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1

Amazon River  

... the Rio Solimoes and the Rio Negro converge to form the Amazon River. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... date:  Jul 23, 2000 Images:  Amazon River location:  South America thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-17

2

Amazon River  

article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View Larger Image ... Flowing over 6450 kilometers eastward across Brazil, the Amazon River originates in the Peruvian Andes as tiny mountain streams that ...

2013-04-17

3

The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system  

E-print Network

The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system Keywords: Amazon basin Amazon River Late Miocene Paleogeography Paleoecology fossil vertebrates palinology

Bermingham, Eldredge

4

The Amazon, measuring a mighty river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.

U.S. Geological Survey

1967-01-01

5

Feeding habit of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the feeding habit of Macrobrachium amazonicum, three experiments were carried out assessing the stage at which larvae start exogenous feeding, the acceptance of inert food by different larval stages and the ratio between live and inert diet ingested by larvae at each larval stage. In the first experiment, newly hatched larvae were kept in 500-mL beakers and fed

Mariana Cutolo de Araujo; Wagner Cotroni Valenti

2007-01-01

6

Tectonics and paleogeography along the Amazon river  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main structural and geomorphological features along the Amazon River are closely associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events.The Mesozoic tectonic setting is characterised by the Amazonas and Marajó Basins, two distinct extensional segments. The Amazonas Basin is formed by NNE–SSW normal faults, which control the emplacement of dolerite dykes and deposition of the sedimentary pile. In the more intense

João Batista Sena Costa; Ruth Léa Bemerguy; Yociteru Hasui; Maur??cio da Silva Borges

2001-01-01

7

Biogeochemistry of carbon in the Amazon River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth-integrated, discharge-weighted water samples were collected over 1,800km ofthe Amazon River on eight cruises at different stages of the hydrograph, 1982-1984. Fine (FPOC, 163 pm) and coarse (CPOC, > 63 rm) particulate organic carbon as weight percentage of suspended sediment varied between 0.9-1.5% for FPOC and 0.5-3.49\\/o for CPOC. Concentrations of FPOC ranged from 5 mg liter-' upriver to 2

JEFFREY E. RICHEY; JOHN I. HEDGES; ALLAN H. DEVOL; PAUL D. QUAY; REYNALDO VICTORIA; LUIZ MARTINELLI; BRUCE R. FORSBERG

1990-01-01

8

Size distribution of Amazon River bed sediment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first recorded observations of bed material of the Amazon River were made in 1843 by Lt William Lewis Herndon of the US Navy, when he travelled the river from its headwaters to its mouth, sounding its depths, and noting the nature of particles caught in a heavy grease smeared to the bottom of his sounding weight1. He reported the bed material of the river to be mostly sand and fine gravel. Oltman and Ames took samples at a few locations in 1963 and 1964, and reported the bed material at O??bidos, Brazil, to be fine sands, with median diameters ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 mm (ref. 2). We present here a summary of particle-size analyses of samples of streambed material collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries along a reach of the river from Iquitos in Peru, ???3,500 km above Macapa?? Brazil, to a point 220 km above Macapa??3. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

Nordin, C.F.; Meade, R.H.; Curtis, W.F.; Bosio, N.J.; Landim, P.M.B.

1980-01-01

9

Chemical and physical denudation in the Amazon River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present major and trace element data on the suspended and dissolved phases of the Amazon River and its main tributaries. The Sr isotopic composition of the dissolved load is also reported. Special attention is paid to the abundances of REE and to their fractionation between the dissolved and suspended phase. The rivers of the Amazon Basin are among the

Jérôme Gaillardet; Bernard Dupre; Claude J. Allegre; Philippe Négrel

1997-01-01

10

Amazon River Discharge and Climate Variability: 1903 to 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of an 83-year record (1903 to 1985) of the discharge of the Amazon River shows that there has been no statistically significant change in discharge over the period of record and that the predominant interannual variability occurs on the 2- to 3-year time scale. Oscillations of river discharge predate significant human influences in the Amazon basin and reflect both

Jeffrey E. Richey; Carlos Nobre; Clara Deser

1989-01-01

11

Amazon River investigations, reconnaissance measurements of July 1963  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first measurements of the flow of the Amazon River were made in July 1963 as a joint project of the University of Brazil, the Brazilian Navy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The discharge of the Amazon River at Obidos was 7,640,000 cfs at an annual flood stage somewhat lower than the average. For comparison the maximum known discharge of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg is about 2,300,000 cfs. Dissolved-solids concentrations and sediment loads of the Amazon River and of several major tributaries were found to be low.

Oltman, Roy Edwin; Sternberg, H. O'R.; Ames, F.C.; Davis, L.C.

1964-01-01

12

Radium and barium in the Amazon River system  

SciTech Connect

Data for /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The /sup 226/Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that /sup 226/Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River.

Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

1984-03-20

13

Radium and barium in the Amazon River system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data for ²²⁶Ra and ²²⁸Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon

Willard S. Moore; John M. Edmond

1984-01-01

14

Coagulation and settling of Amazon River suspended sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling of the water column on the Amazon continental shelf was conducted in June July 1983, and shipboard measurements of the particle size distribution were accomplished utilizing techniques that permit measurement of flocs. These data indicated a volumetric concentration maximum about 100 km offshore from the Amazon River mouth, with maxima of the mean particle size in suspension in the

Ronald J. Gibbs; Lohit Konwar

1986-01-01

15

Screening of parasitic and IHHNV infections in wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Rejang River at Kuching, Sarawak.  

PubMed

A preliminary survey of parasitic and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in giant freshwater prawn from the Damak Sea of Rejang River, Kuching, Sarawak was conducted. Symptoms of black spots/patches on the rostrum, carapace, pleopods or telson were observed in most of the 107 samples collected. Parasitic examination revealed sessiline peritrichs such as (Zoothamnium sp.), nematode larvae, gregarine stage and cocoon of leech with prevalences of 1.2%, 1.2%, 5% and 17% respectively. Under histopathological examination, changes like accumulation of hemocytes around hepatopancreatic tubules due to vibriosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions in the epithelium and E-cell of hepatopancreatic tubules as a result of HPV were seen through the section. No positive infection of IHHNV was detected in 78 samples. As such, the wild giant freshwater prawns in Damak Sea of Rejang River in Kuching are IHHNV-free though infections of parvo-like virus and bacteria were seen in histopathology. PMID:21602773

Kua, Beng Chu; Choong, F C; Hazreen Nita, M K; Muhd Faizul H, A H; Bhassu, S; Imelda, R R; Mohammed, M

2011-04-01

16

Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

1991-01-01

17

Hydrodynamic modelling of the Amazon River: Factors of uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic modelling of Amazonian rivers is still a difficult task. Access difficulties reduce the possibilities to acquire sufficient good data for the model calibration and validation. Current satellite radar technology allows measuring the altitude of water levels throughout the Amazon basin. In this study, we explore the potential usefulness of these data for hydrodynamic modelling of the Amazon and Napo Rivers in Peru. Simulations with a 1-D hydrodynamic model show that radar altimetry can constrain properly the calibration and the validation of the model if the river width is larger than 2500 m. However, sensitivity test of the model show that information about geometry of the river channel and about the water velocity are more relevant for hydrodynamic modelling. These two types of data that are still not easily available in the Amazon context.

Chávarri, Eduardo; Crave, Alain; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Mejía, Abel; Santos Da Silva, Joecila; Guyot, Jean Loup

2013-07-01

18

Biological Uptake of Dissolved Silica in the Amazon River Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 25 percent of the dissolved silica carried by the Amazon River is depleted through diatom production in the inner estuary. Annual production of opaline frustules is estimated to be 15 million tons. However, few diatoms accumulate in modern shelf sediments and chemical recycling appears to be slight. Instead, many frustules apparently are transported landward into the river system, where

John D. Milliman; Edward Boyle

1975-01-01

19

Seasonal sediment storage on mudflats adjacent to the Amazon River  

Microsoft Academic Search

210Pb and 234Th activity profiles in sediment cores from underconsolidated mudflats 300 km downdrift of the Amazon river mouth record an ephemeral surface layer of fine-grained sediment up to 1.5 m thick. This layer contains about l.5 × 108 tons of Amazon sediment deposited rapidly (~1 cm\\/d) from a fluid-mud suspension (10–400 g\\/l) during the months between January and June.

M. A. Allison; C. A. Nittrouer; G. C. Kineke

1995-01-01

20

Amazon River enhances diazotrophy and carbon sequestration in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean  

E-print Network

#12;Amazon River enhances diazotrophy and carbon sequestration in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean in carbon sequestration. Here, we report that the Amazon River plume supports N2 fixation far from the mouth of atmospheric carbon to the deep ocean (3), or ``carbon sequestration'' (4). The Amazon River has the largest

Subramaniam, Ajit

21

Factors driving the biogeochemical budget of the Amazon River and its statistical modelling  

E-print Network

Factors driving the biogeochemical budget of the Amazon River and its statistical modelling the period 1982­1984 during the Carbon in the AMazon River Experiment (CAMREX) project. The relevant factors-regressive model coupled to variance analysis. Basically, the compositional fluctuations in the Amazon River

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non-breeding sustainable model of control—if proven successful—could prevent re-infections and thus prove useful throughout the world. PMID:25166746

Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

2014-01-01

23

Organic carbon-14 in the Amazon River system  

SciTech Connect

Coarse and fine suspended particulate organic materials and dissolved humic and fulvic acids transported by the Amazon River all contain bomb-produced carbon-14, indicating relatively rapid turnover of the parent carbon pools. However, the carbon-14 contents of these coexisting carbon forms are measurably different and may reflect varying degrees of retention by soils in the drainage basin. 20 references, 1 table.

Hedges, J.I.; Ertel, J.R.; Quay, P.D.; Grootes, P.M.; Richey, J.E.; Devol, A.H.; Farwell, G.W.; Schmidt, F.W.; Salati, E.

1986-03-07

24

Dissolved humic substances of the Amazon River system1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic humic and fulvic acids from nine mainstem and seven major tributary sites in the Amazon River Basin are characterized by their elemental and lignin phenol compositions. Com- bined humic substances represent 60% of the riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with fulvic to humic acid (FA : HA) ratios in the mainstem averaging 4.7 -t 1 .O. All dissolved humic

John R. Ertel; John I. Hedges; Allan H. Devol; Jefrey E. Richey

1986-01-01

25

Organic carbon-14 in the Amazon River system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coarse and fine suspended particulate organic materials and dissolved humic and fulvic acids transported by the Amazon River all contain bomb-produced carbon-14, indicating relatively rapid turnover of the parent carbon pools. However, the carbon-14 contents of these coexisting carbon forms are measurably different and may reflect varying degrees of retention by soils in the drainage basin. 20 references, 1 table.

J. I. Hedges; J. R. Ertel; P. D. Quay; P. M. Grootes; J. E. Richey; A. H. Devol; G. W. Farwell; F. W. Schmidt; E. Salati

1986-01-01

26

Rates and mechanisms of shoreface progradation and retreat downdrift of the Amazon river mouth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field surveys of the 350-km shoreline adjacent to the Amazon river mouth reveal three distinct types: erosional mud, accretionary sand, and accretionary mud. Formation of these zones is controlled by the delivery of Amazon suspended sediment, mediated by the hydrodynamic regime. Erosional mud shorelines extend from Rio Araguari (near the Amazon river mouth) northwestward 280 km to 3.5 °N (near

M. A. Allison; C. A. Nittrouer; L. E. C. Faria

1995-01-01

27

Suspended sediment dynamics in the Amazon River of Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion and transport of sediments allow us to understand many activities of significance, such as crust evolution, climate change, uplift rates, continental processes, the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants and nutrients. The Amazon basin of Peru has contrasting physiographic and climatic characteristics between the Andean piedmont and the plains and between the north and south of the basin which is why there are 8 gauging stations located along the principal rivers of the Andean piedmont (Marañón, Huallaga, Ucayali) and the plain (Marañón, Tigre, Napo, Ucayali and Amazon rivers). Since 2003, the ORE-Hybam (IRD-SENAMHI-UNALM) observatory has performed out regular measurements at strategic points of the Amazon basin to understand and model the systems, behavior and long-term dynamics. On the Andean piedmont, the suspended yields are governed by a simple model with a relationship between the river discharge and the sediment concentration. In the plain, the dilution effect of the concentrations can create hysteresis in this relationship on a monthly basis. The Amazon basin of Peru has a sediment yield of 541 *106 t year-1, 70% comes from the southern basin.

Armijos, Elisa; Crave, Alain; Vauchel, Philippe; Fraizy, Pascal; Santini, William; Moquet, Jean-Sèbastien; Arevalo, Nore; Carranza, Jorge; Guyot, Jean-Loup

2013-07-01

28

Phytoplankton biomass and productivity in the Amazon River plume: correlation with seasonal river discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity were assessed on the continental shelf in the plume of the Amazon River during a series of cruises conducted within periods of minimum, maximum, rising and falling river discharge. Chlorophyll concentrations were greatest (up to 25.5 ?g l?1) in a zone located outside the turbid, high nutrient, low salinity riverine waters but shoreward of the

Walker O. Smith; David J. Demaster

1996-01-01

29

Bacterial carbon metabolism in the Amazon River system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial abundance and production and community respiration were measured at several mainstem and tributary stations in November-December 1988, April-May 1990, and August-September 199 1 in a 1,950- km reach of the Amazon River between Vargem Grande and Obidos, Brazil. Bacterial abundances averaged 1.1 x 1 O9 cells liter - L in the mainstem during the three cruises, and rates of

RONALD BENNER; STEPHEN OPSAHL; GERARDO CHIN-LEO; JEFFREY E. RICHEY; BRUCE R. FORSBERG

1995-01-01

30

Suspended sediments of the modern Amazon and Orinoco rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amazon and Orinoco Rivers are massive transcontinental conveyance systems for suspended sediment. They derive about 90% of their sediment from the Andes that support their western headwaters, transport it for thousands of kilometers across the breadth of the continent and deposit it in the coastal zones of the Atlantic. At their points of maximum suspended-sediment discharge, the Amazon transports an average of 1100-1300 ?? 106 tons per year and the Orinoco transports about 150 ?? 106 tons per year. Relations of sediment discharge to water discharge are complicated by unusual patterns of seasonal storage and remobilization, increased storage and reduced transport of sediment in the middle Orinoco during periods of peak water discharge, and storage of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon during rising discharge and resuspension during falling discharge. Spatial distributions of suspended sediment in cross-sections of both rivers are typically heterogeneous, not only in the vertical sense but also in the lateral. The cross-channel mixing of tributary inputs into the mainstem waters is a slow process that requires several hundred kilometers of downriver transport to complete. Considerable fine-grained sediment is exchanged between rivers and floodplains by the combination of overbank deposition and bank erosion. ?? 1994.

Meade, R.H.

1994-01-01

31

The Amazon continuum dataset: quantitative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic inventories of the Amazon River plume, June 2010  

PubMed Central

Background The Amazon River is by far the world’s largest in terms of volume and area, generating a fluvial export that accounts for about a fifth of riverine input into the world’s oceans. Marine microbial communities of the Western Tropical North Atlantic Ocean are strongly affected by the terrestrial materials carried by the Amazon plume, including dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) and inorganic nutrients, with impacts on primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Results We inventoried genes and transcripts at six stations in the Amazon River plume during June 2010. At each station, internal standard-spiked metagenomes, non-selective metatranscriptomes, and poly(A)-selective metatranscriptomes were obtained in duplicate for two discrete size fractions (0.2 to 2.0 ?m and 2.0 to 156 ?m) using 150 × 150 paired-end Illumina sequencing. Following quality control, the dataset contained 360 million reads of approximately 200 bp average size from Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, and viruses. Bacterial metagenomes and metatranscriptomes were dominated by Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, SAR11, SAR116, and SAR86, with high contributions from SAR324 and Verrucomicrobia at some stations. Diatoms, green picophytoplankton, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, and copepods dominated the eukaryotic genes and transcripts. Gene expression ratios differed by station, size fraction, and microbial group, with transcription levels varying over three orders of magnitude across taxa and environments. Conclusions This first comprehensive inventory of microbial genes and transcripts, benchmarked with internal standards for full quantitation, is generating novel insights into biogeochemical processes of the Amazon plume and improving prediction of climate change impacts on the marine biosphere. PMID:24883185

2014-01-01

32

Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large ?57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that ?57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimões tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the interaction between organic matter and iron in rivers, and ultimately the nature of their source in soils. As such, they may become a powerfull tracer of changes occurring on the continents in response to both weathering context and human activities. References: Bergquist, B.A., Boyle, E.A., 2006. Iron isotopes in the Amazon River system: Weathering and transport signatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248: 54-68. Emmanuel, S., Erel, Y., Matthews, A., Teutsch, N., 2005. A preliminary mixing model for Fe isotopes in soils. Chemical Geology, 222: 23-34. Fantle, M.S., DePaolo, D.J., 2004. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228: 547-562. Ingri, J., Malinovsky, D., Rodushkin, I., Baxter, D.C., Widerlund, A., Andersson, P., Gustafsson, O., Forsling, W., Ohlander, B., 2006. Iron isotope fractionation in river colloidal matter. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245: 792-798. Poitrasson, F., Viers, J., Martin, F., Braun, J.J., 2008. Limited iron isotope variations in recent lateritic soils from Nsimi, Cameroon: Implications for the global Fe geochemical cycle. Chemical Geology, 253: 54-63. Wiederhold, J.G., Teutsch, N., Kraemer, S.M., Halliday, A.N., Kretzchmar, R., 2007. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 5821-5833.

Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

2014-05-01

33

Daily water level by ENVISAT altimetry of the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar Altimetry is a remote sensing technique applied in order to obtain the level of water of the hydrological processes, mostly in remote regions such as in the Amazon basin. However, the altimetry satellites have a limitation in their temporal resolution, which in the case of ENVISAT is 35 days, which prevents the study of short-term hydrological events alert of floods and droughts and etc. Thus, a method of obtaining altimetric daily time series water level, based on a linear model of interpolation by optimization with multi-objective criteria was applied, using data from in situ on pluvial stations, along the Amazon River. The altimetry data validation show accurate results with a RMS of 11 cm, while the estimates carried out by the model obtained 63% of altimetric daily time series water level data with RMS less than 40 cm, thus allowing the use of altimetry data daily at various hydrological studies, hydrodynamic modeling and monitoring of extreme events.

Sousa, A. C.; Pereira, P.; Silva, J. S.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.

2013-05-01

34

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 21 NOVEMBER 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1017 Miocene drainage reversal of the Amazon River  

E-print Network

of the Amazon River driven by plate­mantle interaction G. E. Shephard1 *, R. D. Müller1 , L. Liu2 and M. Gurnis2 by the formation of the eastward-draining Amazon River, which has been attributed to Andean uplift1­5 . However the establishment of the Amazon River, suggesting that mantle convection can profoundly affect the evolution

Liu, Lijun

35

2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE and estimated by climate models  

E-print Network

2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE and estimated by climate models J extreme drought event in the Amazon river basin, regarded as the worst in over a century. GRACE measures. Yang, and G. Y. Niu (2009), 2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE

Yang, Zong-Liang

36

Amazon River water in the northeastern Caribbean Sea and its effect on larval reef fish assemblages during April 2009  

E-print Network

Amazon River water in the northeastern Caribbean Sea and its effect on larval reef fish assemblages.S.A. ABSTRACT During April to June 2009, a large bolus of Amazon River water impacted the northeastern Caribbean words: Amazon River plume, Caribbean Sea, chlorophyll-a, hydrography, larval fish assemblages, North

37

The Amazon River exits the Andes mountains more than 4000 kilometers (km) from its estuary,but along its  

E-print Network

Articles The Amazon River exits the Andes mountains more than 4000 kilometers (km) from its estuary of the environment and distinct aquatic eco- systems of the lowland Amazon River (summarized in Sioli [1984], Junk source of sediments and solutes to the lower reaches of the Amazon River.The most visible characteristics

McClain, Michael

38

Photochemical and microbial consumption of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved oxygen in the Amazon River system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial and photochemical mineralization of dissolved organic matter were investigated in the Amazon River system. Dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and bacterial growth were measured during incubations conducted under natural sunlight and in the dark. Substrate addition experiments indicated that the relatively low rates of bacterial activity in Amazon River water were caused by C limitation. Experiments to determine

R. M. W. Amon; R. Benner

1996-01-01

39

Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L. Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F.; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C.; Savoye, Nicolas; Deborde, Jonathan; Souza, Edivaldo Lima; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F.; Roland, Fabio

2014-01-01

40

Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands.  

PubMed

River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters. PMID:24336199

Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C; Savoye, Nicolas; Deborde, Jonathan; Souza, Edivaldo Lima; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F; Roland, Fabio

2014-01-16

41

Prawn Park - Taupo, New Zealand  

SciTech Connect

A freshwater prawn farm enterprise was established in 1987 in New Zealand to make use of geothermal waste heat from the Wairakei power generating field on the North Island. Approximately 2200 tons of prawns are imported each year into New Zealand, therefore, an effort was initiated to try and capture some of this market with a domestic product. Presently, there are 19 ponds varying in size from 0.2 to 0.35 ha (0.5 to 0.9 acres) with an average temperature of 24{degrees}C. The water comes from two different sources: river water and heated water from the plate heat exchanger. The farm is presently capable of producing up to 30 tonnes (33 tons) of prawns per annum of prawns, with plans for expansion of the operation in the near future.

Lund, J.W.; Klein, R. [Prawn Park, Taupo (New Zealand)

1995-10-01

42

Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating aquaculture breeding programs with this species. PMID:22745820

Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

2012-01-01

43

Trace elements and radionuclides in the Connecticut River and Amazon River estuary  

SciTech Connect

The Connecticut River, its estuary and the Amazon River plume were studied to elucidate processes which control the flux of nuclides to the sea. Major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, Bicarbonate) and selected trace elements (Ra, Ba, Cu, Si) are introduced to the Connecticut River in proportion to the total dissolved load of various groundwaters. Si, Ra, and Ba are subject to removal from solution by seasonal diatom productivity; whereas the other groundwater-derived elements are found in proportion to TDS both time and space. These nuclides are released in the estuary when a portion of the Ra, Ba, and Si in riverine biogenic detritus is trapped in salt marshes and coves bordering the estuary where it redissolves and is exported to the main river channel at ebb tide. In the Amazon River estuary, the Ra and Ba are released in mid-salinity waters. Ra and Ba together with Si are subsequently removed by diatom productivity as reflected in increased Ra and Ba in the suspended particles and depleted dissolved nuclide concentrations in samples from the high productivity zone. In both the Connecticut River system and the Amazon River plume, Cu behaves conservatively; whereas the fates of Fe and Al are linked to soil-derived humic acids. Trace elements in Amazon plume sediments are found simply in proportion to the percentage of fine-grained size materials, despite low Th-228/Ra-228 mean residence times in the plume and the presence of Cs-137 in the sediment column. Estimates of the total flux of nuclides to the oceans can best be calculated on a mass balance basis using groundwater inputs. Unless significant repositories for nuclides exist in the river-estuarine system, the groundwater flux of dissolved nuclides is net flux to the ocean despite the reactions which occur in both rivers and estuaries.

Dion, E.P.

1983-01-01

44

Contrasting patterns of habitat use by prawns and crayfish in a headwater marsh of the St. Johns River, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared seasonal patterns of habitat use by the prawn Palaemonetes paludosus and the crayfish Procambarus alleni in Blue Cypress Marsh Conservation Area, Florida. Prawn densities were similar to those found in other oligotrophic wetlands of southern Florida, whereas crayfish densities were much greater than reported previously for other wetlands in the area. Prawns and crayfish had strikingly different patterns of habitat use. Prawn density and biomass were similar in wet prairies and sloughs, whereas crayfish density and biomass were significantly higher in wet prairies. Within habitats, the abundance of prawns and crayfish generally increased with increasing structural complexity and the abundance of crayfish generally decreased with increasing water depth. Differences in risk of predation, frequency of agonistic encounters, food availability, and other factors likely contributed to observed patterns of habitat use. Because of differences in their ability to burrow and avoid concentration into dry-season refugia, prawns and crayfish responded very differently to seasonal variation in hydrologic conditions. Prawn densities were initially low (following a severe drought) and then increased during much of the study period, whereas crayfish densities were relatively stable throughout the study period. Overall, it appears that prawns are more responsive to antecedent hydrologic conditions and crayfish are more responsive to the availability of suitable habitats such as wet prairies.

Jordan, Frank; Babbitt, Kimberly J.; McIvor, Carole C.; Miller, Steven J.

2000-01-01

45

Contrasting iron isotopic compositions in river suspended particulate matter: the Negro and the Amazon annual river cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron isotopic compositions (?FeIRMM-1456) of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from two major rivers in the Amazon Basin, the Amazon River itself (at the Óbidos Station) and the Negro River (at the Serrinha Station), were investigated in the present study. The main objective was to search for temporal variations during their annual river cycles. ?FeIRMM-1456 values for the Amazon River at Óbidos range between 0.00 and +0.15‰, indistinguishable from the average continental crust value. In contrast, the iron isotopic compositions of the Negro River (Serrinha Station) SPM vary between -0.34 and -0.82‰, whereas the dissolved matter is isotopically heavier in this river. The lack of significant isotopic variations in the Amazon River indicates that one individual SPM subsurface sample is representative of the river during the whole annual river cycle, in opposition to results obtained for the Negro River. The data suggest that in organic-poor white water rivers, such as the Amazon, iron isotopic signatures of the suspended fraction reflect a detrital crustal component with little isotopic fractionation. On the other hand, in the organic-rich Negro River, which has tropical podzols as the main iron source, the iron redox cycling at the water-soil interface influences the iron isotopic composition.

dos Santos Pinheiro, Giana Márcia; Poitrasson, Franck; Sondag, Francis; Cochonneau, Gérard; Vieira, Lucieth Cruz

2014-05-01

46

Trace elements and radionuclides in the Connecticut River and Amazon River estuary  

SciTech Connect

The Connecticut River, its estuary, and the Amazon River estuary were studied to elucidate some of the processes which control river water chemistry and the flux of elements to the sea. The approach taken was to identify inputs to the Connecticut River and to investigate geochemical processes which modify the dissolved load. The form and quantity of nuclides which are in turn supplied to the estuary are altered by processes unique to that transition zone to the ocean. The Connecticut River estuary was sampled on a seasonal basis to investigate the role of the estuary in controlling the flux of elements to the sea. The knowledge gained from the Connecticut River study was applied to the quantitatively more significant Amazon River estuary. There a variety of samples were analyzed to understand the processes controlling the single greatest flux of elements to the Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that estimates of the total flux of nuclides to the oceans can best be calculated based on groundwater inputs. Unless significant repositories for nuclides exist in the river-estuarine system, the groundwater flux of dissolved nuclides is that which will eventually be delivered to the ocean despite the reactions which were shown to occur in both rivers and estuaries. 153 references, 63 figures, 28 tables.

Dion, E.P.

1983-01-01

47

Microspatial gene expression patterns in the Amazon River Plume  

PubMed Central

We investigated expression of genes mediating elemental cycling at the microspatial scale in the ocean’s largest river plume using, to our knowledge, the first fully quantitative inventory of genes and transcripts. The bacterial and archaeal communities associated with a phytoplankton bloom in Amazon River Plume waters at the outer continental shelf in June 2010 harbored ?1.0 × 1013 genes and 4.7 × 1011 transcripts per liter that mapped to several thousand microbial genomes. Genomes from free-living cells were more abundant than those from particle-associated cells, and they generated more transcripts per liter for carbon fixation, heterotrophy, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and iron acquisition, although they had lower expression ratios (transcripts?gene?1) overall. Genomes from particle-associated cells contributed more transcripts for sulfur cycling, aromatic compound degradation, and the synthesis of biologically essential vitamins, with an overall twofold up-regulation of expression compared with free-living cells. Quantitatively, gene regulation differences were more important than genome abundance differences in explaining why microenvironment transcriptomes differed. Taxa contributing genomes to both free-living and particle-associated communities had up to 65% of their expressed genes regulated differently between the two, quantifying the extent of transcriptional plasticity in marine microbes in situ. In response to patchiness in carbon, nutrients, and light at the micrometer scale, Amazon Plume microbes regulated the expression of genes relevant to biogeochemical processes at the ecosystem scale. PMID:25024226

Satinsky, Brandon M.; Crump, Byron C.; Smith, Christa B.; Sharma, Shalabh; Zielinski, Brian L.; Doherty, Mary; Meng, Jun; Sun, Shulei; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Paul, John H.; Coles, Victoria J.; Yager, Patricia L.; Moran, Mary Ann

2014-01-01

48

Microspatial gene expression patterns in the Amazon River Plume.  

PubMed

We investigated expression of genes mediating elemental cycling at the microspatial scale in the ocean's largest river plume using, to our knowledge, the first fully quantitative inventory of genes and transcripts. The bacterial and archaeal communities associated with a phytoplankton bloom in Amazon River Plume waters at the outer continental shelf in June 2010 harbored ? 1.0 × 10(13) genes and 4.7 × 10(11) transcripts per liter that mapped to several thousand microbial genomes. Genomes from free-living cells were more abundant than those from particle-associated cells, and they generated more transcripts per liter for carbon fixation, heterotrophy, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and iron acquisition, although they had lower expression ratios (transcripts ? gene(-1)) overall. Genomes from particle-associated cells contributed more transcripts for sulfur cycling, aromatic compound degradation, and the synthesis of biologically essential vitamins, with an overall twofold up-regulation of expression compared with free-living cells. Quantitatively, gene regulation differences were more important than genome abundance differences in explaining why microenvironment transcriptomes differed. Taxa contributing genomes to both free-living and particle-associated communities had up to 65% of their expressed genes regulated differently between the two, quantifying the extent of transcriptional plasticity in marine microbes in situ. In response to patchiness in carbon, nutrients, and light at the micrometer scale, Amazon Plume microbes regulated the expression of genes relevant to biogeochemical processes at the ecosystem scale. PMID:25024226

Satinsky, Brandon M; Crump, Byron C; Smith, Christa B; Sharma, Shalabh; Zielinski, Brian L; Doherty, Mary; Meng, Jun; Sun, Shulei; Medeiros, Patricia M; Paul, John H; Coles, Victoria J; Yager, Patricia L; Moran, Mary Ann

2014-07-29

49

Degradation of terrestrially derived macromolecules in the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate and tropical rivers serve as a significant source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. However, the source of the organic matter that fuels these globally relevant emissions is uncertain. Lignin and cellulose are the most abundant macromolecules in the terrestrial biosphere, but are assumed to resist degradation on release from soils to aquatic settings. Here, we present evidence for the degradation of lignin and associated macromolecules in the Amazon River. We monitored the degradation of a vast suite of terrestrially derived macromolecules and their breakdown products in water sampled from the mouth of the river throughout the course of a year, using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We identified a number of lignin phenols, together with 95 phenolic compounds, largely derived from terrestrial macromolecules. Lignin, together with numerous phenolic compounds, disappeared from our analytical window following several days of incubation at ambient river temperatures, indicative of biological degradation. We estimate that the net rate of degradation observed corresponds to 30-50% of bulk river respiration. Assuming that a significant fraction of these compounds is eventually remineralized to carbon dioxide, we suggest that lignin and other terrestrially derived macromolecules contribute significantly to carbon dioxide outgassing from inland waters.

Ward, Nicholas D.; Keil, Richard G.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Brito, Daimio C.; Cunha, Alan C.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Yager, Patricia L.; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.

2013-07-01

50

Tidal controls on the formation of fine-scale sedimentary strata near the Amazon river mouth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amazon river mouth provides a dynamic setting for studying the formation of sedimentary strata under conditions where fluvial and marine processes merge. River-mouth anchor stations were occupied for diurnal tidal cycles during three stages of river flow, and reoccupied for consecutive spring and neap tides during two stages of river flow. At each anchor station, box cores were collected

John M. Jaeger; Charles A. Nittrouer

1995-01-01

51

The Amazon River plume during AMASSEDS: Spatial characteristics and salinity variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amazon River discharge forms a plume of low-salinity water that extends offshore and northwestward over the north Brazilian shelf. Observations acquired as part of A Multidisciplinary Amazon Shelf SEDiment Study (AMASSEDS) are used to characterize the spatial structure and temporal variability of the Amazon Plume. Four shipboard conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) surveys spanning the shelf from 1°S to 5°N during rising

Steven J. Lentz; Richard Limeburner

1995-01-01

52

Logging along the Amazon River and estuary: Patterns, problems and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last several centuries most of the logging in the Brazilian Amazon has occurred along the Lower Amazon River and estuary and for good reason. Timber has been abundant there, the costs of wood extraction and transport have been low, and access to markets has been good. In this paper we first characterize the structure of the wood sector

Ana Cristina Barros; Christopher Uhl

1995-01-01

53

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

54

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

55

The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of paleontological content (vertebrates and palynology) and facies analysis from river banks, road cuts, and three wells, we have assigned the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation in western Amazonia, Brazil, to the Late Miocene. The vertebrate fossil record from outcropping sediments is assigned to the Huayquerian-Mesopotamian mammalian biozones, spanning 9-6.5 Ma. Additionally, we present results that demonstrate that deposits in Peruvian Amazonia attributed to Miocene tidal environments are actually fluvial sediments that have been misinterpreted (both environmentally and chronologically) by several authors. The entire Late Miocene sequence was deposited in a continental environment within a subsiding basin. The facies analysis, fossil fauna content, and palynological record indicate that the environment of deposition was dominated by avulsive rivers associated with megafan systems, and avulsive rivers in flood basins (swamps, lakes, internal deltas, and splays). Soils developed on the flatter, drier areas, which were dominated by grasslands and gallery forest in a tropical to subtropical climate. These Late Miocene sediments were deposited from westward of the Purus arch up to the border of Brazil with Peru (Divisor Ranges) and Bolivia (Pando block). Eastward of the Iquitos structural high, however, more detailed studies, including vertebrate paleontology, need to be performed to calibrate with more precision the ages of the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation. The evolution of the basin during the late Miocene is mainly related to the tectonic behavior of the Central Andes (˜ 3°-15°S). At approximately 5 Ma, a segment of low angle of subduction was well developed in the Nazca Plate, and the deformation in the Subandean foreland produced the inland reactivation of the Divisor/Contamana Ranges and tectonic arrangements in the Eastern Andes. During the Pliocene southwestern Brazilian Amazonia ceased to be an effective sedimentary basin, and became instead an erosional area that contributed sediments to the Amazon fluvial system. At that time, the lowland fluvial systems of southwestern Amazonia (the Purus, Jurua and Javarí basins) become isolated from the Andes by the newly formed north-flowing Ucayali system and south-east flowing Madre de Dios System. It was during the early Pliocene that the Amazon fluvial system integrated regionally and acquired its present appearance, and also when it started to drain water and sediments on a large scale to the Atlantic Ocean.

Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

2010-05-01

56

Exportation of organic carbon from the Amazon River and its main tributaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a joint Brazilian-French project, entitled Hydrology and Geochemistry of the Amazon Basin, we carried out a seven-year study (1994-2000) on the distribution, behaviour and flux of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the Amazon River and its main tributaries (the Negro, Solimões, Branco, Madeira, Tapajós, Xingú and Trombetas rivers).The concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic carbon varied

Patricia Moreira-Turcq; Patrick Seyler; Jean Loup Guyot; Henri Etcheber

2003-01-01

57

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ? 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals. PMID:21764516

Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

2011-12-29

58

PUBLISHED ONLINE: XX MONTH XXXX | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1017 Miocene drainage reversal of the Amazon River  

E-print Network

of the Amazon River driven by plate­mantle interaction G. E. Shephard1 *, R. D. Müller1 , L. Liu2 and M. Gurnis2 by the formation of the4 eastward-draining Amazon River, which has been attributed5 to Andean uplift1­5 . However towards26 the Atlantic. This shift, initiating the fluviolacustrine system that27 is now the Amazon River

Müller, Dietmar

59

Interannual variability in water storage over 2003-2007 in the Amazon Basin2 from GRACE space gravimetry, in situ river level3  

E-print Network

2003-2007 of different hydrological parameters in28 the Amazon river basin: vertically-integrated water storage from the GRACE space gravimetry29 mission, surface water level over the Amazon River and its storage from GRACE and31 in situ river level along the Amazon River and its main tributaries. We also

Boyer, Edmond

60

Integrating GRACE measured water storage change observations into the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) in the Amazon and Congo River Basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, GRACE measured water storages are used to constrain the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in the Amazon and Congo River Basins. The GRACE measured water storages change observations are de-correlated, filtered and signal leakage corrected with an approximate spatial resolution of longer than 200 km (half-wavelength). The HRR model provides similar scale total water storage changes by

R. E. Beighley; Y. He; R. L. Ray; J. Guo; C. Shum

2009-01-01

61

Freshwater fishes of the Amazon River basin: their biodiversity, fisheries, and habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stretching more than seven million square kilometers, the Amazon River basin is the largest river basin in the world and discharges about one-sixth of all freshwater from the continents to the oceans of the world. The age of this ecosystem, its position near the equator and the enormous diversity of its aquatic habitats, have produced the most diverse fish fauna

Wolfgang J. Junk; Maria Gercilia Mota Soares; Peter B. Bayley

2007-01-01

62

Major and trace elements of stream sediments from the lowermost Amazon River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical results from river-bottom sediments taken from the lowermost Amazon River are presented. Bedload sediments were analyzed for 10 major and 38 minor elements. Mud bulk sediments exhibit a tendency to a slight enrichment in Cr, Mn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cs, Ba and Hf, pointing to the importance of these elements in the silt fraction. Generally, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cs,

Helenice Vital; Karl Stattegger

2000-01-01

63

Vocalizations of Amazon River Dolphins, Inia geoffrensis: Insights into the Evolutionary Origins of Delphinid Whistles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic dolphins (Odontoceti: Delphinidae) produce tonal whistles, the structure and function of which have been fairly well characterized. Less is known about the evolutionary origins of delphinid whistles, including basic information about vocal structure in sister taxa such as the Platanistidae river dolphins. Here we characterize vocalizations of the Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), for which whistles have been reported

Jeffrey Podos; Vera M. F. da Silva; Marcos R. Rossi-Santos

2002-01-01

64

Isotopic Tracers of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water Fluxes From the Andean Headwaters to the Amazon River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amazon River is a large source of fresh water and organic carbon to the world's oceans. The Andean headwaters of the river have been implicated as a controlling factor on organic matter concentrations in the lower mainstem, but these tributaries have previously been little studied. We determined the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) elemental and stable isotopic composition of

A. Townsend-Small; M. E. McClain; J. A. Brandes

2004-01-01

65

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the Amazon River dolphin Inia geoffrensis.  

PubMed

Classical and molecular cytogenetic (18S rDNA, telomeric sequence, and LINE-1 retrotransposon probes) studies were carried out to contribute to an understanding of the organization of repeated DNA elements in the Amazon River dolphin (boto, Inia geoffrensis). Twenty-seven specimens were examined, each presenting 2n = 44 chromosomes, the karyotype formula 12m + 14sm + 6st + 10t + XX/XY, and fundamental number (FN) = 74. C-positive heterochromatin was observed in terminal and interstitial positions, with the occurrence of polymorphism. Interstitial telomeric sequences were not observed. The nucleolar organizer region (NOR) was located at a single site on a smallest autosomal pair. LINE-1 was preferentially distributed in the euchromatin regions, with the greatest accumulation on the X chromosome. Although the karyotype structure in cetaceans is considered to be conserved, the boto karyotype demonstrated significant variations in its formula, heterochromatin distribution, and the location of the NOR compared to other cetacean species. These results contribute to knowledge of the chromosome organization in boto and to a better understanding of karyoevolution in cetaceans. PMID:23010983

Bonifácio, Heidi L; da Silva, Vera M F; Martin, Anthony R; Feldberg, Eliana

2012-09-01

66

Water resources, salinity and salt yields of the rivers of the Bolivian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first time that the water resources, the salinity and the yields of the upper basins of the Madera River have been reported. Formed by the confluence of the Beni and Mamore, the Madera is one of the world's largest rivers: 17,000 m 3s -1, approximately half the discharge of the Congo River. It has a dissolved discharge close to that of the Congo River: 1 ts -1 of ions. Likewise, the Beni and the Mamore Rivers, are also classified as large rivers, greater than the Volga River, the largest in Europe, and the Niger River, the second largest in Africa. The amounts of water involved are considerable. The average dissolved content of these rivers, 57-61 mg l -1 respectively, is relatively low to medium. Many types of water, classified according to their ionic compositions, have been characterized in the Andes, the Amazon Plain, and in the main drainage axis. The slightly mineralized black water of the plain seems the most unique type. Recycling of water vapor in the Amazon Basin is confirmed by the low chloride and sodium contents of the water in the plain. Thus the importance of this phenomenon in the genesis of rainfall throughout the basin is emphasized. The contribution of the Upper Madera River to the Amazon River is 9.7% of the water and 10.9% of ionic load.

Roche, Michel-Alain; Jauregui, Carlos Fernandez

1988-06-01

67

Biogenic gases and the oxidation and reduction of carbon in Amazon River and floodplain waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of COZ, 02, CH4, and N,O in the Amazon River system reflect an oxidation- reduction sequence in combination with physical mixing between the floodplain and the mainstem. Concentrations of CO, ranged from 150 PM in the Amazon mainstem to 200-300 PM in aerobic environments and up to 1,000 PM in oxygen-depleted environments of the floodplain. Apparent oxygen utilization (AOU)

JEFFREY E. RICHEY; ALLAN H. DEVOL; STEVEN C. WOFSY; REYNALDO VICTORIA; MARIA N. G. RIBERIO

1988-01-01

68

Variations of Amazon River channel flow observed by satellite gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological cycle of Amazon River basin, which is the largest drainage in the world, plays important roles in global climate change. During the last decade, Amazonia has experienced abnormal climate events related with recent global climate change such as severe droughts in 2005 and 2010 and extreme flooding in 2009. In this study, we show the variations of Amazon River channel flow associated with the extreme climate events with satellite gravity observation. The channel flow signal is identified via applying Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) for GRACE gravity data. The leading principal component (PC) shows the similar temporal variations of the Amazon River water level from satellite altimetry observation, and its spatial pattern is similar to geographic location of the river channel. The 2nd mode exhibits the North-South dipole pattern of water mass variations with the river channel as the base, and this explains one of causes for the flooding and droughts. This study of the water mass variation along the river channel is potentially useful to examine Amazon River base flow when combined with the total discharge estimate from GRACE and reanalysis.

Eom, J.; Seo, K.

2013-12-01

69

Large-scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic modelling of the Amazon River basin2 Rodrigo Cauduro Dias de Paiva1,2  

E-print Network

1 Large-scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic modelling of the Amazon River basin2 3 4 Rodrigo Cauduro/hydrodynamic modelling of the Amazon River basin24 is presented using the MGB-IPH model with a validation using remotely vulnerability to natural hazards, particularly in55 the Amazon River basin, where extreme hydrological events

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Discharge and Suspended Sediment Flux Estimated along the Mainstream of the Amazon and the Madeira Rivers (from in situ and MODIS Satellite Data)  

E-print Network

are considered during the period 2000­2008 in a region including the full Amazon River from the confluence to stations located on the Amazon River; second to investigate the possibility to propagate the signal along the Amazon River which dynamics is coupled with floodplains dynamics; and third to produce optimal solutions

71

Sediment supply as a driver of river meandering and floodplain evolution in the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of externally imposed sediment supplies on the evolution of meandering rivers and their floodplains is poorly understood, despite analytical advances in our physical understanding of river meandering. The Amazon river basin hosts tributaries that are largely unaffected by engineering controls and hold a range of sediment loads, allowing us to explore the influence that sediment supply has on river evolution. Here we calculate average annual rates of meander migration within 20 reaches in the Amazon Basin from Landsat imagery spanning 1985-2013. We find that rivers with high sediment loads experience annual migration rates that are higher than those of rivers with lower sediment loads. Meander cutoff also occurs more frequently along rivers with higher sediment loads. Differences in meander migration and cutoff rates between the study reaches are not explained by differences in channel slope or river discharge. Because faster meander migration and higher cutoff rates lead to increased sediment-storage space in the resulting oxbows, we suggest that sediment supply modulates the reshaping of floodplain environments by meandering rivers. We conclude that imposed sediment loads influence planform changes in lowland rivers across the Amazon.

Constantine, José Antonio; Dunne, Thomas; Ahmed, Joshua; Legleiter, Carl; Lazarus, Eli D.

2014-12-01

72

Trapping of sediment along the Amazon tidal river in diverse floodplain environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon tidal river, the freshwater reach that is influenced by tides, extends roughly 800 kilometers upstream of the river mouth. Previous studies suggest that up to one third of the sediment measured at the upstream limit of tides does not reach the ocean, and is likely trapped along the tidal river. Here we present data from a variety of depositional environments along this reach, including intertidal vegetated floodplains, floodplain lakes, and drowned tributary confluences. Sediment delivery to each of these environments is temporally variable as a result of changing tides and river stage, and spatially variable along the continuum from the purely fluvial upstream condition to the strongly tidal downstream environment. Short-term instrument records and direct observations are paired with sedimentological and radiochemical techniques to identify mechanisms of sediment exchange between river and floodplain and associated patterns of sediment accumulation. Sediments in vegetated intertidal floodplains exhibit tidal laminations and incised channel networks similar to muddy marine intertidal areas. Floodplain lakes experience dramatic seasonal changes in size, and during high flows of the river skim water and sediment from the Amazon River by providing a shortcut relative to the meandering mainstem. Amazon sediment is fluxed into the drowned tributary confluences (rías) of the Xingu and Tapajos Rivers by density-driven underflows. In the Tapajos Ría, sediment from the Amazon River has built a 25-km long birdfoot delta, suggesting these tributaries may be net sinks of sediment, rather than sources. These findings help define the importance of each tidal environment in trapping Amazon sediment before it reaches the marine environment.

Fricke, A. T.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; Nowacki, D. J.; Souza Filho, P. W.; Silveira, O.; Asp, N. E.

2013-12-01

73

Organic matter in Bolivian tributaries of the Amazon River: A comparison to the lower mainstream  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the concentrations and compositions of coarse particulate (.63 mm), fine particulate (0.1-63mm), and dissolved (0.001-0.1 mm) organic matter collected along a river reach extending from a first-order stream in the Bolivian Andes, through the Beni River system, to the lower Madeira and Amazon Rivers. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations increased down the total reach from ;80 to 350

John I. Hedges; Emilio Mayorga; Elizabeth Tsamakis; Michael E. McClain; Anthony Aufdenkampe; Paul Quay; Jeffrey E. Richey; Ron Benner; Steve Opsahl; Brenda Black

2000-01-01

74

Integration of multi-sensor data to characterize Amazon river floodplain habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the integration of multi-sensor data to characterize floodplain habitats in the lower reach of the Amazon River. The study area is located between the Tapajos river mouth and the Xingu River mouth. Three data sets are available for this study: C-band ScanSAR wide mode RADARSAT images, L-band SAR JERS-1 images and TM\\/Landsat images. The RADARSAT C-band

Yosio Edemir Shimabukuro; Evlyn de Moraes Novo; J. M. Melack; L. K. Mertes

1998-01-01

75

Fluid dynamics, sediment transport and turbulent mixing at large confluences of the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clim-Amazon Project aims to study temporal sedimentary records to understand the mechanisms involved in climate and geodynamic changes and the processes involved in dissolved and suspended load evolution of the Amazon River basin from the Miocene to present. The knowledge of the present Amazon River sediment discharge and of its variability is fundamental since it can be linked to the on-going climatic and erosion processes at the regional scale. Understanding the relationships between these processes will be helpful to better interpret the observations of the past sedimentation rates. Within this general objective the aim of this study is to investigate the complex fluid dynamics, sediment transport and water quality processes occurring at the large confluences in the Amazon River, through a combination of theoretical, experimental (field) and numerical research. In the last decades a wide body of theoretical, experimental, and field research has emerged on the fluvial dynamics of river confluences, which are integral and ubiquitous features of river networks. Through this research substantial advances have been made into understanding the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of river confluences which will be outlined here. However, to date most experimental studies have focused either on laboratory confluences or on small to medium sized natural confluences, whereas an extremely limited number of investigations about the confluences on large rivers. Presently little is understood about how river confluence hydrodynamics may vary with the size of the river, especially in the largest rivers. The Amazon River is the largest river in the World, with approximately 15,000 sub-branches joining the Amazon River within the Amazon Basin including some of the largest confluences on Earth. A study region containing three of the larger confluences between Manacapuru and Itacoatiara will be used as part of this study, with the primary focus being the confluence of the Rio Negro and Rio Solimões. The primary objective of this study is to develop a conceptual model for flow dynamics and sediment transport about such large confluences through analysis of field data, to assist with general objectives of the Clim-Amazon Project and improve general understanding of large confluence dynamics. While another objective is to apply CFD methods based on field measurements to improve the understanding of the dynamical processes that determine water quality parameters and sediment transport, mixing and accumulation at the confluences of large rivers such as the Amazon River. Therefore the main focus of this presentation will be the proposed field methodology for collecting hydrodynamic, sediment transport, water quality and bathymetric data about these large confluences within the study region of the Amazon River. As well as how the data collected during these field measurements will be analysed and used to develop conceptual and numerical models of such large confluences.

Trevethan, Mark; Gualtieri, Carlo; Filizola, Naziano; Ianniruberto, Marco

2014-05-01

76

Storage and remobilization of suspended sediment in the lower amazon river of Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the lower Amazon River, suspended sediment is stored during rising stages of the river and resuspended during falling river stages. The storage and resuspension in the reach are related to the mean slope of the flood wave on the river surface; this slope is smaller during rising river stages than during falling stages. The pattern of storage and resuspension damps out the extreme values of high and low sediment discharge and tends to keep them near the mean value between 3.0 ?? 106 and 3.5 ?? 106 metric tons per day. Mean annual discharge of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon is between 1.1 ?? 109 and 1.3 ?? 109 metric tons per year.

Meade, R.H.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.E.; Santos, U.De. M.; Salati, E.

1985-01-01

77

The evolution of organic matter along the lower Amazon River continuum - Óbidos to the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the Amazon River on global hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling is well recognized. The Amazon River provides roughly 16% of the global freshwater supply to the ocean and is a significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere, outgassing 0.5 Pg C y-1 to the atmosphere--a flux roughly equivalent to the amount of carbon 'sequestered' by the Amazon rainforest (Field et al, 1998; Richey et al., 2002; Malhi et al., 2008). However, much of our understanding of the flux of matter from the Amazon River into the Atlantic Ocean (and atmosphere) is limited to measurements made at and upstream of Óbidos, 900 km upstream from the actual river mouth. Further, there are few to no observations documenting the transformation of organic matter in a parcel of water as it travels downstream of Óbidos into the ocean. Here we explore the hydrological and biogeochemical evolution of the lower Amazon River continuum, from Óbidos to the Atlantic Ocean. A suite of dissolved and particulate organic matter (OM) parameters were measured during a series of five river expeditions with stations at Óbidos, the Tapajós tributary, the mouth of the Lago Grande de Curuai floodplain lake, both the north and south channels of the Amazon River mouth near Macapá, and the confluence of the Amazon and Tocantins Rivers near Belém. In addition to bulk carbon isotopic signatures, a suite of biomarkers including dissolved and particulate lignin-derived phenols were measured to trace the sources and degradation history of terrestrial vascular plant derived OM throughout the continuum. Dissolved and particulate lignin phenol concentrations both correlated positively with river discharge in the Amazon River mainstem, with variable export patterns from the tributaries and floodplains. As organic matter travels along the continuum it is degraded by microbial composition, fuelling gross respiration and CO2 outgassing. The flux of organic carbon to the ocean is chemically recalcitrant as a result of the constant biological processing of labile OM throughout the lower river. We estimate that 40% of the vascular plant-derived organic carbon sequestered by the terrestrial biosphere is degraded within soils, 55% is degraded along the river continuum, and less than 5% is delivered to the ocean (Ward et al., 2013) References Cited Field, C., M. Behrenfeld, J. Randerson, and P. Falkowski. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science 281, 237-240. Malhi, Y., Roberts, J.T., Betts, R.A., Killeen, T.J., Li, W., Nobre, C.A. 2008. Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon. Science 319, 169-172. Richey, J. E., Melack, J. M., Aufdenkampe, A. K., Ballester, V. M. & Hess, L. L. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416, 617-620. Ward, N.D.; Keil, R.G.; Medeiros, P.M.; Brito, D.C.; Cunha, A.C.; Dittmar, T.; Yager, P.L.; Krusche, A.V.; Richey, J.E. 2013. Degradation of terrestrially derived macromolecules in the Amazon River. Nature Geoscience. doi: 10.1038/ngeo1817

Ward, N. D.; Keil, R. G.; Medeiros, P. M.; Brito, D.; Cunha, A.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Moura, J. S.; Yager, P. L.; Krusche, A. V.; Richey, J. E.

2013-12-01

78

Marine environmental changes at the Brazilian equatorial margin related to Amazon River evolution during the Neogene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, the nutrient-rich Amazon River outflow causes massive algal blooms in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean, forming a considerable carbon sink as well as a primary food source in the otherwise oligotrophic surface water. However, the history of this high-productivity system is largely unknown, although a strong relation to the evolution of the Amazon River can be expected. The Amazon submarine fan provides direct evidence for the development of a transcontinental river system, of which the base of the primarily Andean-sourced siliciclastic deposits is dated as late Miocene. Ditch cuttings from Amazon Fan exploration 'Well 2' were made available by Petrobras for microfossil and lithological research. 'Well 2' is located on the uppermost fan at a water depth of 750 meters. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and foraminifer assemblages were studied to reconstruct Neogene marine environmental changes in relation to the Amazon River development. Planktonic foraminifera are present throughout the studied section and largely confirm the already available biostratigraphic age determination based on nannofossils. Benthic foraminifer assemblages indicate that the paleo-water depth has not substantially deviated from current conditions. The ecological affinities of most observed dinocyst taxa are well known, which allows us to reconstruct changes in paleo-productivity based on the assemblages. Mineral composition suggests that local river systems already drained into the Amazon basin before the onset of the transcontinental system, but environmental conditions remained oligotrophic at this time. Decreased abundances of both dinocysts and planktonic foraminifera during the Pleistocene are related to highest sedimentation rates (dilution effect). Overall, a complex interplay of orogenesis, climatic and sea level variations during the Neogene are responsible for the fluvially-induced changes in the marine environment at the Atlantic margin.

Lammertsma, Emmy; Troelstra, Simon; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; do Carmo, Dermeval A.; D'Avila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Hoorn, Carina

2014-05-01

79

Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in surface waters of the Amazon River wetlands from Landsat images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed, based on spectral mixture analysis, to estimate the concentration of suspended sediment in surface waters of the Amazon River wetlands from Landsat MSS and TM images. Endmembers were derived from laboratory reflectance measurements of water-sediment mixtures with a range of sediment concentrations. Using these references spectra, the authors applied a linear mixture analysis to multispectral

L. A. K. Mertes; M. O. Smith; J. B. Adams

1993-01-01

80

The Amazon river breeze and the local boundary layer: I. Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer over the Amazon rain forest, made at sites close to the confluence of the Solimões and Negro rivers (approximately at 3°S, 60°W) near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, show the existence of a diurnal rotation of the wind near the surface and the frequent presence of low-level nocturnal wind maxima. These circulations

AMAURI PEREIRA DE OLIVEIRA; David R. Fitzjarrald

1993-01-01

81

VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS FEBRILE CASES AMONG HUMANS IN THE PERUVIAN AMAZON RIVER REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted from October 1, 1993 to June 30, 1995 to determine the arboviral etiologies of febrile illnesses in the city of Iquitos in the Amazon River Basin of Peru. The study subjects were patients who were enrolled at medical care clinics or in their homes by Peruvian Ministry of Health (MOH) workers as part of the passive

DOUGLAS M. WATTS; JOHNNY CALLAHAN; CINDY ROSSI; M. STEVEN OBERSTE; J. T. ROEHRIG; MARK T. WOOSTER; JONATHAN F. SMITH; C. B. CROPP; ELMER M. GENTRAU; NICK KARABATSOS; DUANE GUBLER; CURT G. HAYES

82

The water budget in the Amazon River basin during the FGGE period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal change of the water budget in the Amazon River basin during the FGGE period is investigated, using the global objective analysed data set, precipitation data and discharge data. Some difference is found between the annual water vapour flux convergence and the annual runoff obtained by discharge data. This is due to the characteristics of the global objective analysed

HIROSHI MATSUYAMA; KOOITI MASUDA

1993-01-01

83

Source, transport and fluxes of Amazon River particulate organic carbon: Insights from river sediment depth-profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reveal particulate organic carbon (POC) source and mode of transport in the largest river basin on Earth, we sampled the main sediment-laden tributaries of the Amazon system (Solimões, Madeira and Amazon) during two sampling campaigns, following vertical depth-profiles. This sampling technique takes advantage of hydrodynamic sorting to access the full range of solid erosion products transported by the river. Using the Al/Si ratio of the river sediments as a proxy for grain size, we find a general increase in POC content with Al/Si, as sediments become finer. However, the sample set shows marked variability in the POC content for a given Al/Si ratio, with the Madeira River having lower POC content across the measured range in Al/Si. The POC content is not strongly related to the specific surface area (SSA) of the suspended load, and bed sediments have a much lower POC/SSA ratio. These data suggest that SSA exerts a significant, yet partial, control on POC transport in Amazon River suspended sediment. We suggest that the role of clay mineralogy, discrete POC particles and rock-derived POC warrant further attention in order to fully understand POC transport in large rivers.

Bouchez, Julien; Galy, Valier; Hilton, Robert G.; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Pérez, Marcela Andrea; France-Lanord, Christian; Maurice, Laurence

2014-05-01

84

Seasonal dynamics in methane emissions from the Amazon River floodplain to the troposphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane fluxes to the troposphere from the three principal habitats of the floodplain of the Amazon River main stem (open waters, emergent macrophyte beds, and flooded forests) were determined along a 1,700-km reach of the river during the low-water period of the annual flood cycle (November-December 1988). Overall, emissions averaged 68 ({plus minus} 20) mg CHâ m⁻² d⁻¹ and were

Allan H. Devol; Jeffrey E. Richey; Bruce R. Forsberg; Luiz A. Martinelli

1990-01-01

85

Iron isotopes in the Amazon River system: Weathering and transport signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metal clean plankton tows, river samples, aerosol leachates, and porewater samples from the Amazon River system were measured for their iron isotopic composition. The overall isotopic range observed was 1.5‰ with Fe isotopic variability observed between different types of tributaries. Dissolved Fe and suspended load Fe from two main channel sites were isotopically similar (? ?0.1 to ?0.3‰). In contrast,

B. A. Bergquist; E. A. Boyle

2006-01-01

86

Microbial community composition and metagenomes across the river-to-ocean continuum of the Columbia and Amazon Rivers (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers are the primary conduits for land-to-ocean transfer of materials including terrestrial organic matter, nutrients and anthropogenic pollutants. Microbial communities in rivers, estuaries, and plumes regulate the nutrient concentrations and biogeochemistry of these riverborne materials and mediate their impact on carbon cycling. Despite their importance little is known about the composition and genetic capabilities of these organisms. Here we describe and compare the phylogeny and metagenomic profiles of microbial communities across the river-to-ocean gradients of two very large rivers: the tropical Amazon and temperate Columbia rivers. For the Amazon, samples were collected from the lower 600 km of the river and from surface waters across 1300 km of the plume in 2010 and 2011. For the Columbia, samples were collected along the gradient from river to deep ocean during 14 cruises between 2007 and 2010. Amplicon pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that bacterial communities were similar along the length of the lower Amazon River with variability caused by inputs from major tributaries. Freshwater taxa from both rivers were very rare in plume waters, but in the Columbia River estuary freshwater taxa mixed with marine communities. Communities in both rivers shifted with local seasons, likely due to changes in river environmental conditions including dissolved and particulate organic matter, river flow, and light availability. Seasonal variability was less pronounced in river plumes where spatial variability was greater than temporal variability. Bacterial community composition was very different between the two systems, and was most similar at the marine end of the gradient outside the plumes. Illumina-based metagenomic analyses of a subset of these samples showed similarity in the relative abundance of many annotated gene categories despite differences in phylogeny across salinity gradients. However, several categories of genes varied in relative abundance including genes involved in carbon transformations, revealing distinct patterns in genomic capabilities across the Amazon and Columbia River systems. Together, these phylogenetic and metagenomic data provide insight into the spatial and seasonal succession of microbes and biogeochemical processes associated with riverborne material as it transits from the mountains to the oceans.

Crump, B. C.; Doherty, M.; Fortunato, C.; Simon, H. M.; Smit, M. W.; Krusche, A. V.; Brito, D.; Cunha, A.; Fernandes, M.; Zielinski, B.; Paul, J. H.; Ward, N. D.; Richey, J. E.; Satinsky, B. M.; Sharma, S.; Smith, C. B.; Moran, M.; Yager, P. L.

2013-12-01

87

The geochemistry of rare earth elements in the Amazon River estuary  

SciTech Connect

The estuarine geochemistry of rare earth elements (REEs) was studied using samples collected in the Amazon River estuary from the AmasSeds (Amazon Shelf SEDiment Study) cruise of August 1989. Extensive removal of dissolved (0.22 [mu]m filtered) trivalent REEs from river water occurs in the low (0--6) salinity region. Removal by the salt-induced coagulation of river colloids leads to fractionation among the REE(III) series; the order of removal is light REEs > middle REEs > heavy REEs. There also is the enhanced removal of Ce (relative to trivalent La and Nd) in the low salinity (0--6) zone and in the zone of high biological activity. This is the first field observation of strong Ce removal associated with coagulation of river colloids and biological productivity. The argument is made that the decrease in the Ce anomaly across a biological front is caused by biologically mediated oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV). Coagulation of river colloids and biologically mediated oxidation of Ce(III) lead to fractionation of REE(III) and redox modification of Ce. These processes result in the REE composition becoming fractionated relative to the Amazon River water and crust and more evolved toward the REE composition of the oceans. This study implies that reactions in estuaries play significant, yet poorly understood roles in controlling the REE composition and Ce anomaly of the oceans. 46 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Shokovitz, E.R. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States))

1993-05-01

88

McClain ME, R Galarraga, CA Llerena & JE Ruiz. 2007. Linking Global Change Research to Improved Policies and Management for Rivers: Lessons from the Andean Amazon Rivers Analysis and Monitoring  

E-print Network

Policies and Management for Rivers: Lessons from the Andean Amazon Rivers Analysis and Monitoring Project and management for rivers: Lessons from the Andean Amazon Rivers Analysis and Monitoring project Michael E. Mc that climate changes will only exacerbate their current development problems (CONAM 2002). Rivers

McClain, Michael

89

Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements and other trace elements in the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers transport large amounts of dissolved and suspended particulate material from the catchment area to the oceans and are a major source of trace metals to seawater. The Amazon River is the world's largest river and supplies approximately 20% of the oceans' freshwater (Molinier et al., 1997). However, the behavior of trace elements, especially particle-reactive elements such as the rare earth elements (REE), within the river as well as in the estuary is not well constrained and rather little is known about their transport mechanisms. This study aims at understanding the transport properties of particle-reactive elements in the Amazon River and some of its major tributaries, including the Rio Solimões, Rio Negro, Tapajos, Xingu and Jari Rivers. Samples were taken at 12 stations, seven of which were located in the Amazon mainstream, while the other five stations sampled its tributaries. To account for the effects of variable discharge, the samples were collected during periods of high and low discharge. We present data for major and trace elements, including REE, of the dissolved and suspended load of these samples. First results indicate that the shale-normalized REE pattern of the dissolved load (filtered through 0.2 µm membranes) of the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões confirm earlier studies (Elderfield et al., 1990; Gerard et al., 2003) and show an enrichment of the middle REE relative to the light and heavy REE (LaSN/GdSN: 0.25 - 0.32; GdSN/YbSN: 1.54 - 1.78). In contrast to the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões, which are considered to be whitewater rivers, blackwater rivers, such as the Rio Negro, have a flat REE pattern with higher REE concentrations than whitewater rivers. The third water-type found in the Amazon Basin is clearwater, e.g. Rio Tapajos, with REE patterns in between those of the other two types, i.e. LaSN/GdSN: 0.55 - 0.70; GdSN/YbSN: 1.26 - 1.55. A similar behavior can be identified for other major and trace elements. While elements such as Ca, Mg, Sr or U are relatively high in whitewater rivers, their concentrations are generally lower in clearwater rivers and lowest in blackwater rivers. In contrast, elements including Si, Rb and Cs have their highest concentrations in blackwater rivers, intermediate concentrations in clearwater rivers and their lowest concentrations in whitewater river. [1] Elderfield H., Upstill-Goddard R. and Sholkovitz E.R. (1990): The rare earth elements in rivers, estuaries and coastal seas and their significance to the composition of ocean waters. Geochim.Cosmochim.Acta, 54, 971-991 [2] Gerard M., Seyler P., Benedetti M.F., Alves V.P., Boaventura G.R. and Sondag, F. (2003): Rare earth elements in the Amazon basin. Hydrological Processes, 17, 1379-1392 [3] Molinier M., Guyot J.L., Callede J., Guimaraes V., Oliveira E. and Filizola N. (1997): Hydrologie du bassinamazonien. Evironment et développement en Amazonie brésiliènne, Thery H. (ed.), Berlin Publ., Paris; 24-41

Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Dantas, Elton Luiz

2014-05-01

90

C-13/C-12 of atmospheric CO2 in the Amazon basin - Forest and river sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of measurements of the CO2 concentrations and C-13/C-12 ratios in CO2 in air samples collected from within the Amazonian rain forest and over the Amazon river between 1982 and 1987. Results indicate the presence of a diurnal cycle in the CO2 concentration and the C-13/C-12 ratio. It was found that the CO2 input to air in the forest was derived from the soil respiration, and the CO2 input to air over the Amazon river was derived from the degassing of CO2 from the river. It was also found that plants growing at heights lower than 7 m assimilate soil-derived CO2 with a low C-13/C-12 ratio.

Quay, Paul; King, Stagg; Wilbur, Dave; Richey, Jeffrey; Wofsy, Steven

1989-01-01

91

Distribution and flux of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River estuary  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River estuary show that desorption from riverborne suspended particulate matter in the estuary increases the riverine flux of both isotopes to the ocean by a factor of approximately 5 over the flux attributable to radium dissolved in the river water alone. The total Amazon flux supplies approximately 0.20% of the /sup 226/Ra and approximately 2.6% of the /sup 228/Ra standing crops in the near-surface Atlantic (0-200 m). Diffusive flux from estuarine and shelf sediments and desorption from resuspended sediments in the region of the estuary approximately double the estuarine /sup 226/Ra concentration and quadruple the estuarine /sup 228/Ra concentration above that caused by the dissolved and desorbed river components alone.

Key, R.M.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Stallard, R.F.; Moore, W.S.

1985-07-20

92

Source area and seasonal variation of dissolved Sr isotope composition in rivers of the Amazon basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present dissolved Sr isotope data collected over 8 years from three main river systems from the Amazon Basin: Beni-Madeira, Solimões, Amazon, and Negro. The data show large 87Sr/86Sr ratio variations that were correlated with the water discharge and geology of the source areas of the suspended sediments. The Beni-Madeira system displays a high average 87Sr/86Sr ratio and large 87Sr/86Sr fluctuations during the hydrological cycle. This large average value and fluctuations were related to the presence of Precambrian rocks and Ordovician sediments in the source area of the suspended sediment of the river. In contrast, the Solimões system displays a narrow range of Sr isotope ratio variations and an average value close to 0.709. This river drains mostly Phanerozoic rocks of northern Peru and Ecuador that are characterized by low Sr isotope ratios. Despite draining areas underlain by Precambrian rocks and having high 87Sr/86Sr ratios, such rivers as the Negro and Tapajós play a minor role in the total Sr budget of the Amazon Basin. The isotopic fluctuations in the Beni-Madeira River were observed to propagate downstream at least as far as Óbidos, in the Amazon River. This signal is characterized by an inverse relationship between the concentration of elemental Sr and its isotopic ratios. During the raining season there is an increase in Sr isotopic ratio accompanied by a decrease in elemental Sr concentration. During the dry season, the Sr isotopic ration decreases and the elemental Sr concentration increases.

Santos, Roberto V.; Sondag, Francis; Cochonneau, Gerard; Lagane, Christelle; Brunet, Pierre; Hattingh, Karina; Chaves, Jeane G. S.

2014-05-01

93

The Amazon river breeze and the local boundary layer. I - Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer over the Amazon rain forest, made at sites close to the confluence of the Solimoes and Negro rivers (approximately at 3 deg S, 60 deg W) near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, show the existence of a diurnal rotation of the wind near the surface and the frequent presence of low-level nocturnal wind maxima. These circulations are shown to be plausibly explained as elements of a river and land breeze circulation induced by the thermal contrast between the rivers and the adjacent forest.

De Oliveira, Amauri P.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

1993-01-01

94

Rivers in the sea - Can we quantify pigments in the Amazon and the Orinoco River plumes from space?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images of the western tropical Atlantic (1979-1982) were combined into monthly mean surface pigment fields. These suggest that Amazon River water flows along northeastern South America directly toward the Caribbean sea early in the year. After June, however, the North Brazil Current is shunted eastward, carrying a large fraction of Amazon water into the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). This eastward flow causes diminished flow through the Caribbean, which permits northwestward dispersal of Orinoco River water due to local Ekman forcing. The Orinoco plume crosses the Caribbean, leading to seasonal variation in surface salinity near Puerto Rico. At least 50 percent of the pigment concentration estimated in these plumes seems due to viable phytoplankton.

Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Walsh, John J.; Carder, Kendall L.; Zika, Rod G.

1989-01-01

95

Drainage reversal of the Amazon River due to the coupling of surface and lithospheric processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uplift of central and northern Andes occurred concomitantly with an important reorganization of the drainage pattern in the northern South America. In Early Miocene, the fluvial systems that flowed from the Amazonian craton towards the sub-Andean basins and northward to the Caribbean were replaced by a megawetland, the Pebas system, covering more than 106 km in western Amazonia. By Late Miocene the Pebas system progressively disappeared and gave place to the transcontinental Amazon River, connecting the Andes and the equatorial Atlantic margin. A previous work suggested that the reversal of the Amazon River and the disappearance of the Pebas system were driven by dynamic topography promoted by mantle convection. Based on a three-dimensional numerical model that couple surface processes, flexural isostasy and crustal thickening due to orogeny, here I propose that the response of the surface processes to the uplift of the central and northern Andes, along with the flexural isostasy of the lithosphere, can explain the drainage reversal of the Amazon River during Miocene time with no need to invoke dynamic topography induced by mantle convection. Moreover, according to this new numerical model, the timing of the drainage reversal in the northern South America is mainly controlled by the efficiency of the sediment transport within the drainage basins and the rate of the Andean uplift. Also, the present numerical experiments were able to predict the increase in sedimentation rate in the Amazon fan after the drainage reversal of the Amazon River as observed in Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record. However, the proposed model fails to fully reproduce the spacial and temporal evolution of the Pebas system as observed in geological data. Further investigation is therefore needed in order to understand the dynamic interaction between surface and tectonic processes and their implications on the development of a megawetland that preceded the reversal of Amazon River drainage. Nevertheless, this work can give new insights into the landscape and stratigraphic evolution of northern South America during Andean orogeny, providing quantitative constraints for the paleogeography reconstructions of Amazonia.

Sacek, Victor

2014-09-01

96

C-13\\/C-12 of atmospheric CO2 in the Amazon basin - Forest and river sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of measurements of the CO2 concentrations and C-13\\/C-12 ratios in CO2 in air samples collected from within the Amazonian rain forest and over the Amazon river between 1982 and 1987. Results indicate the presence of a diurnal cycle in the CO2 concentration and the C-13\\/C-12 ratio. It was found that the CO2 input to air in the

Paul Quay; Stagg King; Dave Wilbur; Jeffrey Richey; Steven Wofsy

1989-01-01

97

A significant CO2 sink in the tropical Atlantic Ocean associated with the Amazon River plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Meteor cruise 55 a strong undersaturation of surface seawater with respect to atmospheric CO2 was found in the Amazon River plume which is advected into the surface circulation of the tropical Atlantic. A conservative estimate of the plume-related CO2 sink in the tropical Atlantic yields a net air-sea flux of 0.014 +\\/- 0.005 Pg C yr-1. The corresponding average

Arne Körtzinger

2003-01-01

98

Compositions and fluxes of particulate organic material in the Amazon River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin, elemental, and stable carbon isotope compositions are reported for local plants and for coarse (>63 pm) and fine (~63 pm) suspended particulate materials collected along a 1,950-km reach of the lower Amazon River during four contrasting stages of the 1982-1983 hydrograph. Fluxes of chemically recognizable lignin in the two size classes generally parallel each other along the mainstem with

JOHN I. HEDGES; WAYNE A. CLARK; PAUL D. QUAY; JEFFREY E. RICHEY; ALLAN H. DEVOL; UMBERTO DE M. SANTOS

1986-01-01

99

Sr?Nd?Pb isotope systematics in Amazon and Congo River systems: constraints about erosion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

87Sr86Sr, 143Nd144Nd, 206Pb204Pb, 207Pb204Pb and 208Pb204Pb isotopic ratios and Rb, Sr, Sm, Nd, U, Pb and Th concentrations have been measured in the suspended loads of the Congo and Amazon rivers and their tributaries. In the dissolved load, 87Sr86Sr, Rb, Sr, Nd, Sm, U, Pb and Th concentrations are also reported.These results show that Nd, Sm, Th and Pb are

Claude J. Allègre; Bernard Dupré; Philippe Négrel; Jérôme Gaillardet

1996-01-01

100

Numerical simulation of drainage reversal of the Amazon River during Andean orogeny  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uplift of Central and Northern Andes occurred concomitantly with an important reorganization of the drainage pattern in Northern South America. During the Early Miocene, the fluvial systems that flowed from the Amazonian Craton toward the sub-Andean basins and northward to the Caribbean were replaced by a megawetland, the Pebas system, covering a large fraction of the Western Amazonia. In the Late Miocene the Pebas system progressively disappeared and gave place to the transcontinental Amazon River, connecting the Andes and the equatorial Atlantic margin. A previous work suggested that the reversal of the Amazon River and the disappearance of the Pebas system were driven by dynamic topography promoted by mantle convection. Based on numerical models that couple surface processes, flexural isostasy and crustal thickening due to orogeny, here I propose that the response of the surface processes to the uplift of the Central and Northern Andes, along with the flexural isostasy of the lithosphere, can explain the drainage reversal of the Amazon River during the Miocene without invoking dynamic topography induced by mantle convection. In addition I observed that the existence, the permanence and the size of a megawetland in Northern South America is controlled by the rate of crustal thickening in the orogeny, the rate of erosion and, mainly, the efficiency of the sediment transport through the drainage basins during the Andean uplift.

Sacek, Victor

2014-05-01

101

Seasonal dynamics in methane emissions from the Amazon River floodplain to the troposphere  

SciTech Connect

Methane fluxes to the troposphere from the three principal habitats of the floodplain of the Amazon River main stem (open waters, emergent macrophyte beds, and flooded forests) were determined along a 1,700-km reach of the river during the low-water period of the annual flood cycle (November-December 1988). Overall, emissions averaged 68 ({plus minus} 20) mg CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1} and were significantly lower than similar emissions determined previously for the high-water period, 184 ({plus minus} 41) mg CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1} (July-August 1986). This difference was due to significantly lower emissions from floating macrophyte environments. Low-water emissions from open waters and flooded forest areas were not significantly different than at high water. A monthly time series of methane emissions from eight lakes located in the central Amazon basin showed similar results. Average annual emission from the lakes was 125 ({plus minus} 28) mg CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. Methane emissions from lakes were significantly higher during the high water period, again primarily due to an increase in emissions from macrophyte habitats. The data were used to calculate a seasonally weighted annual emission to the troposphere from the Amazon River main stem floodplain of 5.1 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}, which indicates the importance of the area in global atmospheric chemistry.

Devol, A.H.; Richey, J.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Forsberg, B.R. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus (Brazil)); Martinelli, L.A. (Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil))

1990-09-20

102

Seasonal dynamics in methane emissions from the Amazon River floodplain to the troposphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methane fluxes to the troposphere from the three principal habitats of the floodplain of the Amazon River main stem (open waters, emergent macrophyte beds, and flooded forests) were determined along a 1700-km reach of the river during the low-water period of the annual flood cycle (November-December 1988). Overall, emissions averaged 68 mg CH4/sq m per day and were significantly lower than similar emissions determined previously for the high-water period, 184 mg CH4/sq m per day (July-August 1986). This difference was due to significantly lower emissions from floating macrophyte environments. Low-water emissions from open waters and flooded forest areas were not significantly different than at high water. A monthly time series of methane emission from eight lakes located in the central Amazon basis showed similar results. The data were used to calculate a seasonally weighted annual emission to the troposphere from the Amazon River main stem floodplain of 5.1 Tg/yr, which indicates the importance of the area in global atmospheric chemistry.

Devol, Allan H.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Martinelli, Luiz A.

1990-01-01

103

Space-time variability of the Amazon River plume based on satellite ocean color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite ocean color images were used to determine the space-time variability of the Amazon River plume from 2000-2004. The relationship between sea-surface salinity (SSS) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) absorption coefficient for dissolved and detrital material ( adg) ( r2=0.76, n=30, rmse=0.4) was used to identify the Amazon River plume low-salinity waters (<34 psu). The plume's spatial information was extracted from satellite bi-weekly time series using two metrics: plume area and plume shape. These metrics identified the seasonal variability of plume dimensions and dispersion patterns. During the study period, the plume showed the largest areas from July to August and the smallest from December to January. The mean annual amplitude and the mean, maximum and minimum plume areas were 1020×10 3 km 2, 680×10 3 km 2, 1506×10 3 km 2 and 268×10 3 km 2, respectively. Three main shapes and dispersion pattern periods were identified: (1) flow to the northeastern South American coast, in a narrow band adjacent to the continental shelf, from January to April; (2) flow to the Caribbean region, from April to July; and (3) flow to the Central Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, from August to December. Cross-correlation techniques were used to quantify the relationship between the plume's spatial variability and environmental forcing factors, including Amazon River discharge, wind field and ocean currents. The results showed that (1) river discharge is the main factor influencing plume area variability, (2) the wind field regulates the plume's northwestward flow velocity and residence time near the river mouth, and (3) surface currents have a strong influence over river plume dispersion patterns.

Molleri, Gustavo S. F.; Novo, Evlyn M. L. de M.; Kampel, Milton

2010-02-01

104

Contributions from the Amazon River mouth to the carbonate and nutrient dynamics of the tropical Atlantic Ocean (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River contributes considerable freshwater and dissolved constituents to the global ocean, and its low-salinity plume offshore significantly impacts the carbon and nutrient cycles of the western tropical North Atlantic Ocean. Viewing the river-plume-ocean system as a continuum, rather than a point source, is a key component of the ROCA / ANACONDAS project effort. Here we report the findings of a multi-season field effort in the lower reach of the Amazon mainstem and offshore plume to determine the concentrations and variability of the full carbonate system as well as dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica at the mouth, providing for the first time the critical "river end members" for the Amazon's contribution to the sea. We find that concentrations at the mouth differ significantly from measurements made upriver at Manaus and Óbidos, historically used to represent the Amazon's contribution. With these new end members, the impact of the plume on the tropical marine ecosystem can be better determined, including its role as a globally significant atmospheric carbon dioxide sink and its sensitivity to change. These data, in combination with other microbial and geochemical data from the Amazon River continuum, improve our understanding of the links between the river, the plume, and the tropical Atlantic carbon cycle, as well as improve predictive capabilities of future climate change impacts. True color satellite image of Amazon River plume - NASA pCO2 versus salinity for outer Amazon River plume with color bar showing chlorophyll a fluorescence. Line is linear regression through the data, not a mixing line.

Yager, P. L.; Richey, J. E.; Page, B. P.; Ward, N.; Krusche, A. V.; Weber, S.; Montoya, J. P.; Rezende, C. E.

2013-12-01

105

Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Presented here is a model framework based on a land surface topography that can be represented with various degrees of resolution and capable of providing representative channel/floodplain hydraulic characteristics on a daily to hourly scale. The framework integrates two models: (1) a water balance model (WBM) for the vertical fluxes and stores of water in and through the canopy and soil layers based on the conservation of mass and energy, and (2) a routing model for the horizontal routing of surface and subsurface runoff and channel and floodplain waters based on kinematic and diffusion wave methodologies. The WBM is driven by satellite-derived precipitation (TRMM_3B42) and air temperature (MOD08_M3). The model's use of an irregular computational grid is intended to facilitate parallel processing for applications to continental and global scales. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin over the period Jan 2001 through Dec 2005. The model is shown to capture annual runoff totals, annual peaks, seasonal patterns, and daily fluctuations over a range of spatial scales (>1, 000 to <4D7M km2). For the period of study, results suggest basin-wide total water storage changes in the Amazon vary by approximately +/-5 to 10 cm, and the fractional components accounting for these changes are: root zone soil moisture (20%), subsurface water being routed laterally to channels (40%) and channel/floodplain discharge (40%). Annual variability in monthly water storage changes by +/-2.5 cm is likely due to 0D5 to 1 month variability in the arrival of significant rainfall periods throughout the basin. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Beighley, R.E.; Eggert, K.G.; Dunne, T.; He, Y.; Gummadi, V.; Verdin, K.L.

2009-01-01

106

Particulate organic matter distribution along the lower Amazon River: addressing aquatic ecology concepts using fatty acids.  

PubMed

One of the greatest challenges in understanding the Amazon basin functioning is to ascertain the role played by floodplains in the organic matter (OM) cycle, crucial for a large spectrum of ecological mechanisms. Fatty acids (FAs) were combined with environmental descriptors and analyzed through multivariate and spatial tools (asymmetric eigenvector maps, AEM and principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM). This challenge allowed investigating the distribution of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), in order to trace its seasonal origin and quality, along a 800 km section of the Amazon river-floodplain system. Statistical analysis confirmed that large amounts of saturated FAs (15:0, 18:0, 24:0, 25:0 and 26:0), an indication of refractory OM, were concomitantly recorded with high pCO(2) in rivers, during the high water season (HW). Contrastingly, FAs marker which may be attributed in this ecosystem to aquatic plants (18:2?6 and 18:3?3) and cyanobacteria (16:1?7), were correlated with higher O(2), chlorophyll a and pheopigments in floodplains, due to a high primary production during low waters (LW). Decreasing concentrations of unsaturated FAs, that characterize labile OM, were recorded during HW, from upstream to downstream. Furthermore, using PCNM and AEM spatial methods, FAs compositions of SPOM displayed an upstream-downstream gradient during HW, which was attributed to OM retention and the extent of flooded forest in floodplains. Discrimination of OM quality between the Amazon River and floodplains corroborate higher autotrophic production in the latter and transfer of OM to rivers at LW season. Together, these gradients demonstrate the validity of FAs as predictors of spatial and temporal changes in OM quality. These spatial and temporal trends are explained by 1) downstream change in landscape morphology as predicted by the River Continuum Concept; 2) enhanced primary production during LW when the water level decreased and its residence time increased as predicted by the Flood Pulse Concept. PMID:23029412

Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Rigal, François; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Bernardes, Marcelo; Abril, Gwenaël; Meziane, Tarik

2012-01-01

107

The impacts of land use changes in the mercury flux in the Madeira River, Western Amazon.  

PubMed

Changes in hydrochemistry and Hg distribution in the Madeira River from Porto Velho to the confluence with the Amazon River were studied in two cruises in 1997 and 2002. Water conductivity was similar in both periods, but the pH was significantly higher in 2002, in particular along the middle reaches of the river. Total suspended matter concentrations also increased from 1997 to 2002 along the same river portion, which is a result of forest conversion to other land uses, in particular pastures and agriculture accelerated during the interval between the cruises. Dissolved Hg concentrations were similar along the river in both cruises, but particulate Hg concentrations increased significantly along the middle portion of the river, although the suspended matter from 2002 was relatively poorer in Hg compared to that from 1997. Since particulate Hg represents more than 90% of the total Hg present in the river water, there was a significant increase in the total Hg transport in the Madeira River. Although gold mining has nearly ceased to exist in the region, the remobilization of Hg from forest soils through conversion to other land uses is responsible for maintaining relatively high Hg content in the Madeira River environment. PMID:22441596

Lacerda, Luiz D; Bastos, Wanderley R; Almeida, Marcelo D

2012-03-01

108

Building a Digital Soil Data Base of the Solim˜ oes River Region in the Brazilian Central Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region near the Solimoes river in the Brazilian Central Amazon re- ceives much attention because of oil and gas transport from the Urucu river Province to the refinery in Manaus. Information about soil characteristics and its spatial dis- tribution is important to allow secure intervention in the case of an accident (oil spill). The objectives of this chapter is

W. G. Teixeira; W. Arruda; H. N. Lima; S. A. Iwata; G. C. Martins

109

15 N natural abundance in plants of the Amazon River floodplain and potential atmospheric N 2 fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The15N natural abundance values of various Amazon floodplain (várzea) plants was investigated. Samples of young leaf tissues were collected during three different periods of the river hydrography (low water, mid rising water and high water) and during one period in the Madeira River (high water). A large variation of15N abundance was observed, both among the different plant types and

L. A. Martinelli; R. L. Victoria; P. C. O. Trivelin; A. H. Devol; J. E. Richey

1992-01-01

110

First report of major histocompatibility complex class II loci from the Amazon pink river dolphin (genus Inia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first major histocompatibility complex (MHC) DQB1 sequences for the two species of pink river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis and Inia boliviensis) inhabiting the Amazon and Orinoco River basins. These sequences were found to be polymorphic within the Inia genus and showed shared homology with cetacean DQB- 1 sequences, especially, those of the Monodontidae and Phocoenidae. On the other

M. Martínez-Agüero; S. Flores-Ramírez; M. Ruiz-García

2006-01-01

111

Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in surface waters of the Amazon River wetlands from Landsat images  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed, based on spectral mixture analysis, to estimate the concentration of suspended sediment in surface waters of the Amazon River wetlands from Landsat MSS and TM images. Endmembers were derived from laboratory reflectance measurements of water-sediment mixtures with a range of sediment concentrations. Using these references spectra, the authors applied a linear mixture analysis to multispectral images after accounting for instrument and atmosphere gains and offsets. Sediment concentrations were estimated for individual pixels from the mixture analysis results based on a nonlinear calibration curve relating laboratory sediment concentrations and reflectance to endmember fractions. The uncertainty in the sediment concentrations derived from this analysis for three Amazon images is predicted to be within [plus minus] 20 mg/L, and the concentrations fall within a range of concentrations of suspended sediment that were measured at several times and places in the field over the past 15 years. The emphasis of their work is to use the patterns of sediment concentrations to compute the approximate volumes of sediment that are transferred between the main channel and floodplain of the Amazon River. However, the methodology can be applied universally if the optical properties of water and sediment at the site are known, and it is, therefore, useful for the study of suspended sediment concentrations in surface waters of wetlands elsewhere.

Mertes, L.A.K.; Smith, M.O.; Adams, J.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1993-03-01

112

Seasonal uranium distributions in the coastal waters off the Amazon and Mississippi Rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemical reactivity of uranium was investigated across estuarine gradients from two of the world's largest river systems: the Amazon and Mississippi. Concentrations of dissolved (<0.45 ??m) uranium (U) were measured in surface waters of the Amazon shelf during rising (March 1990), flood (June 1990) and low (November 1991) discharge regimes. The dissolved U content was also examined in surface waters collected across estuarine gradients of the Mississippi outflow region during April 1992, August 1993, and November (1993). All water samples were analyzed for U by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In Amazon shelf surface waters uranium increased nonconservatively from about 0.01 ??g l-1 at the river's mouth to over 3 ??g l-1 at the distal site, irrespective of river discharge stage. Observed large-scale U removal at salinities generally less than 15 implies a) that riverine dissolved U was extensively adsorbed by freshly-precipitated hydrous metal oxides (e.g., FeOOH, MnO2) as a result of flocculation and aggregation, and b) that energetic resuspension and reworking of shelf sediments and fluid muds on the Amazon shelf released a chemically reactive particle/colloid to the water column which can further scavenge dissolved U across much of the estuarine gradient. In contrast, the estuarine chemistry of U is inconclusive within surface waters of the Mississippi shelf-break region. U behavior is most likely controlled less by traditional sorption and/or desorption reactions involving metal oxides or colloids than by the river's variable discharge regime (e.g., water parcel residence time during estuarine mixing, nature of particulates, sediment storage and resuspension in the confined lower river), and plume dispersal. Mixing of the thin freshwater lens into ambient seawater is largely defined by wind-driven rather than physical processes. As a consequence, in the Mississippi outflow region uranium predominantly displays ConserVative behavior; removal is evident only during anomalous river discharge regimes. 'Products-approach' mixing experiments conducted during the Flood of 1993 suggest the importance of small particles and/or colloids in defining a depleted U versus salinity distribution.

Swarzenski, P.W.; McKee, B.A.

1998-01-01

113

Phosphorus in sediments of the Amazon River and estuary: Implications for the global flux of phosphorus to the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of various forms of P in suspended and depositional bank sediments of the Amazon River and bottom sediments of the mixing and freshwater portions of the Amazon estuary and shelf have been determined using a modified sequential extraction method. Forms of P distinguished are: P associated with ferric oxides\\/hydroxides (Fe-P), organic P (org-P), P extracted with acetate buffer

Robert A. Berner; Ji-Long Rao

1994-01-01

114

Methane flux from the Amazon River floodplain - Emissions during rising water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methane flux data obtained during a period of high and falling water level in the course of the dry season of 1985 (the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment, ABLE 2A) and a period of moderate and rising water during the wet season of 1987 (ABLE 2B) were used to characterize the influence of seasonal variations in the vegetation, water column depth, and chemistry, as well as atmospheric dynamics, on the methane flux from the Amazon River floodplain. It was found that the annual estimate of methane from wetlands is identical to the annual estimate made by Matthews and Fung (1987) (both at 111 Tg). However, it was found that peatlands between 50 and 70 N contribute 39 Tg, with the large areas of forested and nonforested bogs making up 37 Tg of this figure, while the figures of Matthews and Fung were 63 and 62 Tg, respectively.

Bartlett, Karen B.; Crill, Patrick M.; Bonassi, Jose A.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Harriss, Robert C.

1990-01-01

115

Methane flux from the Amazon River floodplain - Emissions during rising water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane flux data obtained during a period of high and falling water level in the course of the dry season of 1985 (the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment, ABLE 2A) and a period of moderate and rising water during the wet season of 1987 (ABLE 2B) were used to characterize the influence of seasonal variations in the vegetation, water column depth, and chemistry, as well as atmospheric dynamics, on the methane flux from the Amazon River floodplain. It was found that the annual estimate of methane from wetlands is identical to the annual estimate made by Matthews and Fung (1987) (both at 111 Tg). However, it was found that peatlands between 50 and 70 N contribute 39 Tg, with the large areas of forested and nonforested bogs making up 37 Tg of this figure, while the figures of Matthews and Fung were 63 and 62 Tg, respectively.

Bartlett, Karen B.; Crill, Patrick M.; Bonassi, Jose A.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Harriss, Robert C.

1990-09-01

116

Molecular cloning of two tropomyosin family genes and expression analysis during development in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.  

PubMed

This paper reports that Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin (Sst) and Slow tropomyosin isoform (Sti) was highly expressed in androgenic gland transcriptome of Macrobrachium nipponense, which may play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. In this study, two Sst and Sti gene homologues designated as Mnsst and Mnsti were cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn M. nipponense. The full-length cDNA of Mnsst and Mnsti consists of 997 bp and 1926 bp, respectively, with an ORF of 852 bp encoding 284 amino acids, and the similarity in ORF reached to 95.82%. The deduced amino acid sequences of Mnsst and Mnsti shared the highest identity with Slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin and Slow tropomyosin isoform of Homarus americanus. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Mnsst and Mnsti genes were expressed in different tissues with the highest level of expression in the androgenic gland, implying that these two genes may be related to sex-determination in M. nipponense. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that in addition, Mnsst and Mnsti were speculated to be related with embryonic organogenesis of M. nipponense, especially for the formation of complete mouthpart and digestive organ and stimulating larval changes of morphology and initiate metamorphosis, the results of present study implied that the two genes may play complex and important roles in sex differentiation of M. nipponense. Thus, we isolated two candidate genes that may advance the studies of sex-determination mechanism in M. nipponense and even the whole crustacean species, as well as promoting the all-male population culture of M. nipponense. PMID:24809964

Jin, Shubo; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Qiao, Hui; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Fajun; Gong, Yongsheng; Fu, Hongtuo

2014-08-10

117

Remote sensing-based analysis of the planform changes in the Upper Amazon River over the period 1986-2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the planform changes of the Colombian reach of the Amazon River was carried out over a period of 19.9 years. Remote sensing image processing techniques were applied to Landsat images acquired in 1986, 1994, 2001 and, 2006. These images were selected based on minimal daily water level variations, while providing the widest temporal span. Plan view river changes and geomorphologic characteristics were examined to identify which channel pattern classification best represents this large tropical river system. Discharge was also analyzed to determine whether changes in the river's plan view are a direct response to variations in discharge. The system had a depositional tendency between 1986 and 2006, with a period where erosion was more intense than deposition between 1994 and 2001. Percent change in the plan view area of the system (1.4% yr-1) and the maximum migration rates (125 m yr-1) suggest that this reach of the Amazon is less active than reaches upstream and the downstream reach between the confluences of the Jutaí and Japurá Rivers. Variations in discharge appear to be responsible for deposition and erosion dynamics observed after this remote sensing analysis in the Colombian reach of the Amazon River. Characteristics including multiple channels with vegetated islands developed from within-channel deposition, meandering planform, lateral activity of channel margins, and the absence of islands with saucer-like morphology suggest a multichannel, meandering pattern for this reach of the Amazon, that corresponds to a laterally active anabranching river.

Rozo, Max G.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Castro, Carlomagno Soto

2014-04-01

118

Vertical Accretion of the Rain Forest Floodplains and Levees: the Formation of Rias from Interaction of Black and White River Types in the Amazon River System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amazon river system is dominated by the presence of rias, that is plaeovalleys paretially filled by sediment and harbouring almost standing bodies of water. Since the seminal work of Harald Sioli, it has been clear the paleovalleys have been formed in rivers (black type) poor in sediment and rich in organic matter during low stand periods of the sea

G. Ori; E. Franzinelli

2006-01-01

119

Rivers, refuges and population divergence of fire-eye antbirds (Pyriglena) in the Amazon Basin.  

PubMed

The identification of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that might account for the elevated biotic diversity in tropical forests is a central theme in evolutionary biology. This issue is especially relevant in the Neotropical region, where biological diversity is the highest in the world, but where few studies have been conducted to test factors causing population differentiation and speciation. We used mtDNA sequence data to examine the genetic structure within white-backed fire-eye (Pyriglena leuconota) populations along the Tocantins River valley in the south-eastern Amazon Basin, and we confront the predictions of the river and the Pleistocene refuge hypotheses with patterns of genetic variation observed in these populations. We also investigated whether these patterns reflect the recently detected shift in the course of the Tocantins River. We sampled a total of 32 individuals east of, and 52 individuals west of, the Tocantins River. Coalescent simulations and phylogeographical and population genetics analytical approaches revealed that mtDNA variation observed for fire-eye populations provides little support for the hypothesis that populations were isolated in glacial forest refuges. Instead, our data strongly support a key prediction of the river hypothesis. Our study shows that the Tocantins River has probably been the historical barrier promoting population divergence in fire-eye antbirds. Our results have important implications for a better understanding of the importance of large Amazonian rivers in vertebrate diversification in the Neotropics. PMID:23442128

Maldonado-Coelho, M; Blake, J G; Silveira, L F; Batalha-Filho, H; Ricklefs, R E

2013-05-01

120

Phosphorus in sediments of the Amazon River and the global flux of P to the sea  

SciTech Connect

A modification of the sequential extraction method of Ruttenberg (1990), for the determination of various forms of phosphorus in soils and sediments, has been applied to suspended and bank sediments of the Amazon River and river-derived marine bottom muds of the Amazon shelf. The following forms of phosphate are distinguished: P associated with hydrous ferric oxides (Fe-P), organic P (org-P), detrital apatite (detr-P), authigenic and/or biogenic Ca-phosphates (auth-P), and total phosphorus. (Use of H[sub 2]O[sub 2] to determine org-P results in loss of phosphorus which renders it inferior to the Aspila or difference-by-ignition method). Results indicate that: (1) org-P drops as riverine sediments become deposited in the marine environment; (2) org-P and Fe-P both drop as sediment is deposited on river banks and subjected to plant growth; (3) detr-P anticorrelates with Fe-P due probably to the association of detr-P with coarser size fractions combined with the correlation of increased Fe-oxide content with finer size fractions; (4) auth-P undergoes negligible change between riverine and marine environments; (5) total P in marine sediments is distinctly lower than that in suspended sediment of the river. These results suggest that dissolved phosphorus is added to the oceans by rivers via the bacterial decomposition of river-transported organic matter and possibly by the desorption and possibly by the desorption of P from Fe-oxides, in addition to that carried in solution. If these results can be extrapolated to a global basis, presently used residence times for phosphate in seawater are too high.

Rao, Ji Long; Berner, R.A. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01

121

Modern Environmental Changes on Amapa Coastal Plain under Amazon River Influence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazonian coastal environment is very dynamic compared to other coasts. It is situated at the edge of the Earth's largest forest, and is segmented by fluvial systems, with the biggest being the Amazon River. The rivers are particularly influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which controls the water and particle discharge, and the flooding regime. Moderate and strong El Nino conditions correlate with low-precipitation periods, and La Nina events cause precipitation to increase. These variables and others related to the Amazon dispersal system create an interesting area for the study of global and regional environmental changes. The Araguari River floodplain on the Amapa coast is influenced by natural processes of global scale such as ENSO events and ITCZ, and by local processes such as Amazon River discharge, tides and tidal bore (pororoca). Anthropogenic processes such as extensive water-buffalo farming also promote environmental changes. Time- series analyses of remote sensing images and suspended sediment have shown that the maximum turbidity zone inside Araguari River is related to the pororoca phenomenon. The pororoca remobilizes sediment from the river bottom and margins, developing sediment suspension >15 g/l as it passes - creating fluid muds. The pororoca also introduces Amazon- and shelf-derived sediment into the Araguari estuary. Measurements during eight spring-tide cycles indicate erosion of 3 cm of consolidated mud and deposition of 1 cm. The pororoca also influences the remobilization and cycling of nutrients and consequently affects the distribution of benthic organisms, including benthonic foraminifera and thecamoebians. For more than a century, the coastal plain has had water-buffalo farming (>42,000 animals today), which modifies the drainage system and affects sedimentary processes. Areas with more buffalo trails have higher suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) during the dry season and lower SSC during the rainy season. This relationship is reversed in drainages without the influence of the herd. The development of small channels, one meter deep by one meter wide, induced by the buffalos can evolve into a large drainage network in a short period of time. The Santana Creek started as a buffalo trail and in three decades it evolved into a network with a main channel 200 m wide and 6 km long. Despite the Amazon River having the largest influence in the region, the Araguari River also has a considerable water discharge of 2.4x103 m3/s and particulate discharge of 7x105 tons/y, and is able to impose changes to the Amapa coastal environments and inner shelf. The natural closure of the Araguari north arm during middle of the 19th century has induced the development of a wide coastal plain in the Cape Norte region, and decreased fresh water to the Carapaporis channel. On the other hand, deforestation for farm development and buffalo farming has influenced the hydrologic regime, sediment and nutrient balance.

Santos, V. F.; Figueiredo, A. G.; Silveira, O. M.; Polidori, L.

2007-05-01

122

Isotopic Tracers of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water Fluxes From the Andean Headwaters to the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River is a large source of fresh water and organic carbon to the world's oceans. The Andean headwaters of the river have been implicated as a controlling factor on organic matter concentrations in the lower mainstem, but these tributaries have previously been little studied. We determined the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) elemental and stable isotopic composition of riverine and terrestrial organic matter (OM) in an altitudinal (4043 to 720 meters above sea level) transect in the Andean Amazon of Peru. C-13 content of plants increased with increasing elevation, but unlike other alpine plant studies, percent N of plant leaves decreased. Soils were consistently isotopically enriched compared to plants, indicating substantial degradation. Isotopically, riverine fine particulate OM (FPOM) resembled terrestrial soils, and coarse particulate OM (CPOM) is derived from a minimally degraded leaf source. Both FPOM and CPOM were rich in N and organic C (OC), beyond the level attributable to dissolved OM sorption. Dissolved OC (DOC) concentration, N-15 content of nitrate and O-18 content of water are variable in high altitude tributaries but approach an average value downstream. O-18 in water also suggests that most organic carbon is transferred from landscapes to rivers during storm events. Taken as a whole, the data suggest two trends in diagenesis with altitude. Soil degradation increases along a transect from the relatively dry high altitude basins to lower altitude rain and cloud forests. However, FPOM begins to resemble plant OC at low altitudes, perhaps due to increased plant and surface soil inputs to lower altitude rivers, although soil OM still dominates FPOM. The current study also highlights the biogeochemical variability of headwater streams, indicating that lateral as well as longitudinal patterns must be considered in high altitude tropical river studies.

Townsend-Small, A.; McClain, M. E.; Brandes, J. A.

2004-05-01

123

Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

124

Integrating GRACE measured water storage change observations into the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) in the Amazon and Congo River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, GRACE measured water storages are used to constrain the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in the Amazon and Congo River Basins. The GRACE measured water storages change observations are de-correlated, filtered and signal leakage corrected with an approximate spatial resolution of longer than 200 km (half-wavelength). The HRR model provides similar scale total water storage changes by integrating vertical water balance, lateral surface and subsurface kinematic wave routing, and channel plus floodplain diffusion wave routing models. The period of study is 2003 through 2008. The model forcing data are TRMM precipitation and MODIS air temperature, albedo, cloud cover and leaf area index. The HRR model parameters accounting for the thickness of the rooting zone layer, timing of the subsurface response to the channel network and speed of the flood wave are calibrated using the GRACE estimates of water storage change. The resulting model predictions are compared to corresponding streamflow data in the Amazon Basin and historical flow data in the Congo Basin. The results of this study quantify the predictive capabilities of a large scale hydrologic model driven primarily with Satellite data and without calibrating to in-situ streamflow data.

Beighley, R. E.; He, Y.; Ray, R. L.; Guo, J.; Shum, C.

2009-12-01

125

Study of the anabranch dynamics for different sinuosity stages in the Upper Amazon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Peruvian Amazon River is characterized by a sequence of anabranching structures, which are composed by several channels behaving as non-developed and quasy-freely meandering channels. The widest channel in these anabranching structures is considered as the main channel or main anabranch while the other channels are secondary anabranches. Based on satellite imagery, it is observed that the main channels show different sinuosities along the Upper Peruvian Amazon River valley. Little is known about the effects of the planform characteristics of the main channel into the morphodynamics of the secondary anabranches. Thus, two study sites were selected to characterize anabranching structures with low and medium-high sinuosity main channels. For the low sinuosity main channel case, an area at the tri-point boundary between Colombia-Brazil and Peru was selected. For the medium-high sinuosity main channel case, an area upstream of Iquitos City (the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest) was selected. A field campaign was carried out on 2010 and 2011 for the medium-high and low sinuosity stages respectively. On this field campaign velocity measurement, bathymetry and water surface elevations were obtained. With the field data it was possible to develop and validate a two dimensional shallow water numerical model to study the hydrodynamics on both sites. This allows us to discuss the effects of the current planform configuration of the anabranching structures into the short-term behavior of individual channels. In past studies, temporal analysis of the Amazon River planform have been carried out using satellite imagery with special focus into the floodplain, main channel, number of islands and valley slope. However, the dynamics in these anabranching structures containing multiple channels have not been studied in detailed. The metrics obtained for this study were sinuosity, channel width and annual migration rates. It was confirmed that in a medium to high sinuosity stage, the secondary anabranches behave as non-developed meanders. Also, it was concluded that the planform for secondary anabranches in all main channel sinuosity stages are controlled by the main anabranch migration.

Frias, C. E.; Mendoza, A.; Dauer, K.; Abad, J. D.; Montoro, H.; Paredes, J.; Vizcarra, J.

2013-12-01

126

Insights into iron sources and pathways in the Amazon River provided by isotopic and spectroscopic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigated the weathering and transport mechanisms of Fe in the Amazon River. A particular emphasis was placed on Fe partitioning, speciation, and isotopic fractionation in the contrasting waters of the Solimões and Negro rivers and their mixing zone at the beginning of the Amazon River. Samples collected in the end-member rivers and thirteen sites distributed throughout the mixing zone were processed through frontal vacuum filtration and tangential-flow ultrafiltration to separate the different suspended solid fractions, i.e., particulate (P > 0.45 ?m and P > 0.22 ?m), colloidal (0.22 ?m > C > 5 kDa) and truly dissolved elements (TD < 5 kDa). The Fe isotopic composition and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) species were measured on these different pore-sized fractions. The acidic and organo-Fe-rich waters of the Negro River displayed dissolved and colloidal fractions enriched in heavy isotopes (?1.2‰, in ?57Fe values relative to IRMM-14), while the particulate fractions yielded light isotopic compositions of -0.344‰ for P > 0.22 ?m and -0.104‰ for P > 0.45 ?m fractions). The mineral particulate-rich waters of the Solimões River had dissolved and colloidal fractions with light isotopic composition (-0.532‰ and -0.176‰, respectively), whereas the particulate fractions yielded ?57Fe values close to those of the continental crust (i.e., -0.029‰ for P > 0.22 ?m and 0.028‰ for P > 0.45 ?m). Ten kilometers downstream from the Negro and Solimões junction, the concentrations of colloidal and dissolved Fe species deviate markedly from conservative mixing. A maximum Fe loss of 43 ?g/L (i.e., 50% of the dissolved and colloidal Fe) is observed 110 km downstream from the rivers junction. The contrasting Negro and Solimões Rivers isotopic compositions along the pore-sized water fractions is attributable to the biogeochemical processes involving different types of upland soils and parental materials. For instance, the isotopic composition of colloidal and dissolved Fe from the Negro River are consistent with Fe oxidation and complexation mechanisms at the interface between waterlogged podzols and river networks, as supported by strong organo-Fe complexes signals observed by EPR. Conversely, the particulate and colloidal fractions from the Solimões River have ?57Fe consistent with strong mechanical erosion in the Andean Cordillera and upland soils, as evidenced by high concentrations of Fe3+-oxides sensu lato measured by EPR. The massive dissolved and colloidal Fe removal is associated with the evolution of the physical and chemical composition of the waters (i.e., ionic strength) during mixing, which influences organo-Fe3+ and Fe3+-oxyhydroxides stability. Several models are discussed to explain Fe non-conservative behavior, including dissociation of organo-Fe complexes and the subsequent formation of solid Fe3+-oxyhydroxides and semiquinone free radicals, as evidenced by EPR spectra demonstrating that organo-Fe signals decrease as Fe3+-oxyhydroxides and free radicals signals increase. As in estuarine regions, the mechanisms involving Fe transfer and loss in the mixing zone has a negligible effect on the bulk water Fe isotopic composition. This result suggests that a tropical basin similar to the Amazon River Basin delivers to the ocean waters with an Fe isotopic composition similar to that of the Earth's continental crust.

Mulholland, Daniel Santos; Poitrasson, Franck; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende; Allard, Thierry; Vieira, Lucieth Cruz; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Mancini, Luiz; Seyler, Patrick

2015-02-01

127

The pathways and properties of the Amazon River Plume in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River Plume spreads across the tropical North Atlantic creating a barrier to vertical mixing. Here using a 1/6° HYCOM model and data from three research cruises in May-June 2010, September-October 2011, and July 2012, we investigate the pathways and properties of the plume. Four plume pathways for export of freshwater from the western tropical North Atlantic are identified. These consist of direct and indirect pathways to the northwest, and eastward pathways toward the subtropical gyre and toward Africa in the North Equatorial Counter Current. Because of the seasonality and cooccurrence of these pathways, plume characteristics are highly variable. Two pathways export water to the Caribbean, however the time scales associated with those direct and indirect pathways (3 versus 6+ months) differ, leading to different salinity characteristics of the plume water. Models results show that the Amazon river and tropical precipitation have similar magnitude impact on the observed seasonal cycle of freshwater within the western tropical Atlantic and at the 8°N, 38°W PIRATA mooring. Freshwater associated with the Amazon also influences surface salinity in winter as far as 20W in the model. The mean plume salinity minimum leads maximum discharge, highlighting the importance of currents and advection rather than discharge in maintaining plume properties. Plume pathways are tied to the underlying current structure, with the North Equatorial Counter Current jet preventing direct freshwater transport into the southern hemisphere. The plume influences underlying currents as well, generating vertical current shear that leads to enhanced eddy stirring and mixing in the model simulations.

Coles, Victoria J.; Brooks, Maureen T.; Hopkins, Julia; Stukel, Michael R.; Yager, Patricia L.; Hood, Raleigh R.

2013-12-01

128

Carbon and metal concentrations, size distributions and fluxes in major rivers of the Amazon basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of the Amazon River results from the mixing of two water types: black water and white water. On-site fractionation by sequential tangential ultrafiltration (STUF) was used to differentiate transported organic carbon and to determine the distribution and association of major and trace elements with different size fraction of the organic carbon (OC). Several sampling campaigns (1994-1996) allow a monthly quantification of particulate (OCP, MeP), colloidal (OCC, MeC) and dissolved (OCD, MeD) organic carbon and metal ions inputs. In white rivers the OC is mainly concentrated in the low molecular weight fraction (OCD < 5000 D) while in black rivers most of the OC is in the heavier molecular weight fractions (OCP and OCC > 5 kDa). For Mg, Ca and K, 50% of the total amount of each element is found in fraction MeD while 15% and 35% are found in fractions MeC and MeP, respectively. Al and Fe are in the particulate fraction at 99% of the total metal concentration for all river samples. This work emphasizes the coagulation processes and the sink for elements in the mixing zone. These physicochemical transformations of the organic matter vary seasonally. The changes happen during the transition periods: before high-level waters and before low-level waters. By way of flux measurement, a seasonal carbon loss was observed. The estimated annual organic carbon flux of the Amazon at Òbidos is 28 × 106 t. At the same time, an average of 9 × 106 t of organic carbon per year is retained in the reach between Manaus and Òbidos, probably via coagulation processes.

Benedetti, Marc F.; Mounier, Stephane; Filizola, Naziano; Benaim, Jean; Seyler, Patrick

2003-05-01

129

Metagenomics of the water column in the pristine upper course of the Amazon river.  

PubMed

River water is a small percentage of the total freshwater on Earth but represents an essential resource for mankind. Microbes in rivers perform essential ecosystem roles including the mineralization of significant quantities of organic matter originating from terrestrial habitats. The Amazon river in particular is famous for its size and importance in the mobilization of both water and carbon out of its enormous basin. Here we present the first metagenomic study on the microbiota of this river. It presents many features in common with the other freshwater metagenome available (Lake Gatun in Panama) and much less similarity with marine samples. Among the microbial taxa found, the cosmopolitan freshwater acI lineage of the actinobacteria was clearly dominant. Group I Crenarchaea and the freshwater sister group of the marine SAR11 clade, LD12, were found alongside more exclusive and well known freshwater taxa such as Polynucleobacter. A metabolism-centric analysis revealed a disproportionate representation of pathways involved in heterotrophic carbon processing, as compared to those found in marine samples. In particular, these river microbes appear to be specialized in taking up and mineralizing allochthonous carbon derived from plant material. PMID:21915244

Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; McMahon, Katherine D; Toyama, Danyelle; Rinke, Raquel; Cristina Souza de Oliveira, Tereza; Wagner Garcia, José; Pellon de Miranda, Fernando; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

2011-01-01

130

Metagenomics of the Water Column in the Pristine Upper Course of the Amazon River  

PubMed Central

River water is a small percentage of the total freshwater on Earth but represents an essential resource for mankind. Microbes in rivers perform essential ecosystem roles including the mineralization of significant quantities of organic matter originating from terrestrial habitats. The Amazon river in particular is famous for its size and importance in the mobilization of both water and carbon out of its enormous basin. Here we present the first metagenomic study on the microbiota of this river. It presents many features in common with the other freshwater metagenome available (Lake Gatun in Panama) and much less similarity with marine samples. Among the microbial taxa found, the cosmopolitan freshwater acI lineage of the actinobacteria was clearly dominant. Group I Crenarchaea and the freshwater sister group of the marine SAR11 clade, LD12, were found alongside more exclusive and well known freshwater taxa such as Polynucleobacter. A metabolism-centric analysis revealed a disproportionate representation of pathways involved in heterotrophic carbon processing, as compared to those found in marine samples. In particular, these river microbes appear to be specialized in taking up and mineralizing allochthonous carbon derived from plant material. PMID:21915244

McMahon, Katherine D.; Toyama, Danyelle; Rinke, Raquel; Cristina Souza de Oliveira, Tereza; Wagner Garcia, José; Pellon de Miranda, Fernando; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

2011-01-01

131

Origins and processing of organic matter in the Amazon River as indicated by carbohydrates and amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aldose, amino acid, and elemental compositions were determined for flux-weighted samples of coarse (> 63 pm) and fine (< 63 pm) particulate organic material and ultrafiltered (> 1,000 Daltons) dissolved organic matter collected at three sites along the Brazilian Amazon River and six of its major tributaries. Concentrations of total organic C (TOC) were relatively uniform (55Ok 100 PM) at

JOHN I. HEDGES; GREGORY L. COWIE; JEFFREY E. RICHEY; PAUL D. QUAY; RONALD BENNER; MIKE STROM; BRUCE R. FORSBERG

1994-01-01

132

Tracing soil organic carbon in the lower Amazon River and its tributaries using GDGT distributions and bulk organic matter properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to trace the transport of soil organic carbon (OC) in the lower Amazon basin, we investigated the distributions of crenarchaeol and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) by analyzing riverbed sediments and river suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected in the Solimões-Amazon River mainstem and its tributaries. The Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether (BIT) index, a proxy for river-transported soil OC into the ocean, was determined from the distributions of these GDGTs. The GDGT-derived parameters were compared with other bulk geochemical data (i.e. C:N ratio and stable carbon isotopic composition). The GDGT-derived and bulk geochemical data indicate that riverine SPM and riverbed sediments in the lower Amazon River and its tributaries are a mixture of C3 plant-derived soil OC and aquatic-derived OC. The branched GDGTs in the SPM and riverbed sediments did not predominantly originate from the high Andes soils (>2500 m in altitude) as was suggested previously. However, further constraint on the soil source area of branched GDGTs was hampered due to the deficiency of soil data from the lower montane forest areas in the Andes. Our study also revealed seasonal and interannual variation in GDGT composition as well as soil OC discharge, which was closely related to the hydrological cycle. By way of a simple binary mixing model using the flux-weighted BIT values at Óbidos, the last gauging station in the Amazon River, we estimated that 70-80% of the POC pool in the river was derived of soil OC. However, care should be taken to use the BIT index since it showed a non-conservative behaviour along the river continuum due to the aquatic production of crenarchaeol. Further investigation using a continuous sampling strategy following the full hydrological cycle is required to fully understand how soil-derived GDGT signals are transformed in large tropical river systems through their transport pathway to the ocean.

Kim, Jung-Hyun; Zell, Claudia; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Abril, Gwenaël; Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Meziane, Tarik; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

2012-08-01

133

The influence of the Amazonian floodplain ecosystems on the trace element dynamics of the Amazon River mainstem (Brazil).  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to forecast the role of riverine wetlands in the transfer of trace elements. One of the largest riverine wetlands in the world is the floodplain (várzea) of the Amazon River and its tributaries (Junk and Piedade, 1997). The central Amazon wetlands are constituted by a complex network of lakes and floodplains, named várzeas, that extend over more than 300,000 km2 (Junk, W.J., The Amazon floodplain--a sink or source for organic carbon? In Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers, edited by E.T. Degens, S. Kempe, R. Herrera, SCOPE/UNEP; 267-283, 1985.) and are among the most productive ecosystems in the world due to the regular enrichment in nutrients by river waters In order to understand if the adjacent floodplain of Amazon River have a significant influence on the trace element concentrations and fluxes of the mainstem, the concentrations of selected elements (i.e., Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U) have been measured in the Amazon River water (Manacapuru Station, Amazonas State, Brazil) and in lake waters and plants (leaves) from a várzea(Ilha de Marchantaria, Amazonas State, Brazil) during different periods of the hydrological cycle. Four plant species (two perennial species: Pseudobombax munguba and Salix humboldtiana, and two annual herbaceous plants: Echinochloa polystachya and Eichhornia crassipes) were selected to represent the ecological functioning of the site. Time series obtained for dissolved Mn and Cu (<0.20 microm) in Amazon River water could not be explained by tributary mixing or instream processes only. Therefore, the contribution of the waters transiting the floodplains should be considered. These results suggest that the chemical composition of the waters draining these floodplains is controlled by reactions occurring at sediment-water and plant-water interfaces. Trace elements concentrations in the plants (leaves) vary strongly with hydrological seasonality. Based on the concentration data and the biological productivity of floodplain ecosystems, a first order approximation of trace element storage (permanent or temporary) in the vegetation of these floodplains was made. It was found that floodplain-mainstem elemental fluxes make a significant contribution to the dissolved flux of the Amazon River. This study is part of the Brazilian_French joint research program Hybam (Hydrology and Geochemistry of the Amazonian Basin). PMID:15740771

Viers, Jérôme; Barroux, Guénaël; Pinelli, Marcello; Seyler, Patrick; Oliva, Priscia; Dupré, Bernard; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende

2005-03-01

134

Sr and Nd isotopes of suspended sediments from rivers of the Amazon basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems are important tools to constrain the provenance of sediment load in river systems. This study presents the isotopic composition of Sr and Nd isotopes and major and minor elements in suspended sediments from the Marañón-Solimões, Amazonas and Beni-Madeira rivers. The data were used to constrain the source region of the sediments and to better understand the main seasonal and spatial transport processes within the basin based on the variations of the chemical and isotopic signals. They also allow establishing a relationship between sediment concentrations and flow rate values. The study presents data collected during a hydrological year between 2009 and 2010. The Marañón-Solimões River presents low Sr isotopic values (0.7090-0.7186), broad EpslonNd(0) range (-15.17 to -8.09) and Nd model (TDM) ages varying from 0.99 to 1.81 Ga. Sources of sediments to the Marañón-Solimões River include recent volcanic rocks in northern Peru and Ecuador, as well as rocks with long crustal residence time and carbonates from the Marañón Basin, Peru. The Beni-Madeira River has more radiogenic Sr isotope values (0.7255-0.7403), more negative EpslonNd(0) values (-20.46 to -10.47), and older Nd isotope model ages (from 1.40 to 2.35 Ga) when compared to the Marañón-Solimões River. These isotope data were related to the erosion of Paleozoic and Cenozoic foreland basins that are filled with Precambrian sediments derived from the Amazonian Craton. These basins are located in Bolivian Subandina Zone. The Amazon River presents intermediate isotopic values when compared to those found in the Marañón-Solimões and Beni-Madeira rivers. Its Sr isotope ratios range between 0.7193 and 0.7290, and its EpslonNd(0) values varies between -11.09 and -9.51. The Nd isotope model ages of the suspended sediments vary between 1.28 and 1.77 Ga. Concentrations of soluble and insoluble elements indicate a more intense weathering activity in sediments of the Beni-Madeira River. This river has a larger difference in the Sr isotopic composition between the diluted and solid phases, which has been assigned to the high level of weathering of its sediment source area. In the Beni-Madeira River sub-basin dominates weathering of silicate rocks, while in the Marañón-Solimões River sub-basin there also weathering of carbonate and evaporitic rocks.

Hatting, Karina; Santos, Roberto V.; Sondag, Francis

2014-05-01

135

Altimetric profiles of Amazon rivers and gage levels gained by GPS-PPP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key application of GNSS data for hydrology is the characterization of river altimetric profiles, including the levelling of gauges. In the present work we use the GINS-PC software developed at CNES/GRGS to determine thousands of kilometers long altimetric profile along the major rivers of the Amazon basin. The profiles are processed using data obtained from GPS receivers installed on board boats. We present the capability of the PPP kinematic with integer ambiguities fixing strategy implemented in GINS-PC in processing GPS data collected with moving stations. We point on the specific corrections and cautions that are necessary during the data collection and the data processing. The accuracy of the profiles is evaluated by comparing the results with fix points at gauge stations, or by comparing solutions obtained for several stations installed on the same boat Base applications of the method are to enable the leveling of 1- remote gages without any specific field work but initial installation of GPS stations on boats cruising the river network and 2- leveling of cross sections for the determination of the riverbed slope. Examples are presented with accuracy assessment. These profiles are further used to assess the capability of other space technics to provide altimetric profiles of rivers, namely DEMs such as SRTM, ACE2 or ASTER in the one hand and radar altimetry (JASON-2, ENVISAT) in the other hand.

Moreira, D. M.; Calmant, S.; Perosanz, F.; Rotunno Filho, O. C.; Santos, A.; Seyler, F.; Bonnet, M.; Gennero, M.; Monteiro, A. E.

2013-12-01

136

Transcriptome Analysis of Androgenic Gland for Discovery of Novel Genes from the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, Using Illumina Hiseq 2000  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. Methodology and Principal Finding The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Conclusion Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many fields, including the evolution and molecular ecology of Macrobrachium species. PMID:24204682

Jin, Shubo; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhou, Qiao; Sun, Shengming; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Gong, Yongsheng; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

2013-01-01

137

The effects of CO2 on phytoplankton community structure in the Amazon River Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River Plume results from an enormous discharge of freshwater and organic matter into the Atlantic Ocean. It is a unique environment with a natural pCO2 gradient in the surface waters of the plume that range from 130-950 ?atm. The response of coastal marine phytoplankton to increased anthropogenic CO2 emission is still unknown, hence the Amazon River Plume gradient can serve as a natural laboratory to examine the potential influence of atmospheric CO2 increases and ocean acidification on phytoplankton community composition. A two pronged study was undertaken: the first in which shipboard samples from a 2010 cruise to the Amazon River Plume were analyzed to examine the distribution of 3 major phytoplankton groups (diatoms, diatom-diazotroph associations [DDAs], and the diazotroph Trichodesmium spp.) with respect to the natural pCO2 gradient; the second in which the growth response of Thalassiosira weisflogii, a representative diatom species, was examined under experimentally manipulated CO2 conditions. Cruise data analysis showed that diatoms were found with higher cell counts around 150 ?atm; DDAs seemed to dominate waters within the narrow range of 350-400 ?atm CO2; and the diazotroph Trichodesmium spp. grew in a wide range of pCO2 conditions, but with higher cell counts at upwards of 500 ?atm. Phytoplankton group distributions along the CO2 gradient may be due to differences in their carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCMs) efficiencies. The CO2 manipulation apparatus was assembled such that the cells were grown under three different CO2 environments. Differential growth of T. weisflogii was observed at 150, 400, and 800 ppm CO2 treatment. T. weisflogii grew at all three CO2 concentrations, reflecting diatoms' physiological flexibility and efficient CCMs. Absorption spectra analysis of pigments and Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometer analysis indicate potential changes in photosynthetic machinery with different CO2 treatments. Future CO2 manipulation experiments on representative DDA and diazotroph species will be undertaken to compare the growth responses of the 3 major phytoplankton groups to changes in CO2. Additionally, analysis on fatty acid compositions with different CO2 treatments will be done to assess potential changes in nutritive value for higher trophic levels. Underway pCO2 measurements with overlaid cell counts from the 2010 cruise data CO2 manipulation experiment data- growth curve (in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence) for the 3 CO2 treatments

Chen, T. L.; Goes, J. I.; Gomes, H. R.; McKee, K. T.

2013-12-01

138

A Mineralogical and Organic Geochemical Overview of the Effects of Holocene Changes in Amazon River Flow on Floodplain Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthesis of the impacts of the Amazon River hydrological changes on the sedimentation process of organic matter (OM) in three different floodplain lakes (Santa Ninha, Maracá, and Comprido lakes) is presented in this study. Today the Santa Ninha and Maracá lakes are directly and permanently connected with the main channel of the Amazon River, in contrast to Comprido Lake, which is indirectly and periodically influenced by the Amazon River due to its high distance from the main channel. All the sedimentary lake records showed a reduced river inflow due to dry climatic conditions during the Early and Middle Holocene followed by a humid Late Holocene with an increased fluvial input. In Santa Ninha and Maraca Lakes the reduced river inflow period was characterized by sediments with a low abundance of smectite (on average ~20 wt. %), a clay mineral mainly transported by the fluvial system, high total organic carbon (TOC) contents (on average ~8.2 wt. %) and a predominant acidic soil OM input evidenced by high branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT) concentrations (on average 180 ?g gTOC-1). During the Late Holocene, a higher smectite abundance (on average ~43 wt. %) and a low TOC content (on average ~1.4 wt. %) pointed to dilution with the riverine lithogenic matter. This was accompanied by a proportional increase in the aquatically-produced crenarchaeol, suggesting an increased lake water level. In Comprido Lake, a sedimentation gap occurred during the Early and Middle Holocene. The humid Late Holocene, after 3,000 cal years BP, was characterized by high TOC values (on average ~9 wt. %) as well as a sharp increase in soil OM input as revealed by the increase in branched GDGT concentrations (on average ~81 ?g gTOC-1), but the smectite content was low (on average ~14 %). This suggests that in Comprido Lake the soil OM input from the local catchment area was predominant during the humid Late Holocene due to its high distance from the Amazon River main stem. Consequently, our study shows that the sedimentation processes of OM in Amazonian floodplain lakes are strongly influenced by variations in the hydrodynamic regime of the Amazon River during the Holocene. However, its impacts on floodplain lakes were different, mainly depending on the distance from the main stem of the Amazon River.

Moreira, Luciane; Patricia, Moreira-Turcq; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Turcq, Bruno; Renato, Cordeiro; Sandrine, Caquineau; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap

2014-05-01

139

Multisensor observations of the Amazon-Orinoco river plume interactions with hurricanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

analysis is presented for the spatial and intensity distributions of North Atlantic extreme atmospheric events crossing the buoyant Amazon-Orinoco freshwater plume. The sea surface cooling amplitude in the wake of an ensemble of storm tracks traveling in that region is estimated from satellite products for the period 1998-2012. For the most intense storms, cooling is systematically reduced by ˜50% over the plume area compared to surroundings open-ocean waters. Historical salinity and temperature observations from in situ profiles indicate that salt-driven vertical stratification, enhanced oceanic heat content, and barrier-layer presence within the plume waters are likely key oceanic factors to explain these results. Satellite SMOS surface salinity data combined with in situ observations are further used to detail the oceanic response to category 4 hurricane Igor in 2010. Argo and satellite measurements confirm the haline stratification impact on the cooling inhibition as the hurricane crossed the river plume. Over this region, the SSS mapping capability is further tested and demonstrated to monitor the horizontal distribution of the vertical stratification parameter. SMOS SSS data can thus be used to consistently anticipate the cooling inhibition in the wake of TCs traveling over the Amazon-Orinoco plume region.

Reul, Nicolas; Quilfen, Yves; Chapron, Bertrand; Fournier, Severine; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Sabia, Roberto

2014-12-01

140

[Prevalence of arterial hypertension in communities along the Madeira River, Western Brazilian Amazon].  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among adults (n = 841) in communities along the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon, prior to startup of the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Plant. The study gathered information on sociodemographic conditions, history of diseases, habits, fish consumption, and anthropometric parameters. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and the respective confidence intervals. Among the riverine communities, 26% (95%CI: 23%-29%) of adults presented hypertension (29% in men [95%CI: 24%-33%] and 23% in women [95%CI: 19%-27%]). Factors associated with hypertension were age, BMI, and place of residence in men and age, triglycerides, and blood glucose in women. The findings can contribute to strategies for state and municipal health services to monitor and prevent cardiovascular events. PMID:24005927

Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Mourão, Dennys de Souza; Gomes, Núbia; Costa, Janaina Mara C; Souza, Andreia Vasconcelos de; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Fonseca, Marlon de Freitas; Mariani, Carolina Fiorillo; Abbad, Guilherme; Hacon, Sandra S

2013-08-01

141

Iron isotope composition of the suspended matter along depth and lateral profiles in the Amazon River and its tributaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of suspended matter were collected at different locations, seasons, depths and lateral profiles in the Amazon River and three of its main tributaries, the Madeira, the Solimões and the Negro rivers. Their iron isotope compositions were studied in order to understand the iron cycle and investigate the level of isotopic homogeneity at the river cross-section scale. Samples from four depth profiles and three lateral profiles analyzed show suspended matter ?57Fe values (relative to IRMM-14) between -0.501 ± 0.075‰ and 0.196 ± 0.083‰ (2SE). Samples from the Negro River, a blackwater river, yield the negative values. Samples from other stations (whitewater rivers, the Madeira, the Solimões and the Amazon) show positive values, which are indistinguishable from the average composition of the continental crust (?57FeIRMM-14 ˜ 0.1‰). Individual analyses of the depth and lateral profiles show no significant variation in iron isotope signatures, indicating that, in contrast to certain chemical or other isotopic tracers, one individual subsurface sample is representative of river deeper waters. This also suggests that, instead of providing detailed information on the riverine iron cycling, iron isotopes of particulate matter in rivers will rather yield a general picture of the iron sources.

dos Santos Pinheiro, Giana Márcia; Poitrasson, Franck; Sondag, Francis; Vieira, Lucieth Cruz; Pimentel, Márcio Martins

2013-07-01

142

Exchanges of sediment between the flood plain and channel of the Amazon River in Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment transport through the Brazilian sector of the Amazon River valley, a distance of 2010 km, involves exchanges between the channel and the flood plain that in each direction exceed the annual flux of sediment out of the river at O??bidos (???1200 Mt yr-1). The exchanges occur through bank erosion, bar deposition, settling from diffuse overbank flow, and sedimentation in flood-plain channels. We estimated the magnitude of these exchanges for each of 10 reaches of the valley, and combined them with calculations of sediment transport into and out of the reaches based on sediment sampling and flow records to define a sediment budget for each reach. Residuals in the sediment budget of a reach include errors of estimation and erosion or deposition within the channel. The annual supply of sediment entering the channel from bank erosion was estimated to average 1570 Mt yr-1 (1.3 ?? the O??bidos flux) and the amount transferred from channel transport to the bars (380 Mt yr-1) and the flood plain (460 Mt yr-1 in channelized flow; 1230 Mt yr-1 in diffuse overbank flow) totaled 2070 Mt yr-1 (1.7 ?? the O??bidos flux). Thus, deposition on the bars and flood plain exceeded bank erosion by 500 Mt yr-1 over a 10-16 yr period. Sampling and calculation of sediment loads in the channel indicate a net accumulation in the valley floor of approximately 200 Mt yr-1 over 16 yr, crudely validating the process-based calculations of the sediment budget, which in turn illuminate the physical controls on each exchange process. Another 300-400 Mt yr-1 are deposited in a delta plain downstream of O??bidos. The components of the sediment budget reflect hydrologie characteristics of the valley floor and geomorphic characteristics of the channel and flood plain, which in turn are influenced by tectonic features of the Amazon structural trough.

Dunne, T.; Mertes, L.A.K.; Meade, R.H.; Richey, J.E.; Forsberg, B.R.

1998-01-01

143

Old sediment in young rivers- a multiple cosmogenic nuclide study in the Amazon basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The burial dating technique using in-situ produced cosmogenic isotope pairs (26Al and 10Be) of stationary geomorphic units like terrace deposits has become a valuable tool in deriving sediment deposition chronologies or paleo-denudation rates. In this study, we use 26Al/10Be ratios in detrital sediment from Amazonian rivers to explore the degrees of pre-erosional floodplain burial duration and burial depth as well as degrees of sediment mixing between the active modern rivers and old floodplain reservoirs. 26Al/10Be ratios below a surface production rate ratio of ~6.5 indicate sediment burial, as production of nuclides ceases due to deep shielding in the floodplain and differential decay of 26Al over 10Be causes 26Al/10Be ratios to decrease. Burial depths and durations can be constrained from a modified version of the erosion island plot (26Al/10Be ratio vs. 10Be nuclide concentration diagram) calculated for continuous irradiation during shallow burial. In order to constrain sediment mixing, we analyzed >40 samples for their 26Al/10Be ratios, encompassing the Andean as well as the Guyana and Brazilian Shield headwaters, and the main Amazonian lowland rivers that receive sediment from these differently eroding source areas (Solimões, Amazon, Madeira, Tapajós). The following first-order implications emerge: (i) samples from rapidly denuding Andean headwater streams typically are not affected by burial. (ii) in the Guyana and Brazilian Shield headwaters, average 26Al/10Be ratios are ~5.0, with burial durations between 0.5-1.0 Myr at burial depths around 3 m. (iii) in lowland rivers of central Amazonia that mostly drain the cratonic headwaters (Tapajós, Madeira), coarser grain sizes (> 500 µm) yield 26Al/10Be ratios similar to their cratonic headwaters, whereas finer grain sizes (125-500 µm) reflect the unburied modern stream sediment. (iv) in lowland rivers receiving most sediment from Andean headwaters (Solimões, Amazon), no trend for burial ratio vs. grain size is observable, and typical 26Al/10Be ratios of the main Amazon River are ~5.3, with associated average burial durations of <1 Myr at average depths of ~12 m. Here, also finer grain sizes show deeper burial at ratios <5.0. We observe that when plotted in an erosion island plot, central Amazonian samples evolve along mixing lines between a non-buried Andean end member (represented by modern fluvial sediment produced from hillslope erosion in the source area under continuous cosmic-ray exposure), and a deeply buried end member represented by ~Miocene floodplain sediment. The slope of the mixing lines is hereby a function of the prevailing denudation rate prior burial. For the Miocene floodplain end member, very low burial ratios of ~ 3.0 and long burial durations of ~10 Myr have been measured (Wittmann and von Blanckenburg, 2009). This buried sediment is incorporated into modern, Andean-derived sediment during channel avulsions. Using this dataset, we cannot only constrain the mixing of sediments from different provenances in the classical sense, but can also trace mixing fractions and account for floodplain burial of sediment along the long transfer of sediment from their source areas to the central Amazonian lowlands.(Wittmann, H., and von Blanckenburg, F., 2009, Cosmogenic nuclide budgeting of floodplain sediment transfer: Geomorphology, v. 109, no. 3-4, p. 246-256.)

Wittmann, Hella; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Maurice, Laurence; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Kubik, Peter

2010-05-01

144

New dactylogyrids (Monogenea) parasitizing the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Amazon River basin in Peru.  

PubMed

Three dactylogyrid (Monogenea) species are described from the gills of siluriform fishes from the rivers around Iquitos, tributaries of the Amazon River in Peru: Demidospermus centromochli n. sp. from Centromochlus heckelii (de Filippi) (Auchenipteridae) and Demidospermus macropteri n. sp. and Ameloblastella unapi n. sp. from Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein) (Pimelodidae). The new species of Demidospermus differ from their congeners in having 2 different hook shapes. Ameloblastella unapi n. sp. differs from the other 3 species of the genus in having anchors with an elongate, straight shaft and a short point that forms a 90 degrees angle, a coiled (counterclockwise) male copulatory organ with 13-14 rings, and a coiled vaginal tube. Based on the present study, Pseudovancleaveus Franca, Issac, Pavanelli, and Takemoto, 2003, is regarded as a junior subjective synonym of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco, and Scholz, 2000. The finding of Demidospermus and Ameloblastella spp. on these siluriforms extends our host and geographic knowledge of species of these monogenean genera to Peru. PMID:19215149

Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Scholz, T

2009-08-01

145

Impact of diatom-diazotroph associations on carbon export in the Amazon River plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore tropical river plumes are associated with areas of high N2 fixation (diazotrophy) and biological carbon drawdown. Episodic blooms of the diatom Hemiaulus hauckii and its diazotrophic cyanobacterial symbiont Richelia intracellularis are believed to dominate that carbon drawdown, but the mechanism is not well understood. We report primary productivity associated with blooms of these diatom-diazotroph assemblages (DDAs) in the offshore plume of the Amazon River using simultaneous measurements of O2/Ar ratios and the triple-isotope composition of dissolved O2. In these blooms, we observe peaks in net community productivity, but relatively small changes in gross primary productivity, suggesting that DDA blooms increase the ecosystem carbon export ratio more than twofold. These events of enhanced export efficiency lead to biological uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon and silicate, whose longer mixed-layer residence times otherwise obscure the differential impact of DDAs. The shorter-term rate estimates presented here are consistent with the results derived from longer-term geochemical tracers, confirming that DDAs drive a significant biological CO2 pump in tropical oceans.

Yeung, Laurence Y.; Berelson, William M.; Young, Edward D.; Prokopenko, Maria G.; Rollins, Nick; Coles, Victoria J.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Foster, Rachel A.; Capone, Douglas G.; Yager, Patricia L.

2012-09-01

146

Comparison of bacterial communities in the Solimões and Negro River tributaries of the Amazon River based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.  

PubMed

The microbiota of the Amazon River basin has been little studied. We compared the structure of bacterial communities of the Solimões and Negro Rivers, the main Amazon River tributaries, based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Water was sampled with a 3-L Van Dorn collection bottle; samples were collected at nine different points/depths totaling 27 L of water from each river. Total DNA was extracted from biomass retained by a 0.22-?m filter after sequential filtration of the water through 0.8- and 0.22-?m filters. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed with the PHYLIP and DOTUR programs to obtain the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and to calculate the diversity and richness indices using the SPADE program. Taxonomic affiliation was determined using the naive Bayesian rRNA Classifier of the RDP II (Ribosomal Database Project). We recovered 158 sequences from the Solimões River grouped into 103 OTUs, and 197 sequences from the Negro River library grouped into 90 OTUs by the DOTUR program. The Solimões River was found to have a greater diversity of bacterial genera, and greater estimated richness of 446 OTUs, compared with 242 OTUs from the Negro River, as calculated by ACE estimator. The Negro River has less bacterial diversity, but more 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the bacterial genus Polynucleobacter were detected; 56 sequences from this genus were found (about 30% of the total sequences). We suggest that a more in-depth investigation be made to elucidate the role played by these bacteria in the river environment. These differences in bacterial diversity between Solimões and Negro Rivers could be explained by differences in organic matter content and pH of the rivers. PMID:22183948

Peixoto, J C C; Leomil, L; Souza, J V; Peixoto, F B S; Astolfi-Filho, S

2011-01-01

147

Flooding dynamics on the lower Amazon floodplain: 1. Hydraulic controls on water elevation, inundation extent, and river-floodplain discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling the routing of flood waters across large floodplains is challenging because flows respond to dynamic hydraulic controls from complex geomorphology, vegetation, and multiple water sources. In this study, we analyzed the topographic and hydrologic controls of inundation dynamics of a large floodplain unit (2440 km2) along the lower Amazon River. We combined land topography derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with underwater topography derived from an extensive echo-sounding survey to generate a seamless digital elevation model (DEM). Floodplain inundation was simulated using LISFLOOD-FP, which combines one-dimensional river routing with two-dimensional overland flow, and a local hydrological model. For the first time, accurate simulation of filling and drainage of an Amazon floodplain was achieved with quantification of changes in water elevation, flooding extent, and river-floodplain exchange. We examined the role of diffuse overbank versus channelized flows on river-floodplain exchange. Diffuse overbank flows represent 93% of total river to floodplain discharge and 54% of floodplain to river discharge. Floodplain discharge during high-water was four times higher than field observation values when the SRTM v.4 DEM with no correction was used for simulation because of a -4.4 m elevation bias originating from residual motion errors of the SRTM interferometric baseline.

Rudorff, Conrado M.; Melack, John M.; Bates, Paul D.

2014-01-01

148

Excitation–emission fluorescence matrix to study pH influence on organic matter fluorescence in the Amazon basin rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the three-dimensional excitation–emission fluorescence matrix (EEFM) of organic matter from the Amazon basin rivers is reported in this paper. The EEFM, applied to the fractions obtained from sequential tangential ultrafiltration (STUF), give spectroscopic informations on the fluorescent properties of particulate (>0.22?m), colloidal and dissolved (<5kD) organic matter. STUF process does not seem to alter the characteristic peaks

N. Patel-Sorrentino; S. Mounier; J. Y. Benaim

2002-01-01

149

A seasonal tropical sink for atmospheric CO 2 in the Atlantic ocean: the role of the Amazon River discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the western equatorial Atlantic ocean, near-surface observations show that during summertime, the low-salinity oceanic water, arising from mixing with the Amazon River discharge at the equator, has low CO2 fugacity levels. Near the coast of South America where the salinities are the lowest (S<20), the fugacity of oceanic CO2 decreases down to 150 ?atm and the shelf area acts

J. F Ternon; C Oudot; A Dessier; D Diverres

2000-01-01

150

Role of gas exchange in the inorganic carbon, oxygen, and ²²²Rn budgets of the Amazon River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved oxygen, ²²²Rn, pCOâ, alkalinity, respiration rate, and discharge have been measured at eight mainstem and seven tributary stations during February-March 1984 in a 1700-km stretch of the Amazon River between Vargem Grande and Obidos in Brazil. Air-water gas exchange rates were estimated two ways: measurements of the flux of ²²²Rn int floating domes yielded an average boundary layer thickness

ALLAN H. DEVOL; PAUL D. QUAY; JEFFREY E. RICHEY; LUIZ A. MARTINELLI

1987-01-01

151

Particle size of sediments collected from the bed of the Amazon River and its tributaries in May and June 1977  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One-hundred-eight samples of bed material were collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries between Belem, Brazil , and Iquitos, Peru. Samples were taken with a standard BM-54 sampler or with pipe dredges from May 18 to June 5, 1977. Most of the samples have median diameters in the size range of fine to medium sand and contain small percentages of fine gravel. Complete size distributions are tabulated. (Woodard-USGS)

Nordin, Carl F.; Meade, R.H.; Curtis, W.F.; Bosio, N.J.; Delaney, B.M.

1979-01-01

152

Particle size of sediments collected from the bed of the Amazon River and its tributaries in June and July 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sixty-five samples of bed material were collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries between Belem, Brazil, and Iquitos, Peru. Samples were taken with a standard BM-54 sampler, a pipe dredge, or a Helley-Smith bedload sampler. Most of the samples have median diameters in the size range of fine to medium sand and contain small percentages of fine gravel. Complete size distributions are tabulated.

Nordin, Carl F., Jr.; Meade, R.H.; Mahoney, H.A.; Delany, B.M.

1977-01-01

153

Physical observations in the plume region of the Amazon River during peak discharge---I. Surface variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite imagery in the 0.4-1.1 mum band from GOES, NOAA-7 and NIMBUS-7 and shipboard measurements of suspended sediment concentration and chlorophyll are synthesized. Five main surface features are delineated in the plume region of the Amazon during peak discharge: a River Zone (RZ), Interaction Zones A, B and C (IZA, IZB, IZC), and a Nearshore Zone (NZ). The loci, temporal

Thomas B. Curtin; Richard V. Legeckis

1986-01-01

154

Morphology and mitochondrial phylogenetics reveal that the Amazon River separates two eastern squirrel monkey species: Saimiri sciureus and S. collinsi.  

PubMed

Saimiri has a complicated taxonomic history, and there is continuing disagreement about the number of valid taxa. Despite these controversies, one point of consensus among morphologists has been that the eastern Amazonian populations of squirrel monkeys form a single terminal taxon, Saimiri sciureus sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758). This group is distributed to both the north and south of the middle to lower Amazon River and in the Marajó Archipelago. However, a recent molecular study by Lavergne and colleagues suggested that the Saimiri sciureus complex (comprised of S. s. sciureus sensu lato, S. s. albigena, S. s. macrodon, and S. s. cassiquiarensis) was paraphyletic. The discordance between morphological and molecular studies prompted us to conduct a new multidisciplinary analysis, employing a combination of morphological, morphometric, and molecular markers. Our results suggest the currently recognized taxon S. s. sciureus contains two distinct species, recognized by the Phylogenetic Species Concept: Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Saimiri collinsi Osgood, 1916. East Amazonian squirrel monkeys north of the Amazon have a gray crown (S. sciureus), and south of the Amazon, the crown is yellow (S. collinsi). Morphometric measurements also clearly distinguish between the two species, with the most important contributing factors including width across upper canines for both sexes. For males, the mean zygomatic breadth was significantly wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi, and for females, the width across the upper molars was wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi. Mitochondrial phylogenetic analyses support this separation of the eastern Amazonian squirrel monkeys into two distinct taxa, recovering one clade (S. sciureus) distributed to the north of the Amazon River, from the Negro River and Branco River to the Guiana coast and the Brazilian state of Amapá, and another clade (S. collinsi) south of the Amazon River, from the region of the Tapajós River to the state of Maranhão, as well as within the Marajó Archipelago. The revalidation of the species S. collinsi was corroborated by all of the methods in the study, as the clades recovered in our molecular study are congruent with the pattern of morphological variation. We confirm both the paraphyly of the Saimiri sciureus complex and the paraphyly of the subspecies S. s. sciureus as defined in the current literature. PMID:25451802

Mercês, Michelle P; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Ferreira, Wallax A S; Harada, Maria L; Silva Júnior, José S

2015-01-01

155

Characterization of confluences in free meandering rivers of the Amazon basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past studies on river confluence dynamics are mostly based on a limited number of experimental and field data that mainly represent the morphodynamic, hydrodynamic, and sedimentary processes of alluvial river channels with limited planform activity and concentrated solely around the confluence region. The present contribution is novel and focuses on the study of the planimetric configuration of confluences in tropical free meandering rivers located in the upper Amazon catchment. Confluences are environmental controls that impose convective instabilities in all the associated channels, namely the main stretch channel upstream of the confluence (M), the tributary (T), and the main post-confluent channel (MT). By performing a wavelet analysis on channels' curvature, we quantify the extent of the transitional region. Our results indicate that the strength of these transitional instabilities are in some degree dependent on the confluence width ratio (?); such that for ? > 0.45, marked instabilities are developed. These instabilities induce the following general changes and in the planimetric configurations of the aforementioned channels: [i] the arc-wavelength in the confluent (M and T) and post-confluence channels increase in the transitional region, and [ii] the peaks on the curvature of MT channel decrease with respect to the M channel, thus resembling a constructive effect in the superposition of the meander trains. Although most of the confluence angles are acute, regardless the width-ratio, some instances of obtuse angles of confluence are observed. They are associated with ? ? 0.80, where possibly the confluence is forced to become accordant. Our results show that no evident cause-effect relationship is found between the angle of confluence and the length of the transitional region; however, some degree of dependence is seen between the confluence angle and the arc-wavelength of the post-confluence channel (i.e., higher values of the arc-wavelength corresponds to normal confluence angles).

Gutierrez, Ronald R.; Abad, Jorge D.; Choi, Marianne; Montoro, Hugo

2014-09-01

156

DDT AND ITS METABOLITES IN BREAST MILK FROM THE MADEIRA RIVER BASIN IN THE AMAZON, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Until the 1990’s the 1,1,1-trichloro-bis-2,2?-(4chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) was sprayed in the walls of the house in the along the Madeira River basin, Brazilian Amazon, a region well known by its large number of malaria cases. In the 1910, the relate of Oswaldo Cruz about health conditions in Madeira River region describes the presence of malaria in rates ranging until 100% of infected people in some localities. Data available in the literature points to the DDT contamination in fishes captured in Madeira River region. Fish is the major source of dietary protein to this people. DDT tends to accumulate in lipid rich tissues being eliminated by different events, including lactation. Considering the importance of the breast milk to the children feeding, the associated risks of DDT exposure via breast milk intake to children must be assessed. This is the main objective of this work: to analyse the presence of the p,p?-DDT and its metabolites p,p?-DDE and p,p?-DDD in 69 human milk samples and to estimate the intake of DDT and its metabolite in terms of total DDT (total DDT = p,p?-DDE+ p,p?-DDD+ p,p?-DDT). All sample showed contamination with DDT and its metabolites ranging from 25.4 to 9361.9 ng of total DDT / g of lipid (median=369.6 ng of total DDT / g of lipid) and 8.7 % of the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), in terms of total DDT, was higher than the Acceptable Daily Intake proposed by the WHO. Key words: DDT, breast milk, children, organochlorine pesticide, fish. PMID:18495200

Azeredo, Antonio; Torres, João P. M.; de Freitas Fonseca, Márlon; Britto, José Lailson; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Azevedo e Silva, Cláudio E.; Cavalcanti, Giselle; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Sarcinelli, Paula N.; Claudio, Luz; Markowitz, Steven; Malm, Olaf

2008-01-01

157

Mercury distribution and exchanges between the Amazon River and connected floodplain lakes.  

PubMed

This work presents the distribution and the partition of mercury (Hg) in the Curuai floodplain lakes along the Amazon River. The maximum Total Filtered Hg (T-FHg) concentrations in the floodplain lakes (28 to 52 pmol L(-1)) coincide with the maximum T-FHg concentrations of the Amazon River and are measured during the flooding period. The lowest T-FHg values (3 to 5 pmol L(-1)) are observed during the flood peak of the mainstream, during the rainy season, when waters are diluted by the local rainfall. In this system, Hg is mainly transported in the particulate phase, confirmed by elevated values of the Hg partition coefficient (4.77

Maia, Poliana Dutra; Maurice, Laurence; Tessier, Emmanuel; Amouroux, David; Cossa, Daniel; Pérez, Marcela; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Rhéault, Isabelle

2009-11-15

158

Calculations of river-runoff in the GISS GGM: impact of a new land-surface parameterization and runoff routing model on the hydrology of the Amazon River  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of a new land-surface parameterization and a river routing scheme on the hydrology of the Amazon basin, as depicted by the NASA\\/Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS) global climate model (GCM). The more physically realistic land surface scheme introduces a vegetation canopy resistance and a six-layer soil system. The new routing scheme allows runoff to

J. A. Marengo; J R Miller; G L Russell; C. E. Rosenzweig; F. Abramoloulos

1994-01-01

159

Reconnaissance investigations of the discharge and water quality of the Amazon River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected published estimates of the discharge of Amazon River in the vicinity of Obidos and the mouth are presented to show the great variance of available information. The most reasonable estimates prepared by those who measured some parameters of the flow were studied by Maurice Parde, who concluded that the mean annual discharge is 90,000 to 100,000 cms (cubic meters per second) or 3,200,000 to 3,500,000 cfs (cubic feet per second). A few published estimates of discharge at mouth of 110,000 cms (3,900,000 cfs) based on rainfall-runoff relationships developed for other humid regions of the world are available. Three measurements of discharge made at the Obidos narrows in 1963-64 by a joint Brazil-United States expedition at high, low, and medium river stage are referred to the datum used at the Obidos gage during the period of operation, 1928-46, and a relationship between stage and discharge prepared on the basis of the measurements and supplementary data and computations. Recovery of the original Obidos gage datum is verified by referring the 1963-64 concurrent river stages at Manaus, Obidos, and Taperinha to gage relation curves developed for Manaus-Obidos and Obidos-Taperinha for periods of concurrent operation, 1928-46 and 1931-46, respectively. The average discharge, based on the stage-discharge relation and record of river stage for the period 1928-46, is computed to be 5,500,000 cfs (157,000 cms) for the Obidos site. The greatest known flood at Obidos, that of June 1953, is computed to have been a flow of 12,500,000 cfs (350,000 cms) at stage of 7.6 meters (24.9 feet) in the main channel and an indeterminate amount of overflow which, under the best assumed overflow conditions, may have amounted to about 10 percent of the main channel flow. Overflow discharge at stage equivalent to mean annual discharge is judged to be an insignificant percentage of flow down the main channel. Miscellaneous data collected during the flow measurements show that the tidal effect reaches upstream to Obidos at extremely low flows, the distribution of velocities in stream verticals is affected by large-scale turbulence, the standard procedure of basing mean velocity in vertical on the average of point velocities measured at 20 and 80 percent of the total depth is valid, and there is a low Manning roughness coefficient of 0.019 (English units). Samples of suspended sediment taken with a point sampler at various depths in selected verticals show, for the Obidos site, a variation in concentration from 300 to 340 mg/l (milligram per liter) near the streambed to 50 to 70 mg/l in the upper part of the verticals. Median diameter of bed material at Obidos averaged about 0.20 mm (millimeter) in a range of 0.15 to 0.25 ram. Analyses of water samples collected at Obidos in July and November 1963 and August 1964 are presented. The reconnaissance measurements of 1963-64 provide a well-supported value of mean annual water discharge of Amazon River at Obidos and the mouth. Many more measurements of flow and water-quality characteristics are needed to obtain more exact values of discharge, suspended sediment, and salt load.

Oltman, Roy Edwin

1968-01-01

160

Late Quaternary Paleohydrology of the Madre de Dios River, southwestern Amazon Basin, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Quaternary climatic and hydrologic variability triggered changes in fluvial deposition and erosion along the course of the Madre de Dios River, Peru, the largest tributary basin of the Madeira basin, itself the largest tributary basin of the Amazon. Three laterally extensive, Quaternary-age, terrace tracts are present within the Madre de Dios basin. Analysis of sedimentary facies, present in the modern cut banks and terraced sequences, along with radiocarbon dates on fossil wood and leaf material preserved in the terraced strata, allow reconstruction of the Late Quaternary depositional history of the sedimentary sequences, including determination of the approximate timing of aggradation and downcutting episodes and its relationship to the timing of past climate change in this portion of the Amazon basin and beyond. The Quaternary sediments underlying the terraces most often recorded deposition in a coarse-grained meandering fluvial system. The T3 terrace, the highest terrace, is underlain by the Miocene (?) Ipururi Formation, which is unconformably overlain by the late Miocene-Pleistocene (?) (> 48,000 cal yrs BP) Madre de Dios Formation, a multistory coarse-sandy to gravelly channel and point bar complex. The latter was downcut before 29,850 ± 100 cal yrs BP. This downcut landscape was infilled by meandering fluvial strata characterized by gravelly channel deposits in a sequence dominated by floodplain and lateral accretion deposits. These strata were in turn downcut to form the T2 terrace before 11,970 ± 100 cal yrs BP. A third episode of aggradation resulted in the deposition of a sand-dominated meandering channel complex that infilled the T2 valley and was subsequently downcut after 3780 ± 50 cal yrs BP. This most recent terrace is infilled by the modern fluvial sediment, which has been actively aggrading since at least 870 ± 50 cal yrs BP. Importantly, the Madre de Dios fluvial system actively aggraded between 30,000 and 25,000 cal yrs BP, (and likely much younger, as dated samples were, thus far, only found near the base of the T2 sequence). This observation implies that some combination of (1) increased precipitation and decreased temperature, (2) decreased evapotranspiration and increased runoff, (3) increased Andean glacial erosion and increased sediment supply, and (4) decreased atmospheric CO 2 (hence decreased rain-forest primary productivity and altered rain-forest physiology/ecology), entering the last glacial maximum period brought about increased floodplain deposition in the southwestern Amazon. Elsewhere in the Amazon basin few, if any, fluvial sediments of this age range have been observed. The start of the next major phase of aggradation coincided with the Younger Dryas and suggested that floodplain sedimentation in the lowlands was again related to cold and wet conditions in the adjacent highlands (and perhaps in the lowlands as well) and that Madre de Dios history was also tied to large-scale global climate. This aggradation may have continued throughout the early and mid-Holocene, until at least 3,780 cal yr BP. If so (and this is uncertain), this episode of sedimentation took place during a dry period.

Rigsby, Catherine A.; Hemric, Erin M.; Baker, Paul A.

2009-12-01

161

Spatial patterns of hydrology, geomorphology, and vegetation on the floodplain of the Amazon river in Brazil from a remote sensing perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial heterogeneity of hydrology and vegetation during high-water periods in geomorphically distinct reaches of the Amazon River in Brazil was determined based on semivariance statistics. The spatial statistics were derived from three classified Landsat Thematic Mapper images representing upstream to downstream geomorphic characteristics. In the upstream river reach, scroll-bar topography on the floodplain tends to channelize floodwater into floodplain

Leal A. K. Mertes; Darin L. Daniel; John M. Melack; Bruce Nelson; Luiz A. Martinelli; Bruce R. Forsberg

1995-01-01

162

Mid-Holocene Drought in the Andes and Associated Impacts on Hydrology of the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen, charcoal, and radiocarbon analyses were performed on a 2m-long sediment core obtained from Lake Tapera (coastal Amapa) to provide the paleoenvironmental history of this part of Amazonia. Detrended Correspondence Analysis was applied to the pollen data to improve visualization of sample distribution and similarity. The chronology was based on seven AMS radiocarbon dates, which allowed the establishment of a basal age (8,060 yrs BP) and identification of a sedimentary hiatus lasting 5,500 years (c. 7,100-1600 yrs BP) in Lake Tapera. Because the timing of the hiatus overlapped with the highest Holocene sea-level (5,000 yrs BP), which would have increased the local water table preventing the lake from drying out, it is clear that sea-level was not important in maintaining the lake level. As Lake Tapera apparently depended on riverine flood waters, the sedimentary gap was probably caused by reduced Amazon River discharge, due to an extremely dry period in the Andes (8,000-5,000 years BP), when precipitation levels markedly decreased. One of the impacts of this drought in the Andes was a c. 100m drop in Lake Titicaca water depth. The contrasting presence before and after the hiatus of Andean pollen (river transported) in the record of Lake Tapera supports this interpretation. The pollen analysis also shows that when sedimentation resumed in 1,620 cal. years BP, vegetation around the lake was changed from forest into savanna. This record demonstrates the need to improve our understanding of climate changes and the extent of their associated impacts on the environment.

de Toledo, M. B.; Bush, M. B.; Figueiredo, A. G.

2007-05-01

163

Hydrological Controls of Riverine Ecosystems of the Napo River (Amazon Basin): Implications for the Management and Conservation of Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific understanding of neotropical floodplains comes mainly from work on large rivers with predictable seasonal flooding regimes. Less studied rivers and floodplains on the Andean-Amazon interface are distinct in their hydrology, with more erratic flow regimes, and thus ecological roles of floodplain inundation differ in those ecosystems. Multiple and unpredictable flooding events control inundation of floodplains, with important implications for fish and wildlife, plant communities, and human activities. Wetlands along the river corridor exist across a continuum from strong river control to influence only by local waters, with the latter often lying on floodplain paleoterraces. The goal of this study was to understand the hydrological interactions and habitat diversity of the Napo River, a major Amazon tributary that originates in the Andes and drains exceptionally biodiverse Andean foreland plains. This river system is envisioned by developers as an industrial waterway that would require hydrological alterations and affect floodplain ecosystems. Water level regimes of the Napo River and its associated environments were assessed using networks of data loggers that recorded time under water across transects extending inland from the river across more than 100 sites and for up to 5 years. These networks also included rising stage samplers that collected flood water samples for determination of their origin (i.e., Andean rivers vs. local waters) based on hydrochemical composition. In addition, this work entails a classification of aquatic environments of the Napo Basin using an object-oriented remote sensing approach to simultaneously analyze optical and radar satellite imagery and digital elevation models to better assess the extent and diversity of flooded environments. We found out a continuum of hydrological regimes and aquatic habitats along the Napo River floodplains that are linked to the river hydrology in different degrees. Overall, environments that are proximal or that have high hydrological connectivity are riverine controlled versus systems that are distal or that have less or no connectivity that rely on rainwater or local runoff as a source of flooding. Outcomes of this research gave us insight on the extent and diversity of aquatic habitats of the Napo River, the role that the river has on their ecohydrology, the potential effects of different hydrologic scenarios on these ecosystems, and the management measures that need to be considered to support conservation in the region.

Celi, J. E.; Hamilton, S. K.

2013-12-01

164

Simulation of Water Sources and Precipitation Recycling for the MacKenzie, Mississippi and Amazon River Basins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atmospheric general circulation model simulation for 1948-1997 of the water budgets for the MacKenzie, Mississippi and Amazon River basins is presented. In addition to the water budget, we include passive tracers to identify the geographic sources of water for the basins, and the analysis focuses on the mechanisms contributing to precipitation recycling in each basin. While each basin s precipitation recycling has a strong dependency on evaporation during the mean annual cycle, the interannual variability of the recycling shows important relationships with the atmospheric circulation. The MacKenzie River basin has only a weak interannual dependency on evaporation, where the variations in zonal moisture transport from the Pacific Ocean can affect the basin water cycle. On the other hand, the Mississippi River basin has strong interannual dependencies on evaporation. While the precipitation recycling weakens with increased low level jet intensity, the evaporation variations exert stronger influence in providing water vapor for convective precipitation at the convective cloud base. High precipitation recycling is also found to be partly connected to warm SSTs in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The Amazon River basin evaporation exhibits small interannual variations, so that the interannual variations of precipitation recycling are related to atmospheric moisture transport from the tropical south Atlantic Ocean. Increasing SSTs over the 50-year period are causing increased easterly transport across the basin. As moisture transport increases, the Amazon precipitation recycling decreases (without real time varying vegetation changes). In addition, precipitation recycling from a bulk diagnostic method is compared to the passive tracer method used in the analysis. While the mean values are different, the interannual variations are comparable between each method. The methods also exhibit similar relationships to the terms of the basin scale water budgets.

Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chern, Jiun-Dar

2005-01-01

165

Evaluation of drought indices at interannual to climate change timescales: a case study over the Amazon and Mississippi river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study compares three meteorological drought indices (scPDSI, SPI and SPEI respectively) and their ability to account for the variations of annual mean river discharge on both interannual and climate change timescales. The Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) is used as a proxy of river discharge. The Mississippi and Amazon river basins provide two contrasted testbeds for this analysis. All meteorological drought indices are derived from monthly 2-meter temperature and/or precipitation, using either gridded observations or outputs of a global climate model. The SPI based solely on precipitation is not outperformed by the SPEI (accounting for potential evapotranspiration) and the scPDSI (based on a simplified water balance) at detecting interannual SRI variations. Under increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, the simulated response of the areal fraction in drought is highly index-dependent, suggesting that more physical water balance models are needed to account for the impact of global warming on hydrological droughts.

Joetzjer, E.; Douville, H.; Delire, C.; Ciais, P.; Decharme, B.; Tyteca, S.

2012-11-01

166

A comparison of dissolved humic substances from seawater with Amazon River counterparts by sup 13 C-NMR spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Although dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater constitutes one of the major reservoirs of reduced carbon on earth, the biochemical and geographic origins of this material and its hydrophobic humic component remain unclear. Rivers have been suggested as a potentially important source of marine DOM, but this implication has not yet been systematically tested by direct comparisons of the bulk structural characteristics of DOM isolated from representative ocean reservoirs and their major river sources. The authors report here such a comparison and find that dissolved humic substances isolated from surface and deep seawater in the East Equatorial and north Central Pacific are enriched in nitrogen and {sup 13}C and depleted in unsaturated carbon with respect to counterparts from the Amazon River system. Based on these observations, riverine dissolved humic substances appear to comprise a small fraction of seawater humic substances and therefore must be efficiently and rapidly removed from the ocean.

Hedges, J.I. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Hatcher, P.G. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)); Ertel, J.R. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States)); Meyers-Schulte, K.J. (Naval Ocean Research Group, San Diego, CA (United States))

1992-04-01

167

The distribution of thiamin and pyridoxine in the western tropical North Atlantic Amazon River plume.  

PubMed

B-vitamins are recognized as essential organic growth factors for many organisms, although little is known about their abundance and distribution in marine ecosystems. Despite their metabolic functions regulating important enzymatic reactions, the methodology to directly measure different B-vitamins in aquatic environments has only recently been developed. Here, we present the first direct measurements of two B-vitamins, thiamin (B1), and pyridoxine (B6), in the Amazon River plume-influenced western tropical North Atlantic (WTNA) Ocean, an area known to have high productivity, carbon (C) and dinitrogen (N2) fixation, and C sequestration. The vitamins B1 and B6 ranged in concentrations from undetectable to 230 and 40 pM, respectively. Significantly higher concentrations were measured in the surface plume water at some stations and variation with salinity was observed, suggesting a possible riverine influence on those B-vitamins. The influences of vitamins B1 and B6 on biogeochemical processes such as C and N2 fixation were investigated using a linear regression model that indicated the availability of those organic factors could affect these rates in the WTNA. In fact, significant increases in C fixation and N2 fixation were observed with increasing vitamin B1 concentrations at some low and mesohaline stations (stations 9.1 and 1; p value <0.017 and <0.03, respectively). N2 fixation was also found to have a significant positive correlation with B1 concentrations at station 1 (p value 0.029), as well as vitamin B6 at station 9.1 (p value <0.017). This work suggests that there can be a dynamic interplay between essential biogeochemical rates (C and N2 fixation) and B-vitamins, drawing attention to potential roles of B-vitamins in ecosystem dynamics, community structure, and global biogeochemistry. PMID:23471170

Barada, Laila P; Cutter, Lynda; Montoya, Joseph P; Webb, Eric A; Capone, Douglas G; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

2013-01-01

168

On the 234,238U isotope systematics in two tropical estuaries: the Amazon and Fly Rivers.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural concentrations of 238U and d234U were determined in estuarine surface waters of the Amazon and Fly (Papua New Guinea) Rivers to investigate U transport phenomena across river-dominated land-sea margins. On the Amazon shelf, salinity-property plots of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH and total suspended matter (TSM) revealed two vastly contrasting water masses that were energetically mixed. In this mixing zone, the distribution of uranium isotopes was highly non-conservative and exhibited extensive removal from the water column. Uranium removal was most pronounced within a salinity range of 0 to 16.6, and is likely the result of scavenging and flocculation reactions with inorganic (i.e., Fe/Mn oxides) and organic colloids/particles. Removal of uranium may also be closely coupled to exchange and resuspension processes at the sediment/water interface. In the Fly River estuary, 238U appears to exhibit a reasonably conservative distribution as a function of salinity. The absence of observed U removal does not necessarily imply non-reactivity, but instead may record an integration of concurrent U removal and release processes. There is not a linear correlation between d234U versus 1/238U that would imply simple two component mixing. It is likely that resuspension of bottom sediments, prolonged residence times in the lower reaches of the Fly River, and energetic particle-colloid interactions contribute to the observed estuarine U distribution. The supply of uranium discharged from humid, tropical river systems to the sea appears to be foremost influenced by particle/water interactions that are ultimately governed by the particular physiographic and hydrologic characteristics of an estuary.

Swarzenski, P. W.; Campbell, P. L.; Porcelli, D.

2003-12-01

169

Role of gas exchange in the inorganic carbon, oxygen, and /sup 222/Rn budgets of the Amazon River  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved oxygen, /sup 222/Rn, pCO/sub 2/, alkalinity, respiration rate, and discharge have been measured at eight mainstem and seven tributary stations during February-March 1984 in a 1700-km stretch of the Amazon River between Vargem Grande and Obidos in Brazil. Air-water gas exchange rates were estimated two ways: measurements of the flux of /sup 222/Rn int floating domes yielded an average boundary layer thickness of 78..mu..m, and oxygen mass balance calculations resulted in an average of 38..mu..m. Given a boundary layer thickness on the order of 50..mu..m, CO/sub 2/ loss to the atmosphere in the entire reach would have been 37.4 kmol s/sup -1/, which is about equal to the total tributary dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) input and is about half of the total fluvial DIC input to the section. Thus, CO/sub 2/ evasion is a major component of Amazon River DIC balance. Because gas exchange within the section was rapid relative to water travel time through the section, a quasi-steady state was maintained between respiratory input and evasion of CO/sub 2/. Dissolved /sup 222/Rn activities in the mainstem varied from 3.5 to 8.3 dpm liter/sup -1/ and were always highly supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. Dissolved radon was also not supported by decay of /sup 222/Ra in the mainstem. A /sup 222/Rn mass balance indicated that direct groundwater input into this stretch of the Amazon mainstem probably accounted for no more than 1% of water discharge.

Devol, A.H.; Quay, P.D.; Richey, J.E.; Martinelli, L.A.

1987-01-01

170

Decrease of soil fertility and release of mercury following deforestation in the Andean Amazon, Napo River Valley, Ecuador.  

PubMed

Soil erosion and degradation provoked by deforestation in the Amazon is a global concern, and recent studies propose a link between deforestation, soil erosion and the leaching of naturally occurring mercury (Hg). In the Ecuadorian Amazon, elevated deforestation rates and the proximity of volcanoes could play an important role in soil fertility and soil Hg levels. The goal of this study is to evaluate the impacts of deforestation on Andisol and Inceptisol fertility and Hg levels in the Napo River Valley, Ecuador. Results show a significant decrease in surface soil organic matter (-15% to -70% of C and N) and exchangeable cations (-25% to -60%) in deforested plots. Hg concentrations at the surface (0-5 cm), higher in Andisols (225 ng/g average) than in Inceptisols (95 ng/g average), show a decrease of up to 60% following deforestation. Soil erosion exposes the mineral horizon, a layer with a higher Hg burden, to the elements thus provoking and accelerating Hg leaching. These results suggest that deforestation and the associated Hg leaching could contribute to the fish Hg contamination measured in the Napo River watershed. PMID:16499953

Mainville, N; Webb, J; Lucotte, M; Davidson, R; Betancourt, O; Cueva, E; Mergler, D

2006-09-01

171

Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., a new species of freshwater stingray from the upper Madeira River system, Amazon basin (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae).  

PubMed

Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., is described from the Jamari River, upper Madeira River system (Amazon basin), state of Rondônia, Brazil. This new species differs from congeners by presenting unique polygonal or concentric patterns formed by small whitish spots better defined over the posterior disc and tail-base regions. Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., can be further distinguished from congeners in the same basin by other characters in combination, such as two to three rows of midtail spines converging to a single irregular row at level of caudal sting origin, proportions of head, tail and disc, patterns of dermal denticles on rostral, cranial and tail regions, among other features discussed herein. Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., is most similar to, and occurs sympatrically with, P. scobina, and is distinguished from it by lacking ocellated spots on disc, by its characteristic polygonal pattern on posterior disc, a comparatively much shorter and broader tail, greater intensity of denticles on disc, more midtail spine rows at tail-base, and other features including size at maturity and meristic characters. Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., is also distinguished from other species of Potamotrygon occurring in the Amazon region, except P. scobina, by presenting three angular cartilages (vs. two or one). This new species was discovered during a detailed taxonomic and morphological revision of the closely related species P. scobina, and highlights the necessity for thorough and all-embracing taxonomic studies, particularly in groups with pronounced endemism and morphological variability. PMID:24870898

Fontenelle, João Pedro; Da Silva, João Paulo C B; De Carvalho, Marcelo R

2014-01-01

172

Influence of the Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Advanced Laser Fluorometer (ALF) capable of discriminating several phytoplankton pigment types was utilized in conjunction with microscopic data to map the distribution of phytoplankton communities in the Amazon River plume in May-June-2010, when discharge from the river was at its peak. Cluster analysis and Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (NMDS) helped distinguish three distinct biological communities that separated largely on the basis of salinity gradients across the plume. These three communities included an “estuarine type” comprised of a high biomass mixed population of diatoms, cryptophytes and green-water Synechococcus spp. located upstream of the plume, a “mesohaline type” made up largely of communities of Diatom-Diazotroph Associations (DDAs) and located in the northwestern region of the plume and an “oceanic type” in the oligotrophic waters outside of the plume made up of Trichodesmium and Synechococcus spp. Although salinity appeared to have a substantial influence on the distribution of different phytoplankton groups, ALF and microscopic measurements examined in the context of the hydro-chemical environment of the river plume, helped establish that the phytoplankton community structure and distribution were strongly controlled by inorganic nitrate plus nitrite (NO3 + NO2) availability whose concentrations were low throughout the plume. Towards the southern, low-salinity region of the plume, NO3 + NO2 supplied by the onshore flow of subsurface (?80 m depth) water, ensured the continuous sustenance of the mixed phytoplankton bloom. The large drawdown of SiO3 and PO4 associated with this “estuarine type” mixed bloom at a magnitude comparable to that observed for DDAs in the mesohaline waters, leads us to contend that, diatoms, cryptophytes and Synechococcus spp., fueled by the offshore influx of nutrients also play an important role in the cycling of nutrients in the Amazon River plume.

Goes, Joaquim I.; Gomes, Helga do Rosario; Chekalyuk, Alexander M.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Coles, Victoria J.; Yager, Patricia L.; Berelson, William M.; Capone, Douglas G.; Foster, Rachel A.; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Subramaniam, Ajit; Hafez, Mark A.

2014-01-01

173

Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index  

PubMed Central

Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin and in three tributaries during the rising water (RW), high water (HW), falling water (FW) and low water (LW) season. Changes in the concentration and the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), i.e., the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclization of brGDGTs (CBT), were seen in the Amazon main stem. The highest concentration of core lipid (CL) brGDGTs normalized to particulate organic carbon (POC) was found during the HW season. During the HW season the MBT and CBT in the Amazon main stem was also most similar to that of lowland Amazon (terra firme) soils, indicating that the highest input of soil-derived brGDGTs occurred due to increased water runoff. During the other seasons the MBT and CBT indicated an increased influence of in situ production of brGDGTs even though soils remained the main source of brGDGTs. Our results reveal that the influence of seasonal variation is relatively small, but can be clearly detected. Crenarchaeol was mostly produced in the river. Its concentration was lower during the HW season compared to that of the other seasons. Hence, our study shows the complexity of processes that influence the GDGT distribution during the transport from land to ocean. It emphasizes the importance of a detailed study of a river basin to interpret the MBT/CBT and BIT records for paleo reconstructions in adjacent marine setting. PMID:23966986

Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Abril, Gwenaël; Sobrinho, Rodrigo Lima; Dorhout, Denise; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

2013-01-01

174

Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index.  

PubMed

Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin and in three tributaries during the rising water (RW), high water (HW), falling water (FW) and low water (LW) season. Changes in the concentration and the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), i.e., the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclization of brGDGTs (CBT), were seen in the Amazon main stem. The highest concentration of core lipid (CL) brGDGTs normalized to particulate organic carbon (POC) was found during the HW season. During the HW season the MBT and CBT in the Amazon main stem was also most similar to that of lowland Amazon (terra firme) soils, indicating that the highest input of soil-derived brGDGTs occurred due to increased water runoff. During the other seasons the MBT and CBT indicated an increased influence of in situ production of brGDGTs even though soils remained the main source of brGDGTs. Our results reveal that the influence of seasonal variation is relatively small, but can be clearly detected. Crenarchaeol was mostly produced in the river. Its concentration was lower during the HW season compared to that of the other seasons. Hence, our study shows the complexity of processes that influence the GDGT distribution during the transport from land to ocean. It emphasizes the importance of a detailed study of a river basin to interpret the MBT/CBT and BIT records for paleo reconstructions in adjacent marine setting. PMID:23966986

Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Abril, Gwenaël; Sobrinho, Rodrigo Lima; Dorhout, Denise; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

2013-01-01

175

The relationship between the water level of the Amazon River and the fate of the zooplankton population in lago Jacaretinga. A Várzea Lake in the Central Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a várzea lake of the Central Amazon the planktonic crustaceans disappear almost completely after the inflow of suspension?rich Amazon water. An initial small increase in numbers of individuals is accompanied by increased egg production in Diaphanosoma sarsi and Notodiaptomus amazonicus, suggesting an improved food supply for the Zooplankton. Possible reasons for the complete disappearance of the crustaceans are discussed,

E. R. de Andrade

1978-01-01

176

Mapping the Amazon: Manaus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The largest city along the Amazon River is Manaus. NASAs mosaic says that thirty percent of the surrounding area is wetlands. Scientists listed worked as a team on Mosaicking Software and Mosaic Production.

Snodgrass, Stuart; Chapman, Bruce; Curkendall, David; Freeman, Tony; Miller, Craig; Siegel, Herb

2002-03-14

177

Sediment budget of the Napo River, Amazon basin, Ecuador and Peru A., Laraque1  

E-print Network

an unusual increase in the concentration of suspended sediment recorded for the western part of the Amazon by the impact of volcanic eruption, earthquakes and landslides. The combination of these phenomena, so common, Tectonics, Pastaza Megafan, Andes, Napo basin I. INTRODUCTION The Amazonian basin (Fig. 1), the largest

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

The dispersal of the Amazon and Orinoco River water in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea: Observation from space and S-PALACE floats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The temporal,evolutionof,spatial pattern s of the colored water mass,associated with the discharges of the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers between,1997 and,2002 was,examined,using concurrent,in situ and,satellite observations,in the regionboun ded,by 0 1N–241 Na n d7,01W–401W. Patches of low-salinity (? 32–34) surface waters,were,frequently observed,with Salinity Profiling Autonomous,LAgrangian Current Explorer (S-PALACE) floats as far as 2000 km,away from the mouths,of the Amazon,and Orinoco

Chuanmin Hu; Ellyn T. Montgomery; Raymond W. Schmitt; Frank E. Muller-Karger

2004-01-01

179

The Influence of Historical and Potential Future Deforestation on the Stream Flow of the Amazon River -- Land Surface Processes and Atmospheric Feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global economic and regional population and development pressures have resulted in high rates of deforestation in the Amazon River basin, mostly in the eastern and southern portion of the basin. Recent deforestation rates reflect the global demand for Brazilian free-range beef and soybeans with about 22,000 km2 deforested each year between 2000 and 2004 and 7000 km2 deforested in the final months of 2007. Land cover and land use changes influence the quantity of surface water resources by changing how incoming precipitation and radiation are partitioned among sensible and latent heat fluxes, runoff, and river discharge and altering regional and continental scale precipitation patterns. Results from coupled land surface and global climate model simulations clarify a few important points about the impact of deforestation on the Amazon River: 1) The local evapotranspiration decrease and subsequent discharge increase can be a significant fraction of the water balance when greater than 50% of a watershed is deforested. 2) The atmospheric feedbacks from large-scale deforestation may be of the same order of magnitude as the changes to local land surface processes, but of opposite sign and are not limited to those basins where deforestation has occurred. 3) Changes to discharge and aquatic environments with future deforestation of the Amazon will likely be a complex function of how much vegetation has been removed from a particular watershed and how much has been removed from the entire Amazon Basin.

Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Soares-Filho, B.

2008-12-01

180

Molecular differentiation of species of the genus Zungaro (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Amazon and Paraná-Paraguay River basins in Brazil.  

PubMed

Fish species of the Zungaro genus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) are amongst the largest migratory fish in Latin America and have considerable economic importance for commercial fishing in Brazil. However, natural populations of this large catfish are experiencing a severe decline. There are significant taxonomical inconsistencies for this fish. Two geographically separated species of the fish were initially described, one endemic in the Amazon and another in the Paraná-Paraguay River basins. A taxonomic review had recently proposed that there is only one Zungaro species in Brazil, based on morphological data. We made a molecular study of Zungaro populations in an attempt to solve taxonomical inconsistencies and to analyze genetic diversity in natural populations of this genus. We analyzed two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (the control region and the ATPase 6 gene region) of individuals sampled from the Paraná-Paraguay River and Amazon River basins. Analyses based on p-distances and maximum likelihood phylogenetic models showed a genetic difference between populations corresponding to different species. Genetic differentiation between Zungaro populations was at the same level as that observed between other Siluriformes species, using the same DNA sequences. We conclude that Zungaro species of the Paraná-Paraguay River basin do not belong to the same species found in the Amazon basin. This finding has a significant implication for conservation of this fish, given that populations are disappearing at a high rate in the Paraná-Paraguay River basin, mainly due to impoundments. PMID:22095604

Boni, T A; Padial, A A; Prioli, S M A P; Lucio, L C; Maniglia, T C; Bignotto, T S; Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, R A; Prioli, A J

2011-01-01

181

Characteristics and spatio-temporal variability of the Amazon River Basin Water Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal variations of the water budget components in the Amazon region are investigated by using a combination of hydrometeorological observations and moisture fluxes derived from the NCEP\\/NCAR reanalyses, for the period 1970–1999. The key new finding of this study identifies the major differences in the water balance characteristics and variability between the northern and southern parts of the basin.

Jose A. Marengo

2005-01-01

182

Elevated mercury concentrations in soils, sediments, water, and fish of the Madeira River basin, Brazilian Amazon: a function of natural enrichments?  

PubMed

Previous site-specific investigations have found that mercury concentrations in water, sediments, and biota of the Brazilian Amazon are elevated above global averages, and that these concentrations are a direct result of widespread mercury amalgamation mining operations conducted by non-organized prospectors. In order to assess the regional impacts of Hg contamination from these non-organized gold mining activities, water, sediments, and fish were systematically collected in 1997 along a 900-km reach of the Madeira River. The sampling program extended from the Amazon River upstream to Porto Velho, the site of historic and ongoing mercury amalgamation mining. Mercury concentrations were found to be elevated above global averages in all sampled media. However, the geochemical data suggest that the high mercury levels are due largely to natural sources and natural biogeochemical processes, and that the impacts of anthropogenically released mercury from mine sites is relatively localized. PMID:11032118

Lechler, P J; Miller, J R; Lacerda, L D; Vinson, D; Bonzongo, J C; Lyons, W B; Warwick, J J

2000-10-01

183

Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato

1995-01-01

184

Composition of wax esters, triglycerides and diacyl glyceryl ethers in the jaw and blubber fats of the Amazon River dolphin ( Inia geoffrensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lower jaw fat of the Amazon River dolphinInia geoffrensis contains 52.8% wax ester, 44.7% triglyceride and 2.5% diacyl glyceryl ether, while its dorsal blubber fat is >98% triglyceride.\\u000a Examination of the intact lipids, the derived fatty acids and the derived fatty alcohols by gas chromatography reveals that\\u000a the blubber triglycerides show characteristics of freshwater fish fats, but the jaw

R. G. Ackman; C. A. Eaton; Carter Litchfield

1971-01-01

185

Microbiological quality of freshwater prawns during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological quality analysis of freshwater prawns from three sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia viz: Site 1- Kg. Jumbang, Negri Sembilan; Site 2- Kg. Cangkat Tin, Perak and Site 3- Kg. Cenderiang, Perak for total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic counts, proteolytic bacterial counts, histamine producing bacteria, cadaverine producing bacteria and putrescine producing bacteria in the prawns and pond water for the

Abu Bakar; M. Basri

2008-01-01

186

The estuarine chemistry and isotope systematics of 234,238U in the Amazon and Fly Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural concentrations of 238U and ?234U values were determined in estuarine surface waters and pore waters of the Amazon and Fly (Papua New Guinea) Rivers to investigate U transport phenomena across river-dominated land-sea margins. Discharge from large, tropical rivers is a major source of dissolved and solid materials transported to the oceans, and are important in defining not only oceanic mass budgets, but also terrestrial weathering rates. On the Amazon shelf, salinity-property plots of dissolved organic carbon, pH and total suspended matter revealed two vastly contrasting water masses that were energetically mixed. In this mixing zone, the distribution of uranium was highly non-conservative and exhibited extensive removal from the water column. Uranium removal was most pronounced within a salinity range of 0-16.6, and likely the result of scavenging and flocculation reactions with inorganic (i.e., Fe/Mn oxides) and organic colloids/particles. Removal of uranium may also be closely coupled to exchange and resuspension processes at the sediment/water interface. An inner-shelf pore water profile indicated the following diagenetic processes: extensive (˜1 m) zones of Fe(III)—and, to a lesser degree, Mn(IV)—reduction in the absence of significant S(II) concentrations appeared to facilitate the formation of various authigenic minerals (e.g., siderite, rhodocrosite and uraninite). The pore water dissolved 238U profile co-varied closely with Mn(II). Isotopic variations as evidenced in ?234U pore waters values from this site revealed information on the origin and history of particulate uranium. Only after a depth of about 1 m did the ?234U value approach unity (secular equilibrium), denoting a residual lattice bound uranium complex that is likely an upper-drainage basin weathering product. This suggests that the enriched ?234U values represent a riverine surface complexation product that is actively involved in Mn-Fe diagenetic cycles and surface complexation reactions. In the Fly River estuary, 238U appears to exhibit a reasonably conservative distribution as a function of salinity. The absence of observed U removal does not necessarily imply non-reactivity, but instead may record an integration of concurrent U removal and release processes. There is not a linear correlation between ?234U vs. 1/238U that would imply simple two component mixing. It is likely that resuspension of bottom sediments, prolonged residence times in the lower reaches of the Fly River, and energetic particle-colloid interactions contribute to the observed estuarine U distribution. The supply of uranium discharged from humid, tropical river systems to the sea appears to be foremost influenced by particle/water interactions that are ultimately governed by the particular physiographic and hydrologic characteristics of an estuary.

Swarzenski, Peter; Campbell, Pamela; Porcelli, Don; McKee, Brent

2004-12-01

187

The estuarine chemistry and isotope systematics of 234,238U in the Amazon and Fly Rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural concentrations of 238U and ??234U values were determined in estuarine surface waters and pore waters of the Amazon and Fly (Papua New Guinea) Rivers to investigate U transport phenomena across river-dominated land-sea margins. Discharge from large, tropical rivers is a major source of dissolved and solid materials transported to the oceans, and are important in defining not only oceanic mass budgets, but also terrestrial weathering rates. On the Amazon shelf, salinity-property plots of dissolved organic carbon, pH and total suspended matter revealed two vastly contrasting water masses that were energetically mixed. In this mixing zone, the distribution of uranium was highly non-conservative and exhibited extensive removal from the water column. Uranium removal was most pronounced within a salinity range of 0-16.6, and likely the result of scavenging and flocculation reactions with inorganic (i.e., Fe/Mn oxides) and organic colloids/particles. Removal of uranium may also be closely coupled to exchange and resuspension processes at the sediment/water interface. An inner-shelf pore water profile indicated the following diagenetic processes: extensive (???1 m) zones of Fe(III) - and, to a lesser degree, Mn(IV) - reduction in the absence of significant S(II) concentrations appeared to facilitate the formation of various authigenic minerals (e.g., siderite, rhodocrosite and uraninite). The pore water dissolved 238U profile co-varied closely with Mn(II). Isotopic variations as evidenced in ??234U pore waters values from this site revealed information on the origin and history of particulate uranium. Only after a depth of about 1 m did the ??234U value approach unity (secular equilibrium), denoting a residual lattice bound uranium complex that is likely an upper-drainage basin weathering product. This suggests that the enriched ??234U values represent a riverine surface complexation product that is actively involved in Mn-Fe diagenetic cycles and surface complexation reactions. In the Fly River estuary, 238U appears to exhibit a reasonably conservative distribution as a function of salinity. The absence of observed U removal does not necessarily imply non-reactivity, but instead may record an integration of concurrent U removal and release processes. There is not a linear correlation between ??234U vs. 1/ 238U that would imply simple two component mixing. It is likely that resuspension of bottom sediments, prolonged residence times in the lower reaches of the Fly River, and energetic particle-colloid interactions contribute to the observed estuarine U distribution. The supply of uranium discharged from humid, tropical river systems to the sea appears to be foremost influenced by particle/water interactions that are ultimately governed by the particular physiographic and hydrologic characteristics of an estuary. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Swarzenski, P.; Campbell, P.; Porcelli, D.; McKee, B.

2004-01-01

188

Estimation of erosion and sedimentation yield in the Ucayali river basin, a Peruvian tributary of the Amazon River, using ground and satellite methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2003, the works of HYBAM observatory (www.ore-hybam.org) has allowed to quantify with accuracy, precision and over a long period Amazon's main rivers discharges and sediments loads. In Peru, a network of 8 stations is regularly gauged and managed in association with the national meteorological and Hydrological service (SENAMHI), the UNALM (National Agrological University of La Molina) and the National Water Agency (ANA). Nevertheless, some current processes of erosion and sedimentation in the foreland basins are still little known, both in volumes and in localization. The sedimentary contributions of Andean tributaries could be there considerable, masking a very strong sedimentation in subsidence zones localized between the control points of the HYBAM's network. The development of spatial techniques such as the Altimetry and reflectance measurement allows us today to complete the ground's network: HYBAM's works have allowed establishing a relation between surface concentration and reflectance in Amazonian rivers (Martinez et al., 2009, Espinoza et al., 2012) and reconstituting water levels series (Calmant et al., 2006, 2008). If the difficulty of calibration of these techniques increases towards the upstream, their use can allow a first characterization of the tributaries contributions and sedimentation zones. At world level, erosion and sedimentation yields in the upper Ucayali are exceptional, favored by a marked seasonality in this region (Espinoza et al., 2009, Lavado, 2010, Pépin et al., 2010) and the presence of cells of extreme precipitation ("Hotspots") (Johnson et al., 1976, Espinoza et al, 2009a). The upper Ucayali drainage basin is a Piggyback where the River run with a low slope, parallel to the Andean range, deposing by gravity hundred millions a year of sands, silts and clays. In this work, we thus propose an estimation of sedimentation and erosion yield in the Ucayali river basin using ground and satellite methods.

Santini, William; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Espinoza, Raul; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo

2014-05-01

189

Sciadicleithrum juruparii n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from the gills of Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) in the Guamá River, Amazon Delta, Brazil.  

PubMed

Sciadicleithrum juruparii n. sp. is described from the gills of the Neotropical cichlid fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel) caught in the Guamá River, in the delta of the Amazon River, at Belém, Pará State, Brazil. Diagnostic characters of the new species are a basally articulated male copulatory organ with clockwise coils and an accessory piece; a ventral bar with a median process; similar hooklets; vagina in the form of a sclerotised tube; and a sinistral vaginal aperture with a sclerotised papilla lying in a small surface depression. It is the only species of Sciadicleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1989 with a medial projection on the ventral bar. PMID:22581249

de Melo, Marly de Fátima Carvalho; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento; Santos, Cláudia Portes

2012-06-01

190

Seasonal cycle and interannual variability in the Amazon hydrologic cycle  

E-print Network

], and historical Amazon River discharge. Over a seasonal cycle the precipitation is found to vary by 5 mm d 1­1996. The precipitation lags behind the Southern Oscillation Index by 3­4 months while the Amazon River discharge lags and accuracy [e.g., Xie and Arkin, 1996]. Together with the newly available long-term historical Amazon River

Zeng, Ning

191

Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.  

PubMed

Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 ?g/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ? 10 ?g/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (? 10 ?g/g) in 2012. PMID:24789525

de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

2014-07-01

192

New views on "old" carbon in the Amazon River: Insight from the source of organic carbon eroded from the Peruvian Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

rivers play a key role in the delivery of particulate organic carbon (POC) to large river systems and the ocean. Due to the extent of its drainage area and runoff, the Amazon River is one of Earth's most important biogeochemical systems. However, the source of POC eroded from the humid region of the Eastern Andes and the input of fossil POC from sedimentary rocks (POCfossil) remains poorly constrained. Here we collected suspended sediments from the Kosñipata River during flood events to better characterize Andean POC, measuring the nitrogen to organic carbon ratio (N/C), stable carbon isotopes (?13Corg) and radiocarbon (?14Corg). ?14Corg values ranged from -711‰ to -15‰, and significant linear trends between ?14Corg, N/C and ?13Corg suggested that this reflects the mixing of POCfossil with very young organic matter (?14Corg ~ 50‰) from the terrestrial biosphere (POCnon-fossil). Using N/C and ?14Corg in an end-member mixing analysis, we quantify the fraction of POCfossil (to within 0.1) and find that it contributes a constant proportion of the suspended sediment mass (0.37 ± 0.03%) and up to 80% of total POC. In contrast, the relative contribution of POCnon-fossil was variable, being most important during the rising limb and peak discharges of flood events. The new data shed light on published measurements of "old" POC (low ?14Corg) in Andean-fed tributaries of the Amazon River, with their ?14Corg and ?13Corg values consistent with variable addition of POCfossil. The findings suggest a greater persistence of Andean POC in the lowland Amazon than previously recognized.

Clark, K. E.; Hilton, R. G.; West, A. J.; Malhi, Y.; GröCke, D. R.; Bryant, C. L.; Ascough, P. L.; Robles Caceres, A.; New, M.

2013-05-01

193

Top-down, bottom-up and physical controls on diatom-diazotroph assemblage growth in the Amazon River plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nutrient-rich waters of the Amazon River plume (ARP) support dense blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages (DDAs) that introduce large quantities of new nitrogen to the planktonic ecosystem and, unlike other nitrogen-fixers, are likely to directly fuel vertical carbon flux. To investigate the factors controlling DDA blooms, we develop a five phytoplankton (cyanobacteria, diatoms, unicellular microbial diazotrophs, DDAs, and Trichodesmium), two zooplankton model and embed it within a 1/6° resolution physical model of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic. The model generates realistic DDA blooms in the ARP and also exhibits basin-wide primary production, nitrogen fixation, and grazing rates consistent with observed values. By following ARP water parcels with synthetic Lagrangian drifters released at the river mouth we are able to assess the relative impacts of grazing, nutrient supply, and physical forcing on DDA bloom formation. DDA bloom formation is stimulated in the nitrogen-poor and silica-rich water of the ARP by decreases in grazing pressure when mesozooplankton (which co-occur in high densities with coastal diatom blooms) concentrations decrease. Bloom termination is driven primarily by silica limitation of the DDAs. In agreement with in situ data, this net growth niche for DDAs exists in a salinity range from ∼20-34 PSU, although this co-occurrence is coincidental rather than causative. Because net growth rates are relatively modest, bloom formation in ARP water parcels depends critically on the time spent in this ideal habitat, with high DDA biomass only occurring when water parcels spent >23 days in the optimal habitat niche.

Stukel, M. R.; Coles, V. J.; Brooks, M. T.; Hood, R. R.

2014-06-01

194

Top-down, bottom-up and physical controls on diatom-diazotroph assemblage growth in the Amazon River Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nutrient-rich waters of the Amazon River Plume (ARP) support dense blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages (DDA) that introduce large quantities of new nitrogen to the planktonic ecosystem and, unlike other nitrogen-fixers, are likely to directly fuel vertical carbon flux. To investigate the factors controlling DDA blooms, we develop a five phytoplankton (cyanobacteria, diatoms, unicellular microbial diazotrophs, DDA, and Trichodesmium), two zooplankton model and embed it within a 1/6° resolution physical model of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic. The model generates realistic DDA blooms in the ARP and also exhibits basin-wide primary production, nitrogen fixation, and grazing rates consistent with observed values. By following ARP water parcels with synthetic Lagrangian drifters released at the river mouth we are able to assess the relative impacts of grazing, nutrient supply, and physical forcing on DDA bloom formation. DDA bloom formation is stimulated in the silica-rich water of the ARP by decreases in grazing pressure when mesozooplankton (which co-occur in high densities with coastal diatom blooms) concentrations decrease. Bloom termination is driven primarily by silica limitation of the DDA. In agreement with in situ data, this net growth niche for DDA exists in a salinity range from ~ 20-34 PSU, although this co-occurrence is coincidental rather than causative. Because net growth rates are relatively modest, bloom formation in ARP water parcels depends critically on the time spent in this ideal habitat, with high DDA biomass only occurring when water parcels spent > 23 days in the optimal habitat niche.

Stukel, M. R.; Coles, V. J.; Brooks, M. T.; Hood, R. R.

2013-08-01

195

Floodplain hydrology in an Amazon floodplain lake (Lago Grande de Curuai)  

E-print Network

; accepted 16 October 2007 KEYWORDS Amazon river; Floodplain; River­floodplain interactions; Hydrologic with the Amazon River and its tributaries and these floodplains alter the transport of water and dissolved

Boyer, Edmond

196

Methane flux from the Amazon River floodplain: Emissions during rising water  

Microsoft Academic Search

During April and May of 1987, an extensive methane flux data set from Amazonian wetland habitats was collected during the wet season as river water levels were high and rising. This work extends measurements made in the dry season of 1985, when water levels were falling. A total of 284 flux measurements were made in the three primary floodplain environments

Karen B. Bartlett; Patrick M. Crill; Jose A. Bonassi; Jeffrey E. Richey; Robert C. Harriss

1990-01-01

197

Decrease of soil fertility and release of mercury following deforestation in the Andean Amazon, Napo River Valley, Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion and degradation provoked by deforestation in the Amazon is a global concern, and recent studies propose a link between deforestation, soil erosion and the leaching of naturally occurring mercury (Hg). In the Ecuadorian Amazon, elevated deforestation rates and the proximity of volcanoes could play an important role in soil fertility and soil Hg levels. The goal of this

N. Mainville; J. Webb; M. Lucotte; R. Davidson; O. Betancourt; E. Cueva; D. Mergler

2006-01-01

198

Fish assemblages of the Casiquiare River, a corridor and zoogeographical filter for dispersal between the Orinoco and Amazon basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the Casiquiare River functions as a free dispersal corridor or as a partial barrier (i.e. filter) for the interchange of fish species of the Orinoco and Negro/Amazon basins using species assemblage patterns according to geographical location and environmental features. Location: The Casiquiare, Upper Orinoco and Upper Negro rivers in southern Venezuela, South America. Methods: Our study was based on an analysis of species presence/absence data and environmental information (11 habitat characteristics) collected by the authors and colleagues between the years 1984 and 1999. The data set consisted of 269 sampled sites and 452 fish species (> 50,000 specimens). A wide range of habitat types was included in the samples, and the collection sites were located at various points along the entire length of the Casiquiare main channel, at multiple sites on its tributary streams, as well as at various nearby sites outside the Casiquiare drainage, within the Upper Orinoco and Upper Rio Negro river systems. Most specimens and field data used in this analysis are archived in the Museo de Ciencias Naturales in Guanare, Venezuela. We performed canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) based on species presence/absence using two versions of the data set: one that eliminated sites having < 5 species and species occurring at < 5 sites; and another that eliminated sites having < 10 species and species occurring at < 10 sites. Cluster analysis was performed on sites based on species assemblage similarity, and a separate analysis was performed on species based on CCA loadings. Results: The CCA results for the two versions of the data set were qualitatively the same. The dominant environmental axis contrasted assemblages and sites associated with blackwater vs. clearwater conditions. Longitudinal position on the Casiquiare River was correlated (r2 = 0.33) with CCA axis-1 scores, reflecting clearwater conditions nearer to its origin (bifurcation of the Orinoco) and blackwater conditions nearer to its mouth (junction with the Rio Negro). The second CCA axis was most strongly associated with habitat size and structural complexity. Species associations derived from the unweighted pair-group average clustering method and pair-wise squared Euclidean distances calculated from species loadings on CCA axes 1 and 2 showed seven ecological groupings. Cluster analysis of species assemblages according to watershed revealed a stronger influence of local environmental conditions than of geographical proximity. Main conclusions: Fish assemblage composition is more consistently associated with local environmental conditions than with geographical position within the river drainages. Nonetheless, the results support the hypothesis that the mainstem Casiquiare represents a hydrochemical gradient between clearwaters at its origin and blackwaters at its mouth, and as such appears to function as a semi-permeable barrier (environmental filter) to dispersal and faunal exchanges between the partially vicariant fish faunas of the Upper Orinoco and Upper Negro rivers. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Winemiller, K.O.; Lopez-Fernandez, H.; Taphorn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Duque, A.B.

2008-01-01

199

Estimation of mercury wet deposition in the tributary sub-basins of the Negro river (Amazon-Brazil) using RS/GIS tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown high concentrations of Hg in fish, soil, lakes and rivers of the Negro river basin. These concentrations were surprisingly high when considering the scarcity of anthropogenic point sources in the region (Fadini and Jardim, 2001). In order to investigate the role of wet deposition in the mercury biogeochemistry cycle in this basin, Hg deposition was estimated for 18 tributary sub-basins of the Negro river, covering an area of nearly 700,000 km2. Mercury wet deposition estimate was done by combining analytical data obtained from total Hg measurements in bulk precipitation (8 measurements between 1997 and 2002), Remote Sensoring (RS) and GIS (Geographie Information System) tools, with the help of orbital images from the JERS-1 SAR project (Global Rain Forest Mapping Project, South America-Amazon Basin), Amazon rainfall map (Sombroek, 2001) and SPRING (Geographie information of processing system) from INPE (Brazilian National Institute of Space Research). For each sub-basin, Hg wet deposition flux (ton km^{-2} yr^{-1}) and the annual amount of Hg (ton yr^{-1}) deposited on the area were estimated. The result allowed a clear picture of each sub-basins, by looking for a relation between the wet deposition, the drainage characteristics of each sub-basin and the Hg concentration in the water column.

Jardim, W. F.; Silvério da Silva, G.

2003-05-01

200

Pseudoparasitism by Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica; Hepaticola hepatica) in the Negro River, Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

We report the finding of eggs of Calodium spp. (syn. Capillaria spp.; Hepaticola spp.) in a fecal sample from an old woman living in a riverine community in the Negro River Basin and describe the associated epidemiological investigation. The case probably does not represent true parasitism; the eggs, which were compatible with the species Calodium hepaticum, were most likely ingested upon consumption of infected tapir (Tapirus terrestris) liver, subsequently passing through the gut and being eliminated. The evolution of these eggs to infective stages in the environment, given the poor sanitation background, could provide the risk of occurrence of hepatic disease in humans. PMID:19477475

Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Silva, Adriano Gomes; de Souza, Alberto H; Moreira, Carlos J de C; de Souza, Daniela L; Valverde, Joanna G; Jaeger, Lauren H; Martins, Patrícia P; de Meneses, Viviane F; Araújo, Adauto; Bóia, Márcio N

2009-10-01

201

Methane flux from the Amazon River floodplain: Emissions during rising water  

SciTech Connect

During April and May of 1987, an extensive methane flux data set from Amazonian wetland habitats was collected during the wet season as river water levels were high and rising. This work extends measurements made in the dry season of 1985, when water levels were falling. A total of 284 flux measurements were made in the three primary floodplain environments of open-water lakes and channels, floating grass mats, and flooded forests, along approximately 1,500 km of the central floodplain. Emissions (means and standard errors) were 74 {plus minus} 14 mg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2}/d (open water), 201 {plus minus} 35 mg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2}/d (grass mats), and 126 {plus minus} 20 mg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2}/d (flooded forests). These values were not significantly different from the majority of those from 1985, in part due to the high variability in flux seen at both times. Although ebullition was a significant component of methane emissions at both periods, the frequency of bubbling and its contribution to total flux was lower during the period of rising water than during falling water. A prominent diurnal pattern in atmospheric methane concentrations was observed, with minimum levels of about 1.75 ppm at midday and a maximum of 2.12 ppm at about midnight. Given the relatively small season changes observed in flux at the two stages of the rivers hydrographic curve, earlier estimates of regional methane flux remain largely unchanged. Revision of global estimates of wetland methane sources based on these tropical data and recently published figures for northern peatlands indicated that tropical wetlands may be more important than previously suggested, but that wetland sources overall remain at approximately 110 Tg/yr.

Bartlett, K.B.; Crill, P.M. (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (USA)); Bonassi, J.A. (Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Richey, J.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Harriss, R.C. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA) NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA))

1990-09-20

202

Detection of long-term trends in monthly hydro-climatic records of Colombia and the Amazon River basin through Empirical Mode Decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We search for long-term trends in 25- to 50-year records of monthly rainfall (100 stations), average river discharges (42 stations), and mean and minimum air temperature records (37 stations) in Colombia, as well as monthly records in 29 rain gauges within the Amazon River basin. Time series of average monthly river discharges are selected from 10 Colombian river basins with gauging stations located downstream along the main channel. The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method is used as a filtering process to decompose a given time series into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMF), assuming that diverse simple oscillatory modes of different frequencies coexist in the series, and that the residual captures the long-term trend of the record. The Mann-Kendall test for autocorrelated data is used to assess the statistical significance of the trends, and the Sen test is used for the magnitude of the trends. Results show that 62% of monthly river discharge series exhibit decreasing trends between 0.01-1.92 m3/s yr-1. The identified trends are strongly consistent downstream, albeit with contrasting results for the ratios between the magnitude of the trend and mean discharges. Most minimum temperature series (87%) show increasing trends [0.01-0.08°C yr-1]. Results on precipitation are inconclusive as monthly records exhibit a mixed pattern of increasing (41%, between 0.1-7.0 mm yr-1) and decreasing (44%, between 0.1-7.4 mm yr-1) trends, except for the Pacific region, which shows clear-cut positive trends, consistently with an increasing trend identified in the strength of the Chocó low-level jet winds over the Pacific coast of Colombia, the main moisture advection mechanism into the region. Maximum trend magnitudes in precipitation records on the Amazon basin were found to be decreasing (53%, between 0.04 -9.1 mm yr-1), mostly around the basin's central and south-eastern regions. The highest decreasing trend magnitude in the Amazon was found to be -9.1mm yr-1.

Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.

2011-12-01

203

On the offshore dispersal of the Amazon's Plume in the North Atlantic: Comments on the paper by A. Longhurst, "Seasonal  

E-print Network

space. In a recent paper by Longhurst (1993). the plume associated with the Amazon River was attributed plume originates at the Amazon River mouth near the equator, and the other at the Orinoco River mouth

McGillicuddy Jr., Dennis J.

204

Factors controlling Hg levels in two predatory fish species in the Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

A number of environmental factors have been shown to influence the dynamics of Hg in aquatic ecosystems. Here we investigate the influence of fish size, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and the availability of potential methylation sites (floodplain forests and hydromorphic soils) on the concentration of total Hg in two carnivorous fishes: Cichla spp. and Hoplias malabaricus in the Negro River, Brazil. Fish and water samples for chemical analysis were collected from 33 sites in the Negro basin. The percentage of alluvial floodplains and hydromorphic soils (potential methylation sites) in the drainage basin upstream from each sampling point was estimated from radar imagery and existing soil maps with GIS. The average of Hg concentrations were 0.337 ppm (SD=0.244) in Cichla spp. and 0.350 ppm (SD=0.250) in H. malabaricus. Although the study area was geographically isolated from most major anthropogenic Hg sources, over 18% of Cichla spp. and 29% of H. malabaricus had Hg concentrations above 0.5 ppm, indicating naturally high background levels of Hg. Hg concentrations increased with size in both Cichla spp. (r(2)=0.664, p=0.000) and H. malabaricus (r(2)=0.299, p=0.000). Hg concentrations in H. malabaricus also increased with percent floodable area (p=0.006), pH (p=0.000) and DOC (0,063). In Cichla spp, Hg increased only in relation to percent floodable area (p=0.000). Hydromorphic soils did not influence fish Hg. PMID:16690103

Belger, Lauren; Forsberg, Bruce Rider

2006-08-15

205

Mercury methylation along a lake-forest transect in the Tapajós river floodplain, Brazilian Amazon: seasonal and vertical variations.  

PubMed

The seasonal and spatial variations of net methylmercury production in sediments, soils and other sites were evaluated by assays with 203Hg at different depths and locations along a lake-forest transect at lake Enseada Grande, Tapajós river. Soil and sediment samples were taken at the surface and at different depths up to 9 cm. Fresh samples and acidified controls (1-3 g dry wt.) were slurried with local water and incubated in the dark at 25-28 degrees C for 3 days with 0.5-1.6 microg Hg g(-1) (dry wt.) added as 203HgCl2. CH3 203Hg was extracted and measured in scintillation cocktail after acid leaching. Methylmercury production varied by orders of magnitude among sites and among sediment or soil layers. Seasonal variations were smaller than those with sample depth and location. In both seasons, MeHg formation in sediment and soil or flooded soil decreased with depth and was, in the top layers, one order of magnitude higher in the C-rich littoral macrophyte zone (2.3-8.9%) and flooded forest (3.2-4.5%) than in the center of the lake (0.2-0.56%). Similar MeHg production was found in slurried dry soils (dry season) and in soils already flooded for months. In the macrophyte zone soil (dry season), methylation was mainly associated with the thin Paspalum sp. rootlet layer. In the forest site, vertical variation in methylation was less pronounced in flooded than in dry soils and during the inundation the higher methylation rate was found in the flocculent sediment settled over the litter layer. The roots of floating Paspalum sp. were an important Hg methylation site, particularly those heavily colonized with periphyton (3.4-5.4%). Methylation in surface or near-bottom water was undetectable (< 3 x 10(-2)%) at all sites. Flooded forests and macrophyte mats are specific features of the Amazon and are important links between Hg inputs from natural and manmade sources and MeHg exposure of local populations through fish intake. PMID:11036980

Guimarães, J R; Roulet, M; Lucotte, M; Mergler, D

2000-10-16

206

Coupling a basin erosion and river sediment transport model into a large scale hydrological model: an application in the Amazon basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the first application and preliminary results of the large scale hydrodynamic/hydrological model MGB-IPH with a new module to predict the spatial distribution of the basin erosion and river sediment transport in a daily time step. The MGB-IPH is a large-scale, distributed and process based hydrological model that uses a catchment based discretization and the Hydrological Response Units (HRU) approach. It uses physical based equations to simulate the hydrological processes, such as the Penman Monteith model for evapotranspiration, and uses the Muskingum Cunge approach and a full 1D hydrodynamic model for river routing; including backwater effects and seasonal flooding. The sediment module of the MGB-IPH model is divided into two components: 1) prediction of erosion over the basin and sediment yield to river network; 2) sediment transport along the river channels. Both MGB-IPH and the sediment module use GIS tools to display relevant maps and to extract parameters from SRTM DEM (a 15" resolution was adopted). Using the catchment discretization the sediment module applies the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation to predict soil loss from each HRU considering three sediment classes defined according to the soil texture: sand, silt and clay. The effects of topography on soil erosion are estimated by a two-dimensional slope length (LS) factor which using the contributing area approach and a local slope steepness (S), both estimated for each DEM pixel using GIS algorithms. The amount of sediment releasing to the catchment river reach in each day is calculated using a linear reservoir. Once the sediment reaches the river they are transported into the river channel using an advection equation for silt and clay and a sediment continuity equation for sand. A sediment balance based on the Yang sediment transport capacity, allowing to compute the amount of erosion and deposition along the rivers, is performed for sand particles as bed load, whilst no erosion or deposition is allowed for silt and clay. The model was first applied on the Madeira River basin, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon River (~1.4*106 km2) accounting for 35% of the suspended sediment amount annually transported for the Amazon river to the ocean. Model results agree with observed data, mainly for monthly and annual time scales. The spatial distribution of soil erosion within the basin showed a large amount of sediment being delivered from the Andean regions of Bolivia and Peru. Spatial distribution of mean annual sediment along the river showed that Madre de Dios, Mamoré and Beni rivers transport the major amount of sediment. Simulated daily suspended solid discharge agree with observed data. The model is able to provide temporaly and spatialy distributed estimates of soil loss source over the basin, locations with tendency for erosion or deposition along the rivers, and to reproduce long term sediment yield at several locations. Despite model results are encouraging, further effort is needed to validate the model considering the scarcity of data at large scale.

Buarque, D. C.; Collischonn, W.; Paiva, R. C. D.

2012-04-01

207

The Pan-Amazonian Ucayali Peneplain, late Neogene sedimentation in Amazonia, and the birth of the modern Amazon River system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the Neogene geologic history of lowland Amazonia in an attempt to focus attention on areas of agreement, as well as areas in dispute, in this research arena. We reinterpret pre-existing hypotheses, present new data, and discuss new insights intended to support a unified synthesis of the Amazon Basin as a single sedimentary basin, albeit on a vast scale,

Kenneth E. Campbell Jr.; Carl David Frailey; Lidia Romero-Pittman

2006-01-01

208

Investigation of Deforestation of Environmental Protection Areas of Madeira River Permanent Preservation Areas in Rondônia Amazon, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deforestation of the Amazon protected areas involves a series of deleterious environmental factors, such as social conflicts, loss of biodiversity, soil degradation, deterioration of watersheds, and environmental services offered, that still are not considered in studies of environmental impacts and when studied, are not valued economically or end up being undersized, resulting in loss of economic opportunities associated to

Marcelo Rodrigues dos Anjos; Marla Schulz

2011-01-01

209

Role of floodplains in the organic matter fate, transport, and sink: case of the Amazon floodplains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floodplains play an important role in Amazon River hydrology, sediment dynamics, carbon cycle and ecology because they modify river discharges and chemical composition. The flooded areas along the Amazon are important sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and seems to influence the carbon cycle. Organic matter transported in the Amazon River has mainly a terrestrial and refractory origin. Intensive

P. Moreira-Turcq; P. Seyler; H. Etcheber; J. M. Jouanneau; B. Turcq; J. L. Guyot

2003-01-01

210

Traditionally configured prawn trawls contain small diamond-  

E-print Network

434 Traditionally configured prawn trawls contain small diamond- shaped meshes in the codend, and small diamond-mesh sections. A strategically located panel of 85-mm netting was inserted on the bar with a conventional diamond-mesh codend (control) showed that both square-mesh designs significantly re- duced

211

A time series analysis of Prochilodus nigricans landings caught by small-scale fisheries in the lower stretch of the Amazon River.  

PubMed

We developed a time series analysis using data on curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans), which landed in Santarém, a small city located on the right banks of the Amazon River. A 10-year record of monthly average catches per day of P. nigricans was analyzed using forecasting procedures in the open-source software GRETL 1.7.8. We established two models from the identifications made with the correlograms of hyperparametrization and seasonal differences. The autoregressive terms of the model reach three years, indicating that individuals of the species are being caught around the age of three. This may indicate that the curimatãs in the landings at Santarém from 1992 to 2002 were more than two years old, potentially a sign of a lack of fishing pressure on the lower age groups. PMID:23644788

Santana, I F; Freitas, C E C

2013-02-01

212

The influence of changes in lifestyle and mercury exposure in riverine populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a hydroelectric project.  

PubMed

In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics. PMID:24577285

Hacon, Sandra S; Dórea, José G; Fonseca, Márlon de F; Oliveira, Beatriz A; Mourão, Dennys S; Ruiz, Claudia M V; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Mariani, Carolina F; Bastos, Wanderley R

2014-03-01

213

The Influence of Changes in Lifestyle and Mercury Exposure in Riverine Populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a Hydroelectric Project  

PubMed Central

In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics. PMID:24577285

Hacon, Sandra S.; Dórea, José G.; Fonseca, Márlon de F.; Oliveira, Beatriz A.; Mourão, Dennys S.; Ruiz, Claudia M. V.; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A.; Mariani, Carolina F.; Bastos, Wanderley R.

2014-01-01

214

(210)Pb and composition data of near-surface sediments and interstitial waters evidencing anthropogenic inputs in Amazon River mouth, Macapá, Brazil.  

PubMed

Activity profiles of excess (210)Pb determined in three sediment cores from Amazon River mouth, Macapá city, Brazil, provided the evaluation of sedimentation rates, contributing to a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the site that is the capital of Amapá State and is drained by the waters of the huge Amazon River. Chemical data were also determined in the sediments, allowing identify signatures coupled to anthropogenic inputs held in the past in Amapá State. Significant direct relationships between LOI (loss on ignition) and organic matter were found for all sediments profiles. Silica was found to be inversely related to organic matter in the three profiles; its decrease accompanied an increase on the specific surface of the sediments. This relationship was confirmed by a great number of inverse significant correlations among silica and oxides Na(2)O, K(2)O, CaO, MgO, Al(2)O(3), P(2)O(5), Fe(2)O(3) and MnO. It was possible to identify the role of organic matter on adsorption of several oxides in the core sediments profiles. Apparent sediment mass accumulation rates corresponding to values between 450 and 2510 mg cm(-2)yr(-1) were obtained, and are compatible with the results of others studies. The (210)Pb activities in one sampling point suggested the occurrence of anthropogenic inputs related to the initial period of the mining activities conducted in Serra do Navio, Amapá State, for the commercialization of Mn ores. This was reinforced by the abrupt fluctuations in chemical data obtained for the sediments and composition of the interstitial waters occurring there. The Atlantic hurricane activity also appeared to affect the sedimentation rates in the area, as two different values were recorded in each profile. PMID:21353731

Nery, José Reinaldo Cardoso; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

2011-04-01

215

Water slope and discharge in the Amazon River estimated using the shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that the standard deviation, hence error, of the water surface elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is 5.51 m for basin-wide, regional and local Amazon mainstem reaches. This error implies a minimum reach length of 733km in order to calculate a reliable water-surface slope. Resulting slopes are 1.92 +\\/- 0.19 cm\\/km for Manacapuru, 2.86 +\\/-

Gina LeFavour; Doug Alsdorf

2005-01-01

216

Mercury inputs into the Amazon Region, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury inputs into the Brazilian Amazon ecosystem due to goldmining activities are quantified based on data from various Brazilian Mineral and Environmental Agencies as well as field works. Total losses of Hg were estimated to be 1.32 kg Hg\\/kg Au from which 45% are released into rivers and 55% into the atmosphere. Total Hg input to the Amazon may contribute

W. C. Pfeiffer; L. Drude de Lacerda

1988-01-01

217

The role of fluvial sediment supply and river-mouth hydrology in the dynamics of the muddy, Amazon-dominated Amapá-Guianas coast, South America: A three-point research agenda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology and sediment dynamics of the 1500 km-long coast of South America between the mouths of the Amazon and the Orinoco Rivers are largely dependent on the massive suspended-sediment discharge of the Amazon, part of which is transported alongshore as mud banks. These mud banks have an overwhelming impact on the geology, the geomorphology, the ecology and the economy of this coast. Although numerous field investigations and remote sensing studies have considerably enhanced our understanding of the dynamics of this coast over the last three decades, much still remains to be understood of the unique functional mechanisms and processes driving its evolution. Among the themes that we deem as requiring further attention three come out as fundamental. The first concerns the mechanisms of formation of individual mud banks from mud streaming on the shelf off the mouth of the Amazon. An unknown quantity of the fluid mud generated by offshore estuarine front activity is transported shoreward and progressively forms mud banks on the Amapá coast, Brazil. The volume of each mud bank can contain from the equivalent of the annual mud supply of the Amazon to several times this annual sediment discharge. The mechanisms by which individual banks are generated from the Amazon turbidity maximum are still to be elucidated. Areas of research include regional mesoscale oceanographic conditions and mud supply from the Amazon. The second theme is that of variations in rates of migration of mud banks, which influence patterns of coastal accretion. Research emphasis needs to be placed on the analysis of both regional meteorological-hydrodynamic forcing and distant Atlantic forcing, as well as on the hydrology of the large rivers draining the Guyana Shield. The rivers appear to generate significant offshore deflection of mud banks in transit alongshore, through a hydraulic-groyne effect. This may favour both muddy accretion on the updrift coast and downdrift mud liquefaction with probably lessened muddy deposition. The third theme concerns sand supply by the Guiana Shield rivers. The rare sand deposits are important in providing sites for human settlements and routes and for nesting by marine turtles. The limited presence of sand bodies on this coast may reflect 'mud blanketing', a hypothesis that requires verification through high-resolution seismic analyses of shelf deposits and coring operations. The large Guiana Shield rivers, especially in Surinam and Guyana, have supplied sand for the construction of significant bands of cheniers, probably enhanced by the afore-mentioned downdrift hydraulic-groyne effect on hindered mud deposition. In all the three themes of this future research agenda, two central elements are the sediment input of the rivers of the Amazon basin, starting with the massive mud supply from the Amazon catchment itself, followed by sand inputs by the Guiana Shield rivers and their river-mouth effects on mud banks.

Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Proisy, Christophe; Fromard, François; Gensac, Erwan; Peron, Christina; Walcker, Romain; Lesourd, Sandric

2013-07-01

218

TITLE: Seasonal and spatial variability of CO2 emission from a large floodplain lake in the1 lower Amazon2  

E-print Network

of the Amazon River in four hydrological phases. We calculated surficial17 CO2 concentrations from measurements Amazon River23 inflows. CO2 concentration was reduced in regions with phytoplankton blooms. The range of].51 The annual flood of the Amazon River influences the ecology and biogeochemistry52 within its floodplain

California at Santa Barbara, University of

219

Hydrologic benchmarking of meteorological drought indices at interannual to climate change timescales: a case study over the Amazon and Mississippi river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widely used metrics of drought are still derived solely from analyses of meteorological variables such as precipitation and temperature. While drought is generally a consequence of atmospheric anomalies, the impacts to society are more directly related to hydrologic conditions. The present study uses a standardized runoff index (SRI) as a proxy for river discharge and as a benchmark for various meteorological drought indices (scPDSI, SPI, SPEI_th, and SPEI_hg respectively). Only 12-month duration droughts are considered in order to allow a direct (no river routing) comparison between meteorological anomalies and their hydrological counterpart. The analysis is conducted over the Mississippi and Amazon river basins, which provide two contrasted test beds for evaluating drought indices at both interannual (using detrended data) and climate change (using raw data) timescales. Looking first at observations over the second half of the 20th century, the simple SPI based solely on precipitation is no less suitable than more sophisticated meteorological drought indices at detecting interannual SRI variations. Using the detrended runoff and meteorological outputs of a five-member single model ensemble of historical and 21th century climate simulations leads to the same conclusion. Looking at the 21st century projections, the response of the areal fraction in drought to global warming is shown to be strongly metric dependent and potentially overestimated by the drought indices which account for temperature variations. These results suggest that empirical meteorological drought indices should be considered with great caution in a warming climate and that more physical water balance models are needed to account for the impact of the anthropogenic radiative forcings on hydrological droughts.

Joetzjer, E.; Douville, H.; Delire, C.; Ciais, P.; Decharme, B.; Tyteca, S.

2013-12-01

220

Mouth of the Amazon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flowing over 6450 kilometers eastward across Brazil, the Amazon River originates in the Peruvian Andes as tiny mountain streams that eventually combine to form one of the world's mightiest rivers. This image of the Amazon's mouth was captured by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on September 8, 2000 during Terra orbit 3862. The image is approximately 380 kilometers in width.

While the Amazon is surpassed in length by the Nile, it carries the largest volume of freshwater in the world, accounting for nearly 20 percent of the Earth's discharge into the oceans. Millions of cubic feet of water empty into the Atlantic every second, and the effluent is transported to very large distances from shore.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

221

Water quality changes in floodplain lakes due to the Amazon River flood pulse: Lago Grande de Curuaí (Pará).  

PubMed

Assurance of water quality for human consumption is essential for public health policies. In the Amazon floodplain, the seasonal water level variation causes periodic flooding of marginal areas that are usually used for settlements, agriculture and livestock. Therefore, the exchange of materials between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem affects the proportion of suspended and dissolved components in water and its physical-chemical characteristics, and consequently the quality of the water used by local people. Following this approach, the aim of this study is to evaluate changes in water quality in Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain, Óbidos, Pará in response to the flood pulse, during one hydrological year from 2003 to 2004, based on water use classes (according to National Water Agency 357/2005 resolution) using chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen concentration as parameters and the eutrophication index. Ordinary kriging was applied to interpolate chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen and to predict values at non sampled locations. Each location was then classified according to water use acceptable parameters and to Carlson Trophic State Index modified by Toledo to map lake water classes and trophic status. The result showed that Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain is a supereutrophic system, with levels of dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a not suitable for human supply during the receding water phase. These areas are located near the riverine communities, which can cause health problems due to the presence of potentially toxic algae. Therefore, monitoring water quality in Amazon lakes is essential to ensure the availability has appropriate quality for human and animal supplies. PMID:21881783

Affonso, A G; Barbosa, C; Novo, E M L M

2011-08-01

222

Morphology and Phylogeny of Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a Parasite Infecting the Gills of the Fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Teleostei: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River.  

PubMed

Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp., a new myxosporean parasite infecting the primary gill filaments of the teleost fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River, is described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. The parasite forms whitish and ellipsoidal cysts up to 250 ?m in diam. Myxospores ellipsoidal with a slightly more pointed anterior end, measuring 17.1 ± 0.6 ?m in length, 6.9 ± 0.4 ?m in width, and 5.1 ± 0.5 ?m in thickness. A single pyriform polar capsule, 9.0 ± 0.3 ?m long and 6.1 ± 0.4 ?m wide, positioned slightly right to the medial plane in valvular view, contains a polar filament arranged in 4-5 coils. Molecular analysis of the SSU rRNA gene by Maximum Parsimony, Neighbor-Joining, and Maximum Likelihood revealed the parasite clustering among other myxobolids, namely Henneguya and Myxobolus. Host affinity is supported as an important evolutionary signal for the phylogeny of myxobolids. The parasite here described represents the first record of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 from the South American fauna. PMID:25039988

Rocha, Sónia; Casal, Graça; Velasco, Michele; Alves, Angela; Matos, Edilson; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Azevedo, Carlos

2014-11-01

223

Ultrastructural description of Ceratomyxa microlepis sp. nov. (phylum Myxozoa): a parasite infecting the gall bladder of Hemiodus microlepis, a freshwater teleost from the Amazon River.  

PubMed

A new ceratomyxid parasite was examined for taxonomic identification, upon being found infecting the gall bladder of Hemiodus microlepis (Teleostei: Hemiodontidae), a freshwater teleost collected from the Amazon River, Brazil. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed elongated crescent-shaped spores constituted by two asymmetrical shell valves united along a straight sutural line, each possessing a lateral projection. The spores body measured 5.2 ± 0.4 µm (n = 25) in length and 35.5 ± 0.9 µm (n = 25) in total thickness. The lateral projections were asymmetric, one measuring 18.1 ± 0.5 µm (n = 25) in thickness and the other measuring 17.5 ± 0.5 µm (n = 25) in thickness. Two equal-sized subspherical polar capsules measuring 2.2 ± 0.3 µm in diameter were located at the same level, each possessing a polar filament with 5-6 coils. The sporoplasm was binucleate. Considering the morphometric data analyzed from the microscopic observations, as well as the host species and its geographical location, this paper describes a new myxosporean species, herein named Ceratomyxa microlepis sp. nov.; therefore representing the first description of a freshwater ceratomyxid from the South American region. PMID:23579792

Azevedo, Carlos; Rocha, Sónia; Casal, Graça; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona; Matos, Patrícia; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Matos, Edilson

2013-04-01

224

Influence of the Amazon River on dissolved and intra-cellular metal concentrations in Trichodesmium colonies along the western boundary of the sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the ecological importance of Trichodesmium spp. for the global oceanic nitrogen budget, there is limited information on their trace metal composition in field samples. We report dissolved (<0.22 ?m) metal concentrations measured in surface waters (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, P, Pb and V) and in the total and the intracellular pool (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, V) of Trichodesmium populations collected in the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean (April-May 2003) within the influence of the Amazon River plume. Dissolved element distributions were strongly influenced by the River discharge, with concentrations of some elements varying directly (i.e. Cd, Mo and V) or inversely (Ag, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, P and Pb) with surface salinity. Intracellular metal values to phosphorous ratios (mol:mol) for Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni and V ranged from 9.0×10-6 for Cd to 4.4×10-2 for Fe. Although total metal composition was significantly correlated with the intracellular content in the Trichodesmium colonies for some elements (e.g., Co, Cu, V), metal pools in the phytoplankton did not co-vary with the dissolved metal concentrations, suggesting that water column measurements may not be good predictors of the intracellular metal concentrations. The impact of physical parameters and bioactive elements on biological processes in Trichodesmium such as nitrogen fixation, carbon drawdown and biomass production was explored by using a principal component analysis test (PCA). The analysis indicates that the biological drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) by Trichodesmium seems to be influenced by the internal content of Fe, Co, Cd, Cu and Mn, while nitrogen fixation seems more influenced by the internal concentration of Mo, Ni and V and by the dissolved phosphorous concentrations.

Tovar-Sanchez, A.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

2010-08-01

225

Influence of the Amazon River on dissolved and intra-cellular metal concentrations in Trichodesmium colonies along the western boundary of the sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the ecological importance of Trichodesmium spp. for the global oceanic nitrogen budget, there is limited information on their trace metal composition in field samples. We report dissolved (<0.22 ?m) metal concentrations measured in surface waters (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, P, Pb and V) and in the total and the intracellular pool (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, V) of Trichodesmium populations collected in the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean (April-May 2003) within the influence of the Amazon River plume. Dissolved element distributions were strongly influenced by the River discharge, with concentrations of some elements varying directly (i.e. Cd, Mo and V) or inversely (Ag, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, P and Pb) with surface salinity. Intracellular metal values to phosphorous ratios (mol:mol) for Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni and V ranged from 9.0 × 10-6 for Cd to 4.4 × 10-2 for Fe. Although total metal composition was significantly correlated with the intracellular content in the Trichodesmium colonies for some elements (e.g., Co, Cu, V), metal pools in the phytoplankton did not co-vary with the dissolved metal concentrations, suggesting that water column measurements may not be good predictors of the intracellular metal concentrations. The impact of physical parameters and bioactive elements on biological processes such as nitrogen fixation, carbon drawdown and biomass production in Trichodesmium colonies was explored by using a principal component analysis test (PCA). The analysis indicated that the biological drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) by Trichodesmium seems to be influenced by the internal content of Fe, Co, Cd, and Cu, while nitrogen fixation seems more influenced by mixed layer depth and dissolved Fe and Ni concentrations.

Tovar-Sanchez, A.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

2011-01-01

226

The Amazon basin in transition.  

PubMed

Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin. PMID:22258611

Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

2012-01-19

227

Total basin discharge for the Amazon and Mississippi River basins from GRACE and a land-atmosphere water balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater discharge along continental margins is a key Earth system variable that is not well monitored globally. Here we propose a method for estimating monthly river basin outflows based on the use of new GRACE satellite estimates of terrestrial water storage changes in a coupled land-atmosphere water balance. Using GRACE land water storage changes (which include changes in groundwater storage)

T. H. Syed; J. S. Famiglietti; J. Chen; M. Rodell; S. I. Seneviratne; P. Viterbo; C. R. Wilson

2005-01-01

228

Flooding dynamics on the lower Amazon floodplain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed flooding dynamics of a large floodplain lake in the lower reach of the Amazon River for the period between 1995 through 2010. Floodplain inundation was simulated using the LISFLOOD-FP model, which combines one-dimensional river routing with two-dimensional overland flow, and a local hydrological model. Accurate representation of floodplain flows and inundation extent depends on the quality of the digital elevation model (DEM). We combined digital topography (derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) with extensive floodplain echo-sounding data to generate a hydraulically sound DEM. Analysis of daily water balances revealed that the dominant source of inflow alternated seasonally among direct rain and local runoff (October through January), Amazon River (March through August), and seepage (September). As inflows from the Amazon River increase during the rising limb of the hydrograph, regional floodwaters encounter the floodplain partially inundated from local hydrological inputs. At peak flow the floodplain routes, on average, 2.5% of the total discharge for this reach. The falling limb of the hydrograph coincides with the locally dry period, allowing seepage of water stored in sediments to become a dominant source. The average annual inflow from the Amazon River was 58.8 km3 (SD = 33.5), representing more than three thirds (80%) of inputs from all sources, with substantial inter-annual variability. The average annual net export of water from the floodplain to the Amazon River was 7.9 km3 (SD = 2.7).

Rudorff, C.; Melack, J. M.; Bates, P. D.

2013-05-01

229

Ovarian rematuration of ablated sugpo prawn Penaeus monodon Fabricius *  

E-print Network

induces ovarian maturation by eliminating the production and storage sites of the ovary-inhibiting hormone metcalfei) meat at 10 p. 100 estimated prawn body weight. Sampling for rematuration of females was done

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

Almeida, O.T. & Lorenzen, K. & McGrath, D.T. (2004) The fisheries sector in the Amazon regional economy.  

E-print Network

the magnitude of the fisheries sector along the Amazon River in Brazil. Total income and employment were interviewed in 15 cities along the Amazon River. The number of fishing boats and total catch were estimated tonnes in towns along the Amazon River. 15 Almeida O.1 Lorenzen K.2 McGrath D.1, 3 1 IPAM, Av. Nazaré

Lorenzen, Kai

231

Phylogenetic relationships among Synallaxini spinetails (Aves: Furnariidae) reveal a new biogeographic pattern across the Amazon and Paraná river basins.  

PubMed

Relationships among genera in the tribe Synallaxini have proved difficult to resolve. In this study, I investigate relationships among Synallaxis, Certhiaxis and Schoeniophylax using DNA sequences from the mitochondrion and three nuclear regions. I implemented novel primers and protocols for amplifying and sequencing autosomal and sex-linked introns in Furnariidae that resolved basal relationships in the Synallaxini with strong support. Synallaxis propinqua is sister to Schoeniophylax phryganophilus, and together they form a clade with Certhiaxis. The results are robust to analytical approaches when all genomic regions are analyzed jointly (parsimony, maximum likelihood, and species-tree analysis) and the same basal relationships are recovered by most genomic regions when analyzed separately. A sister relationship between S. propinqua, an Amazonian river island specialist, and S. phryganophilus, from the Paraná River basin region, reveals a new biogeographic pattern shared by at least other four pairs of taxa with similar distributions and ecologies. Estimates of divergence times for these five pairs span from the late Miocene to the Pleistocene. Identification of the historical events that produced this pattern is difficult and further advances will require additional studies of the taxa involved and a better understanding of the recent environmental history of South America. A new classification is proposed for the Synallaxini, including the description of a new genus for S. propinqua. PMID:24867462

Claramunt, Santiago

2014-09-01

232

The M2 tide on the Amazon shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of A Multidisciplinary Amazon Shelf Sediment Study (AMASSEDS), moored and shipboard current measurements made over the Amazon shelf during 1990-1991 have been analyzed to determine the dominant semidiurnal tidal constituent, the M2. These results have been combined with coastal sea level data from within the Amazon and Para Rivers, the adjacent shelf, and with satellite-derived tidal elevation data

Robert C. Beardsley; Julio Candela; Richard Limeburner; W. Rockwell Geyer; Steven J. Lentz; Belmiro M. Castro; David Cacchione; Nelson Carneiro

1995-01-01

233

Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

234

Buy at Amazon Buy at Amazon  

E-print Network

, Mr. Darwin Farewell to selfish gene Prague 2008 Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science Buy at Amazon #12;Flegr Jaroslav Frozen Evolution. Or, that's not the way it is, Mr. Darwin ­ FarewellBuy at Amazon #12;Buy at Amazon #12;Jaroslav Flegr Frozen Evolution Or, that's not the way it is

Flegr, Jaroslav

235

U-Pbdating on detrital zircon and Nd and Hf isotopes related to the provenance of siliciclastic rocks of the Amazon Basin: Implications for the origin of Proto-Amazonas River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous provenance studies along the Amazonas river have demonstrated that the Amazon drainage basin has been reorganized since the Late Cretaceous with the uplift of the Andes and the establishment of the transcontinental Amazon fluvial system from Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene (Hoorn et al., 1995; Potter, 1997, Wesselingh et al., 2002; Figueiredo et al. 2009, Campbell et al., 2006, Nogueira et al. 2013).There is a lack of data from Eastern and Central Amazonia and only limited core data from the Continental Platform near to current Amazonas river mouth. Central Amazonia is strategic to unveil the origin of Amazonas River because it represents the region where the connection of the Solimões and Amazonas basin can be studied through time (Nogueira et al. 2013). Also, there is a shortage of information on the old Precambrian and Paleozoic sediment sources relative to Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Solimões and Amazonas basins. We collected stratigraphic data, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Nd and Hf isotopes from Precambrian, Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Northwestern border of Amazonas Basin. They are exposed in the Presidente Figueiredo region and in the scarps of Amazon River, and occur to the east of the Purus Arch. This Northwest-Southeast trending structural feature that divides the Solimões and Amazonas basin was active at various times since the Paleozoic. Detrital zircon ages for the Neoproterozoic Prosperança Formation yielded a complex signature, with different populations of Neoproterozoic (550, 630 and 800 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic to Archean sources (1.6, 2.1 and 2.6 Ga). Also Nd and Hf isotopes show two groups of TDM model ages between 1.4 to 1.53 Ga and 2.2 and 3.1 Ga. Sediments typical of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Nhamundá and Manacapuru Formations revealed NdTDM model ages of 1.7, 2.2 and 2.7 Ga, but Hf isotopes and U-Pb zircon ages are more varied. They characterize a provenance dominated by Mesoproterozoic sources (1.0, 1.2 Ga) and subordinate Neoproterozoic(550-800 Ma) and Archean derivation (2.67 Ga). On the other hand, detrital zircon and Hf and NdTDM model ages for the Cretaceous Alter do Chão Formation yielded a unique Paleoproterozoicages between 2.0 and 2.3 Ga that can be correlated to sources derived from Maroni-Itacaiúnas and Central Amazonian basement provinces. The contribution of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks exposed during the installationof the Amazonas drainage were probably significant .Such a large contribution from Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic sources are not common in the proximal Amazon Craton basement .This new proposal open new perspectives to understand better the initial history of Amazon River with indication of the probable source areas during Late Cenozoic. Campbell Jr.; Frailey,C.D.; Romero-Pittman, G. 2006. The Pan-Amazonian UcayliPeneplain, late Neogenesedimentacion in Amazonia, and the Birth on the Modern Amazon River system.Palaeogeography,Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 239 (2006) 166-219 Figueiredo, J.,Hoorn, C., Van der Vem, P., Soares, E. 2009. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Fozdo Amazonas Basin. Geology, 37(7):619-622. Hoorn,C.; Guerrero, J.; Sarmiento, G. 1995. Andean tectonics as a cause for changing drainage patterns in Miocene Northern South America. Geology, v.23, p-237-240. Nogueira, A.C.R.; Silveira, R.R.; Guimarães, J.T.F. 2013. Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary and paleovegetation history of the eastern Solimões Basin, central Amazon region.Journal of South American Earth Sciences , v. 46, p. 89-99, 2013. Potter, P.E. 1997. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleodrainage of South America: a natural history. Journal of South American Earth Science.v.10. p.331-344 Wesselingh, F. P., et al., 2002. Lake-Pebas: a palaeocological reconstruction of a Miocene long-lived lake comples in Western Amazônia. Cainozoic Research 1 (1-2), 35-81.

Dantas, Elton Luiz; Silva Souza, Valmir; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira Cruz, Lucieth; Mendes Conceição, Anderson

2014-05-01

236

Planetary boundary layer dynamics over the Amazon rain forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the Amazon rain forest, in the area of the Amazon boundary layer experiment (ABLE) 2A and 2B experiments showed the existence of a low level circulation with low level nocturnal maxima winds. These circulations are shown to be induced by the thermal contrast between the river and the

Amauri Pereiradeoliveira

1990-01-01

237

Mercury levels assessment in hair of riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River, Pará State, Amazon, Brazil: Fish consumption as a possible route of exposure.  

PubMed

The study present evaluated the levels of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in hair samples of people from Barreiras community, riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River (Pará, Brazil), an area impacted by clandestine gold mining, as well as we analyzed the levels of Hg and Se (selenium) in nine fish species (carnivores and non-carnivorous) from the Tapajós River, which stand out as the main species consumed by riverside inhabitants, to evaluate a relationship between frequency of fish consumption and Hg concentration, and also to evaluate possible mechanisms of fish protection (or non-protection) to Hg exposure by Se. Furthermore we analyze the water quality to evaluate the environmental trophic state, fact responsible by creating conditions that can potentiate the effects of toxic mercury. Concentrations of Hg and MeHg were analyzed in hair samples of 141 volunteers in different age band. Of those, 84.40% of samples present values above the threshold for biological tolerance, which is 6.00?gg(-1) of total Hg in hair. Total Hg, in men there was a variation of 2.07-24.93?gg(-1), while for women the variation was 4.84-27.02?gg(-1). Consequently, the level of MeHg in men presented a variation of 1.49-19.57?gg(-1), with an average of 11.68?gg(-1), while with women the variation was from 3.73 to 22.35?gg(-1), with an average of 10.38?gg(-1). In fish species, Hg concentrations in carnivorous species had an average of 0.66?gg(-1), higher than that permitted by current legislation, ranging from 0.30 to 0.98?gg(-1), while the non-carnivorous species have values below the recommended by the legislation averaging 0.09?gg(-1), ranging between 0.02 and 0.44?gg(-1). For Se in fish, show that among carnivores, the contents of Se ranged between 0.18 and 0.54?gg(-1) with a mean of 0.34?gg(-1), while for non-carnivores these values were of the order of 0.16-0.56?gg(-1), with an average of 0.32?gg(-1). In surface water quality variables at the sampling points all showed values in accordance with the range established by current legislation. In this regard, the results provided by this study, while not conclusive, are strong indicators that despite not having been shown the relationship between the concentration of mercury in hair and feeding habits along the Tapajós River basin communities showed that a plausible correlation exists between levels of mercury and selenium in fish. This fact may serve as a subsidy to research human health, because in the Amazon, there is still a lot to examine with regards to the full understanding of the Se cycle. PMID:25467850

Faial, Kleber; Deus, Ricardo; Deus, Simonny; Neves, Ramiro; Jesus, Iracina; Santos, Elisabeth; Alves, Cláudio Nahum; Brasil, Davi

2014-11-11

238

Are mangroves and seagrasses sources of organic carbon for penaeid prawns in a tropical Australian estuary? A multiple stable-isotope study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used multiple stable-isotope analysis to investigate the importance of seagrasses, mangroves and other primary sources\\u000a (macroalgae, seston) to the food webs supporting penaeid prawns in the Embley River estuary and adjacent off-shore waters\\u000a in the north-eastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Mangroves, seagrass and macroalgae\\/seston were well separated on the\\u000a basis of their ?13C values in both the dry and

N. R. Loneragan; S. E. Bunn; D. M. Kellaway

1997-01-01

239

Reproductive indices in natural nests of giant Amazon river turtles Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, 1812) (Testudines, Podocnemididae) in the Environmental Protection Area Meanders of the Araguaia River.  

PubMed

A count was made of unhatched eggs and hatchling live and dead Podocnemis expansa turtles in 327 natural nests located on the beaches of the Environmental Protection Area (EPA) Meanders of the Araguaia River, to determine the percentage of hatching (94.63%), non-hatching (5.37%), survival (94.24%) and hatchling mortality (5.76%), and the average percentage of dead hatchlings during the 15 days in the nursery (0.97%). The mean number of hatchlings per nest was determined from the sum of the number of live and dead hatchlings divided by the total number of nests, while the mean number of eggs per nest was determined from the sum of live and dead hatchlings and unhatched eggs divided by the number of nests. These calculations yielded the following mean values: live hatchlings (88.98 ± 23.94), dead hatchlings (0.37 ± 0.93), unhatched eggs (5.07 ± 9.57), and total number of eggs (94.42 ± 21.30). The reproductive efficiency of the wild population of P. expansa can be affected by many environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and rainfall. In addition, man-made factors like the presence of chemicals in the water and the potential for infectious disease also have significant impact. The reproductive indices data obtained from this study are indispensable for future investigations of hatching anomalies. PMID:22437402

Alves-Júnior, J R F; Lustosa, A P G; Bosso, A C S; Balestra, R A M; Bastos, L F; Miranda, L B; Santos, A L Q

2012-02-01

240

Solar aquaculture: A wintering technique for parent prawns  

SciTech Connect

A new method of providing the warm water needed for parent prawn wintering using solar energy is described. Using solar energy for prawn wintering involves heat collection, heat storage and temperature maintenance. The system designed provides sufficient energy for the safe wintering of prawns with suitable water temperatures. The temperature control facilities consist of three parts: a salt gradient solar pond, a shallow solar pond and a plastic house. The technique involves use of a shallow solar pond for collection and storage of heat. The average temperature in the wintering pond plastic house was 11 degrees C and the minimum temperature in January was 5.4 degrees C. This system allowed the wintering process to be conducted using solar energy alone and may extend aquaculture to higher latitudes. The ratio of net profit with the solar energy system over investment is 1.5 which makes it economically viable.

Cao Jin Long [Aquaculture Res. Inst., Shandong Province (China)

1994-09-01

241

Geochemistry of Amazon Basin supported by the ADCP measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River is the largest river in the world in volume of water. The basin has 6.915.000 Km2, but the last gauging station of Amazon River with regular and continuous measurements of discharge and sediment transport are Óbidos station with 4.670.000 Km2. Óbidos It is also the last stream gauge station with no or less tidal effect observed from Atlantic Ocean and registered. The Clim-Amazon Project has been done the first measurements with the purpose to acquire geochemical and hydrological informations downstream Óbidos station. The system studied has input data of sediments load after Óbidos, and the output of the system, at the Amazon River is at Macapá, close to the mouth of Amazon river. And flow the main tributaries along this way, between these two stations. To evaluate the geochemical source, the mass balance, and isotopic geochemistry is necessary the informations about the traces the main chemical elements, transported by the discharge from the main rivers of this area: Tapajos, Xingu, Paru, Jari, and the Amazon River at Monte Alegre and at Macapá. The ADCP - Acoustic Doppler Current Profile, equipment is used to get the stream discharge value at the moment of transect. But also get two more informations necessary for the geochemistry, and do the collecting points profiles. The place with most velocity at transect or the place with more backscatter. These informations are related with the sediment load of the river. Or which one can provide the better idea of how are transported the sediments at the measured transects. What was to observe was the main speed of the stream flow or the main backscatter sectional. The main purpose of the work is to show how works the correlation between the backscatter and speed data given by the ADCP, downstream Óbidos, and the main confluences of Amazon River, until Macapá. The ADCP measurements support the geochemical studies and the course of sediments load transported by the discharge of these rivers.

Paca, Victor; Moreira, Daniel; Monteiro, Achiles; Roig, Henrique

2014-05-01

242

ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE PRAWN NERVE SHEATHS  

PubMed Central

The sheaths from freshly teased nerve fibers of the prawn exhibit a positive radial birefringence, consistent with their EM appearance as highly organized laminated structures composed of numerous thin cytoplasmic sheets or laminae bordered by unit membranes and arranged concentrically around the axon. The closely apposed membranes in these sheaths are fragile and often break down into rows of vesicles during fixation. Desmosome-like attachment zones occur in many regions of the sheath. The membranes within these zones resist vesiculation and thereby provide a "control" region for relating the type of vesicles formed in the fragile portions of the sheaths to the specific fixation conditions. It is proposed that during fixation the production of artifactual vesicles is governed by an interplay of three factors: (a) direct chemical action of the fixative on the polar strata of adjacent unit membranes, (b) osmotic forces applied to membranes during fixation, and (c) the pre-existing natural relations between adjacent membranes. It is found that permanganate best preserves the continuity of the membranes but will still produce vesicles if the fixative exerts severe osmotic forces. These results support other reports (19) of the importance of comparing tissues fixed by complementary procedures so that systematic artifacts will not be described as characteristic of the natural state. PMID:4166578

Doggenweiler, C. F.; Heuser, John E.

1967-01-01

243

A remote sensing/geochronological study of coastal morphology associated with episodic Amazon sediment supply  

E-print Network

. APPENDIX VITA. 72 74 80 94 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 The tropical coastal zone influenced by the Amazon River. . . . . 2 Cross-sectional view of the Guianas coastline north of the Amazon River. 3 Location map of 16 mudcapes. 4 Block diagram..., and remobilization of these nearshore, modem fine-grained deposits remains in its infancy. Setting The tropical (0 -6' N latitude) coastal zone influenced by the Amazon River extends from the river mouth in Brazil to the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela, a...

Lee, Michael Touchet

2012-06-07

244

The {sup 18}O:{sup 16}O of dissolved oxygen in rivers and lakes in the Amazon Basin: Determining the ratio of respiration to photosynthesis rates in freshwaters  

SciTech Connect

The concentration and {sup 18}O:{sup 16}O ratio of dissolved oxygen were measured for 23 rivers and lakes of the Amazon Basin during 1988, 1990, and 1991. With only two exceptions, the rivers and lakes had dissolved oxygen concentrations that were at 20-90% of atmospheric saturation levels. The {delta}{sup 18}O of the dissolved oxygen ranged from 15 to 30% (vs. SMOW). The {delta}{sup 18}O for the lakes were the lowest at 15-23%. {delta}{sup 18}O < 24.2{per_thousand} (the atmospheric equilibrium value) are the result of photosynthetic oxygen input. The {delta}{sup 18}O of the rivers, in contrast, ranged from 24 to 30{per_thousand} > 24.2{per_thousand} resulted from respiration. Despite this clear difference between the {delta}{sup 18}O for rivers and lakes, these water bodies had similar levels of oxygen undersaturation. The {delta}{sup 18}O and dissolved oxygen concentrations are used to determine the ratio of community respiration (R) to gross photosynthesis (P) rates. R:P varied between {approximately}1 and 1.5 for lakes and between 1.5 and 4 for rivers. For all rivers and lakes, the measured {delta}{sup 18}O indicated the presence of photosynthetically produced oxygen, with the highest proportion occurring in lakes. The {delta}{sup 18}O of dissolved oxygen is a unique tracer of photosynthetic oxygen and provides, through a determination of R:P, a means of quantifying the heterotrophic state of freshwaters. 29 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Quay, P.D.; Wilbur, D.O.; Richey, J.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

245

Role of floodplains in the organic matter fate, transport, and sink: case of the Amazon floodplains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplains play an important role in Amazon River hydrology, sediment dynamics, carbon cycle and ecology because they modify river discharges and chemical composition. The flooded areas along the Amazon are important sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and seems to influence the carbon cycle. Organic matter transported in the Amazon River has mainly a terrestrial and refractory origin. Intensive degradation processes in soils are the principal factor responsible for the relatively refractory character that composes most of the organic carbon flux in the Amazon. It is known that the organic matter transport in the Amazon River, downstream of Manaus, does not present a conservative behaviour, attesting the occurrence of different physical-chemical processes, and lateral exchanges with floodplains. We have estimated the input of organic carbon flux in the Amazon River by the different tributaries and the output flux of organic carbon to the Atlantic Ocean, and we observed a gain in organic carbon, which clearly shows that other important sources of organic carbon exist. We attribute these inputs to floodplain systems. Floodplains seems to be responsible for the presence of a small pool of labile organic matter in Amazon River. Organic carbon is also lost in Amazon floodplain by permanent burial in floodplain lakes. All these data point out the complex importance of Amazonian floodplains for organic carbon cycle in the Amazon Basin

Moreira-Turcq, P.; Seyler, P.; Etcheber, H.; Jouanneau, J. M.; Turcq, B.; Guyot, J. L.

2003-04-01

246

Methylmercury pollution in the Amazon, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the extent of environmental mercury pollution due to goldmining activities in the Amazon, concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury were determined for human hair and fish samples from five fishing villages located mainly in the Tapajos river basin. Abnormally high levels of mercury were found in human hair from Jacareacanga and Brasilia Legal located near the

Hirokatsu Akagi; Olaf Malm; Yoshihide Kinjo; Masazumi Harada; Fernando J. P. Branches; Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer; Hiroo Kato

1995-01-01

247

Prawn landings and their relationship with the extent of mangroves and shallow waters in western peninsular Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated changes in landings of all prawns, white prawns (mainly Penaeus merguiensis), mangrove extent, rainfall and the area of shallow water in western peninsular Malaysia. The most important state for both the landings of all prawns and white prawns was Perak where about 50% of all prawns and 35% of white prawns were landed. This is also the state with the largest, and most stable, extent of mangrove forest reserve (40?000 ha) and the largest area of shallow water (<5 m deep). Juvenile prawns from Perak may contribute to the landings of the nearby, adjacent states of Penang and Selangor, where the second highest landings for white prawns and total prawns, respectively, were found. The area of shallow water accounted for the greatest proportion of variation in landings of both all prawns and white prawns, and was the most significant variable fitted to multiple regressions of landings and coastal attributes (area of shallow water, mangrove area, length of coastline). Although there was a significant linear relationship between the landings of total prawns and mangrove area in both the 1980s and 1990s, this was not the case for the mangrove-dependent white prawns where a significant relationship was found only for the 1990s. Furthermore, landings of all prawns and white prawns in Selangor and Johor, where large losses of mangrove forest reserve have been recorded, appear to have been maintained or increased in the 1990s. The lack of a clear relationship between mangrove loss and prawn landings may be due to the migration of prawns from adjacent areas or that other attributes of mangroves, such as the length of mangrove-water interface, may be more important for the growth and survival of prawn populations than total area of mangroves.

Loneragan, N. R.; Ahmad Adnan, N.; Connolly, R. M.; Manson, F. J.

2005-04-01

248

Meander Migration in the Amazon Basin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is targeted at introductory to upper division undergraduate courses in geomorphology or Earth system science. Students view time series animation of satellite imagery of part of the Amazon River basin (Rio Ucayali) which is actively migrating. Students are asked to describe verbally and with sketches the changes in channel location and channel features over time. They then compare the very active section of the river with other rivers nearby to get a sense of overall activity of meandering streams. This is prelude to hypothesis development and testing: why is the Rio Ucayali so active? Students explore some potential causes to explain the cause of lateral mobility of this river.

Hasbargen, Les

249

Biology of penaeid prawns in the Suez Canal lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made from January 1988 to March 1989 of the penaid prawns in the Great Bitter Lake and Lake Timsah located in the central part of the Suez Canal. Two species of Red Sea origin were investigated,Metapenaeus stebbingi andTrachypenaeus curvirostris; the former is by far the commoner. Both species displayed seasonal breeding over the period April to October,

A. A.-F. A. Gab-Alla; R. G. Hartnoll; A.-F. Ghobashy; S. Z. Mohammed

1990-01-01

250

Uranium in river water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains

M. R. Palmer; J. M. Edmond

1993-01-01

251

Stable isotope and trace metal compositions of Australian prawns as a guide to authenticity and wholesomeness.  

PubMed

This research has explored the potential of stable isotope and trace metal profiles to distinguish Australian prawns from prawns imported from neighbouring Asian countries. Australian prawns were collected mostly from the Brisbane area. Strong differences in Australian vs. imported prawns were evident from both the isotope and trace element data, with the differences most likely occurring because imported prawns are typically reared in aquaculture facilities and frozen prior to sale in Australia. The aquaculture origins are characterised by comparatively; low ?HVSMOW, ?(13)CVPDB values, low concentrations of arsenic, zinc and potassium, and high water contents (>80%). Relatively high arsenic and cadmium contents were found within Australian prawns, but the concentrations did not exceed local human health guidelines. PMID:25306341

Carter, J F; Tinggi, U; Yang, X; Fry, B

2015-03-01

252

Expedition to Peruvian Andes Confirms the Source of the Amazon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A US-led, National Geographic Society expedition says it has confirmed the location for the exact source of the Amazon River. The source lies on a 5,597 meter high peak called Nevado Mismi in the Peruvian Andes. The National Geographic team had established Mismi as the river's source in 1971, but in recent years the possibility had been raised that the actual source was at another mountain. Pinpointing the Amazon's source was made possible through use of modern geographic information systems. This week's In the News investigates the geography and conservation issues of the mighty river and its basin.

Sanders, Hilary C.

2000-01-01

253

NASA Earth Observatory: Escape from the Amazon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of NASA's Earth Observatory, visitors to the Escape from the Amazon Web site are invited to "Accompany NASA scientists as they explore our world and unravel the mysteries of climate and environmental change." The Escape from the Amazon feature focuses on the buildup of carbon dioxide and its effect on global climate change, and the role that forests play in reversing this trend. Also included as the second part of the feature is an introduction to the large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia. This feature highlights the enormity and significance of the Amazon River Valley and its effect on global climate. This Web site is a great outreach and educational tool offered by NASA and should be interesting to lay readers, scientists, and teachers. Several great graphics help to illustrate the information provided.

Lindsey, Rebecca.; Simmon, Robert.

254

The impact of global positioning systems and plotters on fishing power in the northern prawn fishery, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of global positioning systems (GPS) and plotter systems on the relative fishing power of the northern prawn fishery fleet on tiger prawns (Penaeus esculentus Haswell, 1879, and P. semisulcatus de Haan, 1850) was investigated from commercial catch data. A generalized linear model was used to account for differences in fishing power between boats and changes in prawn abundance.

Carolyn M. Robins; You-Gan Wang; David Die

1998-01-01

255

Allatostatins of the tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon (Crustacea: Penaeidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 40 peptides belonging to the -Y\\/FXFGL-NH2 allatostatin superfamily have been isolated and identified from the central nervous system (CNS) of the tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon (Crustacea: Penaeidea). The peptides can be arranged in seven sub-groups according to the variable post-tyrosyl residue represented by Ala, Gly, Ser, Thr, Asn, Asp, and Glu. Two of the residues (Thr and Glu)

Hanne Duve; Anders H Johnsen; Alan G Scott; Alan Thorpe

2002-01-01

256

TITLE: Seasonal and spatial variability of CO2 emission from a large floodplain lake in the lower Amazon  

E-print Network

Amazon River inflows. CO2 concentration was reduced in regions with phytoplankton blooms. The range of CO of dissolved CO2 concentration and gas evasion in a large floodplain lake in the lower reach of the Amazon River in four hydrological phases. We calculated surficial CO2 concentrations from measurements of p

California at Santa Barbara, University of

257

Mercury in the Amazon.  

PubMed

Release and spreading of mercury from gold mining is a widespread problem in the Amazon area. Today we have rather good knowledge of the mercury situation. Tens of investigations have considered mainly concentrations in fish and human hair. Metallic mercury is used for amalgamation of gold, and the mercury is released by evaporation at reburning sites. The first extraction (burning) is performed in the field at the garimpos and the second (reburning) in gold shops in towns. This practice may cause severe exposure to elemental mercury by inhalation for people working with gold purification. Mercury is also released in substantial amounts to rivers and lakes. This mercury may be bioaccumulated as methylmercury in aquatic food chains. Predatory fish often contain mercury in concentrations that far exceed the safety norms in Brazil. As many people eat fish daily, there is a high exposure to methylmercury. Neurological disorders have been found in exposed persons. Methylmercury concentrations in hair are often at levels that may cause clinical symptoms of Minamata disease. The greatest health hazard index values have been estimated for people eating contaminated fish. PMID:9666740

Lodenius, M; Malm, O

1998-01-01

258

The "Prawn-in-the-Tube" Procedure in the Cuttlefish: Habituation or Passive Avoidance Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether or not habituation contributes to the regulation of the inhibition of predatory behavior observed during the "prawn-in-the-tube" training procedure. When presented with prawns that are visible behind glass but untouchable, cuttlefish promptly learn to inhibit their capture attempts. The first three experiments…

Dickel, Ludovic; Chichery, Marie-Paule; Agin, Veronique; Chichery, Raymond

2006-01-01

259

Development of a heterotrophic bacterial community within a closed prawn aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative and qualitative development of a heterotrophic bacterial community in seawater was studied throughout an experimental rearing of the prawnPenaeus japonicus. The maturation of juvenile prawns had been carried out for 8 months in aerated tanks of seawater without any water renewal. Bacteria (337 strains) were isolated from seawater, which had been sampled at different times. Samples from one

Laurent P. Sohier; Micheline A. G. Bianchi

1985-01-01

260

Cities Along the Floodplain of the Brazilian Amazon: Characteristics and Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Amazon region has been categorized as an urban forest since 1980, when the number of urban inhabitants exceeded rural\\u000a ones. The floodplains of the Solimões-Amazon Rivers and the estuary within and around Marajó Island, where the region’s oldest\\u000a cities are located, have experienced similar trends but significantly different rates of urbanization when compared to cities\\u000a of the Brazilian Amazon

Sandra M. Costa; Eduardo S. Brondízio

261

In: Biology, Evolution and Conservation of River Dolphins... ISBN 978-60876-633-8 Editors: Manuel Ruiz-Garcia and Joseph Shostell 2010 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.  

E-print Network

as in the Amazon River basin (Figure 1). Marine Sotalia are found from Honduras to the state of Santa Catarina and Colombia) and "lam" (Nicaragua). The distribution of riverine Sotalia comprises most of the Amazon River

Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

262

The JERS Amazon Multi-Season Mapping Study (JAMMS): Observation Strategies and Data Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JERS-1 Amazon Multi-season Mapping Study (JAMMS), part of the Global Rain Forest Mapping (GRFM) project led by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), had an ambitious agenda to completely map the Amazon River floodpain (and surrounding areas) twice at high resolution.

Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.; Siqueira, P.

2000-01-01

263

Dissolved organic matter dynamic in the Amazon basin: Sorption by mineral surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aquatic systems, soprtion of organic matter (OM) on environmental surfaces or its preference to remain dissolved is highly important for determining its potential transport and\\/or susceptibility to degradation. In the Amazon and other major rivers of the world, transported OM is either adsorbed to fine minerals or remains dissolved. The fate of autochthonous OM in Amazon floodplains and allochthonous

Marcela A. P. Pérez; Patricia Moreira-Turcq; Hervé Gallard; Thierry Allard; Marc F. Benedetti

2011-01-01

264

Carbon isotopic composition of Amazon shelf sediments  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of carbon isotopes in Amazon shelf sediment is controlled by the same processes that are forming the modern subaqueous delta. The terrestrial (-27 to -25 per thousand) isotopic carbon signal observed in surficial sediments near the river mouth extends over 400 km northwest along the shelf. Terrestrial carbon is associated with areas of rapid sediment accumulation (topset and foreset regions). A sharp boundary between terrestrial (-27 to -25 per thousand) and marine (-23 to -22 per thousand) isotopic carbon values in surficial sediments is associated with a change in depositional conditions (foreset to bottomset regions) and a decrease in sediment accumulation rate. POC water-column isotopic values (-27 per thousand) near the river mouth are similar to the underlying surficial-sediment TOC isotopic values, but POC water-column samples collected 20 km off the river mouth have marine carbon isotopic values (-22 to -19 per thousand) and differ from the underlying surficial-sediment TOC isotopic values. These water column observations are related to variations in turbidity and productivity. Down-core isotopic variation is only observed in cores taken in areas of lower sediment accumulation rates. These observations indicate that the organic carbon in Amazon shelf sediment is dominantly terrestrial in composition, and the location of deposition of this carbon is controlled by modern processes of sediment accumulation. The modern Amazon shelf is similar to large clinoform shale deposits of the Cretaceous in North America. Thus, the stratigraphic setting may help predict the isotopic variations of carbon in ancient deposits.

Showers, W.J.; Angle, D.G.; Nittrouer, C.A.; Demaster, D.J.

1985-02-01

265

Metal accumulation in the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, in Sydney and Port Hacking estuaries, Australia.  

PubMed

Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p???0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p???0.05) between size groups amongst locations. PMID:23852467

Lewtas, K L M; Birch, G F; Foster-Thorpe, C

2014-01-01

266

White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD-infected redclaw crayfish. PMID:23997437

Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

2012-09-01

267

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K takes you on a trip down Idaho's Snake River near 1000 Springs and Blur Heart Springs while it explains how rivers are formed, their uses, and how they make valleys, canyons and even plains.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-04

268

Severn & Wye Smoked Salmon Salad with Wasabi Cream Spiced Crayfish and Prawn Verrine with Crme Fraiche  

E-print Network

Christmas Starters Severn & Wye Smoked Salmon Salad with Wasabi Cream Spiced Crayfish and Prawn, Honey Foam and Coffee Granita Spiced Orange Pudding with Christmas Pudding Ice Cream Crème Brulee Tart

Lasenby, Joan

269

Kinetic analysis of gill (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.  

PubMed

We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²?, Na?, K? and NH?? and inhibition by ouabain of (Na?,K?)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na?,K?)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L?¹) of the decapodid III (Na?,K?)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na?,K?-ATPase activity by K? also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K? (K?.? = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L?¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH?? had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na? (K?.? = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L?¹) of zoea I (Na?,K?)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na?, Mg²? and NH?? obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K? modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²? stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²?-stimulated ATPases other than (Na?,K?)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na?-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH??-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages. PMID:22544049

Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

2012-04-01

270

Improvement of red color development on the surface of kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus under various conditions.  

PubMed

The degree of red color development on the surface of prawns by cooking is an important index for food quality. In this study, we tested several factors that are thought to influence the red color development to identify possible correlations with various conditions. Live kuruma prawns, Marsupenaeus japonicus, (15.4 cm, 25.2 g on average) were used in this study. In case of cooking at 100 °C for 1 min after 24 h of storage at 0 °C, 5 °C, and 20 °C, the red color development rate of prawns stored at 5 °C and 20 °C was significantly lower than that of prawns cooked just after killing. In case of cooking at 100 °C, 80 °C, and 60 °C after storage for 24 h at 0 °C, there was no color development at 60 °C and significantly less color development at 80 °C compared to cooking just after killing. Preparation using 1% sodium carbonate before cooking at 80 °C could compensate for the lack of red color development. Short exposure of live kuruma prawns to low-oxygen conditions had no influence on the color development, but putting the prawns in freshwater for 3 h significantly reduced the red color development rate. In conclusion, the storage time has little influence on the red color development when the cooking temperature is sufficiently high. However, in case a large amount of prawns is cooked followed by lowering the cooking temperature and/or prawns are exposed to serious stresses before cooking, an alkaline preparation could compensate for the lack of red color development. PMID:24456388

Ando, Masashi; Fukai, Takamitsu; Kawasaki, Ken-Ichi; Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki

2014-02-01

271

Gut microflora of two saltmarsh detritivore thalassinid prawns, Upogebia africana and Callianassa kraussi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence and digestive capabilities of bacteria associated with the digestive systems and habitats of two saltmarsh-burrowing\\u000a detritivore thalassinid prawns (Upogebia africana andCallianassa kraussi) was examined.U. africana is a filter-feeding prawn inhabiting muddy deposits, whereasC. kraussi, a deposit feeder, inhabits coarser more sandy deposits. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the gut lining\\u000a and associated microflora and the nature

Jean M. Harris; Lindsay J. Seiderer; Michael I. Lucas

1991-01-01

272

Antimicrobial activity of chitosan against vibrios from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems.  

PubMed

Chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer with established antimicrobial properties against specific microorganisms. The present study demonstrates its antibacterial activity against 48 isolates of Vibrio species from prawn larval rearing systems. The antibacterial activity had a positive correlation with the concentration of chitosan. This work opens up avenues for using chitosan as a prophylactic biopolymer for protecting prawn larvae from vibriosis. PMID:16385825

Anas, A; Paul, S; Jayaprakash, N S; Philip, R; Bright Singh, I S

2005-11-01

273

The riverine silicon isotope composition of the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here the first large-scale study of riverine silicon isotope signatures in the Amazon Basin. The Amazon and five of its main tributaries were studied at different seasons of the annual hydrological cycle. The ?30Si signature of the dissolved silicon (DSi) exported to the estuary (weighted for DSi flux) for the period considered is estimated at +0.92‰. A river cross-section shows the homogeneity of the Amazon River regarding DSi concentration and isotope ratio. The biogenic silica (BSi) concentration measured in surface water from all rivers is generally small compared to the DSi reservoir but large variations exist between rivers. Very low isotope signatures were measured in the upper Rio Negro (?30Si = +0.05 ± 0.06‰), which we explain both by an equilibrium between clay formation and dissolution and by gibbsite formation. The Si isotope fractionation in the Andean tributaries and the Amazon main stem can be explained by clay formation and follow either a Rayleigh or a batch equilibrium fractionation model. Our results also suggest that the formation of 2:1 clays induces a fractionation factor similar to that of kaolinite formation.

Hughes, H. J.; Sondag, F.; Santos, R. V.; André, L.; Cardinal, D.

2013-11-01

274

Proliferation of Hydroelectric Dams in the Andean Amazon and Implications for Andes-Amazon Connectivity  

PubMed Central

Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979

Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.

2012-01-01

275

Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.  

PubMed

Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979

Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

2012-01-01

276

Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, São Francisco and the Paraná River basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6°C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and São Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future.

Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Kay, Gillian; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, José F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, André A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Betts, Richard; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila

2012-05-01

277

Lost in the Amazon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lost in the Amazon curricular unit is a series of minds-on and hands-on engineering activities based on an adventure scenario set in the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Students imagine themselves to be a team of EnviroTech engineers returning to the U.S. from a conference in Brasilia, Brazil. When their plane crashes deep in the Amazon forest, they work in groups to overcome various obstacles in their quest to survive and reach the nearest city as quickly and safely as possible. Motivated by this adventurous theme, students discover, learn and apply the following: 1) classification of plants and insects; 2) general categorizing skills; 3) process skills: problem solving and critical thinking; 4) scientific testing and experimentation; 5) materials properties.

Adventure Engineering

278

In-Depth Tanscriptomic Analysis on Giant Freshwater Prawns  

PubMed Central

Gene discovery in the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) has been limited to small scale data collection, despite great interest in various research fields related to the commercial significance of this species. Next generation sequencing technologies that have been developed recently and enabled whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), have allowed generation of large scale functional genomics data sets in a shorter time than was previously possible. Using this technology, transcriptome sequencing of three tissue types: hepatopancreas, gill and muscle, has been undertaken to generate functional genomics data for M. rosenbergii at a massive scale. De novo assembly of 75-bp paired end Ilumina reads has generated 102,230 unigenes. Sequence homology search and in silico prediction have identified known and novel protein coding candidate genes (?24%), non-coding RNA, and repetitive elements in the transcriptome. Potential markers consisting of simple sequence repeats associated with known protein coding genes have been successfully identified. Using KEGG pathway enrichment, differentially expressed genes in different tissues were systematically represented. The functions of gill and hepatopancreas in the context of neuroactive regulation, metabolism, reproduction, environmental stress and disease responses are described and support relevant experimental studies conducted previously in M. rosenbergii and other crustaceans. This large scale gene discovery represents the most extensive transcriptome data for freshwater prawn. Comparison with model organisms has paved the path to address the possible conserved biological entities shared between vertebrates and crustaceans. The functional genomics resources generated from this study provide the basis for constructing hypotheses for future molecular research in the freshwater shrimp. PMID:23734171

Mohd-Shamsudin, Maizatul Izzah; Kang, Yi; Lili, Zhao; Tan, Tian Tian; Kwong, Qi Bin; Liu, Hang; Zhang, Guojie; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

2013-01-01

279

The Amazon and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.

Nobre, C. A.

1984-01-01

280

Severe 2010 Amazon drought in historical context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2005 a severe once-in-a-century drought struck the Amazon rain forest. Just 5 years later, an even more severe and widespread drought struck the region. How do these extreme events fit into the context of historical droughts? Marengo et al. looked at historical rainfall and river data sets to find out. They found that the 2010 drought was unique. It started in early summer during an El Niño event and intensified due to warming of the tropical North Atlantic, which was warmer than in any previous year in the records since 1903, including 2005. Their analysis indicates that warming in the tropical North Atlantic affects the hydrology of the Amazon region by promoting a longer dry season, which can be aggravated if there was low rainfall in the previous wet season. They observe that there has been an increase in dry and very dry events in the whole Amazon region since the middle 1970s as well as an increase in the length of the dry season. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047436, 2011)

Balcerak, Ernie

2011-08-01

281

Amazon Deforestation Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of animations depicts the results of a computer simulation of the effects of deforestation on the surface temperature and precipitation in the Amazon region. Six animations are shown - a control simulation, a deforestation simulation, and the difference between the two for both surface temperature and rainfall. The period simulated is the second half of 1987.

Joycelyn Thomson

1994-03-13

282

Amazon Observation Platform  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Observation tower at the Amazon forest study site near Santarém, Brazil. A USGS instrument installed at the top of the 148-foot (45-meter) tower monitors changes in atmospheric conditions and the solar radiation available for photosynthesis. Data from the system are being used by USGS Geograp...

283

Quantifying the effects of bycatch reduction devices in Queensland's (Australia) shallow water eastern king prawn ( Penaeus plebejus) trawl fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents results from an experimental 10-day research charter that was designed to quantify the effects of (a) a turtle excluder device (TED), (b) a radial escape section bycatch reduction device (BRD) and (c) both devices together, on bycatch and prawn catch rates in the Queensland shallow water eastern king prawn (Penaeus plebejus) trawl fishery. The bycatch was comprised

A. J. Courtney; M. L. Tonks; M. J. Campbell; D. P. Roy; S. W. Gaddes; P. M. Kyne; M. F. O’Neill

2006-01-01

284

Amazon Forests Depleting Rapidly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Does Brazil have to choose between economic growth and preserving the endangered Amazon?http://www.economist.com/world/la/displayStory.cfm?story_id=2597880Deforestation patterns in the Amazonhttp://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=16511The causes of Deforestation are Complexhttp://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Deforestation/New highways drive accelerating deforestation in Amazonhttp://www.scienceblog.com/community/article2744.htmlStanford scientist develops satellite to study Amazonhttp://daily.stanford.edu/tempo?page=content&id=12852&repository=0001_articleAmazon drought emergency widenshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4344310.stmDespite earlier claims by the Brazilian government that the rate of deforestation in the Amazon had fallen by as much as 50%, scientists from the U.S. and Brazil have found that the Amazon Rainforests are being depleted more rapidly than previously thought. The deforestation is so rapid and expansive that the only effective means by which to measure is by using satellite imagery. Satellite imagery not only detects vast tracts of clear cutting, it is also able to detect selective logging. Selective logging is a process in which loggers only cut down valuable trees, leaving the remainder of the forest alone. Logging companies claim that this process is much more environmentally friendly than clear cutting. While this may be true, environmentalists believe that tree removal of any kind can be detrimental to an ecosystem. They claim that the process of building roads and bringing heavy equipment into these forests is disruptive and damaging. The scientists producing this study claim that deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon has been underestimated by as much as 60%. The Brazilian government stated that although they welcomed the research the numbers were exaggerated. Deforestation is only one of many environmental calamities causing harm to the Amazon. A severe drought, coupled with severe cases of industrial pollution, is making the Amazon a severely endangered ecosystem. [CMH]The first link is to a BBC News article on the new evidence on â??stealthâ? logging as well as the new deforestation numbers based on the satellite images. The second link is to an article studying the economic issues of deforestation. The third link illustrates the deforestation patterns in the Amazon using the satellite images. The fourth is a link, which examines the many issues surrounding deforestation in social, economic, and environmental terms. The fifth link is an article discussing issues of highway construction and its connection to deforestation and pollution. The sixth link is to an article detailing the satellite developed at Stanford University designed to study the Amazon. The final link is an article by the BBC with information on the severe drought plaguing the Amazon. [CMH

2005-01-01

285

Acute effects of deltamethrin on swimming velocity and biomarkers of the common prawn Palaemon serratus.  

PubMed

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of deltamethrin on biomarkers and behavior of Palaemon serratus (common prawn), since this attempt to link different levels of biological organization will allow determining which biomarkers might be ecologically relevant and will be useful to complement the information about the effects of pesticides by using behavioral parameters. Therefore, parameters of liver antioxidant status, energy metabolism and neurotransmission were determined in different tissues of the common prawn and used to assess the effects at sub-individual level, whereas swimming velocity was used to assess the effects at the individual level. It was also investigated if the swimming velocity can be used as an endpoint in ecotoxicology bioassays and if it can be as sensitive as biomarker endpoints. Swimming velocity was significantly reduced in prawns exposed to deltamethrin, showing a lowest observed effect (LOEC) of 0.6 ng L(-1). Eye acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly increased in prawns exposed to 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 ng L(-1) deltamethrin, whereas muscle cholinesterase (ChE) activity was significantly increased in prawns exposed to 19 and 39 ng L(-1). On the other hand, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was significantly increased in muscle of prawns exposed to 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.9 ng L(-1) deltamethrin, showing that organisms were requiring additional energy, but probably using it for detoxification processes rather than locomotion, since swimming velocity was inhibited. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly increased in the digestive gland of common prawn exposed to 19 and 39 ng L(-1) deltamethrin. Catalase (CAT) activity was significantly increased in digestive gland of prawn exposed to 19 ng L(-1) deltamethrin. However, CAT activity decreased in digestive gland of prawn exposed to 39 ng L(-1), suggesting an antioxidant defense system failure concomitant with high levels of lipid peroxidation. Thus, global results showed that decreased swimming velocity was not associated with cholinesterase inhibition. In fact, the impairment of swimming velocity may be due to allocation of energy for detoxification and antioxidant protection instead of swimming activity. The present study showed that swimming velocity could be used as an ecologically relevant tool and a sensitive endpoint to assess and complement the study of pesticide effects on marine organisms. PMID:22967730

Oliveira, Cristiana; Almeida, Joana; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Gravato, Carlos

2012-11-15

286

Peroxinectin gene transcription of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii under intrinsic, immunostimulant, and chemotherapeutant influences.  

PubMed

Peroxinectin (PE) gene expressions were determined using real-time PCR in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on moulting; prawns were fed diets containing different concentrations of sodium alginate, and were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and trichlorfon. Results showed that PE mRNA expression of prawns was the highest in stage A, significantly decreased in stage B, and reached the lowest level in stages D0/D1. The PE transcript was significantly higher in prawns fed the 1.0 gkg(-1) sodium alginate-containing diet than those fed the 2.0 gkg(-1) sodium alginate-containing diet and those fed the control diet. PE transcripts significantly decreased in prawns exposed to 0.1-0.4 mgL(-1) copper sulphate after 96 h, 0.3-1.0 mgL(-1) BKC after 96 h, and 0.2-0.4 mgL(-1) trichlorfon after 48 h. It was concluded that the status of PE gene expression was seriously affected by the moult cycle, immunostimulant, and chemotherapeutants. PMID:17056274

Liu, Chun-Hung; Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Hsu, Pei-Yi; Cheng, Winton

2007-04-01

287

TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000?ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000?ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

2014-01-01

288

Seeing orange: prawns tap into a pre-existing sensory bias of the Trinidadian guppy  

PubMed Central

Sensory bias, a predisposition towards certain signals, has been implicated in the origin of mate preferences in some species. A risk associated with these biases is that they can be co-opted by predators as sensory lures. Here we propose that the orange spots on the brown pincers of a diurnal, predatory species of prawn function as lures for Trinidadian guppies, which have a sensory bias for orange. We exposed female guppies to (i) a life-like model of this Trinidadian prawn with orange, green or no spots on the pincers or (ii) a live, novel (non-Trinidadian) crustacean (crayfish), also with spotted pincers. First, we provide evidence that guppies sympatric with the prawn recognized our model as a potential predator. Next, we found that guppies spent more time in the dangerous head region of the model prawn with orange-spotted pincers compared with unspotted pincers. Finally, we show that allopatric, but not sympatric, guppies spent more time in the vicinity of the head of a live crayfish when orange spots were added to its pincers than when brown spots were added. Our results suggest that the orange spots on prawn pincers can act as a sensory lure. PMID:22593111

De Serrano, Alexandra R.; Weadick, Cameron J.; Price, Anna C.; Rodd, F. Helen

2012-01-01

289

GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression in the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a tropical crustacean with characteristics similar to those of lobsters and crayfish. Adult males develop through three morphological types—small (SC), yellow (YC), and blue claws (BC)—with each representing a level in the dominance hierarchy of a group, BC males being the most dominant. We are interested in understanding the role played by neuropeptides in the mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in this type of prawn. SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans, where it has been linked to olfaction, sexual behavior, and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish. We wanted to determine whether Gly-SIFamide plays a role in modulating aggression and dominant behavior in the prawn. To do this, we performed behavioral experiments in which interactions between BC/YC pairs were recorded and quantified before and after injecting Gly-SIFamide directly into the circulating hemolymph of the living animal. Behavioral data showed that aggression among interacting BC/YC prawns was enhanced by injection of Gly-SIFamide, suggesting that this neuropeptide does have a modulatory role for this type of behavior in the prawn. PMID:20040755

Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Torres-González, Alejandra M.; Rullan-Matheu, Yarely; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Sosa, María A.

2010-01-01

290

Investigation into the possible natural occurence of semicarbazide in Macrobrachium rosenbergii prawns.  

PubMed

In the past year there has been an increased incidence in Belgium of cases of positive semicarbazide (SEM) tests in imported freshwater Macrobrachium rosenbergii prawns, seemingly indicating the possible abuse of nitrofurazone, a banned antimicrobial agent. This was in contrast to all other European countries where no significant increase in SEM-positive samples was detected. A possible explanation for this discrepancy between Belgium and the other European Union member states could be the fact that only in Belgium were whole prawns (meat + shell) analyzed for the presence of tissue-bound metabolites of nitrofurans, whereas in the other countries only the edible part (meat) of these prawns was analyzed. To investigate the possible natural occurrence of SEM in freshwater prawns, an animal trial was set up. In this experiment two groups of 10 juvenile M. rosenbergii, previously raised under standardized laboratory conditions, were stocked into two separate aquaria, a control group under reference conditions (no addition of nitrofurazone) and a group exposed to a daily dose of 50 mg of nitrofurazone L(-1) of culture water. Results of this animal trial proved that SEM naturally occurs in M. rosenbergii prawns but that at the current minimum required performance limit (MRPL) no tissue-bound SEM can be found in the meat of nontreated animals. In addition to this animal trial, commercial samples of other crustacean species, the shell and meat of which were analyzed separately, were also analyzed for the presence of SEM. PMID:21299238

Van Poucke, Christof; Detavernier, Christ'l; Wille, Mathieu; Kwakman, Jan; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Van Peteghem, Carlos

2011-03-01

291

Fishing for prawn larvae in Bangladesh: an important coastal livelihood causing negative effects on the environment.  

PubMed

Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in Bangladesh has, to a large extent, been dependent on the supply of wild larvae. Although there are 81 freshwater prawn hatcheries in the country, a lack of technical knowledge, inadequate skilled manpower, and an insufficient supply of wild broods have limited hatchery production. Many thousands of coastal poor people, including women, are engaged in fishing for wild prawn larvae along the coastline during a few months each year. On average, 40% of the total yearly income for these people comes from prawn larvae fishing activity. However, indiscriminate fishing of wild larvae, with high levels of bycatch of juvenile fish and crustaceans, may impact negatively on production and biodiversity in coastal ecosystems. This concern has provoked the imposition of restrictions on larvae collection. The ban has, however, not been firmly enforced because of the limited availability of hatchery-raised larvae, the lack of an alternative livelihood for people involved in larvae fishing, and weak enforcement power. This article discusses the environmental and social consequences of prawn larvae fishing and concludes that, by increasing awareness among fry fishers, improving fishing techniques (reducing bycatch mortality), and improving the survival of fry in the market chain, a temporal ban may be a prudent measure when considering the potential negative impacts of bycatch. However, it also suggests that more research is needed to find out about the impact of larvae fishing on nontarget organisms and on the populations of targeted species. PMID:20496649

Ahmed, Nesar; Troell, Max

2010-02-01

292

Comparison of Late Quaternary Climate Development Between the Niger Catchment Area and the Amazon Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inorganic terrigenous fraction of marine sediments offers a great number of different and well established proxy parameters to investigate the development of continental climate. In this study we present high resolution records of terrigenous source elements from the Niger River and the Amazon River fans. Sediment cores are well dated by radiocarbon measurements. Elemental records from both regions reveal

M. Zabel; V. Ettwein; M. Maslin; R. R. Schneider

2003-01-01

293

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features pages to more than twenty NASA radar images of the world's major river systems. The image pages contain a brief description of the respective processes and setting, and are available for download. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing.

Rich Pavlovsky

294

Was the 2009 flood the most hazardous or the largest ever recorded in the Amazon?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods are fundamental components of Amazon nature and culture. The large flood of 2009, however, opened a new perspective on hazards and disasters in the Amazon basin. More than 238,000 residents from 38 municipalities were affected by floods along the Amazon River and lower reaches of its tributaries. Never before has a flood in the Amazon produced such a dramatic effect on the local population. The magnitude of the disaster suggested it was the largest recorded Amazon flood since the beginning of measurements in 1928 at Óbidos and that it could represent the largest recorded flood on Earth. A complex combination of atmospheric and hydrologic factors made the 2009 Amazon flood the most hazardous. It was the result of large scale and regional climatic events, non-typical mechanisms of flood transmission generating complex inter-relations in time and space between the main system and the tributaries, and recent urban growth of riverine cities without adequate planning. Our measurements at Óbidos, however, indicate that the 2009 flood was the highest recorded Amazon stage, but most likely not the largest water discharge. We propose as well that the magnitude of the Amazon floods at Óbidos has been overestimated for decades and that the available values of flood discharge have been a source of error for a multidisciplinary set of scientists developing climate and environmental modeling.

Filizola, Naziano; Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Fraizy, P.; Souza, R.; Guimarães, V.; Guyot, J.-L.

2014-06-01

295

Sub-lethal impact of carbaryl on food utilization in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii.  

PubMed

This study determines the toxic effect of carbaryl (Sevin50% W.P) on the food utilization parameters in intermoult juveniles of the prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. The prawns (4.5-5.0 cm in length and 1.0-1.25 g wet wt.) were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations of carbaryl (5.15, 7.73 and 15.47 microgl-1) for duration of 40 days. The toxic medium was renewed daily. The prawns were fed ad libitum with known energy quantity of boiled goat liver on daily basis. The overall wet weight gain was calculated. The energy lost through unconsumed food (15-60%), faeces (15-109%), ammonia excretion (9-27%) and moults (13-26%) of the prawns were calculated. The feeding rate, the rate and efficiency of absorption, the metabolic and food conversion rates and the gross and net food conversions efficiencies were found to be significantly declined (p<0.05) in test prawns when compared to that of the control. The energy lost through faeces, ammonia excretion and exuvia was found to be significantly elevated (p<0.05) in test prawns than that of the control. The effectof carbaryl on the bioenergetics parameters was severe in the highest sub-lethal concentration, less in the intermediate concentration and least in the lowest sub-lethal concentration. The results indicated that decrease in feeding, absorption, metabolism and food conversion are interdependent and toxicity of carbaryl diverting energy from production to maintenance pathways, which ultimately resulting in declined growth of M. malcolmsonii. PMID:22167951

Bhavan, P Saravana; Geraldine, P; Sowdeswari, R

2011-05-01

296

Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: Evidence for uranium release from bottom sediments  

SciTech Connect

In Amazon-shelf waters, as salinity increases to 36.5 x 10{sup {minus}3}, dissolved uranium activities increase to a maximum of 4.60 dpm 1{sup {minus}1}. This value is much higher than the open-ocean value (2.50 dpm 1{sup {minus}1}), indicating a source of dissolved uranium to shelf waters in addition to that supplied from open-ocean and riverine waters. Uranium activities are much lower for surface sediments in the Amazon-shelf sea bed (mean: 0.69 {plus minus} .09 dpm g{sup {minus}1}) than for suspended sediments in the Amazon river (1.82 dpm g{sup {minus}1}). Data suggest that the loss of particulate uranium from riverine sediments is probably the result of uranium desorption from the ferric-oxyhydroxide coatings on sediment particles, and/or uranium release by mobilization of the ferric oxyhydroxides. The total flux of dissolved {sup 238}U from the Amazon shelf (about 1.2 x 10{sup 15} dpm yr{sup {minus}1}) constitutes about 15% of uranium input to the world ocean, commensurate to the Amazon River's contribution to world river-water discharge. Measurement of only the riverine flux of dissolved {sup 238}U underestimates, by a factor of about 5, the flux of dissolved {sup 238}U from the Amazon shelf to the open ocean.

McKee, B.A.; DeMaster, D.J.; Nittrouer, C.A. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1987-10-01

297

Fires in the Amazon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News covers the issues around the massive fires burning in the Brazilian Amazon. The nine sites listed provide information and commentary on the global issue. Since July 1997, the media has paid attention to the Brazilian Amazon, as fires there increased and raged out of control. Thought to have been started by slash-and-burn agriculturists, these fires were influenced by El Nino weather patterns and spread in size and intensity until reaching devastating heights in late March, 1998. Although a fortuitous three-day rain extinguished most fires, experts warn that the threat of future fires remains high. While Brazil has received much attention in recent months, such fires are not limited to South America; Indonesia and other tropical countries face similar disturbances to their ecological and economic environments.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

298

Flooding dynamics on the lower Amazon floodplain: 2. Seasonal and interannual hydrological variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed seasonal and interannual variability in hydrological fluxes and inundation dynamics of a large floodplain unit (2440 km2) along the lower Amazon River over a period of 15 years (1995-2010). Floodplain inundation was simulated using LISFLOOD-FP, which combines one-dimensional river routing with two-dimensional overland flow, and a local hydrological model. Dominant sources of inflow varied seasonally among direct rain and local runoff (November), Amazon River (December to August) and seepage (September and October). Shifts in timing of dominance among the water balance components occurred conform variations in annual peak stage. The period of dominance of river inflow over total floodplain influxes began about 1 month earlier and ended 1 month later in the 2009 high flood year compared to the 1998 low flood year. On average, river to floodplain discharge represented 0.75% of the Amazon River discharge at Óbidos and 82% of the annual hydrological influxes to the floodplain. We observed an up to ninefold variation in river-floodplain annual discharge. Relatively small increments in main stem peak discharge cause disproportionately large changes in the flow routed through the floodplain. Despite the higher frequency of years with lower minimum stages, the intensification of the hydrological cycle of the Amazon Basin is causing substantially greater amounts of riverine water to flow across floodplain environments.

Rudorff, Conrado M.; Melack, John M.; Bates, Paul D.

2014-01-01

299

The Amazon and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon are reviewed. The physical causes of observed features are explained. The question whether deforestation leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere is examined, as well as the reduction in precipitation and its implication for the global climate. There are indications that for large scale clearing of tropical rain forests there would indeed be a reduction in rainfall, which would have global effects in terms of climate and weather.

Nobre, C. A.

1984-01-01

300

Dopaminergic modulation of neuromuscular transmission in the prawn.  

PubMed Central

The action of the putative crustacean neurohormone dopamine was examined in the fast extensor musculature of the prawn with intracellular and extracellular recording techniques. Dopamine produced a concentration-dependent (10(-7)-10(-5) M) decrease in the size of the excitatory junctional potential (e.j.p.). It had no effect on the muscle fibre resting membrane potential or input resistance. High concentrations (10(-5)M) of dopamine had no effect on the amplitude distribution or decay time of quantal unit currents, indicating that the agent does not act by blocking post-synaptic receptors or channels. Bath application of dopamine reduced the quantal content at single release sites with a similar time course and concentration dependence as that observed for the e.j.p. Dopamine had no effect on histograms of synaptic delays determined over a 10 degree C range, indicating that it does not modify the time course of phasic neurosecretion. Twin-impulse facilitation experiments showed a marked decrease in the duration of facilitation in the presence of dopamine. These results are interpreted according to recent theoretical and experimental findings as indicating that the dopamine-induced reduction in transmitter release is produced by a decrease in the entry of Ca during the nerve terminal action potential. PMID:2862279

Miller, M W; Parnas, H; Parnas, I

1985-01-01

301

Mapping the Amazon: The Mouth of the Amazon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Amazon rain forest is the largest tropical forest in the world. It stretches across South America from nearly ocean to ocean. No seasonal view of this territory existed until a NASA-university collaboration began mapping the Amazon - from space. Scientists listed worked as a team on Mosaicking Software and Mosaic Production.

Stuart Snodgrass

2002-03-14

302

Impact of cyclones and aquatic macrophytes on recruitment and landings of tiger prawns Penaeus esculentus in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cover of seagrasses and macroalgae, landings and fishery-independent measures of spawning stock and recruitment for brown tiger prawns, were monitored immediately following a major cyclone in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia in March 1999. Anecdotal evidence on the extent of seagrass from 1990 to 1998 suggests that the cyclone caused a major, immediate disruption and loss of the seagrass/macroalgal beds (to ?2% cover), the critical prawn nursery habitat, and mangroves in the shallow inshore waters of the system. Prawn landings and recruitment to the fishery were not affected in the year of the cyclone, but were markedly lower in the two years immediately afterwards and then increased as the cover of macrophytes increased to over 40% in 2003. Tiger prawn landings and catch rates were not affected in Shark Bay, a system 500 km south of Exmouth Gulf that did not experience cyclonic disturbance. Seagrasses in Exmouth Gulf showed a succession of species from small colonising species (Halophila ovalis and Halodule uninervis) to larger, broad-leaved species (Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium) only two years after the cyclone. The recruitment and landings of tiger prawns were correlated significantly with the total cover of macroalgae and seagrass. The large loss of seagrass and macroalgae reduced the settling habitat for postlarvae and the nursery habitat for juvenile tiger prawns, probably leading to the lower recruitment to the fishery. These findings suggest that the extent of seagrass and macroalgae are some of the factors defining the productivity of the tiger prawn fishery in Exmouth Gulf.

Loneragan, N. R.; Kangas, M.; Haywood, M. D. E.; Kenyon, R. A.; Caputi, N.; Sporer, E.

2013-07-01

303

Rivers of Destiny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These summaries and video excerpts examine the health of four river systems - the Mississippi, the Amazon, the Jordan and the Mekong, and how environmental problems are facing those who depend on them. There is an account of the flooding in Grafton, Illinois in 1993, one of many towns to suffer devastating damage when the upper Mississippi River overflowed its banks. The video excerpts are from the "Journey to Planet Earth" television series; each is approximately three minutes in length.

304

4, 99123, 2007 Amazon carbon  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 99­123, 2007 Amazon carbon balanc J. Lloyd et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences An airborne regional carbon balance January 2007 Correspondence to: J. Lloyd (j.lloyd@leeds.ac.uk) 99 #12;BGD 4, 99­123, 2007 Amazon carbon

Boyer, Edmond

305

Influence Deforestation on Hydrological Cycle at Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last three decades, the Amazon Basin has been affected for the occupation with consequence large deforestation. The principal area deforested is located from Maranhao state to Rondonia state. This area is common called "Arc Deforestation", and representing the transition between two important Brazilian ecosystems, Amazon Forest and Savanna Region. Theses ecosystems have precious biodiversity, and it has population about 10.331.000. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of arc deforestation on the hydrological cycle at Amazon basin, using BRAMS (Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) including a model of dynamic vegetation, called GEMTM (General Energy and Mass Transport Model). In this study, numerical simulations were performed with a high spatial resolution regional model that allows capture some mesoscale aspects associated to the land used, topography, coastlines and large rivers. In order to predict the impact of the arc deforestation over the hydrological cycle, it was run two model simulations, conducted over a one-year period. In the first simulation, designated "control", it was used the scenarios derived from Soares Filho (2002), for the year 2002, in governance situation. In the second simulation called "deforestation", it was used the scenarios for the 2050, derived from results of Soares-Filho with governance, too. The higher-resolution regional modeling revealed important features of the deforestation process, displaying some associated mesoscale effects that are not typically represented in similar Global Circulation Model simulations. Near coastal zones and along large rivers, deforestation resulted in reduced precipitation. However, it was predicted increased precipitation over mountainous areas, especially on mountain slopes facing river valleys. Then, these higher-resolution simulations showed that, in general, orography, coastline profile and large river distribution play important roles in determining anomaly patterns of precipitation in Amazon Basin. It had seen an increase in the rain in the deforested regions, and it did not have substantial effect in the undisturbed regions. It was still observed, increase of temperature in the deforested region.

Cohen, J. C.; Beltrao, J.; Gandu, A. W.

2007-05-01

306

Route of egg yolk protein uptake in the oocytes of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The route of egg yolk protein uptake into the oocytes of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus, was studied using immunohistochemical and electron microscopical methods. Although a significant immunofluorescence with anti-vitellin-immunoglobulin was observed in the enlarged follicle cells surrounding oil globule stage oocytes of the early vitellogenic ovary, no fluorescence was detected in shrunken follicle cells surrounding oocytes in the yolk granule

I. Yano; R. M. Krol; R. M. Overstreet; W. E. Hawkins

1996-01-01

307

Major viral diseases of the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are five different viruses which are currently being studied for their impact on commercial farming of the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) in Thailand. Some of these viruses cause disease in other penaeid shrimp species and even other crustacean species. Some occur not only in cultivated shrimp in other Asian countries, but also in those from Australia and the

T. W. Flegel

1997-01-01

308

Oceanic prawn-trawling occurs from nine major ports in New South  

E-print Network

.­Two experiments were done in a flume tank to quantify the effects of codend mesh circumference and weight of catch on water flow. The mesh circumference of the posterior section of prawn-trawl codends (with and without in terms of 1) the probable effects that codend mesh circumference and water dis- placement in codends have

309

Changes of Myofibrillar Proteins and Texture in Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, During Iced Storage  

E-print Network

of mushiness has been demon strated (Nip and Moy, 1988). Proteolysis of muscle proteins by proteolytic and/shrimp protein compo nents have been very limited. Wong (1982) studied the microstructural changes in musclesChanges of Myofibrillar Proteins and Texture in Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

310

A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

2008-01-01

311

Molecular Characterisation of Colour Formation in the Prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Body colouration in animals can have a range of functions, with predator protection an important aspect of colour in crustaceans. Colour determination is associated with the carotenoid astaxanthin, which is taken up through the diet and stabilised in the tissues by the protein crustacyanin. As a variety of genes are found to play a role in colour formation in other systems, a holistic approach was employed in this study to determine the factors involved in Fenneropenaeus merguiensis colouration. Results Full length F. merguiensis crustacyanin subunit A and C sequences were isolated. Crustacyanin subunit A and C were found in the F. merguiensis transcriptomes of the muscle/cuticle tissue, hepatopancreas, eye stalk and nervous system, using 454 next generation sequencing technology. Custom microarray analysis of albino, light and dark F. merguiensis cuticle tissue showed genes encoding actin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and arginine kinase to be 4-fold or greater differentially expressed (p<0.05) and down-regulated in albinos when compared to light and dark samples. QPCR expression analysis of crustacyanin and total astaxanthin pigment extraction revealed significantly (p<0.05) lower crustacyanin subunit A and C gene transcript copy numbers and total astaxanthin levels in albinos than in the light and dark samples. Additionally, crustacyanin subunit A and C expression levels correlated positively with each other. Conclusions This study identified gene products putatively involved in crustacean colouration, such as crustacyanin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and forms of actin, and investigated differences in gene expression and astaxanthin levels between albino, light and dark coloured prawns. These genes open a path to enhance our understanding of the biology and regulation of colour formation. PMID:23441225

Ertl, Nicole G.; Elizur, Abigail; Brooks, Peter; Kuballa, Anna V.; Anderson, Trevor A.; Knibb, Wayne R.

2013-01-01

312

Mercury and methylmercury in fish and human hair from the Tapajós river basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury is being released in the Amazon in an abusive way due to goldmining activities. The Tapajós river basin was the first to be intensively exploited in the modern Amazon gold rush. Fish and hair samples as the best indicators of human methylmercury contamination were investigated in the main cities and villages along the Tapajós river basin. The upper basin

Olaf Malm; Fernando J. P. Branches; Hirokatsu Akagi; Miriam B. Castro; Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer; Masazumi Harada; Wanderley R. Bastos; Hiroo Kato

1995-01-01

313

How Pecten Brazil drilled the Amazon basin  

SciTech Connect

Pecten Brazil overcame numerous obstacles to drill two exploratory wells in the Amazon Basin last year. These included: The threat of low water in normally navigable rivers. Dense jungle growth at both locations. Lack of suitable roads for heavy hauling. Inconvenient distances from supply points. An unusual basalt formation responsible for unique drilling problems. Hundreds of helicopter lifts to move drilling rigs, supplies, and personnel. Pecten contracted with Petrobras, the Brazilian national oil company, to evaluate three blocks in the Amazon jungle, each about 68 miles (110 km) on a side, through seismic study and ultimate drilling. Planning for the drilling phase got started on March 17, 1981 with December 1 targeted as spud date for the first well. Actual spud date was November 25, 5 days ahead of schedule, in spite of all obstacles. Pecten has a mid-Amazonas block now under seismic investigation for possible exploratory drilling. Logistics problems in this one provide new difficulties, as the area is extremely wet. Most work is carried on by boat. The company is also looking offshore Bahia, testing the possible extension of the Renconcavo basin. Two wells have already provided good shows of a high pour point oil, with flow rates from 400 to 1,000 b/d. Another area of interest to Pecten is offshore Rio Grande do Norte.

Bleakley, W.B.

1983-09-01

314

Effect of benzalkonium chloride stress on immune resistance and susceptibility to Lactococcus garvieae in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Addition of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mg l(-1) to tryptic soy broth (TSB) had no effect on growth of Lactococcus garvieae, a bacterial pathogen of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. However, injection of the cultured cells into prawns at a dose of 4 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) prawn(-1) resulted in significantly higher mortality at 120 h (p < 0.05) in prawns injected with cells grown in the absence of BKC than in prawns injected with cells grown in the presence of BKC. In other experiments, prawns were injected with TSB-grown L. garvieae (4 x 10(6) and 3 x 10(5) cfu prawn(-1)) and then held in water containing BKC at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mg l(-1). After 120 h, mortality was significantly higher in all the BKC treatments than in the control without BKC. Prawns showed no significant differences in total hemocyte count (THC) or differential hemocyte count (DHC) amongst treatment and control groups. However, 96 h exposure to 0.3 mg l(-1) BKC or more resulted in a decrease in phenoloxidase activity and an increase in respiratory burst to levels considered to be cytoxic. In summary, exposure of L. garvieae to BKC at 0.3 mg l(-1) or more decreased its virulence to M. rosenbergii, while exposure of M. rosenbergii to BKC at 0.3 mg l(-1) or more increased its susceptibility to L. garvieae infection. PMID:12691193

Cheng, Winton; Wang, Ching-Hsien; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2003-02-27

315

Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (?3?kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ?3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3?bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ?3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable. PMID:21522169

Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A

2011-01-01

316

Flooding Hydrology and Mixture Dynamics of Lake Water Derived from Multiple Sources in an Amazon Floodplain Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal dynamics in the lake water mixture derived from river flooding, local rainfall and runoff, exchange with an adjacent lake, groundwater exchange, and evaporation was computed from detailed measurements over an annual cycle for a permanent lake on the central Amazon floodplain. River water invaded the lake at the start of rising water, but by mid-rising water, lake water

Lance F. W. Lesack; John M. Melack

1995-01-01

317

Flooding hydrology and mixture dynamics of lake water derived from multiple sources in an Amazon floodplain lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal dynamics in the lake water mixture derived from river flooding, local rainfall and runoff, exchange with an adjacent lake, groundwater exchange, and evaporation was computed from detailed measurements over an annual cycle for a permanent lake on the central Amazon floodplain. River water invaded the lake at the start of rising water, but by mid-rising water, lake water

Lance F. W. Lesack; John M. Melack

1995-01-01

318

Mapping the Amazon: Mosaic pan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pan across Amazon rainforest mosaic showing low water season (blue) and high water season (yellow). Together, these snapshots reveal conditions on the ground. Scientists listed worked as a team on Mosaicking Software and Mosaic Production.

Stuart Snodgrass

2002-03-14

319

Low-water maps of the groundwater table in the central Amazon by satellite altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

plays a fundamental role in rainforest environments, as it is connected with rivers, lakes, and wetlands, and helps to support wildlife habitat during dry periods. Groundwater reservoirs are however excessively difficult to monitor, especially in large and remote areas. Using concepts from groundwater-surface water interactions and ENVISAT altimetry data, we evaluated the topography of the groundwater table during low-water periods in the alluvial plain of the central Amazon. The water levels are monitored using an unprecedented coverage of 491 altimetric stations over surface waters in the central Amazon. The groundwater table maps interpolated at spatial resolutions ranging from 50 to 100 km are consistent with groundwater wells data. They provide evidence of significant spatiotemporal organization at regional scale: heterogeneous flow from the hillslope toward the main rivers is observed, as well as strong memory effects and contrasted hydrological behaviors between the North and the South of the Amazon.

Pfeffer, Julia; Seyler, Frédérique; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Calmant, Stéphane; Frappart, Frédéric; Papa, Fabrice; Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Satgé, Frédéric; Silva, Joecila Santos Da

2014-03-01

320

Changes in the Carbon Cycle of Amazon Ecosystems During the 2010 Drought  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production (NPP) in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon River basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to forests outside the main river floodplains.

Potter, Christophera; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubino, Juan Carlos

2011-01-01

321

Atmospheric mercury concentrations in the basin of the amazon, Brazil.  

PubMed

A wide regional mercury pollution in Amazon, Brazil is closely associated with goldmining that has been carried out in the basin of tributaries of the Amazon since the eighteenth century. Possible involvement has been discussed on atmospheric circulation in distributing the volatile pollutant. We developed a portable air sampler for the collection of mercury compounds and determined atmospheric mercury concentrations at several sites in Brazil including the basin of the Amazon tributaries. The mean concentration of total mercury was between 9.1 and 14.0 ng/m(3) in the basin of the Uatumã River located in the tropical rain forest far from goldmining sites and from urbanized area. These mercury levels exceeded the background level previously reported in rural area and, furthermore, were higher than concentrations observed in Rio de Janeiro and in Manaus that were compatible with the reference values for urban area. Mercury concentrations were also determined in gold refineries in the basin of the Tapajos River, and detected at a significant but not a health deteriorating level. Although only preliminary data were available, the present observations were in favor of the hypothesis that mercury is distributed widely by long distant transport by the atmospheric circulation after released at gold mining sites. PMID:21432539

Hachiya, N; Takizawa, Y; Hisamatsu, S; Abe, T; Abe, Y; Motohashi, Y

1998-01-01

322

Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.  

PubMed

Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports. PMID:24928458

Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

2014-07-15

323

Deforestation, floodplain dynamics, and carbon biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three aspects of the physical geographic environment of the Amazon Basin are considered: (1) deforestation and reforestation, (2) floodplain dynamics, and (3) fluvial geomorphology. Three independent projects are coupled in this experiment to improve the in-place research and to ensure that the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) experiment stands on a secure base of ongoing work. Major benefits to be obtained center on: (1) areal and locational information, (2) data from various depression angles, and (3) digital radar signatures. Analysis will be conducted for selected sites to define how well SIR-B data can be used for: (1) definition of extent and location of deforestation in a tropical moist forest, (2) definition and quantification of the nature of the vegetation and edaphic conditions on the (floodplain) of the Amazon River, and (3) quantification of the accuracy with which the geometry and channel shifting of the Amazon River may be mapped using SIR-B imagery in conjunction with other remote sensing data.

Bryan, M. L.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.; Melack, J.; Simonett, D. S.; Woodwell, G.

1984-01-01

324

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of ⁹Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is

E. T. Brown; J. M. Edmond; G. M. Raisbeck; D. L. Bourles; F. Yiou; C. I. Measures

1992-01-01

325

Uranium in river water  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 [times] 10[sup 7] mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load.

Palmer, M.R. (Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom)); Edmond, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-10-01

326

New sediment budget calculations for the submarine Amazon Delta indicates enhanced modern sediment fluxes of the Amazon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The submarine Amazon Delta is one major sink in the Amazon source-to-sink system. It is estimated, that the Amazon transports around 1200 Mt/yr. Around 50% of this river sediment load, namely 400 - 800 Mt/yr, is stored on the submarine delta, leading to sedimentation rates of decimeters per year (Nittrouer et al., 1995). The majority of the remaining sediments is deposited on the lower delta plain of the Amazon, but another significant portion is accumulated at the Amapa shoreline or is bypassed further northwestwards. These sediment budget calculations are mainly based on radioisotopic profiles measured at sediment cores in the frame of the AmasSeds project, which was carried out in the 1980ties and 1990ties (Nittrouer et al., 1995). Here we present another approach for calculating mass fluxes in the Amazon system. Within the Project AMADEUS, a cooperation between the MARUM, Bremen, Germany and the University Sao Paulo, Brazil, high-resolution seismic multichannel seismic data and sediment echosounder data (PARASOUND) were collected during Cruise MSM20/3 in February/March 2012. Main emphases of the surveying were set to the forset and bottomset of the delta, where most of the accretion occurs. A special outcome of the new data is the comparison with PARASOUND data collected in 1996 during Cruise M34/4. Due to several crossing points of both data sets it is now possible to carry out direct measurements of the accumulation during these 16 years. Another time horizon is a prominent unconformity spreading over the submarine delta, since the sedimentation on top of this unconformity had been dated to start roughly 100 yrs ago (Sommerfield et al., 1995). Mapping of this unconformity as well as the reflector representing the seafloor of 1996 gives the opportunity to calculate volumes and mass of the sediment stored within the survey area for two different time spans. First calculations show, that the sediment accumulation on the submarine delta since 1996 is significantly enhanced compared to the 100 years before. Also the comparison of the accumulation from 1996 to 2012 with results from the AmasSeds project suggests that the storage of sediments notably increased within the last decades. Even the main survey area of MSM 20/3 comprises just <20% of the area of the entire submarine delta, the mass of sediments accumulated there is in the same order of magnitude as calculated for the complete submarine delta by Nittrouer et al. (1995). Additionally, a notable deposition between 1996 and 2012 is observed outside of the main survey area. These results indicate a considerable increase of the sediment delivery by the Amazon River in recent times instead of just a reorganization of the sediment distribution, which finally may suggest amplified erosion in the Amazon Basin. However, this new calculation gives a valuable contribution to understand the modern Amazon source-to-sink system. References: C. A. Nittrouer, S. A. Kuehl, R. W. Sternberg, A. G. Figueiredo Jr., L. E.C. Faria, 1995, An introduction to the geological significance of sediment transport and accumulation on the Amazon continental shelf, Marine Geology, 125, p. 177-192. C. K. Sommerfield, C. A. Nittrouer, A. G. Figueiredo, Stratigraphic evidence of changes in Amazon shelf sedimentation during the late Holocene, 1995, Marine Geology, 125, p. 351-371.

Schwenk, T.; Haberkern, J.; Mulitza, S.; Chiessi, C. M.

2013-12-01

327

TROPHIC STRUCTURE AND BIOACCUMULATION OF MERCURY IN FISH OF THREE NATURAL LAKES OF THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON  

E-print Network

TROPHIC STRUCTURE AND BIOACCUMULATION OF MERCURY IN FISH OF THREE NATURAL LAKES OF THE BRAZILIAN was studied in three natural lakes lining the Tapaj´os River, Brazilian Amazon. The Hg content variations-piscivorous and piscivorous fish of the three lakes is observed. The correlation between the mercury concentrations

Long, Bernard

328

Feasibility of using hydrothermal resources in Malaysian prawn aquaculture. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The potential application of geothermal resources in South Carolina for freshwater prawn aquaculture was examined. In coastal S.C. 23 existing geothermal well sites were identified which encompassed an area which ranged from Georgetown to Beaufort. Depth averaged approx. 615 m while temperature averaged approx. 37/sup 0/C. Artesian flow rates varied from 190 to 2650 1/min. Detailed water quality analyses were conducted at 12 sites. In general, major differences from surface waters were in chlorides, fluorides, dissolved solids, ph, alkalinity, and ammonia levels. A detailed replicated laboratory study was conducted to examine the effect of geothermal water on growth and survival of prawns. After 42 days very poor survival was recorded from the various 100% geothermal water treatments. However, 50:50 mixture of shallow well water and geothermal water resulted in a survival rate of 83%, which was similar to the control treatments. Growth was also similar to that observed among the control animals.

Smith, T.I.J.; Rhodes, R.J.; Wannamaker, A.W.

1982-08-01

329

Total and inorganic arsenic in freshwater fish and prawn in Thailand.  

PubMed

Total and inorganic arsenic levels were determined in 120 samples of eight freshwater animal species collected from five distribution centers in the central region of Thailand between January and March 2011. Eight species with the highest annual catch, consisting of seven fish species and one prawn species, were analyzed. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic (on a wet weight basis) ranged from 0.010 ?g/g in giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to 0.230 ?g/g in striped snakehead (Channa striata). Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) exhibited the highest mean concentrations of total arsenic (0.459 ± 0.137 ?g/g), inorganic arsenic (0.121 ± 0.044 ?g/g), and percentage of inorganic arsenic (26.2%). Inorganic arsenic levels found in freshwater animals in this study were much lower than the Thai regulatory standard of 2 ?g/g. PMID:23043844

Saipan, Piyawat; Ruangwises, Suthep; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit; Ruangwises, Nongluck

2012-10-01

330

Anaphylactic shock to oysters and white fish with generalized urticaria to prawns and white fish.  

PubMed

Because seafood consumption is moderate-to-high in Spain, allergic reactions to seafood such as fish, crustacea and mollusc are fairly frequent. The clinical features of these reactions depend on the implicated species and whether the reaction is provoked by ingestion, handling or vapor inhalation. Because different species have common antigenic structures, cross-sensitization is frequent, especially between crustaceans and molluscs. Contamination of fish by nematodes (Anisakis) may produce severe reactions. We report the case of a female patient with no personal or family history of allergy who experienced two episodes of anaphylactic shock: the first occurred immediately after eating oysters and the second after ingestion of white fish. The patient also developed generalized urticaria provoked by crustacean (prawns) and white fish. The results of skin prick tests were negative for fish, shellfish, crustacean and oysters while in vitro tests were positive for oyster, prawns, Anisakis, Ascaris and Echinococcus, although stool samples and gastric endoscopy were negative. PMID:12396966

González Galán, I; García Menaya, J M; Jiménez Ferrera, G; González Mateos, G

2002-01-01

331

Behavior of 226Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of 226Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone is strongy nonconservative and includes desorption similar to that for the Hudson, Pee Dee, and Amazon rivers. However, dissolved and desorbed 226Ra concentrations in the Mississippi are 2 to 5 times greater than in the other rivers at the same salinity. Radium concentrations vary inversely with the water discharge rate.

Daniel G. Moore; Martha R. Scott

1986-01-01

332

Phospholipid fatty acid composition of hepatopancreatic brush-border membrane vesicles from the prawn Penaeus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were isolated from prawn hepatopancreas as we previously described (Muriana et al (1993) J Biochem 113, 625–629). The characterization of hepatopancreatic BBMV (hBBMV) by monitoring the activity of marker enzymes indicated a relatively pure apical membrane preparation reduced in basolateral contamination. Phospholipid composition of hBBMV was examined by the Iatroscan TLC\\/FID technique, whereas the fatty acid

F. J. G. Muriana; V. Ruiz-Gutierrez; J. A. Blaya; J. Bolufer

1995-01-01

333

Cadmium accumulation and ultrastructural alterations in oogenesis of the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)  

SciTech Connect

The reproductive cycle of Palaemon serratus (Pennant), an ecologically important species, was studied previously. Recently ultrastructural studies of the oogenesis of P. serratus have been made. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of cadmium on the process of oogenesis of the common prawn and the levels of cadmium in the the gonads after exposure to cadmium ions. This is important since it will give an indirect indication on how pollutants affect different tissues especially at the ultrastructural level.

Papathanassiou, E.

1986-02-01

334

A Risky Forest Policy in the Amazon?  

E-print Network

A Risky Forest Policy in the Amazon? IN THEIR POLICY FORUM "NATIONAL forests in the Amazon" (30 Aug., p. 1478), A. Veríssimo et al. seem assured that a new system of national forests will solve the prob- lems of uncontrolled forest exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon. Unfortunately, we are far less

Crews, Stephen

335

A Healthier Amazon Jungle (NYT) 417 words  

E-print Network

deforestation in a decade. The health of the Amazon is a global concern because the forest soaks up greenhouse to produce the rain that it needs to survive. Deforestation is also deadly for millions of Amazon peasantsA Healthier Amazon Jungle (NYT) 417 words Published: September 13, 2005 Last month, Brazil

Lopez-Carr, David

336

Sex and the Syndrome: Individual and Population Consistency in Behaviour in Rock Pool Prawn Palaemon elegans  

PubMed Central

Animal personality has been widely documented across a range of species. The concept of personality is composed of individual behavioural consistency across time and between situations, and also behavioural trait correlations known as behavioural syndromes. Whilst many studies have now investigated the stability of individual personality traits, few have analysed the stability over time of entire behavioural syndromes. Here we present data from a behavioural study of rock pool prawns. We show that prawns are temporally consistent in a range of behaviours, including activity, exploration and boldness, and also that a behavioural syndrome is evident in this population. We find correlations between many behavioural traits (activity, boldness, shoaling and exploration). In addition, behavioural syndrome structure was consistent over time. Finally, few studies have explicitly studied the role of sex differences in personality traits, behavioural consistency and syndrome structure. We report behavioural differences between male and female prawns but no differences in patterns of consistency. Our study adds to the growing literature on animal personality, and provides evidence showing that syndromes themselves can exhibit temporal consistency. PMID:23555034

Chapman, Ben B.; Hegg, Alexander; Ljungberg, Peter

2013-01-01

337

Identification and function of 11 Rab GTPases in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Rab GTPases, members of the Ras-like GTPase superfamily, are central elements in endocytic membrane trafficking. However, little is known of the Rab genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In this study, 11 Rab genes were identified from M. rosenbergii. All MrRabs have a RAB domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these 11 MrRabs were divided into different groups. The MrRab genes were ubiquitously expressed in heart, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestines. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the MrRab genes were significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the prawns, indicating that MrRabs might play an important role in innate immune response against WSSV. Moreover, after challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression levels of all MrRabs in the hepatopancreas were also upregulated, which might indicated the involvement of MrRabs in prawns antibacterial immunity. In all, these preliminary results showed that MrRabs were involved in innate immunity of M. rosenbergii. PMID:25542378

Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian

2015-03-01

338

Acute toxicity of organophosphate fenitrothion on biomarkers in prawn Palaemonetes argentinus (Crustacea: Palaemonidae).  

PubMed

The effect of the organophosphate fenitrothion (FS) on the non-target freshwater prawn Palaemonetes argentinus was studied. Initially, the 96-h lethal concentration (LC50) of FS was determined in adult prawns. Inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) in the muscle and hemolymph was assessed. Then, in the hepatopancreas, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was also determined in the hepatopancreas. The 96-h LC50 value was 1.12 ?g/L. Hemolymph ChE activity showed a significant decrease in exposed prawns to FS compared to the control group, while no significant differences in the muscle were observed between groups (p?

Lavarías, S; García, C F

2015-03-01

339

Identification of lectin isoforms in juvenile freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DeMan, 1879).  

PubMed

From the serum of juvenile freshwater prawns, we isolated by affinity chromatography on glutaraldehyde-fixed rat erythrocytes stroma, immobilized in Sephadex G-25, a sialic acid specific lectin of 9.6 kDa per subunit. Comparative analysis against adult organisms purified lectin, by chromatofocusing, showed that the lectin from juvenile specimens is composed by four main isoforms with a pI of 4.2, 4.6, 5.1, and 5.6, whereas the lectin from adults is eluted at pH 4.2. The amino acid composition of the lectin obtained from adult and juvenile stages suggest identity, but the compositions are not identical since a higher content of carbohydrates was found in the lectin from younger organisms. The freshwater prawn lectin showed specificity toward N-acetylated amino sugar residues such as GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac and Neu5,9Ac; but in juvenile organisms the lectin showed three times less hemagglutinating activity than the lectin from adults. Both lectins agglutinated rat, rabbit and chicken erythrocytes, indicating that Neu5,9Ac in specific O-glycosydically linked glycans seems to be relevant for the interaction of M. rosenbergii lectins with their specific cellular receptor. Our results suggest that the physicochemical characteristics of the lectin from the freshwater prawn are regulated through maturation. PMID:11261843

Zenteno, R; Vázquez, L; Martínez-Cairo, S; Bouquelet, S; Agundis, C; Zenteno, E

2000-05-01

340

Transfer of foreign gene to giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) by spermatophore-microinjection.  

PubMed

We developed a spermatophore-microinjection (SMI) technique that allows exogenous DNA fragments to be transferred easily into the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), an important aquacultural shellfish and aquatic invertebrate model. From 28 to 1, 000 ng of the circular plasmid pGL, in a total volume of 1 microl, were directly microinjected into spermatophores. Fertilization and hatching of prawns created with SMI were completed in vivo. Fertilization and hatching rates in the SMI treatments did not differ from those of the untreated control group. The genomes of free swimming, SMI-created larvae (21 days after fertilization) were analyzed using PCR and Southern blot analyses. A product with a molecular mass of 680 bp was amplified. It corresponded to amplifications of pGL, and Southern blot analysis revealed that the amplified band was positive. The gene transfer rate was primarily dependent on the concentration of DNA during SMI. The higher the concentration of pGL, the higher the rate of gene transfer. PCR and Southern blot analyses detected the existence of foreign DNA in 16 of 23 samples (70%) of genomic DNA isolated from hatched larvae in the 750 ng pGL SMI treatment. SMI, described here for the first time, is the simplest and most efficient method for mass producing transgenic giant freshwater prawns. PMID:10813846

Li, S S; Tsai, H J

2000-06-01

341

Stratigraphic age, sedimentation rate and source rocks of the Amazon Fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of Amazon Fan, a large sedimentary structure at the Brazilian passive margin, is directly connected with the Andean mountains and the Amazon River development. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes studies combined with palynological information have been conducted in Late Miocene to Pleistocene section of the Amazon submarine fan to constrain the sedimentary age, source rocks and sedimentation rate of main sedimentary sequences deposited during the period. Age of the sedimentary rocks were inferred from the palynological data and Sr isotope signature from foraminifers, integrated with seismic and drill holes data. The whole section had a very high sedimentation rate with significant increase in the last 3 Ma, from Late Pliocene to present, which it may be related to uplift of the continental margin as a result of isotastic compensation due to load of Amazon Fan sedimentary package deposited from Late Miocene to Early Pliocene and main uplift of the Northern Andes. Although the most foraminifera shells have 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the range of the expected value for the estimated age, there were samples with 87Sr/86Sr ratio lower and higher than those used for the Sr isotope curve. The increase of 87Sr/86Sr ratio is assigned to Amazon River strontium fluxes whereas lower ratios may be due to diagenetic processes or fluid percolation driven by thick sedimentary overload, as much as 10,000 m, in the Amazon submarine fan. Contribution of the Precambrian rocks of the Amazonian Craton versus Andean rocks as source of the sediments for Amazon Fan during its evolution was estimated by the Sm-Nd and Pb isotope data in the pelitic rocks. Nd and Pb isotopes in fine-grained sediments allowed to identify both signal, where contribution Precambrian basement rocks are recognized by Archean and Paleoproterozoic Nd model ages and higher radiogenic Pb signature.

Chemale Junior, Farid; Ayup, Ricardo N.; Barboza, Eduardo; Moura, Candido A. V.

2014-05-01

342

Cosmogenic nuclide-derived sediment budget of the Amazon basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment gauging suggests that the annual sediment mass discharged into the main Amazon basin from the Andes and the cratonic shields is not in steady state with the mass discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. Here we use sediment production rates from cosmogenic 10Be in sediment to compare these with transport rates from river load gauging. About 1 million km2 or 95% of the total Andean area draining to the Amazon provide sediment to the central Amazon river with an averaged 10Be nuclide concentration of 5.0 +- 0.5x1e4 at/g(Qz). Average nuclide concentrations for Brazilian shield headwaters amount to 15.3 +- 1.2x1e4 at/g(Qz), and to 38.6 +- 2.4x1e4 at/g(Qz) for the Guyana shield headwaters, respectively. For the Andes, nuclide concentrations translate to an integrated Andean denudation rate of 0.35 ± 0.05 mm/yr. Sediment from the headwaters of the Brazilian and Guyana shields translate into very low denudation rates (0.02 and 0.01 mm/yr, respectively), as is expected for tectonically stable tropical highlands. These headwater 10Be nuclide concentrations and derived denudation rates can now be compared with those derived from central Amazon stream sediment including the main Amazon, which was sampled over ~1000 km from Manaus to Óbidos. Cosmogenic nuclide concentration analyses of several grain sizes (from 125 up to 800 µm) show large variations; we found that coarse-grained material records the nuclide signal of the cratonic shield areas, whereas the Andean signal is best represented by the fine sand fraction, which is preserved virtually unaltered over 1000s of km of sediment transport. In all central Amazon trunk stream samples and tributaries, the fine grain size fraction (125-250 µm) contains 10Be at 6.5 +- 1.2x1e4 at/g(Qz), which is similar to that of the Andean source areas. The integrated denudation rate from this fraction is 0.23 +- 0.04 mm/yr for the entire Amazon basin at Óbidos, which compares well with the mean Andean denudation rate of 0.35 +- 0.05 mm/yr. Coarse grain sizes (>500 µm) record the very low denudation rate of the cratonic shields. Given these low rates, the shields discharge only small amounts of sediment into the Amazon trunk stream. Multiplied with the area of the providing hinterland, we can use these erosion rates to calculate sediment mass budgets. The flux of sediment expected from cosmogenic nuclide-based denudation rates amounts to 540 Mt/yr at Óbidos. This flux compares to the total load of 1100 Mt/yr at Óbidos[1,2,3] as estimated from sediment gauging. This disparity is unexpected, as today at least 40% of the sediment discharged from the Andes is stored in floodplains[4]; a process not detected with cosmogenic 10Be. The longer denudation integration time scale of 8 kyr for cosmogenic nuclides possibly includes a period of drier climate than the wet conditions during the late Holocene, where a wetter modern climate possibly favors more rapid erosion in the Andes and more efficient sediment transport in the large rivers. 1 Gaillardet et al. (1997), Chemical Geology (142), 141-173. 2 Dunne et al. (1998), GSA Bulletin (110), 450-467. 3 Guyot et al. (2005), IAHS Publications (291), 1-8. 4 Guyot et al. (1996), IAHS Publications (236), 55-63.

Wittmann, Dr.; von Blanckenburg, Dr.; Guyot, Dr.; Maurice, Dr.; Kubik, Dr.

2009-04-01

343

Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis also causes white muscle disease in farmed giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

From May to August 2001 in Taiwan, 27 farms for the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii experienced white tail disease outbreaks in animals approximately 3 to 5 mo old, with total lengths from 6 to 8 cm. Examination of the infected prawns revealed not only previously reported Lactococcus garvieae (16 farms) but also the novel L. lactis subsp. lactis (10 farms). One farm had shrimp infected with both bacteria. In the farms with L. lactis infections, the cumulative mortality was approximately 25 to 60%. Gross signs of disease were opaque and whitish muscles, while histopathology included marked edema and necrotic lesions, with inflammation in the muscles and hepatopancreas. Bacteria isolated using brain/heart infusion medium or tryptic soy agar were Gram-positive and ovoid. Eleven isolates from different farms were identified as L. lactis subsp. lactis using API 20 Strep and Rapid ID32 Strep tests and using PCR assays specific for the L. lactis subsp. lactis 16S rDNA gene (650 bp amplicon) and for the 16S to 23S rDNA interspacer region (380 bp amplicon). In addition, sequencing of the full 16S rDNA genes of 2 of the isolates (MR17 and MR26; GenBank Accession Numbers AF493058 and AF493057, respectively) revealed 99.9% identity between the isolates and 98.7% identity to several complete 16S rRNA sequences of L. lactis subsp. lactis at GenBank. Experimental infections with our isolates gave gross signs and histopathological changes similar to those seen in naturally infected prawns. The mean lethal dose of 4 isolates and the reference strain L. lactis subsp. lactis BCRC 10791 ranged from 4.2 x 10(6) to 2.5 x 10(7) colony-forming units prawn(-1), indicating virulence similar to that previously reported for L. garvieae. This is the first report confirming L. lactis subsp. lactis as a pathogen in juvenile and adult prawns from aquaculture. PMID:18429437

Wang, Pei-Chi; Lin, Yu-De; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chern, Red-Shiung; Chen, Shih-Chu

2008-03-01

344

Jotï ecogony, Venezuelan Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current environmental crisis permeates the discourse and concerns of people all over the world. Consideration of diverse environmental ethics showing the alternative ways in which people conceptualize and relate to nature and natural resources are critical for bringing about more sustainable human behaviors. After a brief review of Western historical notions of nature, this work explores the ecogony, or causal reasons, that trigger the behavior of the Jotï, an Amerindian people of the Venezuelan Amazon, with other entities and the forest that they inhabit. The analysis presented synthesizes 15 years of transdisciplinary ethno-ecological research comprising quantitative and qualitative methods (collection of herbarium voucher specimens, floristic inventories in forest plots, structured interviews focused on plot vegetation, semi-structured interviews of life-histories, participant observation, time allocation studies, food resource accounting, focal person following observations, garden crop inventories and censuses, mapping of wild resource harvest locations, among others). Jotï pragmatic and ideological tenets generate a distinctive environmental ethics based on ecogonic nodes. Notions of interdependence, humanity and person are articulated on a daily basis through several dynamics: (1) hyper-awareness of all living things’ dependence on each other and other elements of the biophysical environment at macroscales and microscales, (2) the construction of human spiritual, conscious, physical and agentive constituents from a variety of diverse botanical and zoological species and mineral components of their homeland, and (3) an understanding of the aggregate surroundings, including a significant portion of the biotic and abiotic components, as potential subjects with awareness, creativity and moral stances. This condition of interdependence confers rights and duties on all the parts. Jotï horizontal communications with and among life-forms sustain their condition as committed actors in the configuration of the forests that they inhabit.

Zent, Egleé L.

2013-03-01

345

Cyclic sediment deposition within Amazon deep-sea fan  

SciTech Connect

The Upper and middle Amazon Fan has grown in a cyclic fashion. An individual deposition cycle consists of (1) a widespread basal, acoustically transparent seismic unit (interpreted as debris-flow deposits) that fills and levels preexisting topographic lows, and (2) a levee complex built of overlapping channel-levee systems. Two and possibly three cycles have been identified within the Amazon Fan. The levee complex beneath one debris flow originated from a different submarine canyon than did the levee complex above the debris flow, suggesting that these levee complexes formed during different sea level lowstands. Calculations based on present sediment discharge of the Amazon River suggest that an entire levee complex can form within the time span of a single glacial stage, such as the Wisconsin; however, the levee complex probably could not have formed during the relatively short time interval when sea level rose rapidly at the end of a glacial stage. The basal seismic units (debris-flow deposits) may have been deposited at any time during sea level fluctuations. Although seismic evidence suggests that this cyclic sedimentation pattern may be related to glacio-eustatic sea level variations, cyclic fan growth may be attributed to other processes as well. For example, a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) observed within the upper fan appears to be a gas hydrate. Migration of the hydrate phase boundary during sea level fluctuations and diapiric activity may be mechanisms for initiating widespread debris flows. 10 figs.

Manley, P.L.; Flood, R.D.

1988-08-01

346

Weather types and rainfall in the Amazon basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neuronal method (Self Organizing Maps or SOMs) is used to identify weather types over tropical South America from total wind at 850 hPa in ERA-40 reanalysis. Weather types are associated with daily rainfall in two regions of the Amazon basin where the long term hydrologic variability is the strongest. In the south-western basin, important rainfall is associated with a weather type characterized by negative geopotential anomalies over the Chaco region and positive ones behind, that promote the convergence of north-western wind anomalies (monsoon flux around summer) and southern anomalies over the Bolivian lowlands. In the north-western Amazon basin, important rainfall is associated with a weather regime characterized by positive geopotential anomalies over the Chaco region that promote strong southern wind anomalies over western Amazon and their convergence with the trade winds. We show that the progression of extra tropical perturbations and their incursion toward low latitude, favoured by the N-S orientation of the Andes, partly control the characteristics of weather types over tropical South America. The frequency of weather regimes allows explaining partially rainfall variability at interannual and pluriannual time scales. In addition, weather type's frequency is able to explain the occurrence of exceptional floods in the Amazonian Basin Rivers.

Espinoza, J. C.; Lengaigne, M.; Ronchail, J.; Janicot, S.; Guyot, J. L.

2009-04-01

347

Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.  

PubMed

This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24140570

Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

2013-11-15

348

Amazon Deforestation and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere and biosphere has been used to assess the effects of Amazon deforestation on the regional and global climate. When the tropical forests in the model were replaced by degraded grass (pasture), there was a significant increase in surface temperature and a decrease in evapotranspiration and precipitation over Amazonia. In the simulation, the

J. Shukla; C. Nobre; P. Sellers

1990-01-01

349

Amazon RainForest Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal is common in the soils of mature rain forests within 75 kilometers of San Carlos de Rio Negro in the north central Amazon Basin. Carbon-14 dates of soil charcoal from this region indicate that numerous fires have occurred since the mid-Holocene epoch. Charcoal is most common in tierra firme forest Oxisols and Ultisols and less common in caatinga and

Robert L. Sanford; Juan Saldarriaga; Kathleen E. Clark; Christopher Uhl; Rafael Herrera

1985-01-01

350

Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas. PMID:20862200

Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

2010-01-01

351

Population dynamics of Niger River prawn (Macrobrachium felicinum) in Lower Taylor Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of Macrobrachium felicinum (Holthuis, 1949) in Lower Taylor Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria, was analysed using monthly length-frequency data (June 2008 – May 2010). This study was aimed at determining the status of fishery and establishing the levels of exploitation that will give sustainable yields. The FAO-ICLARM stock assessment tool (FISAT II) software was used to estimate population

T onbarapagha Kingdom; Aduabobo Ibitoruh Hart

2012-01-01

352

Potential hydrologic changes in the Amazon by the end of the 21st century and the groundwater buffer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study contributes to the discussions on the future of the Amazon rainforest under a projected warmer-drier climate from the perspectives of land hydrology. Using IPCC HadGEM2-ES simulations of the present and future Amazon climate to drive a land hydrology model that accounts for groundwater constraint on land drainage, we assess potential hydrologic changes in soil water, evapotranspiration (ET), water table depth, and river discharge, assuming unchanged vegetation. We ask: how will ET regimes shift at the end of the 21st century, and will the groundwater help buffer the anticipated water stress in some places-times? We conducted four 10 yr model simulations, at the end of 20th and 21st century, with and without the groundwater. Our model results suggest that, first, over the western and central Amazon, ET will increase due to increased potential evapotranspiration (PET) with warmer temperatures, despite a decrease in soil water; that is, ET will remain PET or atmospheric demand-limited. Second, in the eastern Amazon dry season, ET will decrease in response to decreasing soil water, despite increasing PET demand; that is, ET in these regions-seasons will remain or become more soil water or supply-limited. Third, the area of water-limited regions will likely expand in the eastern Amazonia, with the dry season, as indicated by soil water store, even drier and longer. Fourth, river discharge will be significantly reduced over the entire Amazon but particularly so in the southeastern Amazon. By contrasting model results with and without the groundwater, we found that the slow soil drainage constrained by shallow groundwater can buffer soil water stress, particularly in southeastern Amazon dry season. Our model suggests that, if groundwater buffering effect is accounted for, the future Amazon water stress may be less than that projected by most climate models.

Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

2014-08-01

353

Act No. 24994 of 19 January 1989. Basic Law on the Rural Development of the Peruvian Amazon Region.  

PubMed

This Act sets forth the government's policy on rural development of the Peruvian Amazon region. Major objectives of the Act include the promotion of new rural settlements in the Amazon region, the promotion of migration from the Andes to the Amazon region, and the stimulation of agriculture, livestock, and forestry activities in the Amazon region. The following are the means that the government will use, among others, to attain these goals: 1) the development of Population Displacement Programmes, which will give individual persons and families economic and logistic support in moving; 2) the establishment of Civic Colonizing Services, temporary mobile units, which will offer settlers health services, education services, technical assistance with respect to agriculture and livestock, and promotional credits; 3) the creation of the Council for Amazon River Transport to coordinate and recommend activities to improve river transport; 4) the granting to settlers of land, free education for their children, medical care, technical training and assistance with respect to agriculture, and a supply of seeds; 5) the exemption of certain investors from payment of income taxes; and 6) the granting of a wide range of incentives for agricultural production. The Act also creates a Council for Planning and Development in the Amazon Region to draw up and approve a Plan for the Development of the Amazon Region. It calls for the rational use of the natural resources of the Amazon Region in the framework of preserving the ecosystem and preventing its ruin and delegates to the regional governments the authority to enter into contracts on the use of forest materials and to undertake reforestation programs. Finally, the Act provides various guarantees for the native population, including guarantees with respect to land and preservation of ethnic and social identity. PMID:12344257

1989-01-01

354

Toxicity of cryoprotectants agents in freshwater prawn embryos of Macrobrachium amazonicum.  

PubMed

Summary The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ? 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl. PMID:25255785

Ferreira, Arthur Vinícius Lourenço; Castro, Elias José Teles; Barbosa, Mariana Silva Alves; de Sousa, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins; de Araújo Neto, Manoel Paiva; Filho, Aldeney Andrade Soares; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria

2014-09-26

355

Cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern New South Wales, Australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation  

SciTech Connect

Harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. The microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. The microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. Prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in Australia. Because information regarding effects of cyanobacteria at prawn farms was lacking, we examined diversity of cyanobacteria and toxin production plus bioaccumulation into black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) under both field (northern New South Wales, Australia, December 2001-April 2002) and laboratory conditions. Samples were analyzed for hepatotoxins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum density of cyanobacteria (1 x 10{sup 6} to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l) was reached in April. Cyanobacteria encountered were Oscillatoria sp. (up to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Pseudanabaena sp. (up to 1.8 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Microcystis sp. (up to 3.5 x 10{sup 4} cells/l), and Aphanocapsa sp. (up to 2 x 10{sup 4} cells/l). An uncommon cyanobacterium, Romeria sp. (up to 2.2 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), was also observed. Contrasting earlier indications, toxic Nodularia spumigena was absent. Despite that both Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis sp. are potentially hepatotoxic, hepatotoxin levels in phytoplankton samples remained low (up to 0.5-1.2 mg/kg dw; ELISA) in 2001-2002. ELISA was found suitable not only for phytoplankton but prawn tissues as well. Enzymatic pretreatment improved extractability of hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria (nodularin from N. spumigena as an example), but did not generally increase toxin recovery from prawn hepatopancreas. There were slightly increasing hepatotoxin concentrations in prawn hepatopancreas (from 6-20 to 20-80 {mu}g/kg dw; ELISA) during the study. Hepatotoxin concentrations in surface sediment remained low (<5 {mu}g/kg dw; ELISA) throughout the study. Laboratory experiments indicated that prawn hepatopancreas, heart, and brain were primary organs for hepatotoxin bioaccumulation. Toxin concentration in other organs, including muscle, was less effective. Orally administered nodularin levels in hepatopancreas rapidly decreased from initial 830 to 250 {mu}g/kg dw in 96 h. Similarly, concentration of microcystin-LR injected in prawns decreased from 130 to 30 {mu}g/kg dw (hepatopancreas) in 2 h. These results demonstrate that potential risks caused by cyanobacteria in prawn farming (farmers, prawns, and consumers) were not substantial in 2001-2002. Although prawns may act as vectors for toxin transfer, they did not accumulate alerting amounts of hepatotoxins and were able to effectively detoxify them. Because bloom toxicity may vary, low-frequency toxin monitoring is recommended.

Kankaanpaeae, Harri T.; Holliday, Jon; Schroeder, Helge; Goddard, Timothy J.; Fister, Richard von; Carmichael, Wayne W

2005-03-15

356

Seasonal dynamics and Organic Carbon Flux in the Congo River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Congo (Zaire) River, the second world river in terms of discharges and drainage area (Q=40600 m3\\/s; A=3.5 106 km2) after the Amazon River, is -up to now- in near-pristine state. For up to two years , the mainstream near river mouth (Kinshasa\\/Brazzaville station) and some major and minor tributaries (Oubangui, Mpoko and Ngoko-Sangha) were surveyed every month, for total

P. Seyler; A. Coynel; H. Etcheber; M. Meybeck

2006-01-01

357

Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales: Bacillariophyceae).  

PubMed

The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000 m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum. PMID:20411706

Vouilloud, Amelia A; Sala, Silvia E; Avellaneda, Marcela Núñez; Duque, Santiago R

2010-03-01

358

Amino acid sequences of a hyperglycaemic hormone and its related peptides from the Kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major peptides have been extracted from sinus glands of the Kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus, and purified to homogeneity by reverse-phase HPLC. From the results of amino-terminal sequence and mass spectral analyses and bioassay of the peptides, one of the peptides was considered to be a hyperglycaemic hormone. The complete amino acid sequence of the peptide has been determined; it consists

Wei-jun Yang; Katsumi Aida; Hiromichi Nagasawa

1995-01-01

359

Sediment transport and sedimentation along the Amazon floodplain  

SciTech Connect

As the Amazon River leaves the Andean foothills and crosses the structural trough in its Brazilian segment, it receives a large increment of discharge, but a small increase in sediment load from the bounding cratons. The gradient of the river declines gradually from Iquitos, Peru, downstream to Coari, Brazil, before increasing downstream to the vicinity of Manaus as the river crosses a structural arch. Between Manaus and Obidos, the river slope declines sharply. The interplay of the variable gradient and increasing discharge creates a pattern of boundary shear stress and sediment transport which the authors have defined by measurement and calculation. The downstream divergence of suspended and bed load transport is responsible for the patterns of aggradation, channel behavior and floodplain morphology. Aggradation has been computed on the basis of three years of sediment transport measurements; floodplain morphology was documented from radar photography and navigation charts; and channel migration from these charts and from aerial and satellite photography. In the reach between the Peruvian border and Coari, the river deposits sand bars within and alongside the channel and shifts laterally at a relatively rapid rate, forming a scroll-bar floodplain topography with long, narrow lakes. In the middle, steeper reach no net aggradation was measured, sand-bar development and channel shifting are limited. Below Manaus, the rapid decline in gradient and the large influx of Andean sediment from the Rio Madeira result in deposition of almost the entire sand load and a portion of the silt.

Dunne, T.; Mertes, A.K.L.; Meade, R.H.

1985-01-01

360

White tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Thailand.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii has recently been the cause of high mortalities in Thai prawn farms. The causative agents of this disease in other countries are M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV), which are usually detected using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Using RT-PCR, most Thai post-larvae (PL) samples showing gross signs of WTD tested positive for MrNV but only a few were positive for XSV. In contrast, all tested brooder samples were positive for both MrNV and XSV. The possibility that brooders infected with MrNV and XSV could transmit the viruses to larvae and PL should be examined. Cloning, sequencing and comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of RT-PCR amplicons of WTD samples from Thailand with those of MrNV and XSV previously reported from the French West Indies and China revealed that the MrNV were closely related but not identical while those from XSV were identical. This is the first report of MrNV and XSV from Thailand. PMID:16724570

Yoganandhan, Kalidoss; Leartvibhas, Manee; Sriwongpuk, Supamas; Limsuwan, Chalor

2006-04-01

361

Controls over the strontium isotope composition of river water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios have been measured in river and ground waters from the Granges, Orinoco, and Amazon river basins. When compared with major element concentrations, the data set has allowed a detailed examination of the controls over the strontium isotope systematics of riverine input to the oceans in the following environments: (1) typical drainage basins containing limestones, evaporites,

M. R. Palmer; J. M. Edmond

1992-01-01

362

Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)  

PubMed Central

Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23634699

2013-01-01

363

Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs) in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month). These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms regulating interannual variability in Amazon fires, as water storage deficits may subsequently lead to decreases in transpiration and atmospheric water vapor that cause more severe fire weather.

de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

2013-10-01

364

Attenuation coefficients and absorbed gamma radiation energy of different varieties of potato, mango and prawn at different storage time and physiological condition.  

PubMed

Attenuation coefficients of different varieties of gamma irradiated potato (Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Jyoti, and Kufri Sindhuri), mango (Himsagar, Langra, Dashehri and Fazli) and prawn (Tiger prawn and Fresh water prawn) of different storage time and physiological stages were determined. After six months storage attenuation coefficient of Kufri Chandramukhi was decreased by 30.8% with decrease of density and moisture content. Decreasing trend of attenuation coefficient during storage was more prominent (almost 50%) in other two varieties of potato. On the other hand in all four varieties, unripe mango consisted of significantly less (p ? 0.05) attenuation coefficient (around 11-14%) than the ripe one due to changes in physiological properties and density. Different varieties of prawn had different attenuation coefficients due to subtle differences in their proximate composition. Due to having different attenuation coefficients, different food components, even different varieties of same food component absorbed different gamma radiation energy though exposed to same radiation dose. PMID:24128533

Ghosh, Sayanti; Das, M K

2014-02-15

365

Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.  

PubMed

Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. was found in the rhizospheres of Jatropha curcas, Musa sp., Anona muricata, Cassia tora, Panicum laxum, Paspalum fasciculatum, Aeschynomene sensitiva, Saccharum officinarum, Manihot esculenta, Abelmoschus esculentus, Tamarindus indica, Mangifera indica, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Commelina sp., Cyperus rotundus, Fimbristylis miliacea, Citrus sinensis, and Eichhornia crassipes on the Amazon River island of Xiborena, approximately 40 km southeast of Manaus, capital of the State of Amazonas. The type habitat is flooded annually for about 6 months by the Amazon River. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. differs from the closely related species Xiphidorus yepesara Monteiro, 1976 by the larger size, by a, b, and c values, and by the rounded tail terminus. It also resembles Xiphidorus tucumanensis Chaves and Coomans, 1984, but can be distinguished by its larger size, larger a, b, and c values, more conical female tail, bilobed amphidial pouch, and the presence of a spermatheca full of sperm. PMID:19294098

Uesugi, C H; Huang, C S; Cares, J E

1985-07-01

366

Major and trace elements of river-borne material: The Congo Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Congo river Basin is the second largest drainage basin in the world, after the Amazon. The materials carried by its main rivers provide the opportunity to study the products of denudation of a large fraction of the upper continental crust of the African continent. This paper presents the chemical composition of the different phases carried in the Congo rivers

B. Dupre; D. Rousseau; J. Gaillardet; C. J. Allegre

1996-01-01

367

The effect of Congo River freshwater discharge on Tropical Atlantic and Africa climate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Tropical Atlantic (ETA) collects a huge quantity of freshwater due to discharge from several rivers. Every year, the Congo river alone releases 1270 km3 of freshwater into the ocean (Weldeab et al., 2007), which is the second-largest flow in the world second only to the Amazon River. This study aims to understand the role of Congo freshwater discharge in

Stefano Materia; Silvio Gualdi; Antonio Navarra

2010-01-01

368

The Biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin  

E-print Network

in January 1998 that "Brazil's Amazon rain for- est, the world's richest trove of biological diversity for the Associated Press communicated the "fear" of unspecified scientists that "damage to the rain forest... could. While there is little dis- agreement that the complete destruction of Amazon forests would

McClain, Michael

369

Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

1984-04-01

370

Catchability and selectivity of juvenile snapper ( Pagrus auratus, Sparidae) and western butterfish ( Pentapodus vitta, Nemipteridae) from prawn trawling in a large marine embayment in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allegations of growth overfishing of the already depleted snapper (Pagrus auratus) stock in Denham Sound, Shark Bay, Western Australia, due to prawn trawling, and concerns for by-catch species generally, led to the investigation of size-related catchability and cod-end selectivity of juvenile snapper and western butterfish (Pentapodus vitta). The cod-end selectivity of prawn trawling was investigated by fitting a fine-mesh cod-end

Corey B. Wakefield; Michael J. Moran; Nadia E. Tapp; Gary Jackson

2007-01-01

371

Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.  

PubMed

The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID:24906123

Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

2014-08-01

372

Recent advances in wavelet analyses: Part 2—Amazon, Parana, Orinoco and Congo discharges time scale variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to illustrating new wavelet analysis methods in the field of hydrology. New wavelet indicators are applied to long-term hydrological and climatologic proxies. They are first applied to four Atlantic large river monthly discharges (Amazon, Parana, Orinoco and Congo) and then applied to two well-known long-term climatologic indexes: the Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. This

David Labat; Josyane Ronchail; Jean Loup Guyot

2005-01-01

373

Patterns of Geographic Expansion of Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives In the Peruvian Amazon, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is abundant in large urban centers such as Iquitos. In recent years, it has also been found in a number of neighboring rural communities with similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions. To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities. Methods We conducted pupal-demographic surveys and deployed ovitraps in 34 communities surrounding the city of Iquitos. Communities surveyed were located along two transects: the Amazon River and a 95km highway. We calculated entomological indices, mapped Ae. aegypti presence, and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to predict Ae. aegypti presence at the community, household, or container level. Results Large communities closer to Iquitos were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Within infested communities, houses with Ae. aegypti had more passively-filled containers and were more often infested with other mosquito genera than houses without Ae. aegypti. For containers, large water tanks/drums and containers with solar exposure were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Maps of Ae. aegypti presence revealed a linear pattern of infestation along the highway, and a scattered pattern along the Amazon River. We also identified the geographical limit of Ae. aegypti expansion along the highway at 19.3 km south of Iquitos. Conclusion In the Peruvian Amazon, Ae. aegypti geographic spread is driven by human transportation networks along rivers and highways. Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads. Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats. PMID:25101786

Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Barboza, José Luis; Morrison, Amy C.; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel

2014-01-01

374

Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: Chemical phase partitioning and cycling across a salinity gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The size distribution of U was examined in surface waters of the Amazon shelf. Water samples were collected during a low discharge river stage across a broad salinity gradient (0.3-35.4%) and fractionated by planar filtration and tangential-flow ultrafiltration into (1) solution (Us, <10,000 MW; ˜1-10 nm), (2) colloidal (Uc 10,000 MW-0.4 ?m), (3) dissolved (Ud, <0.4 ?m), and (4) particulate (Up, >0.4 ?m) phases. Concentrations of colloidal U comprise up to 92% of the dissolved U fraction at the river mouth and attain highest values (˜0.45 ?g/L) in the productive, biogenic region of the Amazon shelf (salinities above ˜20%). Ud and Uc distributions are highly nonconservative relative to ideal dilution of river water and seawater, indicating extensive removal at salinities below ˜10%. The distribution of Us also shows some nonconservative behavior, yet removal, if any, is minimal. Saltwater-induced precipitation and aggregation of riverine colloidal material is most likely the dominant mechanism of U removal in the low salinity, terrigenous region of the Amazon shelf. There is evidence of a substantial colloidal U input (˜245% of the riverine Uc flux into surface waters above 5%. Such Uc enrichment most likely is the result of colloidal U-rich porewater diffusion/advection from the seabed and fluid muds or shelf-wide particle-colloid disaggregation. Removal of solution and dissolved phase U via a colloidal intermediate and Uc aggregation was examined in terms of coagulation theory. The highly reactive nature of all U phases on the Amazon shelf suggests that remobilization and fractionation of U may also occur in other river-influenced coastal environments.

Swarzenski, P. W.; McKee, B. A.; Booth, J. G.

1995-01-01

375

An Appalachian Amazon? Magnetofossil evidence for the development of a tropical river-like system in the mid-Atlantic United States during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, Paleocene sands and silts are replaced during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) by the kaolinite-rich Marlboro Clay. The clay preserves abundant magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria and novel, presumptively eukaryotic, iron-biomineralizing microorganisms. Using ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy, we map the magnetofossil distribution in the context of stratigraphy and carbon isotope data and identify three magnetic facies in the clay: one characterized by a mix of detrital particles and magnetofossils, a second with a higher magnetofossil-to-detrital ratio, and a third with only transient magnetofossils. The distribution of these facies suggests that suboxic conditions promoting magnetofossil production and preservation occurred throughout inner middle neritic sediments of the Salisbury Embayment but extended only transiently to outer neritic sediments and the flanks of the embayment. Such a distribution is consistent with the development of a system resembling a modern tropical river-dominated shelf.

Kopp, Robert E.; Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D.; Powars, David S.; Godfrey, Linda V.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Maloof, Adam C.; Vali, Hojatollah

2009-12-01

376

A Comparative Study of Solvers for Amazons Endgames Find the best solver for Amazons endgames (in real-time)  

E-print Network

A Comparative Study of Solvers for Amazons Endgames The goal ­ Find the best solver for Amazons and Tsumeshogi, Amazons) Multi-valued: Determined by a score (Amazons or Clobber sub-games) Results Method of WPNS are encouraging, but needs further study Alpha/Beta clearly outperforms every other method

Bouzy, Bruno

377

Low-level nocturnal wind maximum over the Central Amazon Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-level nocturnal wind maximum is shown to exist over extensive and nearly undisturbed rainforest near the central Amazon city of Manaus. Meteorological data indicate the presence of this nocturnal wind maximum during both the wet and dry seasons of the Central Amazon Basin. Daytime wind speeds which are characteristically 3-7 m/s between 300 and 1000 m increase to 10-15 m/s shortly after sunset. The wind-speed maximum is reached in the early evening, with wind speeds remaining high until several hours after sunrise. The nocturnal wind maximum is closely linked to a strong low-level inversion formed by radiational cooling of the rainforest canopy. Surface and low-level pressure gradients between the undisturbed forest and the large Amazon river system and the city of Manaus are shown to be responsible for much of the nocturnal wind increase. The pressure gradients are interpreted as a function of the thermal differences between undisturbed forest and the river/city. The importance of both the frictional decoupling and the horizontal pressure gradient suggest that the nocturnal wind maximum does not occur uniformly over all Amazonia. Low-level winds are thought to be pervasive under clear skies and strong surface cooling and that, in many places (i.e., near rivers), local pressure gradients enhance the low-level nocturnal winds.

Greco, Steven; Ulanski, Stanley; Garstang, Michael; Houston, Samuel

1992-01-01

378

Amazon deforestation and climate change  

SciTech Connect

A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere and biosphere has been used to assess the effects of Amazon deforestation on the regional and global climate. When the tropical forests in the model were replaced by degraded grass (pasture), there was a significant increase in surface temperature and a decrease in evapotranspiration and precipitation over Amazonia. In the simulation, the length of the dry season also increased; such an increase could make reestablishment of the tropical forests after massive deforestation particularly difficult. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Shukla, J.; Nobre, C.; Sellers, P. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

1990-03-16

379

[Oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid residues in kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus) and the effect of cooking procedures on the residues].  

PubMed

Tissue distribution and residue depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) were studied in the kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus). The prawn were kept in tanks with recirculated artificial seawater at a salinity of 22-23@1000. The water temperature was maintained at 25 degrees C. The average body weight was 22.9 +/- 4.9 g for OTC and 22.5 +/- 3.6 g for OA. The drug was mixed with the diet and orally administered through a catheter to the prawn. The doses of OTC and OA, respectively, were 50 mg/kg body weight. At each sample time, four prawns were sacrificed and tissues were sampled. OTC and OA levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. At the highest levels, the concentrations of OTC were in the other: shell (13.57 micrograms/g) > hemolymph (12.20 micrograms/mL) > muscle (8.30 micrograms/g). For OA, the order was: shell (20.74 micrograms/g) > hemolymph (7.06 micrograms/mL) > muscle (2.05 micrograms/g). The elimination half-lives of hemolymph and muscle were 44.7 and 46.8 hours for OTC and 55.0 and 107.9 hours for OA, respectively. Residual OTC could not be detected in hemolymph and muscle at 20 days after dosing. Residual OA disappeared from hemolymph and muscle at 25 days after dosing. A 25-day period for OTC and 30-day period for OA could be regarded as the proper withdrawal time established for kuruma prawn by the Pharmaceutical Law in Japan. However, the elimination half-lives of shell for OTC and OA could not be calculated because both drug residues persisted in shell tissues, and the elimination phase was not completed during the experimental period. Residual OTC (14.10 +/- 2.26 micrograms/g, n = 6) and OA (0.32 +/- 0.06 microgram/g, n = 7) were detected in exuviae at 3 days and 4 days after dosing, respectively. Residual OTC was reduced to 50-70% in muscle by the usual methods of cooking (boiling, baking at 200 degrees C and frying at 180 degrees C), whereas reduction levels in shell were only 20-30%. Residual OA was reduced to 20-30% in muscle and shell by the cooking. These results confirm that the cooking procedures could only reduce but not completely eliminate these drug residues in prawn. PMID:12092414

Uno, Kazuaki

2002-04-01

380

Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and selenium levels in blood of four species of turtles from the Amazon in Brazil.  

PubMed

Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bioindicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans. PMID:19953418

Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

2010-01-01

381

Recent advances in wavelet analyses: Part 2—Amazon, Parana, Orinoco and Congo discharges time scale variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to illustrating new wavelet analysis methods in the field of hydrology. New wavelet indicators are applied to long-term hydrological and climatologic proxies. They are first applied to four Atlantic large river monthly discharges (Amazon, Parana, Orinoco and Congo) and then applied to two well-known long-term climatologic indexes: the Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. This approach makes it possible to suggest physical explanations for time-scale dependant relationships. Six-month variability is present in all the rivers except in the Parana. In the Congo River this signal is near stationary with strong entropy. The strength of this scale coincides with higher discharge variability before 1920 and over the Orinoco basin with higher discharge values between 1940 and 1955. An annual cycle is present in all the rivers but is much stronger, along with the entropy, in the rivers with a large tropical basin, as in the Amazon and the Orinoco. This annual signal is not permanent in the Congo and much more intermittent in the Parana where the annual recharge appears as very irregular. A quasi biennial variability is apparent in all the equator ward rivers and a nearly permanent 2-year coherence is found between SOI and the Amazon discharge. A 3-6-year oscillation typical of ENSO variability is observed in all the rivers. It is intermittent, observed before 1930 in all the rivers and after 1980 mostly in the Amazon River. These peaks of activity correspond to periods of major SOI variability. An 8-year variability is particularly strong in the Parana River before 1940 and around 1970 and to a lesser extent in the Orinoco River during the low NAO index period, between 1940 and 1970. The Congo River exhibits that time-scale around 1970. A 13-year variability common to SOI, NAO and the South Atlantic Ocean circulation is observed in the Parana and Congo discharges. In all the rivers the greatest entropy is observed at bi and multi decadal time scales with the greatest coherence with both NAO and SOI. A near 20-year time-scale is observed in most of the series around 1970, although it is strongest in Amazon and Parana discharges. Finally, a 30-year time-scale is observed between 1940 and 1970. It is to be noted that most of the time-scale dominant activities, in all the rivers, may have been influenced by the interdecadal shifts that took place around 1940 and 1970 in the Pacific and in the Atlantic. Therefore, in this contribution, the application of new wavelet indicators (combined continuous and multi-resolution analysis, wavelet entropy, wavelet coherence, wavelet cross-correlation) leads to several improvements in the analysis of these global hydrological signal fluctuations and of their mutual time varying relationships. It is demonstrated that wavelets should be used more systematically in preference to the classical Fourier analysis, notably in hydrology.

Labat, David; Ronchail, Josyane; Guyot, Jean Loup

2005-11-01

382

Phospholipid fatty acid composition of hepatopancreatic brush-border membrane vesicles from the prawn Penaeus japonicus.  

PubMed

Brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were isolated from prawn hepatopancreas as we previously described (Muriana et al (1993) J Biochem 113, 625-629). The characterization of hepatopancreatic BBMV (hBBMV) by monitoring the activity of marker enzymes indicated a relatively pure apical membrane preparation reduced in basolateral contamination. Phospholipid composition of hBBMV was examined by the Iatroscan TLC/FID technique, whereas the fatty acid profile of phospholipids was examined by capillary gas chromatography. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are the principal phospholipids of these membranes. The major fatty acids of phospholipids are palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1n-7), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1n-9), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosapentaenoic (22:5n-3) acids. Individual phospholipids are characterized by distinct fatty acid compositions, but display a similar ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acids and a similar unsaturation index. PMID:7647111

Muriana, F J; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V; Blaya, J A; Bolufer, J

1995-01-01

383

Use of ethanol production by-products for producing microalgae, tilapia, and freshwater prawns  

SciTech Connect

By-products from fermentation of grains to alcohol are highly valued as feed supplements for beef and dairy cattle, swine, and poultry. The quantity of wet distillers by-products (stillage) from fuel alcohol production is expected to increase greatly. Unlike dried distillers by-products, wet distillers by-products have generally been abandoned as feed supplements for livestock because of high water content, cost of handling, and storage problems. Using wet distillers by-products as a fertilizer or feed supplement in aquatic production systems appears promising. Two experiments were conducted to determine relationships between stillage application rates and production of microalgae and yields of tilapia (fish) and freshwater prawns (shrimp). Dissolved oxygen concentrations and several other water quality parameters were also monitored. 19 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

Behrends, L.L.; Kingsley, J.B.; Price, A.H. III

1983-01-01

384

River of Venom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You, the reader, show up to help study Africanized bees in the Amazon - only to discover the project's director unconscious on the floor. What's going on? Was it an accident or skullduggery? "River of Venom" has three parts. The story begins with Episode One, continues in Episode Two, and wraps up in the Conclusion. Episode One emphasis is medical science and human health. Episode Two requires deductive reasoning. Both episodes present clues and culminate in a mystery question that the reader tries to answer correctly. Facts about the science subjects are integrated into the clue-finding activity for each Episode.

Ken Eklund (Writerguy REV)

1997-02-01

385

Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery  

PubMed Central

Background Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. Methodology and Principal Findings A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e–5) contig (80%) and singleton (84%) matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. Conclusions The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs. PMID:22174756

Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E.; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A.; McWilliam, Sean; Mather, Peter B.

2011-01-01

386

Post-Embryonic Transcriptomes of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Multigenic Succession through Metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

387

Post-embryonic transcriptomes of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: multigenic succession through metamorphosis.  

PubMed

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

388

Anomalous anatomy of identified neurons in the larval prawn: spontaneous and induced by microlesions.  

PubMed

The abdominal ganglia of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii undergo developmental changes of fundamental interest between the time of hatching and metamorphosis. These changes include an increase in cell numbers and changes in the connectivity between identified neurons. The giant motoneurons involved in the escape response, which form a syncytium in the adult, are observed as separate neurons with crossed axons in early larvae. Anomalous growth and connections of identified neurons were studied in order to gain some understanding of the rules and mechanisms governing normal development. Spontaneous anomalies included: supernumerary axons and abnormal axonal trajectories. The plasticity and specificity of identified neurons were studied by following the anatomical effects of deletions of giant neurons. Microlesions were inflicted reproducibly by means of a focused beam of visible and ultraviolet light. Within a day, irradiated cell bodies are eliminated; complete disappearance of the axon takes about 10 days, indicating that the remarkable ability of some invertebrate neurons to survive without a soma is not present in the larval prawn. As a result of the removal of an axon, the most common effect found in central connections was the absence of the collaterals or axons deprived of their targets. No collateral sprouting was detected in the central nervous system. In about a third of the ganglia where a giant motoneuron was killed and structure was analyzed 2 or more weeks after irradiation, anomalous connections were found. They usually involved contacts between an interneuron deprived of its normal target and the contralateral motoneuron which remained intact. The restricted types of anomalies observed support the notion of a hierarchical order in the rules governing formation of central synapses, in which neuron type ranks higher than laterality. PMID:7062104

Friedlander, D R; Levinthal, C

1982-02-01

389

Influence of El Nino and ITCZ on Brazilian River Streamflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes effects of climatic phenomena El Nino and ITCZ latitudinal movements on streamflow patterns in major Brazilian river basins: Amazon (north), Araguaia-Tocantins (central-north), Parana (central-south) and Sao Francisco (central-northeast). Multiple correlation between annual streamflows and the NINO 3.4 and North Tropical Atlantic SST indexes (NTA) were analyzed for each river basin using different annual periods in order to account for the delay in streamflow response. The data consists of unimpaired river discharge time series at key points (from the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA)); normalized yearly averaged NINO3.4 index characterizing El Nino (from NOAA); and NTA index (from NOAA), as a surrogate of the latitudinal movement of the ITCZ, since it is correlated to the Atlantic SST gradient. As a result, each river basin showed a different response. At the Amazon river basin, almost all dry years occurred when NINO3.4 was above average (El Nino years). Moreover, in almost every year when NINO3.4 was below average (La Nina) the streamflows were above average. Thus, it seems that La Nina have strong effects in floods in Amazon river. Moreover, El Nino events seem to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition for low streamflows at Amazon river. A weaker relationship was found for Xingu river basin, since it is probably affected by cold fronts from the south. As the location of river basins changes towards the south, the effect of El Nino events gets weaker as for Araguaia-Tocantins and Sao Francisco river basins. At the Parana river basin, the relationship is reversed. Almost all extreme wet years occurred during El Nino years. The correlation between streamflows and the NTA indexes were very weak for all river basins except for the Amazon. When the NTA anomaly is negative, wet years occurs, since the ITCZ moves southwards and stays longer at that position, increasing rainfall over the Amazon and Northeast of Brazil. In contrast, almost all dry years occurred when the NTA index was positive. Annual streamflows were regressed on climatic indexes NINO 3.4 and NTA. At 95% level of significance, NINO3.4 and NTA indexes are significant variables in predicting streamflows at the Amazon (p=0.01% for NINO3.4 and p=0.30% for NTA) and at the Parana river basins (p=0.23% for NINO3.4 and p=1.11% for NTA). The values of R2 were significant high, 0.59 for Amazon and 0.26 for Parana, compared to very low values for Xingu (0.10), Araguaia-Tocantins (0.06) and Sao Francisco (0.04) river basins. The low correlation at central basins can be explained from the regression coefficients values. The coefficients for NTA index are all negative (except for Xingu river), indicating that negative NTA implies in greater streamflow and vice-versa. However, coefficients for NINO3.4 are negative at the Amazon and positive at Parana which means that negative anomalies (La Nina years) implies in greater streamflows at Amazon and lower streamflows at Parana and vice-versa. Opposite effects of El Nino/La Nina on north and south river basins seems to be neutralized in the central river basins so the correlation gets weaker: during El Nino (La Nina) events, the reduction (increasing) in rainfall at north is counter balanced by the enhancement (reduction) of rainfall at south associated with cold fronts.

Lopes, A.; Dracup, J. A.

2010-12-01

390

Mapping the Amazon: Mosaic tiles animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A satellite can cover the Amazon in just two months. The mapping team chose a Japanese satellite outfitted with synthetic aperture radar, or SAR for short. SAR is a natural fit for the Amazon. It can penetrate the clouds that pour rain for half of the year and the smoke from trees burned by farmers to clear land. SAR even works at night. As you might imagine, the satellite collects a pile of data. In raw form, these observations are gibberish. Focusing them requires a supercomputer to crunch fifteen hundred trillion calculations. The output is rich images of the Amazon. Scientists listed worked as a team on Mosaicking Software and Mosaic Production.

Snodgrass, Stuart; Bridgman, Tom; Jones, Randall; Chapman, Bruce; Curkendall, David; Freeman, Tony

2002-03-14

391

Interpretation of seismic stratigraphy on the Amazon continental shelf  

SciTech Connect

The stratigraphy of the Amazon subaqueous delta has been examined using high-resolution reflection profiles. 15 piston cores from the Amazon Shelf were used to interpret the significance of the reflectors evident in the seismic profiles. Acoustic reflectors correlate with changes in grain size within cores, and generally represent coarser layers within the muddy deposits of the delta. Measurement of compressional-wave seismic velocity and saturated bulk density demonstrate that the correlation results from changes in acoustic impedance, caused by the grain-size variations. The reflectors reveal two predominant types of seismic stratigraphy: depositional and erosional. The depositional stratigraphy contains reflectors formed by relatively subtle change in grain size. Gently dipping topset and steeply dipping foreset demonstrate upward and seaward progradation of the subaqueous delta. This stratigraphy is truncated by erosional reflectors, which are significantly coarser layers. The erosional reflectors divide the depositional stratigraphy into distinct sets. The prevalence of erosional reflectors is greatest in the topset region near the river mouth, suggesting that sediment in this region, which is rapidly accumulating on 100-year time scales, has been eroded over longer time scales within the Holocene.

Alexander, C.R. Jr.; Nittrouer, C.A.; Demaster, D.J.

1985-01-01

392

Temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides in prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) from Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, during 1978-2000.  

PubMed

Temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides such as beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE), were determined in freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) collected from Lake Kasumigaura in 1978 to 2000. The organochlorine pesticides elucidated a 72.4% decrease in beta-HCH, from 42 (1978) to 11.6 ng/g fat (2000); an 89.6% decrease in HCB, from 1.64 (1978) to 0.17 ng/g fat (2000); and an 87.3% decrease in p,p'-DDE, from 97.5 (1978) to 12.4 ng/g fat (1992). After organochlorine pesticide prohibition in 1971, the declining trend of beta-HCH, HCB, and p,p'-DDE concentrations persisting in the prawns could be approximated by exponential equations. PMID:15346782

Sunardi; Kumar, K Senthil; Masunaga, S; Iseki, N; Kasuga, S; Nakanishi, J

2004-07-01

393

Low-level nocturnal wind maximum over the central Amazon basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-level nocturnal wind maximum is shown to exist over extensive and nearly undisturbed rainforest near the central Amazon city of Manaus. Analysis of meteorological data collected during the 1985 and 1987 Amazon Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE 2A and 2B) indicates the presence of this nocturnal wind maximum during both the wet and dry seasons of the Central Amazon Basin. Daytime wind speeds which are characteristically 3 7 m s-1 between 300 and 1000 m increase to 10 15m s-1 shortly after sunset. The wind speed maximum is reached in the early evening, with wind speeds remaining high until several hours after sunrise. The nocturnal wind maximum is closely linked to a strong low-level inversion formed by radiational cooling of the rainforest canopy. The night-time inversion extends up to 300 m with strong vertical shear of the horizontal wind below the inversion top and uniformly strong horizontal winds above the inversion top. Frictional decoupling of the air above the inversion from the rough forest below, however, is responsible for only part of the observed increase. Surface and low-level pressure gradients between the undisturbed forest and the large Amazon river system and the city of Manaus are shown to be responsible for much of the nocturnal wind increase. The pressure gradients are interpreted as a function of the thermal differences between undisturbed forest and the river/city. The importance of both the frictional decoupling and the horizontal pressure gradient suggest that the nocturnal wind maximum does not occur uniformly over all Amazonia. We suspect that stronger low-level winds are pervasive under clear skies and strong surface cooling and that, in many places (i.e., near rivers), local pressure gradients enhance the low-level nocturnal winds.

Greco, Steven; Ulanski, Stanley; Garstang, Michael; Houston, Samuel

1992-01-01

394

Toxic effects of blooms of marine species of Oscillatoriales on farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon, Penaeus japonicus) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina).  

PubMed

Benthic and planktonic blooms of species of Oscillatoriales coincided with mortalities of Penaeus monodon during four episodes at Australian prawn farms. Oscillatoria corakiana was the dominant planktonic species at 65-90,000 cells/ml, but Spirulina sp., Lyngbya sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Nodularia sp. were also identified from the water column, benthic layers or surface mats. The levels and variety of Vibrionaceae in prawn tissue, suggest that mortalities were caused by secondary infections of bacteria. However, experimental results indicate that toxicity of the blooms of Oscillatoriales was the primary cause of disease. Pond water and extracts from a tank culture of benthic Oscillatoriales caused mortalities when injected into P. monodon and P. japonicus. Immersion of artemia in extracts from the tank culture also caused mortalities, with L.D50 values for the supernatant extract of 70 mg/litre for artemia cysts and 50 mg/litre for adult artemia, and LD50 values for the pellet extract of 110 mg/litre for artemia cysts and 200 mg/litre for adult artemia. Experiments with artemia suggested the blooms of Oscillatoriales produced water-soluble, heat-labile toxin/s. Mortalities may have been caused by a neurotoxin because: (a) there was a lack of histopathological evidence of damage to the digestive tracts of prawns during each episode; and (b) artemia cysts immersed in extracts of Oscillatoriales died before they developed digestive tracts. PSP toxin, anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a and microcystins were not detected when pond water from a diseased pond was tested. It is proposed that sub-lethal levels of toxin weakened the prawns, causing reduced feeding behaviour and an impaired immune system. As a result, prawns were prone to secondary infection by pathogenic bacteria. Because Oscillatoriales are ubiquitous in prawn farms, the findings have significant implications for the assessment of disease in the prawn farming industry. PMID:8875773

Smith, P T

1996-08-01

395

Population structure of the black tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, among western Indian Ocean and western Pacific populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the population structure of the black tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the Indo-West Pacific by analyzing the geographic distribution of elongation factor 1-alpha intron sequences from specimens collected during the winter and spring of 1997. Both the molecular phylogeny of alleles and\\u000a F-statistics indicated very strong differentiation between populations from the western Indian Ocean and western

T. F. Duda Jr; S. R. Palumbi

1999-01-01

396

Amino acid sequence of a peptide with molt-inhibiting activity from the kuruma prawn Penaeus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six major peptides (Pej-SGP-I-VI) that belong to the CHH family have been isolated from the sinus gland extracts of the kuruma prawn Penaeus japonicus. By in vitro assay using the Y-organ of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, Pej-SGP-IV was found to be active in inhibiting ecdysteroid synthesis. We determined the complete amino acid sequence. Pej-SGP-IV consists of 77 amino acid residues,

Wei-Jung Yang; Katsumi Aida; Akiko Terauchi; Haruyuki Sonobe; Hiromichi Nagasawa

1996-01-01

397

Evolution in ancient lakes: radiation of Tanganyikan atyid prawns and speciation of pelagic cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atyid prawns from Lake Tanganyika are still poorly understood. There are at least 11 species sharing an exceptionally small\\u000a size and a reduction in the number of branchiae. The majority are benthic although some are pelagic. This is reflected in\\u000a different morphologies of the body and walking legs. Morphological adaptions of the denticles on the chelipeds are adaptive\\u000a as they

Geoffrey Fryer

2006-01-01

398

Prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii : characterization, expression and specific enzyme activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prophenoloxidase activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates.\\u000a The major enzyme, phenoloxidase, is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated\\u000a by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases. In this study, a cDNA encoding a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme-III from\\u000a the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated

Jesu Arockiaraj; Sarasvathi Easwvaran; Puganeshwaran Vanaraja; Arun Singh; Rofina Yasmin Othman; Subha Bhassu

399

Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under Salt Stress  

PubMed Central

The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

2012-01-01

400

Effects of (60)Co gamma irradiation on behavior and gill histoarchitecture of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DE MAN).  

PubMed

Present study was designed to observe the effects of (60)Co gamma radiation in behavioral and histological changes in the gills of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The adult prawns were irradiated with four different dose levels (3mGy, 30mGy, 300mGy and 3000mGy) and the control group (without irradiation) was maintained separately. Behavioral changes like hyperactivity, loss of balance, reduced swimming rate, slower rate of food intake and convulsions were observed in higher dose levels of 300mGy and 3000mGy. The histological alterations such as accumulated haemocytes in haemocoelic spaces, abnormal gill tips, lifted lamellar epithelium, swollen and fused lamellae, hyperplasic, necrotic, clavate-globate and complete disorganization of lamellae were observed in (60)Co gamma irradiated prawns. Significantly more considerable histological alterations were observed in the highest dose level of 3000mGy, but no mortality was evidenced. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the radiation pollution in the aquatic environment. PMID:23587558

Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-babu, P

2013-06-01

401

Geometry of river networks. II. Distributions of component size and number Peter Sheridan Dodds1,2,  

E-print Network

examine continent-scale networks: the Mississippi, Amazon, Congo, Nile, and Kansas river basGeometry of river networks. II. Distributions of component size and number Peter Sheridan Dodds1 of a river network may be seen as a discrete set of nested subnetworks built out of individual stream

Dodds, Peter

402

Composition of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a disturbed watershed of southeast Brazil (Piracicaba River basin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elemental and isotopic composition of particulate and dissolved organic matter was investigated in the Piracicaba River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Comparison of riverine organic matter from the Piracicaba River basin, a region where rivers and streams receive urban sewage and industrial effluents, with data reported for the pristine Amazon system revealed significant differences associated with anthropogenic impacts. One

Alex V Krusche; Luiz A Martinelli; Reynaldo L Victoria; Marcelo Bernardes; Plinio B de Camargo; Maria V Ballester; Susan E Trumbore

2002-01-01

403

Saharan dust in the Amazon Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saharan dust is shown to enter the Central Amazon Basin (CAB) in bursts which accompany major wet season rain systems. Low-level horizontal convergence feeding these rain systems draws dust from plumes which have crossed the tropical Atlantic under the large-scale circulation fields. Mass exchange of air between the surface and 4km over the eastern Amazon basin is calculated using rawinsonde

R. Swap; M. Garstang; S. Greco; R. Talbot; P. Kållberg