arc during assembly of Gondwana within the East African orogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, J.L.; Al-Jehani, A. M.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Hayes, T.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Johnson, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Ar Rayn terrane is exposed along the eastern margin of the Arabian shield. The terrane is bounded on the west by the Ad Dawadimi terrane across the Al Amar fault zone (AAF), and is nonconformably overlain on the east by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. The terrane is composed of a magmatic arc complex and syn- to post-orogenic intrusions. The layered rocks of the arc, the Al Amar group (>689 Ma to ???625 Ma), consist of tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basaltic to rhyolitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks with subordinate tuffaceous sedimentary rocks and carbonates, and are divided into an eastern and western sequence. Plutonic rocks of the terrane form three distinct lithogeochemical groups: (1) low-Al trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG) of arc affinity (632-616 Ma) in the western part of the terrane, (2) high-Al TTG/adakite of arc affinity (689-617 Ma) in the central and eastern part of the terrane, and (3) syn- to post-orogenic alkali granite (607-583 Ma). West-dipping subduction along a trench east of the terrane is inferred from high-Al TTG/adakite emplaced east of low-Al TTG. The Ar Rayn terrane contains significant resources in epithermal Au-Ag-Zn-Cu-barite, enigmatic stratiform volcanic-hosted Khnaiguiyah-type Zn-Cu-Fe-Mn, and orogenic Au vein deposits, and the potential for significant resources in Fe-oxide Cu-Au (IOCG), and porphyry Cu deposits. Khnaiguiyah-type deposits formed before or during early deformation of the Al Amar group eastern sequence. Epithermal and porphyry deposits formed proximal to volcanic centers in Al Amar group western sequence. IOCG deposits are largely structurally controlled and hosted by group-1 intrusions and Al Amar group volcanic rocks in the western part of the terrane. Orogenic gold veins are largely associated with north-striking faults, particularly in and near the AAF, and are presumably related to amalgamation of the Ar Rayn and Ad Dawadimi terranes. Geologic, structural, and metallogenic characteristics of the Ar Rayn terrane are analogous to the Andean continental margin of Chile, with opposite subduction polarity. The Ar Rayn terrane represents a continental margin arc that lay above a west-dipping subduction zone along a continental block represented by the Afif composite terrane. The concentration of epithermal, porphyry Cu and IOCG mineral systems, of central arc affiliation, along the AAF suggests that the AAF is not an ophiolitic suture zone, but originated as a major intra-arc fault that localized magmatism and mineralization. West-directed oblique subduction and ultimate collision with a land mass from the east (East Gondwana?) resulted in major transcurrent displacement along the AAF, bringing the eastern part of the arc terrane to its present exposed position, juxtaposed across the AAF against a back-arc basin assemblage represented by the Abt schist of the Ad Dawadimi terrane. Our findings indicate that arc formation and accretionary processes in the Arabian shield were still ongoing into the latest Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran), to about 620-600 Ma, and lead us to conclude that evolution of the Ar Rayn terrane (arc formation, accretion, syn- to postorogenic plutonism) defines a final stage of assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent along the northeastern margin of the East African orogen. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Random Matrix Theory and Econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenow, Bernd

    2000-03-01

    Random Matrix Theory (RMT) [1] is used in many branches of physics as a ``zero information hypothesis''. It describes generic behavior of different classes of systems, while deviations from its universal predictions allow to identify system specific properties. We use methods of RMT to analyze the cross-correlation matrix C of stock price changes [2] of the largest 1000 US companies. In addition to its scientific interest, the study of correlations between the returns of different stocks is also of practical relevance in quantifying the risk of a given stock portfolio. We find [3,4] that the statistics of most of the eigenvalues of the spectrum of C agree with the predictions of RMT, while there are deviations for some of the largest eigenvalues. We interpret these deviations as a system specific property, e.g. containing genuine information about correlations in the stock market. We demonstrate that C shares universal properties with the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices. Furthermore, we analyze the eigenvectors of C through their inverse participation ratio and find eigenvectors with large ratios at both edges of the eigenvalue spectrum - a situation reminiscent of localization theory results. This work was done in collaboration with V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, T. Guhr, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E Stanley and is related to recent work of Laloux et al.. 1. T. Guhr, A. Müller Groeling, and H.A. Weidenmüller, ``Random Matrix Theories in Quantum Physics: Common Concepts'', Phys. Rep. 299, 190 (1998). 2. See, e.g. R.N. Mantegna and H.E. Stanley, Econophysics: Correlations and Complexity in Finance (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1999). 3. V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, B. Rosenow, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E. Stanley, ``Universal and Nonuniversal Properties of Cross Correlations in Financial Time Series'', Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1471 (1999). 4. V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, T. Guhr, B. Rosenow, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E. Stanley, ``Random Matrix Theory Analysis of Diffusion in Stock Price Dynamics, preprint

  3. Flash Updates of GSC projects (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Glockner, Frank Oliver; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos; Meyer, Folker; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cole, James

    2011-04-29

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding Research Coordination Network from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. In quick succession Frank Oliver Glockner (MPI-Bremen), Victor Markowitz (LBNL), Nikos Kyripides (JGI), Folker Meyer (ANL), Linda Amaral-Zettler (Marine Biology Lab), and James Cole (Michigan State University) provide updates on a number of topics related to GSC projects at the Genomic Standards Consortium 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009.

  4. Step-Adatom Attraction as a New Mechanism for Instability in Epitaxial Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques G.; Family, Fereydoon

    1997-03-01

    In detailed field-ion-microscopy studies of adatom diffusion on the Ir(111) surface, Wang and Ehrlich(S.C. Wang and G. Ehrlich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70), 41 (1993). have found that there exists a short-range attractive interaction between an adatom diffusing on a terrace and a cluster. We show that this short-range attraction of adatoms towards clusters and ascending steps leads to an instability towards mound formation in epitaxial growth. This instability is studied both analytically and via Monte Carlo simulations on bcc/fcc(100) surfaces.(J.G. Amar and F. Family, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 4584 (1996). The origin of this instability in terms of second-layer nucleation and its implications for surface morphology and interpretation of recent experiments are also discussed.

  5. Flash Updates of GSC projects (GSC8 Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Glockner, Frank Oliver; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos; Meyer, Folker; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cole, James

    2009-09-09

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding Research Coordination Network from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. In quick succession Frank Oliver Glockner (MPI-Bremen), Victor Markowitz (LBNL), Nikos Kyripides (JGI), Folker Meyer (ANL), Linda Amaral-Zettler (Marine Biology Lab), and James Cole (Michigan State University) provide updates on a number of topics related to GSC projects at the Genomic Standards Consortium 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009.

  6. The effects of spatial constraints on the evolution of weighted complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, Alain; Barthélemy, Marc; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the empirical analysis of the air transportation system, we define a network model that includes geographical attributes along with topological and weight (traffic) properties. The introduction of geographical attributes is made by constraining the network in real space. Interestingly, the inclusion of geometrical features induces non-trivial correlations between the weights, the connectivity pattern and the actual spatial distances of vertices. The model also recovers the emergence of anomalous fluctuations in the betweenness-degree correlation function as first observed by Guimerà and Amaral (2004 Eur. Phys. J. B 38 381). The presented results suggest that the interplay between weight dynamics and spatial constraints is a key ingredient in order to understand the formation of real-world weighted networks.

  7. Topological mass mechanism and exact fields mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, R. L. P. G.; Ventura, O. S.; Buffon, L. O.; Costa, J. V.

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of mappings between models with topological mass mechanism and purely topological models in arbitrary dimensions. These mappings are established by directly mapping the fields of one model in terms of the fields of the other model in closed expressions. These expressions provide the mappings of their actions as well as the mappings of their propagators. For a general class of models in which the topological model becomes the BF model the mappings present arbitrary functions which otherwise are absent for Chern-Simons like actions. This work generalizes the results of (Ventura O S, Amaral R L P G, Costa J V, Buffon L O and Lemes V E R 2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 11711-23) for arbitrary dimensions.

  8. Relaxation of the resistive superconducting state in boron-doped diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardakova, A.; Shishkin, A.; Semenov, A.; Goltsman, G. N.; Ryabchun, S.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Sacépé, B.; Klein, Th.; Bustarret, E.

    2016-02-01

    We report a study of the relaxation time of the restoration of the resistive superconducting state in single crystalline boron-doped diamond using amplitude-modulated absorption of (sub-)THz radiation (AMAR). The films grown on an insulating diamond substrate have a low carrier density of about 2.5 ×1021cm-3 and a critical temperature of about 2 K . By changing the modulation frequency we find a high-frequency rolloff which we associate with the characteristic time of energy relaxation between the electron and the phonon systems or the relaxation time for nonequilibrium superconductivity. Our main result is that the electron-phonon scattering time varies clearly as T-2, over the accessible temperature range of 1.7 to 2.2 K. In addition, we find, upon approaching the critical temperature Tc, evidence for an increasing relaxation time on both sides of Tc.

  9. Topology of technology graphs: small world patterns in electronic circuits.

    PubMed

    Cancho, R F; Janssen, C; Solé, R V

    2001-10-01

    Recent theoretical studies and extensive data analyses have revealed a common feature displayed by biological, social, and technological networks: the presence of small world patterns. Here we analyze this problem by using several graphs obtained from one of the most common technological systems: electronic circuits. It is shown that both analogic and digital circuits exhibit small world behavior. We conjecture that the small world pattern arises from the compact design in which many elements share a small, close physical neighborhood plus the fact that the system must define a single connected component (which requires shortcuts connecting different integrated clusters). The degree distributions displayed are consistent with a conjecture concerning the sharp cutoffs associated to the presence of costly connections [Amaral et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 11 149 (2000)], thus providing a limit case for the classes of universality of small world patterns from real, artificial networks. The consequences for circuit design are outlined. PMID:11690102

  10. Evolution of optimal Lévy-flight strategies in human mental searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Recent analysis of empirical data [Radicchi, Baronchelli, and Amaral, PloS ONE1932-620310.1371/journal.pone.0029910 7, e029910 (2012)] showed that humans adopt Lévy-flight strategies when exploring the bid space in online auctions. A game theoretical model proved that the observed Lévy exponents are nearly optimal, being close to the exponent value that guarantees the maximal economical return to players. Here, we rationalize these findings by adopting an evolutionary perspective. We show that a simple evolutionary process is able to account for the empirical measurements with the only assumption that the reproductive fitness of the players is proportional to their search ability. Contrary to previous modeling, our approach describes the emergence of the observed exponent without resorting to any strong assumptions on the initial searching strategies. Our results generalize earlier research, and open novel questions in cognitive, behavioral, and evolutionary sciences.

  11. BOLD response analysis by iterated local multigrid priors.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Amaral, Selene; Rabbani, Said R; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-06-01

    We present a non parametric Bayesian multiscale method to characterize the Hemodynamic Response HR as function of time. This is done by extending and adapting the Multigrid Priors (MGP) method proposed in (S.D.R. Amaral, S.R. Rabbani, N. Caticha, Multigrid prior for a Bayesian approach to fMRI, NeuroImage 23 (2004) 654-662; N. Caticha, S.D.R. Amaral, S.R. Rabbani, Multigrid Priors for fMRI time series analysis, AIP Conf. Proc. 735 (2004) 27-34). We choose an initial HR model and apply the MGP method to assign a posterior probability of activity for every pixel. This can be used to construct the map of activity. But it can also be used to construct the posterior averaged time series activity for different regions. This permits defining a new model which is only data-dependent. Now in turn it can be used as the model behind a new application of the MGP method to obtain another posterior probability of activity. The method converges in just a few iterations and is quite independent of the original HR model, as long as it contains some information of the activity/rest state of the patient. We apply this method of HR inference both to simulated and real data of blocks and event-related experiments. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are used to measure the number of errors with respect to a few hyperparameters. We also study the deterioration of the results for real data, under information loss. This is done by decreasing the signal to noise ratio and also by decreasing the number of images available for analysis and compare the robustness to other methods. PMID:17258909

  12. Further Geological Sampling Around the Rainbow Hydrothermal Site, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ildefonse, B.; Andréani, M.; Hoisé, E.; Ballu, V.; Escartin, J.; Dyment, J.; Gaill, F.; Fouquet, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The Rainbow hydrothermal site, at 36°14'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is one of the few known site hosted in ultramafic basement. The MOMAR DREAM cruise (July 2007, R/V Pourquoi Pas ?) combined biological and geological objectives to study the role of abundant iron in controlling geological, biological and hydrological active processes at all scales. Two Nautile dives and a dredging program were achieved to further constrain the lithology and geological structures on the seafloor at the scale of the massif that hosts Rainbow. This massif is an inside corner high of the non-transform offset between the AMAR and South AMAR second-order ridge segments, and presents the characteristic dome morphology of oceanic core complexes. The abundant sediment cover of the massif precludes continuous geological mapping and completely successful dredging. However, our limited sampling is consistent with the lithological variability encountered in other oceanic core complexes along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The Rainbow serpentinite basement was continuously observed to a distance of about 1 km to the south of the hydrothermal site, with serpentinites sampled along N-S trending, fault planes steeply dipping to the West. Serpentinites were also found on the northwestern, northern, and northeastern flanks of the massif. Approximately 800 m the North of the hydrothermal site, the most prominent outcrop, cut by a family of subvertical, ~ E-W faults, is at least partly made of olivine- orthopyroxene bearing gabbro. Basalts and fresh basaltic glass were also recovered in talus and sediments on the Southwest and Northeast flanks of the massif.

  13. Fast Quantification of Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging with Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Himanshu; Sajja, Balasrinivasa Rao; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the MRSI-observed regional distribution of metabolites involves relatively long processing times. This is particularly true in dealing with large amount of data that is typically acquired in multi-center clinical studies. To significantly shorten the processing time, an artificial neural network (ANN) based approach was explored for quantifying the phase corrected (as opposed to magnitude) spectra. Specifically, in these studies radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) was used. This method was tested on simulated and normal human brain data acquired at 3T. The N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/ creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, Glutamate + Glutamine (Glx)/Cr, and Myo-inositol (mI)/Cr ratios in normal subjects were compared with the line fitting (LF) technique and jMRUI-AMARES analysis, and published values. The average NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Glx/Cr and mI/Cr ratios in normal controls were found to be 1.58 0.13, 0.9 0.08, 0.7 0.17 and 0.42 0.07 respectively. The corresponding ratios using the LF and jMRUI-AMARES methods were 1.6 0.11, 0.95 0.08, 0.78 0.18, 0.49 0.1 and 1.61 0.15, 0.78 0.07, 0.61 0.18, 0.42 0.13 respectively. These results agree with those published in literature. Bland-Altman analysis indicated an excellent agreement and minimal bias between the results obtained with RBFNN and other methods. The computational time for the current method was 15 seconds compared to approximately 10 minutes for the LF-based analysis. PMID:16949319

  14. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Ten Commercially Available Herbal Dentifrices against Specific Oral Microflora – In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Padma; Hemalatha; Reddy, Srikanth; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of ten commercially available herbal dentifrices against specific strains of oral microflora using a standard diffusion method at full strength and 1:1 dilution at 24 h. Materials and Methods: The standard strains of Streptococcus. mutans (ATCC 21293), Streptococcus sangius (MTCC 442), Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 3268), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 2592), Streptococcus pyogenes (MTCC 442) and Candida albicans (ATCC 183) were obtained. Antimicrobial efficacy of the dentifrices was tested in triplicate, at full strength and 1:1 dilution with the sterile water using a standard diffusion method for 24 h at 37°C. The antimicrobial efficacy was tested by observing the zones of inhibition in millimeters surrounding disk containing the dentifrice. Mean standard deviation and standard error of mean of the inhibitory zones was calculated for each herbal dentifrice. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Danth Kanthi (DK) was the most effective against all the microorganisms producing larger zones of inhibition at 24 h (F.S – 40±1.5; 1:1 dilution – 40±2.71). Amar Premium (AP) also produced larger zones of inhibition against all microorganisms except S. aureus. Of all the dentifrices, least zones of inhibitions i.e., around 5 mm was observed against S. aureus by Amar Premium (AP) and Dabur Babool (DB) at 24 h. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that all herbal dentifrices exhibited antimicrobial activity against the selected oral microorganisms, with DK being the most effective. Hence, it can be inferred that herbal dentifrices can also be recommended like the conventional formulations. PMID:26023642

  15. Effects of pyruvate dose on in vivo metabolism and quantification of hyperpolarized ¹³C spectra.

    PubMed

    Janich, M A; Menzel, M I; Wiesinger, F; Weidl, E; Khegai, O; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J H; Glaser, S J; Haase, A; Schulte, R F; Schwaiger, M

    2012-01-01

    Real-time in vivo measurements of metabolites are performed by signal enhancement of [1-(13)C]pyruvate using dynamic nuclear polarization, rapid dissolution and intravenous injection, acquisition of free induction decay signals and subsequent quantification of spectra. The commonly injected dose of hyperpolarized pyruvate is larger than typical tracer doses, with measurement before complete dilution of the injected bolus. Pyruvate is in exchange with its downstream metabolites lactate, alanine and bicarbonate. A transient exposure to high pyruvate blood concentrations may cause the saturation of cellular uptake and metabolic conversion. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of a [1-(13)C]pyruvate bolus on metabolic conversion in vivo. Spectra were quantified by three different methods: frequency-domain fitting with LCModel, time-domain fitting with AMARES and simple linear least-squares fitting in the time domain. Since the simple linear least-squares approach showed bleeding artifacts and LCModel produced noisier time signals. AMARES performed best in the quantification of in vivo hyperpolarized pyruvate spectra. We examined pyruvate doses of 0.1-0.4 mmol/kg (body mass) in male Wistar rats by acquiring slice-selective free induction decay signals in slices dominated by heart, liver and kidney tissue. Dose effects were noted in all cases, except for alanine in the cardiac slice below the dose of 0.2 mmol/kg. Our results indicate unlimited cellular uptake of pyruvate up to this dose and limited enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase. In the cardiac slice above 0.2 mmol/kg and in liver and kidney slices, reflect limited cellular uptake or enzymatic activity, or a combination of both effects. The results indicate that the dose of pyruvate must be recognized as an important determinant for metabolic tissue kinetics, and saturation effects must be taken into account for the quantitative interpretation of the observed results. PMID:21823181

  16. A Whole Language Program in the Intermediate Grades: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma; Davies, Anne

    Focusing on a whole language program for the middle grades in Canada's Northwest Territories, this interview transcript consists of responses by Anne Davies, a teacher from Yellow Knife, in the Northwest Territories, and currently a doctoral student, to questions posed by Norma Mickelson, a professor at the University of Victoria in British

  17. Silencing the New Woman: Ethnic and Social Mobility in the Melodramas of Norman Talmadge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Greg M.

    1996-01-01

    Explores silent film actress Norma Talmadge's "star persona" in the 1920s. Focuses on the public discourses that provide the background for Talmadge's departure from the screen. Analyzes why her two "talkies" failed commercially and critically. Concentrates on promotional and publicity materials and on the films themselves. (PA)

  18. Transcriptome sequencing to produce a SNP-based genetic map of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing the onion genome is challenging because of its enormous size (16 giga base pairs DNA per haploid genome). Pilot sequencing of onion transcripts showed sufficient numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop a detailed genetic map. We sequenced 2.5 Roche-454 plates of norma...

  19. Assessment of herbicide sorption by biochars and organic matter associated with soil and sediment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption of two herbicides, fluridone (FLUN) and norflurazon (NORO), by whole sediment, two types of biochars and various soil/sediment organic matter (OM) fractions including nonhydrolyzable carbon (NHC), black carbon (BC) and humic acid (HA) was examined. The single-point organic carbon (OC)-norma...

  20. Using Adolescent Fiction That Deals with Current Problems and Lifestyles to Explore Contemporary Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sheila

    This paper argues that a value structure must be developed and taught in the schools. The values and principles contained in the Humanistic Manifesto II are examined in the context of current adolescent literature. Discussed are such books as "It's Not What You Expect" and "Mom, The Wolfman and Me" by Norma Klein; "First Person Singular" by Vida…

  1. The SSD's (social services department) management challenge.

    PubMed

    Raynes, N

    1993-03-01

    Health services managers are used to organisational change, but social services departments have been addressing, and are still facing, major challenges associated with implementing the changes to community care provision. Norma Raynes gives a perspective on local authorities' culture and bureaucracy, which need to change if the community care revolution is to be sustained. PMID:10124959

  2. The Voices of Cultural Assimilation in Current Young Adult Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Presents three renowned writers who have chosen from diverse genres to tell immigrant tales through memoir, contemporary vignettes, and historical fiction. Notes that each author captures very real adolescent voices and their stories. Discusses Frank McCourt's "Angela's Ashes," An Na's "A Step form Heaven," and Norma Fox Mazer's "Goodnight Maman."…

  3. Reading from the Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about Neal Frey, who for more than two decades has labored on behalf of Educational Research Analysts, a conservative Christian textbook-reviewing organization in Longview, Texas that was founded by the famously outspoken husband-and-wife team of Mel and Norma Gabler. When Mr. Gabler died at the age of 89, and…

  4. How Texas Rewrote Your Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Wayne A.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews issues and events related to adopting high school biology textbooks in Texas. Specific reference is given to the viewpoints of Mel and Norma Gabler. It is argued that factors controlling textbook content should not result from past market forces, but from a permanent science constituency and an informed public. (DH)

  5. Forty Targets of the Textbook Protesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkinson, Edward B.

    This paper gives a brief history of the Reverend Jerry Falwell's Moral Majority campaign against humanism in public school education. The document describes the successful textbook evaluation strategies of Mel and Norma Gabler of Texas, on which Dr. Falwell relies heavily, and lists 20 organizations protesting textbooks, library books, and…

  6. Chapter & Verse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Neal Frey reads textbooks for a living, a job he finds singularly fulfilling. For more than two decades, he had labored on behalf of Educational Research Analysts, a conservative Christian textbook-reviewing organization in Longview, Texas, founded by the famously outspoken husband-and-wife team of Mel Gabler and Norma Gabler. Since the early…

  7. A Lightning Rod on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Examines the work of Norma V. Cantu, the head of the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights and the controversy surrounding her tenure. Issues discussed include the range of concerns she must address, including affirmative action, gender equity in athletics, and college desegregation in the South, and her strategies for…

  8. Textbooks on Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefley, James C.

    This book recounts in narrative form the influence of Mel and Norma Gabler, two Texas parents, on the purchase of textbooks for Texas schools. Concerned over content they found objectionable, for more than ten years the Gablers used direct mail campaigns, radio talk shows, petition drives, and personal appearances, in addition to testifying…

  9. Geophysicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    In Memoriam: Francis R. ``Joe'' Boyd, John B. Ivey, William Warren Kellogg, Norma N. McMillin, Henry T. R. Radoski, William (Bill) Sackett, John W. Sherman, III, Kjell Petter Skjerlie, Peter Bernard Smoor; Recent Ph.D.s: Joan Bech, Mark Pickett

  10. Expanding the Literary Canon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwedel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    For most college students, literature courses began in high school and consisted almost entirely of the classics of America and Western Europe. English professor Norma E. Cantu says the emergence of Hispanic literature and its growing popularity on college campuses around the country--and the world--is proof that American literature is expanding…

  11. The Voices of Cultural Assimilation in Current Young Adult Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Presents three renowned writers who have chosen from diverse genres to tell immigrant tales through memoir, contemporary vignettes, and historical fiction. Notes that each author captures very real adolescent voices and their stories. Discusses Frank McCourt's "Angela's Ashes," An Na's "A Step form Heaven," and Norma Fox Mazer's "Goodnight Maman."

  12. Impasse at the MLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    2009-01-01

    At the annual gathering of the Modern Language Association (MLA), panel members seemed to talk past each other. Mark Bauerlein and David Horowitz each criticized the professoriate for not acknowledging real problems in the classroom or the ways identity politics can infringe on academic freedom. Norma V. Canti and Cary Nelson did not respond to…

  13. REDUCTION OF IONIC SPECIES BY FULVIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that a fulvic acid derived from soil is capable of reducing Hg(II) to Hg(0), Fe(III) to Fe(II), and I2 and I3(-1) to I(-1) under conditions generally characteristic of natural waters. The evaluation indicates a reduction potential approximately 0.5 V (vs. norma...

  14. Discipline-Based Art Education: Its Criticisms and Its Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the criticisms of discipline-based art education published in the March 1988 issue of "Art Education." Responds to the arguments of Peter London, Helen Muth, Norma K. Pittard, and Karen Hamblen. States that art education would be better served if the energy devoted to criticism was directed toward constructive ends. (GEA)

  15. Network oriented radiological and medical archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, M.; Frixione, P.; Squarcia, S.

    2001-10-01

    In this paper the basic ideas of NORMA (Network Oriented Radiological and Medical Archive) are discussed. NORMA is an original project built by a team of physicists in collaboration with radiologists in order to select the best Treatment Planning in radiotherapy. It allows physicians and health physicists, working in different places, to discuss on interesting clinical cases visualizing the same diagnostic images, at the same time, and highlighting zones of interest (tumors and organs at risk). NORMA has a client/server architecture in order to be platform independent. Applying World Wide Web technologies, it can be easily used by people with no specific computer knowledge providing a verbose help to guide the user through the right steps of execution. The client side is an applet while the server side is a Java application. In order to optimize execution the project also includes a proprietary protocol, lying over TCP/IP suite, that organizes data exchanges and control messages. Diagnostic images are retrieved from a relational database or from a standard DICOM (Digital Images and COmmunications in Medicine) PACS through the DICOM-WWW gateway allowing connection of the usual Web browsers, used by the NORMA system, to DICOM applications via the HTTP protocol. Browser requests are sent to the gateway from the Web server through CGI (Common Gateway Interface). DICOM software translates the requests in DICOM messages and organizes the communication with the remote DICOM Application.

  16. Deconstructing Gender Stereotyping through Literature in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yulita, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that literature fosters (inter)cultural learning, few qualitative studies have sought to understand in what ways interculturality is developed. This article investigates the development of Spanish L2 students' intercultural awareness through the reading of a short story entitled "Norma y Ester" by Argentine writer,…

  17. A Fragile Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Kendrick

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles Norma Jean Taylor, a teacher who is suffering from an incurable degenerative disease. She can no longer walk, or even write legibly. But with help from students and colleagues, she remains a cornerstone of her school. The disease has not yet taken her love of teaching, though it has forced her to radically…

  18. Using Dialogue between Researcher and Participants as a Method of Coping with Issues of Credibility in Translation of Hispanics' Professional Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Norma Landa

    This paper contrasts Edward Hall's microcultural analysis method of teaching members of different cultures how to interact with the others, with Norma Flores' macrocultural Intercultural Assessment of Communication Competency and English Speaking Skills (I ACCESS) method of giving members of different cultures an opportunity to collaborate with…

  19. YA Novels in the AP Classroom: Crutcher Meets Camus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Patricia

    1989-01-01

    Describes existential elements in three novels for adolescents: "The Crazy Horse Electric Game" and "Running Loose" by Chris Crutcher; and "God, the Universe and Hot Fudge Sundaes" by Norma Howe. Asserts that adolescent literature in an advanced-placement English class can connect the classics to the present. (MM)

  20. Trustee Quarterly, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" combined here focus on topics of current concern to community college trustees. The winter 1994 issues offers these feature articles: "Honoring Retiring Presidents," by Terry O'Banion; "Trustees as Reluctant Leaders: The Board/CEO Relationship," Norma Jean Germond, John Keyser, and Vaughn A. Sherman; and…

  1. 75 FR 48337 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Officer) 90 Hennepin Avenue, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55480-0291: 1. Richard G. Anderson, Helena, Montana... Equipment Rental); Margaret F. Anderson; Norma J. Anderson, all of Helena, Montana; and David L. Anderson... thereby indirectly acquire and retain control of Mountain West Bank, National Association, both of...

  2. New Responses to Enduring Questions in Religious and Theological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siejk, Cate

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a response to two provocative questions about the relationship of theology to religious education posed by Norma Thompson in her Presidential address given at the annual meeting of APRRE in 1978. I offer contemporary answers to these questions from the perspective of a theological educator. First, I show how feminist theory and…

  3. Analysis of HRCT-derived xylem network reveals reverse flow in some vessels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow in xylem vessels is modeled based on constructions of three dimensional xylem networks derived from High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) images of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) stems. Flow in 6-14% of the vessels was found to be oriented in the opposite direction to the bulk flow under norma...

  4. Temporal and Spatial Variability of Ross polynya using Multi-Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Jo, Y. H.

    2014-12-01

    Polynyas are particularly vulnerable to not only local environmental changes, but also global climate changes through air-sea-ice interactions. In order to understand the large scales of its interactions, a temporal and spatial variation of polynyas and, areas of open water in the middle of ice shelf, around the Antarctica were analyzed based on remote sensing measurements. Especially, the polynya in the Ross Sea (Ross polynya) was analyzed, which was the largest on among the all of them around the Antarctica for last decades. Accordingly, the main purpose of this presentation is to (1) evaluate a variability of Ross polynya spatial and temporal characteristics and (2) address relationship between spatial polynya variability and global warming effect. In order to conduct research the observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMAR-E) were used. The products (SST, wind speed, cloud vapor, atmospheric water vapor and rain rate), including sea ice extent, are from June 2002 to October 2011. Additionally, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data sets were used to estimate mass changes in adjacent ice sheet affected by local atmospheric condition. Based on the nine year's data, research results suggest that Ross polynya normally started to appear around the end of December and persist for about 77.5 days. The extent of Ross polynya in 2011 is the largest and had a tendency to increase year after year. SST in adjacent sea has slightly decreased for the same period (as 0.054◦C yr-1) due to the melting ice and variation of wind, water vapor and rain rate are 0.054 m s-1 yr-1, -0.027 mm yr-1 and 0.001 mm hr-1 yr-1, respectively. Increase land mass in the west-southern Antarctica could be the result of accumulating snow which is made of vapor induced by extended polynya. In addition, we would conduct to evaluate a correlation with characteristics of other global and local components corresponding climate change and understand that how the climate change effect have implications for Ross polynya and glacial or environmental condition in the vicinity.

  5. Emperical Laws in Economics Uncovered Using Methods in Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2001-06-01

    In recent years, statistical physicists and computational physicists have determined that physical systems which consist of a large number of interacting particles obey universal "scaling laws" that serve to demonstrate an intrinsic self-similarity operating in such systems. Further, the parameters appearing in these scaling laws appear to be largely independent of the microscopic details. Since economic systems also consist of a large number of interacting units, it is plausible that scaling theory can be usefully applied to economics. To test this possibility using realistic data sets, a number of scientists have begun analyzing economic data using methods of statistical physics [1]. We have found evidence for scaling (and data collapse), as well as universality, in various quantities, and these recent results will be reviewed in this talk--starting with the most recent study [2]. We also propose models that may lead to some insight into these phenomena. These results will be discussed, as well as the overall rationale for why one might expect scaling principles to hold for complex economic systems. This work on which this talk is based is supported by BP, and was carried out in collaboration with L. A. N. Amaral S. V. Buldyrev, D. Canning, P. Cizeau, X. Gabaix, P. Gopikrishnan, S. Havlin, Y. Lee, Y. Liu, R. N. Mantegna, K. Matia, M. Meyer, C.-K. Peng, V. Plerou, M. A. Salinger, and M. H. R. Stanley. [1.] See, e.g., R. N. Mantegna and H. E. Stanley, Introduction to Econophysics: Correlations & Complexity in Finance (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999). [2.] P. Gopikrishnan, B. Rosenow, V. Plerou, and H. E. Stanley, "Identifying Business Sectors from Stock Price Fluctuations," e-print cond-mat/0011145; V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, L. A. N. Amaral, X. Gabaix, and H. E. Stanley, "Diffusion and Economic Fluctuations," Phys. Rev. E (Rapid Communications) 62, 3023-3026 (2000); P. Gopikrishnan, V. Plerou, X. Gabaix, and H. E. Stanley, "Statistical Properties of Share Volume Traded in Financial Markets," Phys. Rev. E (Rapid Communications) 62, 4493-4496 (2000).

  6. Geological mapping of the Rainbow Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 36°14'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ildefonse, B.; Fouquet, Y.; Hoisé, E.; Dyment, J.; Gente, P.; Thibaud, R.; Bissessur, D.; Yatheesh, V.; Momardream 2008 Scientific Party*, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Rainbow hydrothermal field at 36°14'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is one of the few known sites hosted in ultramafic basement. The Rainbow Massif is located along the non-transform offset between the AMAR and South AMAR second-order ridge segments, and presents the characteristic dome morphology of oceanic core complexes, although no corrugated surface has been observed so far. One of the objectives of Cruises MOMAR DREAM (July 2007, R/V Pourquoi Pas ?; Aug-Sept 2008, R/V Atalante) was to study the petrological and structural context of the hydrothermal system at the scale of the Rainbow Massif. Our geological sampling complements previous ones achieved during Cruises FLORES (1997) and IRIS (2001), and consisted in dredge hauls, and submersible dives by manned submersible Nautile and ROV Victor. The tectonics of the Rainbow Massif is dominated by a N-S trending fault pattern on the western flank of the massif, and a series of SW-NW ridges on its northeastern side. The active hydrothermal site is located in the area were these two systems crosscut. The most abundant recovered rock type is peridotite (harzburgite and dunite) that presents a variety of serpentinization styles and intensity, and a variety of deformation styles (commonly undeformed, sometimes displaying ductile or brittle foliations). Serpentinites are frequently oxidized. Some peridotite samples have melt impregnation textures. Massive chromitite was recovered in one dredge haul. Variously evolved gabbroic rocks were collected as discrete samples or as centimeter to decimeter-thick dikes in peridotites. Basalts and fresh basaltic glass were also sampled in talus and sediments on the southwestern and northeastern flanks of the massif. Our sampling is consistent with the lithological variability encountered in oceanic core complexes along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Southwest Indian Ridge. The stockwork of the hydrothermal system has been sampled on the western side of the present-day hydrothermal field, along N-S trending normal fault scarps, and within the talus underneath. It is made of massive sulfides, strongly altered serpentinites, and breccias containing elements of iron sulfide/oxide impregnated serpentinites. * K. Bukas, V. Cueff Gauchard, L. Durand, F. Gaill, C. Konn, F. Lartaud, N. Le Bris, G. Musset, A. Nunes, J. Renard, V. Riou, A. Tasiemski, P. Torres, I. Vojdani, M. Zbinden

  7. Momentum space saturation model for deep inelastic scattering and single inclusive hadron production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, E. A. F.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; de Oliveira, E. G.

    2011-08-01

    We show how the Santana Amaral-Gay Ducati-Betemps-Soyez (AGBS) model, originally developed for deep inelastic scattering applied to HERA data on the proton structure function, can also describe the RHIC data on single inclusive hadron yield for d+Au and p+p collisions through a new simultaneous fit. The single inclusive hadron production is modeled through the color glass condensate, which uses the quark (and gluon) condensate amplitudes in momentum space. The AGBS model is also a momentum space model based on the asymptotic solutions of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, although a different definition of the Fourier transform is used. This aspect is overcome, and a description entirely in transverse momentum of both processes arises for the first time. The small difference between the simultaneous fit and the one for HERA data alone suggests that the AGBS model describes very well both kinds of processes and thus emerges as a good tool to investigate the inclusive hadron production data. We use this model for predictions at LHC energies, which agrees very well with available experimental data.

  8. Sublattice parallel replica dynamics.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Enrique; Uberuaga, Blas P; Voter, Arthur F

    2014-06-01

    Exascale computing presents a challenge for the scientific community as new algorithms must be developed to take full advantage of the new computing paradigm. Atomistic simulation methods that offer full fidelity to the underlying potential, i.e., molecular dynamics (MD) and parallel replica dynamics, fail to use the whole machine speedup, leaving a region in time and sample size space that is unattainable with current algorithms. In this paper, we present an extension of the parallel replica dynamics algorithm [A. F. Voter, Phys. Rev. B 57, R13985 (1998)] by combining it with the synchronous sublattice approach of Shim and Amar [ and , Phys. Rev. B 71, 125432 (2005)], thereby exploiting event locality to improve the algorithm scalability. This algorithm is based on a domain decomposition in which events happen independently in different regions in the sample. We develop an analytical expression for the speedup given by this sublattice parallel replica dynamics algorithm and compare it with parallel MD and traditional parallel replica dynamics. We demonstrate how this algorithm, which introduces a slight additional approximation of event locality, enables the study of physical systems unreachable with traditional methodologies and promises to better utilize the resources of current high performance and future exascale computers. PMID:25019913

  9. The possible role of resource requirements and academic career-choice risk on gender differences in publication rate and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohan; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Otis, Shayna; Woodruff, Teresa; Amaral, Luis

    2013-03-01

    Many studies demonstrate that there is still a significant gender bias, especially at higher career levels, in many areas including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated field-dependent, gender-specific effects of the selective pressures individuals experience as they pursue a career in academia within seven STEM disciplines. We built a unique database that comprises 437,787 publications authored by 4,292 faculty members at top United States research universities. Our analyses reveal that gender differences in publication rate and impact are discipline-specific. Our results also support two hypotheses. First, the widely-reported lower publication rates of female faculty are correlated with the amount of research resources typically needed in the discipline considered, and thus may be explained by the lower level of institutional support historically received by females. Second, in disciplines where pursuing an academic position incurs greater career risk, female faculty tend to have a greater fraction of higher impact publications than males. Our findings have significant, field-specific, policy implications for achieving diversity at the faculty level within the STEM disciplines. L. A. N. Amaral gratefully acknowledges the support of NSF awards SBE 0624318 and 0830388, and ThomsonReuters for access to the WoS data. J. Duch and M. Sales-Pardo's work have been partially supported by the Spanish DGICYT under project FIS2010-18639.

  10. Thermographic diagnostics to discriminate skin lesions: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringasci, Mirian Denise; Moriyama, Lilian Tan; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is responsible for about 13% of all causes of death in the world. Over 7 million people die annually of this disease. In most cases, the survival rates are greater when diagnosed in early stages. It is known that tumor lesions present a different temperature compared with the normal tissues. Some studies have been performed in an attempt to establish new diagnosis methods, targeting this temperature difference. In this study, we aim to investigate the use of a handheld thermographic camera to discriminate skin lesions. The patients presenting Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Actinic Keratosis, Pigmented Seborrheic Keratosis, Melanoma or Intradermal Nevus lesions have been investigated at the Skin Departament of Amaral Carvalho Hospital. Patients are selected by a dermatologist, and the lesion images are recorded using an infrared camera. The images are evaluated taken into account the temperature level, and differences into lesion areas, borders, and between altered and normal skin. The present results show that thermography may be an important tool for aiding in the clinical diagnostics of superficial skin lesions.

  11. Saldanha Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A Controlled Source EM Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, M. C.; Santos, F.; Dzhatieva, Z.; Dias, A.; Marques, A. F.; Silva, N.; de Nijs, I.

    2005-12-01

    In November-December 2004 a controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) survey was carried out on the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during cruise Charles Darwin 167. The work is centred on a non-transform offset between the FAMOUS and AMAR segments, at 36 34' North. Here, a prominent feature is the Saldanha massif: a dome of unroofed mantle rocks, consisting largely of serpentised peridotites, and at whose summit significant low-temperature hydrothermal venting has been documented. Our objective is to determine the distribution of electrical resistivity and hence porosity over a volume of ~ 10 km x 10 km x 3 km vertically, in order to constrain the degree of penetration of seawater into the crust and uppermost mantle; to contrast the porosity structure here with volcanically hosted systems away from segment boundaries elsewhere on the MAR; and to constrain models of non-volcanic heat sources and hydrothermal circulation in ultramafic settings at slow spreading ridges. In addition to the CSEM survey we obtained swath bathymetry, gravity and magnetic data; water column physical properties and seafloor current data; and a number of dredge and gravity core samples. We shall present details of the data and samples, together with our preliminary analysis of the results.

  12. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M.; Ribeiro, H.; Delgado, J. L.; Abreu, I.

    2009-01-01

    Although fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere throughout the year, their concentration oscillates widely. This work aims to establish correlations between fungal spore concentrations in Porto and Amares and meteorological data. The seasonal distribution of fungal spores was studied continuously (2005-2007) using volumetric spore traps. To determine the effect of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on spore concentration, the Spearman rank correlation test was used. In both locations, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Agaricus, Agrocybe, Alternaria and Aspergillus/Penicillium, the highest concentrations being found during summer and autumn. In the present study, with the exception of Coprinus and Pleospora, spore concentrations were higher in the rural area than in the urban location. Among the selected spore types, spring-autumn spores ( Coprinus, Didymella, Leptosphaeria and Pleospora) exhibited negative correlations with temperature and positive correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. On the contrary, late spring-early summer (Smuts) and summer spores ( Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma, Stemphylium and Ustilago) exhibited positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. Rust, a frequent spore type during summer, had a positive correlation with temperature. Aspergillus/Penicillium, showed no correlation with the meteorological factors analysed. This knowledge can be useful for agriculture, allowing more efficient and reliable application of pesticides, and for human health, by improving the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic disease.

  13. Important phytopathogenic airborne fungal spores in a rural area: incidence of Botrytis cinerea and Oidium spp.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Guerner-Moreira, Joaquim; Mesquita, Maria; Abreu, Ilda

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the climatic changes more and more frequently, favour the emergence and the development of plant diseases. Botrytis cinerea and Oidium spp. spores are often responsible for enormous productivity losses in cultures with high commercial interests such as the grapevine. This work aims to detect these airborne spores, before the emergence of lesions in Vitis vinifera. In the rural area of Amares, the seasonal distribution of the concentration of the 2 spore types, was continuously studied between 1 March-31 October (2005-2007), using a 7-day volumetric Hirst-type spore trap. These data was compared with phytopathological data. B. cinerea sporulation occurs in March-April while Oidium spp. occurs in April-May. Fluctuations were observed due to the influence of different meteorological factors. The emergence of the first signs of grey mould and powdery mildew were preceded by increments of B. cinerea and Oidium spp. spore concentration. The precocious detection of increasing trends in airborne spore concentration of B. cinerea and Oidium spp. can notify the probable onset of grey mould and powdery mildew leading to application of lower quantities of phytopharmaceutical products in the most favourable developmental stage. PMID:20047251

  14. Extinction risk and structure of a food web model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pękalski, Andrzej; Szwabiński, Janusz; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel

    2008-03-01

    We investigate in detail the model of a trophic web proposed by Amaral and Meyer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 652 (1999)]. We focus on small-size systems that are relevant for real biological food webs and for which the fluctuations play an important role. We show, using Monte Carlo simulations, that such webs can be nonviable, leading to extinction of all species in small and/or weakly coupled systems. Estimations of the extinction times and survival chances are also given. We show that before the extinction the fraction of highly connected species (“omnivores”) is increasing. Viable food webs exhibit a pyramidal structure, where the density of occupied niches is higher at lower trophic levels, and moreover the occupations of adjacent levels are closely correlated. We also demonstrate that the distribution of the lengths of food chains has an exponential character and changes weakly with the parameters of the model. On the contrary, the distribution of avalanche sizes of the extinct species depends strongly on the connectedness of the web. For rather loosely connected systems, we recover the power-law type of behavior with the same exponent as found in earlier studies, while for densely connected webs the distribution is not of a power-law type.

  15. Neural correlates of abstract verb processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Gennari, Silvia P; Davies, Robert; Cuetos, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of the processing of abstract (low imageability) verbs. An extensive body of literature has investigated concrete versus abstract nouns but little is known about how abstract verbs are processed. Spanish abstract verbs including emotion verbs (e.g., amar, "to love"; molestar, "to annoy") were compared to concrete verbs (e.g., llevar, "to carry"; arrastrar, "to drag"). Results indicated that abstract verbs elicited stronger activity in regions previously associated with semantic retrieval such as inferior frontal, anterior temporal, and posterior temporal regions, and that concrete and abstract activation networks (compared to that of pseudoverbs) were partially distinct, with concrete verbs eliciting more posterior activity in these regions. In contrast to previous studies investigating nouns, verbs strongly engage both left and right inferior frontal gyri, suggesting, as previously found, that right prefrontal cortex aids difficult semantic retrieval. Together with previous evidence demonstrating nonverbal conceptual roles for the active regions as well as experiential content for abstract word meanings, our results suggest that abstract verbs impose greater demands on semantic retrieval or property integration, and are less consistent with the view that abstract words recruit left-lateralized regions because they activate verbal codes or context, as claimed by proponents of the dual-code theory. Moreover, our results are consistent with distributed accounts of semantic memory because distributed networks may coexist with varying retrieval demands. PMID:20044889

  16. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Ribeiro, H; Delgado, J L; Abreu, I

    2009-01-01

    Although fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere throughout the year, their concentration oscillates widely. This work aims to establish correlations between fungal spore concentrations in Porto and Amares and meteorological data. The seasonal distribution of fungal spores was studied continuously (2005-2007) using volumetric spore traps. To determine the effect of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on spore concentration, the Spearman rank correlation test was used. In both locations, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Agaricus, Agrocybe, Alternaria and Aspergillus/Penicillium, the highest concentrations being found during summer and autumn. In the present study, with the exception of Coprinus and Pleospora, spore concentrations were higher in the rural area than in the urban location. Among the selected spore types, spring-autumn spores (Coprinus, Didymella, Leptosphaeria and Pleospora) exhibited negative correlations with temperature and positive correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. On the contrary, late spring-early summer (Smuts) and summer spores (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma, Stemphylium and Ustilago) exhibited positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. Rust, a frequent spore type during summer, had a positive correlation with temperature. Aspergillus/Penicillium, showed no correlation with the meteorological factors analysed. This knowledge can be useful for agriculture, allowing more efficient and reliable application of pesticides, and for human health, by improving the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic disease. PMID:19048306

  17. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. from Puerto Madryn, Argentina (Polychaeta, Polynoidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; González, Norma Emilia; Salazar-Silva, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among polychaetes, polynoids have the highest number of symbiotic species found living with a wide variety of marine invertebrates, including other polychaetes. Lepidasthenia Malmgren, 1867 and Lepidametria Webster, 1879 were regarded as synonyms but belong to different subfamilies, although both have species associated with thelepodid or terebellid polychaetes. In this contribution Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. is described from several specimens associated with the thelepodid Thelepus antarcticus Kinberg, 1867, collected on a rocky shore near Puerto Madryn, Argentina. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. can be confused with Lepidasthenia esbelta Amaral & Nonato, 1982 because both live with Thelepus, are of similar sizes with similar pigmentation patterns, and have giant neurochaetae. However, in Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. all eyes are of the same size, cephalic and parapodial cirri are tapered and mucronate, the second pair of elytra is larger than the third, the ventral cirri arise at the base of parapodia such that they do not reach chaetal lobe tips, and neuraciculae are tapered. On the contrary, in Lepidasthenia esbelta the posterior eyes are larger than anterior ones, cephalic and parapodial appendages are swollen subdistally, the second and third pairs of elytra are of the same size, the ventral cirri arise medially such that their tips reach the neurochaetal lobe tips, and the neuraciculae have falcate tips. Some comments about other genera in the Lepidastheniinae, a simplified key to its genera, and a key to Lepidasthenia species with giant neurochaetae are also included. PMID:26798303

  18. Securing wide appreciation of health statistics

    PubMed Central

    Pyrrait, A. M. DO Amaral; Aubenque, M. J.; Benjamin, B.; DE Groot, Meindert J. W.; Kohn, R.

    1954-01-01

    All the authors are agreed on the need for a certain publicizing of health statistics, but do Amaral Pyrrait points out that the medical profession prefers to convince itself rather than to be convinced. While there is great utility in articles and reviews in the professional press (especially for paramedical personnel) Aubenque, de Groot, and Kohn show how appreciation can effectively be secured by making statistics more easily understandable to the non-expert by, for instance, including readable commentaries in official publications, simplifying charts and tables, and preparing simple manuals on statistical methods. Aubenque and Kohn also stress the importance of linking health statistics to other economic and social information. Benjamin suggests that the principles of market research could to advantage be applied to health statistics to determine the precise needs of the “consumers”. At the same time, Aubenque points out that the value of the ultimate results must be clear to those who provide the data; for this, Kohn suggests that the enumerators must know exactly what is wanted and why. There is general agreement that some explanation of statistical methods and their uses should be given in the curricula of medical schools and that lectures and postgraduate courses should be arranged for practising physicians. PMID:13199668

  19. An X-ray source associated with a Vista Variables Survey nova candidate nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Valle, M. Della

    2016-02-01

    We report that one of the ten Galactic transients proposed to be novae, discovered in the Vista-Variables-Via Lactea (VVV) Survey disk area by Saito et al. (ATel 8602), VVV-NOV-13, is spatially coincident with a faint, hard X-ray source observed in 2011 June 16 and 17 for 19700 s in a survey of the NORMA spiral arm with the Chandra ACIS-I camera (P.I.

  20. Model-based online learning with kernels.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqi; Wen, Changyun; Li, Zheng Guo; Zhang, Aimin; Yang, Feng; Mao, Kezhi

    2013-03-01

    New optimization models and algorithms for online learning with Kernels (OLK) in classification, regression, and novelty detection are proposed in a reproducing Kernel Hilbert space. Unlike the stochastic gradient descent algorithm, called the naive online Reg minimization algorithm (NORMA), OLK algorithms are obtained by solving a constrained optimization problem based on the proposed models. By exploiting the techniques of the Lagrange dual problem like Vapnik's support vector machine (SVM), the solution of the optimization problem can be obtained iteratively and the iteration process is similar to that of the NORMA. This further strengthens the foundation of OLK and enriches the research area of SVM. We also apply the obtained OLK algorithms to problems in classification, regression, and novelty detection, including real time background substraction, to show their effectiveness. It is illustrated that, based on the experimental results of both classification and regression, the accuracy of OLK algorithms is comparable with traditional SVM-based algorithms, such as SVM and least square SVM (LS-SVM), and with the state-of-the-art algorithms, such as Kernel recursive least square (KRLS) method and projectron method, while it is slightly higher than that of NORMA. On the other hand, the computational cost of the OLK algorithm is comparable with or slightly lower than existing online methods, such as above mentioned NORMA, KRLS, and projectron methods, but much lower than that of SVM-based algorithms. In addition, different from SVM and LS-SVM, it is possible for OLK algorithms to be applied to non-stationary problems. Also, the applicability of OLK in novelty detection is illustrated by simulation results. PMID:24808310

  1. High resolution topography of the Rainbow hydrothermal area, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 36° 14 N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gente, P.; Thibaud, R.; Dyment, J.; Fouquet, Y.; Ildefonse, B.; Hoise, E.; Bissessur, D.; Yatheesh, V.; Scientific Party, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Rainbow hydrothermal field at 36° 14 N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is one of the few known sites hosted in ultramafic environment. The active site is located on a dome structure in the non-transform offset between the AMAR and South AMAR second-order ridge segments. One of the objectives of Cruise MOMAR DREAM (Aug-Sept 2008, R/V Atalante and ROV Victor) was a near-bottom detailed and exhaustive mapping of the hydrothermal site and its vicinities using the multibeam echosounder Reson SeaBat 7125 (400 Khz) and the high sensitivity photographic camera OTUS installed on ROV Victor. This first high resolution survey of the Rainbow massif has provided bathymetric maps with a resolution of a centimeter in depth and space for the surveys carried out at the altitude of 10 m (close to Site Rainbow), and some ten centimeters for the surveys at 50 m (a larger area, 4x3 km long). The frequency of the pings is 7 cycles by second for 512 beams with an opening of 150° and a speed of the ROV of 0.3-0.4 m/s. The data have been processed with the CARAIBES software of IFREMER. The ROV is positioned with the Posidonia Ultra Short Baseline system (USBL) and an estimated navigation from the loch and heading of the vehicle. The active hydrothermal site extends along an EW direction on about 200 m. It is localized on one important mound, around 20 m in diameter, which displays the highest chimneys like "Thermitiere". Small chimneys are sparse at the east of this mound, and another inactive mound is located 200m in the northeast. The whole hydrothermal area is located just north of a highly fractured domain made of a series of north-south high- angle normal faults making steps at least 40 meters high. This 400 m wide tectonic area extends to the south on about 600-700 m. The faults give access to the stockwork of the hydrothermal system, which has been sampled. North of the hydrothermal area, a 400 m large landslide cut across the serpentinite environment. At a wider scale, the tectonics of the Rainbow Massif is dominated by a N-S trending fault pattern on its western flank, and a series of SW-NE ridges on its northeastern side. These ridges are bordered by a series of normal fault with facing-slopes to the south-east. Smaller NW-SE oriented fractures seem to affect the whole Rainbow massif. In conclusion, the Rainbow massif is highly tectonized by normal faults oriented along three different directions. No evidence of the large low-angle fault system predicted by the core complex model could be observed. Momardream party : K. Bukas, V. Cueff Gauchard, L. Durand, F. Gaill, C. Konn, F. Lartaud, N. Le Bris, G. Musset, A. Nunes, J. Renard, V. Riou, A. Tasiemski, P. Torres, I. Vojdani, M. Zbinden

  2. Development of a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Sudan I in food samples.

    PubMed

    Han, Dan; Yu, Meng; Knopp, Dietmar; Niessner, Reinhard; Wu, Mei; Deng, Anping

    2007-08-01

    A highly selective and sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Sudan I was developed. Two hapten derivatives with different lengths of carboxylic spacer at the azo-bound para-position were synthesized and coupled to carrier proteins. The hapten-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates were used as immunogens, while the hapten-ovalbumin (OA) conjugates were applied as coating antigens. The antisera which were obtained from four immunized rabbits were characterized in terms of sensitivity and specificity. At optimal experimental conditions it was found that IC50 and LOD values of seven pairs based on four antisera and two coating antigens were in the range of 0.3-2 ng/mL and 0.02-0.1 ng/mL, respectively. The most sensitive ELISA could be established with Sudan I-propionic acid-OA coating antigen and the antiserum which was obtained with the corresponding immunogen. The cross-reactivity values of the four antisera with Sudan II, III, and IV was estimated with 0.1-14.3%. No cross-reactivity was found with six edible colorants Sunset yellow, Amarant, Kermes, Indigotin, Bright blue and Lemon yellow, indicating high specificity for Sudan I. Six food samples were fortified with Sudan I and extracted by simple sample preparation. The methanolic extracts after dilution with methanol:water (5:95, v/v) were analyzed by the developed ELISA. Assay precision and accuracy was estimated by determination of three replicates. Acceptable recovery rates of 92.5-114% and intra-assay coefficients of variation of 5.9-24.8% were obtained. The data were validated by conventional HPLC method. As revealed, both methods were highly correlated (r = 0.9851, n = 7), demonstrating the applicability of the developed ELISA for Sudan I analysis in food samples. PMID:17622156

  3. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  4. fMRI and MRS measures of neuroplasticity in the pharyngeal motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Michou, Emilia; Williams, Steve; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Downey, Darragh; Mistry, Satish; Edden, Richard A.E.; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paired associative stimulation (PAS), is a novel non-invasive technique where two neural substrates are employed in a temporally coordinated manner in order to modulate cortico-motor excitability within the motor cortex (M1). In swallowing, combined pharyngeal electrical and transcranial-magnetic-stimulation induced beneficial neurophysiological and behavioural effects in healthy subjects and dysphagic stroke patients. Here, we aimed to investigate the whole-brain changes in neural activation during swallowing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following PAS application and in parallel assess associated GABA changes with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods Healthy adults (n = 11, 38 ± 9 years old) were randomised to receive real and sham PAS to the ‘stronger’ motor cortex pharyngeal representation, on 2 separate visits. Following PAS, event-related fMRI was performed to assess changes in brain activation in response to water and saliva swallowing and during rest. Data were analysed (SPM8) at P < .001. MRS data were acquired using MEGA-PRESS before and after the fMRI acquisitions on both visits and GABA concentrations were measured (AMARES, jMRUI). Results Following real PAS, BOLD signal changes (group analyses) increased at the site of stimulation during water and saliva swallowing, compared to sham PAS. It is also evident that PAS induced significant increases in BOLD signal to contralateral (to stimulation) hemispheric areas that are of importance to the swallowing neural network. Following real PAS, GABA: creatine ratio showed a trend to increase contralateral to PAS. Conclusion Targeted PAS applied to the human pharyngeal motor cortex induces local and remote changes in both primary and non-primary areas for water and saliva tasks. There is a possibility that changes of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, may play a role in the changes in BOLD signal. These findings provide evidence for the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of PAS on the brain swallowing network. PMID:25976926

  5. Optical Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, Dmitry; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson

    2013-03-01

    Part I. Principles and Techniques: 1. General principles and characteristics of optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, E. B. Alexandrov and D. Budker; 2. Quantum noise in atomic magnetometers M. V. Romalis; 3. Quantum noise, squeezing, and entanglement in radio-frequency optical magnetometers K. Jensen and E. S. Polzik; 4. Mx and Mz magnetometers E. B. Alexandrov and A. K. Vershovskiy; 5. Spin-exchange-relaxation-free (serf) magnetometers I. Savukov and S. J. Seltzer; 6. Optical magnetometry with modulated light D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. Pustelny, V. V. Yashchuk and D. Budker; 7. Microfabricated atomic magnetometers S. Knappe and J. Kitching; 8. Optical magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, P. R. Hemmer, J. R. Maze and R. L. Walsworth; 9. Magnetometry with cold atoms W. Gawlik and J. M. Higbie; 10. Helium magnetometers R. E. Slocum, D. D. McGregor and A. W. Brown; 11. Surface coatings for atomic magnetometry S. J. Seltzer, M.-A. Bouchiat and M. V. Balabas; 12. Magnetic shielding V. V. Yashchuk, S.-K. Lee and E. Paperno; Part II. Applications: 13. Remote detection magnetometry S. M. Rochester, J. M. Higbie, B. Patton, D. Budker, R. Holzlöhner and D. Bonaccini Calia; 14. Detection of nuclear magnetic resonance with atomic magnetometers M. P. Ledbetter, I. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer and D. Budker; 15. Space magnetometry B. Patton, A. W. Brown, R. E. Slocum and E. J. Smith; 16. Detection of biomagnetic fields A. Ben-Amar Baranga, T. G. Walker and R. T. Wakai; 17. Geophysical applications M. D. Prouty, R. Johnson, I. Hrvoic and A. K. Vershovskiy; Part III. Broader Impact: 18. Tests of fundamental physics with optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. K. Lamoreaux and T. E. Chupp; 19. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscopes E. A. Donley and J. Kitching; 20. Commercial magnetometers and their application D. C. Hovde, M. D. Prouty, I. Hrvoic and R. E. Slocum; Index.

  6. Altered experience of emotion following bilateral amygdala damage.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Daniel; Gullickson, Greg; Koch, Margaret; Adolphs, Ralph

    2006-05-01

    It has been well established that the amygdala is critical for processing various aspects of emotion, and in particular, for the perception of negative emotions such as fear. Perhaps the strongest evidence for this conclusion in humans comes from an extensive series of investigations in patient SM, an extremely rare neurological patient who has complete, focal bilateral amygdala damage. One question that has remained unanswered, however, is whether SM has a normal phenomenological experience of emotion, especially negative emotion. To explore this issue, we designed a study in which two experienced clinical psychologists conducted "blind" interviews of SM (the psychologists were not provided any background information regarding SM), with a special emphasis regarding the nature of her emotional experience. Both of them reached the conclusion that SM expressed a normal range of affect and emotion, and neither felt that SM warranted a DSM-IV diagnosis. However, they both noted that SM was remarkably dispassionate when relating highly emotional and traumatic life experiences, and they noted that she did not seem to have a normal sense of distrust and "danger". To the psychologists, SM came across as a "survivor", as being "resilient" and even "heroic" in the way that she had dealt with adversity in her life. In the full light of SM's neurological and neuropsychological profile, however, these observations reflect the fact that SM is missing from the experiences in her life some of the deepest negative emotions, in a manner that parallels her defect in perceiving such emotions in external stimuli. These findings have interesting parallels with recent animal work (cf. Bauman, Lavenex, Mason, Capitanio, & Amaral, 2004a), and they provide valuable insights into the emotional life of an individual with complete bilateral amygdala damage. PMID:17354069

  7. Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Stoeser, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Considerations on Terrestrial Iron Depositing Analogs to Earliest Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, D. S.

    2007-01-01

    Iron oxide and hydroxide minerals, including hematite, can mineralize and preservemicrofossils and physical biomarkers (Allen at al., 2004). Preserved remnants of phototrophic microorganisms are recognized as biosignatures of past life on Earth (Schopf, 2006). To date, two types of surface iron depositing environments have been studied as analogs to possible habitable environments on earliest Mars: the highly acidified Rio Tinto River (Iberian Belt, Spain) [Gomez Ortis et al., 2007], and the nearneutral iron depositing Chocolate Pots Hot Spring (Yellowstone National Park, US) [Parenteau at al., 2005]. While phototrophs in the Rio Tinto are only represented by eukaryotic algae (Amaral Zettler et all., 2002), Chocolate Pots is mainly populated with cyanobacteria (Pierson et all., 2000; Brown et all., 2007). Which of these environments is the closer analog to a potentially habitable early Mars? Paleobiological data, combined with recent "tree of life" interpretations, suggest that phototrophic eukaryotes evolved not earlier than 2.5 - 2.8 b.y. after Earth s accretion (4.6 b.y.), while cyanobacteria and /or their iron-tolerant predecessors evolved between 1 - 1.5 b.y. after accretion (Brown et al., 2007). Lindsay and Brasier (2002) postulated that microbial life on Mars surface could have lasted no more than 1-1.5 b.y. after Mars accretion (also 4.6 b.y.). Recent multispectral mapping of Mars suggests that near-neutral wet environments prevailed at approximately this time (Bibring, et al., 2006). Thus, near-neutral iron depositing hot springs such as Chocolate Pots Hot Spring seem to be the more likely habitable analogs for earliest Mars.

  9. Neutron Based Imaging and Element-mapping at the Budapest Neutron Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Z.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Belgya, T.; Balaskó, M.; Horváth, L. Z.; Maróti, B.

    The Budapest Neutron Centre (BNC) is a consortium of institutes to co-ordinate research activities carried out at the Budapest Research Reactor. It hosts two neutron imaging facilities (RAD and NORMA) operated by the Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and offers access to this scientific infrastructure for the domestic and international users. The radiography station (RAD) at the thermal neutron beamline of the reactor gives a possibility to study relatively large objects by thermal neutron-, gamma- and X-ray radiography, and to benefit from the complementary features of the different radiations. RAD is being extended in 2014 with digital imaging and tomographic capabilities. The image detection is based on suitable converter screens. The static radiography and tomography images are acquired by a new, large area sCMOS camera, whereas the dynamic radiography is accomplished by a low-light-level TV camera and a frame grabber card. The NORMA facility is designed to perform neutron radiography and tomography on small samples using guided cold neutrons. Here two non-destructive techniques are coupled to determine the chemical composition and to visualize the internal structure of heterogeneous objects. The position-sensitive element analysis with prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and the imaging with neutron radiography/tomography (NR/NT) are integrated into a unique facility called NIPS-NORMA. The goal of such a combination of these methods is to save substantial beam time in the so-called NR/NT-driven PGAI (Prompt Gamma Activation Imaging) mode, in which the interesting regions are first visualized and located, and subsequently the time-consuming prompt-gamma measurements are made only where it is really needed. The paper will give an overview about the technical details of the facilities, and the latest results of selected applications from the fields of archaeometry, engineering and material science.

  10. Political dreams, practical boundaries: the case of the Nursing Minimum Data Set, 1983-1990.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The initial development of the Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) was analyzed based on archival material from Harriet Werley and Norma Lang, two nurses involved with the project, and American Nurses Association materials. The process of identifying information to be included in the NMDS was contentious. Individual nurses argued on behalf of particular data because of a strong belief in how nursing practice (through information collection) should be structured. Little attention was paid to existing practice conditions that would ultimately determine whether the NMDS would be used. PMID:21329148

  11. International Cosmic Ray Conference, 13th, University of Denver, Denver, Colo., August 17-30, 1973, Proceedings. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An X-ray observation of the Norma-Lupus region, charge and isotope measurements of heavy cosmic ray nuclei and their role in the determination of cosmic ray age, and the possibility of a contribution to primary cosmic ray spectra from pulsars are among the topics covered in papers concerned with some of the results of recent cosmic ray research. Other topics covered include multiple scattering of charged particles in magnetic fields, absorption of primary cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and phase lag effects on cosmic ray modulation during a recent solar cycle. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  12. Hard X-ray observations of the region from the galactic center to Centaurus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, D. D.; Webber, W. R.; Damle, S. V.

    1974-01-01

    A balloon flight from Parana, Argentina, was conducted to observe emissions from discrete or extended sources in the southern sky. The sources observed include GX 304-1, Nor X-2, GX 340+0, GX 354-5, a possibly composite source near the galactic center, and the nova-like source (2U1543-47) in the Lupus-Norma region which has been reported previously only in satellite observations. Data concerning the possibility of line emission near 0.5 MeV from different regions of the southern sky are also presented.

  13. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  14. Limited stochastic meta-descent for kernel-based online learning.

    PubMed

    He, Wenwu

    2009-09-01

    To improve the single-run performance of online learning and reinforce its stability, we consider online learning with limited adaptive learning rate in this letter. The letter extends convergence proofs for NORMA to a range of step sizes, then employs support vector learning with stochastic meta-descent (SVMD) limited to that range for step size adaptation, so as to obtain an online kernel algorithm that combines theoretical convergence guarantees with good practical performance. Experiments on different data sets corroborate theoretical results well and show that our method is another promising way for online learning. PMID:19409057

  15. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction Study – Design and Implementation of a National Survey and Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukten, Anne; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Rognli, Eline Borger; Stavseth, Marianne Riksheim; Lobmaier, Philipp; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Clausen, Thomas; Kunøe, Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian prison inmates are burdened by problems before they enter prison. Few studies have managed to assess this burden and relate it to what occurs for the inmates once they leave the prison. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA) study is a large-scale longitudinal cohort study that combines national survey and registry data in order to understand mental health, substance use, and criminal activity before, during, and after custody among prisoners in Norway. The main goal of the study is to describe the criminal and health-related trajectories based on both survey and registry linkage information. Data were collected from 1,499 inmates in Norwegian prison facilities during 2013–2014. Of these, 741 inmates provided a valid personal identification number and constitute a cohort that will be examined retrospectively and prospectively, along with data from nationwide Norwegian registries. This study describes the design, procedures, and implementation of the ongoing NorMA study and provides an outline of the initial data. PMID:26648732

  16. The Edge of the Young Galactic Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Giovanni; Vázquez, Ruben A.; Costa, Edgardo; Perren, Gabriel; Moitinho, André

    2010-08-01

    In this work, we report and discuss the detection of two distant diffuse stellar groups in the third Galactic quadrant. They are composed of young stars, with spectral types ranging from late O to late B, and lie at galactocentric distances between 15 and 20 kpc. These groups are located in the area of two cataloged open clusters (VdB-Hagen 04 and Ruprecht 30), projected toward the Vela-Puppis constellations, and within the core of the Canis Major overdensity. Their reddening and distances have been estimated by analyzing their color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, derived from deep UBV photometry. The existence of young star aggregates at such extreme distances from the Galactic center challenges the commonly accepted scenario in which the Galactic disk has a sharp cutoff at about 14 kpc from the Galactic center and indicates that it extends to much greater distances (as also supported by the recent detection of CO molecular complexes well beyond this distance). While the groups we find in the area of Ruprecht 30 are compatible with the Orion and Norma-Cygnus spiral arms, respectively, the distant group we identify in the region of VdB-Hagen 04 lies in the external regions of the Norma-Cygnus arm, at a galactocentric distance (~20 kpc) where no young stars have been detected so far in the optical.

  17. Galaxy Clusters in the Swift/BAT era II: 10 more Clusters detected above 15 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Rebusco, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Reimer, O.; Boehringer, H.; La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; ,

    2010-10-27

    We report on the discovery of 10 additional galaxy clusters detected in the ongoing Swift/BAT all-sky survey. Among the newly BAT-discovered clusters there are: Bullet, Abell 85, Norma, and PKS 0745-19. Norma is the only cluster, among those presented here, which is resolved by BAT. For all the clusters we perform a detailed spectral analysis using XMM-Newton and Swift/BAT data to investigate the presence of a hard (non-thermal) X-ray excess. We find that in most cases the clusters emission in the 0.3-200 keV band can be explained by a multi-temperature thermal model confirming our previous results. For two clusters (Bullet and Abell 3667) we find evidence for the presence of a hard X-ray excess. In the case of the Bullet cluster, our analysis confirms the presence of a non-thermal, power-law like, component with a 20-100 keV flux of 3.4 x 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} as detected in previous studies. For Abell 3667 the excess emission can be successfully modeled as a hot component (kT = {approx}13 keV). We thus conclude that the hard X-ray emission from galaxy clusters (except the Bullet) has most likely thermal origin.

  18. Head proportion and shape of the head of children between 2 and 7 years--results of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Grit

    2007-06-01

    Based upon a longitudinal anthropometric study with integrated picture documentation, the head proportion and head shape of two to seven years old children will be analysed. The study was initiated in April 2002 in the administrative districts of Potsdam and Potsdam-Mittelmark (Germany). 351 boys and girls have been measured and photographed. The children shall be examined up to four years until September 2006 with a half year investigation distance. Twenty-three anthropometric dimensions have been measured including six dimensions of the head. These dimensions of the head are the head length, head breadth, auricular height, interpupillary distance, facial height and lower face height. Furthermore, digital pictures have been taken of each child. So the head of each child can be examined in a frontal view (Norma frontalis) and in a lateral view (Norma lateralis) and will be analysed relating to changing proportions of the head. The results demonstrated and discussed here are based on a longitudinal succession of photos and point out a method to make individual patterns of the changing head proportions and head shape visual on pictures. PMID:17711152

  19. Trigonometric parallaxes to star-forming regions within 4 kpc of the galactic center

    SciTech Connect

    Sanna, A.; Menten, K. M.; Zhang, B.; Sato, M.; Brunthaler, A.; Immer, K.; Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.; Moscadelli, L.

    2014-02-01

    We report four trigonometric parallaxes for high-mass star-forming regions within 4 kpc of the Galactic center. These measurements were made with the Very Long Baseline Array as part of the BeSSeL Survey. By associating these sources kinematically with large-scale features in CO and H I longitude-velocity diagrams, we begin to outline some major features of the inner Milky Way: the Connecting arm, the near and far 3 kpc arms, and the Norma arm. The Connecting arm in the first Galactic quadrant lies closer to the Galactic center than the far 3 kpc arm and is offset by the long-bar's major axis near its leading edge, supporting the presence of an inner Lindblad resonance. Assuming the 3 kpc arms are a continuous physical structure, the relative Galactocentric distance of its near and far sides suggests highly elliptical streamlines of gas around the bar(s) and a bar corotation radius, r {sub CR} ≳ 3.6 kpc. At a Galactic longitude near 10° and a heliocentric distance of about 5 kpc, the near 3 kpc arm and the Norma arm intersect on a face-on view of our Galaxy, while passing at different Galactic latitudes. We provide an accurate distance measurement to the W 31 star-forming complex of 4.95{sub −0.43}{sup +0.51} kpc from the Sun, which associates it with a bright CO feature belonging to the near 3 kpc arm.

  20. GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE SWIFT/BAT ERA. II. 10 MORE CLUSTERS DETECTED ABOVE 15 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Reimer, O.; Rebusco, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Boehringer, H.; La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.

    2010-12-20

    We report on the discovery of 10 additional galaxy clusters detected in the ongoing Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky survey. Among the newly BAT-discovered clusters there are Bullet, A85, Norma, and PKS 0745-19. Norma is the only cluster, among those presented here, which is resolved by BAT. For all the clusters, we perform a detailed spectral analysis using XMM-Newton and Swift/BAT data to investigate the presence of a hard (non-thermal) X-ray excess. We find that in most cases the clusters' emission in the 0.3-200 keV band can be explained by a multi-temperature thermal model confirming our previous results. For two clusters (Bullet and A3667), we find evidence for the presence of a hard X-ray excess. In the case of the Bullet cluster, our analysis confirms the presence of a non-thermal, power-law-like, component with a 20-100 keV flux of 3.4 x 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} as detected in previous studies. For A3667, the excess emission can be successfully modeled as a hot component (kT {approx} 13 keV). We thus conclude that the hard X-ray emission from galaxy clusters (except the Bullet) has most likely a thermal origin.

  1. THE EDGE OF THE YOUNG GALACTIC DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Carraro, Giovanni; Vazquez, Ruben A.; Perren, Gabriel; Moitinho, Andre

    2010-08-01

    In this work, we report and discuss the detection of two distant diffuse stellar groups in the third Galactic quadrant. They are composed of young stars, with spectral types ranging from late O to late B, and lie at galactocentric distances between 15 and 20 kpc. These groups are located in the area of two cataloged open clusters (VdB-Hagen 04 and Ruprecht 30), projected toward the Vela-Puppis constellations, and within the core of the Canis Major overdensity. Their reddening and distances have been estimated by analyzing their color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, derived from deep UBV photometry. The existence of young star aggregates at such extreme distances from the Galactic center challenges the commonly accepted scenario in which the Galactic disk has a sharp cutoff at about 14 kpc from the Galactic center and indicates that it extends to much greater distances (as also supported by the recent detection of CO molecular complexes well beyond this distance). While the groups we find in the area of Ruprecht 30 are compatible with the Orion and Norma-Cygnus spiral arms, respectively, the distant group we identify in the region of VdB-Hagen 04 lies in the external regions of the Norma-Cygnus arm, at a galactocentric distance ({approx}20 kpc) where no young stars have been detected so far in the optical.

  2. Development of a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of Sudan I in food samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhen; Wei, Dapeng; Yang, Hong; Yang, Yuan; Xing, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Deng, Anping

    2009-03-15

    The use of Sudan I as an additive in food products has been prohibited in the European Union and many other countries. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Sudan I in food samples was developed. The hapten derivative with a three-carbon-atom length of carboxylic spacer at the azobound para-position was synthesized and coupled to carrier proteins. The hapten-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate was used as an immunogen, while the hapten-ovalbumin (OVA) conjugate was applied as a coating antigen. The mAb against Sudan I was produced by hybridoma technique and the corresponding ELISA was characterized in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy. At optimal experimental conditions, the standard curve was constructed in concentrations of 0.1-100 ngmL(-1). The values of IC(50) for nine standard curves were in the range of 1.1-2.0 ngmL(-1) and the LOD at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N=3) was 0.07-0.14 ngmL(-1). The cross-reactivity values of the mAb with Sudan II, III and IV were 9.5%, 33.9% and 0.95%; no cross-reactivity was found with other six edible colorants: Lemon yellow, Bright blue, Indigotin, Kermes, Amarant and Sunset yellow, indicating the assay displays not only high sensitivity but also high specificity as well. The organic solvent effect on the assay was tested. It was observed that the ELISA was tolerated to 30% of methanol and 10% of acetonitrile without significant loss of IC(50) value. Six food samples were spiked with Sudan I and the methanolic extracts after appropriate dilution were analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 88.2-110.5% and coefficients of variation of 2.5-17.4% were obtained. The ELISA for nine spiked samples was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a high correlation coefficient of 0.9840 (n=9). The mAb-based ELISA proven to be a feasible quantitative/screening method for Sudan I analysis in food samples with the properties of high sensitivity, specificity, simplicity of sample pretreatment, high sample throughput and low expense. PMID:19159799

  3. Unstable Growth and Decay of Nanostructures on Crystalline Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einstein, Theodore L.

    2001-03-01

    Instabilities during growth are typically attributed to the venerable [step] Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect (SESE), or closely related asymmetries(J.G. Amar and F. Family, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 4584 (1996) for atoms arriving at upper and lower sides of a step. Esp., SESE leads to the well-known Bales-Zangwill (BZ) instability of step edges. We have found(O. Pierre-Louis, M.R. D'Orsogna, and T.L. Einstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82), 3661 (1999) that an analogous in-plane asymmetry of the energy barriers at kinks for atoms moving along step edges, the kink Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect (KESE), can produce a new instability that can supplant the BZ instability. (The relevant edge and corner barriers can be calculated semiempirically; moreover, they can theoretically be tuned in electrochemical cells.(M.I. Haftel and T.L. Einstein, Proc. MRS 580), 195 (2000); Proc. ICSFS-10 (Princeton, 2000), Appl. Surface Sci.) We analyze various contributions to the mass current along the step. Monte Carlo simulations on a simple SOS model are used to illustrate behavior and distinguish between strong and weak KESE. The threshold of stable kink-flow growth is analyzed. KESE can induce mound formation, the orientation of which depends on the strength of the kink ES barrier. Such behavior was observed on Ag(100).(G. Costantini ldots U. Valbusa, Proc. ICSFS-10 (Princeton, 2000), Appl. Surf. Sci.; Surface Sci. 459), L487 (2000) Intriguing experiments observe wavelength selection during step-flow growth on vicinal Cu(100).(T. Maroutian, L. Douillard, and H.-J. Ernst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 4353 (1999) KESE also can account for the instability of the Wolf-Villain model, in contrast to the similar Das Sarma-Tamborenea model.(P. Punyindu, Z. Toroczkai, and S. Das Sarma, preprint) At the coarse-grained level, the continuum step model can account for the decay of nanomounds on Si(7x7): the exponents of the decay rate and, more remarkably, the overall rate of these nanostructures (to within a factor of two).(A. Ichimiya, K. Hayashi, E.D. Williams, T.L. Einstein, M. Uwaha, and K. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84), 3662 (2000) However, microscopic features, such as whether atoms cross step edges uniformly or at special sites, can drastically alter decay characteristics.(M.-Z. Li, J.F. Wendelken, B.-G. Liu, E.G. Wang, and Z. Zhang, preprint)

  4. Gradual aridification of the Sahara during the last 11,000 years revealed by plant wax δD analyses of Lake Yoa (Chad)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rethemeyer, Janet; Kröpelin, Stefan; Karls, Jens; Thienemann, Matthias; Melles, Martin; Schefuß, Enno

    2014-05-01

    It is still an ongoing debate whether the transition of the last 'green Sahara' period to today's large desert during the Holocene, the African Humid Period (AHP), was a progressive or an abrupt change in hydrological conditions. Several climate records mainly from East Africa suggest a rapid decline of moisture availability at the end of the AHP including new data from a marine sequence off the Horn of Africa (Tierney & deMenocal, 2013). Other archives including sedimentological, geochemical and palynological data from the central North African Lakes Chad and Lake Yoa point to a gradual rather than an abrupt transition near 5,000 years ago (Amaral et al., 2013; Kröpelin et al., 2008). The discrepancy of the available paleo-hydrological reconstructions underline the importance of proxy parameters directly related to hydrological conditions for accurate assessment of continental rainfall changes. Here, we present the first molecular-isotopic data from Lake Yoa documenting the hydrologic evolution over the entire Holocene. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses were performed on long-chain n-alkanes. Our data indicate relative high but variable contributions of plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes carrying a distinct leaf-wax signature, i.e., a high Carbon Preference Index (CPI). A trend towards higher CPI values since 7,300 years ago suggests declining soil degradation and vegetation cover under increasingly drier conditions. In parallel, the average-chain-length of the long-chain n-alkanes increases gradually towards the present implying higher relative contributions from grasses. Compound-specific carbon isotope data confirm this finding, indicating a mixed C3/C4 contribution in the early and mid-Holocene changing towards a C4-grass dominated vegetation in the late Holocene. Most importantly, compound-specific hydrogen isotope data reveal a continuous increase from 8,100 years ago towards the present, reflecting a gradual aridification. The large amplitude of about 40 per mil change from the early to late Holocene reflects the retreating influence of moisture derived from the West Africa monsoon from the area, in accordance with isotopic modelling studies (Tierney et al., 2011). Our data thus indicate a gradual hydrological evolution in the eastern central Sahara over the Holocene, controlled by insolation forcing, and argue against strong bio-geophysical feedback mechanisms. Site-specific local thresholds might exist in other regions, e.g., the Horn of Africa, leading to abrupt rainfall changes.

  5. Multistage late Cenozoic evolution of the Amargosa River drainage, southwestern Nevada and eastern California Society of America. All rights reserved

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menges, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Stratigraphic and geomorphic analyses reveal that the regional drainage basin of the modern Amargosa River formed via multistage linkage of formerly isolated basins in a diachronous series of integration events between late Miocene and latest Pleistocene-Holocene time. The 275-km-long Amargosa River system drains generally southward across a large (15,540 km 2) watershed in southwestern Nevada and eastern California to its terminus in central Death Valley. This drainage basin is divided into four major subbasins along the main channel and several minor subbasins on tributaries; these subbasins contain features, including central valley lowlands surrounded by highlands that form external divides or internal paleodivides, which suggest relict individual physiographic-hydrologic basins. From north to south, the main subbasins along the main channel are: (1) an upper headwaters subbasin, which is deeply incised into mostly Tertiary sediments and volcanic rocks; (2) an unincised low-gradient section within the Amargosa Desert; (3) a mostly incised section centered on Tecopa Valley and tributary drainages; and (4) a west- to northwest-oriented mostly aggrading lower section along the axis of southern Death Valley. Adjoining subbasins are hydro-logically linked by interconnecting narrows or canyon reaches that are variably incised into formerly continuous paleodivides. The most important linkages along the main channel include: (1) the Beatty narrows, which developed across a Tertiary bedrock paleodivide between the upper and Amargosa Desert subbasins during a latest Miocene-early Pliocene to middle Pleistocene interval (ca. 4-0.5 Ma); (2) the Eagle Mountain narrows, which cut into a mostly alluvial paleodivide between the Amar-gosa Desert and Tecopa subbasins in middle to late Pleistocene (ca. 150-100 ka) time; and (3) the Amargosa Canyon, which formed in late middle Pleistocene (ca. 200140 ka) time through a breached, actively uplifting paleodivide between the Tecopa and southern Death Valley subbasins. Collectively, the interconnecting reaches represent discrete integration events that incrementally produced the modern drainage basin starting near Beatty sometime after 4 Ma and ending in the Salt Creek tributary in the latest Pleistocene to Holocene (post-30 ka). Potential mechanisms for drainage integration across paleodivides include basin overtopping from sedimentary infilling above paleodivide elevations, paleolake spillover, groundwater sapping, and (or) headward erosion of dissecting channels in lower-altitude subbasins. These processes are complexly influenced by fluvial responses to factors such as climatic change, local base-level differences across divides, and (or) tectonic activity (the latter only recognized in Amargosa Canyon). ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  6. Evolved Gas Measurements Planned for the Lower Layers of the Gale Crater Mound with the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Brunner, Anna; McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Conrad, Pamela; Webster, Chris; Cabane, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The lower mound strata of Gale Crater provide a diverse set of chemical environments for exploration by the varied tools of the Curiosity Rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. Orbital imaging and spectroscopy clearly reveal distinct layers of hydrated minerals, sulfates, and clays with abundant evidence of a variety of fluvial processes. The three instruments of the MSL Sample Analysis at aMars (SAM) investigation, the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS), the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), and the Gas Chromatograph (GC) are designed to analyze either atmospheric gases or volatiles thermally evolved or chemically extracted from powdered rock or soil. The presence or absence of organic compounds in these layers is of great interest since such an in situ search for this type of record has not been successfully implemented since the mid-60s Viking GCMS experiments. However, regardless of the outcome of the analysis for organics, the abundance and isotopic composition of thermally evolved inorganic compounds should also provide a rich data set to complement the mineralogical and elemental information provided by other MSL instruments. In addition, these evolved gas analysis (EGA) experiments will help test sedimentary models proposed by Malin and Edgett (2000) and then further developed by Milliken et al (2010) for Gale Crater. In the SAM EGA experiments the evolution temperatures of H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, or other simple compounds as the samples are heated in a helium stream to 1000 C provides information on mineral types and their associations. The isotopic composition of O, H, C, and S can be precisely determined in several evolved compounds and compared with the present day atmosphere. Such SAM results might be able to test mineralogical evidence of changing sedimentary and alteration processes over an extended period of time. For example, Bibring et al (2006) have suggested such a major shift from early nonacidic to later acidic alteration. We will illustrate through a variety of evolved gas experiments implemented under SAM-like gas flow and temperature ramp conditions on terrestrial analog minerals on high fidelity Sam breadboards the type of chemical information we expect SAM to provide.

  7. Two new species and new records of nasal mites of the genus Sternostoma (Acarina: Rhinonyssinae) from birds in Texas.

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; Casto, S

    1975-04-01

    Two new species and new host and locality records are established for nasal mites of the genus Sternostoma from birds in Texas. Sternostoma tracheacolum Lawrence is reported for the first time from Pipilo fuscus and Pyrrhuloxia sinuata, respectively. Additionally, a new host record for Sternostoma porteri Hyland from Centurus aurifrons and a new locality record for Sternostoma pirangae Pence from Piranga rubra are established. A redescription is provided for Sternostoma augei Amaral from Speotyto cunicularia. Sternostoma crotophagae sp. n. is described from Crotophaga sulcirostris. It differs from the other species of the genus by the heavily sclerotized margins of the anal plate and tiny cribrum, the two small rounded bifuractions of the movable digit of the chelicerae, abscence of dorsal opisthosomal setae (J, Z, and R series), and chaetotaxy of tarsi II, III, and IV which have only 3 ventral club-shaped setae in the distal row (al1, av2, and pl1 with pv1 apparently absent) and 2 club-shaped setae in the more proximal row (al2 and av3 with pv3 modified into a spinelike seta in the more proximal row and al2 and av3 with pv3 modified into a spinelike seta having an enlarged base and pl2 shorter and with a rounded tip). Sternostoma sayornis sp. n. is described from Sayornis nigricans. The new species is most similar to Sternostoma hedonophilum Fain but differs in the absence of enlarged punctate areas around the stigmata, 5 additional pairs of seta on dorsal opisthosoma (Z and R series), absence of gnathosomal and capitular setae, and slight differences in the leg chaetotaxy with al1 and pl1 on tarsi II, III, and IV very long and whip-like and slight differences in the solenidia on and adjacent to the sensorial area of tarsus I. The host-parasite relationships and affinities of the species of Sternostoma from the host family Tyrannidae are briefly discussed and Sternostoma callithrix Fain and Aitken is reduced as a synonym of Sternostoma longisetosa Hyland on the basis of their existing descriptions. PMID:1127568

  8. Molecular characterization of lysR-lysXE, gcdR-gcdHG and amaR-amaAB operons for lysine export and catabolism: a comprehensive lysine catabolic network in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Madhuri Indurthi, Sai; Chou, Han-Ting; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2016-05-01

    Among multiple interconnected pathways for l-Lysine catabolism in pseudomonads, it has been reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 employs the decarboxylase and the transaminase pathways. However, up until now, knowledge of several genes involved in operation and regulation of these pathways was still missing. Transcriptome analyses coupled with promoter activity measurements and growth phenotype analyses led us to identify new members in l-Lys and d-Lys catabolism and regulation, including gcdR-gcdHG for glutarate utilization, dpkA, amaR-amaAB and PA2035 for d-Lys catabolism, lysR-lysXE for putative l-Lys efflux and lysP for putative l-Lys uptake. The gcdHG operon encodes an acyl-CoA transferase (gcdG) and glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (gcdH) and is under the control of the transcriptional activator GcdR. Growth on l-Lys was enhanced in the mutants of lysX and lysE, supporting the operation of l-Lys efflux. The transcriptional activator LysR is responsible for l-Lys specific induction of lysXE and the PA4181-82 operon of unknown function. The putative operator sites of GcdR and LysR were deduced from serial deletions and comparative genomic sequence analyses, and the formation of nucleoprotein complexes was demonstrated with purified His-tagged GcdR and LysR. The amaAB operon encodes two enzymes to convert pipecolate to 2-aminoadipate. Induction of the amaAB operon by l-Lys, d-Lys and pipecolate requires a functional AmaR, supporting convergence of Lys catabolic pathways to pipecolate. Growth on pipecolate was retarded in the gcdG and gcdH mutants, suggesting the importance of glutarate in pipecolate and 2-aminoadipate utilization. Furthermore, this study indicated links in the control of interconnected networks of lysine and arginine catabolism in P. aeruginosa. PMID:26967762

  9. A lead isotope study of mineralization in the Saudi Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Doe, B.R.; Roberts, R.J.; Delevaux, M.H.; Gramlich, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    New lead isotope data are presented for some late Precambrian and early Paleozoic vein and massive sulfide deposits in the Arabian Shield. Using the Stacey Kramers (1975) model for lead isotope evolution, isochron model ages range between 720 m.y. and 420 m.y. Most of the massive sulfide deposits in the region formed before 680 m.y. ago, during evolution of the shield. Vein type mineralization of higher lead content occurred during the Pan African event about 550 m.y. ago and continued through the Najd period of extensive faulting in the shield that ended about 530 m.y. ago. Late post-tectonic metamorphism may have been responsible for vein deposits that have model ages less than 500 m.y. Alternatively some of these younger model ages may be too low due to the mineralizing fluids acquiring radiogenic lead from appreciably older local crustal rocks at the time of ore formation. The low207Pb/204Pb ratios found for the deposits in the main part of the shield and for those in north-eastern Egypt, indicate that the Arabian craton was formed in an oceanic crustal environment during the late Precambrian. Involvement of older, upper-crustal material in the formation of the ore deposits in this part of the shield is precluded by their low207Pb/204Pb and208Pb/204Pb characteristics. In the eastern part of the shield, east of longitude 44??20???E towards the Al Amar-Idsas fault region, lead data are quite different. They exhibit a linear207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb relationship together with distinctly higher208Pb/204Pb characteristics. These data imply the existence of lower crustal rocks of early Proterozoic age that apparently have underthrust the shield rocks from the east. If most of the samples we have analyzed from this easterly region were mineralized 530 m.y. ago, then the age of the older continental rocks is 2,100??300 m.y. (2??). The presence of upper crustal rocks, possibly also of early Proterozoic age, is indicated by galena data from Hailan in South Yemen and also from near Muscat in Oman. These data are the first to indicate such old continental material in these regions. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  10. The search for low-luminosity high-mass X-ray binaries and the study of X-ray populations in the Galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasini, Francesca; Tomsick, John; Bodaghee, Arash; Rahoui, Farid; Krivonos, Roman; Corral-Santana, Jesus; An, Hongjun; Bauer, Franz E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Stern, Daniel; NuSTAR Galactic Plane Survey Team

    2016-01-01

    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which consist of a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) accreting material from a massive stellar companion, provide valuable insights into the evolution of massive stars and the merger rates of NS/NS, NS/BH, and BH/BH binaries whose gravitational wave signatures will soon be detectable by facilities such as Advanced-LIGO. INTEGRAL discoveries of new classes of lower-luminosity HMXBs, some highly obscured and some showing extreme transient activity, as well as the recent discovery of the very quiescent and only known Be-BH binary, have considerably changed our understanding of clumping in massive stellar winds and the relative importance of different binary evolutionary channels. In order to better characterize the low-luminosity HMXB population, we have performed a survey of a square degree region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm with Chandra and NuSTAR. These surveys, combined with optical and infrared spectroscopic follow-up of the counterparts of hard X-ray sources, have yielded three HMXB candidates to date. Future radial-velocity follow-up of these candidates, as well as other Be HMXB candidates from the NuSTAR serendipitous survey, will help determine whether these sources truly are HMXBs and, if so, constrain the mass of the compact object in these systems. If confirmed, these HMXB candidates could extend our measurement of the HMXB luminosity function by about two orders of magnitude and provide important constraints on massive binary evolutionary models. In addition, the colliding wind binaries and pulsar wind nebulae discovered in the Norma X-ray survey will help shed light on other aspects of massive stellar evolution and massive stellar remnants. Finally, these surveys provide the opportunity to compare the hard X-ray populations in the Galactic disk and the Galactic Center. While the dominant hard X-ray populations in both of these Galactic regions appear to be cataclysmic variables (CVs), those in the Norma survey tend to have lower plasma temperatures than those in the Galactic Center, suggesting that the white dwarfs in Galactic Center CVs may have typical masses and/or magnetic field strengths that are higher than those of white dwarfs in the disk.

  11. Extragalactic large-scale structures behind the southern Milky Way. III. Redshifts obtained at the SAAO in the Great Attractor region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woudt, P. A.; Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.; Fairall, A. P.

    1999-12-01

    In the third of a series of papers on large-scale structures behind the southern Milky Way, we report here on redshifts obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in the Great Attractor region (318deg <~ l <~ 340deg , |b| <= 10deg , Woudt 1998). This region encompasses the peak in the reconstructed mass density field, associated with the Great Attractor (Kolatt et al. 1995, Dekel et al. 1998) and covers the crossing of the Supergalactic Plane with the Galactic Plane. Our deep optical galaxy search in the Zone of Avoidance (ZOA) in this region (Woudt 1998) has resulted in the detection of 4423 galaxies with observed diameters larger than 0.2 arcmin. We have obtained reliable redshifts for 309 galaxies of the 4423 galaxies with the ``Unit'' spectrograph (first with a Reticon, then with a CCD detector) at the 1.9-m telescope of the SAAO. An additional 13 tentative redshifts are presented. Before our survey, 127 galaxies had a previously recorded redshift (NED and SRC96). Given a small overlap with the literature (44 galaxies), we present here redshifts for 265 galaxies that had no previous recorded velocity. In addition, we present central velocity dispersion (sigma_o ) measurements for 34 galaxies in ACO 3627. It is known that the Great Attractor (GA) region is overdense in galaxies at a redshift-distance of v ~ 5000 {km s-1 } (Fairall 1988, Dressler 1991, Visvanathan & Yamada 1996, di Nella et al. 1997). We realise here, however, that the Great Attractor region is dominated by ACO 3627 (hereafter referred to as the Norma cluster), a highly obscured, nearby and massive cluster of galaxies close to the plane of the Milky Way (l, b, v) = (325.3deg , -7.2deg , 4844 {km s-1 }) (Kraan-Korteweg et al. 1996, Woudt 1998). Previous redshift surveys in the GA region have failed to gauge the significance of the Norma cluster, primarily due to the diminishing effects of the Galactic foreground extinction on the partially obscured galaxies. In the absence of the obscuring effects of the Milky Way, the Norma cluster would have appeared as prominent as the well-known Coma cluster, but nearer in redshift-space. This cluster most likely marks the bottom of the potential well of the Great Attractor (Woudt 1998). All the tables are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  12. Photometric and Spectroscopic Survey of the Cluster [DBS2003] 156 Associated with the H II Region G331.1‑0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Ortiz, R.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2016-05-01

    The Norma section of the Milky Way is especially interesting because it crosses three spiral arms: Sagittarius–Carina, Scutum–Crux and the Norma arm itself. Distance determinations of embedded young stellar clusters can contribute to define the spiral structure in this part of the Galaxy. However, spectrophotometric distances were obtained for only a few of these clusters in Norma. We present a photometric and spectroscopic study in the NIR of the [DBS2003] 156 stellar cluster, associated with the H II region G331.1‑0.5. We aim to find the ionizing sources of the H II region and determine its distance. The cluster was observed in the J, H, and {K}{{s}} bands and eight potential massive stars were chosen among the detected sources according to color criteria; subsequent spectroscopy of these candidates was performed with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer spectrograph attached to the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research 4.1 m telescope. We identified and classified spectroscopically four early-type stars: IRS 176 (O8 V), IRS 308 (O-type), IRS 310 (O6 V), and IRS 71 (B1 Iab). Based on the proximity of IRS 176 and 308 with the radio continuum emission peaks and their relative positions with respect to the warm dust mid-infrared emission, we concluded that these two stars are the main ionizing sources of the H ii region G331.1‑0.5. The mean spectrophotometric distance of IRS 176 and 310 of 3.38 ± 0.58 kpc is similar to that obtained in a previous work for two early-type stars of the neighbor cluster [DBS2003] 157 of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc. The narrow range of radial velocities of radio sources in the area of the clusters [DBS2003] 156 and 157 and their similar visual extinction indicate that these clusters are physically associated. A common distance of 3.34 ± 0.34 kpc is derived for the system [DBS2003] 156 and 157. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR), a joint project of the Ministério de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI) of the República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) and the Michigan State University (MSU).

  13. Self-Organized Criticality Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.

    2013-07-01

    Contents: (1) Introduction - Norma B. Crosby --- (2) Theoretical Models of SOC Systems - Markus J. Aschwanden --- (3) SOC and Fractal Geometry - R. T. James McAteer --- (4) Percolation Models of Self-Organized Critical Phenomena - Alexander V. Milovanov --- (5) Criticality and Self-Organization in Branching Processes: Application to Natural Hazards - Álvaro Corral, Francesc Font-Clos --- (6) Power Laws of Recurrence Networks - Yong Zou, Jobst Heitzig, Jürgen Kurths --- (7) SOC computer simolations - Gunnar Pruessner --- (8) SOC Laboratory Experiments - Gunnar Pruessner --- (9) Self-Organizing Complex Earthquakes: Scaling in Data, Models, and Forecasting - Michael K. Sachs et al. --- (10) Wildfires and the Forest-Fire Model - Stefan Hergarten --- (11) SOC in Landslides - Stefan Hergarten --- (12) SOC and Solar Flares - Paul Charbonneau --- (13) SOC Systems in Astrophysics - Markus J. Aschwanden ---

  14. NGC 6067: A spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Santiago, J.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Dorda, R.

    2015-05-01

    NGC 6067 is a young open cluster in the Norma Cloud. Its age is around 100 Ma. It hosts a large population of evolved stars: 14 luminous red stars (most of which K Ib supergiants and late-G/early-K giants), 6--8 B giants, two A/F supergiants and two Cepheids (F/G supergiants). All this would imply that NGC 6067 represent one of the best laboratories in the Galaxy to study the evolution of intermediate-mass stars. Thackeray et al. (1962, MNRAS 124, 445T) performed the first complete study of this cluster but it has been poorly studied since then. We obtained high resolution echelle spectra (R=48000) using FEROS (Fiber Extended Range Optical Spectrograph) mounted on the ESO 2.2 m telescope at La Silla Observatory (Chile) in May 2011. Here we present preliminary results based on this spectroscopy and the UBV photometry listed in Terndrup & Pinsonneault (2007, ApJ 671, 1640).

  15. In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, A.

    2010-08-01

    The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

  16. On the nature of the sources of hard pulse X-ray radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shklovskiy, I. S.

    1978-01-01

    Besides the identified sources of cosmic pulse X-ray radiation with globular clusters NGC 6624, NGC 1851 and MXB 1730-335 several new identifications were made. The source in Norma was probably identified with globular cluster NGC 5927, the source in Aquila with globular cluster NGC 6838 (M71), and the source in Puppis with globular cluster NGC 2298. Gamma pulses discovered by the Vela satellites and X-ray pulses thoroughly measured by the SAS-3, Ariel-5, and ANS satellites are thought to be the same phenomenon. The sources of such a radiation must be some kind of peculiarity at the central part of globular clusters; it is most probably a massive black hole. The sources of hard pulse radiation which cannot be identified with globular clusters are considered to be a new kind of galactic object, invisible globular clusters, which are naked nuclei of globular clusters.

  17. Achieving skin to skin contact in theatre for healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The evidence base is supportive of early skin to skin contact (SSC) for optimal newborn-physiological adaptation, bonding and breastfeeding, and national guidelines encourage SSC as soon as possible, regardless of mode of birth. With an ever-rising caesarean (CS) rate, implementing SSC in theatre stands to benefit an increasing number of mothers and babies. While it may be best practice, in reality there is a lot of variation from trust to trust, and many hospitals do not facilitate it, citing numerous reasons as to why it is not possible. Midwives may feel that they should focus on norma birth, but it is our role to provide holistic care and normalise birth in all settings. This article looks at current evidence and the role of the midwife around facilitating SSC in theatre with an example from practice of how change has been implemented so that mothers and babies get the best start in life. PMID:26320329

  18. Microlensing Maps for the Milky Way Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. W.; Belokurov, V.

    2002-03-01

    At any instant, there are ~1000 microlensing events to sources brighter than 20 mag in the Milky Way. Large-scale maps of the microlensing optical depth and the mean timescale are constructed for a number of models of the Galactic bar and disk, incorporating the effects of streaming and spiral structure. Freudenreich's model can reproduce the high optical depths toward the bulge. It is also in good agreement with the data toward the spiral arms (except for the field γ Norma). Spiral structure tends to increase the optical depth by <~20% and the mean timescale by <~100%. Different bar morphologies give characteristically different shaped contours, especially at low Galactic latitudes (|b|<2deg). These could be traced out with a K-band microlensing survey, consuming ~100 minutes per night on a telescope such as the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy.

  19. Decline and present status of breeding peregrine falcons in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Nelson, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, only one Peregrine Falcon pair (they fledged two young) and a single adult male were located. A population decline east of the Cascades began in rhe 1930's, probably resulting from a climatic change (drought); however, a statewide decline began in the late 1940's, accelerated in the 1950's, and by the 1960's few pairs remained. The statewide decline closely paralleled the pattern of DDT use. Furthermore, DDE was found in membranes of peregrine eggs from nearby California as early as 1948. Moreover, an unhatched Peregrine Falcon egg found at the Oregon eyrie in 1979 contained 19 ppm DDE and lesser amounts of other contaminants. The eggshell was 19% thinner than normaL The future of the nearly extirpated Peregrine Falcon in Oregon remains uncertain in spite of improved water and habitat conditions in eastern Oregon. Reintroduction of captive-bred birds seems to be the last hope.

  20. Older Smooth Plains on Mercury Obscured by Impact Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Whitten, J.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    On the basis of morphology and spectral reflectance, the surface of Mercury can be broadly divided into three major terrain types: low-reflectance material, intermediate terrain, and smooth plains. This last terrain type is distinguished morphologically by a comparatively smooth and gently rolling surface, has a lower density of impact craters and basins than other surface units on the planet, and typically occupies low-lying areas. Their smooth texture, embayment of other landforms, and distinctive partial to complete burial of older impact features suggests that most of these plains are probably volcanic in nature. Recent mapping work has shown that smooth plains younger than the end of the late heavy bombardment (LHB) occupy ~30% of Mercury's surface. An outstanding question concerns the distribution and nature of older plains units on the planet, especially those that underlie large impact features and may correspond morphologically to smooth plains but have not yet been mapped accordingly. A preliminary survey of such terrain yielded five exemplar sites: at the Amaral (26.5°S, 117.8°E; 101 km diameter), Mickiewicz (23.2°N, 256.7°E; 103 km), and Vivaldi (13.8°N, 274.1°E; 212 km) basins and at two unnamed features at 53.1°S, 38.6°E (83 km in diameter) and 7.1°N, 38.3°E (118 km). We expect that more thorough mapping will uncover additional candidate areas. In each of the example sites, an extensive continuous ejecta deposit and secondary impact field characterize the proximal and distal facies, respectively, of the impact feature; and in each case, the secondaries field (and impact-sculpted terrain in the case of Vivaldi) is superposed upon patches of plains that otherwise appear smooth and host numerous, flooded antecedent craters tens of kilometers in diameter. Moreover, these smooth patches occur at several ranges of azimuths surrounding each crater or basin, suggesting that they may have formed contiguous units prior to formation of the younger impact feature. Although difficult to unequivocally demarcate the original boundaries of these older smooth plains units, a conservative minimum area of such plains is 300,000 km2 (~0.4% of Mercury's surface area) at each of these five sites. These observations therefore support the inference that the extent to which the surface of Mercury was covered by smooth plains before the end of the LHB is greater than that observed today. If most such plains had a volcanic origin, the innermost planet may have experienced major resurfacing events akin in nature, if not in scale, to that responsible for the expansive northern volcanic plains at several times in its history and at a number of locations. Further identification of older smooth plains will provide greater insight into the development of Mercury's crust, with attendant implications for the dynamics, composition, and magmatic history of the planet's interior.

  1. Investigating methods of improving SSM/I and OKEAN sea ice inversion parameters using MLP neural networks with different learning algorithms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchansky, G.; Alpatsky, I.; Mordvintsev, I.; Douglas, D.

    Investigating new methods to estimate sea-ice geophysical parameters using multisensor satellite data is critical for global change studies. The most widely used and consistent data to study sea ice at global scale are SMMR and SSM/I passive microwave measurements available since 1978. However, comparisons with LANDSAT, AVHRR and ERS-1 SAR have demonstrated substantial seasonal and regional differences in SSM/I ice parameter estimates (Belchansky and Douglas, 2000, 2002). This report presents investigating methods of improving SSM/I and OKEAN sea ice inversion parameters using MLP neural networks, and compare the sea ice classification results from different neural networks and linear mixture model. Efficiency of four sea ice type inversion (classification) algorithms utilizing SSM/I, OKEAN-01, ERS and RADARSAT satellite data were compared and investigated. The first one applied different linear mixture models (NASA Team, Bootstrap, and OKEAN). The second, third and fourth algorithms applied the modified MLP neural networks with different learning algorithms based, respectively, on 1) error back propagation and simulated annealing (Kirkpatrick, 1983); 2) dynamic learning and polynomial basis function (Chen et al., 1996); and 3) dynamic learning and two-step optimization. Both last algorithms used the Kalman filtering technique. Our studies demonstrated that both modified MLP neural networks with dynamic learning were more efficient (in terms of learning time, accuracy, and ability to generalize the selected learning data) than modified MLP neural network with learning algorithms based on the error back propagation and simulated annealing for simple approximation problems. MY sea ice and albedo inversion from SSM/I brightness temperatures and respective OKEAN learning data sets demonstrated that these algorithms caused over-fitting in comparison with the MLP neural network with the error back propagation and simulated annealing. Therefore, for MY sea ice inversion from microwave data, we used the MLP neural network with the error back propagation and simulated annealing. Results of the OKEAN classifications indicated that the modified back-propagation neural network was more efficient than linear mixture modeling when estimating ice-type concentrations in transition zones between OW and FY ice and between FY ice and MY ice. Using the MLP neural network with the error back propagation and simulated annealing, the SSM/I brightness temperatures, OKEAN MY and ERS MY sea ice learning data sets, Arctic MY sea ice maps for each month were developed during April 1996 through August 1996. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was carried out with the support from the International Arctic Research Center and Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research (IARC/CIFAR), University of Alaska Fairbanks. We would like to acknowledge the Alaska SAR Facility (Fairbanks), the National Snow and Ice Data Center (University of Colorado), and the Global Hydrology Resource Center, respectively, for providing RADARSAT images, the DMSP SSM/I Daily Polar Gridded Tb and Sea Ice Concentrations, the single-pass SSM/I brightness temperature data. REFERENCES Belchansky, G. I. and Douglas, D. C. (2000). Classification methods for monitoring Arctic sea-ice using OKEAN passive / active two-channel microwave data. J. Remote Sensing of Environment, Elsevier Science, New York. 73 (3): 307-322. Belchansky, G. I. and Douglas, D. C. (2002). Classification methods for monitoring Arctic sea-ice using OKEAN passive / active two-channel microwave data. J. Remote Sensing of Environment, Elsevier Science, New York 81 (1): 67-81. Chen, K. S., Huang, W. P., Tsay, D. H., and Amar, F. (1996). Classification of Multifrequency Polarimetric SAR Imagery Using a Dynamic Learning Neural Network, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 34 (3): 814-820.

  2. Iron world and its astrobiological implications: The Tinto River case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, F.; Amils, A.

    2007-08-01

    Extreme ecosystems have recently attracted considerable interest, not only because they prove that life is robust and adaptable, but also because their existence increases the probability of finding life elsewhere in the universe. Most of the best characterized extreme habitats on Earth correspond to geophysical constraints to which opportunistic microorganisms have adapted. However, some extreme acidic environments are unique in that they are the product of biological activity (chemolithotrophy). The Tinto River (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) is an unusual acidic ecosystem (100 km long, mean pH of 2.3) containing a high concentration of heavy metals and an unexpected level of microbial diversity (1,2). In the past, the extreme conditions of the river were considered the result of intense mining activity. The geomicrobiological analysis of the Tinto ecosystem strongly suggests that these conditions are the result of the metabolic activity of chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, mainly iron-oxidizers (3). The system seems to be controlled by iron, which is not only used as an electron donor, but also as an electron acceptor, allowing a full iron cycle to operate. Furthermore, ferric iron is responsible for the maintenance of the constant pH of the ecosystem and can protect the different organisms thriving in its waters from radiation. Laminar, iron-rich stromatolitic formations are generated by the precipitation of different iron minerals on the surface of the biofilms that cover most of the rocks in the river and the riverbed. These structures are similar to ancient massive bioinduced laminated iron bioformations formed long before the first mining activities started in the area 5000 years ago. The existence of these ancient iron-rich deposits formed prior to any known mining activity, under hydrochemical conditions similar to modern deposits, is considered a strong argument in favor of a natural origin of the river (4,5). Recently, the source area of the Tinto ecosystem has been used like an environmental scenario for new technology validation for astrobiology space missions. M.A.R.T.E. (Mars Analog Research Technology Experiment) was a multidisciplinary project for technology development in the NAI framework. REFERENCES 1.- López-Archilla, A.I., Marín, I., Amils, R. (2001) Microbial Ecol., 41: 20-35. 2.- Amaral-Zettler, L.A., Gómez, F., Zettler, E., Keenan, B.G., Amils, R., Sogin, M. (2002) Nature, 417: 137. 3.- González-Toril, E., Gómez, F., Rodríguez, N., Fernández-Remolar, D., Zuluaga, J., Marín, I., Amils, R., (2002) Hydrometall., in press. 4.- Amils, R., González-Toril, E., Gómez, F., Fernández-Remolar, D., Rodríguez, N. (2000) Spring Meeting American Geophysical Society, Abstract B22B-05. 5.- Fernández-Remolar, D.C., Rodríguez, N., Gómez, F., Amils, R. (2003) J. Geophys. Res., 108, No.E7 doi. 10.1029/2002JE001918

  3. EAARL coastal topography-western Florida, post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: seamless (bare earth and submerged.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan

    2010-01-01

    Project Description These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 17 and 18, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation. For more information about similar projects, please visit the Decision Support for Coastal Science and Management website. Selected References Brock, J.C., Wright, C.W., Sallenger, A.H., Krabill, W.B., and Swift, R.N., 2002, Basis and methods of NASA airborne topographic mapper Lidar surveys for coastal studies: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 18, no. 1, p. 1-13. Crane, Michael, Clayton, Tonya, Raabe, Ellen, Stoker, Jason, Handley, Larry, Bawden, Gerald, Morgan, Karen, and Queija, Vivian, 2004, Report of the U.S. Geological Survey Lidar workshop sponsored by the Land Remote Sensing Program and held in St. Petersburg, FL, November 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1456, 72 p. Nayegandhi, Amar, Brock, J.C., and Wright, C.W., 2009, Small-footprint, waveform-resolving Lidar estimation of submerged and sub-canopy topography in coastal environments: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 30, no. 4, p. 861-878. Sallenger, A.H., Wright, C.W., and Lillycrop, Jeff, 2005, Coastal impacts of the 2004 hurricanes measured with airborne Lidar; initial results: Shore and Beach, v. 73, nos. 2-3, p. 10-14. Resources Included Readme.txt File

  4. Internal structure of spiral arms traced with [C II]: Unraveling the warm ionized medium, H I, and molecular emission lanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The spiral arm tangencies are ideal lines of sight in which to determine the distribution of interstellar gas components in the spiral arms and study the influence of spiral density waves on the interarm gas in the Milky Way. [C II] emission in the tangencies delineates the warm ionized component and the photon-dominated regions and is thus an important probe of spiral arm structure and dynamics. Aims: We aim to use [C II], H I, and 12CO spectral line maps of the Crux, Norma, and Perseus tangencies to analyze the internal structure of the spiral arms in different gas layers. Methods: We used [C II] l-V maps along with those for H I and 12CO to derive the average spectral line intensity profiles over the longitudinal range of each tangency. Using the VLSR of the emission features, we located the [C II], H I, and 12CO emissions along a cross cut of the spiral arm. We used the [C II] velocity profile to identify the compressed warm ionized medium (WIM) in the spiral arm. Results: We present a large-scale (~15°) position-velocity map of the Galactic plane in [C II] from l = 326.6° to 341.4° observed with Herschel HIFI. In the spectral line profiles at the tangencies, [C II] has two emission peaks, one associated with the compressed WIM and the other the molecular gas photon-dominated regions. When represented as a cut across the inner to outer edge of the spiral arm, the [C II]-WIM peak appears closest to the inner edge while 12CO and [C II] associated with molecular gas are at the outermost edge. H I has broader emission with an intermediate peak located nearer to that of 12CO. Conclusions: The velocity-resolved spectral line data of the spiral arm tangencies unravel the internal structure in the arms locating the emission lanes within them. We interpret the excess [C II] near the tangent velocities as shock compression of the WIM induced by the spiral density waves and as the innermost edge of spiral arms. For the Norma and Perseus arms, we estimate widths of ~250 pc in [C II]-WIM and ~400 pc in 12CO and overall spiral arm widths of ~500 pc in [C II] and 12CO emissions; in H I the widths are ~400 pc and ~620 pc for Perseus and Norma, respectively. The electron densities in the WIM are ~0.5 cm-3, about an order of magnitude higher than the average for the disk. The enhanced electron density in the WIM is a result of compression of the WIM by the spiral density wave potential.

  5. Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas

    PubMed Central

    Villegas Rodríguez, Natalia; Ferrer Lagunas, Lilian Marcela; Cianelli Acosta, Rosina; Miner, Sarah; Lara Campos, Loreto; Peragallo, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio “Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas”, realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entrevistadoras entrenadas. Este cuestionario incluyó preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos, escala de conocimientos de conductas de riesgo y autoeficacia, entre otros. Resultados Edad promedio de 32.3±9.1 años, 72.2% vive con su pareja y 42.7% poseen educación media completa. La puntuación media de los conocimientos de la infección por el VIH fue de 8.9±2.5, mientras que para las tres escalas empleadas para medir autoeficacia fueron: “Normas de los pares” =9.8±3.6, “Intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” =12.2±3.6 y “Self Efficacy Form”=20.2±4.7. Los conocimientos tuvieron una correlación positiva débil con la “intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” (r=0.19; p<0.0001) y con la escala “Self Efficacy Form” (r=0.34; p<0.0001), pero no se relacionaron con las “normas de los pares en cuanto a relaciones sexuales seguras” (r=0.13; p=0.78). Conclusión Existe una débil correlación positiva entre el nivel de conocimientos sobre el VIH/SIDA y la autoeficacia en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. PMID:25284914

  6. Normal-conducting scaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, J. M.; Appleby, R. B.; Owen, H.; Tygier, S.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present a new lattice design for a 30-350 MeV scaling fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator for proton therapy and tomography—NORMA (NOrmal-conducting Racetrack Medical Accelerator). The energy range allows the realization of proton computed tomography and utilizes normal conducting magnets in both a conventional circular ring option and a novel racetrack configuration, both designed using advanced optimization algorithms we have developed in pyzgoubi. Both configurations consist of ten focusing-defocusing-focusing triplet cells and operate in the second stability region of Hills equation. The ring configuration has a circumference of 60 m, a peak magnetic field seen by the beam of <1.6 T , a maximum horizontal orbit excursion of 44 cm and a dynamic aperture of 68 mm mrad—determined using a novel dynamic aperture (DA) calculation technique. The racetrack alternative is realized by adding magnet-free drift space in between cells at two opposing points in the ring, to facilitate injection and extraction. Our racetrack design has a total magnet-free straight lengths of 4.9 m, a circumference of 71 m, a peak magnetic field seen by the beam of <1.74 T , a maximum horizontal orbit excursion of 50 cm and a DA of 58 mm mrad. A transverse magnet misalignment model is also presented for the ring and racetrack configurations where the DA remains above 40 mm mrad for randomly misaligned error distributions with a standard deviation up to 100 μ m .

  7. Near-infrared spectra of high-albedo outer main-belt asteroids

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Shirahata, Mai; Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Okamura, Natsuko; Hasegawa, Sunao

    2015-02-01

    Most outer main-belt asteroids have low albedos because of their carbonaceouslike bodies. However, infrared satellite surveys have revealed that some asteroids have high albedos, which may suggest the presence of unusual surface minerals for those primitive objects. We present new near-infrared (1.1–2.5 μm) spectra of four outer main-belt asteroids with albedos ≥ 0.1. The C-complex asteroids (555) Norma and (2542) Calpurnia are featureless and have (50%–60%) amorphous Mg pyroxenes that might explain the high albedos. Asteroids (701) Oriola (which is a C-complex asteroid) and (2670) Chuvashia (a D/T-type or M-type asteroid) show possible broad absorption bands (1.5–2.1 μm). The feature can be reproduced by either Mg-rich amorphous pyroxene (with 50%–60% and 80%–95% Mg, respectively) or orthopyroxene (crystalline silicate), which might be responsible for the high albedos. No absorption features of water ice (near 1.5 and 2.0 μm) are detected in the objects. We discuss the origin of high albedo components in the outer main-belt asteroids and their physical relations to comets.

  8. Near-Infrared Spectra of High-Albedo Outer Main-Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Usui, Fumihiko; Shirahata, Mai; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Okamura, Natsuko; Hasegawa, Sunao

    2015-02-01

    Most outer main-belt asteroids have low albedos because of their carbonaceouslike bodies. However, infrared satellite surveys have revealed that some asteroids have high albedos, which may suggest the presence of unusual surface minerals for those primitive objects. We present new near-infrared (1.1-2.5 μm) spectra of four outer main-belt asteroids with albedos ≥ 0.1. The C-complex asteroids (555) Norma and (2542) Calpurnia are featureless and have (50%-60%) amorphous Mg pyroxenes that might explain the high albedos. Asteroids (701) Oriola (which is a C-complex asteroid) and (2670) Chuvashia (a D/T-type or M-type asteroid) show possible broad absorption bands (1.5-2.1 μm). The feature can be reproduced by either Mg-rich amorphous pyroxene (with 50%-60% and 80%-95% Mg, respectively) or orthopyroxene (crystalline silicate), which might be responsible for the high albedos. No absorption features of water ice (near 1.5 and 2.0 μm) are detected in the objects. We discuss the origin of high albedo components in the outer main-belt asteroids and their physical relations to comets. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  9. Tissue distribution of 14C-, 125I-, and 131I-diphenylhydantoin in the toadfish, rat, and human with insulinomas.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, S; Beierwaltes, W H; Ice, R D; Fajans, S S; Ryo, U Y; Redmond, M J; Hetzel, K R; Mosley, S T; Feldstein, B

    1975-08-01

    Carbon-14-diphenylhydantoin (DPH) concentrated maximally in pancreatic islet cells of the toadfish 10 min after its intravenous administration. The islet cell-to-acinar-tissue ratio at this time was 6:1. The islet cell-to-liver ratio was 20:1. Iodine-125-paroiodo-DPH at 10 min in the toadfish showed an islet cell-to-acinar-tissue ratio of 1.7:1 and an islet cell-to-liver ratio of 2.3:1. When 14C-DPH was given to four patients 10-17 min before removal of norma pancreatic tissue and of an insulinoma in three of the patients, the concentration of radioactivity in the insulinoma was never greater than in the pancreas and concentrations in insulinoma and pancreas were always less than in liver in the same individual. Forty-five to 90 min after administration of 131I-DPH, the liver and pancreas were delineated in three patients but the insulinoma was not imaged. Five days after administration of 131I-DPH, the concentration of 131I radioactivity in excised tissue was greater in the insulinomas than in the pancreas of two patient but not sufficient to produce positive images of the insulinoma in the pancreas. PMID:170386

  10. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  11. Exploring Cultural Heritage Resources in a 3d Collaborative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Respaldiza, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Vázquez Hoehne, A.

    2012-06-01

    Cultural heritage is a complex and diverse concept, which brings together a wide domain of information. Resources linked to a cultural heritage site may consist of physical artefacts, books, works of art, pictures, historical maps, aerial photographs, archaeological surveys and 3D models. Moreover, all these resources are listed and described by a set of a variety of metadata specifications that allow their online search and consultation on the most basic characteristics of them. Some examples include Norma ISO 19115, Dublin Core, AAT, CDWA, CCO, DACS, MARC, MoReq, MODS, MuseumDat, TGN, SPECTRUM, VRA Core and Z39.50. Gateways are in place to fit in these metadata standards into those used in a SDI (ISO 19115 or INSPIRE), but substantial work still remains to be done for the complete incorporation of cultural heritage information. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the complexity of cultural heritage resources can be dealt with by a visual exploration of their metadata within a 3D collaborative environment. The 3D collaborative environments are promising tools that represent the new frontier of our capacity of learning, understanding, communicating and transmitting culture.

  12. [The federal government discourse during the political decentralization process and the obstacles to implement the Brazilian Public Health Care System].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Bárbara

    2007-01-01

    A discourse analysis carried out on basic operating standard Norma Operacional Básica do Sistema Unico de Saúde (NOB-SUS 01/96) of the Brazilian public health care system aiming at locating signs that could allow to identify lines of thought which have influenced health care policies prioritized by the federal administration. The author points out a peculiarity in the kind of discourse employed by the ministry directive: its structure is based on isolated aspects of legislation and on ideas advocated by other discourse communities, articulated with redefined legal principles - an effort towards authorizing the official reasoning in favor of the relevance in keeping the decentralization process under the control of the federal administration. The analysis concludes that an infra-legal standard can neither grant state and federal administrations a hierarchical superiority (mediation function) over municipal administrations, nor can it transfer the legal responsibilities pertaining to Health Councils over to inter-administration commissions (Comissões Intergestores) , thus making the former mere decision ratifiers. This study found that granting privileges not contemplated in the legislation to state and federal administrations surfaced again and more strongly so in 2001 in yet another operating standard. PMID:17680087

  13. Photothermal technique in cell microscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitry; Chebot'ko, Igor; Kutchinsky, Georgy; Cherenkevitch, Sergey

    1995-01-01

    Photothermal (PT) method is applied for a cell imaging and quantitative studies. The techniques for cell monitoring, imaging and cell viability test are developed. The method and experimental set up for optical and PT-image acquisition and analysis is described. Dual- pulsed laser set up combined with phase contrast illumination of a sample provides visualization of temperature field or absorption structure of a sample with spatial resolution 0.5 micrometers . The experimental optics, hardware and software are designed using the modular principle, so the whole set up can be adjusted for various experiments: PT-response monitoring or photothermal spectroscopy studies. Sensitivity of PT-method provides the imaging of the structural elements of live (non-stained) white blood cells. The results of experiments with normal and subnormal blood cells (red blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophyles and lymphoblasts) are reported. Obtained PT-images are different from optical analogs and deliver additional information about cell structure. The quantitative analysis of images was used for cell population comparative diagnostic. The viability test for red blood cell differentiation is described. During the study of neutrophyles in norma and sarcoidosis disease the differences in PT-images of cells were found.

  14. [Authoritarian attitudes and violence in Madrid].

    PubMed

    Moreno Martín, F

    1999-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Multicentric Study on Cultural Norms and Attitudes Toward Violence (Estudio Multicéntrico sobre Actitudes y Normas Culturales frente a la Violencia, the ACTIVA project) is to analyze the relationship between those attitudes that foster violence and the violent behaviors themselves. This article examines the relationship between attitudes and two components of violence: its justification and its actual occurrence. Data were collected in Madrid between October and December 1996 from a representative sample of 1,219 people, who were interviewed at home with the common questionnaire used for the ACTIVA project, with some additional questions. Overall, the sample respondents scored low on the authoritarianism scale. Persons who most strongly justified the use of violence scored higher on authoritarianism, along with those who customarily displayed a higher level of aggression. Attitudes that were more strongly authoritarian were found in low-income neighborhoods, in people who were not part of the workforce, in people with less education, and in those persons who described themselves as having a right-wing ideology. If people who are more authoritarian justify and practice violence more than others, it becomes necessary to encourage criticism of those who abuse their power and tolerance toward differences, in order to prevent such behaviors without disregarding the influence of the social variables previously mentioned. PMID:10355328

  15. A flight-test methodology for identification of an aerodynamic model for a V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Mcnally, B. David

    1988-01-01

    Described is a flight test methodology for developing a data base to be used to identify an aerodynamic model of a vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) fighter aircraft. The aircraft serves as a test bed at Ames for ongoing research in advanced V/STOL control and display concepts. The flight envelope to be modeled includes hover, transition to conventional flight, and back to hover, STOL operation, and normaL cruise. Although the aerodynamic model is highly nonlinear, it has been formulated to be linear in the parameters to be identified. Motivation for the flight test methodology advocated in this paper is based on the choice of a linear least-squares method for model identification. The paper covers elements of the methodology from maneuver design to the completed data base. Major emphasis is placed on the use of state estimation with tracking data to ensure consistency among maneuver variables prior to their entry into the data base. The design and processing of a typical maneuver is illustrated.

  16. Experiencias y repercusión de una formación en ética de investigación

    PubMed Central

    Rupaya, Carmen Rosa García

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como propósito describir los logros y repercusiones de la capacitación en ética de la investigación que brinda el Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, sirviendo de estímulo, motivación y orientación a profesionales que requieren conocer y aplicar las normas y el raciocinio conducente a la deliberación de los problemas en esta disciplina. Asimismo, describe cómo este conocimiento genera un efecto multiplicador en aspectos tales como la participación en un comité de ética de la investigación (CEI), organización de cursos y creación y desarrollo de líneas de investigación, que repercuten en publicaciones realizadas con estudiantes de posgrado. Relata además los contenidos y estrategias didácticas que pueden ser empleados en cursos de ética y bioética para estudiantes de estomatología y concluye mencionando la aplicación práctica de esta capacitación en los ámbitos docente, institucional y de investigación. PMID:24482556

  17. Evaluation of accuracy and reliability of the plaque reduction neutralization test (micro-PRNT) in detection of yellow fever virus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Simões, Marisol; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; Yamamura, Anna M Y; Miranda, Emily Hime; Cajaraville, Ana Carolina R A; da Silva Freire, Marcos

    2012-11-01

    Yellow fever is a disease caused by the prototype virus of the genus Flavivirus and remains endemic in tropical forest regions from Africa and South America, despite the availability of effective vaccines. These are capable of inducing a rapid specific immune response, with the formation of neutralizing antibodies that appear early, are protective and long lasting. The Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test is considered the most sensitive and specific test for quantification of neutralizing antibodies, and the reference method for assessing the protective immune response after vaccination. This study evaluated the reliability (repeatability and reproducibility) and accuracy (sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy) of micro-PRNT50 and compared its performance with the micro-PRNT90. Although the micro-PRNT50 has showed satisfactory levels of reliability (ICCs ranged from 0.62 to 0.NorNormas e Manuais Técnicosas e Manuais Técnicos6 for repeatability and 0.72 for reproducibility) and accuracy (sensitivity of 91.1%, specificity of 72.9% and overall accuracy of 78%), the micro-PRNT90 showed higher performance, with ICCs for repeatability ranged from 0.78 to 0.79 and 0.81 for reproducibility, sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 94.7% and overall accuracy of 95%. Modifications in the test methodology and changes in the classification criteria in the readings of the results obtained will be important to improve the accuracy of micro-PRNT. PMID:23034357

  18. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes personnelles envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA avec leur perception des normes sociales liées aux personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Nous avons sélectionné au hasard trois hôpitaux provinciaux, quatre hôpitaux de villelpréfecture, dix hôpitaux ruraux, 18 centres hospitaliers de cantons et 54 cliniques de village au Yunnan en Chine. Les médecins et les infirmiéres étaient échantillonés au hasard de maniére proportionnelle au ratio médecin-infirmiére de chaque hôpital ou clinique. Les techniciens de laboratoire ont été suréchantillionnés afin d’inclure une représentation adéquate dans l’analyse. Un total de 1, 101 fournisseurs de soins ont participé à un sondage volontaire et anonyme oú les caractéristiques démographiques, l’attítude individuelle et les normes sociales perçues envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA, l’intention de discrimination au travail, l’attitude générale de préjugé et les connaissances sur le VIH/SIDA ont été mesurées. Une majorité de l’échantillon a démontré une similarité entre leurs opinions personnelles et qu’ils pensaient que la plupart des gens dans la société croyaient. Des régressions logistiques multiples ont indiqué que les participants qui étaient plus jeunes ou ceux qui ont rapporté un contact personnel avec les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA ont été significativement plus enclines á rapporter des attitudes personnelles envers la population qui étaient plus libérales que leurs normes sociales perçues. Avoir une attitude personnelle plus libérale envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SID A que les normes sociales perçues était significativement et négativement lié au niveau de l’intention de discrimination au travail, à la discrimination perçue au niveau interpersonnel et au niveau de l’attitude générale de préjugé envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Les résultats soulignent l’importance de comprendre les normes sociales et les attitudes personnelles dans l’étude de la stigmatisation lié au VIH et prōnent l’incorporation de l’existence du capital humain dans les futurs programmes de réduction de la stigmatisation du VIH. En este estudio se examinó el estigma hacia el VIH/SIDA entre proveedores de servicios chinos mediante la comparación de sus actitudes hacia las personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA con su precepción de las normas sociales relacionadas a personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA. Se seleccionaron al azar tres hospitales provinciales, cuatro de la ciudadlhospitales de la prefectura, diez hospitales del condado, 18 clinicas de salud municipales, y 54 clinicas de la aldea de Yunnan, China. Los médicos y las enfermeras fueron incluidos en la muestra de manera aleatoria y considerando la relación enfermera-médico de cada hospital o clínica. Una muestra grande de técnicos de laboratorio fue incluida en el estudio con el fin de garantizar su adecuada representación en los análisis. Un total de 1,101 proveedores de servicios participaron de manera voluntaria en una encuesta anónima, en la cual se evaluaron las caracteristicas demográficas, las actitudes individuales, asi como la percepción de las normas sociales hacia personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA, la intención de discriminación laboral, las actitudes globales de prejuicio y los conocimientos sobre el VIH/SIDA. La mayor parte de la muestra presentó similitudes entre sus opiniones personales y lo que ellos pensaban, eran las creencias de la mayoria de las personas de su sociedad. En una regresión logistica multiple se pudo observar que los participantes más jóvenes o que indicaron un contacto personal con personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA, mostraron de manera más significativa respecto de esta población actitudes personales mucho más liberales que las normas sociales percibidas. El presentar una actitud personal más liberal que las normas sociales percibidas, hacia personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA, estaba significativa y negativamente relacionado con el nivel de intención de discriminación laboral, la percepción de discriminación a nivel interpersonal y el nivel general del actitudes prejuiciosas hacia estas personas. Los resultados remarcan la importancia de la comprensión de las normas sociales y de las actítudes personales en el estudio del estigma relacionado con el VIH y propone la incorporación del capital humano existente en programas futuros de reducciôn del estigma hacia el VIH. PMID:20090857

  19. FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    These proceedings represent a sample of the scientific works presented during ICDIM2008, the 16th International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials, held at the Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil from 24-29 August 2008. The conference was the latest in a series which began at Argonne in 1956, and which has been held most recently in Riga, Latvia (2004) and Johannesburg, South Africa (2000). The conference was also related scientifically to the EURODIM series, which have been held most recently in Milan, Italy (2006), Wroclaw, Poland (2002) and Pecs, Hungary (2010). The aim of the conference was to bring together physicists, chemists and materials scientist to discuss defects in insulating materials and their effect on materials, including their optical, mass/charge transport, energy storage and sensor properties. The conference featured 6 plenary lectures, 60 contributed lectures and about 130 posters. The posters were displayed for the whole conference, but discussed in two three-hour sessions. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers and to the Programme Committee for their help in refereeing all the abstracts and choosing the contributed oral contributions. We would also like to thank the Local Organising Committee and the Brazilian Physical Society for their help with local organisation and the online registration/payment process respectively. The chairpersons would like to specially thanks all the sponsors listed below for financial support. The Federal University of Sergipe, one of the public and 'free tuition' Universities of the Country, run by the Brazilian Ministry of Education, were pleased to host this 16th meeting, the first one in Latin America. Mario E G Valerio Conference Chair Robert A Jackson Programme Chair Conference Scope Scope of the Conference was the presentation of the latest investigations on point and extended defects in bulk materials and thin films. Technological applications will be presented alongside fundamental measurements and theories. The main scientific areas included: 1 Fundamental physical phenomena Point and extended defects in wide band-gap systems: oxides, fluorides, nitrides, alkali- and silver-halides, perovskites, minerals, ceramics, nano-structures, organic molecular crystals, glasses, high-k and low-k materials, photonic crystals. 2 Defects at surfaces and interfaces Thin films and low-dimensional systems. Colloids, nano-crystals, and aggregates. Defects and material preparation technology. Defects modelling and computational methods. Radiation effects, radiation induced defects, colour centres. Luminescence of excitons, impurities, and defects. Electronic excitations, excited state dynamics, radiative and non-radiative relaxations. Scintillation, energy transfer and storage, carrier trapping phenomena. Non-linear optical phenomena. Laser active centres. Phonons and defects, electron-phonon interactions. Defect diffusion, ionic relaxations, ionic transport. 3 Technological applications Radiologic imaging and detection, scintillators, and dosimeters. Optical devices and photonics, photorefractive electro-optics, optical fibres, lasers. Materials for micro-electronics. Solid electrolytes, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, fast ionic conductors. Conference chairpersons: Mário E G Valerio (Conference Chairman), Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, SE, Brasil Robert A Jackson (Programme Chairman), School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK Conference committees: International Advisory Committee R Capelletti, Italy A V Chadwick, UK J Corish, Ireland J D Comins, South Africa H W den Hartog, The Netherlands K Funke, Germany Robert A Jackson, UK O Kanert, Germany A A Kaplyanskii, Russia A Lushchik, Estonia F Lüty, USA M Moreno, Spain P E Ngoepe, South Africa M Nikl, Czech Republic S V Nistor, Romania Ch Pedrini, France O F Schirmer, Germany J-M Spaeth, Germany A M Stoneham, UK M Suszynska, Poland I Tale, Latvia M E G Valerio, Brasil R T Williams, USA Programme Committee Robert A Jackson (Chair), University of Keele, UK R M Montereali, ENEA C.R. Frascati, Rome, Italy M Moreno, University of Cantabria, Spain Ch Pedrini, University Lyon, France Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Volkmar Dierolf, Lehigh University, USA Laszlo Kovács, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Local Organizing Committee M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Sonia L Baldochi, IPEN, SP, Brasil Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Livio Amaral, UFRGS, RS, Brasil Ana R Blak, USP, SP, Brasil Marco Cremona, PUC-RJ, RJ, Brasil Anderson S L Gomes, UFPE, PE, Brasil Spero Penha Morato, LaserTools, SP, Brasil Alejandro Ayala, UFC, CE, Brasil ICDIM2008 Sponsors: Sponsors

  20. Yakima River Species Interactions Study; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 7 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Fritts, Anthony L.; Temple, Gabriel M.

    2004-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the twelfth of a series of progress reports that address species interactions research and supplementation monitoring of fishes in response to supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin (Hindman et al. 1991; McMichael et al. 1992; Pearsons et al. 1993; Pearsons et al. 1994; Pearsons et al. 1996; Pearsons et al. 1998, Pearsons et al. 1999, Pearsons et al. 2001a, Pearsons et al. 2001b, Pearsons et al. 2002, Pearsons et al. 2003). Journal articles and book chapters have also been published from our work (McMichael 1993; Martin et al. 1995; McMichael et al. 1997; McMichael and Pearsons 1998; McMichael et al. 1998; Pearsons and Fritts 1999; McMichael et al. 1999; McMichael et al. 1999; Pearsons and Hopley 1999; Ham and Pearsons 2000; Ham and Pearsons 2001; Amaral et al. 2001; McMichael and Pearsons 2001; Pearsons 2002, Fritts and Pearsons 2004, Pearsons et al. in press, Major et al. in press). This progress report summarizes data collected between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2003. These data were compared to findings from previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons. Interactions between fish produced as part of the YKFP, termed target species or stocks, and other species or stocks (non-target taxa) may alter the population status of non-target species or stocks. This may occur through a variety of mechanisms, such as competition, predation, and interbreeding (Pearsons et al. 1994; Busack et al. 1997; Pearsons and Hopley 1999). Furthermore, the success of a supplementation program may be limited by strong ecological interactions such as predation or competition (Busack et al. 1997). Our work has adapted to new information needs as the YKFP has evolved. Initially, our work focused on interactions between anadromous steelhead and resident rainbow trout (for explanation see Pearsons et al. 1993), then interactions between spring chinook salmon and rainbow trout, and recently interactions between spring chinook salmon and highly valued non-target taxa (NTT; e.g., bull trout); and interactions between strong interactor taxa (e.g., those that may strongly influence the abundance of spring chinook salmon; e.g., smallmouth bass) and spring chinook salmon. The change in emphasis to spring chinook salmon has largely been influenced by the shift in the target species planned for supplementation (Bonneville Power Administration et al. 1996; Fast and Craig 1997). Originally, steelhead and spring chinook salmon were proposed to be supplemented simultaneously (Clune and Dauble 1991). However, due in part to the uncertainties associated with interactions between steelhead and rainbow trout, spring chinook and coho salmon were supplemented before steelhead. This redirection in the species to be supplemented has prompted us to prioritize interactions between spring chinook and rainbow trout, while beginning to investigate other ecological interactions of concern. Prefacility monitoring of variables such as rainbow trout density, distribution, and size structure was continued and monitoring of other NTT was initiated in 1997. This report is organized into three chapters that represent major topics associated with monitoring stewardship, utilization, and strong interactor taxa. Chapter 1 reports the results of non-target taxa monitoring after the fifth release of hatchery salmon smolts in the upper Yakima River basin. Chapter 2 describes our tributary sampling methodology for monitoring the status of tributary NTT. Chapter 3 describes predation on juvenile salmonids by smallmouth bass and channel catfish in the lower Yakima River. The chapters in this report are in various stages of development and should be considered preliminary unless they have been published in a peer-reviewed journal. Additional field-work and/or analysis is in progress for topics covered in this report. Throughout this report, a premium was placed on presenting data in tables so that other interested parties could have access to the data. Readers are cautioned that any preliminary conclusions are subject to future revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  1. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Temple, Gabriel M.; Fritts, Anthony L.

    2005-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the thirteenth of a series of progress reports that address species interactions research and supplementation monitoring of fishes in response to supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin (Hindman et al. 1991; McMichael et al. 1992; Pearsons et al. 1993; Pearsons et al. 1994; Pearsons et al. 1996; Pearsons et al. 1998, Pearsons et al. 1999, Pearsons et al. 2001a, Pearsons et al. 2001b, Pearsons et al. 2002, Pearsons et al. 2003, Pearsons et al. 2004). Journal articles and book chapters have also been published from our work (McMichael 1993; Martin et al. 1995; McMichael et al. 1997; McMichael and Pearsons 1998; McMichael et al. 1998; Pearsons and Fritts 1999; McMichael et al. 1999; McMichael et al. 1999; Pearsons and Hopley 1999; Ham and Pearsons 2000; Ham and Pearsons 2001; Amaral et al. 2001; McMichael and Pearsons 2001; Pearsons 2002, Fritts and Pearsons 2004, Pearsons et al. in press, Major et al. in press). This progress report summarizes data collected between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004. These data were compared to findings from previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons. Interactions between fish produced as part of the YKFP, termed target species or stocks, and other species or stocks (non-target taxa) may alter the population status of non-target species or stocks. This may occur through a variety of mechanisms, such as competition, predation, and interbreeding (Pearsons et al. 1994; Busack et al. 1997; Pearsons and Hopley 1999). Furthermore, the success of a supplementation program may be limited by strong ecological interactions such as predation or competition (Busack et al. 1997). Our work has adapted to new information needs as the YKFP has evolved. Initially, our work focused on interactions between anadromous steelhead and resident rainbow trout (for explanation see Pearsons et al. 1993), then interactions between spring chinook salmon and rainbow trout, and recently interactions between spring chinook salmon and highly valued non-target taxa (NTT; e.g., bull trout); and interactions between strong interactor taxa (e.g., those that may strongly influence the abundance of spring chinook salmon; e.g., smallmouth bass) and spring chinook salmon. The change in emphasis to spring chinook salmon has largely been influenced by the shift in the target species planned for supplementation (Bonneville Power Administration et al. 1996; Fast and Craig 1997). Originally, steelhead and spring chinook salmon were proposed to be supplemented simultaneously (Clune and Dauble 1991). However, due in part to the uncertainties associated with interactions between steelhead and rainbow trout, spring chinook and coho salmon were supplemented before steelhead. This redirection in the species to be supplemented has prompted us to prioritize interactions between spring chinook and rainbow trout, while beginning to investigate other ecological interactions of concern. Prefacility monitoring of variables such as rainbow trout density, distribution, and size structure was continued and monitoring of other NTT was initiated in 1997. This report is organized into five chapters that represent major topics associated with monitoring stewardship, utilization, and strong interactor taxa. Chapter 1 reports the results of non-target taxa monitoring after the sixth release of hatchery salmon smolts in the upper Yakima River Basin. Chapter 2 reports on the impacts of supplementation and reintroduction of salmon to trout. Chapter 2 was submitted as a manuscript to the North American Journal of Fisheries Management. Chapter 3 is an essay that describes the problems associated with popular population estimators. This essay was submitted to Fisheries magazine. Chapter 4 describes an evaluation of recovery times on mark-recapture and multiple removal population estimates. Chapter 4 was submitted to the North American Journal of Fisheries Management as a manuscript. Chapter 5, which was submitted as a manuscript to Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, describes the role of predator and prey size in evaluating predation risk by smallmouth bass in the Yakima River. The chapters in this report are in various stages of development and should be considered preliminary unless they have been published in a peer-reviewed journal. Additional field-work and/or analysis is in progress for topics covered in this report.

  2. Our Milky Way Gets a Makeover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for Fully Annotated Version Click on image for Poster Version

    Like early explorers mapping the continents of our globe, astronomers are busy charting the spiral structure of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Using infrared images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists have discovered that the Milky Way's elegant spiral structure is dominated by just two arms wrapping off the ends of a central bar of stars. Previously, our galaxy was thought to possess four major arms.

    This artist's concept illustrates the new view of the Milky Way, along with other findings presented at the 212th American Astronomical Society meeting in St. Louis, Mo. The galaxy's two major arms (Scutum-Centaurus and Perseus) can be seen attached to the ends of a thick central bar, while the two now-demoted minor arms (Norma and Sagittarius) are less distinct and located between the major arms. The major arms consist of the highest densities of both young and old stars; the minor arms are primarily filled with gas and pockets of star-forming activity.

    The artist's concept also includes a new spiral arm, called the 'Far-3 kiloparsec arm,' discovered via a radio-telescope survey of gas in the Milky Way. This arm is shorter than the two major arms and lies along the bar of the galaxy.

    Our sun lies near a small, partial arm called the Orion Arm, or Orion Spur, located between the Sagittarius and Perseus arms.

  3. Deep optical survey of the stellar content of Sh2-311 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ram Kesh; Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, Saurabh; Jose, J.; Ogura, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Samal, M. R.; Eswaraiah, C.; Chandola, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    The stellar content in and around Sh2-311 region have been studied using the deep optical observations as well as near-infrared (NIR) data from 2MASS. The region contains three clusters, viz. NGC 2467, Haffner 18 and Haffner 19. We have made an attempt to distinguish the stellar content of these individual regions as well as to re-determine their fundamental parameters such as distance, reddening, age, onto the basis of a new and more extended optical and infrared photometric data set. NGC 2467 and Haffner 19 are found to be located in the Perseus arm at the distances of 5.0 ± 0.4 kpc and 5.7 ± 0.4 kpc, respectively, whereas Haffner 18 is located at the distance of 11.2 ± 1.0 kpc. The clusters NGC 2467 and Haffner 19 might have formed from the same molecular cloud, whereas the cluster Haffner 18 is located in the outer galactic arm, i.e. the Norma-Cygnus arm. We identify 8 class II young stellar objects (YSOs) using the NIR (J-H)/(H-K) two colour diagram. We have estimated the age and mass of the YSOs identified in the present work and those by Snider et al. (2009) using the V/(V-I) colour-magnitude diagram. The estimated ages and mass range of the majority of the YSOs are ≲1 Myr and ∼0.4-3.5 M⊙, respectively, indicating that these sources could be T-Tauri stars or their siblings. Spatial distribution of the YSOs shows that some of the YSOs are distributed around the HII region Sh2-311, suggesting a triggered star formation at its periphery.

  4. Three-dimensional distribution of the ISM in the Milky Way galaxy. III. The total neutral gas disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    We present newly obtained three-dimensional gaseous maps of the Milky Way Galaxy: H I, H2, and total-gas (H I plus H2) maps, which were derived from the H I and 12CO(J = 1-0) survey data and rotation curves based on the kinematic distance. The H I and H2 face-on maps show that the H I disk is extended to a radius of 15-20 kpc and its outskirts are asymmetric to the Galactic center, while most of the H2 gas is distributed inside the solar circle. The total gas mass within a radius of 30 kpc amounts to 8.0 × 109 M⊙, 89% and 11% of which are H I and H2, respectively. The vertical slices show that the outer H I disk is strongly warped and the inner H I and H2 disks are corrugated. The total gas map is advantageous for tracing spiral structures from the inner to outer disk. Spiral structures such as the Norma-Cygnus, the Perseus, the Sagittarius-Carina, the Scutum-Crux, and the Orion arms are more clearly traced in the total gas map than ever. All the spiral arms are well explained by logarithmic spiral arms with pitch angles of 11°-15°. The molecular fraction of the total gas is high near the Galactic center and decreases with Galactocentric distance. The molecular fraction is also locally enhanced at the spiral arms compared with the inter-arm regions.

  5. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  6. The complex stellar populations in the background of open clusters in the third Galactic quadrant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Giovanni; Seleznev, Anton F.; Baume, Gustavo; Turner, David. G.

    2016-02-01

    Multicolour photometry of the stellar populations in five fields in the third Galactic quadrant centred on the clusters NGC 2215, NGC 2354, Haffner 22, Ruprecht 11, and ESO489 SC01 is interpreted in terms of a warped and flared Galactic disc, without resort to an external entity such as the popular Monoceros or Canis Major overdensities. Except for NGC 2215, the clusters are poorly or unstudied previously. The data generate basic parameters for each cluster, including the distribution of stars along the line of sight. We use star counts and photometric analysis, without recourse to Galactic-model-based predictions or interpretations, and confirms earlier results for NGC 2215 and NGC 2354. ESO489 SC01 is not a real cluster, while Haffner 22 is an overlooked cluster aged ˜2.5 Gyr. Conclusions for Ruprecht 11 are preliminary, evidence for a cluster being marginal. Fields surrounding the clusters show signatures of young and intermediate-age stellar populations. The young population background to NGC 2354 and Ruprecht 11 lies ˜8-9 kpc from the Sun and ˜1 kpc below the formal Galactic plane, tracing a portion of the Norma-Cygnus arm, challenging Galactic models that adopt a sharp cut-off of the disc 12-14 kpc from the Galactic Centre. The old population is metal-poor with an age of ˜2-3 Gyr, resembling star clusters like Tombaugh 2 or NGC 2158. It has a large colour spread and is difficult to locate precisely. Young and old populations follow a pattern that depends critically on the vertical location of the thin and/or thick disc, and whether or not a particular line of sight intersects one, both, or none.

  7. Optimal Spectral Regions For Laser Excited Fluorescence Diagnostics For Point Of Care Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gėgžna, V.; Varanius, D.; Vaitkus, J.

    2011-09-01

    The tissue fluorescence gives the response of light emitting molecule signature, and characterizes the cell composition and peculiarities of metabolism. Both are useful for the biomedical diagnostics, as reported in previous our and others works. The present work demonstrates the results of application of laser excited autofluorescence for diagnostics of pathology in genital tissues, and the feasibility for the bedside at "point of care—off lab" application. A portable device using the USB spectrophotometer, micro laser (355 nm Nd:YAG, 0,5 ns pulse, repetition rate 10 kHz, output power 15 mW), three channel optical fiber and computer with diagnostic program was designed and ready for clinical trial to be used for cytology and biopsy specimen on site diagnostics, and for the endoscopy/puncture procedures. The biopsy and cytology samples, as well as intervertebral disc specimen were evaluated by pathology experts and the fluorescence spectra were investigated in the fresh and preserved specimens. The spectra were recorded in the spectral range 350-900 nm. At the initial stage the Gaussian components of spectra were found and the Mann-Whitney test was used for the groups' differentiation and the spectral regions for optimal diagnostics purpose were found. Then a formal dividing of spectra in the components or the definite width bands, where the main difference of the different group spectra was observed, was used to compare these groups. The ROC analysis based diagnostic algorithms were created for medical prognosis. The positive prognostic values and negative prediction values were determined for cervical Liquid PAP smear supernatant sediment diagnosis of being Cervicitis and Norma versus CIN2+. In a case of intervertebral disc the analysis allows to get the additional information about the disc degeneration status. All these results demonstrated an efficiency of the proposed procedure and the designed device could be tested at the point-of-care site or for intervertebral disc operations.

  8. CATALOG OF OBSERVED TANGENTS TO THE SPIRAL ARMS IN THE MILKY WAY GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2014-11-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, one can use different arm tracers (CO, H I, thermal or ionized or relativistic electrons, masers, cold and hot dust, etc.) to locate a tangent to each spiral arm in the disk of the Milky Way. We present a master catalog of the astronomically observed tangents to the Galaxy's spiral arms, using different arm tracers from the literature. Some arm tracers can have slightly divergent results from several papers, so a mean value is taken—see the Appendix for CO, H II, and masers. The catalog of means currently consists of 63 mean tracer entries, spread over many arms (Carina, Crux-Centaurus, Norma, Perseus origin, near 3 kpc, Scutum, Sagittarius), stemming from 107 original arm tracer entries. Additionally, we updated and revised a previous statistical analysis of the angular offset and linear separation from the mid-arm for each different mean arm tracer. Given enough arm tracers, and summing and averaging over all four spiral arms, one could determine if arm tracers have separate and parallel lanes in the Milky Way. This statistical analysis allows a cross-cut of a Galactic spiral arm to be made, confirming a recent discovery of a linear separation between arm tracers. Here, from the mid-arm's CO to the inner edge's hot dust, the arm halfwidth is about 340 pc; doubling would yield a full arm width of 680 pc. We briefly compare these observations with the predictions of many spiral arm theories, notably the density wave theory.

  9. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey. II.Cloud and Star Formation near the Filamentary Ministarburst RCW 106

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hans; Nguyen-Luong, Quang; Martin, Peter G.; Barnes, Peter J.; Muller, Erik; Lowe, Vicki; Lo, Nadia; Cunningham, Maria; Motte, Frédérique; Indermühle, B.; O'Dougherty, Stefan N.; Hernandez, Audra K.; Fuller, Gary A.

    2015-10-01

    We report here a study of gas, dust, and star formation rates (SFRs) in the molecular cloud complexes (MCCs) surrounding the giant H ii region RCW 106 using 12CO and 13CO(1-0) data from the Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky way Survey and archival data. We separate the emission in the Galactic Plane around l = 330°-335° and b = -1°-1° into two main MCCs: the RCW 106 (VLSR = -48 km s-1) complex and the MCC331-90 (VLSR = -90 km s-1) complex. While RCW 106 (M ˜ 5.9× {10}6 {M}⊙ ) is located in the Scutum-Centaurus arm at a distance of 3.6 kpc, MCC331-90 (M ˜ 2.8× {10}6 {M}⊙ ) is in the Norma arm at a distance of 5 kpc. Their molecular gas mass surface densities are ˜220 and ˜130 {M}⊙ pc-2, respectively. For the RCW 106 complex, using the 21 cm continuum fluxes and dense clumps counting, we obtain immediate past (˜-0.2 Myr) and immediate future (˜+0.2 Myr) SFRs of {0.25}-0.023+0.09 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 and 0.12+/- 0.1 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. This results in an immediate past SFR density of {9.5}-0.9+3.4 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 {{kpc}}-2 and an immediate future SFR density of {4.8}-3.8+3.8 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 {{kpc}}-2. As both SFRs are higher than the ministarburst threshold, they must be undergoing a ministarburst event although burst peak has already passed. This is one of the most active star forming complexes in the southern sky that is ideal for further investigations of massive star formation and potentially shedding light on the physics of high-redshift starbursts.

  10. Morphometric Study of Nasal Bone and Piriform Aperture in Human Dry Skull of Indian Origin

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Aparna; Rani, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nasal bone and piriform aperture shows racial and geographical differences because of variable climate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dimensions (maximal width and length), the size and the shape of the piriform aperture (PA) and their sexual dimorphism in North Indian adult. Materials and Methods In this observational study, dimension of piriform aperture and nasal bone were measured using digital vernier caliper after assessing landmarks around the piriform aperture on the norma frontalis in Frankfurt plane in 40 skull of Indian orgin. Results The mean width of the piriform aperture was 24.9±1.59 mm in males and 22.77±1.57 mm in females, the mean length was 29.57±3.28mm in females and 31.16±3.58mm in males. The difference between males and females was significant, and our data correlates well with the previously data acquired from humans skulls. Most of North Indian skulls have platyrhine type of piriform aperture (triangular to oval shape with pyriform aperture index of 0.79). Mean length and width of nasal bone were 17.58±2.47mm and 12.1±0.97mm respectively without sexual. Conclusion Shape and size analysis of the piriform aperture and nasal bone showed the existence of a significant sexual dimorphism. These results encourage us to go further with functional and imaging correlations. This study will also be helpful in forensic research and anthropology. PMID:26894050

  11. Effect of molybdenum treatment on molybdenum concentration and nitrate reduction in maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Béla; Puskás-Preszner, Anita; Huzsvai, László; Lévai, László; Bódi, Éva

    2015-11-01

    Since 1940 molybdenum has been known as an essential trace element in plant nutrition and physiology. It has a central role in nitrogen metabolism, and its deficiency leads to nitrate accumulation in plants. In this study, we cultivated maize seedlings (Zea mays L. cv. Norma SC) in nutrient solution and soil (rhizoboxes) to investigate the effect of molybdenum treatment on the absorption of molybdenum, sulfur and iron. These elements have been previously shown to play important roles in nitrate reduction, because they are necessary for the function of the nitrate reductase enzyme. We also investigated the relationship between molybdenum treatments and different nitrogen forms in maize. Molybdenum treatments were 0, 0.96, 9.6 and 96 μg kg(-1) in the nutrition solution experiments, and 0, 30, 90, 270 mg kg(-1) in the rhizobox experiments. On the basis of our results, the increased Mo level produced higher plant available Mo concentration in nutrient solution and in soil, which resulted increased concentration of Mo in shoots and roots of maize seedlings. In addition it was observed that maize seedlings accumulated more molybdenum in their roots than in their shoots at all treatments. In contrast, molybdenum treatments did not affect significantly either iron or sulfur concentrations in the plant, even if these elements (Mo, S and Fe) play alike important roles in nitrogen metabolism. Furthermore, the physiological molybdenum level (1× Mo = 0.01 μM) reduced NO3-N and enhanced the NH4-N concentrations in seedlings, suggesting that nitrate reduction was more intense under a well-balanced molybdenum supply. PMID:26226599

  12. Identifications of Four Integral Sources in the Galactic Plane via CHANDRA Localizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriquez, Jerome; Foschini, Luigi; Walter, Roland; Kaaret, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Hard X-ray imaging of the Galactic plane by the INTEGRAL satellite is uncovering large numbers of 20-100 keV "IGR" sources. We present results from Chandra, INTEGRAL, optical, and IR observations of four IGR sources: three sources in the Norma region of the Galaxy(1GR J16195-4945,IGR J16207-5129, and IGR J16167-4957) and one that is closer to the Galactic center (IGR 5171 95-4100). In all four cases, one relatively bright Chandra source is seen in the INTEGRAL error circle, and these are likely to be the soft X-ray counterparts of the IGR sources. They have hard 0.3-10 keV spectra with power-law photon indices of Gamma = 0.5-1.1. While many previously studied IGR sources show high column densities (NH approx. 10(exp 23)-10(exp 24)/sq cm), only IGR J16195-4945 has a column density that could be as high as 10(exp 23)/sq cm. Using optical and IR sky survey catalogs and our own photometry, we have obtained identifications for all four sources. The J-band magnitudes are in the range 14.9-10.4, and we have used the optical/IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to constrain the nature of the sources. Blackbody components with temperature lower limits of >9400 K for IGR J16195-4945 and >18,000 K for IGR J16207-5129 indicate that these are very likely high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). However, for IGR 516167-4957 and IGR J17195-4100, low extinction and the SEDs indicate later spectral types for the putative companions, suggesting that these are not HMXBs.

  13. SU-E-T-249: Neutron Model Upgrade for Radiotherapy Patients Monitoring Using a New Online Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Irazola, L; Sanchez Doblado, F.; Lorenzoli, M; Pola, A.; Terron, J.A.; Bedogni, R.; Sanchez Nieto, B.; Romero-Exposito, M.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to improve the existing methodology to estimate neutron equivalent dose in organs during radiotherapy treatments, based on a Static Random Access Memory neutron detector (SRAMnd) [1]. This is possible thanks to the introduction of a new digital detector with improved characteristics, which is able to measure online the neutron fluence rate in the presence of an intense photon background [2]. Its reduced size, allows the direct estimation of doses in specific points inside an anthropomorphic phantom (NORMA) without using passive detectors as TLD or CR-39. This versatility will allow not only to improve the existing models (generic abdomen and H and N [1]) but to generate more specific ones for any technique. Methods: The new Thermal Neutron Rate Detector (TNRD), based on a diode device sensitized to thermal neutrons, have been inserted in 16 points of the phantom. These points are distributed to infer doses to specific organs. Simultaneous measurements of these devices and a reference one, located in front of the gantry, have been performed for the mentioned generic treatments, in order to improve the existing model. Results: These new devices have shown more precise since they agree better with Monte Carlo simulations. The comparison of the thermal neutron fluence, measured with TNRD, and the existing models, converted from events to fluence, shows an average improvement of (3.90±3.37) % for H and N and (12.61±9.43) % for abdomen, normalized to the maximum value. Conclusion: This work indicates the potential of these new devices for more precise neutron equivalent dose estimation in organs, as a consequence of radiotherapy treatments. The simplicity of the process makes possible to establish more specific models that will provide a better dose estimation. References[1] Phys Med Biol 2012; 57:6167–6191.[2] A new active thermal neutron detector. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. (in press)

  14. A First Calibration of SBF using Mulit-Conjugate Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Zachary; Jensen, Joseph B.; Blakeslee, John; Schirmer, Mischa

    2016-01-01

    We measured Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) in three galaxies, ESO137-G006, NGC 3309, and NGC 5128, using the GeMS Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) system on the Gemini South telescope. ESO137-G006 is located in the Norma Cluster, NGC 3309 is located in the Hydra Cluster, while NGC 5128, also known as Centaurus A, is a nearby galaxy with numerous other distance measurements, including Cepheids. These galaxies were observed as a pathfinder to establish the SBF technique using the MCAO system.The J and K-band images taken with MCAO were astrometrically corrected and combined using the THELI software. This method allowed us to accurately account for the distortions of the focal plane when combining the images. The foreground stars as well as the globular clusters were measured to account for their contribution to the SBF. J-K color measurements were made to calibrate SBF and determine the stellar populations of the galaxies.The results of these measurements give us an SBF calibration that we can use to measure the distances to much more distant galaxies. Accurate distances are needed to determine the true spatial motions of galaxies and measure the mass distribution and density of the Universe. We now live in the era of "precision cosmology" in which distance measurements have transformed our understanding of the composition of the Universe and revealed the presence of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, the two dominant (but still unidentified) components of the Universe. The origins and nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy are among the most important unsolved mysteries in physics.

  15. MUSE sneaks a peek at extreme ram-pressure stripping events - I. A kinematic study of the archetypal galaxy ESO137-001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Michele; Fossati, Matteo; Hau, George K. T.; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Bower, Richard; Sun, Ming; Boselli, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of ESO137-001, a spiral galaxy infalling towards the centre of the massive Norma cluster at z ˜ 0.0162. During the high-velocity encounter of ESO137-001 with the intracluster medium, a dramatic ram-pressure stripping event gives rise to an extended gaseous tail, traced by our MUSE observations to >30 kpc from the galaxy centre. By studying the Hα surface brightness and kinematics in tandem with the stellar velocity field, we conclude that ram pressure has completely removed the interstellar medium from the outer disc, while the primary tail is still fed by gas from the inner regions. Gravitational interactions do not appear to be a primary mechanism for gas removal. The stripped gas retains the imprint of the disc rotational velocity to ˜20 kpc downstream, without a significant gradient along the tail, which suggests that ESO137-001 is fast moving along a radial orbit in the plane of the sky. Conversely, beyond ˜20 kpc, a greater degree of turbulence is seen, with velocity dispersion up to ≳100 km s-1. For a model-dependent infall velocity of vinf ˜ 3000 km s-1, we conclude that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the tail occurs on time-scales ≥6.5 Myr. Our work demonstrates the terrific potential of MUSE for detailed studies of how ram-pressure stripping operates on small scales, providing a deep understanding of how galaxies interact with the dense plasma of the cluster environment.

  16. Three-dimensional distribution of the ISM in the Milky Way galaxy. III. The total neutral gas disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2015-11-01

    We present newly obtained three-dimensional gaseous maps of the Milky Way Galaxy: H I, H2, and total-gas (H I plus H2) maps, which were derived from the H I and 12CO(J = 1-0) survey data and rotation curves based on the kinematic distance. The H I and H2 face-on maps show that the H I disk is extended to a radius of 15-20 kpc and its outskirts are asymmetric to the Galactic center, while most of the H2 gas is distributed inside the solar circle. The total gas mass within a radius of 30 kpc amounts to 8.0 × 109 M⊙, 89% and 11% of which are H I and H2, respectively. The vertical slices show that the outer H I disk is strongly warped and the inner H I and H2 disks are corrugated. The total gas map is advantageous for tracing spiral structures from the inner to outer disk. Spiral structures such as the Norma-Cygnus, the Perseus, the Sagittarius-Carina, the Scutum-Crux, and the Orion arms are more clearly traced in the total gas map than ever. All the spiral arms are well explained by logarithmic spiral arms with pitch angles of 11°-15°. The molecular fraction of the total gas is high near the Galactic center and decreases with Galactocentric distance. The molecular fraction is also locally enhanced at the spiral arms compared with the inter-arm regions.

  17. MUSE sneaks a peek at extreme ram-pressure stripping events - II. The physical properties of the gas tail of ESO137-001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, Matteo; Fumagalli, Michele; Boselli, Alessandro; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Sun, Ming; Wilman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the physical properties of the disc and tail of ESO137-001, a galaxy suffering from extreme ram-pressure stripping during its infall into the Norma cluster. With sensitive and spatially resolved MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) spectroscopy, we analyse the emission line diagnostics in the tail of ESO137-001, finding high values of [N II]/Hα and [O I]/Hα that are suggestive of the presence of shocks in turbulent gas. However, the observed line ratios are not as strong as commonly seen in pure shock heating models, suggesting that other emission mechanisms may contribute to the observed emission. Indeed, part of the observed emission, particularly at close separations from the galaxy disc, may originate from recombination of photoionized gas stripped from the main body of ESO137-001. We also identify a large number of bright compact knots within in the tail, with line ratios characteristic of H II regions. These H II regions, despite residing in a stripped gas tail, have quite typical line ratios, densities, temperatures, and metallicity (˜0.7 solar). The majority of these H II regions are embedded within diffuse gas from the tail, which is dynamically cool (σ ˜ 25-50 km s- 1). This fact, together with a lack of appreciable gradients in age and metallicity, suggests that these H II regions formed in situ. While our analysis represents a first attempt to characterize the rich physics of the ESO137-001 tail, future work is needed to address the importance of other mechanisms, such as thermal conduction and magnetohydrodynamic waves, in powering the emission in the tail.

  18. Evaluation Metrics for the Paragon XP/S-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversat, Bernard; McNab, David; Nitzberg, Bill; Fineberg, Sam; Blaylock, Bruce T. (Technical Monitor)

    1993-01-01

    On February 17th 1993, the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) facility located at the NASA Ames Research Center installed a 224 node Intel Paragon XP/S-15 system. After its installation, the Paragon was found to be in a very immature state and was unable to support a NAS users' workload, composed of a wide range of development and production activities. As a first step towards addressing this problem, we implemented a set of metrics to objectively monitor the system as operating system and hardware upgrades were installed. The metrics were designed to measure four aspects of the system that we consider essential to support our workload: availability, utilization, functionality, and performance. This report presents the metrics collected from February 1993 to August 1993. Since its installation, the Paragon availability has improved from a low of 15% uptime to a high of 80%, while its utilization has remained low. Functionality and performance have improved from merely running one of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks to running all of them faster (between 1 and 2 times) than on the iPSC/860. In spite of the progress accomplished, fundamental limitations of the Paragon operating system are restricting the Paragon from supporting the NAS workload. The maximum operating system message passing (NORMA IPC) bandwidth was measured at 11 Mbytes/s, well below the peak hardware bandwidth (175 Mbytes/s), limiting overall virtual memory and Unix services (i.e. Disk and HiPPI I/O) performance. The high NX application message passing latency (184 microns), three times than on the iPSC/860, was found to significantly degrade performance of applications relying on small message sizes. The amount of memory available for an application was found to be approximately 10 Mbytes per node, indicating that the OS is taking more space than anticipated (6 Mbytes per node).

  19. The impact of land use on biological activity of agriculture soils. An State-of-the-Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    Biological activity is a crucial soil property affecting soil sustainability and crop production. The unsuitable land management can lead to a loss in soil fertility and a reduction in the abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. This can be as a consequence of high erosion rates due to the mismanagement of farmers (Cerdà et al., 2009a). However ecological practices and some organic amendments can promote the activities of soil microbial communities, and increase its biodiversity (García-Orenes et al., 2010; 2013). The impact of land use in microbiological properties of agriculture soil are presented and discussed in this review. Biological activity is quantified by microbial soil communities and soil enzyme activities to interpret the effects of soil management practices (Morugán-Coronado et al., 2013). The aim of biological activity tests is to give a reliable description of the state of agricultural soils under the effect of different land uses. Numerous methods have been used to determine the impact of land uses on microbiological properties. The current used methods for detecting microbial diversity are based on molecular techniques centered on the 16S and 18S rRNA encoding sequences such as CLPP: community-level physiological profiles; T-RFLP: terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism; DGGE: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; OFRG: oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes, ARISA: Automated Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, SSCP: single-strand conformation polymorphism. And techniques based on the cellular composition of the microbes such as PLFA: phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Other methods are based on the activity of microbes, for example, Cmic: microbial biomass carbon; SIR: substrate induced respiration; BSR: Basal soil respiration; qCO2 metabolic quotient; enzymatic activities (Urease, ß-glucosidase and phosphatase) (Deng, 2012). Agricultural land management can contribute to increased rates of erosion due to desiccation, mechanical destruction, soil compaction, reduce pore volume, and disruption of access to food resources (Cerdà et al., 2009b). Furthermore, it can lead to a loss in soil fertility and reduction in the abundance and diversity of soil microorganism (Caravaca et al., 2002). Nevertheless, some organic fertilizers, such as manure, waste water and sewage sludge, promote the activities of soil microbial communities (Morugán-Coronado et al., 2011; Balota et al., 2013; Macci et al., 2013). On the other hand, land use influences soil microbial processes by changing the quantity and quality of plant residues entering the soil and their spatial distribution, thorough changes in nutrients and inputs (García-Orenes et al., 2009; 2012). The abuse of pesticides can drastically modify the function and structure of microbial communities, altering the terrestrial ecosystems, which has important implication for soil quality (Pampulha et al., 2006). Soil quality is important for the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystem (Paz-Ferreiro & Fu, 2013; Vasconcellos et al., 2013). This paper will review the State-of-the-Art of the scientific knowledge on the impact of land use on the biological activity in agriculture soils Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Balota, E. L., Yada, I.F., Amaral, H., Nakatani, A.S., Dick, R.P., Coyne, M.S. 2013. Long-term land use influences soil microbial biomass p and s, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities, and mineralization in a brazilian oxisol. Land degradation & development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2242 Caravaca F, Masciandaro G, Ceccanti B. 2002. Land use in relation to soil chemical and biochemical properties in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Soil and Tillage Research 68: 23-30. Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009b. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34, 1822-1830. Deng, H. 2012. A review of diversity-stability relationship of soil microbial community: what do we not know? Journal of Environmental Sciences 24(6),1027-35. DOI:10.1016/S1001-0742(11)60846-2 García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 117-123. 10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A.,Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., Caravaca. F. 2010. Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research 109, 110-115. 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005. García-Orenes, F., Morugán-Coronado, A., Zornoza, R., Scow, K. 2013. Changes in Soil Microbial Community Structure Influenced by Agricultural Management Practices in a Mediterranean Agro-Ecosystem. PLoS ONE 8:e80522. García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28, 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Macci, C., Doni, S., Peruzzi, E., Mennone, C., Masciandaro, G. 2013. Biostimulation of soil microbial activity through organic fertilizer and almond tree association. Land degradation & development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2234 Morugán-Coronado, A., García-Orenes, F., Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Beneyto, J. 2011. Short-term effects of treated wastewater irrigation on Mediterranean calcareous soil. Soil and Tillage Research 112 (1), 18-26 Morugán-Coronado, A., García-Orenes, F., Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Beneyto, J. 2013. Application of soil quality indices to assess the status of agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewaters. Solid Earth 4 (1), 119-127 2013 Pampulha ME, Oliveira A (2006) Impact of an herbicide combination of bromoxynil and prosulfuron on soil microorganisms. Current Microbiology 53: 238-243. Paz-Ferreiro, J., Fu., S. 2013. Biological indices for soil quality evaluation: perspectives and limitations. Land degradation & development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2262 Vasconcellos, R. L. F., Bonfim, J. A., Baretta, D., Cardoso, E.J.B.N. 2013. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and glomalin-related soil protein as potential indicators of soil quality in a recuperation gradient of the Atlantic forest in brazil. Land degradation & development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2228

  20. Spirituality and Cultural Identification Among Latino and Non-Latino College Students

    PubMed Central

    Campesino, Maureen; Belyea, Michael; Schwartz, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine (a) differences in spiritual perspectives and practices of Latino and non-Latino young adults and (b) the cultural relevance of the Latino Spiritual Perspective Scale (LSPS). Studies indicate that spiritual perspectives are embedded within cultural group norms and vary significantly across ethnic groups. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 223 Latino and non-Latino university students in the Southwestern United States. The Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), the LSPS, the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were used. Latinos scored significantly higher than non-Latinos in both measures of spiritual perspectives. Self-reported behavioral measures, such as frequency of personal prayer, were also higher among the Latino group. Latino cultural identification was the only significant predictor of LSPS scores. Findings from this study indicate that spirituality among Latinos has meanings specific to the cultural group context. These findings have implications for nursing research involving the conceptualization and measurement of spirituality among multiethnic groups. Los propósitos de este estudio eran examinar: (a) diferencias en perspectivas espirituales y prácticas de jóvenes Latinos y no Latinos; y (b) la relevancia cultural de la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina. Estudios indican que perspectivas espirituales están incrustadas entre normas culturales del grupo y varían considerablemente entre grupos étnicos. Un diseño transversal y de encuesta fue utilizado con una muestra de conveniencia de 233 estudiantes universitarios Latinos y no Latinos en el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos. La Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual (EPE), la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina (EPEL), la Escala Ortogonal de Identificación Cultural, y un cuestionario demográfico fueron utilizados. Los Latinos calificaron considerablemente más alto que los no Latinos en ambas medidas de perspectivas espirituales. Medidas de comportamiento auto-reportadas, como la frecuencia de oración, también estuvieron más altas en el grupo Latino. La identificación con la cultura Latina fue el único vaticinador de las calificaciones de la EPEL. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la espiritualidad entre Latinos tiene significados específicos al contexto del grupo cultural. Estas conclusiones tienen implicaciones para las investigaciones de enfermería que involucran la conceptualización y medida de la espiritualidad entre grupos multiétnicos. PMID:20165566

  1. Treatment of animal carcasses in poultry farms using sealed ditches.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M; González, J L; Gutiérrez, M A Díez; Guimaraes, A Correa; Gracia, L M Navas

    2008-10-01

    Several hen carcass elimination experiments were conducted by isolating corpses in a sealed ditch and adding different doses of lime. The aim was to evaluate the viability of this method as an alternative to other elimination techniques, as required in the European regulation CE 1774/2002 [Reglamento CE 1774/2002, de 3 de octubre por el que se establecen las normas sanitarias aplicables a los subproductos animales no destinados a consumo humano]. The experiments were carried out at a natural scale, in a 200m3 ditch located in a livestock enterprise, using a proportion of 200g of lime/kg of carcass. We observed a high degradation of carcasses after six months, the method being also safe from a microbiological point of view. The material extracted from the ditch had a high calcium content (330.7gkg(-1)), which makes it an ideal product for soil lacking this element, or as an acidity corrector in acid soils due to its basic (pH 8.48) nature. It also contains a significant amount of mineral nutrients (17.0gkg(-1) N, 2.4gkg(-1) P and 4.9gkg(-1) K) and organic matter (101.5gkg(-1)). We also analysed the material extracted from the ditch prior to its renovation for the experiments and followed the processes taking place in the ditch during the first six months, when lime doses of 100, 200 and 300 gkg(-1) of treated carcass were applied. Simultaneously, we carried out laboratory experiments in cylindrical 25L deposits to evaluate the gas release of the three (100, 200 and 300g of lime/kg carcass) doses of lime used. After the tenth week, we observed CO2 concentrations ranging from 5% for the lower lime doses to very low levels for the 300g lime/kg carcass dose. As regards methane, in the three series of experiments, the release was highest during the first weeks, began to decrease in the eighth week and reached its lower value during the fourteenth week. Emissions of NO2 were not observed, and the levels of NH3 and SH2 were usually so high that they exceeded the detection level of the apparatus used to register them. PMID:18359624

  2. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey (ThrUMMS): A New View of the Molecular Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter; Muller, Erik; Nguyen Luong, Quang; Nguyen, Hans

    2015-08-01

    We describe a new mm-wave molecular-line mapping survey of the southern Galactic Plane, and its first data releases and science results. The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey (ThrUMMS) maps a 60°×2° sector of our Galaxy’s fourth quadrant, using a combination of fast mapping techniques with the Mopra radio telescope, simultaneously in the J=1→0 lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and CN near 112 GHz at ˜arcminute and 0.3 km s-1 resolution, with 1.2 K/chan sensitivity for 12CO and 0.6 K/chan for the other transitions. The calibrated data cubes from these observations are made available to the community after processing through our pipeline. Here, we describe the motivation for ThrUMMS, the development of new observing techniques for Mopra, and how these techniques were optimised to the objectives of the survey. We showcase some sample data products and describe the first science results, on global variations in the iso-CO line ratios and on a detailed multiwavelength study of the GMCs near l=333°. The line ratios vary dramatically across the Galactic Plane, indicating a very wide range of optical depth and excitation conditions, from warm and translucent to cold and opaque. The population of cold clouds in particular have optical depths for 12CO easily exceeding 100 in some locations, and suggests that the fraction of the molecular mass in the Galactic disk that is in the coldest gas may be substantially underestimated. We compute robust column densities from the global data and derive a new conversion law from CO to molecular mass, indicating that global relationships in disk galaxies that depend on the CO→H2 mass conversion, such as star formation laws, may need to be recalibrated. Near l=333°, we have compared ThrUMMS data to HI, cm-continuum, and several Herschel and Spitzer bands to derive the overall mass and star formation properties of two complexes along the line of sight, in the Scutum-Centaurus and Norma arms. The RCW106 complex in particular is currently undergoing a ministarburst event, potentially shedding light on starburst physics in distant galaxies.

  3. Evaluation of Central Macular Thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Saini, VK; Gupta, Saroj; Sharma, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the normative data of macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) among normal subjects using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and methods: Normal subjects presenting to a tertiary medical hospital were included in the study. All patient underwent clinical examination followed by study of macular thickness and RN FL thick ness by spectral domain Topc on OCT. The data was collected and analyzed for variations in gender and age. The data was also compared with available literature. Results: Total numbers of patients enrolled in the study were 154 (308 eyes). Numbers of males were 79 (158 eyes) and numbers of females were 75 (150 eyes). The mean age among males was 42.67 ± 12.15 years and mean age among females was 42.88 ± 11.73 years. Overall the mean mac ular thickness (central 1 mm zone) with SD - OCT was 241.75 ± 17.3 microns. The mean macular volume was 7.6 cu. mm ± 0.33. On analysis of the RNFL thickness, we observed that the RNFL was thickest in the inferior quadrant (138.58) followed by superior (122.30) nasal (116.32) and temporal quadrant (73.04). Gender-wise comparison of the data revealed no statistically significant difference for age, macular thickness parameters, volume and RFNL values except outer temporal thickness among males and females. No age-related difference was noted in the above parameters. On comparison with available norma tive data from India and elsewhere, we found significant variations with different machines. Conclusion: The study is the first to provide normative data using SD-OCT from central India. The data from spectral domain OCT correlated well with the values obtained from similar studies with SD - OCT. Values obtained from time domain OCT machines are different and are not comparable. How to cite this article: Agarwal P, Saini VK, Gupta S, Sharma A. Evaluation of Central Macular Thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014;8(2):75-81.

  4. NuSTAR J163433-4738.7: A fast X-ray transient in the galactic plane

    SciTech Connect

    Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Rahoui, Farid; Assef, Roberto J.; Bauer, Franz E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Grindlay, Jonathan; Harrison, Fiona A.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-04-10

    During hard X-ray observations of the Norma spiral arm region by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in 2013 February, a new transient source, NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, was detected at a significance level of 8σ in the 3-10 keV bandpass. The source is consistent with having a constant NuSTAR count rate over a period of 40 ks and is also detected simultaneously by Swift at lower significance. The source is not significantly detected by NuSTAR, Swift, or Chandra in the days before or weeks after the discovery of the transient, indicating that the strong X-ray activity lasted between ∼0.5 and 1.5 days. Near-infrared imaging observations were carried out before and after the X-ray activity, but we are not able to identify the counterpart. The combined NuSTAR and Swift energy spectrum is consistent with a power law with a photon index of Γ=4.1{sub −1.0}{sup +1.5} (90% confidence errors), a blackbody with kT = 1.2 ± 0.3 keV, or a Bremsstrahlung model with kT=3.0{sub −1.2}{sup +2.1} keV. The reduced-χ{sup 2} values for the three models are not significantly different, ranging from 1.23 to 1.44 for 8 degrees of freedom. The spectrum is strongly absorbed with N{sub H}=(2.8{sub −1.4}{sup +2.3})×10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, (9{sub −7}{sup +15})×10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}, and (1.7{sub −0.9}{sup +1.7})×10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, for the power-law, blackbody, and Bremsstrahlung models, respectively. Although the high column density could be due to material local to the source, it is consistent with absorption from interstellar material along the line of sight at a distance of 11 kpc, which would indicate an X-ray luminosity >10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1}. Although we do not reach a definitive determination of the nature of NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, we suggest that it may be an unusually bright active binary or a magnetar.

  5. NuSTAR J163433-4738.7: A Fast X-Ray Transient in the Galactic Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Rahoui, Farid; Assef, Roberto J.; Bauer, Franz E.; Bodaghee, Arash; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Grindlay, Jonathan; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Krivonos, Roman; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    During hard X-ray observations of the Norma spiral arm region by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in 2013 February, a new transient source, NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, was detected at a significance level of 8sigma in the 3-10 keV bandpass. The source is consistent with having a constant NuSTAR count rate over a period of 40 ks and is also detected simultaneously by Swift at lower significance. The source is not significantly detected by NuSTAR, Swift, or Chandra in the days before or weeks after the discovery of the transient, indicating that the strong X-ray activity lasted between approx. 0.5 and 1.5 days. Near-infrared imaging observations were carried out before and after the X-ray activity, but we are not able to identify the counterpart. The combined NuSTAR and Swift energy spectrum is consistent with a power law with a photon index of Gamma = 4.1(+1.5/-1.0) (90% confidence errors), a blackbody with kT = 1.2+/-0.3 keV, or a Bremsstrahlung model with kT = 3.0(+2.1/-1.2) keV. The reduced-?2 values for the three models are not significantly different, ranging from 1.23 to 1.44 for 8 degrees of freedom. The spectrum is strongly absorbed with NH = (2.8(+2.3/-1.4) × 10(exp23) cm(exp-2), (9(+15 /-7) ) × 10(exp22) cm(exp-2), and (1.7(+1.7/-0.9)) × 10(exp23) cm(exp-2), for the power-law, blackbody, and Bremsstrahlung models, respectively. Although the high column density could be due to material local to the source, it is consistent with absorption from interstellar material along the line of sight at a distance of 11 kpc, which would indicate an X-ray luminosity greater than 10(exp34) erg s(exp-1). Although we do not reach a definitive determination of the nature of NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, we suggest that it may be an unusually bright active binary or a magnetar.

  6. Thermalization of Interstellar CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Takeshi; Xiao, Han; Lynch, Phillip

    2009-06-01

    Unlike radio emission of CO, infrared absorption of CO give column densities in each rotational level directly when weak transitions like overtone bands or ^{13}CO or C^{18}O isotope bands are used. This allows more straightforward determination of temperature (T) and density (n) of the environment than the large velocity gradient (LVG) model used to determine them from antenna temperatures of radio emission. In order to facilitate such determination, we have solved the steady state linear simultaneous equations for thermalization of CO and calculated population ratios of rotational levels as a function of T and n as we did for H_3^+. We thus get two-dimensional graph of column density ratios, for example, N(J=1)/N(J=0) and N(J=2)/N(J=0) as a function of T and n or variation of it when other population ratios are used. As for H_3^+ we can invert the graph to obtain graphs of T versus n as functions of population ratios which is more convenient to apply to observed data. We use rate constants of collision-induced transitions between CO and ortho- and para-H_2 theoretically calculated by Fowler and Wernli et al. which have been compiled and extended by Schöier et al. As the first approximation, only spontaneous emissions are considered and other radiative effects such as induced emission and absorption are ignored. The results are applied to CO column densities observed toward the Galactic center, that is, CO in the three spiral arms, 3-kpc (Norma), 4.5-kpc (Scutum), and local arms (Sagittarius), and in the Central Molecular Zone. T. Oka and E. Epp, ApJ, 613, 349 (2004) M. Goto, Usuda, Nagata, Geballe, McCall, Indriolo, Suto, Henning, Morong, and Oka, ApJ, 688, 306 (2008) D. R. Fowler, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34, 2731 (2001) M. Wernli, P. Valiron, A. Faure, L. Wiesenfeld, P. Jankowski, and K. Szalewicz, A & A, 446, 367 (2006) F. L. Schöier, F. F. S. van der Tak, E. F. van Dishoeck, and J. H. Black, A & A, 432, 369 (2005)

  7. Spirituality and Cultural Identification Among Latino and Non-Latino College Students.

    PubMed

    Campesino, Maureen; Belyea, Michael; Schwartz, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine (a) differences in spiritual perspectives and practices of Latino and non-Latino young adults and (b) the cultural relevance of the Latino Spiritual Perspective Scale (LSPS). Studies indicate that spiritual perspectives are embedded within cultural group norms and vary significantly across ethnic groups. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 223 Latino and non-Latino university students in the Southwestern United States. The Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), the LSPS, the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were used. Latinos scored significantly higher than non-Latinos in both measures of spiritual perspectives. Self-reported behavioral measures, such as frequency of personal prayer, were also higher among the Latino group. Latino cultural identification was the only significant predictor of LSPS scores. Findings from this study indicate that spirituality among Latinos has meanings specific to the cultural group context. These findings have implications for nursing research involving the conceptualization and measurement of spirituality among multiethnic groups.Los propósitos de este estudio eran examinar: (a) diferencias en perspectivas espirituales y prácticas de jóvenes Latinos y no Latinos; y (b) la relevancia cultural de la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina. Estudios indican que perspectivas espirituales están incrustadas entre normas culturales del grupo y varían considerablemente entre grupos étnicos. Un diseño transversal y de encuesta fue utilizado con una muestra de conveniencia de 233 estudiantes universitarios Latinos y no Latinos en el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos. La Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual (EPE), la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina (EPEL), la Escala Ortogonal de Identificación Cultural, y un cuestionario demográfico fueron utilizados. Los Latinos calificaron considerablemente más alto que los no Latinos en ambas medidas de perspectivas espirituales. Medidas de comportamiento auto-reportadas, como la frecuencia de oración, también estuvieron más altas en el grupo Latino. La identificación con la cultura Latina fue el único vaticinador de las calificaciones de la EPEL. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la espiritualidad entre Latinos tiene significados específicos al contexto del grupo cultural. Estas conclusiones tienen implicaciones para las investigaciones de enfermería que involucran la conceptualización y medida de la espiritualidad entre grupos multiétnicos. PMID:20165566

  8. Effectiveness of two-sided UV-C treatments in inhibiting natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

    PubMed

    Allende, Ana; McEvoy, James L; Luo, Yaguang; Artes, Francisco; Wang, Chien Y

    2006-05-01

    The use of UV-C radiation treatments to inhibit the microbial growth and extend the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce was investigated. Initially, UV-C resistance of 20 bacterial strains from different genera often associated with fresh produce (Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Leuconostoc, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnela, Salmonella, Serratia and Yersinia) were tested in vitro. Most of the bacterial strains were inhibited with the minimum dose (30 J m(-2)). Erwinia carotovora, Leuconostoc carnosum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia aldovae were the most resistant strains requiring a UV-C dose of 85 J m(-2) to completely inhibit growth. An in vivo study consisted of treating minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with UV-C at three radiation doses (1.18, 2.37 and 7.11 kJ m(-2)) on each side of the leaves and storing the product under passive MAP conditions at 5 degrees C for up to 10 days. The gas composition inside packages varied significantly among the treatments, with CO2 concentrations positively and O2 concentrations negatively correlating with the radiation dose. All the radiation doses were effective in reducing the natural microflora of the product, although the highest doses showed the greatest microbial inhibitions. Taking into account the microbial limit set by Spanish legislation [Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE), 2001. Normas de higiene para la elaboración, distribución y comercio de comidas preparadas, Madrid, Spain, Real Decreto 3484/2000, pp. 1435-1441], all UV-C treatments extended the shelf-life of the product. However, the 7.11 kJ m(-2) dose induced tissue softening and browning after 7 days of storage at 5 degrees C. Therefore, the use of two sided UV-C radiation, at the proper dose, is effective in reducing the natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce. PMID:16943010

  9. FOREWORD: V S Letokhov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroke, H. Henry; Linnartz, Harold

    2012-04-01

    Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (CAMOP) endeavors periodically to devote an issue to the life and accomplishments of physicists who have made significant contributions to the fields represented in this journal. Vladilen Letokhov is certainly one of them. For a number of years he was also a CAMOP Correspondent. We are grateful to Professor Victor Balykin for having organized this CAMOP special section. It is particularly significant to one of us (HHS) to remember a person who has made seminal advances in so many areas which to this day are at the forefront of studies by a number of physicists. But over the years this acquaintance developed into friendship and gave the wife of one of us, Norma, and HHS the opportunity to host Tina and Vladik in their home, and get to know both a bit better. There was also the seminal International School on Laser Applications in Physics in Vilnius organized by Letokhov, and then a visit to Troitsk and his group at the Institute of Spectroscopy (and even the organization of a couple of piano recitals by one of our daughters, Marija, who accompanied her parents in the then USSR). Our interests crossed in a couple of fields: laser interactions with atoms and sensitive spectroscopy of radioactive atoms. Letokhov was a participant in the early organization of laser spectroscopy at CERN and was instrumental in providing copper vapour lasers to the isotope separator facility, ISOLDE. To this day laser ion sources are under the aegis of Valentin Fedoseyev who came to CERN from Troitsk. The interaction of lasers with atoms, in particular the process of slowing atoms, is discussed by Balykin. It was Christmas time when a card arrived from Oleg Tumanov of the Institute of Spectroscopy: it included a graph of temperature achieved by laser cooling as a function of calendar date. The results of Letokhov's group were the earliest (see figure 1), even though lower temperatures achieved subsequently by others extended our knowledge. To many, the lack of formal recognition was a bit puzzling, and this will have to await the usual number of decades before relevant discussions become publicSee, for example, Friedman R M 2001 The Politics of Excellence (New York: Henry Holt).. But, as can be attested by the most prolific, diverse and creative contributions presented in the bibliography, Letokhov's work will leave a long-lasting legacy. Progress in laser cooling Figure 1. Progress in laser cooling.

  10. Sun-Earth Day - Teaching Heliophysics Through Education Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.

    2010-01-01

    Sun-Earth Day (SED) is an Education and Outreach program supported by the U.S, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The intent of the program is to teach students and the general public about Heliophysics (the science of the study of the Sun, how it varies, and how solar dynamics affect the rest of the solar system, especially the Earth). The program was begun ten years ago. Each year since that time a particular day has been designated as "Sun-Earth Day ,,. Usually the day of the spring equinox (March 20 or 21) is Sun-Earth Day, but other days have been used as well. Each year a theme is chosen relating to Heliophysics and events reflecting that theme are planned not only for Sun-Earth Day, but for the entire year. From the very beginning educational technology was emphasized in the events in order to effectively reach wide audiences with the SED message. The main approach has been to have a "webcast" related to each year's theme, often from a location that supports the theme as well. For example, a webcast took place from the Mayan pyramids at Chichen Itza, Mexico to highlight the theme of "Ancient Observatories, Timeless Knowledge". Webcasts were not the only technology employed, however. Many of the themes centered on the dynamic nature of the Sun and the effects that solar storms can have on interplanetary space and in our day-to-day life on Earth. Activities for tracking when solar storms happen and how they affect the Earth were developed and brought together in an educational package called Space Weather Action Centers. This project is explained in more detail in another presentation in this session being given by Norma Teresinha Oliveira Reis. Recent Sun-Earth Days have utilized "social networking" technologies to reach widespread groups on the internet. Podcasts, Vodcasts, Facebook, Twitter, and Second Life are the types of network technologies being employed now. The NASA Distance learning Network is another method for bringing Sun-Earth Day events and training to widespread educators and classrooms in order to magnify the reach of Sun-Earth Day. Examples of the technologies will be shown along with an assessment of their effectiveness.

  11. Metallothionein III (MT3) is a putative tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia by promoter hypermethylation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second most common form of leukemia in children. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are a characteristic feature in various tumors, including AML. Metallothionein III (MT3) is a tumor suppresser reported to show promoter hypermethylated in various cancers. However, the expression and molecular function of MT3 in pediatric AML is unclear. Methods Eleven human leukemia cell lines and 41 pediatric AML samples and 20 NBM/ITP (Norma bone marrow/Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) control samples were analyzed. Transcription levels of MT3 were evaluated by semi-quantitative and real-time PCR. MT3 methylation status was determined by methylation specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing (BSG). The molecular mechanism of MT3 was investigated by apoptosis assays and PCR array analysis. Results The MT3 promoter was hypermethylated in leukemia cell lines. More CpG’s methylated of MT3 was observed 39.0% pediatric AML samples compared to 10.0% NBM controls. Transcription of MT3 was also significantly decreased in AML samples compared to NBM/ITP controls (P < 0.001); patients with methylated MT3 exhibited lower levels of MT3 expression compared to those with unmethylated MT3 (P = 0.049). After transfection with MT3 lentivirus, proliferation was significantly inhibited in AML cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Annexin V assay showed that apoptosis was significantly upregulated MT3-overexpressing AML cells compared to controls. Real-time PCR array analysis revealed 34 dysregulated genes that may be implicated in MT3 overexpression and apoptosis in AML, including FOXO1. Conclusion MT3 may be a putative tumor suppressor gene in pediatric AML. Epigenetic inactivation of MT3 via promoter hypermethylation was observed in both AML cell lines and pediatric AML samples. Overexpression of MT3 may inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in AML cells. FOXO1 was dysregulated in MT3-overexpressing cells, offering an insight into the mechanism of MT3-induced apoptosis. However, further research is required to determine the underlying molecular details. PMID:24962166

  12. Tuning in on Cepheids: Radial velocity amplitude modulations. A source of systematic uncertainty for Baade-Wesselink distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Richard I.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Classical Cepheids are crucial calibrators of the extragalactic distance scale. The Baade-Wesselink technique can be used to calibrate Cepheid distances using Cepheids in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. Aims: I report the discovery of modulations in radial velocity (RV) curves of four Galactic classical Cepheids and investigate their impact as a systematic uncertainty for Baade-Wesselink distances. Methods: Highly precise Doppler measurements were obtained using the Coralie high-resolution spectrograph since 2011. Particular care was taken to sample all phase points in order to very accurately trace the RV curve during multiple epochs and to search for differences in linear radius variations derived from observations obtained at different epochs. Different timescales are sampled, ranging from cycle-to-cycle to months and years. Results: The unprecedented combination of excellent phase coverage obtained during multiple epochs and high precision enabled the discovery of significant modulation in the RV curves of the short-period s-Cepheids QZ Normae and V335 Puppis, as well as the long-period fundamental mode Cepheids ℓ Carinae and RS Puppis. The modulations manifest as shape and amplitude variations that vary smoothly on timescales of years for short-period Cepheids and from one pulsation cycle to the next in the long-period Cepheids. The order of magnitude of the effect ranges from several hundred m s-1 to a few km s-1. The resulting difference among linear radius variations derived using data from different epochs can lead to systematic errors of up to 15% for Baade-Wesselink-type distances, if the employed angular and linear radius variations are not determined contemporaneously. Conclusions: The different natures of the Cepheids exhibiting modulation in their RV curves suggests that this phenomenon is common. The observational baseline is not yet sufficient to conclude whether these modulations are periodic. To ensure the accuracy of Baade-Wesselink distances, angular and linear radius variations should always be determined contemporaneously. Based on observations collected at ESO La Silla Observatory using the Coralie spectrograph mounted to the Swiss 1.2 m Euler telescope.The derived radial velocities are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/L10Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. The neutron star in HESS J1731-347: Central compact objects as laboratories to study the equation of state of superdense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, D.; Suleimanov, V.; Pühlhofer, G.; Yakovlev, D. G.; Santangelo, A.; Werner, K.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Central compact objects (CCOs) in supernova remnants are isolated thermally emitting neutron stars (NSs). They are most probably characterized by a magnetic field strength that is roughly two orders of magnitude lower than that of most of the radio and accreting pulsars. The thermal emission of CCOs can be modeled to obtain constraints on the physical parameters of the star such as its mass, radius, effective temperature, and chemical composition. Aims: The CCO in HESS J1731-347 is one of the brightest objects in this class. Starting from 2007, it was observed several times with different X-ray satellites. Here we present our analysis of two new XMM-Newton observations of the source performed in 2013 which increase the total exposure time of the data available for spectral analysis by a factor of about five compared to the analyses presented before. Methods: We use our numerical spectral models for carbon and hydrogen atmospheres to fit the spectrum of the CCO. From our fits, we derive constraints on the physical parameters of the emitting star such as its mass, radius, distance, and effective temperature. We also use the new data to derive new upper limits on the source pulsations and to confirm the absence of a long-term flux and spectral variability. Results: The analysis shows that atmosphere models are clearly preferred by the fit over the blackbody spectral function. Under the assumption that the X-ray emission is uniformly produced by the entire star surface (supported by the lack of pulsations), hydrogen atmosphere models lead to uncomfortably large distances of the CCO, above 7-8 kpc. On the other hand, the carbon atmosphere model formally excludes distances above 5-6 kpc and is compatible with the source located in the Scutum-Crux (~3 kpc) or Norma-Cygnus (~4.5 kpc) Galactic spiral arm. We provide and discuss the corresponding confidence contours in the NS mass-radius plane. The measured effective temperature indicates that the NS is exceptionally hot for the estimated age of ~30 kyr. We discuss possible cooling scenarios to explain this property, as well as possible additional constraints on the star mass and radius from cooling theory.

  14. Treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants.

    PubMed

    Krantev, Alexander; Yordanova, Rusina; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella; Popova, Losanka

    2008-06-16

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting photosynthesis from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Seeds of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid Norma) were sterilized and divided into two groups. Half of the seeds were presoaked in 500 microM SA solution for only 6h, after which both groups were allowed to germinate for 3d and were then grown for 14d in Hoagland solution at 22/18 degrees C in a 16/8-h light/dark period and 120 micromolm(-2)s(-1) PAR. All seedlings (without H(2)O and SA controls) were transferred to Cd-containing solutions (10, 15, and 25 microM) and grown for 14d. The rate of CO(2) fixation and the activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC, EC 4.1.1.39) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) were measured. Changes in the levels of several important parameters associated with oxidative stress, namely H(2)O(2) and proline production, lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7)) were measured. Exposure of the plants to Cd caused a gradual decrease in the shoot and root dry weight accumulation, with the effect being most pronounced at 25 microM Cd. Seed pretreatment with SA alleviated the negative effect of Cd on plant growth parameters. The same tendency was observed for the chlorophyll level. The rate of CO(2) fixation was lower in Cd-treated plants, and the inhibition was partially overcome in SA-pretreated plants. A drop in the activities of RuBPC and PEPC was observed for Cd-treated plants. Pretreatment with SA alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cd on enzyme activity. Proline production and the rates of lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage increased in Cd-treated plants, whereas the values of these parameters were much lower in SA-pretreated plants. Treatment of plants with Cd decreased APX activity, but more than doubled SOD activity. Pretreatment with SA caused an increase in both APX and SOD activity, but caused a strong reduction in CAT activity. The data suggest that SA may protect cells against oxidative damage and photosynthesis against Cd toxicity. PMID:17913285

  15. Multiwavelength study of accretion-powered pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nespoli, Elisa

    2010-11-01

    This thesis consists in a multi-frequency approach to High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs), using infrared and X-ray data. On one side, the project aimed at the identification and characterization of IR counterparts to obscured HMXBs in the Scutum and Norma inner galactic arms. The identification of optical/IR counterparts to HMXBs is a necessary step to undertake detailed studies of these systems. With data limited to the high-energy range, the understanding of their complex structure and dynamics cannot be complete. In the last years, INTEGRAL has revealed the presence of an important population of heavily absorbed HMXBs in the Scutum and Norma regions, virtually unobservable below 4 keV. Optical counterparts to these obscured sources are hardly observable, due to the high interstellar extinction. Candidate counterparts to HMXBs were selected by means of a photometric search for emission-line stars in the error boxes of the X-ray sources detected by INTEGRAL. With this objective, I built up (Brγ-K)-(H-K) and (HeI-K)-(H-K) IR color-color diagrams, in which emission-line stars are expected to show up below the absorption-line stars sequence. I applied this technique to search for counterparts to Be/XRBs, whose transient nature prevents the counterpart identification with follow-up X-ray observations with high spatial resolution. For each field, one to four candidate counterparts were identified. I also took spectra of proposed counterparts. The confirmation and spectral classifications of the systems led to unveil the nature of nine INTEGRAL objects. On the other hand, this work intended to provide for the first time a systematic study of four Be/XRBs during giant (type II) outbursts. I employed RXTE data, applying the three techniques of color-color/hardness-intensity diagrams (CD/HID), spectral fitting and Fourier power-spectral analysis, simultaneously, and using the retrieved results and correlations to try to define and characterize spectral states for this class of systems. In this way I followed both a model-independent (CD/HID) and model-dependent approach (spectral fits) to investigate the rapid aperiodic variability as a function of spectral sates in HMXBs. I obtained lightcurves, energy and power spectra for a total number of 320 observations. From X-ray colors, spectral and timing fitting, I clearly identified in all the four systems two different spectral states, i.e. the Diagonal Branch (DB) and Horizontal Branch (HB). The HB corresponds to a lower-flux state, with larger rms than the DB. Also, the power-law photon index decreases with flux in the HB, while stays constant or increases in the DB. The HB shows lower characteristic frequencies of the noise components than in the DB. The cyclotron resonant scattering features are generally associated with the DB, while absent or weaker during the DB. We showed how the transition between the two states may correspond to the transition from the standing shock emission to the thermal mound emission due to the turning point from super-Eddington luminosity regime (DB) to sub-Eddington luminosity regime (HB). From color, spectral and timing point of view, differences among systems easily distinguishes two subgroups, with the slower pulsars, KS 1947+300 and EXO2030+375, on one side, and the faster ones, 4U 0115+63 and V 0332+53, on the other. The first group is characterized by softer spectra in the HB compared with the other systems. Hysteresis is not observed in the slower pulsars, while it is evident in V 0332+53 and 4U 0115+63. Cyclotron resonant scattering features are crucial in the spectral shape of V 0332+53 and 4U 0115+63, where also a harmonic is observed in the 3-30 keV energy range. They are instead absent or very weak in the first group. According to timing features, a strong difference between the two groups is the presence of QPOs in the faster pulsars.

  16. Hydrochemistry of waters from five cenotes and evaluation of their suitability for drinking-water supplies, northeastern Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcocer, Javier; Lugo, Alfonso; Marín, Luis E.; Escobar, Elva

    Waters from five cenotes that are currently being used for aquatic recreational activities and that lie along the Cancun-Tulum touristic corridor, Mexico, were evaluated hydrochemically to determine whether the cenotes may be considered as potential drinking-water sources. Several parameters exceed the Mexican Drinking Water Standards (MDWS), but since they do not pose a significant health threat, four of the five cenotes may be used as drinking-water sources. The common contaminants in the Yucatan Peninsula, fecal coliforms and nitrate, are in most cases below the MDWS (0-460 MPN/100ml and 0.31-1.18mg/L, respectively). Although these four cenotes meet the MDWS, a careful groundwater management policy needs to be developed to avoid contamination (fecal and nitrates) and salt-water intrusion. Résumé Les eaux de cinq cénotés, qui sont normalement utilisées pour des activités de plein air, dans la région touristique de Cancun-Tulum (Mexique), ont été soumises à analyses chimiques pour savoir si les cénotés peuvent être considérés comme des sources d'eau potable. Plusieurs paramètres dépassent les normes mexicaines en matière d'eau potable; mais comme ceux-ci ne posent pas de problème réel de santé, quatre des cinq cénotés peuvent être captés pour l'eau potable. Les contaminants habituels dans les eaux de la presqu'île du Yucatan, coliformes fécaux et concentrations élevées en nitrate, sont la plupart du temps au-dessous des normes (respectivement 0 à 460 germes/100ml et 0,31 à 1,18mg/l). Bien que ces quatre cénotés satisfassent aux normes, il est nécessaire de mettre en place des règles précises de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, afin d'éviter la contamination par les germes fécaux et par les nitrates, ainsi que l'intrusion marine. Resumen Se analizó hidroquímica y bacteriológicamente el agua de algunos cenotes localizados a lo largo del corredor turístico Cancun-Tulum, que actualmente se utilizan para diversas actividades recreativas, para determinar su potencial de uso como fuente de abastecimiento de agua potable. La mayor parte de los parámetros excedieron los criterios establecidos en la Norma Mexicana para Agua Potable (NMAP), sin embargo, como éstas no representan una riesgo para la salud, el agua de cuatro de los cinco cenotes puede ser emplada como fuente de abastecimiento de agua potable. Los contaminantes comúnes del agua subterránea de la península de Yucatán, coliformes fecales y nitratos, se encuentran en la mayoría de los casos por debajo de la NMAP (0-460 NMP/ 100ml y 0.31-1.18mg/l, respectivamente). A pesar de que estos cuatro cenotes cumplen con la NMAP, es necesario desarrollar una política de manejo adecuada del agua subterránea para evitar la contaminación de este recurso (fecal y por nitratos), así como la intrusión de agua salina.

  17. Study of Galactic clumps with millimeter / submillimeter continuum and molecular emission: Early stages of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merello, Manuel Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Massive stars play a key role in the evolution of the Galaxy; hence they are important objects of study in astrophysics. Although they are rare compared to low mass stars, they are the principal source of heavy elements and UV radiation, affecting the process of formation of stars and planets, and the physical, chemical, and morphological structure of galaxies. Star clusters form in dense "clumps" (few parsecs in size) within giant molecular clouds, while individual stars form in cores (subparsec scale). An important step in the observational study of massive star formation is the identification and characterization of clumps. More detailed studies can then show how these clumps fragment into cores. Studies of clumps in our Galaxy will provide fundamental guidelines for the analysis of other galaxies, where individual clumps and cores cannot be resolved, and provide a catalog of interesting sources for observations of the Milky Way with a new generation of instruments, such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. Large-scale blind surveys of the Galactic plane at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths have recently been completed, allowing us to identify star forming clumps and improve our understanding of the early stages of massive stars. One of these studies, the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS), mapped the continuum emission at 1.1 mm over a large region of the northern Galactic plane at a resolution of 33", identifying 8559 compact sources throughout the Galaxy. In this dissertation, I present observations of a sample of sources from the BGPS catalog, obtained with the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC-II). I present in this work 107 continuum emission maps at 350 μm at high angular resolution (8.500) toward clump-like sources and construct a catalog of BGPS substructures. I estimate clump properties such as temperatures and multiplicity of substructures, and compare my results with 350 μm continuum maps from the Hi-GAL survey. I also present a detailed analysis, using molecular line and dust continuum observations, of the region G331.5-0.1, one of the most luminous regions of massive star formation in the Milky Way, located at the tangent region of the Norma spiral arm. Molecular line and millimeter continuum emission maps reveal the presence of six compact and luminous molecular clumps, with physical properties consistent with values found toward other massive star forming sources. This work includes the discovery of one of the most energetic and luminous molecular outflows known in the Galaxy, G331.512-0.103. For this high-speed outflow, I present ALMA observations that reveal a very compact, extremely young bipolar outflow and a more symmetric outflowing shocked shell surrounding a very small region of ionized gas. The source is one of the youngest examples of massive molecular outflows associated with the formation of a high-mass star.

  18. The gamma-ray pulsar PSR1706-44 and its associated SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdam, Bruce

    1994-04-01

    The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope discovered a faint supernova remnant associated with PSR 1706-44, one of only four gamma-ray pulsars. (Vela, the Crab and PSR 1509-58 also have an associated SNR.) The gamma-ray source was first discovered as 2CG342-02, the tenth strongest of 25 COS-B gamma-ray sources cataloged (Swanenburg et al., 1981, Astrophys. J. Lett. 243, L69). Low-resolution surveys show an extended (approximately 40 min x 25 min) source in the region with flux of approximately 25 Jy, suggesting a plerionic SNR (e.g. Jonas, de Jager and Baart, 1985, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl., 62, 105). A search for the gamma-ray source at 843 MHz with a resolution of 44 arcsec revealed a shell-type SNR--a half-ellipse with axes approximately 44 min x 32 min and low brightness of approximately 9 mJy per beam, giving Sigma843 = 3 x 10-21W m-2 Hz/sr (McAdam, Osborne and Parkinson, 1993, Nature, 361, 516). The Sigma-D relation suggests a diameter D approximately 34 pc at a distance of approximately 3 kpc in the Norma spiral arm of the Galaxy. It has a young (Sedov expansion) age of approximately 6000 years. The key linking the SNR and the gamma-ray source came (Kniffen et al., 1992, IAU Circ. 5485) when the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory satellite detected pulsed gamma-radiation (Thompson et al., 1992, Nature, 359, 615) from the newly-discovered PSR 1706-44 (Johnston et al., 1992, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 255, 401). The pulsar position (epoch 1950) at RA = 17 hour 06 min 05.1 sec, delta = -44 deg 25 min 15.0 sec coincides in the MOST image with a 21 mJy source on the SE and of the SNR shell. The pulsar has a period of 102 ms and slows with characteristic age 17300 years. For it to move 18 min from centre to rim of the SNR shell in this time implies a proper motion of 0.06 sec/yr which is sufficiently large to check with VLBI astrometry. At the pusar dispersion distance (1.8 kpc), or the SNR distance of 3 kpc, the pulsar has apparently moved 10 or 16 pc at a transverse velocity of 540 or 900 km/s.

  19. The Parkes H I Zone of Avoidance Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staveley-Smith, L.; Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.; Schröder, A. C.; Henning, P. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Stewart, I. M.; Heald, G.

    2016-03-01

    A blind H i survey of the extragalactic sky behind the southern Milky Way has been conducted with the multibeam receiver on the 64 m Parkes radio telescope. The survey covers the Galactic longitude range 212^\\circ \\lt {\\ell }\\lt 36^\\circ and Galactic latitudes | b| \\lt 5^\\circ to an rms sensitivity of 6 mJy per beam per 27 km s-1 channel and yields 883 galaxies to a recessional velocity of 12,000 km s-1. The survey covers the sky within the H i Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) area to greater sensitivity, finding lower H i mass galaxies at all distances, and probing more completely the large-scale structures at and beyond the distance of the Great Attractor. Fifty-one percent of the H i detections have an optical/near-infrared (NIR) counterpart in the literature. A further 27% have new counterparts found in existing, or newly obtained, optical/NIR images. The counterpart rate drops in regions of high foreground stellar crowding and extinction, and for low H i mass objects. Only 8% of all counterparts have a previous optical redshift measurement. The H i sources are found independently of Galactic extinction, although the detection rate drops in regions of high Galactic continuum. The survey is incomplete below a flux integral of approximately 3.1 Jy km s-1 and mean flux density of approximately 21 mJy, with 75% and 81% of galaxies being above these limits, respectively. Taking into account dependence on both flux and velocity width, and constructing a scaled dependence on the flux integral limit with velocity width (w0.74), completeness limits of 2.8 Jy km s-1 and 17 mJy are determined, with 92% of sources above these limits. A notable new galaxy is HIZOA J1353-58, a possible companion to the Circinus galaxy. Merging this catalog with the similarly conducted northern extension, large-scale structures are delineated, including those within the Puppis and Great Attractor regions and the Local Void. Several newly identified structures are revealed here for the first time. Three new galaxy concentrations (NW1, NW2, and NW3) are key in confirming the diagonal crossing of the Great Attractor Wall between the Norma Cluster and the CIZA J1324.7-5736 cluster. Further contributors to the general mass overdensity in that area are two new clusters (CW1 and CW2) in the nearer Centaurus Wall, one of which forms part of the striking 180° (100 {h}-1Mpc) long filament that dominates the southern sky at velocities of ˜3000 km s-1, and the suggestion of a further wall at the Great Attractor distance at slightly higher longitudes.

  20. Recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierristal, G.; Benito, B.; Cervera, J.; Belizaire, D.

    2013-05-01

    Haiti, because of his seismicity associated with plate boundary and several faults that cross the island of Hispaniola (Haiti-Dominican Republic), has been affected in the past by major earthquakes, which have caused loss of life and damage or considerable structural collapses (ex. 1771, 1842), sometimes the destruction of the cities. The recent earthquake of January 12, 2010, was the most destructive earthquake that any country has experienced in modern times, when we measure the number of people killed with respect to the population of a country (Cavallo et al. 2010). It's obvious that the major causes of theses losses are the lack of awareness of the population about the earthquakes, the absence of seismic code and quality control of the building. In this paper, we propose some recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti in order to decrease physical and social impacts of earthquakes in the future. First of all, we present a theoretical part of concepts and fundamental elements to establish a seismic code, such as: description of the methodology for seismic hazard's assessment, presentation of the results in terms of acceleration maps for the whole country (in rock sites) and Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) in the cities, and the criteria for soil classification and amplification factors for including site's effects, equivalent forces, etc. Then, we include a practical part where calculations and comparisons of five seismic codes of different countries (Eurocode 8, Spain, Canada, United States and Dominican Republic) are included, in order to have criteria for making the proposals for Haiti. Using the results of Benito et al (presented in this session S10) we compare the UHS in different cities of Haiti with the response spectrum derived from the application of the spectral shapes given by the aforementioned codes. Furthermore, the classification of soils and buildings have been also analyzed and contrasted with local data in order to propose the more suitable classification for Haiti. Finally, we have proposed a methodology for the forces estimation providing the values of the relevant coefficients. References: EN 1998-1:2004 (E): Eurocode 8, Design of structures for earthquake resistance, Part 1(General Rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings), 2004. -MTPTC, (2011). Règles de calcul intérimaires pour les bâtiments en Haïti, Ministère des Travaux Publics, Transports et Communications, Février 2011, Haïti. -NBCC 2005: National Building Code of Canada, vol1, National Research Council of Canada 2005. -NCSE-02: Norma de construcción sismorresistente de España. BOE num.244, Viernes 11 Octubre 2002. -NEHRP, 2009. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for new Buildings and Other Structures, FEMA P-750, February, Part 1 (Provisions) and Part 2 (Commentary). -R-001 (2011): Reglamento para el análisis y diseño sísmico de estructuras de República Dominicana. Decreto No. 201-11. Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Comunicaciones.

  1. Ant nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A new Hubble Space Telescope image of a celestial object called the Ant Nebula may shed new light on the future demise of our Sun. The image is available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/pictures/wfpc .

    The nebula, imaged on July 20, 1997, and June 30, 1998, by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, was observed by Drs. Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Bruce Balick of the University of Washington in Seattle; and Vincent Icke of Leiden University in the Netherlands. JPL designed and built the camera.

    The Ant Nebula, whose technical name is Mz3, resembles the head and thorax of an ant when observed with ground-based telescopes. The new Hubble image, with 10 times the resolution revealing 100 times more detail, shows the 'ant's' body as a pair of fiery lobes protruding from a dying, Sun- like star. The Ant Nebula is located between 3,000 and 6,000 light years from Earth in the southern constellation Norma.

    The image challenges old ideas about what happens to dying stars. This observation, along with other pictures of various remnants of dying stars called planetary nebulae, shows that our Sun's fate will probably be much more interesting, complex and dramatic than astronomers previously believed.

    Although the ejection of gas from the dying star in the Ant Nebula is violent, it does not show the chaos one might expect from an ordinary explosion, but instead shows symmetrical patterns. One possibility is that the central star has a closely orbiting companion whose gravitational tidal forces shape the outflowing gas. A second possibility is that as the dying star spins, its strong magnetic fields are wound up into complex shapes like spaghetti in an eggbeater. Electrically charged winds, much like those in our Sun's solar wind but millions of times denser and moving at speeds up to 1,000 kilometers per second (more than 600 miles per second) from the star, follow the twisted field lines on their way out into space.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for the Hubble Space Telescope for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA under contract with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Additional information about the Hubble Space Telescope is available at http://www.stsci.edu . More information about the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 is available at http://wfpc2.jpl.nasa.gov.

  2. PREFACE: The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place on 2-13 August 2004, in the city of Xalapa, Veracruz, México. The School continued with the tradition of promoting High Energy Physics among the younger generation in Mexico. Thus, it was aimed specifically at graduate students and postdocs. The School consisted of several courses delivered by international experts on subjects of current interest to the scientific community. The length of each course was of six to eight hours, English being the language of instruction. A novelty in this edition of the School was its total duration (two weeks as opposed to one), the number of hours assigned to one subject, and the addition of some experimental courses for the students to overcome their inhibitions of a direct encounter with the equipment and its usage. There were also a few overview talks delivered by local experts on the current status of some of the research fields actively pursued in Mexico. The XI-MSPF was organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Universidad de Veracruz, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV) and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT). We are very grateful to Dr Raúl Arias Lovillo, Dr Víctor Manuel Alcaráz Romero, Dr Asdrúbal Flóres López and Mtro Walter Saiz González, head of the Academic Secretariat, Director and Subdirector of the Office of Scientific Research and Director of the Division of Exact Sciences of the University of Veracruz, respectively, for their invaluable support in all senses to our Summer School. We also appreciate the important and useful assistance provided by Dr Rubén Bernardo Morante López, Director of the Museum of Anthropology of Xalapa, and Dr Héctor Coronel Brizio of the Secretariat of Education and Culture of the state of Veracruz. We acknowledge the help of our colleagues in the Organizing Committee: Norma Bagatella Flores (FFIA-U. Veracruzana), Heriberto Castilla Valdés (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Lorenzo Díz Cruz (FCFM-BUAP), Juan José Godina Nava (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Gerardo Herrera Corral (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), German Mandujano Vallejo (FFIA-U. Veracruzana), Miguel Ángel Pérez Angón (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Efraín Rojas Marcial (FFIA-U. Veracruzana) and Carlos Vargas Madrazo (FFIA-U Veracruzana). Many thanks also to our Conference Secretaries Patricia Carranza and Soledad López for the efficiency with which they carried out their job and their dedication. Special thanks go to María Guadalupe Colorado Hernández and Javier Ignacio Fragoso Tizapan, whose help in carrying out the School was essential, without their collaboration this School would not have been the same. We take this opportunity to thank most warmly all the speakers for delivering excellent lectures which made this event a success. Moreover, to our utmost delight, the students participated very enthusiastically and we hope that this school will contribute considerably towards their academic development. The future of scientific endeavour always depends upon the students. Adnan Bashir (IFM-UMSNH) Jens Erler (IF-UNAM) Rául Hernández (FFIA-UV) Myriam Mondragón (IF-UNAM) Luis Villaseñor (IFM-UMSNH)

  3. FOREWORD: Computational methodologies for designing materials Computational methodologies for designing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2009-02-01

    It would be fair to say that in the past few decades, theory and computer modeling have played a major role in elucidating the microscopic factors that dictate the properties of functional novel materials. Together with advances in experimental techniques, theoretical methods are becoming increasingly capable of predicting properties of materials at different length scales, thereby bringing in sight the long-sought goal of designing material properties according to need. Advances in computer technology and their availability at a reasonable cost around the world have made tit all the more urgent to disseminate what is now known about these modern computational techniques. In this special issue on computational methodologies for materials by design we have tried to solicit articles from authors whose works collectively represent the microcosm of developments in the area. This turned out to be a difficult task for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is space limitation in this special issue. Nevertheless, we gathered twenty articles that represent some of the important directions in which theory and modeling are proceeding in the general effort to capture the ability to produce materials by design. The majority of papers presented here focus on technique developments that are expected to uncover further the fundamental processes responsible for material properties, and for their growth modes and morphological evolutions. As for material properties, some of the articles here address the challenges that continue to emerge from attempts at accurate descriptions of magnetic properties, of electronically excited states, and of sparse matter, all of which demand new looks at density functional theory (DFT). I should hasten to add that much of the success in accurate computational modeling of materials emanates from the remarkable predictive power of DFT, without which we would not be able to place the subject on firm theoretical grounds. As we know and will also see from the collection of works here, DFT also provides a platform for testing, improving, and evaluating the feasibility of more approximate methods whose need has become even more urgent. This is understandable since functional materials, given their limited translational symmetry, necessitate the usage of unit cells with a large number of atoms (sometimes in hundreds). Even if DFT codes were efficient enough to handle several hundred atoms in the calculational super-cell, the extraction of equilibrium geometry for such systems requires injection of more efficient methodology, as geometry is the input and not the output of a DFT calculation. Equally important is the need to calculate the temperature dependencies of material properties and for simulations to be carried out at length scales suitable for incorporating kinetic effects from competing processes and cooperative effects from constituting entities. It is true that codes based on DFT are becoming increasingly efficient and that methods such as ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are available for simulations of systems at temperatures above 0 K. However, such approaches still have a way to go before they can be readily applied to materials with complex geometries and composition, and for time and length scales that are relevant to realistic environments in the laboratory. Several articles here represent some of the recent advances towards 'multi-scale' modeling of materials. Among the articles that focus exclusively on DFT, the contribution by Weinert et al [1] summarizes some of the advances made to better describe magnetic properties and entropic effects. The article by Kyrychenko and Ullrich [2] discusses recent developments in time dependent DFT to describe transport properties and absorption spectra of solids. Their model allows for a comprehensive treatment of electron--electron interaction, screening and correlation effects which are necessary for proper description of properties of the excited state. The contribution by Langreth and co-workers [3] summarizes their recent efforts at incorporating non-local van der Waals forces into DFT so as to make it suitable for accurate description of the physical and chemical properties of the ground state of sparse/soft matter. Their applications to molecules, layered systems, and hybrid structures are promising and mark the beginning of work in another important set of materials for which insights could be obtained from DFT. The paper here by Tang et al [4] focuses on the usage of grid-based methods for calculations of local charge densities. The virtue of the method is that charge densities are not confined to a lattice. Finally, as applications of DFT, the article by Groß [5] is representative of the usage of DFT in tailoring the electronic structures of surface alloys and other nanostructures, while the contribution by Bohnen et al [6] is a further example of the applicability of density functional perturbation theory in accurate descriptions of the lattice dynamics of functional nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes. For the modeling of amorphous materials, Biswas and co-workers [7] present a review of methods such as the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) and 'experimentally constrained molecular relaxation' models which impose constraints to ensure that the final model meets a priori requirements on structure, topology, chemical ordering, etc. In a similar vein, the papers by Rossi and Ferrando [8] and Rogan et al [9] , summarize advances in the determination of the equilibrium structure of nanoparticles and nanoalloys through global optimization strategies such as genetic and Basin-hopping approaches, diversity-driven unbiased searches and the conformational space annealing method. Structure determination itself relies on the knowledge of the system energy landscape, the saddle points and the transition states. In this issue the work of Pedersen et al [10] is an example of how a saddle point search method can be used to study dislocation mobility in a covalent material, which can be a very challenging task for a complex material. Trushin et al [11] present a related procedure for understanding atomistic mechanisms and energetics of strain relaxation in heteroepitaxial systems and transitions from the coherent epitaxial (defect free) state to the state containing an isolated defect (localized or extended). To facilitate the simulation of rare events, Fichthorn et al [12] elaborate on the adoption of the bond-boost method for accelerated molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and its application to kinetic phenomena relevant to thin-film growth. They also present the state-bridging bond-boost method to address the dynamics of systems residing in a group of states connected by small energy barriers and separated from the rest of phase space by large barriers. In the genre of accelerated schemes which also seek to address the issue of completeness in the determination of reaction rates we include here the 'off-lattice' self-learning kinetic Monto Carlo method presented by Kara and co-workers [13] and its application to atomic cluster diffusion on fcc(111) surfaces. Further ramifications of the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method are presented in the paper by Nandipati et al [14] , who apply the recently developed optimistic synchronous relaxation (OSR) algorithm as well as the semi-rigorous synchronous sublattice (SL) algorithm for parallel computation of the coarsening of islands on fcc(111) surfaces. The above and related methods also lend themselves to the examination of morphological evolution of functional materials. The contribution by Hamouda et al [15] summarizes the effect of impurities on epitaxial growth and on shape evolution of systems. Similarly, using an atomistic lattice-gas model Li et al [16] describes the key features of the complex mounded morphologies which develop during deposition of Ag films on Ag(111) surfaces. Also, using a combination of a Monte Carlo method and continuum elasticity theory, Uhlík et al [17] present an efficient computational method for finding the equilibrium concentration profiles which minimize the free energy of intermixed heteroepitaxial islands of assigned shape and composition. The contribution by Leuenberger and Sham [18] establishes how the process of Umklapp-assisted recombination can be used to optically detect the spin state of the nucleus of a phosphorus donor. They present two methods to improve the optical detection of the spin state of a single nucleus in Si:P. The work of Ni et al [19] is an example of the application of the molecular dynamics technique to determine the thermal conductances across covalently bonded interfaces between oriented single crystal diamond and completely aligned polyethylene chains. Finally, the paper by Yildirim et al [20] illustrates the application of standard lattice dynamics and molecular statics methods to identify the novel characteristics of nanoalloys, as a function of composition and geometry. References [1] Weinert M, Schneider G, Podloucky R and Redinger J 2009 FLAPW: applications and implementations J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084201 [2] Kyrychenko F V and Ullrich C A 2009 Transport and optical conductivity in dilute magnetic semiconductors J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084202 [3] Langreth D C, Lundqvist B I, Chakarova-Käck S, Cooper V R, Dion M, Hyldgaard P, Kelkkanen A, Kleis J, Kong L, Li S, Moses P G, Murray E, Puzder A, Rydberg H, Schröder E and Thonhauser T 2009 A density functional for sparse matter J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084203 [4] Tang W, Sanville E and Henkelman G 2009 A grid-based Bader analysis algorithm without lattice bias J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084204 [5] Groß A 2009 Tailoring the reactivity of bimetallic overlayer and surface alloy systems J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084205 [6] Bohnen K-P, Heid R and Chan C T 2009 Lattice instability and superconductivity in electron doped (3, 3) carbon nanotubes J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084206 [7] Biswas P, Tafen D N, Inam F, Cai B and Drabold D A 2009 Materials modeling by design: applications to amorphous solids J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084207 [8] Rossi G and Ferrando R 2009 Searching for low-energy structures of nanoparticles: a comparison of different methods and algorithms J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084208 [9] Rogan J, Ramírez M, Muñoz V, Alejandro Valdivia J, García G, Ramírez R and Kiwi M 2009 Diversity driven unbiased search of minimum energy cluster configurations J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084209 [10] Pedersen A, Pizzagalli L and Jónsson H 2009 Finding mechanism of transitions in complex systems: formation and migration of dislocation kinks in a silicon crystal J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084210 [11] Trushin O, Jalkanen J, Granato E, Ying S C and Ala-Nissila T 2009 Atomistic studies of strain relaxation in heteroepitaxial systems J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084211 [12] Fichthorn K A, Miron R A, Wang Y and Tiwary Y 2009 Accelerated molecular dynamics of thin-film growth with the bond-boost method J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084212 [13] Kara A, Trushin O, Yildirim H and Rahman T S 2009 Off-lattice self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo: application to 2D cluster diffusion on the fcc(111) surface J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084213 [14] Nandipati G, Shim Y, Amar J G, Karim A, Kara A, Rahman T S and Trushin O 2009 Parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of Ag(111) island coarsening using a large database J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084214 [15] Hamouda A, Stasevich T J, Pimpinelli A and Einstein T L 2009 Effects of impurities on surface morphology: some examples J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084215 [16] Li M, Han Y, Thiel P A and Evans J W 2009 Formation of complex wedding-cake morphologies during homoepitaxial film growth of Ag on Ag(111): atomistic, step-dynamics, and continuum modeling J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084216 [17] Uhlík F, Gatti R and Montalenti F 2009 A fast computational method for determining equilibrium concentration profiles in intermixed nanoislands J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084217 [18] Leuenberger M and Sham L J 2009 Theory of Umklapp-assisted recombination of bound excitons in Si:P J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084218 [19] Ni B, Watanabe T and Phillpot S P 2009 Thermal transport in polyethylene and at polyethylene-diamond interfaces investigated using molecular dynamics simulation J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084219 [20] Yildirim H, Kara A and Rahman T S 2009 Structural, vibrational and thermodynamic properties of AgnCu34-n nanoparticles J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084220

  4. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Ido AdamMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Henrik AdorfLeibniz Universität Hannover Mohammad Ali-AkbariIPM, Tehran Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Martin Ammon Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Christopher AndreyÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Laura AndrianopoliPolitecnico di Torino David AndriotLPTHE, Université UPMC Paris VI Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Pantelis ApostolopoulosUniversitat de les Illes Balears, Palma Gleb ArutyunovInstitute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Davide AstolfiUniversità di Perugia Spyros AvramisUniversité de Neuchâtel Mirela BabalicChalmers University, Göteborg Foday BahDigicom Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Igor BandosUniversidad de Valencia Jose L F BarbonIFTE UAM/CSIC Madrid Till BargheerMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich James BedfordImperial College London Raphael BenichouLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Alice BernamontiVrije Universiteit, Brussel Julia BernardLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Marco Billo' Università di Torino Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Guillaume BossardAlbert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Leonardo BriziÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Johannes BroedelLeibniz Universität Hannover (AEI) Tom BrownQueen Mary, University of London Ilka BrunnerEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Erling BrynjolfssonUniversity of Iceland Dmitri BykovSteklov Institute, Moscow and Trinity College, Dublin Joan CampsUniversitat de Barcelona Davide CassaniLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Alejandra CastroUniversity of Michigan Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna Ceresole Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università di Torino Athanasios ChatzistavrakidisNational Technical University of Athens Wissam ChemissanyCentre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Eugen-Mihaita CioroianuUniversity of Craiova Andres CollinucciTechnische Universität Wien Paul CookUniversità di Roma, Tor Vergata Lorenzo CornalbaUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Aldo CotroneKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Ben Craps Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Stefano Cremonesi SISSA, Trieste Riccardo D'AuriaPolitecnico di Torino Gianguido Dall'AgataUniversity of Padova Jose A de AzcarragaUniversidad de Valencia Jan de BoerInstituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam Sophie de BuylInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Marius de LeeuwUtrecht University Frederik De RooVrije Universiteit, Brussel Jan De Rydt Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and CERN, Geneva Bernard de WitInstitute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Stephane DetournayIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Paolo Di Vecchia Niels Bohr Institute, København Eugen DiaconuUniversity of Craiova Vladimir Dobrev Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Nick DoreyUniversity of Cambridge Hajar Ebrahim NajafabadiIPM, Tehran Federico Elmetti Università di Milano Oleg Evnin Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Francesco Fiamberti Università di Milano Davide Forcella SISSA, Trieste and CERN, Geneva Valentina Forini Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Angelos Fotopoulos Università di Torino Denis Frank Université de Neuchâtel Marialuisa Frau Università di Torino Matthias Gaberdiel Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Diego Gallego SISSA/ISAS, Trieste Maria Pilar Garcia del MoralIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università di Torino Valentina Giangreco Marotta PulettiUppsala University Valeria L GiliQueen Mary, University of London Luciano GirardelloUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Gian GiudiceCERN, Geneva Kevin Goldstein Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Joaquim Gomis Universitat de Barcelona Pietro Antonio GrassiUniversità del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria Viviane GraßLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Gianluca Grignani Università di Perugia Luca Griguolo Università di Parma Johannes GrosseJagiellonian University, Krakow Umut Gursoy École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Norberto Gutierrez RodriguezUniversity of Oviedo Babak HaghighatPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Troels Harmark Niels Bohr Institute, København Robert HaslhoferEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Tae-Won HaPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Alexander HauptImperial College London and Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Marc HenneauxUniversité Libre de Bruxelles Johannes HennLAPTH, Annecy-le-Vieux Shinji HiranoNiels Bohr Institute, København Stefan HoheneggerEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Jan HomannLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Gabriele Honecker CERN, Geneva Joost HoogeveenInstituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam Mechthild HuebscherUniversidad Autónoma de Madrid Chris HullImperial College London Carmen-Liliana IonescuUniversity of Craiova Ella JasminUniversité Libre de Bruxelles Konstantin KanishchevInstitute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw Stefanos Katmadas Utrecht University Alexandros KehagiasNational Technical University of Athens Christoph Keller Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Patrick Kerner Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Rebiai KhaledLaboratoire de Physique Mathématique et Physique Subatomique, Université Mentouri, Constantine Elias Kiritsis Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau and University of Crete Denis KleversPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Paul Koerber Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Simon Koers Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Karl KollerLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Peter Koroteev Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow and Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Alexey KoshelevVrije Universiteit, Brussel Costas KounnasÉcole Normale Supérieure, Paris Daniel KreflCERN, Geneva Charlotte KristjansenNiels Bohr Institute, København Finn LarsenCERN, Geneva and University of Michigan Arnaud Le DiffonÉcole Normale Supérieure, Lyon Michael LennekCentre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Alberto Lerda Università del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria Andreas LiberisUniversity of Patras Maria A Lledo Universidad de Valencia Oscar Loaiza-Brito CINVESTAV, Mexico Florian Loebbert Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Yolanda Lozano University of Oviedo Dieter Luest Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Tomasz Łukowski Jagiellonian University, Krakow Diego Mansi University of Crete Alberto Mariotti Università di Milano-Bicocca Raffaele Marotta Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli Alessio Marrani Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and LNF, Firenze Andrea Mauri University of Crete Liuba Mazzanti École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Sean McReynoldsUniversità di Milano-Bicocca AKM Moinul Haque Meaze Chittagong University Patrick Meessen Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Carlo MeneghelliUniversità di Parma and Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Lotta Mether University of Helsinki and CERN, Geneva René Meyer Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Georgios MichalogiorgakisCenter de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Giuseppe Milanesi Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Samuel Monnier Université de Genève Wolfgang MueckUniversità di Napoli Federico II Elena Méndez Escobar University of Edinburgh Iulian Negru University of Craiova Emil NissimovInstitute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia Teake NutmaCentre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Niels Obers Niels Bohr Institute, København Olof Ohlsson SaxUppsala University Rodrigo OleaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Domenico OrlandoUniversité de Neuchâtel Marta Orselli Niels Bohr Institute, København Tomas OrtinInstituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Yaron OzTel Aviv University Enrico PajerLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Angel Paredes GalanUtrecht University Sara PasquettiUniversité de Neuchâtel Silvia PenatiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Jan PerzKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Igor PesandoUniversità di Torino Tassos PetkouUniversity of Crete Marios PetropoulosCenter de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Franco PezzellaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli Moises Picon PonceUniversity of Padova Marco PirroneUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Andrea PrinslooUniversity of Cape Town Joris RaeymaekersKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Alfonso RamalloUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Carlo Alberto RattiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Marco RauchPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Ronald Reid-EdwardsUniversity of Hamburg Patricia RitterUniversity of Edinburgh Peter RoenneDESY, Hamburg Jan RosseelUniversità di Torino Clement RuefService de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay Felix RustMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Thomas RyttovNiels Bohr Institute, København and CERN, Geneva Agustin Sabio VeraCERN, Geneva Christian SaemannTrinity College, Dublin Houman Safaai SISSA, Trieste Henning SamtlebenÉcole Normale Supérieure, Lyon Alberto SantambrogioIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Silviu Constantin SararuUniversity of Craiova Ricardo SchiappaCERN, Geneva Ionut Romeo SchiopuChalmers University, Göteborg Cornelius Schmidt-ColinetEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Johannes SchmudeSwansea University Waldemar SchulginLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Domenico SeminaraUniversità di Firenze Alexander SevrinVrije Universiteit, Brussel Konstadinos SfetsosUniversity of Patras Igor ShenderovichSt Petersburg State University Jonathan ShockUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Massimo SianiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Christoph SiegUniversità Degli Studi di Milano Joan SimonUniversity of Edinburgh Paul SmythUniversity of Hamburg Luca SommovigoUniversidad de Valencia Dmitri Sorokin Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova Christos SourdisUniversity of Patras Wieland StaessensVrije Universiteit, Brussel Ivan StefanovUniversity of Patras Sigurdur StefanssonUniversity of Iceland Kellogg Stelle Imperial College London Giovanni Tagliabue Università di Milano Laura Tamassia Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Javier TarrioUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Dimitri TerrynVrije Universiteit, Brussel Larus Thorlacius University of Iceland Mario ToninDipartimento Di Fisica, Sezione Di Padova Mario Trigiante Politecnico di Torino Efstratios TsatisUniversity of Patras Arkady TseytlinImperial College London Pantelis TziveloglouCornell University, New York and CERN, Geneva Angel Uranga CERN, Geneva Dieter Van den Bleeken Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Ernst van Eijk Università di Napoli Federico II Antoine Van Proeyen Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Maaike van ZalkUtrecht University Pierre Vanhove Service de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay Silvia Vaula Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cristian Vergu Service de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay Alessandro VichiÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Marlene WeissCERN, Geneva and Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Sebastian Weiss Université de Neuchâtel Alexander WijnsUniversity of Iceland Linus WulffUniversity of Padova Thomas WyderKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Ahmed YoussefAstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Université Paris Diderot Daniela ZanonUniversità Degli Studi di Milano Andrea ZanziPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Andrey ZayakinInstitute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow Tobias ZinggUniversity of Iceland Dimitrios ZoakosUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Emanuele ZorzanUniversità di Milano Konstantinos ZoubosNiels Bohr Institute, København

  5. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna Ceresole Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università di Torino Kang Sin Choi University of Bonn Michele Cirafici University of Patras Andres Collinucci Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Aldo Cotrone Universitat de Barcelona Ben Craps Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Stefano Cremonesi SISSA, Trieste Gianguido Dall'Agata Padova University Sanjit Das Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Forcella Davide SISSA, Trieste Jose A de Azcarraga Valencia University and Instituto de Fìsica Corpuscular (CSIC-UVEG), Valencia Sophie de BuylInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Jean-Pierre Derendinger Université de Neuchâtel Stephane Detournay Università Degli Studi di Milano Paolo Di Vecchia NORDITA, København Oscar Dias Universitat de Barcelona Vladimir Dobrev Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Joel Ekstrand Department of Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University Federico Elmetti Università di Milano I Diaconu Eugen University of Craiova Oleg Evnin Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Bo Feng Imperial College, London Livia Ferro Università di Torino Pau Figueras Universitat de Barcelona Raphael Flauger University of Texas at Austin Valentina Forini Università di Perugia Angelos Fotopoulos Università di Torino Denis Frank Université de Neuchâtel Lisa Freyhult Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Carlos Fuertes Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Matthias Gaberdiel Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Maria Pilar Garcia del Moral Università di Torino Daniel Gerber Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Valentina Giangreco Marotta Puletti Uppsala University Joaquim Gomis Universitat de Barcelona Gianluca Grignani Università di Perugia Luca Griguolo Università di Parma Umut Gursoy École Polytechnique, Palaiseau and École Normale Supérieure, Paris Michael Haack Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Troels Harmark Niels Bohr Institute, København Alexander Haupt Imperial College, London Michal Heller Jagiellonian University, Krakow Samuli Hemming University of Iceland Yasuaki Hikida DESY, Hamburg Christian Hillmann Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Potsdam Stephan Hoehne Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Gabriele Honecker CERN, Geneva Carlos Hoyos University of Wales, Swansea Mechthild Huebscher Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid Matthias Ihl University of Texas at Austin Emiliano Imeroni University of Wales, Swansea Nikos Irges University of Crete Negru Iulian University of Craiova Matthias Kaminski Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Stefanos Katmadas Universiteit Utrecht Shoichi Kawamoto Oxford University Christoph Keller Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Arjan Keurentjes Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Sadi Khodaee Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, Iran Michael Kiermaier Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Elias Kiritsis Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau and University of Crete Ingo KirschEidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Johanna Knapp CERN, Geneva Paul Koerber Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Simon Koers Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Anatoly Konechny Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh Peter Koroteev Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow Daniel KreflLudwig-Maximilians-Universität and Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Chethan KrishnanUniversité Libre de Bruxelles Stanislav Kuperstein Université Libre de Bruxelles Alberto Lerda Università del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria Roman Linares Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, México Maria A Lledo Universidad de Valencia Dieter Luest Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Joseph Lykken Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, IL Carlo Maccaferri Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Oscar Macia Universidad de Valencia Tristan Maillard Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Diego Mansi Università Degli Studi di Milano Matteo Marescotti Università del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria Alberto Mariotti Università di Milano-Bicocca Raffaele Marotta Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli Alessio Marrani Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and LNF, Firenze Luca Martucci Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven David Mateos University of California, Santa Barbara Andrea Mauri Università di Milano Liuba Mazzanti Università di Milano-Bicocca Patrick Meessen Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Lotta Mether Helsinki Institute of Physics Rene Meyer Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Giuseppe Milanesi SISSA, Trieste Cesar Miquel-Espanya Universitat de Valencia and Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Valencia Alexander Monin Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow and Moscow State University (MSU) Samuel Monnier Université de Genève Sergio Montero Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Nicola Mori Università di Firenze Alexander Marcel Morisse University of California, Santa Cruz Sebastian Moster Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Adele Nasti Queen Mary, University of London Vasilis Niarchos École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Emil Nissimov Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia Francesco Nitti École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Eoin O'Colgain Imperial College, London Niels Obers Niels Bohr Institute, København Rodrigo Olea Università Degli Studi di Milano Marta Orselli Niels Bohr Institute, København Enrico PajerLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Eran PaltiOxford University Georgios PapathanasiouBrown University, Providence, RI Angel ParedesCentre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Jeong-Hyuck ParkMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Sara PasquettiUniversità di Parma Silvia PenatiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Igor PesandoUniversità di Torino Marios PetropoulosÉcole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto PettorinoUniversità di Napoli Federico II Franco PezzellaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli Moises Picon PonceIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova Marco PirroneUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Erik PlauschinnMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Andre PloeghCentre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Giuseppe PolicastroLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Josep PonsUniversitat de Barcelona S Prem KumarUniversity of Wales, Swansea Nikolaos PrezasCERN, Geneva Carlo Alberto RattiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Riccardo RicciImperial College, London Alejandro RiveroEscuela Universitaria Politécnica de Teruel, Universidad de Zaragoza Irene RodriguezInstituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Maria Jose RodriguezUniversitat de Barcelona Diederik RoestUniversitat de Barcelona Alberto RomagnoniLaboratoire de Physique Théorique d'Orsay, Paris Christian RomelsbergerDublin Institute for Advanced Studies Jan RosseelKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Sebastiano RossiEidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Felix RustMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Cheol RyouPohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) Christian SaemannDublin Institute for Advanced Studies Houman Safaai SISSA, Trieste Alberto SantambrogioIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Frank SaueressigUniversiteit Utrecht Ricardo SchiappaCERN, Geneva Cornelius Schmidt-ColinetEidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Maximilian Schmidt-SommerfeldMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Waldemar SchulginMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Claudio ScruccaUniversité de Neuchâtel Nathan SeibergInstitute of Advanced Studies, Princeton, NJ Domenico SeminaraUniversità di Firenze Alexander SevrinVrije Universiteit, Brussel Konstadinos SfetsosUniversity of Patras Kostas SiamposUniversity of Patras Christoph SiegUniversità Degli Studi di Milano Vaula Silvia Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Aaron Sim Imperial College, London Woojoo Sim Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) Sergey Slizovskiy Department of Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University Paul Smyth Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Corneliu Sochichiu Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati Dmitri Sorokin Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova Kellogg Stelle Imperial College, London Piotr Surowka Jagiellonian University, Krakow Yasutoshi Takayama Niels Bohr Institute, København Laura Tamassia Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Radu Tatar University of Liverpool Larus Thorlacius University of Iceland Paavo Tiitola Helsinki Institute of Physics Diego Trancanelli Stony Brook University, NY Michele TraplettiInstitut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg Mario Trigiante Politecnico di Torino Angel Uranga CERN, Geneva and Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Roberto Valandro SISSA, Trieste Dieter Van den Bleeken Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Antoine Van Proeyen Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Thomas Van Riet Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Pierre Vanhove Service de Physique Théorique, Saclay Oscar Varela Universidad de Valencia Alessandro Vichi Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa Massimiliano VinconQueen Mary, University of London John Ward Queen Mary, University of London and CERN, Geneva Brian Wecht Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Marlene Weiss Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich and CERN, Geneva Sebastian Weiss Université de Neuchâtel Alexander Wijns Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Przemek Witaszczyk Jagiellonian University, Krakow Timm Wrase University of Texas at Austin Jun-Bao Wu SISSA, Trieste Amos Yarom Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Marco Zagermann Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Daniela Zanon Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano Andrea Zanzi University of Bonn Andrey Zayakin Moscow State University (MSU) and Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow Konstantinos Zoubos Queen Mary, University of London

  6. Waterproof Anti-Explosive Powders for Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczek, Bronisław; Vogt, Elżbieta

    2014-03-01

    Limestone powder characterized by hydrophobic properties is used as an anti-explosive agent in coal mining industry. Unfortunately, the standard method of producing such powder by milling limestone with stearic acid is practically unprofitable in many modernized quarries and plants, and sometimes literally impossible due to the introduction of technological changes and implementation of modern mills. Then new methods of hydrophobization of limestone surfaces ought be searched. In the work two methods hydrophobization: from the stearic acid vapour phase and from silicone solutions are proposed. Lime dust from the Czatkowice Quarry of Lime was used as a raw material during investigations. It is a good agent for research because it is possible to compare the properties of samples modified in this work to the properties of anti-explosive lime powder (Polish Standard, 1994) used in mining industry in Poland. The first technique of limestone powder hydrophobization was carried out in an apparatus of own design (Vogt, 2008, 2011), and it consisted in free sedimentation of the powder layer dispersed by stearic acid vapour in powder counter current flow. The second way of modification consisted in mixing in the evaporating dish substrates: limestone powder and dope - silicone solution - Sarsil® H-15 (Vogt & Opaliński, 2009; Vogt & Hołownia, 2010). Evaluation of properties so-obtained waterproof powders was carried out according to the Polish Standard, as well as using original powder determination ways, with the Powder Characteristic Tester (Index tables, Tablets & Capsules, 2005). Moreover water vapour adsorption isotherms were obtained and the thermal decomposition of powder was made. All modified samples acquired the hydrophobic character. Therefore we can state that the both proposed methods of hydrophobization of the limestone powder are useful. The parameters obtained with the use of Powder Characteristics Tester enable us to make a characterization of limestone properties not only as a water resistant material but also from the cohesion point of view. On the base of TG, DTG or DTA and EGA curves for all investigated materials was stated that the character of the thermal decomposition of modified samples is the same as this one for raw powder, what is profitable for application of hydrophobized powders as an anti-explosive agent. W górnictwie węgla kamiennego używany jest hydrofobowy pył wapienny jako substancja stosowana w systemie zabezpieczeń przeciwwybuchowych (Cybulski, 2004). Niestety, dotychczasowy sposób wy- twarzania takiego produktu polegający na współmieleniu kamienia wapiennego z kwasem stearynowym staje się praktycznie niemożliwy do stosowania w nowoczesnych zakładach np. kamieniołomy. Sytuacja taka jest wynikiem wprowadzania zmian technologicznych, głównie związanych z wymianą starych konstrukcji młynów na nowe urządzenia. Tym samym istnieje potrzeba poszukiwania nowych metod hydrofobizacji powierzchni pyłów wapiennych. W pracy omówiono dwie nowe metody hydrofobizacji pyłu wapiennego: za pomocą par kwasu stearynowego oraz roztworu silikonowego - Sarsil® H-15. Podczas badań używano surowego pyłu wapiennego pochodzącego z Kopalni Kamienia Wapiennego w Czatkowicach. Materiał ten jest dobrym materiałem do badań gdyż istnieje możliwość porównywania właściwości materiałów hydrofobowych otrzymanych w pracy z właściwościami handlowego pyłu przeciwwybuchowego (Polska Norma, 1994), używanego w polskich kopalniach. Pierwszy sposób hydrofobizacji pyłu wapiennego, polegający na swobodnym opadaniu pyłu wapiennego w oparach kwasu stearynowego przepływających w przeciwprądzie, przeprowadzono w aparacie własnej konstrukcji (Vogt, 2008, 2011). Aparat gwarantuje dobry kontakt modyfikatora z ziarnami pyłu. Pył opadając, nie napotyka żadnych przeszkód ulegał rozproszeniu, a wprowadzony w stanie parowym kwas stearynowy może swobodnie osiadać na jego powierzchni zewnętrznej oraz penetrować w głąb porów, blokując je dla wilgoci. Drugi sposób hydrofobizacji sprowadzał się w uproszczeniu do zmieszania substratów: pyłu wapiennego i domieszki silikonowej - Sarsil® H-15, w parownicy (Vogt i Opaliński, 2009; Vogt i Hołownia, 2010). We wstępnych badaniach określono objętość preparatu, jaką trzeba dodać do pyłu w celu uzyskania optymalnych warunków kontaktu preparatu z ciałem stałym. Otrzymany po modyfikacji materiał był zbrylony w niewielkim stopniu, a jego całkowite rozdrobnienie uzyskano poprzez przecieranie pyłu przez sito o odpowiednim wymiarze oczek. Badanie właściwości tak otrzymanych hydrofobowych materiałów przeprowadzono w oparciu o PN (Polska Norma, 1994), jak również w oparciu o standardowe metody badania materiałów proszkowych z użyciem aparatu Powder Characteristic Tester (Index tables, Tablets & Capsules, 2005) (Tablica 2,3). Oceny stopnia hydrofobizacji materiałów po modyfikacji dokonano, w przypadku proszku hydrofobizowanego parami kwasu stearynowego, w oparciu o procedurę opisaną w Polskiej Normie (1994), oznaczając procentową zawartość kwasu stearynowego. Otrzymany podczas badań pył hydrofobizowany kwasem stearynowym zawierał 0,18% modyfikatora, co jest ilością dopuszczalną przez Polską Normę (1994).W celu oceny właściwości hydrofobowych materiału modyfikowanego roztworem silikonowym do badań zaadaptowano technikę pomiaru zwilżalności ziaren węglowych "film flotation" (Fuerstenau i Williams, 1987) przyjmując, jako materiał odniesienia hydrofobizowaną mączkę wapienną z Kopalni Kamienia Wapiennego w Małogoszczy. Opracowano metodę wyznaczania współczynnika C określonego, jako stopień hydrofobizacji (Vogt i Opaliński, 2009). Średnia wartość C = 84% wskazuje, że materiał modyfikowany preparatem silikonowym uzyskał odpowiednie właściwości hydrofobowe. Tym samym oba materiały po modyfikacji uzyskały zadowalające właściwości wodoodporne. Ponadto, dla badanych pyłów wyznaczono izotermy adsorpcji pary wodnej (Rys. 1). Uzyskane niższe wartości adsorpcji dla materiałów po modyfikacji niż dla proszku surowego potwierdzają, że materiały posiadają charakter hydrofobowy, co pozwala stwierdzić, że obie proponowane metody hydrofobizacji są użyteczne do produkcji wodoodpornego pyłu wapiennego. Analizę termiczną pyłów wapiennych wykonano w celu porównania efektu cieplnego przemian zachodzących podczas ogrzewania pyłów modyfikowanych z efektem cieplnym zachodzącym podczas ogrzewania surowego pyłu wapiennego. W trakcie badań użyto termowagę firmy TA Instruments 2960 SDT ze sprzężonym spektrometrem masowym firmy Balzers TermoStar 300. Otrzymane wynikiprzedstawiono na Rys. 2. Linie ciągłe na Rys. 2a i 2b przedstawiają przebieg krzywych TG, DTG oraz DTA dla pyłu surowego. Linie przerywane zostały otrzymane dla pyłu modyfikowanego kwasem stearynowym (Rys. 2a) oraz preparatem SARSIL® H-15 (Rys. 2b). Na Rys. 3 zobrazowano wyniki analizy zawartości tlenku węgla IV w składzie gazów otrzymywanych podczas rozkładu termicznego pyłu wapiennego (EGA). Krzywa otrzymana dla pyłu modyfikowanego kwasem stearynowym w zasadzie pokrywa się z krzywą otrzymaną dla pyłu surowego. Parametry uzyskane z użyciem aparatu Powder Characteristics Tester umożliwiły scharakteryzowanie pyłów wapiennych nie tylko pod kątem ich właściwości hydrofobowych, ale także właściwości kohezyjnych i przepływowych.

  7. PREFACE: 4th National Meeting in Chaos, Complex System and Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raúl Hernández Montoya, Alejandro; Hernández Lemus, Enrique; Rubén Luévano Enríquez, José; Rodríguez Achach, Manuel Enrique; Vargas Madrazo, Carlos Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    The fourth edition of the National Meeting on Chaos, Complex Systems and Time Series (NMCCSTS4), or in Spanish 4a. Reunión Nacional de Caos, Sistemas Complejos y Series de Tiempo, was held from 29 November to 2 December 2011 in the University of Veracruz (Universidad Veracruzana), Campus Xalapa, at Xalapa Veracruz, México, in the beautiful House of the Lake (Casa del Lago), a late XIX century former textile factory situated in the edge of an also ancient former dam, currently a park containing three small lakes, very emblematic of Xalapa, City, the capital of the state of Veracruz, México. The previous editions of this meeting, were held in Mérida (2006), Pachuca (2008) and Puebla (2009). A clear uptrend is observed in the number of participants in this academic event from all Universities of México and abroad, going from about 15 participants in the first meeting to more than 90 in the last one. On this occasion, about 90 participants from three countries attended our event, where 29 papers (10 master lectures from top recognized national and international leaders in the fields of complexity, and 19 invited papers), one course for students and 42 posters were presented. A look at the scientific program of the NMCCSTS4, allows us to appreciate the wide range of topics and recent advances that were covered during our event; topics and recent results in the areas of biology, econophysics, sociophysics, genomics and bioinformatics, complex networks, thermodynamics, etc, were presented and discussed rigorously in a friendly, dynamical and informal atmosphere. Also, on this occasion, we celebrated Professor Miguel Angel Jiménez Montaño, for his very distinguished academic career throughout more that 50 years and as a founding member of the Faculty of Physics and AI of University of Veracruz. Prizes were awarded for the best poster presentations. The winner was Porfirio Toledo, from Faculty of Mathematics, University of Veracruz (Game theory to characterize solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton--Jacobi equation). The present volume contains a rigorous selection of the lectures presented at the NMCCSTS4. All papers were peer reviewed and we consider the high quality and the wide range of topics covered here displays the high level that the community of complexity sciences is reaching in our country. We would like to thank all of the speakers, participants and the members of the Organizing Committee, also we would like to express our gratitude to all students and support personal involved with the logistic and technical aspects of the organization of our event. This IV edition of the National Meeting on Caos, Complex System and Time Series was sponsored by the following organizations and institutions, we warmly thank all of them: Universidad Veracruzana, IF-BUAP, UAM Azcapotzalco, INMEGEN, Conacyt (155492), all them from México and the Ministero degli Affari Esteri (MAE) from Italy. A R Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz M E Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz E Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine J R Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco C E Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz Organizing Committee José Luis Carrillo Estrada Instituto de Física, Benemerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, carrillo@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx José Rubén Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, jrle@correo.azc.uam.mx Enrique Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine, ehernandez@inmegen.gob.mx Alejandro Raúl Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz, alhernandez@uv.mx Norma Bagatella Flores University of Veracruz, nbagatella@uv.mx Adrian Arturo Huerta Hernández University of Veracruz, adhuerta@uv.mx Manuel Enrique Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz, manurodriguez@uv.mx Carlos Ernesto Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz, cavargas@uv.mx Sol Haret Baez Barrios University of Veracruz, arbaez@uv.mx Héctor Francisco Coronel Brizio University of Veracruz, hcoronel@uv.mx Sergio Adrian Lerma Hernández University of Veracruz, slerma@uv.mx Rodrígo Huerta Quintanilla CINVESTAV U. Mérida, rhuerta@mda.cinvestav.mx

  8. Project Seacleaner: from cooperation among ISMAR-CNR researchers, high school students and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies to an application for environmental monitoring and scientific research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlino, Silvia; Marini, Claudio; Tosi, Daniela; Caselli, Lorena; Marini, Davide; Lucchinelli, Paolo; Vatteroni, Davide; Lunardelli, Francesco; Agrusa, Astrid; Lombardi, Davide; Stroobant, Mascha

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the Institute for Marine Science of the Italian Research Council ISMAR-CNR has undertaken a series of actions to incorporate oceanography in education: among these, the project "SeaCleaner" that has been developed together with a local Secondary School (Istituto di Istruzione Superiore Capellini-Sauro) and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM) [1]. Seven students, engaged within the national Programme "work-related learning"[2], have worked side-by-side with ISMAR-CNR researchers, investigating on the problem of debris accumulation on beaches, and understanding the damage that this issue causes to marine environments and ecosystems. This problem has recently become a challenging research subject for an increasing number of oceanographers and, in general, for environmental researchers coming from the Mediterranean areas [3, 4, 5], other European Seas [6] and Oceans [7, 8]. Data collected during repeated surveys (seasonally) in the same beach stretch, over several years, allow calculating debris accumulation rates and flow intensities. Application of current models gives additional information on debris dispersal and origin, but we shouldn't forget that, generally, relevance of acquired data is determined by the accuracy and standardization of the procedure. In this context, students have previously searched for literature sources and summarized the most important issues, among these: few data that are often collected during small ranges of time and usually a low number of available researchers for carrying out such a time-consuming survey in the field. In a initial part of the project, several trial surveys have been performed on different beaches in La Spezia province, in order to understand how to elaborate possible strategies to speed up and standardize the procedure. Developing an application for Android system (downloadable on any compatible mobile device such as smartphones, tablets, etc.) has been considered as a good solution since it is easy to spread and distribute among non-technical end-users. This app will help final users to carry out a standard monitoring procedure, in a quick way. All data (photographs, site characteristics, kind of debris, waypoints) will be properly captured and semi-automatically registered on a separate electronic spreadsheet. SeaCleaner app can be provided to environmental associations, marine parks, volunteers and its easy approach will allow us to obtain standardized and safe data, upcoming from an increasing number of points, which will be acquired in situ and then saved on a dedicated remote database. Citizen participation in scientific programs, already experienced in the field of astronomy [9] has been effective also in other scientific fields, both from the scientific and social point of view, since it brings people closer to science and fills the gap between who produces science and technology and who benefits from it ("citizen science") [10, 11]. SeaCleaner is ready to be used during the school year 2013/2014 to test its validity and usefulness. Further internships and collaborations between ISMAR and educational institutions, will allow us by the end of April 2014 to show the first dataset processed in this experimental phase. It is worth to highlight the active involvement of young people in this project and its effectiveness as a tool for raising awareness on environmental issues and orientating young people towards scientific careers. The project has been awarded in November 2013 as the best regional work-related learning project. [1] DLTM: Distretto Ligure per le tecnologie Marine: www.dltm.it. [2] Italian Law on general rules for work-related learning: D.Lgs 15/04/2005 n. 77 sulla "Definizione delle norme generali relative all'alternanza scuola-lavoro, a norma dell'articolo 4 della legge 28 marzo 2003, n. 53". [3] UNEP/MAP/MED POL (2004). Guidelines on Management of coastal litter for the Mediterranean region (MED POL). MAP Technical Reports Series No.148. UNEP/MAP, Athens. [4 ] Henry, M. (2010). Pollution du milieu marin par les déchets solides : état des connaissances. Perspectives d'implication de l'Ifremer en réponse au défi de la Directive Cadre Stratégie Marine et du Grenelle de la Mer. RST.DOP/LER-PAC/10-09, Direction Prospective et Stratégie Scientifique, Ifremer. [5] European project MARLISCO (2014) www.marlisco.eu [6] OSPAR (2009). Marine litter in the North-East Atlantic Region: Assessment and priorities for response. London, United Kingdom, 127 pp. [7] Moore, C.J. (2008). Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: A rapidly increasing, long-term threat. Environmental Research, 108 (2): 131-139. [8] Derraik, J.B.G. (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44 (9): 842-852. [9] Raddick, M.J., Bracey, G., Gay P. L., Lintott, C.J., Murray, P., Schawinski, K., Szalay, A., Vandenberg, J. (2010). Galaxy zoo: Exploring the Motivation of Citizen Science Volunteers. Astronomy Educational Review, 9: 18 pages. [10] Newman, G., Wiggins, A., Crall, A., Graham, E., Newman, S., Crowston, K. (2012). The future of citizen science: emerging technologies and shifting paradigms. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, 10 (6): 298-304. [11] www.expeditionmed.eu/fr/

  9. Properties of Waste from Coal Gasification in Entrained Flow Reactors in the Aspect of Their Use in Mining Technology / Właściwości odpadów ze zgazowania węgla w reaktorach dyspersyjnych w aspekcie ich wykorzystania w technologiach górniczych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomykała, Radosław

    2013-06-01

    Most of the coal gasification plants based of one of the three main types of reactors: fixed bed, fluidized bed or entrained flow. In recent years, the last ones, which works as "slagging" reactors (due to the form of generated waste), are very popular among commercial installations. The article discusses the characteristics of the waste from coal gasification in entrained flow reactors, obtained from three foreign installations. The studies was conducted in terms of the possibilities of use these wastes in mining technologies, characteristic for Polish underground coal mines. The results were compared with the requirements of Polish Standards for the materials used in hydraulic backfill as well as suspension technology: solidification backfill and mixtures for gob caulking. Większość przemysłowych instalacji zgazowania węgla pracuje w oparciu o jeden z trzech głównych typów reaktorów: ze złożem stałym, dyspersyjny lub fluidalny. W zależności od rodzaju reaktora oraz szczegółowych rozwiązań instalacji, powstające uboczne produkty zgazowania mogą mieć różną postać. Zależy ona w dużej mierze od stosunku temperatury pracy reaktora do temperatury topnienia części mineralnych zawartych w paliwie, czyli do temperatury mięknienia i topnienia popiołu. W ostatnich latach bardzo dużą popularność wśród instalacji komercyjnych zdobywają reaktory dyspersyjne "żużlujące". W takich instalacjach żużel jest wychwytywany i studzony po wypłynięciu z reaktora. W niektórych przypadkach oprócz żużla powstaje jeszcze popiół lotny, wychwytywany w systemach odprowadzania spalin. Może być on pozyskiwany oddzielnie lub też zawracany do komory reaktora, gdzie ulega stopieniu. Wszystkie z analizowanych odpadów - trzy żużle oraz popiół pochodzą właśnie z tego typu instalacji. Tylko z jednej z nich pozyskano zarówno żużel jak i popiół, z pozostałych dwóch jedynie żużel. Odpady te powstały, jako uboczny produkt zgazowania węgla lub węgla z dodatkami: bitumin (żużel S1), czy biomasy (popiół A2, żużel S2). W polskim górnictwie podziemnym wyróżnić można kilka technologii podsadzkowych, w których do transportu materiału wykorzystywana jest woda. Tradycyjnie oraz ze względów historycznych, terminem "podsadzka hydrauliczna" określa się tę, która spełnia wymagania normy PN-93/G-11010. Do najważniejszych cech takiej podsadzki hydraulicznej zaliczyć należy wypełnienia uprzednio wydzielonej pustki poeksploatacyjnej, materiałem o jak najmniejszej ściśliwości oraz o jak największej wodoprzepuszczalności. Materiał taki, po odprowadzeniu wody ma stanowić mechaniczna podporę stropu, a proces podsadzania jest ściśle powiązany z procesem eksploatacji, jako sposób likwidacji zrobów. Najczęściej stosowanymi materiałami są piasek podsadzkowy oraz odpady górnicze lub hutnicze (Lisowski, 1997). Od ponad dwudziestu lat, w polskim górnictwie węgla kamiennego obecna jest również inna technologia podsadzkowa, w której do transportu materiałów wykorzystywana jest woda. W tym przypadku części stałe to materiały drobnoziarniste, najczęściej popioły różnych typów, które po wymieszaniu z wodą tworzą zawiesinę (stąd termin "zawiesiny popiołowo-wodne"). Polska norma PN-G-11011:1998 wyróżnia dwie odmiany takich zawiesin i definiuje je, jako "podsadzkę zestalaną" oraz "mieszaninę do doszczelniania zrobów". Podstawową ideą przyświecającą stosowaniu zawiesin drobnoziarnistych w technologiach górniczych była początkowo troska o zagospodarowaniu odpadów energetycznych, a następnie górniczych (Mazurkiewicz i in., 1998; Piotrowski i in., 2006; Piotrowski, 2010; Plewa i Mysłek, 2000; Plewa i Sobota, 2002). Obecnie technologia zawiesinowa na stałe zagościła w kopalniach węgla kamiennego stając się m.in. nieodzownym środkiem profilaktyki pożarowej i metanowej (Dziurzyński i Pomykała, 2006; Palarski, 2004; Pomykała, 2006). W artykule przedstawiono analizę możliwości wykorzystania ubocznych produktów zgazowania, jako materiałów do podsadzki hydrauliczne (wg normy PN-93/G-11010), podsadzki zestalanej oraz mieszaniny do doszczelniania zrobów (wg normy PN-G-11011:1998) - technologii stosowanych w polskim górnictwie węgla kamiennego. Podstawowe badania ubocznych produktów zgazowania obejmowały takie właściwości jak gęstość, wilgotność, skład ziarnowy, wymywalność zanieczyszczeń chemicznych oraz zawartość radionuklidów. Wybrane właściwości fizyczne ubocznych produktów zgazowania oraz ich oznaczenie zestawiono w tabeli 1. Składy ziarnowe żużli ze zgazowania, analizowanych pod kątem zastosowania w podsadzce hydraulicznej przedstawiono na rys. 1, a materiałów dla technologii zawiesinowej, czyli popiołu lotnego A2 oraz zmielonych żużli oznaczonych, jako S1m, S2m oraz S3m - na rys. 2. Żużle ze zgazowania zawierają nie więcej niż 6% ziaren mniejszych niż 0,1 mm, co odpowiada wymaganiom dla materiałów podsadzkowych I klasy. Analiza wymywalności zanieczyszczeń chemicznych wykazała przekroczenia wymagań jednej lub obu przywołanych norm w zakresie pH i/lub niklu dla próbek żużli S1 i S2 oraz popiołu A2 (tab. 2). Zwraca uwagę bardzo niska wartość pH oraz bardzo wysoka zawartość niklu dla żużla S1. Jest to rzecz nietypowa dla krajowych odpadów energetycznych powstających ze spalania węgla kamiennego. W zakresie zawartości radionuklidów wszystkie materiały spełniają nie tylko wymagania norm podsadzkowych, ale również wymagania stawiane materiałom budowlanym (tab. 3). Ściśliwość żużli ze zgazowania kształtuje się na poziomie 11÷14%, co pozwala zakwalifikować je do materiałów podsadzkowych III klasy. Aby uzyskać materiał wyższej klasy, konieczne jest zmieszanie żużli z piaskiem podsadzkowych. W zakresie wodoprzepuszczalności wszystkie żużle kwalifikują się, jako materiał podsadzkowy klasy I (rys. 5, tab. 4). W normie PN-G-11011:1998 określone zostały wymagania podsadzki zestalanej oraz dla mieszaniny do doszczelniania zrobów. (tab. 5), tylko dla części badań wskazane są konkretne wymagania ilościowe. Wyniki badań wymywalność zanieczyszczeń chemicznych oraz zawartości radionuklidów zostały omówione wcześniej. Właściwości zawiesin w stanie płynnym zestawiono w tabeli 6. oraz na rys. 7, 8 i 9., a parametry reologiczne wg modelu Binghama na rys. 10÷13. Wymagania w zakresie właściwości zestalonych zawiesin tj. wytrzymałości na jednoosiowe ściskanie oraz rozmakalności zostały ściśle określone dla podsadzki zestalanej jak i mieszaniny do doszczelniania zrobów (tab. 5). Zawiesiny przygotowane na bazie odpadów ze zgazowania węgla nie wykazują właściwości wiążących. Zarówno ze względu na wytrzymałość na jednoosiowe ściskanie (rys. 14) jak i rozmakalność (rys. 15) kwalifikują się jedynie, jako mieszaniny do doszczelniania zrobów. Przeprowadzone badania wstępnie potwierdziły możliwość zastosowania ubocznych produktów zgazowania pochodzących z instalacji bazujących na reaktorach dyspersyjnych, w technologiach górniczych charakterystycznych dla polskiego górnictwa podziemnego. Dla ostatecznego potwierdzenia konieczne są oczywiście badania dokładnie tych odpadów, które miałyby być stosowane w konkretnych kopalniach. Przyszłe wykorzystanie zastosowania odpadów z procesu zgazowania węgla, jako materiałów podsadzkowych zależy od wielu czynników, do których zaliczyć należą: dalszy rozwój technologii podsadzki hydraulicznej w górnictwie polskim, a także właściwości i dostępność tego typu materiałów powstałych ze zgazowania polskich węgli i/oraz w instalacjach na terenie Polski.