Note: This page contains sample records for the topic amar matrimonio normas from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Matrimonios prematuros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este número del Innocenti Digest se ocupa de los matrimonios prematuros, es decir de los matrimonios de niños y jóvenes menores de 18 años, desde un punto de vista que se basa en el respeto de los derechos humanos. Las investigaciones llevadas a cabo hasta el momento han tendido a concentrarse solamente en ciertos puntos específicos del impacto de los

2001-01-01

2

Wake Up, It Is 2013! Commentary on Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper's Article  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and presents a critique of the research that went into the theory. Topics discussed include the allegation that the bilinguals and second language learners in the original article are primarily students in an academic setting, Amaral

Muysken, Pieter

2014-01-01

3

New substitute name for the genus Dayus Steiner & Amaral, 1999 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Histriobdellidae).  

PubMed

The annelid genus Dayus was established by Steiner and Amaral (1999) for a single species Stratiodrilus cirolanae Führ, 1971 from South Africa. Nevertheless the genus name Dayus is preoccupied and was initially introduced by Mahmood (1967) for a typhlocybine leafhopper genus with Dayus elongatus Mahmood, 1967 as the type species from Singapore (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Thus, the genus Dayus Steiner & Amaral, 1999 is a junior homonym of the genus Dayus Mahmood, 1967. According to Article 60 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999), I propose the new replacement name Steineridrilus nom. nov. for Dayus Steiner & Amaral, 1999. The resulting nomenclatural changes are summarized below. PMID:24871021

Zhang, Yu-Tao

2014-01-01

4

Omnivorous Representation Might Lead to Indigestion: Commentary on Amaral and Roeper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers commentary that the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper (A&R) in the present issue lacks elaboration of the psychological mechanisms at work in second language acquisition. Topics discussed include optionality in a speaker's grammar and the rules of verb position in…

Slabakova, Roumyana

2014-01-01

5

Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

2014-01-01

6

E-Interview: Norma Fox Mazer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an interview with Norma Fox Mazer, a writer of children's books. Describes how she creates a story. Discusses how writing a story, whether a short story or a novel, is an intricate balance of character, event, and voice. (SG)

Angel, Ann

2001-01-01

7

Teaching Labor Relations with "Norma Rae"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate business students in North America are often unfamiliar with the labor organizing process and frequently fail to identify with the reasons why workers join unions. This article suggests a discussion exercise based on the 1979 film, "Norma Rae," by 20th Century Fox, as an effective tool for familiarizing students with fundamental…

Taylor, Vicki Fairbanks; Provitera, Michael J.

2011-01-01

8

NuSTAR Observations of the Norma Arm Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the Galactic regions being surveyed by NuSTAR covers a 2 degree x 0.8 degree region of the Norma Arm that was observed with Chandra in 2011. This region was selected because its recent star formation and large number of OB associations make it a good place to search for and study X-ray sources associated with massive stars, such as high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and colliding wind binaries (CWBs). For the vast majority of sources in this region, the Chandra data are insufficient for constraining their individual spectral parameters and identifying their physical nature, but combining NuSTAR and Chandra data provides strong constraints on their X-ray properties. Roughly a third of the area surveyed by Chandra has been observed with NuSTAR to date, and we present preliminary results identifying the hard X-ray sources observed by both telescopes. We have obtained near-infrared spectra of the counterparts of some of these X-ray sources, which also facilitate their identifications. Although our analysis is ongoing, a significant fraction of sources appear to be intermediate polars, some are likely CWBs and HMXBs, and one may be a black hole binary.

Fornasini, Francesca; Tomsick, John; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman; Rahoui, Farid; Bauer, Franz E.; Corral-Santana, Jesus; Stern, Daniel

2014-08-01

9

14. Historic American Buildings Survey Norma L. McAfee Photographer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Historic American Buildings Survey Norma L. McAfee - Photographer National Park Service San Francisco, California Photo Taken: June 22, 1940 GENERAL VIEW - Custom House, Custom House Plaza, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

10

13. Historic American Buildings Survey Norma L. McAfee Photographer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Historic American Buildings Survey Norma L. McAfee - Photographer National Park Service San Francisco, California Photo Taken: June 22, 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Custom House, Custom House Plaza, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

11

15. Historic American Buildings Survey Norma L. McAfee Photographer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Historic American Buildings Survey Norma L. McAfee - Photographer National Park Service San Francisco, California Photo Taken: June 22, 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Custom House, Custom House Plaza, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

12

DESEMPEÑO DE LAS ORGANIZACIONES MEXICANAS CERTIFICADAS EN LA NORMA ISO 9001:2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigación describe la situación de la certificación en México en la norma ISO 9001:2000. Luego de una revisión del estado del arte, se valida un modelo que relaciona cuatro variables independientes: Evaluación de la estrategia, Motivación, Proceso de Implantación y Control estratégico y su impacto en el variable dependiente desempeño de la organización. La investigación fue aplicada en 96

VÍCTOR MANUEL NAVA CARBALLIDO; LUÍS ARTURO RIVAS TOVAR

2008-01-01

13

Creating Imaginative Worlds: Unique Details and Structure in Norma Fox Mazer's Young Adult Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how writer Norma Fox Mazer has helped many readers make the leap between reality and imagination simply in the way she handles details in the lives of her characters. Explores the ideas of communicating with detail, experimenting with structure, and playing with time in crucial scenes. (SG)

Angel, Ann

2001-01-01

14

Using Norma Fox Mazer's "Out of Control" To Reach Kids Where They Hide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how one teacher uses Norma Fox Mazer's "Out of Control" to explore leaders and followers as the main topic of discussion in a sophomore class. Describes how students keep a reader's journal with quotations from the text and personal responses. (SG)

Bott, C J

2001-01-01

15

NORMA-Gene: A simple and robust method for qPCR normalization based on target gene data  

PubMed Central

Background Normalization of target gene expression, measured by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), is a requirement for reducing experimental bias and thereby improving data quality. The currently used normalization approach is based on using one or more reference genes. Yet, this approach extends the experimental work load and suffers from assumptions that may be difficult to meet and to validate. Results We developed a data driven normalization algorithm (NORMA-Gene). An analysis of the performance of NORMA-Gene compared to reference gene normalization on artificially generated data-sets showed that the NORMA-Gene normalization yielded more precise results under a large range of parameters tested. Furthermore, when tested on three very different real qPCR data-sets NORMA-Gene was shown to be best at reducing variance due to experimental bias in all three data-sets compared to normalization based on the use of reference gene(s). Conclusions Here we present the NORMA-Gene algorithm that is applicable to all biological and biomedical qPCR studies, especially those that are based on a limited number of assayed genes. The method is based on a data-driven normalization and is useful for as little as five target genes comprising the data-set. NORMA-Gene does not require the identification and validation of reference genes allowing researchers to focus their efforts on studying target genes of biological relevance.

2011-01-01

16

Auditoría al sistema de gestión ambiental de una cementera para determinar los porcentajes de adecuación a la norma venezolana covenin - iso 14001:2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo consiste en la combinación de técnicas de evaluación propias de estudios ambientales con procedimientos de auditoría tradicionales, con el objetivo de auditar el Sistema de Gestión Ambiental (SGA) de una empresa cementera venezolana llamada Cementos Carora C. A. siguiendo los lineamientos de la norma venezolana COVENIN ISO 14001:2005 para determinar los porcentajes de adecuación a la norma.

Alexis Colmenárez; Anoushka Colménarez

2008-01-01

17

Avaliação das normas de biossegurança nas clínicas odonto- lógicas da UFPE Evaluation of biosecutrity norms in UFPE dental clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key-words O objetivo deste trabalho foi observar o cumprimento das normas de biossegurança e os cuidados com os riscos ocupacionais pelos alunos que atenderam nas clínicas de Odontologia Preventiva, Odontopediatria, Dentística, Endodontia e nos procedimentos cirúrgicos nas clínicas de Periodontia e Cirurgia, da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Este trabalho consistiu em um estudo observacional, no qual

Márcia Maria; Vendiciano Barbosa Vasconcelos; Catarina da Mot; Vasconcelos Brasi; Cláudia Cristina; Brainer de Oliveira Mot; Rabelo de Carvalho

18

Investigating CXOU J163802.6-471358: A New Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Norma Region?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first analysis of the extended source CXOU J163802.6-471358, which was discovered serendipitously during the Chandra X-ray survey of the Norma region of the Galactic spiral arms. The X-ray source exhibits a cometary appearance with a point source and an extended tail region. The complete source spectrum is fitted well with an absorbed power law model and jointly fitting the Chandra spectrum of the full source with one obtained from an archived XMM-Newton observation results in best fit parameters N H =1.5^{+0.7}_{-0.5}\\times 10^{23}\\, cm{^{-2}} and \\Gamma =1.1^{+0.7}_{-0.6} (90% confidence uncertainties). The unabsorbed luminosity of the full source is then L_X\\sim 4.8\\times 10^{33}d_{10}^2 erg s-1 with d 10 = d/10 kpc, where a distance of 10 kpc is a lower bound inferred from the large column density. The radio counterpart found for the source using data from the Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey epoch-2 shows an elongated tail offset from the X-ray emission. No infrared counterpart was found. The results are consistent with the source being a previously unknown pulsar driving a bow shock through the ambient medium.

Jakobsen, Simone J.; Tomsick, John A.; Watson, Darach; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

2014-06-01

19

Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma Arm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-ray telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 degrees-squared of sky area in the 3--79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw exposure time of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630-47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433-473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3--79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5-473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9-474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1-473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. We close by discussing some challenges inherent in imaging crowded regions with NuSTAR, and how the lessons learned in this pilot study can help scientists who wish to use NuSTAR to observe their favorite targets.

Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca; Barrière, Nicolas M; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, William

2014-08-01

20

The Norma cluster (ACO 3627) - III. The distance and peculiar velocity via the near-infrared Ks-band Fundamental Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While Norma (ACO 3627) is the richest cluster in the Great Attractor (GA) region, its role in the local dynamics is poorly understood. The Norma cluster has a mean redshift (zCMB) of 0.0165 and has been proposed as the `core' of the GA. We have used the Ks-band Fundamental Plane (FP) to measure Norma cluster's distance with respect to the Coma cluster. We report FP photometry parameters (effective radii and surface brightnesses), derived from ESO New Technology Telescope Son of ISAAC images, and velocity dispersions, from Anglo-Australian Telescope 2dF spectroscopy, for 31 early-type galaxies in the cluster. For the Coma cluster we use Two Micron All Sky Survey images and Sloan Digital Sky Survey velocity dispersion measurements for 121 early-type galaxies to generate the calibrating FP data set. For the combined Norma-Coma sample we measure FP coefficients of a = 1.465 ± 0.059 and b = 0.326 ± 0.020. We find an rms scatter, in log ?, of ˜0.08 dex which corresponds to a distance uncertainty of ˜28 per cent per galaxy. The zero-point offset between Norma's and Coma's FPs is 0.154 ± 0.014 dex. Assuming that the Coma cluster is at rest with respect to the cosmic microwave background frame and zCMB(Coma) = 0.0240, we derive a distance to the Norma cluster of 5026 ± 160 km s-1, and the derived peculiar velocity is -72 ± 170 km s-1, i.e. consistent with zero. This is lower than previously reported positive peculiar velocities for clusters/groups/galaxies in the GA region and hence the Norma cluster may indeed represent the GA's `core'.

Mutabazi, T.; Blyth, S. L.; Woudt, P. A.; Lucey, J. R.; Jarrett, T. H.; Bilicki, M.; Schröder, A. C.; Moore, S. A. W.

2014-02-01

21

NormaCurve: A SuperCurve-Based Method That Simultaneously Quantifies and Normalizes Reverse Phase Protein Array Data  

PubMed Central

Motivation Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) is a powerful dot-blot technology that allows studying protein expression levels as well as post-translational modifications in a large number of samples simultaneously. Yet, correct interpretation of RPPA data has remained a major challenge for its broad-scale application and its translation into clinical research. Satisfying quantification tools are available to assess a relative protein expression level from a serial dilution curve. However, appropriate tools allowing the normalization of the data for external sources of variation are currently missing. Results Here we propose a new method, called NormaCurve, that allows simultaneous quantification and normalization of RPPA data. For this, we modified the quantification method SuperCurve in order to include normalization for (i) background fluorescence, (ii) variation in the total amount of spotted protein and (iii) spatial bias on the arrays. Using a spike-in design with a purified protein, we test the capacity of different models to properly estimate normalized relative expression levels. The best performing model, NormaCurve, takes into account a negative control array without primary antibody, an array stained with a total protein stain and spatial covariates. We show that this normalization is reproducible and we discuss the number of serial dilutions and the number of replicates that are required to obtain robust data. We thus provide a ready-to-use method for reliable and reproducible normalization of RPPA data, which should facilitate the interpretation and the development of this promising technology. Availability The raw data, the scripts and the NormaCurve package are available at the following web site: http://microarrays.curie.fr.

Troncale, Sylvie; Barbet, Aurelie; Coulibaly, Lamine; Henry, Emilie; He, Beilei; Barillot, Emmanuel; Dubois, Thierry; Hupe, Philippe; de Koning, Leanne

2012-01-01

22

Entrevista a Leandro Cañibano, presidente de la Asociación Española de Contabilidad y Administración de Empresas, sobre las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrevista a Leandro Cañibano, presidente de la Asociación Española de Contabilidad y Administración de Empresas, sobre las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF). Interview to Leandro Cañibano, president of the Spanish Accounting Association of Business Administration, on the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

Leandro Cañibano

2010-01-01

23

Normas Chilenas para el MACI: Una Integración de Criterios Categoriales y Dimensionales1 Chilean Norms for MACI: An Integration of Categorical and Dimensional Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Este estudio desarrolló normas chilenas para el Inventario Clínico para Adolescentes de Millon (MACI) utilizando una muestra de baremación diferenciada por sexo y dicotomizada en dos grupos, no-consultantes (200 hombres y 206 mujeres) y consultantes (212 hombres y 189 mujeres), que respondió el MACI y el MMPI-A. Con los datos MACI se desarrolló un conjunto de análisis estadísticos de

Eugenia V. Vinet

2008-01-01

24

CASE REPORT Postoperative Use of the NormaTec Pneumatic Compression Device in Vascular Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Arteriovenous malformations have a wide range of clinical presentations and an unfortunately unpredictable response to both nonsurgical and surgical intervention. The authors report on the surgical treatment of a 19-year-old man with a complex lower extremity arteriovenous malformation, previously unsuccessfully treated with numerous local sclerotherapy and interventional radiology embolization procedures leading to massive tissue necrosis and deep infection. The patient was definitively treated with wide excision of the necrotic tissue, coils, and arteriovenous malformation, but with preservation of the tibial nerve and vascular supply to the foot. Significant postoperative complications were prevented with the use of a novel dynamic compression device employing peristaltic pulse pneumatic compression.

Talbot, Simon G.; Kerstein, David; Jacobs, Laura F.; Upton, Joseph

2012-01-01

25

Mandibular shape analysis in fossil hominins: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.  

PubMed

Biological shape can be defined as the boundary of a form in 2-space (R(2)). An earlier study (Lestrel et al., 2010, HOMO-J. Comp. Hum. Biol.) of the cranial vault found that there were statistically significant differences between each of the three groups: H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and H. neanderthalensis compared with H. sapiens. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference among the first three groups. These results suggest that these three groups may have formed single evolving lineage while H. sapiens represents a separate evolutionary development. The purpose of the current research was to discern if the mandible reflected a similar pattern as the cranial vault data. This study used lateral jpeg images of the mandible. Five fossil samples were used: A. robustus (n=7), H. erectus (n=12), H. heidelbergensis (n=4), H. neanderthalensis (n=22) and H. sapiens (n=61). Each mandible image was pre-processed with Photoshop Elements. Each image was then submitted to a specially written routine that digitized the 84 points along the mandible boundary. Each mandible was fitted with elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs). Procrustes superimposition was imposed to insure minimum shape differences. The mandible results largely mirrored the earlier cranial vault study with one exception. Statistically significant results were obtained for the mandible between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples in contrast to the earlier cranial vault data. F-tests disclosed that the statistical significance was limited to the anterior symphysis of the mandible. This mosaic pattern may be explained by the reduction in prognathism with the concomitant if rudimentary development of the chin as seen in H. neanderthalensis compared to H. erectus. PMID:23769600

Lestrel, P E; Wolfe, C A; Bodt, A

2013-08-01

26

Estudio comparativo de la norma sismorresistente venezolana actual con códigos sísmicos de otros países  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the analysis of the most outstanding parameters in seismic design of the Venezuelan norm, in comparison to the seismic codes of the United States, Mexico, Japan and Chile. In the estimate of the seismic actions it was obtained that the basal cut calculated through the Japanese code was bigger in 72 %, regarding the one calculated according

Freddy J. Lanza; Scarlet H. Puentes; Fernando Villalobos

2003-01-01

27

La Ética: Fundamento en la Adopción de las Normas Internacionales de Contabilidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accounting crosses for a historical moment marked by new realities in the international context. The adoption of the International Norms of Accounting (NICs), it has charged force before the events in the world financial system and the well-known financial scandals that put an end to corporate companies of world fame. A common countable language is claimed that offers guarantees

Aura Elena Peña; María Carolina Bastidas

28

Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine in bone marrow transplantation and other clinical applications (A randomised double-blind study) Schloerb P and Amare M. JPEN 1993: 17: 407-413.  

PubMed

29 patients with either haematological or solid tumours, and receiving allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplants (BMT) were included in a double-blind, randomised study of glutamine-free versus glutamine-supplemented TPN. Patients were given isocaloric, isonitrogenous TPN after BMT until they consumed 50% of their required diet orally. Length of hospital stay was significantly (5.8 days) less in patients receiving TPN/GLN. Incidence of positive bacterial cultures, clinical infections and mortality did not differ significantly between the two groups. PMID:16843361

Jebb, S A

1994-02-01

29

Gestión de la calidad en una unidad de cuidados intensivos: implementación de la norma ISO 9001:2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quality Management Systems make it possible to prioritize actions to maintain the safety and efficacy of health technologies. The Intensive Care Unit of our hospital has implemented a quality management plan, which has obtained accreditation as “Service Certificate that manages its activities according to UNE-EN ISO 9001:2008” standard. With the application of quality management system, it has been possible

R. Lorenzo Torrent; M. Sánchez Palacios; L. Santana Cabrera; J. L. Cobian Martinez; C. García del Rosario

2010-01-01

30

El Escritor y las Normas del Canon Literario (The Writer and the Norms of the Literary Canon).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper speculates about whether a literary canon exists in contemporary Latin American literature, particularly in the prose genre. The paper points to Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Mario Vargas Llosa as the three authors who might form this traditional and liberal canon with their works "La Muerte de Artemio Cruz" (Fuentes),…

Policarpo, Alcibiades

31

NORMA-Gene: A simple and robust method for qPCR normalization based on target gene data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Normalization of target gene expression, measured by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), is a requirement for reducing experimental\\u000a bias and thereby improving data quality. The currently used normalization approach is based on using one or more reference\\u000a genes. Yet, this approach extends the experimental work load and suffers from assumptions that may be difficult to meet and\\u000a to validate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We developed

Lars-Henrik Heckmann; Peter B Sørensen; Paul Henning Krogh; Jesper G Sørensen

2011-01-01

32

Standard 'Principle guides of radioprotection': introduced concepts and future forecasting. (Norma 'Diretrizes basicas de Radioprotecao': Conceitos introduzidos e perspectivas futuras).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main topics introduced by the new CNEN standard NE 3.01 - Basic Directrix of Radioprotection directly associated to the field work in industrial radiography are presented. It's showed a practical example which evidences the need of information exchang...

R. Dagnino

1989-01-01

33

Implications for Child Bilingual Acquisition, Optionality and Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amaral & Roeper's Multiple Grammars (MG) proposal offers an appealingly simple way of thinking about the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. This article presents a commentary on the MG language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue, focusing on the theory's implications for child…

Serratrice, Ludovica

2014-01-01

34

Characterization of native and oxidized starches of two varieties of Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza, B.) from two production areas of Paraná state, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two commercial varieties of Peruvian carrot ('Amare la de Carandaí' and 'Senador Amaral') were processe d into flour, starch and bagasse and chemically evaluated. The starch was extracted, modified with H 2O2 and characterized by the physicochemical methods. By us ing the methylene blue dyeing, the granules of the modified starches showed intense blue color. The carboxyl co ntent, the

Luciana Shizue Matsuguma; Luiz Gustavo Lacerda; Egon Schnitzler; Marco Aurélio da Silva Carvalho Filho; Célia Maria Landi Franco; Ivo Mottin Demiate

2009-01-01

35

Three-dimensional Hybrid Continuum-Atomistic Simulations for Multiscale Hydrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an adaptive mesh and algorithmic refinement (AMAR) scheme for modeling multi-scale hydrodynamics. The AMAR approach extends standard conservative adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithms by providing a robust flux-based method for coupling an atomistic fluid representation to a continuum model. The atomistic model is applied locally in regions where the continuum description is invalid or inaccurate, such as near

S Wijesinghe; R. D. Hornung; A. L. Garcia; N. G. Hadjiconstantinou

2004-01-01

36

What Is a Rule of Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue. It argues that more precise definitions are needed for the terms "rule," "simple," and "productive." Topics discussed include Amaral and Roeper's verb second (V2) rule,…

Lardiere, Donna

2014-01-01

37

Aplicação da norma astm A923-Prática a para identificação de fases intermetálicas em junta soldada de aço inoxidável superduplex UNS 32750  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex and superduplex stainless steels present superior mechanical and corrosion properties than usual stainless steels. This superiority is based on chemical composition and in a balanced microstructure (approximately 50% of ferrite). During welding changes may occur in both, chemical composition and volume fraction of phases in the material, which may generate the presence of intermetallic phases and, as a consequence,

Sérgio Duarte Brandi; Lauro M. Y. Silveira; Daniel L. B. Vasconcellos

2010-01-01

38

Las normas de desempeno matematico desde el preescolar hasta el segundo grado (Mathematics Standards for Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 2). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recently published "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics." For the first time, these new standards include pre-kindergarten standards, while outlining the mathematics that children should learn as they progress through school. The standards present a broad view of what mathematics is and…

Richardson, Kathy

39

National Dam Safety Program. Echo Lake Dam (NJ00133), Rahway River Basin, Norma Higgin Brook, Union County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Echo Lake Dam is concrete gravity overflow structure approximately 20 feet high and 130 feet long. The structure ties in at both abutments wth concrete retaining walls. All exposed faces of the structure and retaining walls have been faced with cobble siz...

J. J. Williams

1981-01-01

40

Respeito às Normas e Crescimento Econômico: Como Promotores Públicos Garantem o Cumprimento das Leis e Promovem o Crescimento Econômico no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta pesquisa examina como os membros do Ministério Público (MP) brasileiro conseguem que empresas instaladas em território nacional cumpram com a legislação trabalhista e ambiental sem perder a competitividade. Nos casos analisados, promotores e procuradores percebem que os gargalos que dificultam o cumprimento da lei estão freqüentemente fora das empresas infratoras e de suas respectivas cadeias de valor, e que,

Salo Vinocur Coslovsky

2008-01-01

41

What Is a Science Notebook?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student science notebooks are advocated by researchers who believe that writing in science enhances student understanding of science content and process skills (Amaral et al. 2002; Campbell and Fulton, 2003; Klentschy and Molina-De La Torre 2004; Rivard a

Klentschy, Michael P.

2008-04-01

42

Vent fluid chemistry of the Rainbow hydrothermal system (36°N, MAR): Phase equilibria and in situ pH controls on subseafloor alteration processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rainbow hydrothermal field is located at 36°13.8?N–33°54.15?W at 2300m depth on the western flank of a non-volcanic ridge between the South AMAR and AMAR segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The hydrothermal field consists of 10–15 active chimneys that emit high-temperature (?365°C) fluid. In July 2008, vent fluids were sampled during cruise KNOX18RR, providing a rich dataset that extends in

W. E. Seyfried; Nicholas J. Pester; Kang Ding; Mikaella Rough

2011-01-01

43

Todo Alumno: Un Manual de Recursos de PEER sobre Educacion Basada en Normas y Alumnos con Discapacidades (Every Single Student: A PEER Resource Manual on Standards-Based Education and Students with Disabilities).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual in Spanish covers thirteen different topics relevant to the education of students with disabilities in the era of educational reform and standards-based education. Sections include: (1) "Raising Standards of Learning: Standards-Based Education and Students with Disabilities" (Janet R. Vohs, Julia K. Landau, and Carolyn Romano); (2)…

Landau, Julia K., Ed.; Romano, Carolyn A., Ed.; Vohs, Janet R., Ed.

44

Uma construção social: o anexo da norma brasileira de ergonomia para o trabalho dos operadores de telemarketing A social construction process of the attach ment to the Brazilian government ergonomic regulation for telemarketing operators' work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of call centers is increasing in the world and in Brazil. In our country it involves around 550 000 workers. This article narrates a collective action for better condi- tions for work of telemarketing operators in Brazil, based on diseased operators' and the Union's requests to the Brazilian Ministry of Labor and Employment (MTE). Those work- ers have

Claudio Cezar Peres; Airton Marinho-Silva; Elizabete Cavalcante-Fernandes; Lys Esther Rocha

45

Complexity and Conflicting Grammars in Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article by Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) presents many interesting ideas about first and second language acquisition as well as some experimental data convincingly illustrating the difference between production and comprehension. The article extends the concept of Universal Bilingualism proposed in Roeper (1999) to second…

Westergaard, Marit

2014-01-01

46

The Legal Impact of Bologna Implementation: Exploring Criticisms and Critiques of the Bologna Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews some of the critical assessments of the Bologna Process, notably by Neave and Amaral and Teichler. Other secondary material referred to includes Reinalda and Kulesza, Corbett and Greatrix. It is arguable that the Bologna Process is part of the generally over-bureaucratic and very costly context of European Union (EU)…

Palfreyman, David

2008-01-01

47

Why Minimal Multiple Rules Provide a Unique Window into UG and L2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article clarifies some ideas presented in this issue's keynote article (Amaral and Roeper, this issue) and discusses several issues raised by the contributors' comments on the nature of the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory. One of the key goals of the article is to unequivocally state that MG is not a parametric theory and that its…

Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

2014-01-01

48

Multiple Grammars and MOGUL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

Truscott, John

2014-01-01

49

Multiple Grammars: Old Wine in Old Bottles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) argue that all speakers -- regardless of whether monolingual or bilingual -- have multiple grammars in their mental language representations. They further claim that this simple assumption can explain many things: optionality in second language (L2) language behaviour, multilingualism, language…

Sorace, Antonella

2014-01-01

50

Learning English, Learning Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using science notebooks effectively in the classroom can encourage students who are learning English to keep up and keep interested. English language proficiency might head the list of content areas that schools can teach properly and effectively through science. Amaral, Garrison, and Klentschy (2002) reported that a successful inquiry-based…

Nelson, Virginia

2010-01-01

51

Improved Method for Accurate and Efficient Quantification of MRS Data with Use of Prior Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce AMARES (advancedmethod foraccurate,robust, andefficientspectral fitting), an improved method for accurately and efficiently estimating the parameters of noisy magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) signals in the time domain. As a reference time domain method we take VARPRO. VARPRO uses a simple Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm to minimize the variable projection functional. This variable projection functional is derived from a general functional, which

Leentje Vanhamme; Aad van den Boogaart; Sabine Van Huffel

1997-01-01

52

Science | Poster  

Cancer.gov

Amar Klar holds the novel in which his research on yeast genetics was accurately described by the author, who is not a scientist and has never even met Klar. In his right hand, Klar holds a photo of himself that was taken in 1979 at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he performed the research.

53

Immortal tale or nightmare? Dr Kotnis between art and exploitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the overlapping and contradictory transnational taste cultures addressed by the 1946 Indian film, Dr Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani, which became re?edited as an American exploitation film, Nightmare in Red China in the 1950s. A biopic featuring an Indian doctor who traveled to China as part of a medical team, the film offers a case study in multiple

Neepa Majumdar

2008-01-01

54

Contradictory Information in the Input as the Cause of Multiple Grammars: Predictions for Bilingual Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central claim in Amaral and Roeper's (this issue; henceforth A&R) keynote article is that everyone is multilingual, whether they speak one or more languages. In a nutshell, the idea is that each speaker has multiple grammars or "sub-sets of rules (or sub-grammars) that co-exist". Thus, rather than positing complex rules to…

Unsworth, Sharon

2014-01-01

55

Genetics Research Discovered in a Bestseller | Poster  

Cancer.gov

Amar Klar holds the novel in which his research on yeast genetics was accurately described by the author, who is not a scientist and has never even met Klar. In his right hand, Klar holds a photo of himself that was taken in 1979 at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he performed the research.

56

The Multiple Grammars Theory and the Nature of L2 Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and touches on other second language acquisition research. Topics discussed include the concept of second language (L2) optionality, a hypothesis regarding the acquisition of the…

Liceras, Juana M.

2014-01-01

57

LOS SISTEMAS INTEGRADOS DE GESTIÓN  

Microsoft Academic Search

La integración de los Sistemas de Gestión es un objetivo cada vez más generalizado de aquellas empresas que ya tienen implantada una norma de gestión de la calidad y el medio ambiente y que vienen gestionando la seguridad y salud a partir de la propia legislación y normas o modelos publicados. Por esta razón, se precisa de alguna norma ISO

Ana Maria Zayas Ramos; Gioivys Frometa Vázquez; Armenio Pérez Martínez

2008-01-01

58

Existence of solutions of a two-dimensional boundary value problem for a system of nonlinear equations arising in growing cell populations.  

PubMed

In the paper [A. Ben Amar, A. Jeribi, and B. Krichen, Fixed point theorems for block operator matrix and an application to a structured problem under boundary conditions of Rotenberg's model type, to appear in Math. Slovaca. (2014)], the existence of solutions of the two-dimensional boundary value problem (1) and (2) was discussed in the product Banach space L(p)×L(p) for p?(1, ?). Due to the lack of compactness on L1 spaces, the analysis did not cover the case p=1. The purpose of this work is to extend the results of Ben Amar et al. to the case p=1 by establishing new variants of fixed-point theorems for a 2×2 operator matrix, involving weakly compact operators. PMID:24303903

Jeribi, Aref; Krichen, Bilel; Mefteh, Bilel

2013-01-01

59

Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Bebes y "Toddlers": Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Infant/Toddler Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for caregivers working in center-based infant and toddler day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system. Part 2 explains…

Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

60

Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

61

Un gran proyecto en crisis: el estudio coordinado de la norma linguistica culta de las principales ciudades de Iberoamerica y de la peninsula Iberica (A Great Project in Crisis: the Coordinated Study of the Educated Linguistic Norm of the Principal Cities of Latin America and of the Iberian Peninsula)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The controversy holding back the project is what approach should be used in data collecting, controlled interviews or spontaneous recordings. The author favors the latter. To be scientific, the analysis of the data should be psycholinguistic rather than stylistic. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

Criado de Val, Manuel

1975-01-01

62

Effects of shadowing and steering in oblique incidence epitaxial growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently the fabrication of novel nanostructures by oblique deposition has drawn much attention due to their potential application in electronic and mechanical devices as well as the interesting morphologies observed in various experiments, such as nanorods, nanocolumns, and nanohelicoids. Unlike self-organization by misfit strain in heteroepitaxial growth, oblique deposition provides a relatively direct way of controlling surface structures of growing films. Recent experiments indicate that oblique incidence deposition can significantly alter materials properties such as surface roughness, magnetic anisotropy, optical transmittance, and porosity. After a review of these experimental results, we first show that a series of morphological transitions observed in oblique incidence Cu/Cu(100) growth near room temperature can be explained primarily by geometrical shadowing effects [1]. We then discuss the modifying effects of steering due to short-range and long-range attraction [2] as well as of substrate rotation on the surface morphology. Finally, we present the results of recent multiscale simulations of Cu/Cu(100) growth at lower temperature (T = 160 - 200 K) [3] as well as parallel accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations at very low temperature [4]. Based on these simulations we have been able to explain a number of recent intriguing but previously unexplained experimental results including the strong dependence of the surface morphology and roughening behavior on temperature as well as the development of compressive strain in metal thin film growth. [4pt] [1] Y. Shim and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 046103 (2007).[0pt] [2] Y. Shim, V. Borovikov and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. B 77, 235423 (2008).[0pt] [3] V. Borovikov, Y. Shim and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. B 76, 241401(R) (2007).[0pt] [4] Y. Shim, V. Borovikov, B. P. Uberuaga, A. F. Voter, and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116101 (2008).

Shim, Yunsic

2009-03-01

63

The History of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation according to lacustrine and marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

El gran impacte que El Niño ? Oscil·lació del Sud (ENSO) té en\\u000ala nostra societat industrialitzada ha esperonat la comunitat\\u000acientífica d'arreu a entendre quins són els mecanismes físics\\u000aque el controlen, així com clarificar quina ha estat la seva història.\\u000aEl registre sedimentari de sensors naturals, com els llacs o la\\u000amar, ha permès reconstruir la història de

Santiago Giralt; Ana Moreno Caballud; Roberto Bao; Alberto Sáez Ruiz; Blas L. Valero-Garcés; J. J. Pueyo; B. B. Klosowska; Armand Hernández; Penélope González-Sampériz; Conxita Taberner

2008-01-01

64

Statistical Physics Applied to Human Heartbeat Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major problem in biology is the quantitative analysis of nonstationary time series. A central question is whether such noisy fluctuating signals contain information useful for understanding underlying physiological mechanisms. This review talk summarizes recent work that analyzes physiological signals--principally lengthy time series of interbeat heart intervals--using a range of approaches adapted from modern statistical mechanics. These approaches include (i) detrended fluctuation analysis of long-range anticorrelations, (ii) wavelet analysis, and (iii) multifractal analysis. The work reported here was carried out primarily by L. A. Nunes Amaral, A. L. Goldberger, S. Havlin, P. Ch. Ivanov, C.-K. Peng, M. G. Rosenblum, and Z. Struzik; see [1-5] and references therein for details. [1] For an overview, see H. E. Stanley, L. A. N. Amaral, A. L. Goldberger, S. Havlin, P. Ch. Ivanov, and C.-K. Peng, ``Statistical Physics and Physiology: Monofractal and Multifractal Approaches,'' Physica A 270 (1999) 309. [2] C.-K. Peng, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, and A. L. Goldberger, ``Quantification of Scaling Exponents and Crossover Phenomena in Nonstationary Heartbeat Time Series,'' Chaos 5 (1995) 82. [3] L. A. N. Amaral, A. L. Goldberger, P. Ch. Ivanov, and H. E. Stanley, ``Scale-Independent Measures and Pathologic Cardiac Dynamics,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 (1998) 2388. [4] P. Ch. Ivanov, A. L. Goldberger, S. Havlin, C.-K. Peng, and H. E. Stanley, ``Wavelets in Medicine and Physiology,'' in Wavelets, edited by H. C. van den Berg (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999). [5] P. Ch. Ivanov, L. A. N. Amaral, A. L. Goldberger, S. Havlin, M. G. Rosenblum, Z. Struzik, and H. E. Stanley, ``Multifractality in Human Heartbeat Dynamics,'' Nature 399 (1999) 461.

Stanley, H. Eugene

2000-03-01

65

Teacher's Counselor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norma Kuder's teaching career was in jeopardy. Her personal life had been a mess for a long time, and it affected her teaching. Her principal believed that Norma didn't belong in teaching, and he warned her that her contract might not be renewed. Discusses how intelligent action by the school counselor, the principal, and fellow teachers saved a…

Noon, Elizabeth F.

1977-01-01

66

A Ética, a Bioética e os Procedimentos com Células-Tronco  

Microsoft Academic Search

105-109. RESUMO: O incessante avanço das pesquisas médicas, principalmente nas áreas da biologia molecular e da engenharia genética, iniciadas após a decifração do DNA recombinante, trouxe a necessidade de estabelecer normas para regulamentar as pesquisas que envolvem células-tronco. A legislação brasileira já dispõe de normas genéricas a respeito de patrimônio genético, reprodução assistida, transplante de órgãos e tecidos humanos, clonagem,

Eudes Quintino

68

Virtual Round Table on ten leading questions for network research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following discussion is an edited summary of the public debate started during the conference “Growing Networks and Graphs in Statistical Physics, Finance, Biology and Social Systems” held in Rome in September 2003. Drafts documents were circulated electronically among experts in the field and additions and follow-up to the original discussion have been included. Among the scientists participating to the discussion L.A.N. Amaral, A. Barrat, A.L. Barabasi, G. Caldarelli, P. De Los Rios, A. Erzan, B. Kahng, R. Mantegna, J.F.F. Mendes, R. Pastor-Satorras, A. Vespignani are acknowledged for their contributions and editing.

2004-03-01

69

Letter Written by Warren E. Ungberg to the Bryant College Service Club Dated March 2, 1944  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Transcription begins]\\u000aMar 2, 1944\\u000aBryant Service Club Bryant College\\u000aDear Friends,\\u000aThank you for your letter of Dec 8th. It has been chasing me over a good portion of New Guinea I guess thus the delay. As yet your xmas package has not arrived. I suspect that it too is having difficulty finding me.\\u000aAt present I’m at an

Warren E. Ungberg

1944-01-01

70

English Language Development and the Science-Literacy Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this chapter is to provide classroom teachers with a summary of English language development (ELD) strategies used by one region in the United States. The integration of these strategies in science instruction has led to increased levels of vocabulary development by English language learners and their increased achievement in science (Amaral, Garrison, and Klentschy 2002). Many of the strategies, designed to help English language learners acquire standards-based science content, can be integrated across the curriculum. All of the strategies have been used by classroom teachers in the Vall� Imperial Project in Science in Imperial County, California, for more than a decade.

Weiss, Iris

2006-01-01

71

Sublattice parallel replica dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exascale computing presents a challenge for the scientific community as new algorithms must be developed to take full advantage of the new computing paradigm. Atomistic simulation methods that offer full fidelity to the underlying potential, i.e., molecular dynamics (MD) and parallel replica dynamics, fail to use the whole machine speedup, leaving a region in time and sample size space that is unattainable with current algorithms. In this paper, we present an extension of the parallel replica dynamics algorithm [A. F. Voter, Phys. Rev. B 57, R13985 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevB.57.R13985] by combining it with the synchronous sublattice approach of Shim and Amar [Y. Shim and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125432 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevB.71.125432], thereby exploiting event locality to improve the algorithm scalability. This algorithm is based on a domain decomposition in which events happen independently in different regions in the sample. We develop an analytical expression for the speedup given by this sublattice parallel replica dynamics algorithm and compare it with parallel MD and traditional parallel replica dynamics. We demonstrate how this algorithm, which introduces a slight additional approximation of event locality, enables the study of physical systems unreachable with traditional methodologies and promises to better utilize the resources of current high performance and future exascale computers.

Martínez, Enrique; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Voter, Arthur F.

2014-06-01

72

Reaching extended length-scales with accelerated dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) has been quite successful in extending the time-scales for non-equilibrium simulations of small systems, the computational time increases rapidly with system size. One possible solution to this problem, which we refer to as parTAD^1 is to use spatial decomposition combined with our previously developed semi-rigorous synchronous sublattice algorithm^2. However, while such an approach leads to significantly better scaling as a function of system-size, it also artificially limits the size of activated events and is not completely rigorous. Here we discuss progress we have made in developing an alternative approach in which localized saddle-point searches are combined with parallel GPU-based molecular dynamics in order to improve the scaling behavior. By using this method, along with the use of an adaptive method to determine the optimal high-temperature^3, we have been able to significantly increase the range of time- and length-scales over which accelerated dynamics simulations may be carried out. [1] Y. Shim et al, Phys. Rev. B 76, 205439 (2007); ibid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116101 (2008). [2] Y. Shim and J.G. Amar, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125432 (2005). [3] Y. Shim and J.G. Amar, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 054127 (2011).

Hubartt, Bradley; Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques

2012-02-01

73

Efficiently achieving consensus in scientific collaboration networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work by Guimer'a et al. [1] indicates that successful collaborative networks are developed from a balance of new and old blood. To first approximation, the efficiency of these collaborative networks to reach consensus on a problem depends on (i) the difficulty of the problem and (ii) the fraction of time each individual spends working on his own versus interacting with his peers. We mimic problem difficulty by the likelihood that an individual obtains the correct answer, and we model social interactions by the majority rule, which is efficient even in the presence of noise [2]. We then study the asynchronous dynamics of small-world [3] and collaborative networks [1] to quantify the efficiency of empirical collaborative networks to achieve consensus. Finally, we examine how altering the balance of new and old blood affects the efficiency of collaborative networks to reach consensus. [1] R. Guimer'a, B. Uzzi, J. Spiro, and L. A. N. Amaral. Science 308, 697--702 (2005). [2] A. A. Moreira, A. Mathur, D. Diermeier, and L. A. N. Amaral. PNAS 101(33), 12085--12090 (2004). [3] D. J. Watts and S. H. Strogatz. Nature 393, 440--442 (1998).

Malmgren, R. Dean; Seaver, Sam; Guimera, Roger; Diermeier, Daniel; Ottino, Julio; Amaral, Luis

2006-03-01

74

ANALYSIS OF HYDROPONIC FERTILIZER MATRIXES FOR PERCHLORATE: COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Seven retail hydroponic nitrate fertilizer products, two liquid and five solid, were comparatively analyzed for the perchlorate anion (ClO4-) by ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection, complexation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (cESI-MS), norma...

75

Remediation of Coordination Deficits in Youth with Minimal Cerebral Dysfunction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research to develop an accurate assessment tool to diagnose minimal cerebral dysfunction in children discovered that the Devereaux Test of Extremity Coordination (DTEC) is able to discriminate between children with minimal brain dysfunction and 'norma...

G. E. DeHaven J. D. Bruce D. C. Bryan

1971-01-01

76

FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

77

Avaliacao DA Transformacao Radiometrica DOS Dados TM/LANDSAT-5 Em Reflectancias (Comparison of Radiometric Transformation of LANDSAT-5/TM Data to Reflectance Data).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Remote sensing data are subject to a series of radiometric effects dependent on environmental and instrumental conditions specified to the image acquisition moment. In order to optimize the extraction of target intrinsic information, it is sought to norma...

C. M. Bentz

1990-01-01

78

Geology and metallogeny of the Ar Rayn terrane, eastern Arabian shield: Evolution of a Neoproterozoic continental-margin arc during assembly of Gondwana within the East African orogen  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Neoproterozoic Ar Rayn terrane is exposed along the eastern margin of the Arabian shield. The terrane is bounded on the west by the Ad Dawadimi terrane across the Al Amar fault zone (AAF), and is nonconformably overlain on the east by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. The terrane is composed of a magmatic arc complex and syn- to post-orogenic intrusions. The layered rocks of the arc, the Al Amar group (>689 Ma to ???625 Ma), consist of tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basaltic to rhyolitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks with subordinate tuffaceous sedimentary rocks and carbonates, and are divided into an eastern and western sequence. Plutonic rocks of the terrane form three distinct lithogeochemical groups: (1) low-Al trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG) of arc affinity (632-616 Ma) in the western part of the terrane, (2) high-Al TTG/adakite of arc affinity (689-617 Ma) in the central and eastern part of the terrane, and (3) syn- to post-orogenic alkali granite (607-583 Ma). West-dipping subduction along a trench east of the terrane is inferred from high-Al TTG/adakite emplaced east of low-Al TTG. The Ar Rayn terrane contains significant resources in epithermal Au-Ag-Zn-Cu-barite, enigmatic stratiform volcanic-hosted Khnaiguiyah-type Zn-Cu-Fe-Mn, and orogenic Au vein deposits, and the potential for significant resources in Fe-oxide Cu-Au (IOCG), and porphyry Cu deposits. Khnaiguiyah-type deposits formed before or during early deformation of the Al Amar group eastern sequence. Epithermal and porphyry deposits formed proximal to volcanic centers in Al Amar group western sequence. IOCG deposits are largely structurally controlled and hosted by group-1 intrusions and Al Amar group volcanic rocks in the western part of the terrane. Orogenic gold veins are largely associated with north-striking faults, particularly in and near the AAF, and are presumably related to amalgamation of the Ar Rayn and Ad Dawadimi terranes. Geologic, structural, and metallogenic characteristics of the Ar Rayn terrane are analogous to the Andean continental margin of Chile, with opposite subduction polarity. The Ar Rayn terrane represents a continental margin arc that lay above a west-dipping subduction zone along a continental block represented by the Afif composite terrane. The concentration of epithermal, porphyry Cu and IOCG mineral systems, of central arc affiliation, along the AAF suggests that the AAF is not an ophiolitic suture zone, but originated as a major intra-arc fault that localized magmatism and mineralization. West-directed oblique subduction and ultimate collision with a land mass from the east (East Gondwana?) resulted in major transcurrent displacement along the AAF, bringing the eastern part of the arc terrane to its present exposed position, juxtaposed across the AAF against a back-arc basin assemblage represented by the Abt schist of the Ad Dawadimi terrane. Our findings indicate that arc formation and accretionary processes in the Arabian shield were still ongoing into the latest Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran), to about 620-600 Ma, and lead us to conclude that evolution of the Ar Rayn terrane (arc formation, accretion, syn- to postorogenic plutonism) defines a final stage of assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent along the northeastern margin of the East African orogen. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Doebrich, J. L.; Al-Jehani, A. M.; Siddiqui, A. A.; Hayes, T. S.; Wooden, J. L.; Johnson, P. R.

2007-01-01

79

Epidemiology of neglected tropical diseases in transplant recipients. Review of the literature and experience of a Brazilian HSCT center.  

PubMed

The rising success rate of solid organ (SOT) and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and modern immunosuppression make transplants the first therapeutic option for many diseases affecting a considerable number of people worldwide. Consequently, developing countries have also grown their transplant programs and have started to face the impact of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in transplant recipients. We reviewed the literature data on the epidemiology of NTDs with greatest disease burden, which have affected transplant recipients in developing countries or may represent a threat to transplant recipients living in other regions. Tuberculosis, Leprosy, Chagas disease, Malaria, Leishmaniasis, Dengue, Yellow fever and Measles are the topics included in this review. In addition, we retrospectively revised the experience concerning the management of NTDs at the HSCT program of Amaral Carvalho Foundation, a public transplant program of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:20209266

Machado, Clarisse Martins; Martins, Talita Chaves; Colturato, Iago; Leite, Marília Souza; Simione, Anderson João; Souza, Mair Pedro de; Mauad, Marcos Augusto; Colturato, Vergílio Rensi

2009-01-01

80

Flash Updates of GSC projects (GSC8 Meeting)  

ScienceCinema

The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding Research Coordination Network from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. In quick succession Frank Oliver Glockner (MPI-Bremen), Victor Markowitz (LBNL), Nikos Kyripides (JGI), Folker Meyer (ANL), Linda Amaral-Zettler (Marine Biology Lab), and James Cole (Michigan State University) provide updates on a number of topics related to GSC projects at the Genomic Standards Consortium 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009.

Glockner, Frank Oliver; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos; Meyer, Folker; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cole, James

2011-04-29

81

Evolution of optimal Lévy-flight strategies in human mental searches.  

PubMed

Recent analysis of empirical data [Radicchi, Baronchelli, and Amaral, PloS ONE 7, e029910 (2012)] showed that humans adopt Lévy-flight strategies when exploring the bid space in online auctions. A game theoretical model proved that the observed Lévy exponents are nearly optimal, being close to the exponent value that guarantees the maximal economical return to players. Here, we rationalize these findings by adopting an evolutionary perspective. We show that a simple evolutionary process is able to account for the empirical measurements with the only assumption that the reproductive fitness of the players is proportional to their search ability. Contrary to previous modeling, our approach describes the emergence of the observed exponent without resorting to any strong assumptions on the initial searching strategies. Our results generalize earlier research, and open novel questions in cognitive, behavioral, and evolutionary sciences. PMID:23005065

Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea

2012-06-01

82

Flash Updates of GSC projects (GSC8 Meeting)  

ScienceCinema

The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding Research Coordination Network from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. In quick succession Frank Oliver Glockner (MPI-Bremen), Victor Markowitz (LBNL), Nikos Kyripides (JGI), Folker Meyer (ANL), Linda Amaral-Zettler (Marine Biology Lab), and James Cole (Michigan State University) provide updates on a number of topics related to GSC projects at the Genomic Standards Consortium 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009.

83

Fungal spores from Pleosporales in the atmosphere of urban and rural locations in Portugal.  

PubMed

Fungal spores are a significant fraction of the atmospheric bioparticles (bioaerosols) and many species are capable of inducing the production of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), aggravating the clinical symptoms of allergic respiratory diseases in sensitized individuals. The aim of this work was to evaluate the distribution of potentially allergenic Pleosporales spores in two locations with different urbanization indexes, characterizing its seasonal pattern. The seasonal distribution of several spore types belonging to the Pleosporales (Alternaria, Drechslera, Epicoccum, Paraphaeosphaeria, Pithomyces, Pleospora and Stemphylium) in Amares (rural area) and Porto (urban area) was continually studied from January 2005 to December of 2007, using Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Alternaria was the most abundant fungal spore type found in the atmosphere of Amares and Porto. This fungal type, together with Drechslera, Epicoccum, Pithomyces and Stemphylium, was mainly present during summer. Nevertheless, Leptosphaeria, Pleospora and Venturia spores were detected during winter and spring, while Paraphaeosphaeria spores were also observed during summer and autumn. These different seasonal patterns were responsible for the expansion of the exposure period for the Alt a 1 allergen. The concentration of the studied spore types was higher in the rural area than in the urban one, with exception for Pleospora and Drechslera. According to the correlations with meteorological factors, the selected fungal spores can be divided into two groups: (i) Alternaria, Drechslera, Epicoccum, Pithomyces and Stemphylium presented positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations with relative humidity and rainfall; (ii) Leptosphaeria, Paraphaeosphaeria, Pleospora and Venturia presented a contrary behavior. Usually, the occurrence of the Alt a 1 allergen has been associated with the presence of airborne Alternaria spores; the present work follows the seasonal distribution of other fungal spore species known to contain this molecule. The widespread occurrence of Alt a 1 plays an important role in the incidence and aggravation of allergic disorders. PMID:21491687

Oliveira, Manuela; Delgado, Luís; Ribeiro, Helena; Abreu, Ilda

2010-05-01

84

Unmixing mid-ocean ridge basalts with EXTENDED QMODEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microprobe analyses of major and minor elemental compositions of 103 glass samples from the AMAR rift of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are used as a test to assess the usefulness of the EXTENDED QMODEL algorithm for petrological modeling over conventional least squares analyses. This procedure derives end member compositions from the data set itself and does not require an a priori geochemical model. The AMAR samples offer one of the best spatially and geochemically constrained systems, including identification of spatial distributions by submersible observers, an analytical program which provided maximum internal consistency of results, inclusion of multiple cycles of pillowed basalts and sheeted fluid flows, and a broad age distribution relative to the well-defined rift valley. The results of the EXTENDED QMODEL analyses were consistent with and strengthened the qualitative conclusions of the original interpretation with one major exception. Refractory megacrysts enclosed in the more evolved glasses are not indicated as primary cumulate phases controlling crystal fractionation trends. In addition, "haystacks" built of highly evolved pillows, and sheet flows and pillows were clearly distinguished on the basis of end member composition. The results suggest a magmatic-tectonic history of the rift valley segment that includes early sheet flows followed by the construction of pillowed ridges. This magmatic event was followed by foundering of the axial roof, during which time residual siliceous magma and small quantities of mixed magma were erupted. This model both confirms and extends the previous interpretation, suggesting that the EXTENDED QMODEL family of algorithms offer powerful alternative to simple least squares decomposition of whole rock data.

Horkowitz, Jack; Stakes, Debra; Ehrlich, Robert

1989-08-01

85

Fast quantification of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantification of the MRSI-observed regional distribution of metabolites involves relatively long processing times. This is particularly true in dealing with large amount of data that is typically acquired in multi-center clinical studies. To significantly shorten the processing time, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based approach was explored for quantifying the phase corrected (as opposed to magnitude) spectra. Specifically, in these studies radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) was used. This method was tested on simulated and normal human brain data acquired at 3T. The N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, glutamate + glutamine (Glx)/Cr, and myo-inositol (mI)/Cr ratios in normal subjects were compared with the line fitting (LF) technique and jMRUI-AMARES analysis, and published values. The average NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Glx/Cr and mI/Cr ratios in normal controls were found to be 1.58 ± 0.13, 0.9 ± 0.08, 0.7 ± 0.17 and 0.42 ± 0.07, respectively. The corresponding ratios using the LF and jMRUI-AMARES methods were 1.6 ± 0.11, 0.95 ± 0.08, 0.78 ± 0.18, 0.49 ± 0.1 and 1.61 ± 0.15, 0.78 ± 0.07, 0.61 ± 0.18, 0.42 ± 0.13, respectively. These results agree with those published in literature. Bland-Altman analysis indicated an excellent agreement and minimal bias between the results obtained with RBFNN and other methods. The computational time for the current method was 15 s compared to approximately 10 min for the LF-based analysis.

Bhat, Himanshu; Sajja, Balasrinivasa Rao; Narayana, Ponnada A.

2006-11-01

86

A Lightning Rod on Civil Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the work of Norma V. Cantu, the head of the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights and the controversy surrounding her tenure. Issues discussed include the range of concerns she must address, including affirmative action, gender equity in athletics, and college desegregation in the South, and her strategies for…

Healy, Patrick

1999-01-01

87

Frecuencia de Listeria monocytogenes en muestras de tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum) y cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) frescos en tres supermercados de Valencia. Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. Se determinó la frecuencia de L. monocytogenes en tomates y cilantro, de tres diferentes supermercados, ubicados en el Municipio Valencia, Estado Carabobo, durante ocho semanas. Se evaluaron 192 muestras: 96 de tomates y 96 de cilantro. Procesa- miento y análisis microbiológico, según Normas Industriales COVENIN 3718:2001. Paquete estadístico SPSS versión 12.0. Se aplicó prueba de Kolmogorov Smirnov, test de

Luis Guillermo; Ramírez Mérida; Alba Morón de Salim; Ana Yudith; Alfieri Graterol; Orlando Gamboa

88

Compact Representations of Extended Causal Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Judea Pearl (2000) was the first to propose a definition of actual causation using causal models. A number of authors have suggested that an adequate account of actual causation must appeal not only to causal structure, but also to considerations of norma...

C. Hitchcock J. Y. Halpern

2012-01-01

89

NOTIFICAÇÕES TÉCNICAS E FITOSSANITÁRIAS À OMC: QUAL O IMPACTO NAS EXPORTAÇÕES AGRÍCOLAS DO BRASIL?  

Microsoft Academic Search

É notória a crescente importância das medidas técnicas, sanitárias e fitossanitárias às exportações brasileiras de produtos agrícolas, tais como: certificação de origem, avaliação de conformidade, normas e procedimentos técnicos, etc. Essas medidas têm sido formalizadas em notificações aos acordos TBT e SPS da OMC, vigentes desde 1995. Cabe ressaltar, no entanto, que essas medidas podem servir como barreiras protecionistas quando

Braulio Martins Bueno; Orlando Monteiro da Silva

2008-01-01

90

Regulaciones del mercado laboral: un estudio comparativo entre países  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se analizan tres tipos de instituciones prevalecientes en los mercados laborales de muchos países, normas sobre salario mínimo, introducción de costos no salariales (prestaciones complementarias) y las políticas de salario y empleo del gobierno. Se sostiene que estos tres son los aspectos estratégicos a analizar en el caso de los países en desarrollo con respecto a las

Peter R. Fallon; Luis Riveros

91

Algunos efectos del mercado único europeo sobre la economía española: Un análisis a través de un modelo de equilibrio general aplicado  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se examinan algunos efectos de la aplicación de las normas del Mercado Único europeo sobre la economía española. La metodología se basa en simulaciones a partir de un modelo de equilibrio general aplicado especialmente diseñado al efecto. El modelo tiene dos características particulares: por una parte, se incluyen aspectos de competencia imperfecta tales como rendimientos crecientes a

Antonio G. Gómez-Plana; Oscar Bajo-Rubio

92

Diffraction from a Small Square Aperture: Approximate Aperture Fields,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An approximate solution is presented that represents the first three terms in a more general expansion for the aperture electric field in a single, small square aperture (2a x 2a, ka <<1) in a thin, perfectly conducting plane screen illuminated by a norma...

R. E. English N. George

1988-01-01

93

DIAGNÓSTICO AL SISTEMA DE GESTIÓN DE LA CALIDAD EN LA VILLA MIRADOR DE MAYABE, HOLGUÍN  

Microsoft Academic Search

El trabajo fue realizado en la Villa Mirador de Mayabe con el propósito de diagnosticar el sistema de gestión de la calidad que presenta la entidad, teniendo presente la Norma Cubana ISO 9001: 2008, así como valorar el funcionamiento de los elementos que estructura la Gestión Estratégica de la entidad como proceso rector y punto de partida de la gestión

Yunelsy Ortiz Chávez; Amaury Ricardo Garrido Tapia

2012-01-01

94

REDUCTION OF IONIC SPECIES BY FULVIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have shown that a fulvic acid derived from soil is capable of reducing Hg(II) to Hg(0), Fe(III) to Fe(II), and I2 and I3(-1) to I(-1) under conditions generally characteristic of natural waters. The evaluation indicates a reduction potential approximately 0.5 V (vs. norma...

95

Evaluación clínica básica de la malnutrición pediátrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEl examen colectivo y la evaluación del riesgo nutricional deben constituir una parte sistemática de la evaluación clínica. Los objetivos de la evaluación nutricional consisten en determinar el riesgo o la presencia de malnutrición y proporcionar normas para el tratamiento a corto y a largo plazo. El estado nutricional se evalúa por medio de un abordaje simple, principalmente clínico, basado

Corina Hartman; Raanan Shamir

2009-01-01

96

Reading from the Right  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about Neal Frey, who for more than two decades has labored on behalf of Educational Research Analysts, a conservative Christian textbook-reviewing organization in Longview, Texas that was founded by the famously outspoken husband-and-wife team of Mel and Norma Gabler. When Mr. Gabler died at the age of 89, and…

Cavanagh, Sean

2005-01-01

97

Chapter & Verse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neal Frey reads textbooks for a living, a job he finds singularly fulfilling. For more than two decades, he had labored on behalf of Educational Research Analysts, a conservative Christian textbook-reviewing organization in Longview, Texas, founded by the famously outspoken husband-and-wife team of Mel Gabler and Norma Gabler. Since the early…

Cavanagh, Sean

2006-01-01

98

Hyperbolic: Divining Ayahuasca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty minutes in, like clockwork, the visions begin. They are strong but I was expecting them this time. Norma, the vegetalista who so astonished me with her care, skill and knowledge during my first ceremony two nights prior, had packed a big bowl with a knot of the local Nicotina Rustica and had blown curling, whistling smoke over a plastic

Richard Doyle

2005-01-01

99

Conflicto, mediación comunitaria y creatividad social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras clave: conflicto, des(orden), mediación comunitaria y creatividad social Resumen Cuando en occidente pensamos en el conflicto lo asociamos al desorden, al caos y al desequilibrio. Por lo que el abordaje al que optamos para dar respuesta al conflicto es establecer el orden y el equilibrio como respuesta adecuada para mantener las normas establecidas en una comunidad humana. A nuestro

Silvia Iannitelli Muscolo; Marta Llobet Estany

100

Evaluation and Assessment in Educational Information Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following articles on evaluating and assessing educational information technology: (1) "Assessing Learning in the New Age of Information Technology in Education" (Leping Liu, D. LaMont Johnson, Cleborne D. Maddux, and Norma J. Henderson); (2) "Instruments for Assessing the Impact of Technology in Education" (Rhonda…

Liu, Leping, Ed.; Johnson, D. LaMont, Ed.; Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.; Henderson, Norma J., Ed.

101

Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se estudian los determinantes individuales del capital social en España. El capital social influye en el desarrollo económico, tal y como demuestran numerosos estudios, y se puede definir como la confianza, tanto interpersonal como institucional, y los aspectos positivos de las redes y las normas sociales que faciliten la creación y el mantenimiento de una estructura social

Isabel Neira Gómez; Marta Portela

102

LOS CONTRATOS DE CONSTRUCCIÓN EN COLOMBIA E IMPACTO AL ADOPTAR ESTÁNDARES INTERNACIONALES DE INFORMACIÓN FINANCIERA NIC 11-  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen En el presente trabajo se tratan los principales aspectos contables a tener en cuenta en el manejo de los contratos de construcción en Colombia al adoptar estándares internacionales de información financiera, permitiendo visualizar el impacto que tendría en el país la adopción de la Norma Internacional de Contabilidad NIC 11 denominada Contratos de Construcción, en las empresas admitidas a

HELIO FABIO RAMÍREZ ECHEVERRY; LUIS EDUARDO SUÁREZ BALAGUERA

2010-01-01

103

EFECTO DE LAS NIIF EN EL VALOR BURSÁTIL DE LAS EMPRESAS ESPAÑOLAS \\/ THE IMPACT OF THE IFRS ON THE MARKET VALUE OF SPANISH FIRMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objeto de la presente investigación es comprobar la influencia de la aplicación de las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF) en la valoración de empresas cuando se aplican metodologías basadas en la información suministrada por la contabilidad. A partir de esta información se han obtenido modelos econométricos de valoración utilizando el análisis factorial y se ha procedido a un

F. García García; I. Moya Clemente

2009-01-01

104

The Voices of Cultural Assimilation in Current Young Adult Novels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three renowned writers who have chosen from diverse genres to tell immigrant tales through memoir, contemporary vignettes, and historical fiction. Notes that each author captures very real adolescent voices and their stories. Discusses Frank McCourt's "Angela's Ashes," An Na's "A Step form Heaven," and Norma Fox Mazer's "Goodnight Maman."…

Angel, Ann

2003-01-01

105

V VIIOOLL??NNCCIIAA SSEEXXUUAALL,, VVUULLNNEERRAABBIILLIIDDAADDEE EE DDOOEENN??AASS S SEEXXUUAALLMMEENNTTEE TTRRAANNSSMMIISSSS??VVEEIISS SSEEXX OOFFFFEENNSSEESS,, VVUULLNNEERRAABBIILLIITTYY AANNDD SSEEXXUUAALLLLYY TTRRAANNSSMMIITTTTEEDD DDIISSEEAASSEESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamentos: Estabelecendo uma relação assimétrica de poder e autoridade a violência sexual fere as normas do Direito e rompe as barrei- ras de classes sociais. Acometendo ambos os sexos e todas faixas etárias, ela ocorre tanto no espaço privado quanto no público, produzindo conseqüências físicas e psicológicas. Além das lesões genitais e extragenitais, as vítimas vivenciam a possibilidade da aquisiç

Jair N Reis; Carmen CS Martin; MV Bueno

106

SIMBA explores the southern sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. SIMBA. 2. The Orion region. 3. ? Carinae and the Keyhole Nebula. 4. Massive star formation in the Norma spiral arm. 5. Infrared dark clouds. 6. The R CrA star forming region. 7. The dark globule B68. 8. 30 Dor and N159 in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

Nyman, L.-Å.; Lerner, M.; Nielbock, M.; Anciaux, M.; Brooks, K.; Chini, R.; Albrecht, M.; Lemke, R.; Kreysa, E.; Zylka, R.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Bronfman, L.; Kontinen, S.; Linz, H.; Stecklum, B.

2001-12-01

107

Geophysicists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Memoriam: Francis R. ``Joe'' Boyd, John B. Ivey, William Warren Kellogg, Norma N. McMillin, Henry T. R. Radoski, William (Bill) Sackett, John W. Sherman, III, Kjell Petter Skjerlie, Peter Bernard Smoor; Recent Ph.D.s: Joan Bech, Mark Pickett

2004-02-01

108

Silencing the New Woman: Ethnic and Social Mobility in the Melodramas of Norman Talmadge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores silent film actress Norma Talmadge's "star persona" in the 1920s. Focuses on the public discourses that provide the background for Talmadge's departure from the screen. Analyzes why her two "talkies" failed commercially and critically. Concentrates on promotional and publicity materials and on the films themselves. (PA)

Smith, Greg M.

1996-01-01

109

TRANSFERÊNCIA DE RENDA OU SISTEMA PÚBLICO DE EMPREGO E TRABALHO? RUMO À HARMONIZAÇÃO DAS POLÍTICAS ATIVAS DE MERCADO DE TRABALHO NO MERCOSUL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os Estados-membros do Mercosul ratificam, ao longo do século passado, os principais Convênios da Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT), referentes às normas trabalhistas; direitos sociais do trabalho; direitos fundamentais no trabalho; e políticas de emprego e de mercado de trabalho. Dessa maneira, as políticas ativas de mercado de trabalho, postas em prática pelos quatro países da região, vêm acompanhando as

Maria Cristina Cacciamali

110

Além da Informalidade: Entendendo como os Fiscais e Agentes de Desenvolvimento Promovem a Formalização o Crescimento de Pequenas e Médias Empresas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Na maioria dos países em desenvolvimento, o número de pequenas e médias empresas (PMEs) no setor informal tem crescido continuamente na última década em conseqüência do excesso de regulação e da crescente concorrência internacional. Hoje, nesses locais, o grande desafio para formuladores de políticas e agentes de desenvolvimento é conciliar o crescimento econômico com as normas legais. Por um lado,

Mansueto Almeida

2008-01-01

111

Model Test and Theory for a Pile Driver Plant Working Contact-Free (Modellversuch und Theorie fuer eine Beruehrungsfrei Arbeitende Schlangede Ramme).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In calculations and model tests it was checked whether the noise producing hard impact with the pile driver can be reached by means of an electro-magnetic percussive power transmission. The testing showed that the power of approx. 1MN required for a norma...

W. Spiess J. Schulz

1977-01-01

112

Navegando na Rede Semantica dos Topic Maps com o Ulisses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A norma ISO-IEC 13250 Topic Maps, composta principal- mente de topicos interligados atraves de associacoes, define uma rede semantica estruturada sobre um sistema de informacao, criando uma ponte entre a gestao de informacao e os dom´inios de representacao de conhecimento. A estrutura de dados que um topic map representae um grafo; portanto, uma das melhores maneiras de visualizar um grafoe

Giovani Rubert Librelotto; Renato Preigschadt de Azevedo; Jose Carlos Ramalho; Pedro Rangel Henriques

113

Vent fluid chemistry of the Rainbow hydrothermal system (36°N, MAR): Phase equilibria and in situ pH controls on subseafloor alteration processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rainbow hydrothermal field is located at 36°13.8'N-33°54.15'W at 2300 m depth on the western flank of a non-volcanic ridge between the South AMAR and AMAR segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The hydrothermal field consists of 10-15 active chimneys that emit high-temperature (˜365 °C) fluid. In July 2008, vent fluids were sampled during cruise KNOX18RR, providing a rich dataset that extends in time information on subseafloor chemical and physical processes controlling vent fluid chemistry at Rainbow. Data suggest that the Mg concentration of the hydrothermal end-member is not zero, but rather 1.5-2 mmol/kg. This surprising result may be caused by a combination of factors including moderately low dissolved silica, low pH, and elevated chloride of the hydrothermal fluid. Combining end-member Mg data with analogous data for dissolved Fe, Si, Al, Ca, and H 2, permits calculation of mineral saturation states for minerals thought appropriate for ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems at temperatures and pressures in keeping with constraints imposed by field observations. These data indicate that chlorite solid solution, talc, and magnetite achieve saturation in Rainbow vent fluid at a similar pH (T,P) (400 °C, 500 bar) of approximately 4.95, while higher pH values are indicated for serpentine, suggesting that serpentine may not coexist with the former assemblage at depth at Rainbow. The high Fe/Mg ratio of the Rainbow vent fluid notwithstanding, the mole fraction of clinochlore and chamosite components of chlorite solid solution at depth are predicted to be 0.78 and 0.22, respectively. In situ pH measurements made at Rainbow vents are in good agreement with pH (T,P) values estimated from mineral solubility calculations, when the in situ pH data are adjusted for temperature and pressure. Calculations further indicate that pH (T,P) and dissolved H 2 are extremely sensitive to changes in dissolved silica owing to constraints imposed by chlorite solid solution-fluid equilibria. Indeed, the predicted correlation between dissolved silica and H 2 defines a trend that is in good agreement with vent fluid data from Rainbow and other high-temperature ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems. We speculate that the moderate concentrations of dissolved silica in vent fluids from these systems result from hydrothermal alteration of plagioclase and olivine in the form of subsurface gabbroic intrusions, which, in turn are variably replaced by chlorite + magnetite + talc ± tremolite, with important implications for pH lowering, dissolved sulfide concentrations, and metal mobility.

Seyfried, W. E., Jr.; Pester, Nicholas J.; Ding, Kang; Rough, Mikaella

2011-03-01

114

Geological mapping of the Rainbow Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 36°14'N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rainbow hydrothermal field at 36°14'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is one of the few known sites hosted in ultramafic basement. The Rainbow Massif is located along the non-transform offset between the AMAR and South AMAR second-order ridge segments, and presents the characteristic dome morphology of oceanic core complexes, although no corrugated surface has been observed so far. One of the objectives of Cruises MOMAR DREAM (July 2007, R/V Pourquoi Pas ?; Aug-Sept 2008, R/V Atalante) was to study the petrological and structural context of the hydrothermal system at the scale of the Rainbow Massif. Our geological sampling complements previous ones achieved during Cruises FLORES (1997) and IRIS (2001), and consisted in dredge hauls, and submersible dives by manned submersible Nautile and ROV Victor. The tectonics of the Rainbow Massif is dominated by a N-S trending fault pattern on the western flank of the massif, and a series of SW-NW ridges on its northeastern side. The active hydrothermal site is located in the area were these two systems crosscut. The most abundant recovered rock type is peridotite (harzburgite and dunite) that presents a variety of serpentinization styles and intensity, and a variety of deformation styles (commonly undeformed, sometimes displaying ductile or brittle foliations). Serpentinites are frequently oxidized. Some peridotite samples have melt impregnation textures. Massive chromitite was recovered in one dredge haul. Variously evolved gabbroic rocks were collected as discrete samples or as centimeter to decimeter-thick dikes in peridotites. Basalts and fresh basaltic glass were also sampled in talus and sediments on the southwestern and northeastern flanks of the massif. Our sampling is consistent with the lithological variability encountered in oceanic core complexes along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Southwest Indian Ridge. The stockwork of the hydrothermal system has been sampled on the western side of the present-day hydrothermal field, along N-S trending normal fault scarps, and within the talus underneath. It is made of massive sulfides, strongly altered serpentinites, and breccias containing elements of iron sulfide/oxide impregnated serpentinites. * K. Bukas, V. Cueff Gauchard, L. Durand, F. Gaill, C. Konn, F. Lartaud, N. Le Bris, G. Musset, A. Nunes, J. Renard, V. Riou, A. Tasiemski, P. Torres, I. Vojdani, M. Zbinden

Ildefonse, B.; Fouquet, Y.; Hoisé, E.; Dyment, J.; Gente, P.; Thibaud, R.; Bissessur, D.; Yatheesh, V.; Momardream 2008 Scientific Party*, T.

2008-12-01

115

Emperical Laws in Economics Uncovered Using Methods in Statistical Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, statistical physicists and computational physicists have determined that physical systems which consist of a large number of interacting particles obey universal "scaling laws" that serve to demonstrate an intrinsic self-similarity operating in such systems. Further, the parameters appearing in these scaling laws appear to be largely independent of the microscopic details. Since economic systems also consist of a large number of interacting units, it is plausible that scaling theory can be usefully applied to economics. To test this possibility using realistic data sets, a number of scientists have begun analyzing economic data using methods of statistical physics [1]. We have found evidence for scaling (and data collapse), as well as universality, in various quantities, and these recent results will be reviewed in this talk--starting with the most recent study [2]. We also propose models that may lead to some insight into these phenomena. These results will be discussed, as well as the overall rationale for why one might expect scaling principles to hold for complex economic systems. This work on which this talk is based is supported by BP, and was carried out in collaboration with L. A. N. Amaral S. V. Buldyrev, D. Canning, P. Cizeau, X. Gabaix, P. Gopikrishnan, S. Havlin, Y. Lee, Y. Liu, R. N. Mantegna, K. Matia, M. Meyer, C.-K. Peng, V. Plerou, M. A. Salinger, and M. H. R. Stanley. [1.] See, e.g., R. N. Mantegna and H. E. Stanley, Introduction to Econophysics: Correlations & Complexity in Finance (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999). [2.] P. Gopikrishnan, B. Rosenow, V. Plerou, and H. E. Stanley, "Identifying Business Sectors from Stock Price Fluctuations," e-print cond-mat/0011145; V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, L. A. N. Amaral, X. Gabaix, and H. E. Stanley, "Diffusion and Economic Fluctuations," Phys. Rev. E (Rapid Communications) 62, 3023-3026 (2000); P. Gopikrishnan, V. Plerou, X. Gabaix, and H. E. Stanley, "Statistical Properties of Share Volume Traded in Financial Markets," Phys. Rev. E (Rapid Communications) 62, 4493-4496 (2000).

Stanley, H. Eugene

2001-06-01

116

[Evaluation of the development of the respiratory system in big-city adolescents, e.g., students of the Technical School of Mechanics and the Grammar School in Lód? (II)].  

PubMed

In 104 students from Secondary Technical School of Mechanics (TM) and 37 students from Grammar School (LO, 15-19 year-old, a longitudinal study of respiratory system was carried out. During the whole period of studies such spirographic parameters as VC, FEV1, FIV1, IMBC and Ziemssen and Amar indices were assessed. Spirographic parameters were assessed on the Pulmotest Godard. The subjects from each school were divided into two sub-groups: those practising in a sporting club (sport group--SG) and those who do not practise any sport in an organized way (non-sport group--NSG). In the students from TM and LO spirographic parameters were increased during the whole period of investigation and they reached the highest level in the first and second form. No differences were observed between students of TM and LO as regards the test parameters. The highest values were observed in the sport subgroups--the differences in the first and second forms being statistically significant. PMID:3405082

Koz?owski, W; Sobczak, Z; Gielec, L

1988-01-01

117

Defect modeling in spreading nematic droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments by Poulard and Cazabat [LangmuirLANGD50743-746310.1021/la050529f 21, 6270 (2005)] on spreading droplets of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) reveal a surprisingly rich variety of behavior, including at least two different emerging length scales resulting from a contact line instability. In earlier work [Cummings, Lin, and Kondic, Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3570863 23, 043102 (2011)] we modified a lubrication model for NLCs due to Ben Amar and Cummings [Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.1359748 13, 1160 (2001)] and showed that, in a qualitative sense, it can account for two-dimensional (2D) versions of the observed behavior. In the present work we propose a different approach that allows us to explore the effect of anchoring variations on the substrate, again in a 2D geometry. This in turn gives a simple way to model the presence of defects, which are nearly always present in such flows. The present model leads to additional terms in the governing equation. We explore the influence of these additional terms for some simple flow scenarios to gain insight into their influence.

Lin, T.-S.; Kondic, L.; Cummings, L. J.

2012-01-01

118

Ab initio study of edge smoothing, atom attraction, and downward funneling in Ag/Ag(100)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy barriers for three low-barrier relaxation processes in Ag/Ag(100) growth—edge-zipping, atom attraction, and downward funneling—are presented and compared with embedded atom method (EAM) calculations. In general, we find good agreement between the DFT values for these processes and the values assumed in recent simulations of low-temperature Ag/Ag(100) growth [Shim and Amar, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.045416 81, 045416 (2010)]. We also find reasonable agreement between our DFT results and the results of EAM calculations, although in a few specific cases there is a noticeable disagreement. In order to investigate the effects of long-range interactions, we have also carried out additional calculations for more complex configurations. While our EAM results indicate that long-range interactions such as “pinning” can significantly enhance the energy barriers for edge-zipping and atom attraction, these effects can be significantly weaker in our DFT calculations due to the redistribution of the electron density.

Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G.

2011-06-01

119

Updating the Lamellar Hypothesis of Hippocampal Organization  

PubMed Central

Andersen et al. (1971) proposed that excitatory activity in the entorhinal cortex propagates topographically to the dentate gyrus, and on through a “trisynaptic circuit” lying within transverse hippocampal “slices” or “lamellae.” In this way, a relatively simple structure might mediate complex functions in a manner analogous to the way independent piano keys can produce a nearly infinite variety of unique outputs. The lamellar hypothesis derives primary support from the “lamellar” distribution of dentate granule cell axons (the mossy fibers), which innervate dentate hilar neurons and area CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons within the confines of a thin transverse hippocampal segment. Following the initial formulation of the lamellar hypothesis, anatomical studies revealed that unlike granule cells, hilar mossy cells, CA3 pyramidal cells, and Layer II entorhinal cells all form axonal projections that are more divergent along the longitudinal axis than the clearly “lamellar” mossy fiber pathway. The existence of pathways with “translamellar” distribution patterns has been interpreted, incorrectly in our view, as justifying outright rejection of the lamellar hypothesis (Amaral and Witter, 1989). We suggest that the functional implications of longitudinally projecting axons depend not on whether they exist, but on what they do. The observation that focal granule cell layer discharges normally inhibit, rather than excite, distant granule cells suggests that longitudinal axons in the dentate gyrus may mediate “lateral” inhibition and define lamellar function, rather than undermine it. In this review, we attempt a reconsideration of the evidence that most directly impacts the physiological concept of hippocampal lamellar organization.

Sloviter, Robert S.; L?mo, Terje

2012-01-01

120

Reaching extended length scales and time scales in atomistic simulations via spatially parallel temperature-accelerated dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for performing parallel temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) simulations over extended length scales. In our method, a two-dimensional spatial decomposition is used along with the recently proposed semirigorous synchronous sublattice algorithm of Shim and Amar [Phys. Rev. B 71, 125432 (2005)]. The scaling behavior of the simulation time as a function of system size is studied and compared with serial TAD in simulations of the early stages of Cu/Cu(100) growth as well as for a simple case of surface relaxation. In contrast to the corresponding serial TAD simulations, for which the simulation time tser increases as a power of the system size N (tser˜Nx) with an exponent x that can be as large as three, in our parallel simulations the simulation time increases only logarithmically with system size. As a result, even for relatively small system sizes our parallel TAD simulations are significantly faster than the corresponding serial TAD simulations. The significantly improved scaling behavior of our parallel TAD simulations over the corresponding serial simulations indicates that our parallel TAD method may be useful in performing simulations over significantly larger length scales than serial TAD, while preserving all the atomistic details provided by the TAD method.

Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Voter, A. F.

2007-11-01

121

Securing wide appreciation of health statistics  

PubMed Central

All the authors are agreed on the need for a certain publicizing of health statistics, but do Amaral Pyrrait points out that the medical profession prefers to convince itself rather than to be convinced. While there is great utility in articles and reviews in the professional press (especially for paramedical personnel) Aubenque, de Groot, and Kohn show how appreciation can effectively be secured by making statistics more easily understandable to the non-expert by, for instance, including readable commentaries in official publications, simplifying charts and tables, and preparing simple manuals on statistical methods. Aubenque and Kohn also stress the importance of linking health statistics to other economic and social information. Benjamin suggests that the principles of market research could to advantage be applied to health statistics to determine the precise needs of the “consumers”. At the same time, Aubenque points out that the value of the ultimate results must be clear to those who provide the data; for this, Kohn suggests that the enumerators must know exactly what is wanted and why. There is general agreement that some explanation of statistical methods and their uses should be given in the curricula of medical schools and that lectures and postgraduate courses should be arranged for practising physicians.

Pyrrait, A. M. DO Amaral; Aubenque, M. J.; Benjamin, B.; DE Groot, Meindert J. W.; Kohn, R.

1954-01-01

122

The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere throughout the year, their concentration oscillates widely. This work aims to establish correlations between fungal spore concentrations in Porto and Amares and meteorological data. The seasonal distribution of fungal spores was studied continuously (2005-2007) using volumetric spore traps. To determine the effect of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on spore concentration, the Spearman rank correlation test was used. In both locations, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Agaricus, Agrocybe, Alternaria and Aspergillus/Penicillium, the highest concentrations being found during summer and autumn. In the present study, with the exception of Coprinus and Pleospora, spore concentrations were higher in the rural area than in the urban location. Among the selected spore types, spring-autumn spores ( Coprinus, Didymella, Leptosphaeria and Pleospora) exhibited negative correlations with temperature and positive correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. On the contrary, late spring-early summer (Smuts) and summer spores ( Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma, Stemphylium and Ustilago) exhibited positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. Rust, a frequent spore type during summer, had a positive correlation with temperature. Aspergillus/Penicillium, showed no correlation with the meteorological factors analysed. This knowledge can be useful for agriculture, allowing more efficient and reliable application of pesticides, and for human health, by improving the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic disease.

Oliveira, M.; Ribeiro, H.; Delgado, J. L.; Abreu, I.

2009-01-01

123

Saldanha Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A Controlled Source EM Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November-December 2004 a controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) survey was carried out on the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during cruise Charles Darwin 167. The work is centred on a non-transform offset between the FAMOUS and AMAR segments, at 36 34' North. Here, a prominent feature is the Saldanha massif: a dome of unroofed mantle rocks, consisting largely of serpentised peridotites, and at whose summit significant low-temperature hydrothermal venting has been documented. Our objective is to determine the distribution of electrical resistivity and hence porosity over a volume of ~ 10 km x 10 km x 3 km vertically, in order to constrain the degree of penetration of seawater into the crust and uppermost mantle; to contrast the porosity structure here with volcanically hosted systems away from segment boundaries elsewhere on the MAR; and to constrain models of non-volcanic heat sources and hydrothermal circulation in ultramafic settings at slow spreading ridges. In addition to the CSEM survey we obtained swath bathymetry, gravity and magnetic data; water column physical properties and seafloor current data; and a number of dredge and gravity core samples. We shall present details of the data and samples, together with our preliminary analysis of the results.

Sinha, M. C.; Santos, F.; Dzhatieva, Z.; Dias, A.; Marques, A. F.; Silva, N.; de Nijs, I.

2005-12-01

124

Extinction risk and structure of a food web model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate in detail the model of a trophic web proposed by Amaral and Meyer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 652 (1999)]. We focus on small-size systems that are relevant for real biological food webs and for which the fluctuations play an important role. We show, using Monte Carlo simulations, that such webs can be nonviable, leading to extinction of all species in small and/or weakly coupled systems. Estimations of the extinction times and survival chances are also given. We show that before the extinction the fraction of highly connected species (“omnivores”) is increasing. Viable food webs exhibit a pyramidal structure, where the density of occupied niches is higher at lower trophic levels, and moreover the occupations of adjacent levels are closely correlated. We also demonstrate that the distribution of the lengths of food chains has an exponential character and changes weakly with the parameters of the model. On the contrary, the distribution of avalanche sizes of the extinct species depends strongly on the connectedness of the web. For rather loosely connected systems, we recover the power-law type of behavior with the same exponent as found in earlier studies, while for densely connected webs the distribution is not of a power-law type.

P?kalski, Andrzej; Szwabi?ski, Janusz; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel

2008-03-01

125

A novel amino acid substitution in the para-sodium channel gene in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with knockdown resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance acquired by the tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) to different types of ixodicides in Mexico has had a negative impact on national and local livestock, mainly\\u000a due to the transmission of diseases such as babesiosis and anaplasmosis, among others. The technique used for the diagnosis\\u000a of resistance was that in the bioassays noted in the Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-006-ZOO-1994). The

Marcelino Aguirre; Adriana E. Flores; Genoveva Álvarez; Alberto Molina; Iram Rodriguez; Gustavo Ponce

2010-01-01

126

NILAI SESENGGAKAN DALAM UNGKAPAN TRADISIONAL BALI (DALAM PERSPEKTIF LINGUISTIK KEBUDAYAAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrak Sesenggakan merupakan salah satu variasi bentuk ungkapan tradisional Bali, sebagai salah satu wujud dan praktek gaya berbahasa khususnya dalam komunikasi lisan. Sesenggakan dalam masyarakat Bali terbentuk dari inspirasi fenomena alam seperti tumbuh-tumbuhan, buah-buahan, binatang, aktivitas, dan benda mati. Kandungan maknanya memiliki kaitan makna dengan nilai-nilai budaya dan norma-nonna masyarakat etnik Bali dalam hubungan dengan fungsional dengan lingkungan alam dan

Ni Wayan Sumitri

127

Um Processador Construtivista na Web para documentos anotados (PcWDa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo A notacao XML, cada vez mais, desempenha um papel im- portante na representacao textual da informacao estruturada ou semi- estruturada, sendo a norma mais vulgarizada para marcacao de do- cumentos. Torna-se por isso indispensavel a existencia de ferramentas que possibilitem desenvolver(editar e validar) eficientemente documen- tos XML. Neste artigo pretende-se discutir a especificacao e o desenvolvimento de uma dessas

Mariana Isabel Ferreira; Sandra Cristina Lopes; Pedro Rangel Henriques

128

A multicentre study of antifungal strategies and outcome of Candida spp. peritonitis in intensive-care units.  

PubMed

Information on the species causing Candida peritonitis, their in vitro susceptibility, antifungal strategies in this setting and patient outcome is still scarce. AmarCand was a prospective, non-interventional study in 271 adult intensive-care unit (ICU) patients with proven invasive Candida infection who received systemic antifungal therapy (France, 2005-2006). Of these ICU patients, 93 (median age 65 years, simplified acute physiology score II 52) had Candida peritonitis, including 73 nosocomial peritonitis, 53 concomitant bacterial peritoneal infections and 26 candidaemias. Candida species were C. albicans (n = 63/108 isolates, 58%), C. glabrata (n = 22, 20%), C. krusei (n = 9), C. kefyr (n = 5), C. parapsilosis (n = 3), C. tropicalis (n = 3), C. ciferii (n = 2) and C. lusitaniae (n = 1). Of tested isolates, 28% were fluconazole-resistant or susceptible dose-dependent (C. albicans 3/32, C. glabrata 9/14, C. krusei 4/4). Empiric antifungal treatment was started 1 day (median) after peritonitis diagnosis, with fluconazole (n = 2 patients), caspofungin (n = 12), voriconazole (n = 3), amphotericin B (n = 2), or a combination (n = 4). Following susceptibility testing, empiric antifungal treatment was judged inadequate in 9/45 (20%) patients and modified in 30 patients (fluconazole was replaced by caspofungin (n = 14) or voriconazole (n = 4)). Mortality in ICU was 38% (35/93) and was not influenced by type of Candida species, fluconazole susceptibility, time to treatment, candidaemia, nosocomial acquisition, or concomitant bacterial infection. No specific factors for death were identified. In summary, a high proportion of fluconazole-resistant or susceptible dose-dependent strains was cultured. These results confirm the high mortality rates of Candida peritonitis and plead for additional investigation in this population. Antifungal treatment for severe cases of Candida peritonitis in ICU patients remains the standard care. PMID:20825438

Montravers, P; Mira, J-P; Gangneux, J-P; Leroy, O; Lortholary, O

2011-07-01

129

Development of a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Sudan I in food samples.  

PubMed

A highly selective and sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Sudan I was developed. Two hapten derivatives with different lengths of carboxylic spacer at the azo-bound para-position were synthesized and coupled to carrier proteins. The hapten-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates were used as immunogens, while the hapten-ovalbumin (OA) conjugates were applied as coating antigens. The antisera which were obtained from four immunized rabbits were characterized in terms of sensitivity and specificity. At optimal experimental conditions it was found that IC50 and LOD values of seven pairs based on four antisera and two coating antigens were in the range of 0.3-2 ng/mL and 0.02-0.1 ng/mL, respectively. The most sensitive ELISA could be established with Sudan I-propionic acid-OA coating antigen and the antiserum which was obtained with the corresponding immunogen. The cross-reactivity values of the four antisera with Sudan II, III, and IV was estimated with 0.1-14.3%. No cross-reactivity was found with six edible colorants Sunset yellow, Amarant, Kermes, Indigotin, Bright blue and Lemon yellow, indicating high specificity for Sudan I. Six food samples were fortified with Sudan I and extracted by simple sample preparation. The methanolic extracts after dilution with methanol:water (5:95, v/v) were analyzed by the developed ELISA. Assay precision and accuracy was estimated by determination of three replicates. Acceptable recovery rates of 92.5-114% and intra-assay coefficients of variation of 5.9-24.8% were obtained. The data were validated by conventional HPLC method. As revealed, both methods were highly correlated (r = 0.9851, n = 7), demonstrating the applicability of the developed ELISA for Sudan I analysis in food samples. PMID:17622156

Han, Dan; Yu, Meng; Knopp, Dietmar; Niessner, Reinhard; Wu, Mei; Deng, Anping

2007-08-01

130

Pesticide exposure and cancer among rural workers from Bariri, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

This article reports an environmental health study on risk identification. It discusses risk factors linked to rural work and pesticide contact in a restricted geographic area and shows the necessity of improving rural workers' health in the central part of Sao Paulo State. The municipality of Bariri, which is the case studied in this research, typifies this agriculturally based region. The study focuses on environmental problems engendered by modern agriculture that may have human-health repercussions such as cancer, as indicated by hard statistical association on an extended cause-effect time scale. For specific cases, the research used a database containing records of Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in the city of Jau and a highly respected regional reference unit for over 85 years as one of the best in the Brazilian public health system for treating cancer. Statistics for age and gender were analyzed; relative risk was calculated for a group of cases registered from 2000 to 2002, as well as for a randomly selected control group from the same hospital. A map indicating the residences of cases (68) and non-cases (60) was made by geoprocessing techniques. For the period of time and the group studied, the authors concluded that the cancers of the skin and digestive system were the most prevalent. Bariri presented 24 cases representing all cancer types for each group of 10,000 citizens. The study indicated an almost two times higher probability of cancer development among rural workers, with a calculated relative risk between those exposed (agriculture workers) and the non-exposed (other occupations) of 1.6. No patterns of geographical distribution of cancer in that time period were recorded among rural workers of Bariri. However, the higher number of positive occurrences in the southwestern outskirts of the city indicated an area that must be prioritized in distributing environmental health information and conducting preventive education campaigns. PMID:15910970

de Brito Sá Stoppelli, Illona Maria; Crestana, Sílvio

2005-07-01

131

Microstructural finite strain analysis and 40Ar/39Ar evidence for the origin of the Mizil gneiss dome, eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mizil antiform is a gneiss-cored culmination situated near the northern end of the Ar Rayn island arc terrane, which is the easternmost exposed tectonic unit of the Arabian Shield. This domal structure has a mantle of metamorphosed volcanosedimentary rocks belonging to the Al-Amar Group, and an igneous interior made up of foliated granodiorite-tonalite with adakitic affinity. The gneissic core has a SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 689 ± 10 Ma making it the oldest rock unit in the Ar Rayn terrane. An adakite diapir, formed by the melting of the subducted crust of a young marginal basin, and rising through the volcanosedimentary succession of the Ar Rayn island arc is thought to have caused the observed doming. Relatively uniform strain throughout the dome combined with strong vertical shortening and the roughly radial pattern of stretching lineation is consistent with diapirism; the absence of strain localization rules out detachment faulting as a causative mechanism. Amphibolites from the metamorphic envelope have an 40Ar/39Ar age of 615 ± 2 Ma; the age gap between core and cover is thought to reflect the resetting of metamorphic ages during the final suturing event, a phenomenon that is often observed throughout the eastern shield. Aeromagnetic anomalies beneath the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover indicate the presence of a collage of accreted terranes east of the Ar Rayn terrane that were probably amalgamated onto the Arabian margin during the latest stages of the closure of the Mozambique ocean; culminant orogeny is believed to have taken place between 620 and 600 Ma as these terrane collided with a major continental mass to the east referred to here as the eastern Arabian block (EAB). The Mizil gneiss dome is therefore considered to have formed in a convergent contractional setting rather than being the outcome of extensional post-orogenic collapse.

Al-Saleh, Ahmad M.; Kassem, Osama M. K.

2012-07-01

132

Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

2009-12-01

133

Optical Magnetometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Principles and Techniques: 1. General principles and characteristics of optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, E. B. Alexandrov and D. Budker; 2. Quantum noise in atomic magnetometers M. V. Romalis; 3. Quantum noise, squeezing, and entanglement in radio-frequency optical magnetometers K. Jensen and E. S. Polzik; 4. Mx and Mz magnetometers E. B. Alexandrov and A. K. Vershovskiy; 5. Spin-exchange-relaxation-free (serf) magnetometers I. Savukov and S. J. Seltzer; 6. Optical magnetometry with modulated light D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. Pustelny, V. V. Yashchuk and D. Budker; 7. Microfabricated atomic magnetometers S. Knappe and J. Kitching; 8. Optical magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, P. R. Hemmer, J. R. Maze and R. L. Walsworth; 9. Magnetometry with cold atoms W. Gawlik and J. M. Higbie; 10. Helium magnetometers R. E. Slocum, D. D. McGregor and A. W. Brown; 11. Surface coatings for atomic magnetometry S. J. Seltzer, M.-A. Bouchiat and M. V. Balabas; 12. Magnetic shielding V. V. Yashchuk, S.-K. Lee and E. Paperno; Part II. Applications: 13. Remote detection magnetometry S. M. Rochester, J. M. Higbie, B. Patton, D. Budker, R. Holzlöhner and D. Bonaccini Calia; 14. Detection of nuclear magnetic resonance with atomic magnetometers M. P. Ledbetter, I. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer and D. Budker; 15. Space magnetometry B. Patton, A. W. Brown, R. E. Slocum and E. J. Smith; 16. Detection of biomagnetic fields A. Ben-Amar Baranga, T. G. Walker and R. T. Wakai; 17. Geophysical applications M. D. Prouty, R. Johnson, I. Hrvoic and A. K. Vershovskiy; Part III. Broader Impact: 18. Tests of fundamental physics with optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. K. Lamoreaux and T. E. Chupp; 19. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscopes E. A. Donley and J. Kitching; 20. Commercial magnetometers and their application D. C. Hovde, M. D. Prouty, I. Hrvoic and R. E. Slocum; Index.

Budker, Dmitry; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson

2013-03-01

134

Structure, energetic and phase transition of small nickel-palladium heterogeneous clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulation (MD) with Sutton-Chen potential for palladium-palladium, nickel-nickel and palladium-nickel interactions has been used to generate the minimum energy structures and to study the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of mixed transition metal cluster motifs of Ni n Pd(13- n) for n ? 13. Thirteen particle icosahedral clusters of neat palladium and nickel atoms were first reproduced accordingly with the results in literature. Then in the palladium icosahedra, each palladium atom has been successively replaced by nickel atom. Calculation is repeated for both palladium-centered and nickel-centered clusters. It is found that the nickel-centered clusters are more stable than the palladium-centered clusters and cohesive energy increases along the palladium end to nickel end. Phase transition of each cluster from one end-species to the other end-species is studied by means of caloric curve, root mean square bond fluctuation and heat capacity. Trend in variation of melting temperature is opposite to the energy trend. Palladium-centered cluster shows a premelting at low temperature due to the solid-solid structural transition. Species-centric order parameters developed by Hewage and Amar is used to understand the dynamic behavior in the solid-solid transition of palladium-centered cluster to more stable nickel-centered cluster (premelting). This species-centric order parameter calculation further confirmed the stability of nickel-centered species over those of palladium-centered species and solid-solid structural transition at low temperature.

Hewage, Jinasena W.

2014-06-01

135

Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

Stacey, J. S.; Stoeser, D. B.

1983-01-01

136

Multiple resistance traits control Plum pox virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Twelve Arabidopsis accessions were challenged with Plum pox potyvirus (PPV) isolates representative of the four PPV strains. Each accession supported local and systemic infection by at least some of the PPV isolates, but high variability was observed in the behavior of the five PPV isolates or the 12 Arabidopsis accessions. Resistance to local infection or long-distance movement occurred in about 40% of all the accession-isolate combinations analyzed. Except for Nd-1, all accessions showed resistance to local infection by PPV-SoC; in the Landsberg erecta (Ler) accession, this resistance was compromised by sgt1 and rar1 mutations, suggesting that it could be controlled by an R gene-mediated resistance pathway. While most of the susceptible accessions were symptomless, PPV induced severe symptoms on inflorescences in C24, Ler, and Bay-0 as early as 15 days after inoculation. Genetic analyses indicated that these interaction phenotypes are controlled by different genetic systems. The restriction of long-distance movement of PPV-El Amar and of another member of genus Potyvirus, Lettuce mosaic virus, in Col-0 requires the RTM genes, indicating for the first time that the RTM system may provide a broad range, potyvirus-specific protection against systemic infection. The restriction to PPV-PS long-distance movement in Cvi-1 is controlled by a single recessive gene, designated rpv1, which was mapped to chromosome 1. The nuclear inclusion polymerase b-capsid protein region of the viral genome appears to be responsible for the ability of PPV-R to overcome rpv1-mediated resistance. PMID:16673941

Decroocq, V; Sicard, O; Alamillo, J M; Lansac, M; Eyquard, J P; García, J A; Candresse, T; Le Gall, O; Revers, F

2006-05-01

137

TEAM Connections: Four Teachers' Journeys Into Action Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Judy Fix, Norma Fletcher, Dianne Johnson, and Janet Siulc--a group of teachers in the Buffalo Public School District--wondered what they could do that would go beyond talk and speculation about their teaching practices. They wanted to take action in their classrooms. This chapter is about the journey upon which the four teachers embarked as they hoped to find out if what they thought they were doing was really making a difference in their students' learning. It provides only a brief glimpse into the many places that their action-research journey led them.

Johnson, Dianne; Siulc, Janet; Fix, Judy; Fletcher, Norma

2007-01-01

138

International Cosmic Ray Conference, 13th, University of Denver, Denver, Colo., August 17-30, 1973, Proceedings. Volume 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An X-ray observation of the Norma-Lupus region, charge and isotope measurements of heavy cosmic ray nuclei and their role in the determination of cosmic ray age, and the possibility of a contribution to primary cosmic ray spectra from pulsars are among the topics covered in papers concerned with some of the results of recent cosmic ray research. Other topics covered include multiple scattering of charged particles in magnetic fields, absorption of primary cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and phase lag effects on cosmic ray modulation during a recent solar cycle. Individual items are announced in this issue.

1974-01-01

139

Hard X-ray observations of the region from the galactic center to Centaurus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A balloon flight from Parana, Argentina, was conducted to observe emissions from discrete or extended sources in the southern sky. The sources observed include GX 304-1, Nor X-2, GX 340+0, GX 354-5, a possibly composite source near the galactic center, and the nova-like source (2U1543-47) in the Lupus-Norma region which has been reported previously only in satellite observations. Data concerning the possibility of line emission near 0.5 MeV from different regions of the southern sky are also presented.

Guo, D. D.; Webber, W. R.; Damle, S. V.

1974-01-01

140

A Teacher's Perspective: What Is Culture?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In her chapter, "What Is Culture?," page 89, Norma Gonz�lez explains how the concept of culture has evolved historically and how it has affected education over time. As anthropologists continue to define culture in more dynamic ways, educators are encouraged to look beyond the rigid categories typically used to classify students--especially students from poor families and who speak a first language other than English--and see students as participants in many "cultural" communities. Ana Vaisenstein, a former first-grade teacher in a two-way bilingual school, shares her perspective.

Ana Vaisenstein, Sumner School, Boston Public Schools

2008-01-01

141

GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE SWIFT/BAT ERA. II. 10 MORE CLUSTERS DETECTED ABOVE 15 keV  

SciTech Connect

We report on the discovery of 10 additional galaxy clusters detected in the ongoing Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky survey. Among the newly BAT-discovered clusters there are Bullet, A85, Norma, and PKS 0745-19. Norma is the only cluster, among those presented here, which is resolved by BAT. For all the clusters, we perform a detailed spectral analysis using XMM-Newton and Swift/BAT data to investigate the presence of a hard (non-thermal) X-ray excess. We find that in most cases the clusters' emission in the 0.3-200 keV band can be explained by a multi-temperature thermal model confirming our previous results. For two clusters (Bullet and A3667), we find evidence for the presence of a hard X-ray excess. In the case of the Bullet cluster, our analysis confirms the presence of a non-thermal, power-law-like, component with a 20-100 keV flux of 3.4 x 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} as detected in previous studies. For A3667, the excess emission can be successfully modeled as a hot component (kT {approx} 13 keV). We thus conclude that the hard X-ray emission from galaxy clusters (except the Bullet) has most likely a thermal origin.

Ajello, M.; Reimer, O. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Rebusco, P. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cappelluti, N.; Boehringer, H. [Max Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, P.O. Box 1603, 85740, Garching (Germany); La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G., E-mail: majello@slac.stanford.ed [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)

2010-12-20

142

Evolved Gas Measurements Planned for the Lower Layers of the Gale Crater Mound with the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lower mound strata of Gale Crater provide a diverse set of chemical environments for exploration by the varied tools of the Curiosity Rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. Orbital imaging and spectroscopy clearly reveal distinct layers of hydrated minerals, sulfates, and clays with abundant evidence of a variety of fluvial processes. The three instruments of the MSL Sample Analysis at aMars (SAM) investigation, the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS), the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), and the Gas Chromatograph (GC) are designed to analyze either atmospheric gases or volatiles thermally evolved or chemically extracted from powdered rock or soil. The presence or absence of organic compounds in these layers is of great interest since such an in situ search for this type of record has not been successfully implemented since the mid-60s Viking GCMS experiments. However, regardless of the outcome of the analysis for organics, the abundance and isotopic composition of thermally evolved inorganic compounds should also provide a rich data set to complement the mineralogical and elemental information provided by other MSL instruments. In addition, these evolved gas analysis (EGA) experiments will help test sedimentary models proposed by Malin and Edgett (2000) and then further developed by Milliken et al (2010) for Gale Crater. In the SAM EGA experiments the evolution temperatures of H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, or other simple compounds as the samples are heated in a helium stream to 1000 C provides information on mineral types and their associations. The isotopic composition of O, H, C, and S can be precisely determined in several evolved compounds and compared with the present day atmosphere. Such SAM results might be able to test mineralogical evidence of changing sedimentary and alteration processes over an extended period of time. For example, Bibring et al (2006) have suggested such a major shift from early nonacidic to later acidic alteration. We will illustrate through a variety of evolved gas experiments implemented under SAM-like gas flow and temperature ramp conditions on terrestrial analog minerals on high fidelity Sam breadboards the type of chemical information we expect SAM to provide.

Mahaffy, Paul; Brunner, Anna; McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Conrad, Pamela; Webster, Chris; Cabane, Michel

2009-01-01

143

Unstable Growth and Decay of Nanostructures on Crystalline Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instabilities during growth are typically attributed to the venerable [step] Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect (SESE), or closely related asymmetries(J.G. Amar and F. Family, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 4584 (1996) for atoms arriving at upper and lower sides of a step. Esp., SESE leads to the well-known Bales-Zangwill (BZ) instability of step edges. We have found(O. Pierre-Louis, M.R. D'Orsogna, and T.L. Einstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82), 3661 (1999) that an analogous in-plane asymmetry of the energy barriers at kinks for atoms moving along step edges, the kink Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect (KESE), can produce a new instability that can supplant the BZ instability. (The relevant edge and corner barriers can be calculated semiempirically; moreover, they can theoretically be tuned in electrochemical cells.(M.I. Haftel and T.L. Einstein, Proc. MRS 580), 195 (2000); Proc. ICSFS-10 (Princeton, 2000), Appl. Surface Sci.) We analyze various contributions to the mass current along the step. Monte Carlo simulations on a simple SOS model are used to illustrate behavior and distinguish between strong and weak KESE. The threshold of stable kink-flow growth is analyzed. KESE can induce mound formation, the orientation of which depends on the strength of the kink ES barrier. Such behavior was observed on Ag(100).(G. Costantini ldots U. Valbusa, Proc. ICSFS-10 (Princeton, 2000), Appl. Surf. Sci.; Surface Sci. 459), L487 (2000) Intriguing experiments observe wavelength selection during step-flow growth on vicinal Cu(100).(T. Maroutian, L. Douillard, and H.-J. Ernst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 4353 (1999) KESE also can account for the instability of the Wolf-Villain model, in contrast to the similar Das Sarma-Tamborenea model.(P. Punyindu, Z. Toroczkai, and S. Das Sarma, preprint) At the coarse-grained level, the continuum step model can account for the decay of nanomounds on Si(7x7): the exponents of the decay rate and, more remarkably, the overall rate of these nanostructures (to within a factor of two).(A. Ichimiya, K. Hayashi, E.D. Williams, T.L. Einstein, M. Uwaha, and K. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84), 3662 (2000) However, microscopic features, such as whether atoms cross step edges uniformly or at special sites, can drastically alter decay characteristics.(M.-Z. Li, J.F. Wendelken, B.-G. Liu, E.G. Wang, and Z. Zhang, preprint)

Einstein, Theodore L.

2001-03-01

144

Gradual aridification of the Sahara during the last 11,000 years revealed by plant wax ?D analyses of Lake Yoa (Chad)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is still an ongoing debate whether the transition of the last 'green Sahara' period to today's large desert during the Holocene, the African Humid Period (AHP), was a progressive or an abrupt change in hydrological conditions. Several climate records mainly from East Africa suggest a rapid decline of moisture availability at the end of the AHP including new data from a marine sequence off the Horn of Africa (Tierney & deMenocal, 2013). Other archives including sedimentological, geochemical and palynological data from the central North African Lakes Chad and Lake Yoa point to a gradual rather than an abrupt transition near 5,000 years ago (Amaral et al., 2013; Kröpelin et al., 2008). The discrepancy of the available paleo-hydrological reconstructions underline the importance of proxy parameters directly related to hydrological conditions for accurate assessment of continental rainfall changes. Here, we present the first molecular-isotopic data from Lake Yoa documenting the hydrologic evolution over the entire Holocene. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses were performed on long-chain n-alkanes. Our data indicate relative high but variable contributions of plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes carrying a distinct leaf-wax signature, i.e., a high Carbon Preference Index (CPI). A trend towards higher CPI values since 7,300 years ago suggests declining soil degradation and vegetation cover under increasingly drier conditions. In parallel, the average-chain-length of the long-chain n-alkanes increases gradually towards the present implying higher relative contributions from grasses. Compound-specific carbon isotope data confirm this finding, indicating a mixed C3/C4 contribution in the early and mid-Holocene changing towards a C4-grass dominated vegetation in the late Holocene. Most importantly, compound-specific hydrogen isotope data reveal a continuous increase from 8,100 years ago towards the present, reflecting a gradual aridification. The large amplitude of about 40 per mil change from the early to late Holocene reflects the retreating influence of moisture derived from the West Africa monsoon from the area, in accordance with isotopic modelling studies (Tierney et al., 2011). Our data thus indicate a gradual hydrological evolution in the eastern central Sahara over the Holocene, controlled by insolation forcing, and argue against strong bio-geophysical feedback mechanisms. Site-specific local thresholds might exist in other regions, e.g., the Horn of Africa, leading to abrupt rainfall changes.

Rethemeyer, Janet; Kröpelin, Stefan; Karls, Jens; Thienemann, Matthias; Melles, Martin; Schefuß, Enno

2014-05-01

145

A lead isotope study of mineralization in the Saudi Arabian Shield  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New lead isotope data are presented for some late Precambrian and early Paleozoic vein and massive sulfide deposits in the Arabian Shield. Using the Stacey Kramers (1975) model for lead isotope evolution, isochron model ages range between 720 m.y. and 420 m.y. Most of the massive sulfide deposits in the region formed before 680 m.y. ago, during evolution of the shield. Vein type mineralization of higher lead content occurred during the Pan African event about 550 m.y. ago and continued through the Najd period of extensive faulting in the shield that ended about 530 m.y. ago. Late post-tectonic metamorphism may have been responsible for vein deposits that have model ages less than 500 m.y. Alternatively some of these younger model ages may be too low due to the mineralizing fluids acquiring radiogenic lead from appreciably older local crustal rocks at the time of ore formation. The low207Pb/204Pb ratios found for the deposits in the main part of the shield and for those in north-eastern Egypt, indicate that the Arabian craton was formed in an oceanic crustal environment during the late Precambrian. Involvement of older, upper-crustal material in the formation of the ore deposits in this part of the shield is precluded by their low207Pb/204Pb and208Pb/204Pb characteristics. In the eastern part of the shield, east of longitude 44??20???E towards the Al Amar-Idsas fault region, lead data are quite different. They exhibit a linear207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb relationship together with distinctly higher208Pb/204Pb characteristics. These data imply the existence of lower crustal rocks of early Proterozoic age that apparently have underthrust the shield rocks from the east. If most of the samples we have analyzed from this easterly region were mineralized 530 m.y. ago, then the age of the older continental rocks is 2,100??300 m.y. (2??). The presence of upper crustal rocks, possibly also of early Proterozoic age, is indicated by galena data from Hailan in South Yemen and also from near Muscat in Oman. These data are the first to indicate such old continental material in these regions. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

Stacey, J. S.; Doe, B. R.; Roberts, R. J.; Delevaux, M. H.; Gramlich, J. W.

1980-01-01

146

Different quantification algorithms may lead to different results: a comparison using proton MRS lipid signals.  

PubMed

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a sensitive method for investigating the biochemical compounds in a tissue. The interpretation of the data relies on the quantification algorithms applied to MR spectra. Each of these algorithms has certain underlying assumptions and may allow one to incorporate prior knowledge, which could influence the quality of the fit. The most commonly considered types of prior knowledge include the line-shape model (Lorentzian, Gaussian, Voigt), knowledge of the resonating frequencies, modeling of the baseline, constraints on the damping factors and phase, etc. In this article, we study whether the statistical outcome of a biological investigation can be influenced by the quantification method used. We chose to study lipid signals because of their emerging role in the investigation of metabolic disorders. Lipid spectra, in particular, are characterized by peaks that are in most cases not Lorentzian, because measurements are often performed in difficult body locations, e.g. in visceral fats close to peristaltic movements in humans or very small areas close to different tissues in animals. This leads to spectra with several peak distortions. Linear combination of Model spectra (LCModel), Advanced Method for Accurate Robust and Efficient Spectral fitting (AMARES), quantitation based on QUantum ESTimation (QUEST), Automated Quantification of Short Echo-time MRS (AQSES)-Lineshape and Integration were applied to simulated spectra, and area under the curve (AUC) values, which are proportional to the quantity of the resonating molecules in the tissue, were compared with true values. A comparison between techniques was also carried out on lipid signals from obese and lean Zucker rats, for which the polyunsaturation value expressed in white adipose tissue should be statistically different, as confirmed by high-resolution NMR measurements (considered the gold standard) on the same animals. LCModel, AQSES-Lineshape, QUEST and Integration gave the best results in at least one of the considered groups of simulated or in vivo lipid signals. These outcomes highlight the fact that quantification methods can influence the final result and its statistical significance. PMID:24493129

Mosconi, E; Sima, D M; Osorio Garcia, M I; Fontanella, M; Fiorini, S; Van Huffel, S; Marzola, P

2014-04-01

147

Extragalactic large-scale structures behind the southern Milky Way. III. Redshifts obtained at the SAAO in the Great Attractor region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the third of a series of papers on large-scale structures behind the southern Milky Way, we report here on redshifts obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in the Great Attractor region (318deg <~ l <~ 340deg , |b| <= 10deg , Woudt 1998). This region encompasses the peak in the reconstructed mass density field, associated with the Great Attractor (Kolatt et al. 1995, Dekel et al. 1998) and covers the crossing of the Supergalactic Plane with the Galactic Plane. Our deep optical galaxy search in the Zone of Avoidance (ZOA) in this region (Woudt 1998) has resulted in the detection of 4423 galaxies with observed diameters larger than 0.2 arcmin. We have obtained reliable redshifts for 309 galaxies of the 4423 galaxies with the ``Unit'' spectrograph (first with a Reticon, then with a CCD detector) at the 1.9-m telescope of the SAAO. An additional 13 tentative redshifts are presented. Before our survey, 127 galaxies had a previously recorded redshift (NED and SRC96). Given a small overlap with the literature (44 galaxies), we present here redshifts for 265 galaxies that had no previous recorded velocity. In addition, we present central velocity dispersion (sigma_o ) measurements for 34 galaxies in ACO 3627. It is known that the Great Attractor (GA) region is overdense in galaxies at a redshift-distance of v ~ 5000 {km s-1 } (Fairall 1988, Dressler 1991, Visvanathan & Yamada 1996, di Nella et al. 1997). We realise here, however, that the Great Attractor region is dominated by ACO 3627 (hereafter referred to as the Norma cluster), a highly obscured, nearby and massive cluster of galaxies close to the plane of the Milky Way (l, b, v) = (325.3deg , -7.2deg , 4844 {km s-1 }) (Kraan-Korteweg et al. 1996, Woudt 1998). Previous redshift surveys in the GA region have failed to gauge the significance of the Norma cluster, primarily due to the diminishing effects of the Galactic foreground extinction on the partially obscured galaxies. In the absence of the obscuring effects of the Milky Way, the Norma cluster would have appeared as prominent as the well-known Coma cluster, but nearer in redshift-space. This cluster most likely marks the bottom of the potential well of the Great Attractor (Woudt 1998). All the tables are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Woudt, P. A.; Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.; Fairall, A. P.

1999-12-01

148

Two southern SNR: G 327.1-1.1 and Kes 27.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supernova remnants G 327.1-1.1 and G 327.4+0.4 (Kes 27) are located 1.5° apart in the galactic plane in the constellation Norma. Lamb and Markert (1981), using the Einstein IPC, discovered that both were irregular, filled-center X-ray sources with possible point sources superposed. ROSAT PSPC observations now map the diffuse structure and clearly show the unresolved sources in each field. As expected, the spectra are relatively strongly absorbed. Comparison of the X-ray and radio maps allows to attribute some emission to a shell and some to the interior. With this information, a blastwave model can be used to derive approximate age and energy release. Both remnants have bright emitting regions inside the limb which might indicate the presence of high energy electrons accelerated by a pulsar. This relatively bright interior region is more prominent in G 327.1-1.1 than in Kes 27.

Seward, F. D.; Kearns, K. E.; Rhode, K. L.

1996-02-01

149

On the nature of the sources of hard pulse X-ray radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Besides the identified sources of cosmic pulse X-ray radiation with globular clusters NGC 6624, NGC 1851 and MXB 1730-335 several new identifications were made. The source in Norma was probably identified with globular cluster NGC 5927, the source in Aquila with globular cluster NGC 6838 (M71), and the source in Puppis with globular cluster NGC 2298. Gamma pulses discovered by the Vela satellites and X-ray pulses thoroughly measured by the SAS-3, Ariel-5, and ANS satellites are thought to be the same phenomenon. The sources of such a radiation must be some kind of peculiarity at the central part of globular clusters; it is most probably a massive black hole. The sources of hard pulse radiation which cannot be identified with globular clusters are considered to be a new kind of galactic object, invisible globular clusters, which are naked nuclei of globular clusters.

Shklovskiy, I. S.

1978-01-01

150

In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

Anton, A.

2010-08-01

151

PeV neutrinos from interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium in the Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a self-consistent interpretation of the very high-energy neutrino signal from the direction of the inner Galaxy, which is a part of the astronomical neutrino signal reported by IceCube. We demonstrate that an estimate of the neutrino flux in the E >100 TeV energy range lies at the high-energy power-law extrapolation of the spectrum of diffuse ?-ray emission from the galactic ridge, as observed by the Fermi telescope. This suggests that IceCube neutrino and Fermi/LAT ?-ray fluxes are both produced in interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium in the Norma arm and/or in the galactic bar. Cosmic rays responsible for the (? ray) and neutrino flux are characterized by a hard spectrum with the slope harder than -2.4 and cutoff energy higher than 10 PeV.

Neronov, A.; Semikoz, D.; Tchernin, C.

2014-05-01

152

Decline and present status of breeding peregrine falcons in Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1979, only one Peregrine Falcon pair (they fledged two young) and a single adult male were located. A population decline east of the Cascades began in rhe 1930's, probably resulting from a climatic change (drought); however, a statewide decline began in the late 1940's, accelerated in the 1950's, and by the 1960's few pairs remained. The statewide decline closely paralleled the pattern of DDT use. Furthermore, DDE was found in membranes of peregrine eggs from nearby California as early as 1948. Moreover, an unhatched Peregrine Falcon egg found at the Oregon eyrie in 1979 contained 19 ppm DDE and lesser amounts of other contaminants. The eggshell was 19% thinner than normaL The future of the nearly extirpated Peregrine Falcon in Oregon remains uncertain in spite of improved water and habitat conditions in eastern Oregon. Reintroduction of captive-bred birds seems to be the last hope.

Henny, C.J.; Nelson, M.W.

1981-01-01

153

Giant Molecular Clouds and Massive Star Formation in the Southern Milky Way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Columbia University-Universidad de Chile CO Survey of the southern Milky Way is used to separate the CO(1-0) emission of the fourth Galactic quadrant within the solar circle into its dominant components, giant molecular clouds (GMCs). After the subtraction of an axisymmetric model of the CO background emission in the inner southern Galaxy, 92 GMCs are identified, and for 87 of them the twofold distance ambiguity is solved. Their total molecular mass is M(H2) = 1.14 ± 0.05 × 108 M ?, accounting for around 40% of the molecular mass estimated from an axisymmetric analysis of the H2 volume density in the Galactic disk, M(H2)disk = 3.03 × 108 M ?. The large-scale spiral structure in the southern Galaxy, within the solar circle, is traced by the GMCs in our catalog; three spiral arm segments, the Centaurus, Norma, and 3 kpc expanding arm, are analyzed. After fitting a logarithmic spiral arm model to the arms, tangent directions at 310°, 330°, and 338°, respectively, are found, consistent with previous values from the literature. A complete CS(2-1) survey toward IRAS point-like sources with far-IR colors characteristic of ultracompact H II regions is used to estimate the massive star formation rate per unit H2 mass (MSFR) and the massive star formation efficiency (epsilon) for GMCs. The average MSFR for GMCs is 0.41 ± 0.06 L ?/M ?, and for the most massive clouds in the Norma arm it is 0.58 ± 0.09 L ?/M ?. Massive star formation efficiencies of GMCs are, on average, 3% of their available molecular mass.

García, P.; Bronfman, L.; Nyman, Lars-Åke; Dame, T. M.; Luna, A.

2014-05-01

154

EAARL coastal topography-western Florida, post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: seamless (bare earth and submerged.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Project Description These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 17 and 18, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation. For more information about similar projects, please visit the Decision Support for Coastal Science and Management website. Selected References Brock, J.C., Wright, C.W., Sallenger, A.H., Krabill, W.B., and Swift, R.N., 2002, Basis and methods of NASA airborne topographic mapper Lidar surveys for coastal studies: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 18, no. 1, p. 1-13. Crane, Michael, Clayton, Tonya, Raabe, Ellen, Stoker, Jason, Handley, Larry, Bawden, Gerald, Morgan, Karen, and Queija, Vivian, 2004, Report of the U.S. Geological Survey Lidar workshop sponsored by the Land Remote Sensing Program and held in St. Petersburg, FL, November 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1456, 72 p. Nayegandhi, Amar, Brock, J.C., and Wright, C.W., 2009, Small-footprint, waveform-resolving Lidar estimation of submerged and sub-canopy topography in coastal environments: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 30, no. 4, p. 861-878. Sallenger, A.H., Wright, C.W., and Lillycrop, Jeff, 2005, Coastal impacts of the 2004 hurricanes measured with airborne Lidar; initial results: Shore and Beach, v. 73, nos. 2-3, p. 10-14. Resources Included Readme.txt File

Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan

2010-01-01

155

Older Smooth Plains on Mercury Obscured by Impact Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of morphology and spectral reflectance, the surface of Mercury can be broadly divided into three major terrain types: low-reflectance material, intermediate terrain, and smooth plains. This last terrain type is distinguished morphologically by a comparatively smooth and gently rolling surface, has a lower density of impact craters and basins than other surface units on the planet, and typically occupies low-lying areas. Their smooth texture, embayment of other landforms, and distinctive partial to complete burial of older impact features suggests that most of these plains are probably volcanic in nature. Recent mapping work has shown that smooth plains younger than the end of the late heavy bombardment (LHB) occupy ~30% of Mercury's surface. An outstanding question concerns the distribution and nature of older plains units on the planet, especially those that underlie large impact features and may correspond morphologically to smooth plains but have not yet been mapped accordingly. A preliminary survey of such terrain yielded five exemplar sites: at the Amaral (26.5°S, 117.8°E; 101 km diameter), Mickiewicz (23.2°N, 256.7°E; 103 km), and Vivaldi (13.8°N, 274.1°E; 212 km) basins and at two unnamed features at 53.1°S, 38.6°E (83 km in diameter) and 7.1°N, 38.3°E (118 km). We expect that more thorough mapping will uncover additional candidate areas. In each of the example sites, an extensive continuous ejecta deposit and secondary impact field characterize the proximal and distal facies, respectively, of the impact feature; and in each case, the secondaries field (and impact-sculpted terrain in the case of Vivaldi) is superposed upon patches of plains that otherwise appear smooth and host numerous, flooded antecedent craters tens of kilometers in diameter. Moreover, these smooth patches occur at several ranges of azimuths surrounding each crater or basin, suggesting that they may have formed contiguous units prior to formation of the younger impact feature. Although difficult to unequivocally demarcate the original boundaries of these older smooth plains units, a conservative minimum area of such plains is 300,000 km2 (~0.4% of Mercury's surface area) at each of these five sites. These observations therefore support the inference that the extent to which the surface of Mercury was covered by smooth plains before the end of the LHB is greater than that observed today. If most such plains had a volcanic origin, the innermost planet may have experienced major resurfacing events akin in nature, if not in scale, to that responsible for the expansive northern volcanic plains at several times in its history and at a number of locations. Further identification of older smooth plains will provide greater insight into the development of Mercury's crust, with attendant implications for the dynamics, composition, and magmatic history of the planet's interior.

Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Whitten, J.; Head, J. W.

2012-12-01

156

The impact of land use on biological activity of agriculture soils. An State-of-the-Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological activity is a crucial soil property affecting soil sustainability and crop production. The unsuitable land management can lead to a loss in soil fertility and a reduction in the abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. This can be as a consequence of high erosion rates due to the mismanagement of farmers (Cerdà et al., 2009a). However ecological practices and some organic amendments can promote the activities of soil microbial communities, and increase its biodiversity (García-Orenes et al., 2010; 2013). The impact of land use in microbiological properties of agriculture soil are presented and discussed in this review. Biological activity is quantified by microbial soil communities and soil enzyme activities to interpret the effects of soil management practices (Morugán-Coronado et al., 2013). The aim of biological activity tests is to give a reliable description of the state of agricultural soils under the effect of different land uses. Numerous methods have been used to determine the impact of land uses on microbiological properties. The current used methods for detecting microbial diversity are based on molecular techniques centered on the 16S and 18S rRNA encoding sequences such as CLPP: community-level physiological profiles; T-RFLP: terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism; DGGE: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; OFRG: oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes, ARISA: Automated Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, SSCP: single-strand conformation polymorphism. And techniques based on the cellular composition of the microbes such as PLFA: phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Other methods are based on the activity of microbes, for example, Cmic: microbial biomass carbon; SIR: substrate induced respiration; BSR: Basal soil respiration; qCO2 metabolic quotient; enzymatic activities (Urease, ß-glucosidase and phosphatase) (Deng, 2012). Agricultural land management can contribute to increased rates of erosion due to desiccation, mechanical destruction, soil compaction, reduce pore volume, and disruption of access to food resources (Cerdà et al., 2009b). Furthermore, it can lead to a loss in soil fertility and reduction in the abundance and diversity of soil microorganism (Caravaca et al., 2002). Nevertheless, some organic fertilizers, such as manure, waste water and sewage sludge, promote the activities of soil microbial communities (Morugán-Coronado et al., 2011; Balota et al., 2013; Macci et al., 2013). On the other hand, land use influences soil microbial processes by changing the quantity and quality of plant residues entering the soil and their spatial distribution, thorough changes in nutrients and inputs (García-Orenes et al., 2009; 2012). The abuse of pesticides can drastically modify the function and structure of microbial communities, altering the terrestrial ecosystems, which has important implication for soil quality (Pampulha et al., 2006). Soil quality is important for the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystem (Paz-Ferreiro & Fu, 2013; Vasconcellos et al., 2013). This paper will review the State-of-the-Art of the scientific knowledge on the impact of land use on the biological activity in agriculture soils Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Balota, E. L., Yada, I.F., Amaral, H., Nakatani, A.S., Dick, R.P., Coyne, M.S. 2013. Long-term land use influences soil microbial biomass p and s, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities, and mineralization in a brazilian oxisol. Land degradation & development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2242 Caravaca F, Masciandaro G, Ceccanti B. 2002. Land use in relation to soil chemical and biochemical properties in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Soil and Tillage Research 68: 23-30. Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009b. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards

Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

2014-05-01

157

List of Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mohab Abou ZeidInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Ido AdamMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Henrik AdorfLeibniz Universität Hannover Mohammad Ali-AkbariIPM, Tehran Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Martin Ammon Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Christopher AndreyÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Laura AndrianopoliPolitecnico di Torino David AndriotLPTHE, Université UPMC Paris VI Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Pantelis ApostolopoulosUniversitat de les Illes Balears, Palma Gleb ArutyunovInstitute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Davide AstolfiUniversità di Perugia Spyros AvramisUniversité de Neuchâtel Mirela BabalicChalmers University, Göteborg Foday BahDigicom Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Igor BandosUniversidad de Valencia Jose L F BarbonIFTE UAM/CSIC Madrid Till BargheerMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich James BedfordImperial College London Raphael BenichouLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Alice BernamontiVrije Universiteit, Brussel Julia BernardLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Marco Billo' Università di Torino Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Guillaume BossardAlbert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Leonardo BriziÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Johannes BroedelLeibniz Universität Hannover (AEI) Tom BrownQueen Mary, University of London Ilka BrunnerEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Erling BrynjolfssonUniversity of Iceland Dmitri BykovSteklov Institute, Moscow and Trinity College, Dublin Joan CampsUniversitat de Barcelona Davide CassaniLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Alejandra CastroUniversity of Michigan Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna Ceresole Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università di Torino Athanasios ChatzistavrakidisNational Technical University of Athens Wissam ChemissanyCentre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Eugen-Mihaita CioroianuUniversity of Craiova Andres CollinucciTechnische Universität Wien Paul CookUniversità di Roma, Tor Vergata Lorenzo CornalbaUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Aldo CotroneKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Ben Craps Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Stefano Cremonesi SISSA, Trieste Riccardo D'AuriaPolitecnico di Torino Gianguido Dall'AgataUniversity of Padova Jose A de AzcarragaUniversidad de Valencia Jan de BoerInstituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam Sophie de BuylInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Marius de LeeuwUtrecht University Frederik De RooVrije Universiteit, Brussel Jan De Rydt Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and CERN, Geneva Bernard de WitInstitute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Stephane DetournayIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Paolo Di Vecchia Niels Bohr Institute, København Eugen DiaconuUniversity of Craiova Vladimir Dobrev Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Nick DoreyUniversity of Cambridge Hajar Ebrahim NajafabadiIPM, Tehran Federico Elmetti Università di Milano Oleg Evnin Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Francesco Fiamberti Università di Milano Davide Forcella SISSA, Trieste and CERN, Geneva Valentina Forini Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Angelos Fotopoulos Università di Torino Denis Frank Université de Neuchâtel Marialuisa Frau Università di Torino Matthias Gaberdiel Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Diego Gallego SISSA/ISAS, Trieste Maria Pilar Garcia del MoralIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università di Torino Valentina Giangreco Marotta Pulet

2008-11-01

158

List of Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna Ceresole Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università di Torino Kang Sin Choi University of Bonn Michele Cirafici University of Patras Andres Collinucci Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Aldo Cotrone Universitat de Barcelona Ben Craps Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Stefano Cremonesi SISSA, Trieste Gianguido Dall'Agata Padova University Sanjit Das Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Forcella Davide SISSA, Trieste Jose A de Azcarraga Valencia University and Instituto de Fìsica Corpuscular (CSIC-UVEG), Valencia Sophie de BuylInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Jean-Pierre Derendinger Université de Neuchâtel Stephane Detournay Università Degli Studi di Milano Paolo Di Vecchia NORDITA, København Oscar Dias Universitat de Barcelona Vladimir Dobrev Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Joel Ekstrand Department of Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University Federico Elmetti Università di Milano I Diaconu Eugen University of Craiova Oleg Evnin Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Bo Feng Imperial College, London Livia Ferro Università di Torino Pau Figueras Universitat de Barcelona Raphael Flauger University of Texas at Austin Valentina Forini Università di Perugia Angelos Fotopoulos Università di Torino Denis Frank Université de Neuchâtel Lisa Freyhult Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Carlos Fuertes Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Matthias Gaberdiel Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Maria Pilar Garcia del Moral Università di Torino Daniel Gerber Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Valentina Giangreco Marotta Puletti Uppsala University Joaquim Gomis Universitat de Barcelona Gianluca Grignani Università di Perugia Luca Griguolo Università di Parma Umut Gursoy École Polytechnique, Palaiseau and École Normale Supérieure, Paris Michael Haack Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Troels Harmark Niels Bohr Institute, København Alexander Haupt Imperial College, London Michal Heller Jagiellonian University, Krakow Samuli Hemming University of Iceland Yasuaki Hikida DESY,

2007-11-01

159

Investigating methods of improving SSM/I and OKEAN sea ice inversion parameters using MLP neural networks with different learning algorithms.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigating new methods to estimate sea-ice geophysical parameters using multisensor satellite data is critical for global change studies. The most widely used and consistent data to study sea ice at global scale are SMMR and SSM/I passive microwave measurements available since 1978. However, comparisons with LANDSAT, AVHRR and ERS-1 SAR have demonstrated substantial seasonal and regional differences in SSM/I ice parameter estimates (Belchansky and Douglas, 2000, 2002). This report presents investigating methods of improving SSM/I and OKEAN sea ice inversion parameters using MLP neural networks, and compare the sea ice classification results from different neural networks and linear mixture model. Efficiency of four sea ice type inversion (classification) algorithms utilizing SSM/I, OKEAN-01, ERS and RADARSAT satellite data were compared and investigated. The first one applied different linear mixture models (NASA Team, Bootstrap, and OKEAN). The second, third and fourth algorithms applied the modified MLP neural networks with different learning algorithms based, respectively, on 1) error back propagation and simulated annealing (Kirkpatrick, 1983); 2) dynamic learning and polynomial basis function (Chen et al., 1996); and 3) dynamic learning and two-step optimization. Both last algorithms used the Kalman filtering technique. Our studies demonstrated that both modified MLP neural networks with dynamic learning were more efficient (in terms of learning time, accuracy, and ability to generalize the selected learning data) than modified MLP neural network with learning algorithms based on the error back propagation and simulated annealing for simple approximation problems. MY sea ice and albedo inversion from SSM/I brightness temperatures and respective OKEAN learning data sets demonstrated that these algorithms caused over-fitting in comparison with the MLP neural network with the error back propagation and simulated annealing. Therefore, for MY sea ice inversion from microwave data, we used the MLP neural network with the error back propagation and simulated annealing. Results of the OKEAN classifications indicated that the modified back-propagation neural network was more efficient than linear mixture modeling when estimating ice-type concentrations in transition zones between OW and FY ice and between FY ice and MY ice. Using the MLP neural network with the error back propagation and simulated annealing, the SSM/I brightness temperatures, OKEAN MY and ERS MY sea ice learning data sets, Arctic MY sea ice maps for each month were developed during April 1996 through August 1996. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was carried out with the support from the International Arctic Research Center and Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research (IARC/CIFAR), University of Alaska Fairbanks. We would like to acknowledge the Alaska SAR Facility (Fairbanks), the National Snow and Ice Data Center (University of Colorado), and the Global Hydrology Resource Center, respectively, for providing RADARSAT images, the DMSP SSM/I Daily Polar Gridded Tb and Sea Ice Concentrations, the single-pass SSM/I brightness temperature data. REFERENCES Belchansky, G. I. and Douglas, D. C. (2000). Classification methods for monitoring Arctic sea-ice using OKEAN passive / active two-channel microwave data. J. Remote Sensing of Environment, Elsevier Science, New York. 73 (3): 307-322. Belchansky, G. I. and Douglas, D. C. (2002). Classification methods for monitoring Arctic sea-ice using OKEAN passive / active two-channel microwave data. J. Remote Sensing of Environment, Elsevier Science, New York 81 (1): 67-81. Chen, K. S., Huang, W. P., Tsay, D. H., and Amar, F. (1996). Classification of Multifrequency Polarimetric SAR Imagery Using a Dynamic Learning Neural Network, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 34 (3): 814-820.

Belchansky, G.; Alpatsky, I.; Mordvintsev, I.; Douglas, D.

160

Iron world and its astrobiological implications: The Tinto River case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme ecosystems have recently attracted considerable interest, not only because they prove that life is robust and adaptable, but also because their existence increases the probability of finding life elsewhere in the universe. Most of the best characterized extreme habitats on Earth correspond to geophysical constraints to which opportunistic microorganisms have adapted. However, some extreme acidic environments are unique in that they are the product of biological activity (chemolithotrophy). The Tinto River (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) is an unusual acidic ecosystem (100 km long, mean pH of 2.3) containing a high concentration of heavy metals and an unexpected level of microbial diversity (1,2). In the past, the extreme conditions of the river were considered the result of intense mining activity. The geomicrobiological analysis of the Tinto ecosystem strongly suggests that these conditions are the result of the metabolic activity of chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, mainly iron-oxidizers (3). The system seems to be controlled by iron, which is not only used as an electron donor, but also as an electron acceptor, allowing a full iron cycle to operate. Furthermore, ferric iron is responsible for the maintenance of the constant pH of the ecosystem and can protect the different organisms thriving in its waters from radiation. Laminar, iron-rich stromatolitic formations are generated by the precipitation of different iron minerals on the surface of the biofilms that cover most of the rocks in the river and the riverbed. These structures are similar to ancient massive bioinduced laminated iron bioformations formed long before the first mining activities started in the area 5000 years ago. The existence of these ancient iron-rich deposits formed prior to any known mining activity, under hydrochemical conditions similar to modern deposits, is considered a strong argument in favor of a natural origin of the river (4,5). Recently, the source area of the Tinto ecosystem has been used like an environmental scenario for new technology validation for astrobiology space missions. M.A.R.T.E. (Mars Analog Research Technology Experiment) was a multidisciplinary project for technology development in the NAI framework. REFERENCES 1.- López-Archilla, A.I., Marín, I., Amils, R. (2001) Microbial Ecol., 41: 20-35. 2.- Amaral-Zettler, L.A., Gómez, F., Zettler, E., Keenan, B.G., Amils, R., Sogin, M. (2002) Nature, 417: 137. 3.- González-Toril, E., Gómez, F., Rodríguez, N., Fernández-Remolar, D., Zuluaga, J., Marín, I., Amils, R., (2002) Hydrometall., in press. 4.- Amils, R., González-Toril, E., Gómez, F., Fernández-Remolar, D., Rodríguez, N. (2000) Spring Meeting American Geophysical Society, Abstract B22B-05. 5.- Fernández-Remolar, D.C., Rodríguez, N., Gómez, F., Amils, R. (2003) J. Geophys. Res., 108, No.E7 doi. 10.1029/2002JE001918

Gomez, F.; Amils, A.

2007-08-01

161

Star-forming complexes and the spiral structure of our Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a multiwavelength study of the plane of our Galaxy in order to establish a star-forming-complex catalogue which is as complete as possible. Features observed include H? , H109alpha , CO, the radio continuum and absorption lines. For each complex we have determined the position, the systemic velocity, the kinematic distance and, when possible, the stellar distance and the corresponding uncertainties. All of these parameters were determined as homogeneously as possible, in particular all the stellar distances have been (re)calculated with the same calibration and the kinematic distances with the same mean Galactic rotation curve. Through the complexes with stellar distance determination, a rotation curve has been fitted. It is in good agreement with the one of Brand & Blitz (1993). We also investigated the residual velocities relative to the circular rotation model. We find that departures exist over large areas of the arms, with different values from one arm to another. From our data and in good agreement with previous studies, the Galactic warp is observed. It does not seem correlated with the departures from circular rotation. Finally, as segment-like features are noted from the complexes' distribution, we tried to find if they are indicative of a larger underlying structure. Then, we attempted to interpret the complexes' distribution in terms of spiral structure by fitting models with two, three and four logarithmic spiral arms. The four-arm model seems more appropriate to represent the grand design of our Galaxy. In this model the Norma arm and the external arm appear as being the two extremities of a single arm called the Norma-Cygnus arm. The new data and fitted model confirm the four-segment model of Georgelin & Georgelin (1976), clarifying the arms' design and extension and doubling their known length. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory. Tables 1 and 3 (table1.ps and table3.txt) are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/133

Russeil, D.

2003-01-01

162

ESO Optical/NIR Observations of IGR J162834838  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most interesting discoveries of the INTEGRAL observatory (launched in 2003) is that of a set of transient X-ray sources with highly absorbed spectra in the Norma Arm of the Galaxy (e.g. Smith et al. 2004, AAS-HEAD8, 25.02; Walter 2004, AAS-HEAD8, 33.01). Multiwavelength studies of some of them have identified their optical/NIR counterparts and have shown that these systems are most probably high-mass X-ray binaries containing neutron stars or black holes, and with highly reddened early-type supergiant secondaries (e.g. Negueruela et al. 2005, ATel, 429; Pellizza et al. 2005, in preparation, Smith 2004, ATel, 338). IGR J162834838 is a recently discovered source which shares the X-ray characteristics of this group. In this work we present new ESO optical/NIR photometric and spectroscopic observations of the counterpart candidates of IGR J162834838, and discuss the nature of this source.

Pellizza, L. J.; Chaty, S.

2006-06-01

163

INTEGRAL reveals a new class of obscured high mass X-ray binaries: focus on IGR J16318-4848  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray source IGR J16318-4848 is the first source discovered by INTEGRAL on 2003, January 29, exhibiting a very high column density. On 2003, February, 23-25 we triggered a Target of Opportunity (ToO) program using the EMMI (optical) and SOFI (near-infrared, NIR) instruments on the New Technology Telescope of the European Southern Observatory (NTT/ESO La Silla). We discovered the optical counterpart and confirmed the NIR candidate. NIR spectroscopy revealed a large amount of emission lines, including forbidden iron and P-Cygni profiles. We show that the source is a High Mass X-ray binary (HMXB) at a distance between 0.9 and 6.2 kpc, the mass donor being an early-type star, probably a sgB[e] star, surrounded by a dense and absorbing circumstellar material. This would make the second HMXB with a sgB[e] after CI Cam. Other sources, discovered by INTEGRAL near IGR J16318-4848 in the direction of the Norma arm, present the same characteristics. Such sources may represent a different evolutionary state of X-ray binaries previously undetected with the lower energy space telescopes; if it is so, a new class of strongly absorbed X-ray binaries is being unveiled by INTEGRAL.

Chaty, Sylvain; Filliatre, Philippe

2005-06-01

164

The optical/near-infrared conterpart of the INTEGRAL obscured source IGR J16318-4848 : an sgB[e] in a HMXB ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTEGRAL has discovered several highly absorbed X-ray source in the direction of the Norma arm, the first of which being IGR J16318-4848. We used the EMMI and SOFI instruments on the New Technology Telescope of the European Southern Observatory (la Silla) to get optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations during a Target of Opportunity program. We discovered the optical counterpart, and confirm the already proposed candidate in the near-infrared. We propose that the source is a High Mass X-ray binary, the optical/near-infrared counterpart corresponds to the mass donor surrounded by a dense and absorbing circumstellar material. We identify it as a sgB[e] star, forming then the second High Mass X-ray binary with a sgB[e] star as the mass donor after the recently CI Cam. The compact object might be a black hole. Such sources may represent a different evolutionary state of X-ray binaries previously undetected with the lower energy space telescopes ; if it is so, a new class of strongly absorbed X-ray binaries is being unveiled by INTEGRAL.

Filliatre, P.; Chaty, S.

165

Detection of a Young Stellar Population in the Background of Open Clusters in the Third Galactic Quadrant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the detection of a young stellar population (<=100 Myr) in the background of nine young open clusters belonging to a homogenous sample of 30 star clusters in the third Galactic quadrant (at 217deg<=l<=260deg). Deep and accurate UBVRI photometry allows us to measure model-independent age and distance for the clusters and the background population with high confidence. This population is exactly the same population (the blue plume) recently detected in three intermediate-age open clusters and suggested to be a <=1-2 Gyr old population belonging to the Canis Major (CMa) overdensity (Bellazzini et al.; Martínez-Delgado et al.). However, we find that the young population in those three clusters and in six clusters of our sample follows the pattern of the Norma-Cygnus spiral arm as defined by CO clouds remarkably well, while in the other three program clusters it lies in the Perseus arm. We finally provide one example (out of 21) of a cluster that does not show any background population, demonstrating that this population is not ubiquitous toward CMa.

Carraro, Giovanni; Vázquez, Ruben A.; Moitinho, André; Baume, Gustavo

2005-09-01

166

A flight-test methodology for identification of an aerodynamic model for a V/STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is a flight test methodology for developing a data base to be used to identify an aerodynamic model of a vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) fighter aircraft. The aircraft serves as a test bed at Ames for ongoing research in advanced V/STOL control and display concepts. The flight envelope to be modeled includes hover, transition to conventional flight, and back to hover, STOL operation, and normaL cruise. Although the aerodynamic model is highly nonlinear, it has been formulated to be linear in the parameters to be identified. Motivation for the flight test methodology advocated in this paper is based on the choice of a linear least-squares method for model identification. The paper covers elements of the methodology from maneuver design to the completed data base. Major emphasis is placed on the use of state estimation with tracking data to ensure consistency among maneuver variables prior to their entry into the data base. The design and processing of a typical maneuver is illustrated.

Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Mcnally, B. David

1988-01-01

167

Results from the first two years of the INTEGRAL Spiral Arms Monitoring Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the scientific objectives and main highlights from the first 2 years of an INTEGRAL "Key Program" consisting of high-cadence monitoring of the inner spiral arms of the Galaxy paired with ToO observations of new transients with XMM-Newton and Swift. The INTEGRAL Spiral Arms (ISA) program (25.6 ks per spacecraft revolution during visibility periods, for a total of 1.2 Ms per year since 2012) complements the successful Galactic Bulge (GB) program by extending the monitored region of the Galaxy to the Inner Perseus/Norma Arm tangents on one side of the GB, and the Scutum/Sagittarius Arms on the other. These fields feature a high density of obscured high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), including Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs), as well as other hard X-ray emitting sources (e.g. microquasars, low-mass X-ray binaries, and magnetars) that INTEGRAL is well-suited to finding thanks to its large field of view and angular resolution at high energies even in crowded regions of the sky. Mosaic images and source light curves in 2 energy bands for ISGRI and JEM-X are being provided to the community permitting rapid dissemination of results (http://isa.gcsu.edu) which enable prompt follow-up of interesting events. The ISA project represents the cornerstone of our ongoing study of transient and variable hard X-ray populations in the Milky Way.

Bodaghee, Arash; Spetzer, Keri

2014-08-01

168

VI photometry of 5 open clusters (Carraro+, 2007)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stellar populations in the outer Galactic disk are a subject of wide interest nowadays. To contribute to a better picture of this part of the Galaxy, we have studied the nature of five marginally investigated star clusters (Collinder 74, Berkeley 27, Haffner 8, NGC 2509, and VdB-Hagen4) by means of accurate CCD photometry in the V and I passbands. These clusters are in fact located in the third Galactic quadrant. We aim to obtain the basic parameters of these objects, which in some cases are still disputed in the literature. In the case of VdB-Hagen 4 we provide the first estimate of its fundamental parameters, while for Haffner 8 we present the first CCD photometry. The analysis is based on the comparison between field star decontaminated color-magnitude diagrams and stellar models. Particular care is devoted to the the assessment of the data quality and the statistical field star decontamination. The Padova library of stellar isochrones is adopted in this study. The analysis we carried out allowed us to solve a few inconsistencies in the literature regarding Haffner 8 and NGC 2509. Collinder 74 is found to be significantly older than reported before. VdB-Hagen 4 is a young open cluster located more than 20kpc from the Galactic center. Such an extreme distance is compatible with the cluster belonging to the Norma-Cygnus arm. (5 data files).

Carraro, G.; Costa, E.

2007-01-01

169

Using binary classification to prioritize and curate articles for the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database.  

PubMed

We report on the original integration of an automatic text categorization pipeline, so-called ToxiCat (Toxicogenomic Categorizer), that we developed to perform biomedical documents classification and prioritization in order to speed up the curation of the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). The task can be basically described as a binary classification task, where a scoring function is used to rank a selected set of articles. Then components of a question-answering system are used to extract CTD-specific annotations from the ranked list of articles. The ranking function is generated using a Support Vector Machine, which combines three main modules: an information retrieval engine for MEDLINE (EAGLi), a gene normalization service (NormaGene) developed for a previous BioCreative campaign and finally, a set of answering components and entity recognizer for diseases and chemicals. The main components of the pipeline are publicly available both as web application and web services. The specific integration performed for the BioCreative competition is available via a web user interface at http://pingu.unige.ch:8080/Toxicat. PMID:23221176

Vishnyakova, Dina; Pasche, Emilie; Ruch, Patrick

2012-01-01

170

Exploring Cultural Heritage Resources in a 3d Collaborative Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cultural heritage is a complex and diverse concept, which brings together a wide domain of information. Resources linked to a cultural heritage site may consist of physical artefacts, books, works of art, pictures, historical maps, aerial photographs, archaeological surveys and 3D models. Moreover, all these resources are listed and described by a set of a variety of metadata specifications that allow their online search and consultation on the most basic characteristics of them. Some examples include Norma ISO 19115, Dublin Core, AAT, CDWA, CCO, DACS, MARC, MoReq, MODS, MuseumDat, TGN, SPECTRUM, VRA Core and Z39.50. Gateways are in place to fit in these metadata standards into those used in a SDI (ISO 19115 or INSPIRE), but substantial work still remains to be done for the complete incorporation of cultural heritage information. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the complexity of cultural heritage resources can be dealt with by a visual exploration of their metadata within a 3D collaborative environment. The 3D collaborative environments are promising tools that represent the new frontier of our capacity of learning, understanding, communicating and transmitting culture.

Respaldiza, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Vázquez Hoehne, A.

2012-06-01

171

Our Milky Way Gets a Makeover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for Fully Annotated Version Click on image for Poster Version

Like early explorers mapping the continents of our globe, astronomers are busy charting the spiral structure of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Using infrared images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists have discovered that the Milky Way's elegant spiral structure is dominated by just two arms wrapping off the ends of a central bar of stars. Previously, our galaxy was thought to possess four major arms.

This artist's concept illustrates the new view of the Milky Way, along with other findings presented at the 212th American Astronomical Society meeting in St. Louis, Mo. The galaxy's two major arms (Scutum-Centaurus and Perseus) can be seen attached to the ends of a thick central bar, while the two now-demoted minor arms (Norma and Sagittarius) are less distinct and located between the major arms. The major arms consist of the highest densities of both young and old stars; the minor arms are primarily filled with gas and pockets of star-forming activity.

The artist's concept also includes a new spiral arm, called the 'Far-3 kiloparsec arm,' discovered via a radio-telescope survey of gas in the Milky Way. This arm is shorter than the two major arms and lies along the bar of the galaxy.

Our sun lies near a small, partial arm called the Orion Arm, or Orion Spur, located between the Sagittarius and Perseus arms.

2008-01-01

172

Understanding our Galaxy: from the center to outskirts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the efforts to understand our Milky Way Galaxy, from its center to outskirts, including (1) the measurements of the intrinsic size of the galactic center compact radio source Sgr A*; (2) the determination of the distance from the Sun to the Perseus spiral arm; and (3) the revealing of large scale global magnetic fields of the Galaxy. With high-resolution millimeter-VLBI observations, Shen et al. (2005) have measured the intrinsic size of the radio-emitting region of the galactic center compact radio source Sgr A* to be only 1 AU in diameter at 3.5 mm. When combined with the lower limit on the mass of Sgr A*, this provides strong evidence for Sgr A* being a super-massive black hole. Comparison with the intrinsic size detection at 7 mm indicates a frequency-dependent source size, posing a tight constraint on various theoretical models. With VLBI phase referencing observations, Xu et al. (2006) have measured the trigonometric parallax of W3OH in the Perseus spiral arm with an accuracy of 10 ?as and also its absolute velocity with an accuracy of 1 km s-1. This demonstrates the capability of probing the structure and kinematics of the Milky Way by determining distances to 12 GHz methanol (CH3OH) masers in star forming regions of distant spiral arms and Milky Way's outskirts. With pulsar dispersion measures and rotation measures, Han et al. (2006) can directly measure the magnetic fields in a very large region of the Galactic disk. The results show that the large-scale magnetic fields are aligned with the spiral arms but reverse their directions many times from the most inner Norma arm to the outer Perseus arm.

Shen, Z. Q.; Xu, Y.; Han, J. L.; Zheng, X. W.

2008-07-01

173

Optimal Spectral Regions For Laser Excited Fluorescence Diagnostics For Point Of Care Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tissue fluorescence gives the response of light emitting molecule signature, and characterizes the cell composition and peculiarities of metabolism. Both are useful for the biomedical diagnostics, as reported in previous our and others works. The present work demonstrates the results of application of laser excited autofluorescence for diagnostics of pathology in genital tissues, and the feasibility for the bedside at ``point of care--off lab'' application. A portable device using the USB spectrophotometer, micro laser (355 nm Nd:YAG, 0,5 ns pulse, repetition rate 10 kHz, output power 15 mW), three channel optical fiber and computer with diagnostic program was designed and ready for clinical trial to be used for cytology and biopsy specimen on site diagnostics, and for the endoscopy/puncture procedures. The biopsy and cytology samples, as well as intervertebral disc specimen were evaluated by pathology experts and the fluorescence spectra were investigated in the fresh and preserved specimens. The spectra were recorded in the spectral range 350-900 nm. At the initial stage the Gaussian components of spectra were found and the Mann-Whitney test was used for the groups' differentiation and the spectral regions for optimal diagnostics purpose were found. Then a formal dividing of spectra in the components or the definite width bands, where the main difference of the different group spectra was observed, was used to compare these groups. The ROC analysis based diagnostic algorithms were created for medical prognosis. The positive prognostic values and negative prediction values were determined for cervical Liquid PAP smear supernatant sediment diagnosis of being Cervicitis and Norma versus CIN2+. In a case of intervertebral disc the analysis allows to get the additional information about the disc degeneration status. All these results demonstrated an efficiency of the proposed procedure and the designed device could be tested at the point-of-care site or for intervertebral disc operations.

Vaitkuviene, A.; G?gžna, V.; Varanius, D.; Vaitkus, J.

2011-09-01

174

From Large Scale Surveys of the Galaxy to High Resolution Observations with ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CS(2-1) survey of OB star forming regions provides statistics of their distribution in the Galaxy. The complete scenario of massive star formation for one particular GMC, at a distance of 1.6 kpc, is revealed through 1.2 mm continuum observations for spatial scales from 1 pc to 50 pc. Using large scale CO and C18O maps from NANTEN at 2.5' resolution, we identified toward the peak of C18O one of the most luminous regions of high-mass star formation in the Galaxy, G331.5, toward the tangent of Norma spiral arm, at a distance of 7.5 kpc. Observations at 1.2 mm continuum emission with SIMBA at SEST reveal the presence of a cluster of six massive millimeter clumps, with high bolometric luminosity, making G331.5 one of the most densely populated GMC cores known so far. High density molecular tracers reveal the presence, in the center of the most massive clump, of a compact, highly massive and energetic molecular outflow, with a velocity width reaching 160 km s-1 (fwzp). Further interferometric continuum observations at 3.6 cm and 6 cm shows that this powerful outflow is associated with a compact radio continuum source, likely producing highly ionized stellar wind. ALMA observations were carried in band 7 to this unresolved molecular outflow. SiO and H13CO+ observations unveil a shell-like structure toward the ambient velocity of the source, evidence of an isotropic high speed wind. The derived crossing time for this source indicates that the molecular outflow in G331.5 is one of the youngest outflow found around an OB star.

Bronfman, L.; Merello, M.

2013-10-01

175

Photometry of the five marginally studied open clusters Collinder 74, Berkeley 27, Haffner 8, NGC 2509, and VdB-Hagen 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: The stellar populations in the outer Galactic disk are a subject of wide interest nowadays. To contribute to a better picture of this part of the Galaxy, we have studied the nature of five marginally investigated star clusters (Collinder 74, Berkeley 27, Haffner 8, NGC 2509, and VdB-Hagen4) by means of accurate CCD photometry in the V and I passbands. These clusters are in fact located in the third Galactic quadrant. Aims: We aim to obtain the basic parameters of these objects, which in some cases are still disputed in the literature. In the case of VdB-Hagen 4 we provide the first estimate of its fundamental parameters, while for Haffner 8 we present the first CCD photometry. Methods: The analysis is based on the comparison between field stars decontaminated color magnitude diagrams and stellar models. Particular care is devoted to the the assessment of the data quality and the statistical field star decontamination. The Padova library of stellar isochrones is adopted in this study. Results: The analysis we carried out allowed us to solve a few inconsistencies in the literature regarding Haffner 8 and NGC 2509. Collinder 74 is found to be significantly older than reported before. VdB-Hagen 4 is a young open cluster located more than 20 kpc from the Galactic center. Such an extreme distance is compatible with the cluster belonging to the Norma-Cygnus arm. Photometric data is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/464/573

Carraro, G.; Costa, E.

2007-03-01

176

Identifications of Four Integral Sources in the Galactic Plane via CHANDRA Localizations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hard X-ray imaging of the Galactic plane by the INTEGRAL satellite is uncovering large numbers of 20-100 keV "IGR" sources. We present results from Chandra, INTEGRAL, optical, and IR observations of four IGR sources: three sources in the Norma region of the Galaxy(1GR J16195-4945,IGR J16207-5129, and IGR J16167-4957) and one that is closer to the Galactic center (IGR 5171 95-4100). In all four cases, one relatively bright Chandra source is seen in the INTEGRAL error circle, and these are likely to be the soft X-ray counterparts of the IGR sources. They have hard 0.3-10 keV spectra with power-law photon indices of Gamma = 0.5-1.1. While many previously studied IGR sources show high column densities (NH approx. 10(exp 23)-10(exp 24)/sq cm), only IGR J16195-4945 has a column density that could be as high as 10(exp 23)/sq cm. Using optical and IR sky survey catalogs and our own photometry, we have obtained identifications for all four sources. The J-band magnitudes are in the range 14.9-10.4, and we have used the optical/IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to constrain the nature of the sources. Blackbody components with temperature lower limits of >9400 K for IGR J16195-4945 and >18,000 K for IGR J16207-5129 indicate that these are very likely high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). However, for IGR 516167-4957 and IGR J17195-4100, low extinction and the SEDs indicate later spectral types for the putative companions, suggesting that these are not HMXBs.

Tomsick, John A.; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriquez, Jerome; Foschini, Luigi; Walter, Roland; Kaaret, Philip

2006-01-01

177

Evaluation Metrics for the Paragon XP/S-15  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On February 17th 1993, the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) facility located at the NASA Ames Research Center installed a 224 node Intel Paragon XP/S-15 system. After its installation, the Paragon was found to be in a very immature state and was unable to support a NAS users' workload, composed of a wide range of development and production activities. As a first step towards addressing this problem, we implemented a set of metrics to objectively monitor the system as operating system and hardware upgrades were installed. The metrics were designed to measure four aspects of the system that we consider essential to support our workload: availability, utilization, functionality, and performance. This report presents the metrics collected from February 1993 to August 1993. Since its installation, the Paragon availability has improved from a low of 15% uptime to a high of 80%, while its utilization has remained low. Functionality and performance have improved from merely running one of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks to running all of them faster (between 1 and 2 times) than on the iPSC/860. In spite of the progress accomplished, fundamental limitations of the Paragon operating system are restricting the Paragon from supporting the NAS workload. The maximum operating system message passing (NORMA IPC) bandwidth was measured at 11 Mbytes/s, well below the peak hardware bandwidth (175 Mbytes/s), limiting overall virtual memory and Unix services (i.e. Disk and HiPPI I/O) performance. The high NX application message passing latency (184 microns), three times than on the iPSC/860, was found to significantly degrade performance of applications relying on small message sizes. The amount of memory available for an application was found to be approximately 10 Mbytes per node, indicating that the OS is taking more space than anticipated (6 Mbytes per node).

Traversat, Bernard; McNab, David; Nitzberg, Bill; Fineberg, Sam; Blaylock, Bruce T. (Technical Monitor)

1993-01-01

178

A newly discovered young massive star cluster at the far end of the Galactic Bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a near-infrared study of the candidate star cluster Mercer 81, located at the centre of the G338.4+0.1 H II region and close to the TeV gamma-ray source HESS 1640-465. Using Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS imaging and VLT/ISAAC spectroscopy, we have detected a compact and highly reddened cluster of stars, although the bright stars in the centre of the field are in fact foreground objects. The cluster contains nine stars with strong P? emission, one of which we identify as a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, as well as an A-type supergiant. The line-of-sight extinction is very large, AV˜ 45, illustrating the challenges of locating young star clusters in the Galactic plane. From a quantitative analysis of the WR star, we argue for a cluster age of 3.7? Myr, and, assuming that all emission-line stars are WR stars, a cluster mass of ?104 M?. A kinematic analysis of the cluster's surrounding H II region shows that the cluster is located in the Galactic disc at a distance of 11 ± 2 kpc. This places the cluster close to where the far end of the Bar intersects the Norma spiral arm. This cluster, as well as the nearby cluster [DBS2003]179, represents the first detections of active star cluster formation at this side of the Bar, in contrast to the near side which is well known to have recently undergone a ˜106 M? starburst episode.

Davies, Ben; de La Fuente, Diego; Najarro, Francisco; Hinton, Jim A.; Trombley, Christine; Figer, Donald F.; Puga, Elena

2012-01-01

179

Rings and ladders in biology - fast ab initio simulations of polypeptides and DNA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the years, developments of first principles methods have allowed a theoretical investigation of a wide variety of materials from semiconductors to zeolites. However, ab initio methods have not been widespread in the area of large biological systems. Several recent advances in theoretical techniques have prompted us to examine the possibility of simulating large biological systems. Linear scaling methods have been developed to avoid the N^3 computational roadblock due to matrix diagonalization, and a hydrogen-bonding model has been developed to correctly model weak intermolecular interactions within a tight-binding like local orbital framework.(J. Ortega, J. P. Lewis, O. F. Sankey Phys. Rev. B. 50), 10516 (1994); J. P. Lewis and O. F. Sankey, Biophys. J. 69, 1068 (1995). With these developments, a simulation of a dehydrated 10 basepair poly(dG) -- poly(dC) segment of DNA will be described. Results for the electronic structure of this relaxed structure will be discussed. In addition, a simulation of this relaxed structure, involving 1932 steps, was performed to determine the dynamical matrix. The corresponding vibrational spectrum was found and trends will be compared with experimental work.(Work done in collaboration with Otto F. Sankey and Pablo Ordejón) In addition, theoretical results on the energetics, electronic, vibrational and elastic properties of cyclic peptide systems cyclo[(D-Ala-Glu-D-Ala-Gln)_m], where m=1-4, will be presented. Experimentally, these cyclic peptide nanotubes have been shown to be excellent for transporting of ions and glucose across membranes, the attempt to simulate the placement of a dopant into the nanotube structure and the effects on the electronic structure will be discussed.(Work done in collaboration with Otto F. Sankey and Norma H. Pawley)

Lewis, James P.

1996-03-01

180

Metallothionein III (MT3) is a putative tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia by promoter hypermethylation  

PubMed Central

Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second most common form of leukemia in children. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are a characteristic feature in various tumors, including AML. Metallothionein III (MT3) is a tumor suppresser reported to show promoter hypermethylated in various cancers. However, the expression and molecular function of MT3 in pediatric AML is unclear. Methods Eleven human leukemia cell lines and 41 pediatric AML samples and 20 NBM/ITP (Norma bone marrow/Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) control samples were analyzed. Transcription levels of MT3 were evaluated by semi-quantitative and real-time PCR. MT3 methylation status was determined by methylation specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing (BSG). The molecular mechanism of MT3 was investigated by apoptosis assays and PCR array analysis. Results The MT3 promoter was hypermethylated in leukemia cell lines. More CpG’s methylated of MT3 was observed 39.0% pediatric AML samples compared to 10.0% NBM controls. Transcription of MT3 was also significantly decreased in AML samples compared to NBM/ITP controls (P?

2014-01-01

181

NuSTAR Galactic Plane Survey and Galactic Binaries Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NuSTAR Galactic science program includes a Galactic plane survey and observations of specific Galactic binaries. The survey includes a 2x0.8 degree field near Sgr A*, in which Chandra uncovered a large population of unidentified sources, possibly CVs. NuSTAR should detect hundreds of these sources in the hard X-ray band, helping identify their nature. A similar survey of the Norma region will be done for comparative studies. NuSTAR will observe Sgr A*, in coordination with Chandra and other observatories, to search for hard X-ray flaring. The same observations will provide an image of the central few tens of parsecs of the Galaxy with more than an order of magnitude better sensitivity than INTEGRAL. NuSTAR will spatially resolve the hard X-ray emission in the molecular cloud Sgr B2 to better understand its origin. An observation of the Limiting Window, which holds a possible new class of CVs, will yield information on their nature through the fraction of hard X-ray emitters. NuSTAR’s planned observation of the G2 molecular cloud - Sgr A* infall in the spring of 2013 will be discussed. Finally, with its superb hard X-ray sensitivity, NuSTAR will detect and map the low energy extension of the diffuse gamma-ray background observed by INTEGRAL, helping to resolve the long-standing mystery of the diffuse Galactic X-ray background. For Galactic binaries, NuSTAR's hard X-ray sensitivity will permit detailed studies of the fainter part of this population. NuSTAR will obtain the first hard X-ray measurements of black hole and neutron star transients in and approaching quiescence, providing new insights into how the X-ray emission is produced. NuSTAR will follow up on recently discovered types of High-Mass X-ray Binaries to search for pulsations, cyclotron lines, or spectral breaks, constraining the properties of their compact objects. We also plan to target gamma-ray binaries to understand whether the emission is powered by accretion or neutron star rotation. For bright X-ray binaries, we will use NuSTAR’s superb energy resolution at >10 keV to study cyclotron lines from accreting pulsars and to search for absorption edges in type I X-ray bursts that, if found, provide a new window on neutron star physics.

Hailey, Charles J.; NuSTAR Science Team

2013-01-01

182

Spirituality and Cultural Identification Among Latino and Non-Latino College Students  

PubMed Central

The purposes of this study were to examine (a) differences in spiritual perspectives and practices of Latino and non-Latino young adults and (b) the cultural relevance of the Latino Spiritual Perspective Scale (LSPS). Studies indicate that spiritual perspectives are embedded within cultural group norms and vary significantly across ethnic groups. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 223 Latino and non-Latino university students in the Southwestern United States. The Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), the LSPS, the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were used. Latinos scored significantly higher than non-Latinos in both measures of spiritual perspectives. Self-reported behavioral measures, such as frequency of personal prayer, were also higher among the Latino group. Latino cultural identification was the only significant predictor of LSPS scores. Findings from this study indicate that spirituality among Latinos has meanings specific to the cultural group context. These findings have implications for nursing research involving the conceptualization and measurement of spirituality among multiethnic groups. Los propósitos de este estudio eran examinar: (a) diferencias en perspectivas espirituales y prácticas de jóvenes Latinos y no Latinos; y (b) la relevancia cultural de la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina. Estudios indican que perspectivas espirituales están incrustadas entre normas culturales del grupo y varían considerablemente entre grupos étnicos. Un diseño transversal y de encuesta fue utilizado con una muestra de conveniencia de 233 estudiantes universitarios Latinos y no Latinos en el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos. La Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual (EPE), la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina (EPEL), la Escala Ortogonal de Identificación Cultural, y un cuestionario demográfico fueron utilizados. Los Latinos calificaron considerablemente más alto que los no Latinos en ambas medidas de perspectivas espirituales. Medidas de comportamiento auto-reportadas, como la frecuencia de oración, también estuvieron más altas en el grupo Latino. La identificación con la cultura Latina fue el único vaticinador de las calificaciones de la EPEL. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la espiritualidad entre Latinos tiene significados específicos al contexto del grupo cultural. Estas conclusiones tienen implicaciones para las investigaciones de enfermería que involucran la conceptualización y medida de la espiritualidad entre grupos multiétnicos.

Campesino, Maureen; Belyea, Michael; Schwartz, Gary

2010-01-01

183

COSMIC FLOW FROM TWO MICRON ALL-SKY REDSHIFT SURVEY: THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DIPOLE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LAMBDACDM COSMOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

We generate the peculiar velocity field for the Two Micron All-Sky Redshift Survey (2MRS) catalog using an orbit-reconstruction algorithm. The reconstructed velocities of individual objects in 2MRS are well correlated with the peculiar velocities obtained from high-precision observed distances within 3000 km s{sup -1}. We estimate the mean matter density to be OMEGA{sub m} = 0.31 +- 0.05 by comparing observed to reconstructed velocities in this volume. The reconstructed motion of the Local Group in the rest frame established by distances within 3000 km s{sup -1} agrees with the observed motion and is generated by fluctuations within this volume, in agreement with observations. Having tested our method against observed distances, we reconstruct the velocity field of 2MRS in successively larger radii, to study the problem of convergence toward the cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole. We find that less than half of the amplitude of the CMB dipole is generated within a volume enclosing the Hydra-Centaurus-Norma supercluster at around 40 h {sup -1} Mpc. Although most of the amplitude of the CMB dipole seems to be recovered by 120 h {sup -1} Mpc, the direction does not agree and hence we observe no convergence up to this scale. Due to dominant superclusters such as Shapley or Horologium-Reticulum in the southern hemisphere at scales above 120 h {sup -1} Mpc, one might need to go well beyond 200 h {sup -1} Mpc to fully recover the dipole vector. We develop a statistical model which allows us to estimate cosmological parameters from the reconstructed growth of convergence of the velocity of the Local Group toward the CMB dipole motion. For scales up to 60 h {sup -1} Mpc, assuming a Local Group velocity of 627 km s{sup -1}, we estimate OMEGA{sub m} h {sup 2} = 0.11 +- 0.06 and sigma{sub 8} = 0.9 +- 0.4, in agreement with WMAP5 measurements at the 1sigma level. However, for scales up to 100 h {sup -1} Mpc, we obtain OMEGA{sub m} h {sup 2} = 0.08 +- 0.03 and sigma{sub 8} = 1.0 +- 0.4, which agrees at the 1sigma to 2sigma level with WMAP5 results.

Lavaux, Guilhem; Mohayaee, Roya; Colombi, Stephane [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS/Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis bd Arago (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

2010-01-20

184

FOREWORD: V S Letokhov  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (CAMOP) endeavors periodically to devote an issue to the life and accomplishments of physicists who have made significant contributions to the fields represented in this journal. Vladilen Letokhov is certainly one of them. For a number of years he was also a CAMOP Correspondent. We are grateful to Professor Victor Balykin for having organized this CAMOP special section. It is particularly significant to one of us (HHS) to remember a person who has made seminal advances in so many areas which to this day are at the forefront of studies by a number of physicists. But over the years this acquaintance developed into friendship and gave the wife of one of us, Norma, and HHS the opportunity to host Tina and Vladik in their home, and get to know both a bit better. There was also the seminal International School on Laser Applications in Physics in Vilnius organized by Letokhov, and then a visit to Troitsk and his group at the Institute of Spectroscopy (and even the organization of a couple of piano recitals by one of our daughters, Marija, who accompanied her parents in the then USSR). Our interests crossed in a couple of fields: laser interactions with atoms and sensitive spectroscopy of radioactive atoms. Letokhov was a participant in the early organization of laser spectroscopy at CERN and was instrumental in providing copper vapour lasers to the isotope separator facility, ISOLDE. To this day laser ion sources are under the aegis of Valentin Fedoseyev who came to CERN from Troitsk. The interaction of lasers with atoms, in particular the process of slowing atoms, is discussed by Balykin. It was Christmas time when a card arrived from Oleg Tumanov of the Institute of Spectroscopy: it included a graph of temperature achieved by laser cooling as a function of calendar date. The results of Letokhov's group were the earliest (see figure 1), even though lower temperatures achieved subsequently by others extended our knowledge. To many, the lack of formal recognition was a bit puzzling, and this will have to await the usual number of decades before relevant discussions become publicSee, for example, Friedman R M 2001 The Politics of Excellence (New York: Henry Holt).. But, as can be attested by the most prolific, diverse and creative contributions presented in the bibliography, Letokhov's work will leave a long-lasting legacy. Progress in laser cooling Figure 1. Progress in laser cooling.

Stroke, H. Henry; Linnartz, Harold

2012-04-01

185

Treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting photosynthesis from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Seeds of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid Norma) were sterilized and divided into two groups. Half of the seeds were presoaked in 500 microM SA solution for only 6h, after which both groups were allowed to germinate for 3d and were then grown for 14d in Hoagland solution at 22/18 degrees C in a 16/8-h light/dark period and 120 micromolm(-2)s(-1) PAR. All seedlings (without H(2)O and SA controls) were transferred to Cd-containing solutions (10, 15, and 25 microM) and grown for 14d. The rate of CO(2) fixation and the activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC, EC 4.1.1.39) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) were measured. Changes in the levels of several important parameters associated with oxidative stress, namely H(2)O(2) and proline production, lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7)) were measured. Exposure of the plants to Cd caused a gradual decrease in the shoot and root dry weight accumulation, with the effect being most pronounced at 25 microM Cd. Seed pretreatment with SA alleviated the negative effect of Cd on plant growth parameters. The same tendency was observed for the chlorophyll level. The rate of CO(2) fixation was lower in Cd-treated plants, and the inhibition was partially overcome in SA-pretreated plants. A drop in the activities of RuBPC and PEPC was observed for Cd-treated plants. Pretreatment with SA alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cd on enzyme activity. Proline production and the rates of lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage increased in Cd-treated plants, whereas the values of these parameters were much lower in SA-pretreated plants. Treatment of plants with Cd decreased APX activity, but more than doubled SOD activity. Pretreatment with SA caused an increase in both APX and SOD activity, but caused a strong reduction in CAT activity. The data suggest that SA may protect cells against oxidative damage and photosynthesis against Cd toxicity. PMID:17913285

Krantev, Alexander; Yordanova, Rusina; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella; Popova, Losanka

2008-06-16

186

Sun-Earth Day - Teaching Heliophysics Through Education Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sun-Earth Day (SED) is an Education and Outreach program supported by the U.S, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The intent of the program is to teach students and the general public about Heliophysics (the science of the study of the Sun, how it varies, and how solar dynamics affect the rest of the solar system, especially the Earth). The program was begun ten years ago. Each year since that time a particular day has been designated as "Sun-Earth Day ,,. Usually the day of the spring equinox (March 20 or 21) is Sun-Earth Day, but other days have been used as well. Each year a theme is chosen relating to Heliophysics and events reflecting that theme are planned not only for Sun-Earth Day, but for the entire year. From the very beginning educational technology was emphasized in the events in order to effectively reach wide audiences with the SED message. The main approach has been to have a "webcast" related to each year's theme, often from a location that supports the theme as well. For example, a webcast took place from the Mayan pyramids at Chichen Itza, Mexico to highlight the theme of "Ancient Observatories, Timeless Knowledge". Webcasts were not the only technology employed, however. Many of the themes centered on the dynamic nature of the Sun and the effects that solar storms can have on interplanetary space and in our day-to-day life on Earth. Activities for tracking when solar storms happen and how they affect the Earth were developed and brought together in an educational package called Space Weather Action Centers. This project is explained in more detail in another presentation in this session being given by Norma Teresinha Oliveira Reis. Recent Sun-Earth Days have utilized "social networking" technologies to reach widespread groups on the internet. Podcasts, Vodcasts, Facebook, Twitter, and Second Life are the types of network technologies being employed now. The NASA Distance learning Network is another method for bringing Sun-Earth Day events and training to widespread educators and classrooms in order to magnify the reach of Sun-Earth Day. Examples of the technologies will be shown along with an assessment of their effectiveness.

Thieman, J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.

2010-01-01

187

Tuning in on Cepheids: Radial velocity amplitude modulations. A source of systematic uncertainty for Baade-Wesselink distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Classical Cepheids are crucial calibrators of the extragalactic distance scale. The Baade-Wesselink technique can be used to calibrate Cepheid distances using Cepheids in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. Aims: I report the discovery of modulations in radial velocity (RV) curves of four Galactic classical Cepheids and investigate their impact as a systematic uncertainty for Baade-Wesselink distances. Methods: Highly precise Doppler measurements were obtained using the Coralie high-resolution spectrograph since 2011. Particular care was taken to sample all phase points in order to very accurately trace the RV curve during multiple epochs and to search for differences in linear radius variations derived from observations obtained at different epochs. Different timescales are sampled, ranging from cycle-to-cycle to months and years. Results: The unprecedented combination of excellent phase coverage obtained during multiple epochs and high precision enabled the discovery of significant modulation in the RV curves of the short-period s-Cepheids QZ Normae and V335 Puppis, as well as the long-period fundamental mode Cepheids ? Carinae and RS Puppis. The modulations manifest as shape and amplitude variations that vary smoothly on timescales of years for short-period Cepheids and from one pulsation cycle to the next in the long-period Cepheids. The order of magnitude of the effect ranges from several hundred m s-1 to a few km s-1. The resulting difference among linear radius variations derived using data from different epochs can lead to systematic errors of up to 15% for Baade-Wesselink-type distances, if the employed angular and linear radius variations are not determined contemporaneously. Conclusions: The different natures of the Cepheids exhibiting modulation in their RV curves suggests that this phenomenon is common. The observational baseline is not yet sufficient to conclude whether these modulations are periodic. To ensure the accuracy of Baade-Wesselink distances, angular and linear radius variations should always be determined contemporaneously. Based on observations collected at ESO La Silla Observatory using the Coralie spectrograph mounted to the Swiss 1.2 m Euler telescope.The derived radial velocities are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/L10Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Anderson, Richard I.

2014-06-01

188

Multiwavelength study of accretion-powered pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis consists in a multi-frequency approach to High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs), using infrared and X-ray data. On one side, the project aimed at the identification and characterization of IR counterparts to obscured HMXBs in the Scutum and Norma inner galactic arms. The identification of optical/IR counterparts to HMXBs is a necessary step to undertake detailed studies of these systems. With data limited to the high-energy range, the understanding of their complex structure and dynamics cannot be complete. In the last years, INTEGRAL has revealed the presence of an important population of heavily absorbed HMXBs in the Scutum and Norma regions, virtually unobservable below 4 keV. Optical counterparts to these obscured sources are hardly observable, due to the high interstellar extinction. Candidate counterparts to HMXBs were selected by means of a photometric search for emission-line stars in the error boxes of the X-ray sources detected by INTEGRAL. With this objective, I built up (Br?-K)-(H-K) and (HeI-K)-(H-K) IR color-color diagrams, in which emission-line stars are expected to show up below the absorption-line stars sequence. I applied this technique to search for counterparts to Be/XRBs, whose transient nature prevents the counterpart identification with follow-up X-ray observations with high spatial resolution. For each field, one to four candidate counterparts were identified. I also took spectra of proposed counterparts. The confirmation and spectral classifications of the systems led to unveil the nature of nine INTEGRAL objects. On the other hand, this work intended to provide for the first time a systematic study of four Be/XRBs during giant (type II) outbursts. I employed RXTE data, applying the three techniques of color-color/hardness-intensity diagrams (CD/HID), spectral fitting and Fourier power-spectral analysis, simultaneously, and using the retrieved results and correlations to try to define and characterize spectral states for this class of systems. In this way I followed both a model-independent (CD/HID) and model-dependent approach (spectral fits) to investigate the rapid aperiodic variability as a function of spectral sates in HMXBs. I obtained lightcurves, energy and power spectra for a total number of 320 observations. From X-ray colors, spectral and timing fitting, I clearly identified in all the four systems two different spectral states, i.e. the Diagonal Branch (DB) and Horizontal Branch (HB). The HB corresponds to a lower-flux state, with larger rms than the DB. Also, the power-law photon index decreases with flux in the HB, while stays constant or increases in the DB. The HB shows lower characteristic frequencies of the noise components than in the DB. The cyclotron resonant scattering features are generally associated with the DB, while absent or weaker during the DB. We showed how the transition between the two states may correspond to the transition from the standing shock emission to the thermal mound emission due to the turning point from super-Eddington luminosity regime (DB) to sub-Eddington luminosity regime (HB). From color, spectral and timing point of view, differences among systems easily distinguishes two subgroups, with the slower pulsars, KS 1947+300 and EXO2030+375, on one side, and the faster ones, 4U 0115+63 and V 0332+53, on the other. The first group is characterized by softer spectra in the HB compared with the other systems. Hysteresis is not observed in the slower pulsars, while it is evident in V 0332+53 and 4U 0115+63. Cyclotron resonant scattering features are crucial in the spectral shape of V 0332+53 and 4U 0115+63, where also a harmonic is observed in the 3-30 keV energy range. They are instead absent or very weak in the first group. According to timing features, a strong difference between the two groups is the presence of QPOs in the faster pulsars.

Nespoli, Elisa

2010-11-01

189

Recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haiti, because of his seismicity associated with plate boundary and several faults that cross the island of Hispaniola (Haiti-Dominican Republic), has been affected in the past by major earthquakes, which have caused loss of life and damage or considerable structural collapses (ex. 1771, 1842), sometimes the destruction of the cities. The recent earthquake of January 12, 2010, was the most destructive earthquake that any country has experienced in modern times, when we measure the number of people killed with respect to the population of a country (Cavallo et al. 2010). It's obvious that the major causes of theses losses are the lack of awareness of the population about the earthquakes, the absence of seismic code and quality control of the building. In this paper, we propose some recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti in order to decrease physical and social impacts of earthquakes in the future. First of all, we present a theoretical part of concepts and fundamental elements to establish a seismic code, such as: description of the methodology for seismic hazard's assessment, presentation of the results in terms of acceleration maps for the whole country (in rock sites) and Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) in the cities, and the criteria for soil classification and amplification factors for including site's effects, equivalent forces, etc. Then, we include a practical part where calculations and comparisons of five seismic codes of different countries (Eurocode 8, Spain, Canada, United States and Dominican Republic) are included, in order to have criteria for making the proposals for Haiti. Using the results of Benito et al (presented in this session S10) we compare the UHS in different cities of Haiti with the response spectrum derived from the application of the spectral shapes given by the aforementioned codes. Furthermore, the classification of soils and buildings have been also analyzed and contrasted with local data in order to propose the more suitable classification for Haiti. Finally, we have proposed a methodology for the forces estimation providing the values of the relevant coefficients. References: EN 1998-1:2004 (E): Eurocode 8, Design of structures for earthquake resistance, Part 1(General Rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings), 2004. -MTPTC, (2011). Règles de calcul intérimaires pour les bâtiments en Haïti, Ministère des Travaux Publics, Transports et Communications, Février 2011, Haïti. -NBCC 2005: National Building Code of Canada, vol1, National Research Council of Canada 2005. -NCSE-02: Norma de construcción sismorresistente de España. BOE num.244, Viernes 11 Octubre 2002. -NEHRP, 2009. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for new Buildings and Other Structures, FEMA P-750, February, Part 1 (Provisions) and Part 2 (Commentary). -R-001 (2011): Reglamento para el análisis y diseño sísmico de estructuras de República Dominicana. Decreto No. 201-11. Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Comunicaciones.

Pierristal, G.; Benito, B.; Cervera, J.; Belizaire, D.

2013-05-01

190

Project Seacleaner: from cooperation among ISMAR-CNR researchers, high school students and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies to an application for environmental monitoring and scientific research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the Institute for Marine Science of the Italian Research Council ISMAR-CNR has undertaken a series of actions to incorporate oceanography in education: among these, the project "SeaCleaner" that has been developed together with a local Secondary School (Istituto di Istruzione Superiore Capellini-Sauro) and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM) [1]. Seven students, engaged within the national Programme "work-related learning"[2], have worked side-by-side with ISMAR-CNR researchers, investigating on the problem of debris accumulation on beaches, and understanding the damage that this issue causes to marine environments and ecosystems. This problem has recently become a challenging research subject for an increasing number of oceanographers and, in general, for environmental researchers coming from the Mediterranean areas [3, 4, 5], other European Seas [6] and Oceans [7, 8]. Data collected during repeated surveys (seasonally) in the same beach stretch, over several years, allow calculating debris accumulation rates and flow intensities. Application of current models gives additional information on debris dispersal and origin, but we shouldn't forget that, generally, relevance of acquired data is determined by the accuracy and standardization of the procedure. In this context, students have previously searched for literature sources and summarized the most important issues, among these: few data that are often collected during small ranges of time and usually a low number of available researchers for carrying out such a time-consuming survey in the field. In a initial part of the project, several trial surveys have been performed on different beaches in La Spezia province, in order to understand how to elaborate possible strategies to speed up and standardize the procedure. Developing an application for Android system (downloadable on any compatible mobile device such as smartphones, tablets, etc.) has been considered as a good solution since it is easy to spread and distribute among non-technical end-users. This app will help final users to carry out a standard monitoring procedure, in a quick way. All data (photographs, site characteristics, kind of debris, waypoints) will be properly captured and semi-automatically registered on a separate electronic spreadsheet. SeaCleaner app can be provided to environmental associations, marine parks, volunteers and its easy approach will allow us to obtain standardized and safe data, upcoming from an increasing number of points, which will be acquired in situ and then saved on a dedicated remote database. Citizen participation in scientific programs, already experienced in the field of astronomy [9] has been effective also in other scientific fields, both from the scientific and social point of view, since it brings people closer to science and fills the gap between who produces science and technology and who benefits from it ("citizen science") [10, 11]. SeaCleaner is ready to be used during the school year 2013/2014 to test its validity and usefulness. Further internships and collaborations between ISMAR and educational institutions, will allow us by the end of April 2014 to show the first dataset processed in this experimental phase. It is worth to highlight the active involvement of young people in this project and its effectiveness as a tool for raising awareness on environmental issues and orientating young people towards scientific careers. The project has been awarded in November 2013 as the best regional work-related learning project. [1] DLTM: Distretto Ligure per le tecnologie Marine: www.dltm.it. [2] Italian Law on general rules for work-related learning: D.Lgs 15/04/2005 n. 77 sulla "Definizione delle norme generali relative all'alternanza scuola-lavoro, a norma dell'articolo 4 della legge 28 marzo 2003, n. 53". [3] UNEP/MAP/MED POL (2004). Guidelines on Management of coastal litter for the Mediterranean region (MED POL). MAP Technical Reports Series No.148. UNEP/MAP, Athens. [4 ] Henry, M. (2010). Pollution

Merlino, Silvia; Marini, Claudio; Tosi, Daniela; Caselli, Lorena; Marini, Davide; Lucchinelli, Paolo; Vatteroni, Davide; Lunardelli, Francesco; Agrusa, Astrid; Lombardi, Davide; Stroobant, Mascha

2014-05-01

191

Gas kinematics and ionization along the extended sight line to HD 116852  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph intermediate observations of the interstellar medium toward HD 116852, a low halo star at a distance of 4.8 kpc (z = -1.3 kpc) in the direction l = 304. deg 9, b = 16.deg 1. The small science aperture observations have signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 30 to 90 and resolutions of 11 to 18 km/s (FWHM). We confirm the optical MK classification of this star through an analysis of its ultraviolet photosperic and stellar wind profiles. We detect interstellar lines of Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V together with lines of C I, C I*, C I**, Si II, Ge II, P II, and Ni II. We convert the Mg II, P II, S II, Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V profiles into measure of apparent column density as a function of LSR velocity. Gas scale height, velocity dispersion, and differential Galactic rotation effects govern the profile shapes. A simple computer model of the expected sight line column density profiles for the low and high ion species indicates that the gas velocity dispersions and scale heights increase as the ionization level of the gas increases. We find scale heigts H greater than or = 1 kpc for the high ions, which are comparable to the z-distance of the star, whereas we find H approximatley = 0.6 to 0.7 kpc for A1 III and H approximatley 0.1 kpc for P II and Ge II. An enhancement in the Al II profile near -15 km/s accounts for approximately 25% of the A1 III column along the sight line and probably arises within gas located approximately 500 pc below the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm link. Portions of the broad underlying A1 III distribution are associated with the higher ionization lines, perhaps in conductive interfaces. The presence of N V and the column density ratios of Si IV, C IV, and N V favor the interpretation that much of the high ion absorption is produced by collisional ionization in gas with T = 1-3 x 10(exp 5) K. An enhancement near -35 km/s in both the Si IV and C IV profiles may be due to an outflow from the Norma spiral arm at a z-distance of about -1 kpc. The smooth decrease of the N(C IV)/N(Si IV) ratio at negative velocities may be due to an ISM ionization structure for hot gas that changes distance from the Galactic plane or to a two phase gas distribution in which the relative contribution from each phase changes with distance from the Galactic plane.

Sembach, Kenneth R.; Savage, Blair D.

1994-01-01

192

Laboratory and field measurements of organic aerosols with the photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical methods developed to sample and characterize ambient organic aerosols often face the trade-off between long sampling times and the loss of detailed information regarding specific chemical species present. The soft, universal ionization scheme of the Photoionization Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (PIAMS) allows for identification of various chemical compounds by a signature ion, often the molecular ion. The goal of this thesis work is to apply PIAMS to both laboratory and field experiments to answer questions regarding the formation, composition, and behavior of organic aerosols. To achieve this goal, a variety of hardware and software upgrades were administered to PIAMS to optimize the instrument. Data collection and processing software were either refined or built from the ground up to simplify difficult or monotonous tasks. Additional components were added to PIAMS with the intent to automate the instrument, enhance the results, and make the instrument more rugged and user-friendly. These changes, combined with the application of an external particle concentration system (mini-Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System, m-VACES), allowed PIAMS to be suitable for field measurements of organic aerosols. Two such field campaigns were completed, both at the State of Delaware Air Quality Monitoring Site in Wilmington, Delaware: a one week period in June, 2006, and an 18 day period in October and November of 2007. A sampling method developed was capable of collecting sufficient ambient organic aerosol and analyzing it with a time resolution of 3.5 minutes. Because of this method, short term concentration changes of individual species can be tracked. Combined with meteorological data, the behavior of these species can be analyzed as a function of time or wind direction. Many compounds are found at enhanced levels during the evening/night-time hours; potentially due to the combined effects of temperature inversion, and fresh emissions in a cooler environment. The high-time resolution data shows that rapid concentration changes of a common individual species can be lost with traditional bulk sampling, and a time resolution of 30 minutes is suggested to accurately represent these changes. Using the mass spectra collected from the extended sampling campaign, source apportionment was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF). The resulting model features six factors either correlated to specific sources (meat cooking, car emissions/road dust, diesel exhaust) or types of compounds (phthalates, alkanes/alkanoic acids, PAHs). The high-time resolution data allowed for the observation of specific trends in each factor's behavior as a function of time and wind direction relative to the receptor site. Elemental carbon/organic carbon (EC/OC) data is used to calculate the percentages of primary and secondary organic aerosol. Primary organic aerosol (POA) constituted the vast majority of the total carbon at 91% (an average of 2.8 +/- 1.1mug/m 3); 30% of which came from combustion, and 70% from non-combustion sources. These results can be explained by the PIAMS data: the diesel factor contributes to the combustion-related POA; the car/road dust, meat cooking, and alkane/alkanoic acid factors contribute the majority of non-combustion POA. The remaining factors represent <5% of the remaining OC. Considering the compatibility of data from the EC/OC and PIAMS, the ability of PIAMS to yield molecular species information to further define the primary and secondary organic aerosol factions is a distinct advantage in describing the behavior of the Wilmington organic aerosol. PIAMS was also applied to laboratory experiments. These experiments simulated complex environmental processes in order to focus on answering a central question. By mixing cholesterol aerosol with ozone in a smog chamber, and monitoring the concentration of cholesterol with PIAMS, the rate of reaction was determined. This rate indicates that cholesterol aerosol, which is a suggested source tracer, will remain in the ambient air for a few days under norma

Dreyfus, Matthew A.

193

PREFACE: The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place on 2-13 August 2004, in the city of Xalapa, Veracruz, México. The School continued with the tradition of promoting High Energy Physics among the younger generation in Mexico. Thus, it was aimed specifically at graduate students and postdocs. The School consisted of several courses delivered by international experts on subjects of current interest to the scientific community. The length of each course was of six to eight hours, English being the language of instruction. A novelty in this edition of the School was its total duration (two weeks as opposed to one), the number of hours assigned to one subject, and the addition of some experimental courses for the students to overcome their inhibitions of a direct encounter with the equipment and its usage. There were also a few overview talks delivered by local experts on the current status of some of the research fields actively pursued in Mexico. The XI-MSPF was organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Universidad de Veracruz, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV) and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT). We are very grateful to Dr Raúl Arias Lovillo, Dr Víctor Manuel Alcaráz Romero, Dr Asdrúbal Flóres López and Mtro Walter Saiz González, head of the Academic Secretariat, Director and Subdirector of the Office of Scientific Research and Director of the Division of Exact Sciences of the University of Veracruz, respectively, for their invaluable support in all senses to our Summer School. We also appreciate the important and useful assistance provided by Dr Rubén Bernardo Morante López, Director of the Museum of Anthropology of Xalapa, and Dr Héctor Coronel Brizio of the Secretariat of Education and Culture of the state of Veracruz. We acknowledge the help of our colleagues in the Organizing Committee: Norma Bagatella Flores (FFIA-U. Veracruzana), Heriberto Castilla Valdés (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Lorenzo Díz Cruz (FCFM-BUAP), Juan José Godina Nava (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Gerardo Herrera Corral (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), German Mandujano Vallejo (FFIA-U. Veracruzana), Miguel Ángel Pérez Angón (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Efraín Rojas Marcial (FFIA-U. Veracruzana) and Carlos Vargas Madrazo (FFIA-U Veracruzana). Many thanks also to our Conference Secretaries Patricia Carranza and Soledad López for the efficiency with which they carried out their job and their dedication. Special thanks go to María Guadalupe Colorado Hernández and Javier Ignacio Fragoso Tizapan, whose help in carrying out the School was essential, without their collaboration this School would not have been the same. We take this opportunity to thank most warmly all the speakers for delivering excellent lectures which made this event a success. Moreover, to our utmost delight, the students participated very enthusiastically and we hope that this school will contribute considerably towards their academic development. The future of scientific endeavour always depends upon the students. Adnan Bashir (IFM-UMSNH) Jens Erler (IF-UNAM) Rául Hernández (FFIA-UV) Myriam Mondragón (IF-UNAM) Luis Villaseñor (IFM-UMSNH)

2005-01-01

194

Effects of drug-carrier interactions on drug dissolution from binary and ternary matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nearly five decades, pharmaceutical researchers have studied solid solutions of drugs in polymers as a potential means to enhance the dissolution of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. This has become of greater importance in recent years because most new potential drug compounds (new chemical entities) exhibit poor water solubility and present great challenges to scientists who must design dosage forms from which the drugs are bioavailable. During the formulation of a solid solution, the drug undergoes physical but not chemical alterations that increase its chemical potential in the formulation relative to that of the pure drug in its stable form. This increased chemical potential is responsible for enhanced dissolution as well as physical instabilities, such as amorphous to crystalline conversions and precipitation within the solid state. The chemical potential is derived from the Gibbs free energy, so it is reasonable to explain the behavior of solid solution systems in terms of thermodynamics. Solid solutions and dispersions have been extensively studied by pharmaceutical scientists, both with regard to manufacturing aspects and the proposal of various models in attempts to explain the physical bases for how these systems work. Recently, Dave and Bellantone proposed a model based on the thermodynamic changes resulting from the formulation of binary solid solutions of a drug in the polymer PVP. Their model introduced a modification of the F-H theory, which was used to quantify the drug-polymer interaction energies and calculate the entropy of mixing of the drug and polymer. In this work, the model of Dave and Bellantone was extended to include three-component systems, consisting of one drug mixed in a carrier matrix consisting of mixture of two polymers or a polymer and a surfactant. For this research, solid solutions were formed using various drug weight fractions in the formulations. The study focused on the following points: (1) Prepare solid solution formulations and perform appropriate physical characterizations. (2) Characterize the increase in drug dissolution rates resulting from solid solution formulations. (3) Relate the initial dissolution rates to the drug solubility. (4) Explain the solubility enhancement from solid solution dosage in terms of the drug polymer interactions using the extended thermodynamic model. Two poorly water soluble drugs, levonorgestrel (LEVO) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) were formulated in seven solid solution preparations comprised of four carrier systems. Materials used as carriers included various combinations of the polymers PVP K-30, Copovidone (COP), Poloxamer 182, and the surfactant TweenRTM 20. Additionally, ibuprofen (IBU) was used in three formulations consisting of various combinations of PVP K-30, Copovidone and TweenRTM 20. Formulations with various drug weight fractions (0.5%--30%) were prepared using the solvent evaporation technique. Each formulation was tested for dissolution using intrinsic dissolution apparatus (USP). The solid solutions were compressed into tablets into the sample die that maintained a constant surface area during the dissolution process. DSC, XRD and NIRS scans identified that the crystalline peaks of the drug disappeared with the addition of the polymer for all ratios of EE, indicating the formation of solid solutions (to within the limits of detection of the equipment). This was also observed for the LEVO dispersions up to 10% drug loading. At higher drug loading, solutions were formed but some small degree crystallinity was also present. For each experiment, the initial dissolution rates were obtained from the slope of the mass dissolved vs. time plots taken at early times, and volume normalized initial dissolution rates RV were calculated by dividing the initial dissolution rate by the volume fraction of the drug in the formulation. Comparison of the RV values for the various formulations with a reference RV (typically that of the pure drug or of the formulation with the highest polymer content) allowed calculation of relative volume norma

Iqbal, Zafar

195

Waterproof Anti-Explosive Powders for Coal Mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limestone powder characterized by hydrophobic properties is used as an anti-explosive agent in coal mining industry. Unfortunately, the standard method of producing such powder by milling limestone with stearic acid is practically unprofitable in many modernized quarries and plants, and sometimes literally impossible due to the introduction of technological changes and implementation of modern mills. Then new methods of hydrophobization of limestone surfaces ought be searched. In the work two methods hydrophobization: from the stearic acid vapour phase and from silicone solutions are proposed. Lime dust from the Czatkowice Quarry of Lime was used as a raw material during investigations. It is a good agent for research because it is possible to compare the properties of samples modified in this work to the properties of anti-explosive lime powder (Polish Standard, 1994) used in mining industry in Poland. The first technique of limestone powder hydrophobization was carried out in an apparatus of own design (Vogt, 2008, 2011), and it consisted in free sedimentation of the powder layer dispersed by stearic acid vapour in powder counter current flow. The second way of modification consisted in mixing in the evaporating dish substrates: limestone powder and dope - silicone solution - Sarsil® H-15 (Vogt & Opali?ski, 2009; Vogt & Ho?ownia, 2010). Evaluation of properties so-obtained waterproof powders was carried out according to the Polish Standard, as well as using original powder determination ways, with the Powder Characteristic Tester (Index tables, Tablets & Capsules, 2005). Moreover water vapour adsorption isotherms were obtained and the thermal decomposition of powder was made. All modified samples acquired the hydrophobic character. Therefore we can state that the both proposed methods of hydrophobization of the limestone powder are useful. The parameters obtained with the use of Powder Characteristics Tester enable us to make a characterization of limestone properties not only as a water resistant material but also from the cohesion point of view. On the base of TG, DTG or DTA and EGA curves for all investigated materials was stated that the character of the thermal decomposition of modified samples is the same as this one for raw powder, what is profitable for application of hydrophobized powders as an anti-explosive agent. W górnictwie w?gla kamiennego u?ywany jest hydrofobowy py? wapienny jako substancja stosowana w systemie zabezpiecze? przeciwwybuchowych (Cybulski, 2004). Niestety, dotychczasowy sposób wy- twarzania takiego produktu polegaj?cy na wspó?mieleniu kamienia wapiennego z kwasem stearynowym staje si? praktycznie niemo?liwy do stosowania w nowoczesnych zak?adach np. kamienio?omy. Sytuacja taka jest wynikiem wprowadzania zmian technologicznych, g?ównie zwi?zanych z wymian? starych konstrukcji m?ynów na nowe urz?dzenia. Tym samym istnieje potrzeba poszukiwania nowych metod hydrofobizacji powierzchni py?ów wapiennych. W pracy omówiono dwie nowe metody hydrofobizacji py?u wapiennego: za pomoc? par kwasu stearynowego oraz roztworu silikonowego - Sarsil® H-15. Podczas bada? u?ywano surowego py?u wapiennego pochodz?cego z Kopalni Kamienia Wapiennego w Czatkowicach. Materia? ten jest dobrym materia?em do bada? gdy? istnieje mo?liwo?? porównywania w?a?ciwo?ci materia?ów hydrofobowych otrzymanych w pracy z w?a?ciwo?ciami handlowego py?u przeciwwybuchowego (Polska Norma, 1994), u?ywanego w polskich kopalniach. Pierwszy sposób hydrofobizacji py?u wapiennego, polegaj?cy na swobodnym opadaniu py?u wapiennego w oparach kwasu stearynowego przep?ywaj?cych w przeciwpr?dzie, przeprowadzono w aparacie w?asnej konstrukcji (Vogt, 2008, 2011). Aparat gwarantuje dobry kontakt modyfikatora z ziarnami py?u. Py? opadaj?c, nie napotyka ?adnych przeszkód ulega? rozproszeniu, a wprowadzony w stanie parowym kwas stearynowy mo?e swobodnie osiada? na jego powierzchni zewn?trznej oraz penetrowa? w g??b porów, blokuj?c je dla wilgoci. Drugi sposób hydrofo

Buczek, Bronis?aw; Vogt, El?bieta

2014-03-01