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1

A 113 L/min ambient aerosol sampler for collection of thoracic and respirable fractions  

E-print Network

fiber filter to effect aerosol collection, Figure 5. For the analysis of the aerosol collected on each filter, a fluorescence technique was used to quantify concentrations of the sodium fluorescein tag. Filters to be analyzed were placed in a mea...- sured quantity of ethanol to dissolve the fluorescein. The filters ~ FLOW OOOO FLOW OF DILUTION A IR FLOW SPL I T TER Irr BS CHARGE NEUTRALIZER CYCLONE CHAMBER RSP COLLECTION FILTER ROTAMETERS T T P COLL ECTION FILTER GAUGES VACUUM...

Rue, Clayton Matthew

2012-06-07

2

New Portable Ambient Aerosol Sampler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NBS portable ambient aerosol sampler is designed to collect respirable (below 3-µm) and inhalable (below 15-µm) particle size fractions for gravimetric and chemical analyses. The sampler is light, quiet and unobtrusive. We selected the components of the sampler on the basis of size, weight, price, and availability as well as performance. The inlet was intended to maintain constant collection

DAVID S. BRIGHT; ROBERT A. FLETCHER

1983-01-01

3

FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY OF AMBIENT AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has been evaluated as a method for determining the concentration of selected species present in ambient aerosols collected on Teflon filters. The filters are analyzed by transmission measurements after collection of the fine fraction...

4

FTIR (FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED) TRANSMISSION SPECTROMETRY FOR THE NONDESTRUCTIVE DETERMINATION OF AMMONIUM AND SULFATE IN AMBIENT AEROSOLS COLLECTED ON TEFLON FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Fourier transform infrared transmission spectroscopy is used to analyze directly for sulfate and ammonium present in ambient aerosol particles deposited on Teflon filters. Integrated infrared peak areas for sulfate and ammonium are linearly related to x-ray fluorescence measureme...

5

Volatile organic compounds in ambient aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the concentration levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient aerosols, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) in the particulate phase were measured simultaneously with those in the gas phase in the urban atmosphere. Six compounds were detected in the aerosols at concentrations from 0.051 (1,2-dichloroethane) to 1.75 ng m - 3 (benzene). Benzene was detected as the most dominant compound in the aerosols, although toluene was the most dominant compound in the gas phase. The VOCs in the aerosols had concentrations comparable to those reported for some semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) in the aerosols. The concentrations of the VOCs in the aerosols were primarily controlled by the aerosol mass loading. Temperature and relative humidity had no significant effect on the gas/particle partitioning of the VOCs. Our results also suggested that the hygroscopic properties of the aerosols should be considered to discuss the partitioning of the VOCs.

Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Kumi; Mizuno, Riichi; Igawa, Manabu

2010-07-01

6

Characterization of selenium in ambient aerosols and primary emission sources.  

PubMed

Atmospheric selenium (Se) in aerosols was investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the oxidation state and elemental associations of Se in common primary emission sources and ambient aerosols collected from the greater Atlanta area. In the majority of ambient aerosol and primary emission source samples, the spectroscopic patterns as well as the absence of elemental correlations suggest Se is in an elemental, organic, or oxide form. XRF microscopy revealed numerous Se-rich particles, or hotspots, accounting on average for ?16% of the total Se in ambient aerosols. Hotspots contained primarily Se(0)/Se(-II). However, larger, bulk spectroscopic characterizations revealed Se(IV) as the dominant oxidation state in ambient aerosol, followed by Se(0)/Se(-II) and Se(VI). Se(IV) was the only observed oxidation state in gasoline, diesel, and coal fly ash, while biomass burning contained a combination of Se(0)/Se(-II) and Se(IV). Although the majority of Se in aerosols was in the most toxic form, the Se concentration is well below the California Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit (?20000 ng/m(3)). PMID:25075640

De Santiago, Arlette; Longo, Amelia F; Ingall, Ellery D; Diaz, Julia M; King, Laura E; Lai, Barry; Weber, Rodney J; Russell, Armistead G; Oakes, Michelle

2014-08-19

7

Chemical characterization of ambient aerosol collected during the southwest monsoon and intermonsoon seasons over the Arabian Sea: Labile-Fe(II) and other trace metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) to certain regions of the oceans is an important nutrient source of Fe to the biota, and the ability of the biota to uptake Fe is dependent on the speciation of the Fe. Therefore understanding the speciation of Fe in the atmosphere is critical to understanding the role of Fe as a nutrient source in surface ocean waters. Labile ferrous iron (Fe(II)) concentrations as well as total concentrations for Fe and other important trace metals, cations, and anions were determined over the Arabian Sea for two nonconsecutive months during 1995. Ambient aerosol samples were collected during the Indian Ocean intermonsoon and southwest monsoon seasons over the Arabian Sea. Sampling took place aboard the German research vessel Meteor in the months of May (leg M32/3; intermonsoon) and July/August (leg M32/5; southwest monsoon). Both cruise tracks followed the 65th east meridian, traveling for 30 days each (from north to south during leg M32/3 and from south to north during leg M32/5). A high-volume dichotomous virtual impactor with an aerodynamic cutoff size of 3 ?m was used to collect the fine and coarse aerosol fractions for metal analysis. A low volume collector was used to collect aerosol samples for anion and cation analysis. The analysis for labile-Fe(II) was done immediately after sample collection to minimize any possible Fe redox reactions which might occur during sample storage. The analytical procedure involved filter extraction in a formate/formic acid buffered solution at pH 4.2 followed by colorimetric quantification of soluble Fe(II). Metals, anions, and cations were analyzed after the cruise. Total atmospheric aqueous-labile-Fe(II) concentrations during the intermonsoon were between 4.75 and <0.4 ng m-3, of which most (>80%) was present in the fine fraction (<3.0 ?m). During the southwest monsoon, atmospheric aqueous-labile-Fe(II) concentrations were consistently below the detection limit (<0.34 to <0.089 ng m-3, depending on the volume of air sampled). Air mass back trajectories (5 day, three dimensional) showed that air masses sampled during the southwest monsoon had advected over the open Indian Ocean, while air masses sampled during the intermonsoon had advected over northeast Africa, the Saudi Arabian peninsula, and southern Asia. These calculations were consistent with the results of the statistical analysis performed on the data set which showed that the variance due to crustal species during the intermonsoon samples was greater than the variance due to crustal species during the southwest monsoon. The factor scores for the crustal components were also greater when the back trajectories had advected over the nearby continental masses. Principal component analysis was also performed with the intermonsoon samples where aqueous labile Fe(II) was above the detection limit. Aqueous labile Fe(II) did not correlate well with other species indicating possible atmospheric processing of the iron during advection.

Siefert, Ronald L.; Johansen, Anne M.; Hoffmann, Michael R.

1999-02-01

8

Characterization of Ambient Black Carbon Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the strong absorption over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectra, black carbon (BC) is a key short-lived climate forcer, which contributes significantly to climate change by direct radiative forcing and is the second most important component causing global warming after carbon dioxide. The impact of BC on the radiative forcing of the Earth-Atmosphere system is highly dependent of the particle properties. In this presentation, emphasis will be placed on characterizing BC containing aerosols in at the California-Mexico border to obtain a greater understanding of the atmospheric aging and properties of ambient BC aerosols. A comprehensive set of directly measured aerosol properties, including the particle size distribution, effective density, hygroscopicity, volatility, and several optical properties, will be discussed to quantify the mixing state and composition of ambient particles. In Tijuana, Mexico, submicron aerosols are strongly influenced by vehicle emissions; subsequently, the BC concentration in Tijuana is considerably higher than most US cities with an average BC concentration of 2.71 × 2.65 g cm-3. BC accounts for 24.75 % × 9.44 of the total submicron concentration on average, but periodically accounts for over 50%. This high concentration of BC strongly influences many observed aerosol properties such as single scattering albedo, hygroscopicity, effective density, and volatility.

Zhang, R.; Levy, M. E.; Zheng, J.; Molina, L. T.

2013-12-01

9

Analytical techniques for ambient sulfate aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Work done to further develop the infrared spectroscopic analytical method for the analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles, as well as some exploratory work on a new procedure for determining proton acidity in aerosol samples is described. Earlier work had led to the successful use of infrared (ir) spectrophotometry for the analysis of nitrate, ammonium, and neutral and acidic sulfates in aerosol samples collected by an impactor on a Mylar-film substrate. In this work, a filter-extraction method was developed to prepare filter-collected aerosol samples for ir analysis. A study was made comparing the ir analytical results on filter-collected samples with impactor-collected samples. Also, the infrared analytical technique was compared in field studies with light-scattering techniques for aerosol analysis. A highly sensitive instrument for aerosol analysis using attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy was designed, built, and tested. This instrument provides a measurement sensitivity much greater (by a factor of 6 for SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) than that obtainable using the KBr-pellet method. This instrument collect size- and time-resolved samples and is potentially capable of providing automated, near real-time aerosol analysis. Exploratory work on a novel approach to the determination of proton acidity in filter- or impactor-collected aerosol samples is also described. In this technique, the acidic sample is reacted with an access of a tagged, vapor-phase base. The unreacted base is flushed off and the amount of the tag retained by the sample is a direct measure of the proton acidity of the sample. The base was tagged with Ge, which can be conveniently determined by the x-ray fluorescence technique.

Johnson, S.A.; Graczyk, D.G.; Kumar, R.; Cunningham, P.T.

1981-06-01

10

Aerosol collection characteristics of ambient aerosol samplers  

E-print Network

Parcae Small-size, 15-cm diameter, wind tunnel Medium-size, 61 cm x 61 cm, wind tunnel Large-size, 1. 5 m x 1. 5 m, wind tunnel Smoke recovery profile, 2 km/hr Smoke recovery profile, 8 km/hr 14 15 16 21 22 10 12 Isokinetic sampler, 8. 5 ms..., was used to sample with a standard knife-edged orifice under isokinet1c conditions. May noted that the modified Casella cascade impactor was highly effective with sizes as small as about 1 um. Another excellent device for sampling down to 10 um...

Ortiz, Carlos A

2012-06-07

11

DEVELOPMENT OF A PORTABLE DEVICE TO COLLECT SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL  

EPA Science Inventory

A quantitative, interference-free method for collecting sulfuric acid aerosol on a filter was developed and field tested. Since previous research found that severe losses of sulfuric aicd were caused by ammonia, ambient particulate material, and other interferents, a method was n...

12

DICHOTOMOUS SAMPLER - A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO AEROSOL FRACTIONATION AND COLLECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Procedures to size fractionate, collect, and analyze ambient concentrations of particulate matter are described. Emphasis is placed on the design and characteristics of the single-stage dichotomous sampler. A new inlet is described that samples aerosol independent of wind speed a...

13

GC/MS ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR AEROSOLS IN THE HOUSTON, TEXAS AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air aerosols and vapor samples were collected by Radian Corp., Austin, TX. in the Houston, Texas area using three different samplers. A High Volume sampler and dichotomous sampler were used for the collection of particulate matter; vapor-phase organic samples were collect...

14

Direct Observations of the Composition of Sub-20 Nanometer Ambient Aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding new particle formation in the atmosphere depends upon many factors including detailed knowledge of their chemical composition. The chemical composition of sub-20 nanometer ambient aerosol particles, however, is typically inferred from observations of the aerosol behavior when subjected to varying conditions during sampling. Direct observations of aerosol chemical composition are usually limited to or dominated by larger particles of higher mass. Recently a new instrument has been developed - the Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) - which can directly measure the chemical composition of sub-20 nanometer aerosol particles. Briefly, the front end of the TDCIMS functions as an electrostatic precipitator using a strong electric field to collect charged aerosol particles onto a sample wire. After volatilization by heating, the component species of the collected particles are subjected to chemical ionization prior to introduction into the mass spectrometer for analysis. Detection limits on the order of picograms permit sample collection periods as small as five minutes for ambient aerosol concentrations providing near "real-time" resolution. For selected periods from April through June 2002, we used the TDCIMS to measure the chemical composition of ambient aerosol for the first time. We investigated both the positive and negative ion spectrums produced by sub-20 nanometer ambient aerosol particles at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. Principal species identified include ammonium, sulfate and nitrate although additional peaks consistent with particle-phase origin were readily observed. Diurnal concentration profiles appear to be present and the relative proportion of sulfate and nitrate to each other can vary appreciably over several hours and between days. Validation of the TDCIMS' performance and the interpretation of its results will also be discussed.

Moore, K. F.; Smith, J. N.; Eisele, F. L.; McMurry, P. H.

2002-12-01

15

Variability of Ambient Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolian Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal variations of the ambient aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan area was characterized during the springs of 2002 and 2003 using a mobile laboratory equipped with gas and particulate measurement instrumentation. The laboratory was operated at various fixed sites locations in and at the edge of the metropolitan area (Xalostoc, Merced, Cenica, Pedregal, and Santa Ana).

T. B. Onasch; D. R. Worsnop; M. Canagaratna; J. T. Jayne; S. Herndon; P. Mortimer; C. E. Kolb; T. Rogers; B. Knighton; E. Dunlea; L. Marr; B. de Foy; M. Molina; L. Molina; D. Salcedo; K. Dzepina; J. L. Jimenez

2004-01-01

16

Transport and characterization of ambient biological aerosol near Laurel, MD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial aerosol have been observed and studied in the ambient environment since the mid nineteenth century. These studies have sought to provide a better understanding of the diversity, variability and factors that control the biological aerosol population. In this study, we show comparisons between diversity of culturable bacteria and fungi, using culture and clinical biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA diversity using Affymetrix PhyloChips. Comparing the culturable fraction and surveying the total 16S rRNA of each sample provides a comprehensive look at the bacterial population studied and allows comparison with previous studies. Thirty-six hour back-trajectories of the air parcels sampled, over the two day period beginning 4 November 2008, provide information on the sources of aerosol sampled on the campus of Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD. This study indicates that back-trajectory modeling of air parcels may provide insights into the observed diversity of biological aerosol.

Santarpia, J. L.; Cunningham, D.; Gilberry, J.; Kim, S.; Smith, E. E.; Ratnesar-Shumate, S.; Quizon, J.

2010-09-01

17

IN ability investigations of ambient desert dust and urban aerosol samples by environmental scanning electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of aerosol particles on heterogeneous ice formation are currently insufficiently understood. Modelling studies have shown that the type and quantity of atmospheric aerosol particles acting as ice nuclei can influence ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties as well as precipitation. Therefore, a quantitative description of the ice nucleation processes is crucial for a better understanding of formation, life cycles, and the optical properties of clouds as well as for the numerical precipitation forecast. We report in-situ measurements (deposition and condensation freezing) of the ice nuclei ability of ambient desert dust and urban aerosol samples. All samples are analyzed in an environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), which enables in-situ observation of interactions between water vapour and aerosol particles in the sub-micrometer range. The temperature - supersaturation curve (1 - 3 % activation) for two ambient desert dust samples from Saudi-Arabia, collected in Israel, were determined. The IN ability of the total ambient samples is almost identical with the values of the mineral with best IN capability (illite or palygroskite), which were present at low concentrations. This clearly shows that ice nucleation of the total aerosol sample can be dominated by a minor component. To study the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the IN-ability of ambient aerosols, aerosol sampling at different metereological situations at Mt. Kleiner Feldberg (825 m above sea level), about 25 km north of Frankfurt/M (Germany) was performed. First ESEM-results show that clean air masses always yield more ice crystals than polluted air masses. This can be explained by the enhanced presence of sulphate, nitrate or organic particle coatings on the surface of particles in polluted air masses, leading to droplet formation instead of ice nucleation.

Ebert, M.; Zimmermann, F.; Herrmann, T.; Lieke, K.; Ganor, E.; Weinbruch, S.; Schütz, L.

2009-04-01

18

Activation of "synthetic ambient" aerosols - Relation to chemical composition of particles <100 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are an important fraction of atmospheric aerosols because of their role in cloud formation. Experimental studies focus either on direct field measurements of complex ambient aerosols or laboratory investigations on well defined aerosols produced from single substances or substance mixtures. In this study, we focussed on the ultrafine aerosol because in terms of number concentration, the majority of the CCN are expected to have sizes in this range. A field study was performed from July 2007 to October 2008 to investigate the activation behaviour of the atmospheric aerosol in Vienna (Burkart et al., 2011). Filter samples of the aerosol <0.1 ?m aerodynamic equivalent diameter were collected, elutriated and used to generate "synthetic ambient" aerosol in a nebulizer. Chemical analyses of the ultrafine water soluble material were also performed. The CCN properties of the "synthetic ambient" aerosol were obtained using the University of Vienna CCN counter (Giebl et al., 2002; Dusek et al., 2006b) at a nominal supersaturation (SS) of 0.5%. Activation diameters dact ranged from 54.5 nm to 66 nm, were larger than dact of typical single inorganic salts and showed no seasonal pattern in contrast to the fraction of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), which ranged from 44% in spring to 15% in winter. The average hygroscopicity parameter ? (Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007) obtained from the activation curves ranged from 0.20 to 0.30 (average 0.24), which was significantly lower than ?chem calculated from the chemical composition (0.43 ± 0.07).

Burkart, J.; Hitzenberger, R.; Reischl, G.; Bauer, H.; Leder, K.; Puxbaum, H.

2012-07-01

19

Ambient aerosol analysis using aerosol-time-of-flight mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

We have recently developed a technique, Aerosol-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS), which is capable of real-time determination of the aerodynamic size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. In order to obtain such information, the techniques of aerodynamic particle sizing and time-of-flight mass spectrometry are combined in a single instrument. ATOFMS is being used for the direct analysis of ambient aerosols with the goal of establishing correlations between particle size and chemical composition. Currently, measurements are being made to establish potential links between the presence of particular types of particles with such factors as the time of day, weather conditions, and concentration levels of gaseous smog components such as NO{sub x} and ozone. This data will be used to help establish a better understanding of tropospheric gas-aerosol processes. This talk will discuss the operating principles of ATOFMS as well as present the results of ambient analysis studies performed in our laboratory.

Prather, K.A.; Noble, C.A.; Liu, D.Y.; Silva, P.J.; Fergenson, D.F.

1996-10-01

20

Spectral analysis of ambient aerosol and trace gas measurements  

SciTech Connect

An electronic cascade impactor was used in aircraft flights to study fluctuations in the size distribution of the ambient aerosol and to relate these fluctuations to those of trace gas concentrations and light scattering coefficient over Buffalo, New York, and Houston, Texas. Spectral analysis of data from crosswind flights remote from major localized industrial and urban sources in Buffalo indicate that most of the observed fluctuations were associated with atmospheric turbulence. Spectral analysis of data from Houston suggests secondary aerosol formation associated with ozone. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Tropp, R.J.; Brock, J.R.; Kuhn, P.J.

1982-01-01

21

Separating Hazardous Aerosols from Ambient Aerosols: Role of Fluorescence-Spectral Determination, Aerodynamic Deflector and Pulse Aerodynamic Localizer (PAL)  

SciTech Connect

An aerosol deflection technique based on the single-shot UV-laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from a flowing particle is presented as a possible front-end bio-aerosol/hazardous-aerosol sensor/identifier. Cued by the fluorescence spectra, individual flowing bio-aerosol particles (1-10 {micro}m in diameter) have been successfully deflected from a stream of ambient aerosols. The electronics needed to compare the fluorescence spectrum of a particular particle with that of a pre-determined fluorescence spectrum are presented in some detail. The deflected particles, with and without going through a funnel for pulse aerodynamic localization (PAL), were collected onto a substrate for further analyses. To demonstrate how hazardous materials can be deflected, TbCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O (a simulant material for some chemical forms of Uranium Oxide) aerosol particles (2 {micro}m in diameter) mixed with Arizona road dust was separated and deflected with our system.

Pan, Yong-Le; Cobler, Patrick J.; Rhodes, Scott A.; Halverson, Justin; Chang, Richard K.

2005-08-22

22

Measurements and Modeling of Aerosol Absorption and Single Scattering Albedo at Ambient Relative Hum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uncertainties in the aerosol single scattering albedo have been identified to be an important source of errors in current large-scale model estimates of the direct aerosol radiative forcing of climate. A number of investigators have obtained estimates of the single scattering albedo from a variety of remote sensing and in situ measurements during aerosol field experiments. During the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX, 1996) for example, estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo were obtained (1) as a best-fit parameter in comparing radiative flux changes measured by airborne pyranometer to those computed from independently measured aerosol properties; (2) from estimates of the aerosol complex index of refraction derived using a combination of airborne sunphotometer, lidar backscatter and in situ size distribution measurements; and (3) from airborne measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption using nephelometers and absorption photometers. In this paper, we briefly compare the results of the latter two methods for two TARFOX case studies, since those techniques provide height-resolved information about the aerosol single scattering albedo. Estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo from nephelometer and absorption photometer measurements require knowledge of the scattering and absorption humidification (i.e., the increase in these properties in response to an increase in ambient relative humidity), since both measurements are usually carried out at a relative humidity different from the ambient atmosphere. In principle, the scattering humidification factor can be measured, but there is currently no technique widely available to measure the absorption of an aerosol sample as a function of relative humidity. Frequently, for lack of better knowledge, the absorption humidification is assumed to be unity (meaning that there is no change in aerosol absorption due to an increase in ambient relative humidity). This assumption then enters the estimate of the single scattering albedo at ambient relative humidity. To investigate the validity of this assumption we have carried out modeling studies of the absorption humidification factor, assuming that the aerosols contain an insoluble soot core and a coating which determines its hygroscopic growth behavior. The aerosol optical properties are then computed on the basis of the shell/core particle morphology using a Mie-code for concentric shells. From basic physical principles, it is conceivable that aerosol absorption increases when an atmospheric aerosol particle collects a non-absorbing shell, since the soot core is then exposed to an increased (focused) electric field strength. Indeed, our preliminary modeling studies show that the absorption of an atmospheric aerosol particle composed of a soot core and an aqueous sulfuric acid shell may increase by a factor of 50% due to a change in ambient relative humidity from 30 to 95%. We will show how this increased absorption is a function of the initial particle size and soot mass fraction.

Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hamill, P.

2000-01-01

23

Cloud forming properties of ambient aerosol in the Netherlands and resultant shortwave radiative forcing of climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis discusses properties of ambient aerosols in the Netherlands which are controlling the magnitude of the local aerosol radiative forcing. Anthropogenic aerosols influence climate by changing the radiative transfer through the atmosphere via two effects, one is direct and a second is indirect. Due to the scattering of solar light on aerosol particles the Earth surface receives less radiation

A. Khlystov

1998-01-01

24

Processing of Ambient Aerosols During Fog Events: Role of Acidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fog is a major processing and removal agent of ambient aerosols. Enhanced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production has been reported during fog events indicating major role of aqueous processing. Present study was carried out in a heavily polluted city of Kanpur situated in Indo-Gangetic plain of India,from 02- 18 Nov, 2012 and then from 22 Dec, 2012 to 10 January, 2013. 12 fog events were identified from 22 Dec to 10 January based on low visibility (< 300 m) with high liquid water content (~ 0.04 g/m3) and termed as foggy period while remaining as non-foggy period. Foggy period typically showed very high RH (~95%), low temperatures (~2-6°C) compared to non-foggy period. An array of instruments were deployed during this campaign for real time measurement of aerosol physico-chemical properties - High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Cloud Combination Probe (CCP), Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (CCN), fog water collector and Vaisala RH & T sensor. Average aerosol loading during foggy period was 104×44 ?g/m3, much higher than 73×49 ?g/m3of non-foggy period, but during actual fog events the loading reduced to 85×23 ?g/m3 indicating overall aerosol removal by fog. Overall aerosol composition during both the period was dominated by organics which constitutes about 60-70% of the total AMS mass followed by nitrate, but during foggy period sulfate was found to be increased many fold.HR analysis of AMS data revealed noticeable differences in the diurnal average values of O:C ratio between foggy and non -foggy period. Although diurnal O:C ratio was highest around noontime for both period but during fog events, night to early morning O:C ratio was 0.51×0.04, higher than that of non-foggy period 0.44×0.07, clearly indicating enhanced oxidation. AMS data also showed that mode size of all the species specially of organics and sulphate had shifted to a higher diameter during foggy period, an indication of secondary processing. Aerosol acidity which is calculated from ratio of stoichiometric neutralization of ammonium to sulphate, nitrate and chloride, is playing a major role in aerosol processing. Highly oxidized aerosols (O:C> 0.6) in both periods were always either less acidic or completely neutralized, whereas less oxidized aerosols (O:C < 0.35) were either highly or mildly acidic in nature.Van Krevelen diagram of H/C vs O/C also showed different slopes for acidic and neutralized aerosols.Both these findings indicate that different processing mechanisms are operating under acidic and neutralized conditions.Organic hygroscopicity showed a linear relationship with oxidation level of organics or O:C ratio, which in turn depends on acidity,indicate neutralized aerosol to be most likely more CCN active than acidic aerosol.

Chakraborty, A.; Gupta, T.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bhattu, D.

2013-12-01

25

Quantifying compositional impacts of ambient aerosol on cloud droplet formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been historically assumed that most of the uncertainty associated with the aerosol indirect effect on climate can be attributed to the unpredictability of updrafts. In Chapter 1, we analyze the sensitivity of cloud droplet number density, to realistic variations in aerosol chemical properties and to variable updraft velocities using a 1-dimensional cloud parcel model in three important environmental cases (continental, polluted and remote marine). The results suggest that aerosol chemical variability may be as important to the aerosol indirect effect as the effect of unresolved cloud dynamics, especially in polluted environments. We next used a continuous flow streamwise thermal gradient Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (CCNc) to study the water-uptake properties of the ambient aerosol, by exposing an aerosol sample to a controlled water vapor supersaturation and counting the resulting number of droplets. In Chapter 2, we modeled and experimentally characterized the heat transfer properties and droplet growth within the CCNc. Chapter 3 describes results from the MIRAGE field campaign, in which the CCNc and a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) were deployed at a ground-based site during March, 2006. Size-resolved CCN activation spectra and growth factor distributions of the ambient aerosol in Mexico City were obtained, and an analytical technique was developed to quantify a probability distribution of solute volume fractions for the CCN in addition to the aerosol mixing-state. The CCN were shown to be much less CCN active than ammonium sulfate, with water uptake properties more consistent with low molecular weight organic compounds. The pollution outflow from Mexico City was shown to have CCN with an even lower fraction of soluble material. "Chemical Closure" was attained for the CCN, by comparing the inferred solute volume fraction with that from direct chemical measurements. A clear diurnal pattern was observed for the CCN solute volume fraction, showing that measurable aging of the aerosol population occurs during the day, on the timescale of a few hours. The mixing state of the aerosol, also showing a consistent diurnal pattern, clearly correlates with a chemical tracer for local combustion sources. Chapter 4 describes results from the GoMACCS field study, in which the CCNc was subsequently deployed on an airborne field campaign in Houston, Texas during August-September, 2006. GoMACCS tested our ability to predict CCN for highly polluted conditions with limited chemical information. Assuming the particles were composed purely of ammonium sulfate, CCN closure was obtained with a 10% overprediction bias on average for CCN concentrations ranging from less than 100 cm-3 to over 10,000 cm-3, but with on average 50% variability. Assuming measured concentrations of organics to be internally mixed and insoluble tended to reduce the overprediction bias for less polluted conditions, but led to underprediction bias in the most polluted conditions. A likely explanation is that the high organic concentrations in the polluted environments depress the surface tension of the droplets, thereby enabling activation at lower soluble fractions.

Lance, Sara

26

Speciation of Fe in ambient aerosol and cloudwater  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric iron (Fe) is thought to play an important role in cloudwater chemistry (e.g., S(IV) oxidation, oxidant production, etc.), and is also an important source of Fe to certain regions of the worlds oceans where Fe is believed to be a rate-limiting nutrient for primary productivity. This thesis focuses on understanding the chemistry, speciation and abundance of Fe in cloudwater and aerosol in the troposphere, through observations of Fe speciation in the cloudwater and aerosol samples collected over the continental United States and the Arabian Sea. Different chemical species of atmospheric Fe were measured in aerosol and cloudwater samples to help assess the role of Fe in cloudwater chemistry.

Siefert, L. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

1996-08-15

27

Variability of Ambient Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolian Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variations of the ambient aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan area was characterized during the springs of 2002 and 2003 using a mobile laboratory equipped with gas and particulate measurement instrumentation. The laboratory was operated at various fixed sites locations in and at the edge of the metropolitan area (Xalostoc, Merced, Cenica, Pedregal, and Santa Ana). Size-resolved aerosol mass and chemical composition was measured with an aerosol mass spectrometer and selected trace gas species (low mass organic compounds, NO, NO2, NOy, O3, SO2, CH2O, NH3, CO2) were measured using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer and various optical systems. The aerosol was predominantly organic in composition with lesser amounts of ammonium nitrate, sulfate, and chloride. The organic component was composed of mixed primary and secondary organic compounds. The mass loading and chemical composition of the aerosol was influenced by local and regional air pollution sources and the meteorology in Mexico City. Most urban sites were influenced by a strong diurnal particulate mass trend indicative of primary organic emissions from traffic during early morning and subsequently oxidized/processed organics and ammonium nitrate particles starting in the mid-morning (~9 AM) and continuing throughout the day. Morning traffic-related primary organic emissions were strongest at La Merced (center of Mexico City, located near a busy food market), more subdued at other fixed sites further from the city center, and varied depending upon the day of week and holiday schedules. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were observed within Mexico City fixed sites and were correlated with traffic organic PM emissions. Oxidized organic and ammonium nitrate events occurred during mid-morning at all city sites and were well correlated with gas phase photochemical activity. The daily ammonium nitrate aerosol event occurred later at sites near the city limits, likely due to transported emissions from the city center. The sulfate particulate mass measured throughout most of the Mexico City area did not show a consistent diurnal pattern, characteristic of aged regional aerosol. Local refuse burns were observed to be a source of inorganic particulate chloride.

Onasch, T. B.; Worsnop, D. R.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J. T.; Herndon, S.; Mortimer, P.; Kolb, C. E.; Rogers, T.; Knighton, B.; Dunlea, E.; Marr, L.; de Foy, B.; Molina, M.; Molina, L.; Salcedo, D.; Dzepina, K.; Jimenez, J. L.

2004-12-01

28

Phenols and hydroxy-PAHs (arylphenols) as tracers for coal smoke particulate matter: source tests and ambient aerosol assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source tests were conducted to analyze and characterize diagnostic key tracers for emissions from burning of coals with various ranks. Coal samples included lignite from Germany, semibituminous coal from Arizona, USA, bituminous coal from Wales, UK and sample from briquettes of semibituminous coal, bituminous coal and anthracite from China. Ambient aerosol particulate matter was also collected in three areas of

Bernd R. T. Simoneit; Xinhui Bi; Daniel R. Oros; Patricia M. Medeiros; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu

2007-01-01

29

Studies of Ambient and Chamber Aerosol Composition using the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents composition measurements for atmospherically relevant inorganic and organic aerosol from laboratory and ambient measurements using the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer. Studies include the oxidation of dodecane in the Caltech environmental chambers, and several aircraft- and ground-based field studies, which include the quantification of wildfire emissions off the coast of California, and Los Angeles urban emissions. The oxidation of dodecane by OH under low NO conditions and the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was explored using a gas-phase chemical model, gas-phase CIMS measurements, and high molecular weight ion traces from particlephase HR-TOF-AMS mass spectra. The combination of these measurements support the hypothesis that particle-phase chemistry leading to peroxyhemiacetal formation is important. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the AMS mass spectra which revealed three factors representing a combination of gas-particle partitioning, chemical conversion in the aerosol, and wall deposition. Airborne measurements of biomass burning emissions from a chaparral fire on the central Californian coast were carried out in November 2009. Physical and chemical changes were reported for smoke ages 0--4 h old. CO 2 normalized ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate increased, whereas the normalized OA decreased sharply in the first 1.5--2 h, and then slowly increased for the remaining 2 h (net decrease in normalized OA). Comparison to wildfire samples from the Yucatan revealed that factors such as relative humidity, incident UV radiation, age of smoke, and concentration of emissions are important for wildfire evolution. Ground-based aerosol composition is reported for Pasadena, CA during the sumix mer of 2009. The OA component, which dominated the submicron aerosol mass, was deconvolved into hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), semi-volatile oxidized organic aerosol (SVOOA), and low-volatility oxidized organic aerosol (LVOOA). The HOA/OA was only 0.08--0.23, indicating that most of Pasadena OA in the summer months is dominated by oxidized OA resulting from transported emissions that have undergone photochemistry and/or moisture-influenced processing, as apposed to only primary organic aerosol emissions. Airborne measurements and model predictions of aerosol composition are reported for the 2010 CalNex field campaign.

Craven, Jill Suzanne

30

WOODSMOKE AND MOTOR VEHICLE CONTRIBUTION TO AMBIENT AEROSOL MUTAGENICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A receptor model analysis of the mutagenicity of ambient fine particles in air samples collected under EPA's Integrated Air Cancer Project has been performed. he analysis was based on multiple linear regression, using measured concentrations of inorganic chemical elements which a...

31

Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction (WSOC), and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

2007-04-01

32

2-hydroxyterpenylic acid: an oxygenated marker compound for ?-pinene secondary organic aerosol in ambient fine aerosol.  

PubMed

An oxygenated MW 188 compound is commonly observed in substantial abundance in atmospheric aerosol samples and was proposed in previous studies as an ?-pinene-related marker compound that is associated with aging processes. Owing to difficulties in producing this compound in sufficient amounts in laboratory studies and the occurrence of isobaric isomers, a complete assignment for individual MW 188 compounds could not be achieved in these studies. Results from a comprehensive mass spectrometric analysis are presented here to corroborate the proposed structure of the most abundant MW 188 compound as a 2-hydroxyterpenylic acid diastereoisomer with 2R,3R configuration. The application of collision-induced dissociation with liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry in both negative and positive ion modes, as well as chemical derivatization to methyl ester derivatives and analysis by the latter technique and gas chromatography/electron ionization mass spectrometry, enabled a comprehensive characterization of MW 188 isomers, including a detailed study of the fragmentation behavior using both mass spectrometric techniques. Furthermore, a MW 188 positional isomer, 4-hydroxyterpenylic acid, was tentatively identified, which also is of atmospheric relevance as it could be detected in ambient fine aerosol. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to support the diastereoisomeric assignment of the 2-hydroxyterpenylic acid isomers. Results from a time-resolved ?-pinene photooxidation experiment show that the 2-hydroxyterpenylic acid 2R,3R diastereoisomer has a time profile distinctly different from that of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid, a marker for oxygenated (aged) secondary organic aerosol. This study presents a comprehensive chemical data set for a more complete structural characterization of hydroxyterpenylic acids in ambient fine aerosol, which sets the foundation to better understand the atmospheric fate of ?-pinene in future studies. PMID:24697354

Kahnt, Ariane; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Blockhuys, Frank; Mutzel, Anke; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Jaoui, Mohammed; Offenberg, John H; Lewandowski, Michael; Böge, Olaf; Herrmann, Hartmut; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda

2014-05-01

33

An intercomparison study of analytical methods used for quantification of levoglucosan in ambient aerosol filter samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan are products of incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, and are found to be major constituents of biomass burning aerosol particles. Hence, ambient aerosol particle concentrations of levoglucosan are commonly used to study the influence of residential wood burning, agricultural waste burning and wild fire emissions on ambient air quality. A European-wide intercomparison on the analysis of the three monosaccharide anhydrides was conducted based on ambient aerosol quartz fiber filter samples collected at a Norwegian urban background site during winter. Thus, the samples' content of MAs is representative for biomass burning particles originating from residential wood burning. The purpose of the intercomparison was to examine the comparability of the great diversity of analytical methods used for analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan in ambient aerosol filter samples. Thirteen laboratories participated, of which three applied High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography (HPAEC), four used High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and six resorted to Gas Chromatography (GC). The analytical methods used were of such diversity that they should be considered as thirteen different analytical methods. All of the thirteen laboratories reported levels of levoglucosan, whereas nine reported data for mannosan and/or galactosan. Eight of the thirteen laboratories reported levels for all three isomers. The accuracy for levoglucosan, presented as the mean percentage error (PE) for each participating laboratory, varied from -63 to 23%; however, for 62% of the laboratories the mean PE was within ±10%, and for 85% the mean PE was within ±20%. For mannosan, the corresponding range was -60 to 69%, but as for levoglucosan, the range was substantially smaller for a subselection of the laboratories; i.e., for 33% of the laboratories the mean PE was within ±10%. For galactosan, the mean PE for the participating laboratories ranged from -84 to 593%, and as for mannosan 33% of the laboratories reported a mean PE within ±10%. The variability of the various analytical methods, as defined by their minimum and maximum PE value, was typically better for levoglucosan than for mannosan and galactosan, ranging from 3.2 to 41% for levoglucosan, from 10 to 67% for mannosan, and from 6 to 364% for galactosan. For the levoglucosan to mannosan ratio, which may be used to assess the relative importance of softwood vs. hardwood burning, the variability only ranged from 3.5 to 24%. To our knowledge, this is the first major intercomparison on analytical methods used to quantify monosaccharide anhydrides in ambient aerosol filter samples conducted and reported in the scientific literature. The results show that for levoglucosan the accuracy is only slightly lower than that reported for analysis of SO42- on filter samples, a constituent that has been analyzed by numerous laboratories for several decades, typically by ion chromatography, and which is considered a fairly easy constituent to measure. Hence, the results obtained for levoglucosan with respect to accuracy are encouraging and suggest that levels of levoglucosan, and to a lesser extent mannosan and galactosan, obtained by most of the analytical methods currently used to quantify monosaccharide anhydrides in ambient aerosol filter samples, are comparable. Finally, the various analytical methods used in the current study should be tested for other aerosol matrices and concentrations as well, the most obvious being summertime aerosol samples affected by wild fires and/or agricultural fires.

Yttri, K. E.; Schnelle-Kreiss, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Alves, C.; Bossi, R.; Bjerke, A.; Claeys, M.; Dye, C.; Evtyugina, M.; García-Gacio, D.; Gülcin, A.; Hillamo, R.; Hoffer, A.; Hyder, M.; Iinuma, Y.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kiss, G.; López-Mahia, P. L.; Pio, C.; Piot, C.; Ramirez-Santa-Cruz, C.; Sciare, J.; Teinilä, K.; Vermeylen, R.; Vicente, A.; Zimmermann, R.

2014-07-01

34

Ambient and indoor particulate aerosols generated by dairies in the southern High Plains.  

PubMed

The objectives were to quantify and size ambient aerosolized dust in and around the facilities of 4 southern High Plains dairies of New Mexico and to determine where health of workers might be vulnerable to particulate aerosols, based on aerosol concentrations that exceed national air quality standards. Ambient dust air samples were collected upwind (background) and downwind of 3 dairy location sites (loafing pen boundary, commodity, and compost field). The indoor milking parlor, a fourth site, was monitored immediately upwind and downwind. Aerosolized particulate samples were collected using high-volume sequential reference air samplers, laser aerosol monitors, and cyclone air samplers. The overall (main effects and estimable interactions) statistical general linear model statement for particulate matter (PM(10); particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of up to 10 microm) and PM(2.5) resulted in a greater mean concentration of dust in the winter (PM(10) = 97.4 +/- 4.4 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 32.6 +/- 2.6 microg/m(3)) compared with the summer (PM(10) = 71.9 +/- 5.0 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 18.1 +/- 1.2 microg/m(3)). The upwind and downwind boundary PM(10) concentrations were significantly higher in the winter (upwind = 64.3 +/- 9.5 microg/m(3); downwind = 119.8 +/- 13.0 microg/m(3)) compared with the summer (upwind = 35.2 +/- 7.5 microg/m(3); downwind = 66.8 +/- 11.8 microg/m(3)). The milking parlor PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentration data were significantly higher in the winter (PM(10) = 119.5 +/- 5.8 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 55.3 +/- 5.8microg/m(3)) compared with the summer (PM(10) = 88.6.0 +/- 5.8 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 21.0 +/- 2.1 microg/m(3)). Personnel should be protected from high aerosol concentrations found at the commodity barn, compost field, and milking parlor during the winter. PMID:19923606

Purdy, C W; Clark, R N; Straus, D C

2009-12-01

35

Collection of Aerosolized Human Cytokines Using Teflon(R) Filters  

PubMed Central

Background Collection of exhaled breath samples for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers is an important area of research aimed at improving our ability to diagnose, treat and understand the mechanisms of chronic pulmonary disease. Current collection methods based on condensation of water vapor from exhaled breath yield biomarker levels at or near the detection limits of immunoassays contributing to problems with reproducibility and validity of biomarker measurements. In this study, we compare the collection efficiency of two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices to a filter-based collection method for recovery of dilute laboratory generated aerosols of human cytokines so as to identify potential alternatives to exhaled breath condensate collection. Methodology/Principal Findings Two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices, the SKC® Biosampler and Omni 3000™, as well as Teflon® filters were used to collect aerosols of human cytokines generated using a HEART nebulizer and single-pass aerosol chamber setup in order to compare the collection efficiencies of these sampling methods. Additionally, methods for the use of Teflon® filters to collect and measure cytokines recovered from aerosols were developed and evaluated through use of a high-sensitivity multiplex immunoassay. Our results show successful collection of cytokines from pg/m3 aerosol concentrations using Teflon® filters and measurement of cytokine levels in the sub-picogram/mL concentration range using a multiplex immunoassay with sampling times less than 30 minutes. Significant degradation of cytokines was observed due to storage of cytokines in concentrated filter extract solutions as compared to storage of dry filters. Conclusions Use of filter collection methods resulted in significantly higher efficiency of collection than the two aerosol-to-liquid samplers evaluated in our study. The results of this study provide the foundation for a potential new technique to evaluate biomarkers of inflammation in exhaled breath samples. PMID:22574123

McKenzie, Jennifer H.; McDevitt, James J.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Hwang, Grace M.; Milton, Donald K.

2012-01-01

36

Condensed Volcanic Aerosols Collected Near-Source at Poas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanic plumes are mixtures of gases and liquids that react with air to form aerosols. In this study, atmospheric samples were collected near fumarolic vents at Poas Volcano inside the crater and 380m away on the crater rim. Aerosols were captured on supportive Cu grids coated by a thin C-film, encased within a sealed collector designed for this experiment. Grids

M. Pfeffer; F. Rietmeijer; A. Brearley; S. Basame; T. Fischer

2001-01-01

37

Oxidation of ambient biogenic secondary organic aerosol by hydroxyl radicals: Effects on cloud condensation nuclei activity  

E-print Network

Changes in the hygroscopicity of ambient biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) due to controlled OH oxidation were investigated at a remote forested site at Whistler Mountain, British Columbia during July of 2010. ...

Wong, J. P. S.

38

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS  

EPA Science Inventory

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *South...

39

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

40

Isolation of ambient aerosols of known critical supersaturation: the differential critical supersaturation separator (DSCS)  

E-print Network

A field-deployable instrument has been developed that isolates from an ambient aerosol population only those particles that have critical supersaturations, Sc, within a narrow, user-specified, range. This Differential Critical Supersaturation...

Osborn, Robert John

2007-09-17

41

BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTION TO PM-2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL FROM RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Knowledge of the relative contributions of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources to ambient aerosol is of great interest in the formulation of strategies to achieve nationally mandated air quality standards. Radiocarbon (Carbon-14) measurements provide a means to quantify the ...

42

A new aerosol collector for quasi on-line analysis of particulate organic matter: the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) and first applications with a GC/MS-FID  

E-print Network

In many environments organic matter significantly contributes to the composition of atmospheric aerosol particles influencing its properties. Detailed chemical characterization of ambient aerosols is critical in order to ...

Hohaus, T.

43

Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

2007-08-01

44

Ambient aerosol sampling inlet for flow rates of 100 and 400 l/min  

E-print Network

the aerosol during a test for assurance that neither the size nor the concentration changes. Wind Tunnel Testing with Monodispersed Aerosols During wind tunnel tests, two isokinetic nozzles and the test inlet are mounted in the free jet at the end... of the wind tunnel, where the isokinetic nozzles are used to provide the reference concentration of the aerosols. Aerosol transmitted through the isokinetic nozzles and the test inlet is collected on glass fiber filters (Type A/E, Pall Corporation, East...

Baehl, Michael Matthew

2009-05-15

45

Determining Ultrafine Particle Collection Efficiency in a Nanometer Aerosol Sampler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nanometer Aerosol Sampler (NAS, Model 3089) manufactured by TSI Incorporated (Minnesota, USA) is commonly used to collect ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter < 100 nm) for off-line analysis. However, the UFP collection efficiency for this instrument has only been reported for polystyrene latex (PSL) particles at a flow rate of 1 L· min and a voltage of 10 KV. To

Chengjue Li; Shusen Liu; Yifang Zhu

2010-01-01

46

Aqueous photooxidation of ambient Po Valley Italy air samples: Insights into secondary organic aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we conducted aqueous photooxidation experiments with ambient samples in order to develop insights concerning the formation of secondary organic aerosol through gas followed by aqueous chemistry (SOAaq). Water-soluble organics (e.g., glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone) are formed through gas phase oxidation of alkene and aromatic emissions of anthropogenic and biogenic origin. Their further oxidation in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols can form lower volatility products (e.g., oligomers, organic acids) that remain in the particle phase after water evaporation, thus producing SOA. The aqueous OH radical oxidation of several individual potentially important precursors has been studied in the laboratory. In this work, we used a mist-chamber apparatus to collect atmospheric mixtures of water-soluble gases from the ambient air at San Pietro Capofiume, Italy during the PEGASOS field campaign. We measured the concentration dynamics after addition of OH radicals, in order to develop new insights regarding formation of SOA through aqueous chemistry. Specifically, batch aqueous reactions were conducted with 33 ml mist-chamber samples (TOC ~ 50-100?M) and OH radicals (~10-12M) in a new low-volume aqueous reaction vessel. OH radicals were formed in-situ, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS +/-), and ESI-MS with IC pre-separation (IC/ESI-MS-). Reproducible formation of pyruvate and oxalate were observed both by IC and ESI-MS. These compounds are known to form from aldehyde oxidation in the aqueous phase. New insights regarding the aqueous chemistry of these "more atmospherically-realistic" experiments will be discussed.

Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Sullivan, A. P.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.; Collett, J. L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Turpin, B. J.

2012-12-01

47

Characterization of ambient aerosol composition and formation mechanisms and development of quantification methodologies utilizing ATOFMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. They are generated from a range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Aerosols also experience various reactions such as photo-oxidation and aqueous-phase processing, which constantly change their physical and chemical properties. Therefore, in order to determine the emission inventory, it is important to study aerosol reactions and transformation mechanisms in ambient atmosphere. The research described in this dissertation aimed to characterize temporal, spatial, and seasonal variations on ambient aerosol chemical compositions and formation mechanisms. The results contribute to the understanding of air pollution, climate change, and human health problems, and to devising necessary strategies and policies to resolve these problems. The main experimental technique utilized in the current work is Aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS). It measures the size and chemical composition of individual particles in real-time, and can thus provide high time resolution information on aerosol mixing states, reaction mechanisms, and sources. Continuous ATOFMS measurements have been conducted to study the ambient aerosol properties in several highly polluted regions of California, including the Fresno and Angiola area and the Riverside area. The results provide important insights on the characteristics, distinct diurnal temporal trends, and seasonal variations of aerosols in both urban and rural locations. The second focus of this dissertation is on the quantification capability of ATOFMS, which had been limited by several factors including the size-dependant particle transmission loss and shot-to-shot variability of the desorption/ionization laser. It is demonstrated that, by scaling the ATOFMS measurements using the results from an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) measurements, it is possible to obtain high temporal resolution mass concentrations from ATOFMS that are in very good agreements with standard beta attenuation monitor mass concentrations. This development substantially improves the quantitative capability of ATOFMS, and will be useful in future application of ATOFMS to study aerosol source apportionment.

Qin, Xueying

48

Oxidation of ambient biogenic secondary organic aerosol by hydroxyl radicals: Effects on cloud condensation nuclei activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the hygroscopicity of ambient biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) due to controlled OH oxidation were investigated at a remote forested site at Whistler Mountain, British Columbia during July of 2010. Coupled photo-oxidation and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) experiments were conducted on: i) ambient particles exposed to high levels of gas-phase OH, and ii) the water-soluble fraction of ambient particles oxidized by aqueous-phase OH. An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) monitored the changes in the chemical composition and degree of oxidation (O:C ratio) of the organic component of ambient aerosol due to OH oxidation. The CCN activity of size-selected particles was measured to determine the hygroscopicity parameter ($\\kappa$org,CCN) for particles of various degrees of oxygenation. In both cases, the CCN activity of the oxidized material was higher than that of the ambient particles. In general, $\\kappa$org,CCN of the aerosol increases with its O:C ratio, in agreement with previous laboratory measurements.

Wong, J. P. S.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Slowik, J. G.; Cziczo, D. J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Macdonald, A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

2011-11-01

49

Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in downtown Atlanta, Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, there are a limited number of field studies that evaluate the long-term performance of the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) against established monitoring networks. In this study, we present seasonal intercomparisons of the ACSM with collocated fine aerosol (PM2.5) measurements at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Jefferson Street (JST) site near downtown Atlanta, GA, during 2011-2012. Intercomparison of two collocated ACSMs resulted in strong correlations (r2 > 0.8) for all chemical species, except chloride (r2 = 0.21) indicating that ACSM instruments are capable of stable and reproducible operation. In general, speciated ACSM mass concentrations correlate well (r2 > 0.7) with the filter-adjusted continuous measurements from JST, although the correlation for nitrate is weaker (r2 = 0.55) in summer. Correlations of the ACSM NR-PM1 (non-refractory particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 1 ?m) plus elemental carbon (EC) with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM2.5 and Federal Reference Method (FRM) PM1 mass are strong with r2 > 0.7 and r2 > 0.8, respectively. Discrepancies might be attributed to evaporative losses of semi-volatile species from the filter measurements used to adjust the collocated continuous measurements. This suggests that adjusting the ambient aerosol continuous measurements with results from filter analysis introduced additional bias to the measurements. We also recommend to calibrate the ambient aerosol monitoring instruments using aerosol standards rather than gas-phase standards. The fitting approach for ACSM relative ionization for sulfate was shown to improve the comparisons between ACSM and collocated measurements in the absence of calibrated values, suggesting the importance of adding sulfate calibration into the ACSM calibration routine.

Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, P. L.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.; Kollman, M. S.; Ng, N. L.; Verma, V.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Weber, R. J.; Surratt, J. D.

2014-07-01

50

Portable Aerosol Contaminant Extractor  

DOEpatents

A compact, portable, aerosol contaminant extractor having ionization and collection sections through which ambient air may be drawn at a nominal rate so that aerosol particles ionized in the ionization section may be collected on charged plate in the collection section, the charged plate being readily removed for analyses of the particles collected thereon.

Carlson, Duane C. (N. Augusta, SC); DeGange, John J. (Aiken, SC); Cable-Dunlap, Paula (Waynesville, NC)

2005-11-15

51

Comparison of Sampling Methods for Carbonaceous Aerosols in Ambient Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement methods for fine particle carbon were compared under field sampling conditions. Sampling methods included filtration, impaction, and adsorption-corrected filtration. Systems were operated side-by-side for nine consecutive days in the Los Angeles Basin. Analytical methods were compared separately. For organic carbon and total carbon, ambient measurements showed greater variability than could be accounted for by differences in analytical methods, and

Susanne V. Hering; Bruce R. Appel; W. Cheng; F. Salaymeh; Steven H. Cadle; Patricia A. Mulawa; Thomas A. Cahill; Robert A. Eldred; Marcelle Surovik; Dennis Fitz; James E. Howes; Kenneth T. Knapp; Leonard Stockburger; Barbara J. Turpin; James J. Huntzicker; Xin-Qui Zhang; Peter H. McMurry

1990-01-01

52

Technical Note: The application of an improved gas and aerosol collector for ambient air pollutants in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC) equipped with a newly designed aerosol collector and a set of dull-polished wet annular denuder (WAD) was developed based on a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) sampler. Combined with Ion Chromatography (IC) the new sampler performed well in laboratory tests with high collection efficiencies for SO2 (above 98%) and particulate sulfate (as high as 99.5%). When applied in two major field campaigns (rural and coastal sites) in China, the GAC-IC system provided high-quality data in ambient conditions even under high loadings of pollutants. Its measurements were highly correlated with data by other commercial instruments such as the SO2 analyzer (43c, Thermo-Fisher, USA; R2 as 0.96), the HONO analyzer (LOPAP, Germany; R2 as 0.91 for nighttime samples), a filter sampler (Tianhong, China; R2 as 0.86 for SO42-), and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS, Aerodyne, USA; R2 above 0.77 for major species) over a wide range of concentrations. Through the application of the GAC-IC system, it was identified that 70% of chloride and nitrate by the filter method could be lost during daytime sampling due to high temperature in the rural site of Kaiping. In Changdao field campaign (coastal site) the comparison with the measurements by the GAC-IC suggested that the collection efficiency of AMS might be greatly influenced by high relative humidity (RH) especially in coastal or marine environment. Through laboratory and field studies, this instrument is proved highly reliable, which is particularly useful in future intensive campaigns or long-term monitoring stations to study various environmental issues such as secondary aerosol and haze formation, as well as climate change.

Dong, H.-B.; Zeng, L.-M.; Hu, M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Slanina, J.; Zheng, M.; Wang, Z.-F.; Jansen, R.

2012-03-01

53

The Collection 6 MODIS aerosol products over land and ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twin Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been flying on Terra since 2000 and Aqua since 2002, creating an extensive data set of global Earth observations. Here, we introduce the Collection 6 (C6) algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol size parameters from MODIS-observed spectral reflectance. While not a major overhaul from the previous Collection 5 (C5) version, there are enough changes that there are significant impacts to the products and their interpretation. The C6 aerosol data set will be created from three separate retrieval algorithms that operate over different surface types. These are the two "Dark Target" (DT) algorithms for retrieving (1) over ocean (dark in visible and longer wavelengths) and (2) over vegetated/dark-soiled land (dark in the visible), plus the "Deep Blue" (DB) algorithm developed originally for retrieving (3) over desert/arid land (bright in the visible). Here, we focus on DT-ocean and DT-land (#1 and #2). We have updated assumptions for central wavelengths, Rayleigh optical depths and gas (H2O, O3, CO2, etc.) absorption corrections, while relaxing the solar zenith angle limit (up to ? 84°) to increase poleward coverage. For DT-land, we have updated the cloud mask to allow heavy smoke retrievals, fine-tuned the assignments for aerosol type as function of season/location, corrected bugs in the Quality Assurance (QA) logic, and added diagnostic parameters such topographic altitude. For DT-ocean, improvements include a revised cloud mask for thin-cirrus detection, inclusion of wind speed dependence on the surface reflectance, updates to logic of QA Confidence flag (QAC) assignment, and additions of important diagnostic information. At the same time, we quantified how "upstream" changes to instrument calibration, land/sea masking and cloud masking will also impact the statistics of global AOD, and affect Terra and Aqua differently. For Aqua, all changes will result in reduced global AOD (by 0.02) over ocean and increased AOD (by 0.02) over land, along with changes in spatial coverage. We compared preliminary data to surface-based sun photometer data, and show that C6 should improve upon C5. C6 will include a merged DT/DB product over semi-arid land surfaces for reduced-gap coverage and better visualization, and new information about clouds in the aerosol field. Responding to the needs of the air quality community, in addition to the standard 10 km product, C6 will include a global (DT-land and DT-ocean) aerosol product at 3 km resolution.

Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Munchak, L. A.; Remer, L. A.; Sayer, A. M.; Patadia, F.; Hsu, N. C.

2013-11-01

54

Experimental verification of the attachment theory of radon progeny onto ambient aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The attachment theory of radon progeny onto ambient aerosols was experimentally verified with a cascade impactor and a graded screen array at the EML environmental chamber. Monodisperse aerosols in the size range of 70 to 500 nm were generated with Carnauba wax by means of the evaporation-condensation method. The temperature and the relative humidity in the chamber were set at 20 C and 20%, respectively, throughout the entire experiment. When the aerosols were being injected into the chamber, both the number size distribution and the activity-weighted size distribution of attached radon progeny were stable. The activity-weighted size distribution was compared with the attachment rate distribution obtained by measuring the number size distribution with the SMPS and multiplying the size-dependent attachment coefficient. There was a relatively good agreement between the two distributions.

Tokonami, Shinji

2000-01-01

55

Hygroscopic Characteristics of Organic Laden Ambient Aerosols in Yosemite National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water absorption by inorganic compounds can be modeled with some degree of certainty; however, water uptake by ambient organic aerosols remains speculative. To improve the understanding of organic hygroscopicity, an aerosol characterization study was conducted at Yosemite National Park, California, starting in July and ending in the first week of September 2002. High time resolution measurement (15-minute time increments) of PM2.5 ionic species (Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) were measured using PILS (Particle-Into-Liquid-System)/IC (Ion Chromatography). Commercially available annular denuders and a PM2.5 cyclone (URG) were used upstream of the PILS/IC to remove particles greater than 2.5 ?m and acidic and basic gases. A dual wavelength aethalometer and an R&P particulate carbon monitor were used to measure carbon on a semi-continuous basis while a DRUM sampler allowed for semi-continuous estimates of concentrations of elements associated with crustal material. Standard IMPROVE type samplers were used to measure 24-hr integrated samples of these same aerosols. Two nephelometers operated in tandem, one dry and the other with a controlled humidity environment, were used to measure f(RH) = bscat(RH)/bscat,dry, where bscat(RH) is the scattering coefficient measured at some relative humidity and bscat,dry is the scattering coefficient measured at RH <10%. The aerosol composition was highly variable in time, with a strong diurnal cycle. Organic carbon mass was observed to be, on the average, 70% of the fine mass with days where its contribution was well over 95% of the mass. Measurements of carbon isotopes revealed the fraction of carbon from biogenic sources to range from approximately 73 to 95%. Water soluble potassium was highly correlated with carbon mass, suggesting the influence of wood smoke. The ionic fraction of the aerosol consisted primarily of ammonium sulfate and in most cases nitrate was in the form of sodium nitrate. Fine soil mass was less than 1% of PM2.5 mass. The ambient aerosol was observed to deliquesce on days when the inorganic and organic aerosol were approximately equal in concentration; however, on days when the organic component was dominant, only smooth f(RH) curves were observed. Equilibrium models, exercised in combination with Mie scattering theory, were used to predict atmospheric aerosol water content and associated increases in aerosol scattering coefficient. The analyses suggest that in most cases the hygroscopic growth of inorganic salts alone could account for the observed increase in scattering as a function of relative humidity.

Malm, W. C.; Day, D. E.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L.; Carrico, C. M.; Lee, T.; Bench, G.; Carrillo, J.

2003-12-01

56

Technical Note: The application of an improved gas and aerosol collector for ambient air pollutants in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC) equipped with a newly designed aerosol collector and a set of dull-polished wet annular denuder (WAD) was developed based on a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) sampler. Combined with Ion Chromatography (IC) the new sampler performed well in laboratory tests with high collection efficiencies for SO2 (above 98%) and particulate sulfate (as high as 99.5%). An inter-comparison between the GAC-IC system and the filter-pack method was performed and the results indicated that the GAC-IC system could supply reliable particulate sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and ammonium data in field measurement with a much wider range of ambient concentrations. When applied in two major field campaigns (rural and coastal sites) in China, the GAC-IC system provided high-quality data in ambient conditions even under high loadings of pollutants. Its measurements were highly correlated with data by other commercial instruments such as the SO2 analyzer (43c, Thermo-Fisher, USA; R2 as 0.96), the HONO analyzer (LOPAP, Germany; R2 as 0.91 for samples from 15:00 to 07:00), a filter sampler (Tianhong, China; R2 as 0.86 for SO42-), and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS, Aerodyne, USA; R2 above 0.77 for major species) over a wide range of concentrations. Through the application of the GAC-IC system, it was identified that 70% of chloride and nitrate by the filter method could be lost during daytime sampling due to high temperature in the rural site of Kaiping. In Changdao field campaign (coastal site), though a particle dryer was applied, its drying efficiency was not well considered for the collection efficiency of AMS seemed still interfered a bit by local high relative humidity. If the inter-comparison was done with relative humidity below 50%, the correlations ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 for major species. Through laboratory and field studies, this instrument is proved particularly useful in future intensive campaigns or long-term monitoring stations to study various environmental issues such as secondary aerosol and haze formation, as well as climate change.

Dong, H.-B.; Zeng, L.-M.; Hu, M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Slanina, J.; Zheng, M.; Wang, Z.-F.; Jansen, R.

2012-11-01

57

Collection efficiencies of large water drops collecting aerosol particles of various densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment to study the effect of the density of aerosol material on collection efficiency of water drops, is conducted with MgS04 and MnCl2 particles. When compared with the earlier results for NaCl and other particles, our observations show that the collection efficiency of water drops increases wish increase in impaction parameter, irrespective of whether the change in impaction

D. M. Chate; A. K. Kamra

1997-01-01

58

Aerosol Optical Properties and Black Carbon Measurements (Ambient and Thermally-Denuded) from Detling, UK During the ClearfLo IOP in Winter 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous direct online aerosol and trace gas measurements were made in Delting, UK over the course of four weeks during the winter of 2012 as a part of the ClearfLo (Clean Air for London) campaign. Aerosols were sampled from the London plume (~33 miles WNW), fresh highway (~0.15 mi and 1.5 mi S, A249 and M20), urban (Maidstone; ~3 mi SW), power station (~8 mi N), and Continental European outflow (~50+ mi E/SE). LANL measurements include aerosol absorption and scattering at four wavelengths (375, 405, 532, 781 nm; PASS), aerosol extinction at 450 nm (CAPS), single particle black carbon (BC) number and mass concentrations (SP2), aerosol size distributions (LAS and SMPS), ambient and thermally-denuded aerosol filter samples for SEM and EDS analysis, PM10 C-13 aerosol filter samples, gas-phase CO2, H2O, and CH4 (Picarro). The SP2, PASS, and CAPS were located behind a valve-switching set-up to enable ambient and thermally-denuded (TD) samples to be collected at 10 minute intervals during the campaign, cycling between four temperature settings of 50, 120, 180, and 250C. Absorption from organics and coatings on BC are characterized by comparing the ambient data with the TD samples for the different aerosol sources that were sampled. Measurements from the SP2 are combined with absorption measurements from the three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) at 405, 532, and 781 nm to determine wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficients (MACs) and absorption angstrom exponents (AAEs). Extinction measurements from the CAPS compare well with the PASS using extinction angstrom exponents calculated from the PASS. BC increases with CO/CO2, a marker for inefficient combustion. We examine the mixing state of BC in the aged aerosol plumes by using the time lag between the scattering and incandescence signals measured by the SP2 and SEM analysis as a function of denuding temperature. The Detling/ClearfLo dataset is one of the most comprehensive in situ sets of aerosol optical properties to date in terms of the aerosol sources sampled and the number of measurements.

Gorkowski, K.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Herndon, S. C.; Williams, L. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Freedman, A.; Ng, N. L.; Allan, J. D.

2012-12-01

59

Measurement of overall uptake coefficients for HO2 radicals by aerosol particles sampled from ambient air at Mts. Tai and Mang, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HO2 uptake coefficients for ambient aerosol particles, collected on quartz filter using a high-volume air sampler in China, were measured using an aerosol flow tube coupled with a chemical conversion/laser-induced fluorescence technique at 760 Torr and 298 K, with a relative humidity of 75%. Aerosol particles were regenerated with an atomizer using the water extracts from the aerosol particles. Over 10 samples, the measured HO2 uptake coefficients for the aerosol particles at the Mt. Tai site were ranged from 0.13 to 0.34, while those at the Mt. Mang site were in the range of 0.09-0.40. These values are generally larger than those previously reported for single-component particles, suggesting that the minor components such as metal ions and organics in the particle could contribute to the HO2 uptake. A box model calculation suggested that the heterogeneous loss of HO2 by ambient particles could significantly affect the HOx concentrations and chemistry.

Taketani, F.; Kanaya, Y.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.; Li, J.; Okuzawa, K.; Kawamura, K.; Wang, Z.; Akimoto, H.

2012-06-01

60

Measurement of overall uptake coefficients for HO2 radicals by aerosol particles sampled from ambient air at Mts. Tai and Mang (China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HO2 uptake coefficients for ambient aerosol particles, collected on quartz fiber filter using a high-volume air sampler in China, were measured using an aerosol flow tube coupled with a chemical conversion/laser-induced fluorescence technique at 760 Torr and 298 K, with a relative humidity of 75%. Aerosol particles were regenerated with an atomizer using the water extracts from the aerosol particles. Over 10 samples, the measured HO2 uptake coefficients for the aerosol particles at the Mt. Tai site were ranged from 0.13 to 0.34, while those at the Mt. Mang site were in the range of 0.09-0.40. These values are generally larger than those previously reported for single-component particles, suggesting that reactions with the minor components such as metal ions and organics in the particle could contribute to the HO2 uptake. A box model calculation suggested that the heterogeneous loss of HO2 by ambient particles could significantly affect atmospheric HOx concentrations and chemistry.

Taketani, F.; Kanaya, Y.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.; Li, J.; Okuzawa, K.; Kawamura, K.; Wang, Z.; Akimoto, H.

2012-12-01

61

Mass absorption efficiency of elemental carbon (EC) in ambient aerosols: Characterization from high-altitude sites in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass absorption efficiency (MAE, ?abs) is an important parameter for the determination of atmospheric black carbon (BC) mass concentration by optical instruments. Recent studies suggest that ?abs is highly variable in space and time depending on the type of emission sources of carbonaceous aerosols and analytical methods employed. We have studied changes in ?abs of elemental carbon (EC) from two high-altitude sites in India; Mt Abu (coordinates; 1700 m asl): located in the Thar desert of western India (dominated by mineral dust) and Manora Peak (coordinates; 2200 m asl): located in the southern slopes of Himalaya (influenced by anthropogenic sources in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Based on the data set collected during 2005-2006, we document large temporal variability in ?abs of EC (range: 3.6-13.7 m2g-1) at Mt Abu. The average ?abs (9.8±2.1 m2g-1) is similar to the most accepted value of 10 m2g-1 for ambient aerosols. Analytical data suggest that mineral dust contributes ~70% of the total suspended particulate (TSP) mass. Assuming it to be externally mixed with carbonaceous species and its absorption efficiency of 0.009 m2g-1, absorption due to mineral dust is no more than ~10% at Mt Abu. In contrast, long-term (2005-2008) average of 12.8±2.9 m2g-1 for ?abs (range: 6.1-19.1 m2g-1) is documented at Manora Peak. We suggest that relatively high ?abs of EC at Manora Peak is attributed to the internal mixing of carbonaceous aerosols and anthropogenic species (NO3- and SO4--) during transport from the Indo-Gangetic Plain. These results have implications to large seasonal variability in the aerosol absorption properties (due to change in the morphological feature of EC) and atmospheric radiative forcing on a regional scale.

Ram, K.; Sarin, M.

2012-12-01

62

Hourly Measurement of the Concentration and Gas-Particle Partitioning of Oxygenated Organic Tracers in Ambient Aerosol: First Results from Berkeley, CA and Rural Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hourly and bi-hourly time-resolved measurements of organic tracer compounds in ambient aerosols have been successfully used to elucidate sources and formation pathways of atmospheric particulate matter. Here we extend the Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (SVTAG), a custom in-situ instrument that collects, desorbs, and analyzes ambient aerosol and semi-volatile compounds with hourly time resolution, to include on-line derivatization and a second, parallel collection cell that provides simultaneous collection of both particle-phase and particle-plus-gas-phase organic compounds. By introducing a silylating agent upon desorption, SVTAG can measure highly oxygenated compounds that are not easily detected using traditional gas chromatography including most of the previously reported oxygenated tracers for biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol. The use of a pair of matched collection cells with parallel sampling and serial analysis provides direct gas-particle partitioning information. One cell collects the total organic fraction of compounds with volatilities lower than a C13 hydrocarbon, while the other cell samples through an activated carbon denuder to selectively remove the gas-phase components. Taken together these provide a direct measurement of gas-particle partitioning to yield a check on classical absorption based partitioning theory while deviations from this theory provide constraints on other driving factors in aerosol formation chemistry, such as oligomerization, salt formation, and acidity. We present here the capabilities and utility of the dual cell SVTAG with derivatization, with chemical insights gained from initial tests on ambient Berkeley air and the first results from a rural site in Alabama obtained during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Tracers for varying isoprene oxidation pathways are used to explore the influence of anthropogenic emissions; concentrations of 2-methyltetrols and 2-methyl glyceric acid provide constraints on the relative importance of NOx and HO2 as the fate of the alkylperoxy (RO2) radical. Measuring these and other known biogenic tracers with hourly time resolution yields detailed diurnal variability patterns of these compounds, elucidating formation timescales and pathways. Gas-particle partitioning of these biogenic oxygenated compounds, as well as oxygenated tracers common in urban environments, are found in many cases to be well-modeled by absorptive partitioning theory. However, for many compounds, the particle-phase fraction is greatly under-predicted by simple absorption. Several commonly used biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers that are typically considered to exist primarily in the particle phase, such as 2-methyltetrols, are shown to be 20-80% in the gas phase.

Isaacman, G. A.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Yee, L.; Chan, A.; Worton, D. R.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

2013-12-01

63

A molecular-level approach for characterizing water-insoluble components of ambient organic aerosol particulates using ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of organic aerosols in the atmosphere is strongly influenced by human emissions. The effect these have on the environment, human health, and climate change is determined by the molecular nature of these chemical species. The complexity of organic aerosol samples limits the ability to study the chemical composition, and therefore the associated properties and the impacts they have. Many studies have addressed the water-soluble fraction of organic aerosols and have had much success in identifying specific molecular formulas for thousands of compounds present. However, little attention is given to the water-insoluble portion, which can contain most of the fossil material that is emitted through human activity. Here we compare the organic aerosols present in water extracts and organic solvent extracts (pyridine and acetonitrile) of an ambient aerosol sample collected in a rural location that is impacted by natural and anthropogenic emission sources. A semiquantitative method was developed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine that the amount of organic matter extracted by pyridine is comparable to that of water. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra show that pyridine extracts a molecularly unique fraction of organic matter compared to water or acetonitrile, which extract chemically similar organic matter components. The molecular formulas unique to pyridine were less polar, more aliphatic, and reveal formulas containing sulfur to be an important component of insoluble aerosol organic matter.

Willoughby, A. S.; Wozniak, A. S.; Hatcher, P. G.

2014-09-01

64

A molecular-level approach for characterizing water-insoluble components of ambient organic aerosol particulates using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of organic aerosols in the atmosphere is strongly influenced by human emissions, and the effect these have on the environment, human health, and climate change is determined by the molecular nature of these chemical species. The complexity of organic aerosol samples limits the ability to study the chemical composition, and, therefore, the associated properties and the impacts they have. Many studies address the water-soluble fraction of organic aerosols, and have had much success in identifying specific molecular formulas for thousands of compounds present. However, little attention is given to the water-insoluble portion, which can contain most of the fossil material that is emitted through human activity. Here we compare the organic aerosols present in water extracts and organic solvent extracts (pyridine and acetonitrile) of an ambient aerosol sample collected in a rural location that is impacted by natural and anthropogenic emission sources. A semi-quantitative method was developed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine that the amount of organic matter extracted by pyridine is comparable to that of water. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra show that pyridine extracts a molecularly unique fraction of organic matter compared to water or acetonitrile, which extract chemically similar organic matter components. The molecular formulas unique to pyridine were less polar, more aliphatic, and reveal formulas containing sulfur to be an important component of insoluble aerosol organic matter.

Willoughby, A. S.; Wozniak, A. S.; Hatcher, P. G.

2014-04-01

65

Photoacoustic optical properties at UV, VIS, and near IR wavelengths for laboratory generated and winter time ambient urban aerosols  

SciTech Connect

We present the laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA) measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet wavelength (i.e., 355 nm) and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009 and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols) and relatively clean (aged aerosols) conditions. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m, respectively) and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}). The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion) days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood burning. The analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA), and Angstrom exponent of scattering (AES) for clean and polluted days provides evidences that the aerosol aging and coating process is suppressed by strong temperature inversion under cloudy conditions. In general, measured UV absorption coefficients were found to be much larger for biomass burning aerosol than for typical ambient aerosols.

Gyawali, Madhu S.; Arnott, W. Patrick; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Song, Chen; Moosmuller, H.; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, M.; Chen, L-W A.; Green, M.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.

2012-03-08

66

Examples of realistic aerosol particles collected in a cascade impactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper some scanning electron microscope photomicrographs showing examples of a variety of particulate aerosol shapes are presented. Compositions of particles also are presented. These particles represent samples from a number of different sources and locations including: solid propellant rocket motor plumes, active volcano plumes, the lower stratosphere over Sondrestrom, Greenland, and the upper troposphere over northern Texas. The particles were collected from aboard an aircraft with a cascade impactor which classified them according to aerodynamic size into 10 size intervals ranging from submicron to greater than 25 micrometers in diameter. The cascade impactor also served to measure the mass concentration as a function of particle size. The variety of shapes and compositions found among these particles suggest difficulties in obtaining reliable size distribution data from light scattering measurements.

Woods, D. C.

1980-01-01

67

Stratospheric sulfate from the Gareloi eruption, 1980: Contribution to the ''ambient'' aerosol by a poorly documented volcanic eruption  

SciTech Connect

While sampling stratospheric aerosols during July--August 1980 a plume of ''fresh'' volcanic debris was observed in the Northern hemisphere. The origin of this material seems to be a poorly documented explosive eruption of Gareloi valcano in the Aleutian Islands. The debris was sampled at an altitude of 19.2 km: almost twice the height of observed eruption clouds. Such remote, unobserved or poorly documented eruptions may be a source that helps maintain the ''ambient'' stratospheric aerosol background.

Sedlacek, W.A.; Mroz, E.J.; Heiken, G.

1981-07-01

68

Chemical characteristics of ambient aerosols contributed by cooking process at Noorpur village near New Delhi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, industrial and transport sectors are considered as major contributors of air pollution but recently, biomass burning is also reported as a major source of atmospheric aerosols (1, 2) especially in the developing world where solid fuels such as dung cake, wood and crop residues are used in traditional cooking which are responsible for poor air quality, respiratory problems and radiative forcing etc .In India, most of the research has been focused on emission estimates from biomass burning and cooking. No effort has been made to understand the chemistry and sources of fine aerosols in rural areas during cooking hours. This study fills this knowledge gap and strengthens our understanding about abundance of various chemical constituents of atmospheric aerosols emitted during cooking hours.Aerosol samples were collected from village called Noorpur (28.470 N, 77.030 E) which lies near Delhi city. Sampling was carried out during August 2011-May 2012 by using handy sampler (Envirotech model APM 821) installed at the terrace of a building (~6m). The aerosol samples were collected on 8 hourly basis at a flow rate of 1 LPM. Water extracts of these filters were analyzed for major anions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and major cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+ Mg2+) by ion chromatography (Metrohm 883 Basic IC Plus). During cooking period, the concentration of the major ions followed the order of Ca2+> SO42-> NO3-> Cl-> K+> NH4+> Mg2+> Na2+> F-. Among anion SO42 (5 µg/m3) showed highest value and in case of cations Ca2+ (7.32µg/m3) has highest value.

Singh, Sudha

69

Characterization of the Changes in Hygroscopicity of Ambient Organic Aerosol due to Oxidation by Gas Phase OH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the ubiquitous nature of organic aerosols and their importance in climate forcing, the influence of chemical processes on their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere remains uncertain. Changes to the hygroscopicity of ambient organic aerosol due to OH oxidation were explored at a remote forested (Whistler, British Columbia) and an urban (Toronto, Ontario) site. Organic aerosol was exposed to controlled levels of OH radicals in a portable flow tube reactor, the Toronto Photo-Oxidation Tube (TPOT). An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) monitored the changes in the chemical composition due to OH-initiated oxidation. The CCN activity of size-selected particles was measured with a DMT Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCNc) to determine the hygroscopicity parameter, ?. Preliminary results suggest that gas phase OH oxidation increases the degree of oxygenation of organic aerosol, leading to increases in hygroscopicity. These results yield insights into the mechanism by which oxidation affects the hygroscopicity of ambient aerosol of various sources, and to constrain the main aging process that leads to the observation of increasing hygroscopicity with increasing oxidation of organic aerosol.

Wong, J. P.; McWhinney, R. D.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J.

2011-12-01

70

Collection and analysis of inorganic and water soluble organic aerosols over Maryland and Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols aloft have slower removal than those near the ground, in part, because dry and wet deposition rates result in longer lifetimes and greater range of influence. Knowledge of deposition rates and range of transport for different species are important for developing local and regional air quality policy. Currently, the vertical distribution of organic aerosols (OA's) and their polar, oxidized fraction is largely unknown. Comprehensive methods to analyze aerosol composition collected in the boundary layer and the lower free troposphere are lacking. During DISCOVER AQ 2011, both the NASA P3 and Cessna 402B collected aerosols, through shrouded aerosol inlets, onto Teflon and quartz fiber filters. Collection occurred in both the boundary layer and lower free troposphere over Maryland and Virginia, USA. After extraction with water and optimizing separation via ion chromatography, commonly identified secondary organic aerosols can be separated based on their functionality as mono-, di-, or polycarboxylic acids. Inorganic aerosol components can simultaneously be separated and identified with the same method. Individual organic acid compound analysis with detection limits in the low ppb range can be achieved when conductivity/ultraviolet/ and mass spectrometric detectors are placed in tandem. Additionally, thermo optical analysis can be used to determine the mass fraction of water soluble organic carbon versus the total collected mass. This research is designed to provide information on the vertical distribution of particulate organic carbon in the atmosphere, its optical properties, information on aerosol transport in the lower free troposphere, and to provide water soluble organic aerosol structural characterization.

Brent, L. C.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Phinney, K.; Conny, J.; Dickerson, R. R.

2012-12-01

71

In-Situ ambient aerosol measurement over Los Angeles during CalNex2010 using a newly developed combined Thermal desorption Aerosol GC (TAG) and Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectromter (AMS) instrument: TAG-AMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first results of ambient aerosol measurements over Pasadena during the California at the Nexus between Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) Experiment 2010 obtained with the newly developed TAG-AMS instrument. The TAG-AMS combines the advantages of the Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) (Canagaratna et al. 2007) measuring size distribution and mass loading for ambient aerosol and the Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (TAG) (Williams et al., 2006) instrument providing hourly measurements of speciated organic compounds. The gas chromatographically separated compounds from the TAG instrument are analyzed using the same electron impact ion source and HR-ToF-MS that is shared with the AMS measurement. The combination of hourly time resolved TAG measurements with the complimentary AMS measurements provides mass spectral analysis of the total organic aerosol (AMS) and a detailed molecular level analysis (TAG). We will present first results of in situ measurements of speciated organic aerosol composition and organic marker compounds of the aerosols observed at the Pasadena supersite. These results are used to define different source types contributing to the organic aerosols. This will provide further understanding of organic aerosol (OA) components such as hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) with which most of the OA at multiple measurement sites can be described. The TAG-AMS combined measurement obtained during CalNex2010 will provide more insight into source profiles and the identification of major local and regional sources of organic aerosol in an urban environment. Furthermore the results will be put into context with the measurements from standalone AMS and 2DTAG instruments which were simultaneously operated during the CalNex2010 experiment to verify the quality of the combined TAG-AMS instrument results.

Hohaus, T.; Lambe, A.; Williams, B. J.; Williams, L. R.; Kimmel, J.; Sueper, D.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Isaacman, G. A.; Worton, D. R.; Goldstein, A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J.

2010-12-01

72

Simultaneous Physical, Chemical and Optical Characterization of Ambient Aerosol Particles Using Single Particle Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently shown that optical information obtained with an optical particle tracking system in a single particle mass spectrometer may be used to determine the refractive index and effective density for laboratory particles as a function of chemical composition (R.C. Moffet, K. A. Prather Anal. Chem., accepted, 2005). This study focuses on the light scattering information obtained from ambient particles with Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) during shipboard measurements off the coast of California. We have found that the majority of sea salt and processed sea salt particles appear to be spherical, with a refractive index and density in between that of a dilute solution and crystallized solute. A result similar to this was obtained in laboratory studies of salt (NaCl) particles. Most of the elemental carbon particles were found to be internally mixed with nitrate and sulfate. These elemental carbon particle classes are correlated with absorption measurements made with an aethalometer. Additionally, the optical information suggests that most of these elemental carbon particles have similar morphologies. The goal of this study is to determine the density and complex refractive index for single ambient particle classes for 1) optical closure studies and 2) input into optical models. As part of this presentation, we will discuss efforts aimed at evaluating whether the aethalometer data can be used to retrieve a complex refractive index for the elemental carbon particles. These measurements are unique because they are the first to couple single particle size and chemical composition with optical properties. This is an important step in linking particle mixing state with optical properties, and is therefore an essential step for an accurate understanding of the impacts that different aerosol sources have on the earth's climate system.

Moffet, R.; Furutani, H.; dall'Osto, M.; Prather, K.

2005-12-01

73

Detection of biological particles in ambient air using bio-aerosol mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described.

McJimpsey, Erica L.; Steele, Paul T.; Coffee, Keith R.; Fergenson, David P.; Riot, Vincent J.; Woods, Bruce W.; Gard, Eric E.; Frank, Matthias; Tobias, Herbert J.; Lebrilla, Carlito

2006-05-01

74

X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF FILTER-COLLECTED AEROSOL PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has become an effective technique for determining the elemental content of aerosol samples. For quantitative analysis, the aerosol particles must be collected as uniform deposits on the surface of Teflon membrane filters. An energy dispersive XRF spectrom...

75

Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Upstate New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected in the historic Stockade District of Schenectady, New York, was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy. This is part of a systematic study in the Mohawk River Valley of upstate New York to identify the sources and understand the transport, transformation, and effects of airborne pollutants and the connection between aerosols, the

Colin Gleason; Charles Harrington; Katie Schuff; Scott Labrake; Michael Vineyard

2009-01-01

76

WIDE RANGE AEROSOL CLASSIFIER  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project was to design, construct, calibrate, and field test a mobile ambient particulate matter sampler (Wide Range Aerosol Classifier) to collect size-classified samples of large aerosol particles. The sampler design was based on a similar stationary sampling...

77

Evidence and quantitation of aromatic organosulfates in ambient aerosols in Lahore, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organosulfates are important components of atmospheric organic aerosols, yet their structures, abundances, sources and formation processes are not adequately understood. This study presents the identification and quantitation of benzyl sulfate in atmospheric aerosols, which is the first confirmed atmospheric organosulfate with aromatic carbon backbone. Benzyl sulfate was identified and quantified in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in Lahore, Pakistan, during 2007-2008. An authentic standard of benzyl sulfate was synthesized, standardized, and identified in atmospheric aerosols with quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS). Benzyl sulfate was quantified in aerosol samples using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to negative electrospray ionization triple quadrupole (TQ) MS. The highest benzyl sulfate concentrations were recorded in November and January 2007 (0.50 ± 0.11 ng m-3) whereas the lowest concentration was observed in July (0.05 ± 0.02 ng m-3). To evaluate matrix effects, benzyl sulfate concentrations were determined using external calibration and the method of standard addition; comparable concentrations were detected by the two methods, which ruled out significant matrix effects in benzyl sulfate quantitation. Three additional organosulfates with m/z 187, 201 and 215 were qualitatively identified as aromatic organosulfates with additional methyl substituents by high-resolution mass measurements and tandem MS. The observed aromatic organosulfates form a homologous series analogous to toluene, xylene, and trimethylbenzene, which are abundant anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC), suggesting that aromatic organosulfates may be formed by secondary reactions. However, stronger statistical correlations of benzyl sulfate with combustion tracers (EC and levoglucosan) than with secondary tracers (SO42- and ?-pinene-derived nitrooxy organosulfates) suggest that aromatic organosulfates may be emitted from the combustion sources or their subsequent atmospheric processing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the sources and formation pathways of aromatic organosulfates in the atmosphere.

Kundu, S.; Quraishi, T. A.; Yu, G.; Suarez, C.; Keutsch, F. N.; Stone, E. A.

2013-05-01

78

Evidence and quantitation of aromatic organosulfates in ambient aerosols in Lahore, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organosulfates are important components of atmospheric organic aerosols, yet their structures, abundances, sources and formation processes are not adequately understood. This study presents the identification and quantitation of benzyl sulfate in atmospheric aerosols, which is the first reported atmospheric organosulfate with aromatic carbon backbone. Benzyl sulfate was identified and quantified in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in Lahore, Pakistan during 2007-2008. An authentic standard of benzyl sulfate was synthesized, standardized, and identified in atmospheric aerosols using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS). Benzyl sulfate was quantified in aerosol samples using UPLC coupled to negative electrospray ionization triple quadrupole (TQ) MS. The highest benzyl sulfate concentrations were recorded in November and January 2007 (0.50 ± 0.11 ng m-3) whereas the lowest concentration was observed in July (0.05 ± 0.02 ng m-3). To evaluate matrix effects, benzyl sulfate concentrations were determined using external calibration and the method of standard addition; comparable concentrations were detected by the two methods, which ruled out significant matrix effects in benzyl sulfate quantitation. Three additional organosulfates with m/z 187, 201 and 215 were qualitatively identified as aromatic organosulfates with additional methyl substituents by high-resolution mass measurements and tandem MS. The observed aromatic organosulfates form a homologous series analogous to toluene, xylene, and trimethylbenzene, which are abundant anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC), suggesting that aromatic organosulfates may be formed by secondary reactions. Further studies are needed to elucidate the sources and formation pathways of aromatic organosulfates in the atmosphere.

Kundu, S.; Quraishi, T. A.; Yu, G.; Suarez, C.; Keutsch, F. N.; Stone, E. A.

2012-12-01

79

Characterization of Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Meat Cooking, Trash Burning, and Combustion Engines with High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry and Comparison with Ambient and Chamber Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic aerosol (OA) emissions from motor vehicles, meat-cooking and trash burning are analyzed here using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and supporting instrumentation. A semi-quantitative comparison of emission factors highlights the potential importance of meat cooking as an OA source. GC-MS and AMS mass spectra are compared for the first time and show high similarity, but with more fragmentation in the AMS due to higher vaporization temperatures. High resolution data show that aerosols emitted by combustion engines and plastic burning are dominated by hydrocarbon-like organic compounds. Meat cooking and especially paper burning contain significant fractions of oxygenated organic compounds; however, their unit-resolution mass spectral signatures are very similar to mass spectral signatures from hydrocarbon-like OA or primary OA, and very different from the mass spectra of ambient secondary or oxygenated OA (OOA). Thus, primary OA from any of these sources is very unlikely to be a significant direct source of ambient OOA. There are significant differences in high-resolution tracer m/z's that may be useful for differentiating these sources from each other. Unlike in most ambient spectra, all of these sources have low total m/z 44 and this signal is not dominated by the CO2+ ion. All sources have high m/z 57, which is low during high OOA ambient periods. Spectra from paper burning are similar to some types of biomass burning OA, with elevated m/z 60. Meat cooking aerosols also have slightly elevated m/z 60, while motor vehicle emissions have very low signal at this m/z.

Mohr, C.; Huffman, J. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Aiken, A. C.; Docherty, K. S.; Kimmel, J. R.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Hannigan, M.; Garcia, J.; Jimenez, J. L.

2009-04-01

80

High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler  

SciTech Connect

This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2010-10-01

81

Dependence of Aerosol Light Absorption and Single-Scattering Albedo On Ambient Relative Humidity for Sulfate Aerosols with Black Carbon Cores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric aerosols frequently contain hygroscopic sulfate species and black carbon (soot) inclusions. In this paper we report results of a modeling study to determine the change in aerosol absorption due to increases in ambient relative humidity (RH), for three common sulfate species, assuming that the soot mass fraction is present as a single concentric core within each particle. Because of the lack of detailed knowledge about various input parameters to models describing internally mixed aerosol particle optics, we focus on results that were aimed at determining the maximum effect that particle humidification may have on aerosol light absorption. In the wavelength range from 450 to 750 nm, maximum absorption humidification factors (ratio of wet to 'dry=30% RH' absorption) for single aerosol particles are found to be as large as 1.75 when the RH changes from 30 to 99.5%. Upon lesser humidification from 30 to 80% RH, absorption humidification for single particles is only as much as 1.2, even for the most favorable combination of initial ('dry') soot mass fraction and particle size. Integrated over monomodal lognormal particle size distributions, maximum absorption humidification factors range between 1.07 and 1.15 for humidification from 30 to 80% and between 1.1 and 1.35 for humidification from 30 to 95% RH for all species considered. The largest humidification factors at a wavelength of 450 nm are obtained for 'dry' particle size distributions that peak at a radius of 0.05 microns, while the absorption humidification factors at 700 nm are largest for 'dry' size distributions that are dominated by particles in the radius range of 0.06 to 0.08 microns. Single-scattering albedo estimates at ambient conditions are often based on absorption measurements at low RH (approx. 30%) and the assumption that aerosol absorption does not change upon humidification (i.e., absorption humidification equal to unity). Our modeling study suggests that this assumption alone can introduce absolute errors in estimates of the midvisible single-scattering albedo of up to 0.05 for realistic dry particle size distributions. Our study also indicates that this error increases with increasing wavelength. The potential errors in aerosol single-scattering albedo derived here are comparable in magnitude and in addition to uncertainties in single-scattering albedo estimates that are based on measurements of aerosol light absorption and scattering.

Redemann, Jens; Russell, Philip B.; Hamill, Patrick

2001-01-01

82

Experimental Assessment of Collection Efficiency of Submicron Aerosol Particles by Cloud Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interplay between aerosol particles and water droplets in the atmosphere, especially in clouds, influences both aerosol and cloud properties. The major uncertainty in our understanding of climate arises in the indirect effect of aerosol and their ability to impact cloud formation and consequently alter the global radiative balance. The collision between a water droplet and aerosol particles that results in coalescence is termed 'collection' or 'coagulation'. Coagulation can lead to aerosol removal from the atmosphere or induce ice nucleation via contact freezing at temperatures below 0 C. Theoretical studies have shown that for aerosol particles smaller than 0.1 micrometers, Brownian motion is important, and for particles with diameters larger than 1 micrometer, inertial force dominates. There is a collection efficiency minimum for particles between 0.1-2 micrometers, called the 'Greenfield Gap'. Experimental efforts, however, have been limited to very large drizzle and rain drops until recently, and constrained parameters necessary to describe particle collection efficiency by cloud droplets have not been available. One reason is that laboratory setups that allow for coagulation to be observed on a single-particle basis have been lacking. Collection efficiency is also an important parameter for studying and assessing contact ice nucleation. Contact ice nucleation is currently the least understood ice nucleation mechanism and can be potentially important for mixed-phase cloud formation. The significance of experimentally assessing collection efficiency is therefore two-fold: to first understand the frequency of contacts and to then understand the fraction that lead to ice nucleation. We have constructed the MIT-Contact Freezing Chamber (MIT-CFC) to study collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets and contact freezing. A stream of 30-micron cloud droplets fall freely into the chamber and collide with aerosol particles. The outflow goes through a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), which rejects aerosol particles and transmits larger particles that are either droplet residuals or coagulated particles. The larger particles are sent to the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument for chemical composition analysis. PALMS is a true single-particle instrument and gives information on the size and the chemical composition of each particle. Coagulated particles from the MIT-CFC have mass spectral signatures from both the aerosol particles and the droplet residuals, while the droplet residual contains no signature of the aerosol particles. To our knowledge, this is the first time coagulation has been seen on a single-particle basis. We will present the collection efficiency data of a suite of dust particles with well-defined types, sizes and concentrations under atmospherically relevant temperatures and relative humidity conditions.

Huang, Y.; Ardon-Dryer, K.; Cziczo, D. J.

2013-12-01

83

A concept of an automated function control for ambient aerosol measurements using mobility particle size spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated function control unit was developed to regularly check the ambient particle number concentration derived from a mobility particle size spectrometer as well as its zero-point behaviour. The aim of the new feature is to conduct unattended quality control experiments under field conditions at remote air quality monitoring or research stations. The automated function control also has the advantage of being able to get a faster system stability response than the recommended on-site comparisons with reference instruments. The method is based on a comparison of the total particle number concentration measured by a mobility particle size spectrometer and a condensation particle counter removing the diffusive particles approximately smaller than 25 nm in diameter. In practice, the small particles are removed by a set of diffusion screens, as traditionally used in a diffusion battery. The other feature of the automated function control is to check the zero-point behaviour of the ambient aerosol passing through a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. An exemplary one-year data set is presented for the measurement site Annaberg-Buchholz as part of the Saxon air quality monitoring network. The total particle number concentration derived from the mobility particle size spectrometer overestimates the particle number concentration by only 2% (grand average offset). Furthermore, tolerance criteria are presented to judge the performance of the mobility particle size spectrometer with respect to the particle number concentration. An upgrade of a mobility particle size spectrometer with an automated function control enhances the quality of long-term particle number size distribution measurements. Quality assured measurements are a precondition for intercomparison studies of different sites. Comparable measurements will improve cohort health and also climate-relevant research studies.

Schladitz, A.; Merkel, M.; Bastian, S.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.

2013-12-01

84

A concept of an automated function control for ambient aerosol measurements using mobility particle size spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated function control unit was developed to regularly check the ambient particle number concentration derived from a mobility particle size spectrometer as well as its zero-point behaviour. The function control allows unattended quality assurance experiments at remote air quality monitoring or research stations under field conditions. The automated function control also has the advantage of being able to get a faster system stability response than the recommended on-site comparisons with reference instruments. The method is based on a comparison of the total particle number concentration measured by a mobility particle size spectrometer and a condensation particle counter while removing diffusive particles smaller than 20 nm in diameter. In practice, the small particles are removed by a set of diffusion screens, as traditionally used in a diffusion battery. Another feature of the automated function control is to check the zero-point behaviour of the ambient aerosol passing through a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The performance of the function control is illustrated with the aid of a 1-year data set recorded at Annaberg-Buchholz, a station in the Saxon air quality monitoring network. During the period of concern, the total particle number concentration derived from the mobility particle size spectrometer slightly overestimated the particle number concentration recorded by the condensation particle counter by 2 % (grand average). Based on our first year of experience with the function control, we developed tolerance criteria that allow a performance evaluation of a tested mobility particle size spectrometer with respect to the total particle number concentration. We conclude that the automated function control enhances the quality and reliability of unattended long-term particle number size distribution measurements. This will have beneficial effects for intercomparison studies involving different measurement sites, and help provide a higher data accuracy for cohort health and climate research studies.

Bastian, S.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.

2014-04-01

85

China Collection 2.0: The aerosol optical depth dataset from the synergetic retrieval of aerosol properties algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide range of data products have been published since the operation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on NASA's TERRA and AQUA satellites. Based on DarkTarget and DeepBlue method, NASA has published Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products Collection 5.0 and Collection 5.1 at 10 km spatial resolution. The Collection 6.0 will be published soon with spatial resolution of 3 km. Although validated globally, regional and systematic errors are still found in the MODIS-retrieved AOD products. This is especially remarkable for bright heterogeneous land surface, such as mainland China. In order to solve the aerosol retrieval problem over heterogeneous bright land surface, the Synergetic Retrieval of Aerosol Properties algorithm (SRAP) has been developed based on the synergetic use of the MODIS data of TERRA and AQUA satellites. Using the SRAP algorithm, we produced AOD dataset-China Collection 2.0, dated from August 2002 to August 2012, and compared the AOD results with AErosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) and Chinese Meteorological Administration Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET) measurements. We find that 62% of China Collection 2.0 AOD values are within an expected error (EE) range of ±(0.05 + 20%) and that 56% are within an EE range of ±(0.05 + 15%) when compared with AERONET-observed values. For CARSNET validation, we find that 60% of China Collection 2.0 AOD values are within an expected error (EE) range of ±(0.05 + 20%) and that 53% are within an EE range of ±(0.05 + 15%). In addition, we also compare the AOD results with MODIS aerosol products, the cross validation shows that the two AOD have good consistency. Monthly averaged AOD results show that AOD is generally high in China's eastern coastal region from March to August, and AOD is not more than 0.5 in other months. Season averaged results show that the higher values of AOD are mostly distributed in eastern and southern China.

Xue, Yong; He, Xingwei; Xu, Hui; Guang, Jie; Guo, Jianping; Mei, Linlu

2014-10-01

86

Determination of Secondary Organic Aerosol Products from the Photooxidation of Toluene and their Implications in Ambient PM 2.5  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the secondary organic aerosol products from photooxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. The laboratory experiments consisted of irradiating toluene\\/propylene\\/NOx\\/air mixtures in a smog chamber operated inthe dynamic mode and collecting submicron secondary organic aerosol samples through a sampling train that consisted of an XAD denuder and a ZefluorTM filter. Oxidation products in

T. E. Kleindienst; T. S. Conver; C. D. McIver; E. O. Edney

2004-01-01

87

Particle detection efficiencies of aerosol time of flight mass spectrometers under ambient sampling conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometers (ATOFMS) measure the size and chemical composition of single aerosol particles. To date, these instruments have provided qualitative descriptions of aerosols, in part because the fraction of particles actually present in the atmosphere that is detected by these instruments has not been known. in this work, the particle detection efficiencies of three ATOFMS instruments are determined

Jonathan O. Allen; David P. Fergenson; Eric E. Gard; Lara S. Hughes; Bradley D. Morrical; Michael J. Kleeman; Deborah S. Gross; Markus E. Gälli; Kimberly A. Prather; Glen R. Cass

2000-01-01

88

2-Hydroxyterpenylic acid: An oxygenated marker compound for a-pinene secondary organic aerosol in ambient fine aerosol  

EPA Science Inventory

An oxygenated MW 188 compound is commonly observed in substantial abundance in atmospheric aerosol samples and was proposed in previous studies as an a-pinene-related marker compound that is associated with aging processes. Owing to difficulties in producing this compound in suff...

89

Human health benefits of ambient sulfate aerosol reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments  

SciTech Connect

The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 call for about a 10 million ton reduction in annual SO{sub 2} emissions in the United States by the year 2010. Although the provisions apply nationwide, most of the reduction will take place in the eastern half of the United States, where use of high sulfur coal for electricity generation is most common. One potentially large benefit of Title IV is the expected reduction in adverse human health effects associated with exposure to ambient sulfate aerosols, a secondary pollutant formed in the atmosphere when SO{sub 2} is present. Sulfate aerosols are a significant constituent of fine particulate (PM{sub 2.5}). This paper combines available epidemiologic evidence of health effects associated with sulfate aerosols and economic estimates of willingness to pay for reductions in risks or incidence of health effects with available estimates of the difference between expected ambient sulfate concentrations in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada with and without Title IV to estimate the expected health benefits of Title IV. The results suggest a mean annual benefit in the eastern United States of $10.6 billion (in 1994 dollars) in 1997 and $40.0 billion in 2010, with an additional $1 billion benefit each year in Ontario and Quebec provinces.

Chestnut, L.G. [Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States); Watkins, A.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31

90

Collection of Aerosolized Human Cytokines Using Teflon® Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCollection of exhaled breath samples for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers is an important area of research aimed at improving our ability to diagnose, treat and understand the mechanisms of chronic pulmonary disease. Current collection methods based on condensation of water vapor from exhaled breath yield biomarker levels at or near the detection limits of immunoassays contributing to problems with

Jennifer H. McKenzie; James J. McDevitt; M. Patricia Fabian; Grace M. Hwang; Donald K. Milton

2012-01-01

91

Utilisation of Rep-PCR to track microbes in aerosols collected adjacent to their source, a saline lake in Victoria, Australia.  

PubMed

Dust storms are a major source of aerosolized bacteria, especially in the drought conditions experienced in Australia in the decade to 2009. The major aims of this project were to identify the culturable bacteria in environmental samples and to genetically fingerprint all isolates using repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR) to investigate the possibility of tracking isolates from their source into the atmosphere. Four field trips were conducted to a dry lake in western Victoria, Australia to sample aerosols and sediments. Aerosols were collected at heights up to 150 m using vacuum pumps with filters attached to a tethered helium balloon, while corresponding sediments were collected in sterile polypropylene tubes. Isolates were cultivated on Tryptic Soy Agar, R2 Agar and Marine Agar, and grown in dark conditions at ambient temperature. By sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of 270 isolates, fifteen different bacterial families were identified, with both the aerosols and sediments dominated by the Bacillaceae family. Four sets of Rep-PCR primers were tested, with the ERIC and (GTG)5 primers proving to be the most suitable for fingerprinting the cultured taxa. Rep-PCR revealed very high strain diversity in the samples collected, however some strains were still able to be tracked from sediments up to 150 m in height. This shows the potential of Rep-PCR, however very large reference databases would be required for the technique to be more useful. PMID:23500831

Munday, Chris I; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Tapper, Nigel J; De Deckker, Patrick; Allison, Gwen E

2013-04-15

92

Effects of aerosol collection and extraction procedures on the optical properties of water-soluble organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) are routinely collected using active and passive aerosol samplers and, after extraction in water, analyzed using UV-vis absorbance and fluorescence techniques. These analyses provide important information regarding the chemical character and sources of aerosols worldwide. To evaluate the effects of various aerosol collection and processing methods on the optical properties of WSOC, two-dimensional absorption spectra from

N. Mladenov; L. Alados-Arboledas; F. J. Olmo Reyes; I. Reche

2009-01-01

93

Analysis of secondary organic aerosol compounds from the photooxidation of d-limonene in the presence of NOx and their detection in ambient PM2.5.  

PubMed

Chemical analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photooxidation of a d-limonene/NOx/air mixture was carried out. SOA, generated in a smog chamber, was collected on Zefluor filters. To determine the structural characteristics of the compounds, the filter samples were solvent extracted and derivatized using analytical techniques that characterize functional groups contained in the compound: BF3-methanol derivatization was used for carboxylic groups, BSTFA for acidic and nonacidic hydroxyl groups, and PFBHA for ketone and aldehyde groups. The resulting derivative compounds were analyzed by GC-MS in the methane Cl and El modes. GC-MS analysis showed the occurrence of 103 oxygenated organic compounds in the filter extracts, 28 of which were identified. The major components include five tracer compounds previously identified from the photooxidation of alpha-pinene/NOx or beta-pinene/NOx systems, C4-C6 linear dicarboxylic acids, ketolimononaldehyde, limonic acid, and ketolimonic acid. Time profiles, yields, and proposed reaction schemes are provided for selected compounds. The laboratory SOA yield was 0.51 at a SOA concentration of 1470 microg m(-3). To determine the contributions of SOA products from d-limonene to ambient PM2.5, an analysis was performed for eight ambient PM2.5 samples collected in the southeastern United States in summer 2003. GC-MS analysis showed the occurrence of 21 d-limonene SOA compounds, indicating the impact of d-limonene on the regional aerosol burden. Based on our analysis, two compounds (nos. 55 and 69), not observed from the photooxidation of alpha-pinene or beta-pinene, are candidate tracers for d-limonene in atmospheric particulate matter. PMID:16830548

Jaoui, Mohammed; Corse, E; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Offenberg, John H; Lewandowski, Michael; Edney, Edward O

2006-06-15

94

THERMOPHORESIS AND ITS THERMAL PARAMETERS FOR AEROSOL COLLECTION  

SciTech Connect

The particle collection effi ciency of a prototype environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) sampler based on the use of thermophoresis is determined by optimizing the operational voltage that determines its thermal gradient. This sampler’s heating element was made of three sets of thermophoretic (TP) wires 25?m in diameter suspended across a channel cut in a printed circuit board and mounted with collection surfaces on both sides. The separation between the heating element and the room temperature collection surface was determined in a numerical simulation based on the Brock-Talbot model. Other thermal parameters of this TP ETS sampler were predicted by the Brock-Talbot model for TP deposition. From the normalized results the optimal collection ratio was expressed in terms of operational voltage and fi lter mass. Prior to the Brock-Talbot model simulation for this sampler, 1.0V was used arbitrarily. The operational voltage was raised to 3.0V, and the collection effi ciency was increased by a factor of fi ve for both theory and experiment.

Huang, Z.; Apte, M.; Gundel, L.

2007-01-01

95

Thermophoresis and Its Thermal Parameters for Aerosol Collection  

SciTech Connect

The particle collection efficiency of a prototype environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) sampler based on the use of thermophoresis is determined by optimizing the operational voltage that determines its thermal gradient. This sampler's heating element was made of three sets of thermophoretic (TP) wires 25mu m in diameter suspended across a channel cut in a printed circuit board and mounted with collection surfaces on both sides. The separation between the heating element and the room temperature collection surface was determined in a numerical simulation based on the Brock-Talbot model. Other thermal parameters of this TP ETS sampler were predicted by the Brock-Talbot model for TP deposition. From the normalized results the optimal collection ratio was expressed in terms of operational voltage and fi lter mass. Prior to the Brock-Talbot model simulation for this sampler, 1.0V was used arbitrarily. The operational voltage was raised to 3.0V, and the collection effi ciency was increased by a factor of fi ve for both theory and experiment.

Huang, Z.; Apte, Michael; Gundel, Lara

2007-08-01

96

Water-soluble material on aerosols collected within volcanic eruption clouds ( Fuego, Pacaya, Santiaguito, Guatamala).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In Feb. and March of 1978, filter samplers mounted on an aircraft were used to collect the aerosol fraction of the eruption clouds from three active Guatemalan volcanoes (Fuego, Pacaya, and Santiaguito). The elements dissolved in the aqueous extracts represent components of water-soluble material either formed directly in the eruption cloud or derived from interaction of ash particles and aerosol components of the plume. Calculations of enrichment factors, based upon concentration ratios, showed the elements most enriched in the extracts relative to bulk ash composition were Cd, Cu, V, F, Cl, Zn, and Pb.-from Authors

Smith, D. B.; Zielinski, R. A.; Rose, Jr, W. I.; Huebert, B. J.

1982-01-01

97

EVALUATION OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY APPLIED TO AN AMBIENT URBAN AEROSOL SAMPLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Concerns about the environmental and public health effects of particulate matter (PM) have stimulated interest in analytical techniques capable of measuring the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSE...

98

78 FR 12052 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), this document announces that the EPA is planning to submit a request to renew an existing approved Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). This ICR will also incorporate the following ICRs which were approved under separate rulemaking actions: ICR 2358 (OMB......

2013-02-21

99

An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient air monitoring as part of the U.S. EPA's Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The U.S. EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to examine ecosystem exposure to nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution and with greater accuracy than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the U.S. EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, NC from September 8th-October 8th, 2010. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by comparing duplicate units and accuracy was evaluated by comparing duplicate MARGAs to duplicate reference denuder/filter packs. The MARGA utilizes a Wet Rotating Denuder (WRD) to collect gases, while aerosols are collected by a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC). Both the WRD and the SJAC produce aqueous sample streams, which are analyzed by online ion chromatography for anions and cations. The reference denuder/filter pack consisted of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and phosphorous acid (H3PO3) coated denuders followed by a Teflon filter, a nylon filter, and a citric acid coated cellulose filter. The assessment of the MARGA units focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3 and NH3 and aerosol SO4-, NO3- and NH4+. To evaluate accuracy, hourly MARGA concentrations were averaged over 12 hours to match with 12-hour integrated concentrations from the reference system. The concentrations were compared using linear regression with performance goals of slope between 0.8-1.2 and y-intercept between -10 ppb and 10 ppb. Accuracy was further quantified as the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD) between 12-hour MARGA and reference concentrations, with a performance goal of ? 40%. The precision of the MARGA units was evaluated by calculating the MARPD between the corresponding 1 hour concentrations from the two MARGA units, also with a performance goal of ? 40%. The MARGA units performed well for SO2, SO4-, NH3 and NH4+, with these compounds meeting the accuracy and precision goals. The MARGA units did not perform as well for HNO3 and NO3-, with both species linear regression slopes not achieving the accuracy target. Furthermore, for NO3-, the MARPD between both MARGA units and the reference filter pack was greater than 40%. Comparison of total nitrate (HNO3 + NO3-) suggests that the lesser performance of the MARGA units for these compounds likely results from aerosol volatility in the MARGA inlet/tubing or the reference filter pack and exchange of HNO3 with tubing walls. In addition, the NO3- concentrations were low (<0.5 ug m-3) for significant periods of the ETV assessment. Details of the comparison will be examined and suggested instrument improvements will be discussed.

Rumsey, I. C.; Cowen, K.; Kelly, T.; Hanft, E.; Mishoe, K.; Rogers, C.; Proost, R.; Lear, G.; Frelink, T.; Walker, J. T.

2011-12-01

100

Size-selective nonrefractory ambient aerosol measurements during the Particulate Matter Technology Assessment and Characterization Study–New York 2004 Winter Intensive in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Particulate Matter Technology Assessment and Characterization Study–New York (PMTACS-NY) in January\\/February 2004 a variety of modern aerosol measurement instruments were deployed at a field site on the campus of Queens College in Queens, New York. These instruments included the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Q-AMS), R&P Particulate Ambient Sulfate and Nitrate monitors (8400S&N), a Particle-into-liquid Sampler equipped with ion

Silke Weimer; Frank Drewnick; Olga Hogrefe; James J. Schwab; Kevin Rhoads; Douglas Orsini; Manjula Canagaratna; Douglas R. Worsnop; Kenneth L. Demerjian

2006-01-01

101

Size-selective nonrefractory ambient aerosol measurements during the Particulate Matter Technology Assessment and Characterization Study-New York 2004 Winter Intensive in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Particulate Matter Technology Assessment and Characterization Study-New York (PMTACS-NY) in January\\/February 2004 a variety of modern aerosol measurement instruments were deployed at a field site on the campus of Queens College in Queens, New York. These instruments included the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Q-AMS), R&P Particulate Ambient Sulfate and Nitrate monitors (8400S&N), a Particle-into-liquid Sampler equipped with ion

Silke Weimer; Frank Drewnick; Olga Hogrefe; James J. Schwab; Kevin Rhoads; Douglas Orsini; Manjula Canagaratna; Douglas R. Worsnop; Kenneth L. Demerjian

2006-01-01

102

Evaluation of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 004 (C004) aerosol retrievals at Kanpur, Indo-Gangetic Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD, ??) and aerosol fine mode fraction (AFMF) of Collection 004 (C004) derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Terra and Aqua platforms with that obtained from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) at Kanpur (26.45°N, 80.35°E), India for the period 2001–2005. The spatially-averaged (0.5° × 0.5°

Hiren Jethva; S. K. Satheesh; J. Srinivasan

2007-01-01

103

Evaluation of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 004 (C004) aerosol retrievals at Kanpur, Indo-Gangetic Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD, taulambda) and aerosol fine mode fraction (AFMF) of Collection 004 (C004) derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Terra and Aqua platforms with that obtained from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) at Kanpur (26.45°N, 80.35°E), India for the period 2001-2005. The spatially-averaged (0.5° × 0.5°

Hiren Jethva; S. K. Satheesh; J. Srinivasan

2007-01-01

104

Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with long range transported biomass burning plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m a.m.s.l. on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory (38°28'15'' N; 28°24'14'' W) is located ∼3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances, mainly from North America. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon and inorganic ion species. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 ?g m-3; on average organic aerosol contributes the majority of mass (57%), followed by sulfate (21%) and nitrate (17%). Filter-collected aerosol measurements were positively correlated (with an r2 ? 0.80) with continuous aerosol measurements of black carbon, aerosol light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) species extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. FLEXPART retroplume analysis shows the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. These aged WSOC compounds have an average O / C ratio of ∼0.45, which is relatively low compared to O / C ratios of other aged aerosol and might be the result of evaporation and increased fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in WSOC species and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of biomass burning phenolic species suggests that the aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory had undergone cloud processing before reaching the site. Finally, the air masses on 9/25 were more aged (∼15 days) and influenced by marine emissions, as indicated by organosulfates and other species characteristic for marine aerosol such as fatty acids. The change in air masses for the two samples was corroborated by the changes in ozone and the non-methane hydrocarbons ethane and propane, morphology of particles, as well as by the FLEXPART retroplume simulations. This manuscript presents the first detailed molecular characterization of free tropospheric aged aerosol intercepted at a lower free troposphere remote location in the North Atlantic.

Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

2014-09-01

105

Characterization of ambient aerosols at the San Francisco International Airport using bioaerosol mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is a rapidly fieldable, fully autonomous instrument that can perform correlated measurements of multiple orthogonal properties of individual aerosol particles. The BAMS front end uses optical techniques to nondestructively measure a particle's aerodynamic diameter and fluorescence properties. Fluorescence can be excited at 266nm or 355nm and is detected in two broad wavelength bands. Individual particles with appropriate size and fluorescence properties can then be analyzed more thoroughly in a dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Over the course of two deployments to the San Francisco International Airport, more than 6.5 million individual aerosol particles were fully analyzed by the system. Analysis of the resulting data has provided a number of important insights relevant to rapid bioaerosol detection, which are described here.

Steele, Paul T.; McJimpsey, Erica L.; Coffee, Keith R.; Fergenson, David P.; Riot, Vincent J.; Tobias, Herbert J.; Woods, Bruce W.; Gard, Eric E.; Frank, Matthias

2006-05-01

106

Characteristics of aerosols collected in central Taiwan during an Asian dust event in spring 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol samples for PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were collected at four locations in central Taiwan from 26 to 31 March 2000, a period that experienced exceedingly high PM levels from 29 to 30 March due to the passage of an Asian dust storm. The samples were analyzed for mass, metallic elements, ions, and carbon. The purpose of this paper is to

M. T. Cheng; Y. C. Lin; C. P. Chio; C. F. Wang; C. Y. Kuo

2005-01-01

107

Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Upstate New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected in the historic Stockade District of Schenectady, New York, was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy. This is part of a systematic study in the Mohawk River Valley of upstate New York to identify the sources and understand the transport, transformation, and effects of airborne pollutants and the connection between aerosols, the deposition of pollution, and the uptake of pollutants by wildlife and vegetation. The atmospheric aerosols were collected with a nine-stage cascade impactor that allows for the analysis of the particulate matter as a function of particle size. The samples were bombarded with 2-MeV proton beams from the Union College Pelletron Accelerator and the energy spectra of the X-rays were measured with a silicon drift detector. The X-ray spectra were analyzed using GUPIX software to extract the elemental concentrations of the particulate matter. The sample collection and analysis will be described, and preliminary results will be presented.

Gleason, Colin; Harrington, Charles; Schuff, Katie; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

2009-10-01

108

Design, fabrication and testing of ambient aerosol sampler inlets. Final report May 79-Oct 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on the wind tunnel performances of two prototype Inhalable Particulate Matter (IPM) inlets designed for use with a dichotomous sampler. One was developed at the Aerosol Science Laboratory (ASL) Colorado State University, while the other was developed in an independent effort at the University of Minnesota (UM) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The ASL inlet is based

J. B. Wedding; M. A. Weigand

1982-01-01

109

AMBIENT SULFATE AEROSOL DEPOSITION IN MAN: MODELING THE INFLUENCE OF HYGROSCOPICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric sulfate aerosols (H2SO4, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4HSO4) are of international concern because of their global prevalence and potential irritant or toxic effects on humans. To assess hazards following inhalation exposure, the total dose delivered to the human respiratory tract...

110

GROWTH LAWS FOR THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY AMBIENT AEROSOLS: IMPLICATIONS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The evolution of aerosol size distributions growing by gas-to-particle conversion has been observed recently in field and laboratory studies. A technique for extracting particle diameter growth rates from such data is presented. The functional dependence of these growth rates on ...

111

Chemical composition of ambient aerosol, ice residues and cloud droplet residues in mixed-phase clouds: single particle analysis during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE 6)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different single particle mass spectrometers were operated in parallel at the Swiss High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3580 m a.s.l.) during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE 6) in February and March 2007. During mixed phase cloud events ice crystals from 5-20 ?m were separated from larger ice aggregates, non-activated, interstitial aerosol particles and supercooled droplets using an Ice-Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI). During one cloud period supercooled droplets were additionally sampled and analyzed by changing the Ice-CVI setup. The small ice particles and droplets were evaporated by injection into dry air inside the Ice-CVI. The resulting ice and droplet residues (IR and DR) were analyzed for size and composition by the two single particle mass spectrometers: a custom-built Single Particle Laser-Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (SPLAT) and a commercial Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS, TSI Model 3800). During CLACE 6 the SPLAT instrument characterized 355 individual IR that produced a mass spectrum for at least one polarity and the ATOFMS measured 152 IR. The mass spectra were binned in classes, based on the combination of dominating substances, such as mineral dust, sulfate, potassium and elemental carbon or organic material. The derived chemical information from the ice residues is compared to the JFJ ambient aerosol that was sampled while the measurement station was out of clouds (several thousand particles analyzed by SPLAT and ATOFMS) and to the composition of the residues of supercooled cloud droplets (SPLAT: 162 cloud droplet residues analyzed, ATOFMS: 1094). The measurements showed that mineral dust was strongly enhanced in the ice particle residues. Close to all of the SPLAT spectra from ice residues did contain signatures from mineral compounds, albeit connected with varying amounts of soluble compounds. Similarly, close to all of the ATOFMS IR spectra show a mineral or metallic component. Pure sulfate and nitrate containing particles were depleted in the ice residues. Sulfate and nitrate was found to dominate the droplet residues (~90% of the particles). The results from the two different single particle mass spectrometers were generally in agreement. Differences in the results originate from several causes, such as the different wavelength of the desorption and ionisation lasers and different size-dependent particle detection efficiencies.

Kamphus, M.; Ettner-Mahl, M.; Klimach, T.; Drewnick, F.; Keller, L.; Cziczo, D. J.; Mertes, S.; Borrmann, S.; Curtius, J.

2010-08-01

112

Quantifying the sources of hazardous elements of suspended particulate matter aerosol collected in Yokohama, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed metals (Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and Bi), water-soluble ions (Na +, NH 4+, K +, Ca 2+, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42-) and carbonaceous mass (EC and OC) in SPM aerosol samples using an ICP-MS, ion chromatograph and CHN corder, respectively. The SPM samples were collected from 1999 to 2005 at two locations (urban site A and industrial site B) of Yokohama, Japan with concentrations in mean and ranges of 34.2 and 19.7-50.3 ?g m -3 and 22.9 and 12.7-35.1 ?g m -3 for the respective location. Source apportionment of SPM aerosol was conducted appropriately for the first time to these locations employing PCA-APCS technique. Major sources of SPM at site A were a) crustal source, b) urban origin, c) undefined, and d) mineral rock. At site B, the sources were predicted as a) urban origin, b) undefined, c) crustal source, and d) secondarily formed aerosol. The tracers and nature of the source related to urban origin at both sites were similar but retaining different source strength. Secondarily formed aerosol was quite unique at site B. However, mineral rock was remarkable at site A.

Khan, Md. Firoz; Hirano, Koichiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

113

Radiocarbon Analysis of Elemental Carbon and Total Organic Carbon in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was initiated to understand the sources and behaviors of carbon-containing compounds in the atmospheric aerosols in East Asian region. As an initial attempt, we collected airborne particulate matter (APM) with diameter <10 micrometer (PM10) in Okinawa, Japan and analyzed 14C/12C ratio in EC and total organic carbon (TOC) to apportion source of biomass and fossil fuel combustion in PM10 aerosols. Okinawa is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia. Aerosol particles were collected at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa, Japan. Each sample was collected for two weeks with a high-volume air sampler at a rate of 1000 L min-1 to collect aerosol particles on a quartz filter, which was pre-combusted before use to eliminate residual organic compounds. Radiocarbon is measured in AMS facility (NIES-TERRA) at National Institute for Environmental Studies after preparing graphite. The results showed that during Asian dust events in March and April, both APM and EC in PM10 aerosols collected in Okinawa, Japan were much higher than those of non-Asian dust event. The percent modern carbon (pMC) of EC and TOC was much smaller for the PM10 aerosols collected during Asian dust events than those of non-dust event. When maritime air mass prevailed, biomass originated organic compounds were the major TOC in the aerosols. We will report data on 14C/12C ratio of EC and TOC in PM10 aerosols collected at CHAAMS during March to October, 2008

Arakaki, T.; Handa, D.; Nakajima, H.; Kumata, H.; Suzuki, M.; Shibata, Y.; Uchida, M.

2008-12-01

114

Long-Range Transport of Perchlorate Observed in the Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of perchlorate has become quite active in the U.S. in the last several years. Perchlorate has been recognized as a new environmental pollutant and it attracted much attention quickly in the world. The health concern about perchlorate stems from the fact that it displaces iodide in the thyroid gland, while iodine-containing thyroid hormones are essential for proper neural development from the fetal stage through the first years of life. In this study, we determined the concentrations of perchlorate ion present in the atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa Island, Japan. We then examined the relationships between the perchlorate concentrations and the environmental parameters and the climatic conditions peculiar to Okinawa. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS). Each sampling duration was one week. The quartz filters with aerosols were stirred with Milli-Q pure water for three hours before perchlorate ion was extracted. The extracted perchlorate ion concentrations were determined by ion chromatography (ICS-2000, DIONEX). The mean perchlorate concentration for the samples collected at CHAAMS was 1.83 ng/m3, and the minimum was 0.18 ng/m3. The samples collected during November 21-27, 2005, January 23-30, 2006 and April 24-01, 2006 had highest perchlorate concentrations. For these three samples, we performed back trajectory analysis, and found that the air mass for the three samples arrived from the Asian continent. A relatively strong correlation (r2 = 0.55) was found between perchlorate and nss-sulfate concentrations for the CHAAMS samples. Furthermore, we analyzed perchlorate in the soils and the fertilizers used for sugar cane farming around the CHAAMS area. The Milli-Q extract of the soil and the fertilizers did not contain any detectable levels of perchlorate ions. Therefore, it was suggested that perchlorate found in the atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS was probably transported from the Asian continent.

Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.; Oomori, T.; Miyagi, T.; Kadena, H.; Ishizaki, T.; Nakama, F.

2007-12-01

115

Contribution of wood combustion in winter submicron ambient aerosols over Athens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given that a smog pollution problem, mostly attributed to wood burning in fireplaces and stoves, is currently emerging in the Athens metropolitan area, several monitoring instruments were deployed at the National Observatory of Athens facilities in the region of Thissio, downtown Athens . These included an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor with 30 minute time resolution and a Particle Into Liquid Sampler coupled with Ion Chromatography with 15 minute time resolution. The campaign duration was from December 2013 to February 2014 and the aim was to investigate the chemical composition of ultrafine aerosols connected to biomass burning.. Many events of high particulate matter concentrations (exceeding the 50 ?g/m3 daily limit) were observed during night-time, with maximum concentrations occurring when stagnant atmospheric conditions prevailed. Potassium measured by the PILS - IC, and the m/z = 60 fragment measured by the ACSM, was initially used as a tracer of biomass burning events. A good correlation was determined for those two factors, allowing for safe conclusions concerning the identification of these aforementioned biomass burning events. For utmost certainty, Black Carbon measurements coming from three different instruments, was also used. As a second step, Positive Matrix Factorization analysis was performed, using the SoFi interface, which utilizes the generalized multilinear engine (ME-2) (Canonaco et Al., Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3649-3661, 2013), for the source apportionment of the organic particulate matter, determined by the ACSM. This analysis revealed a very important Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA) factor with a clear diurnal cycle, showing maxima in the time interval from 21:00 in the evening to 02:00 in the morning. A Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA) factor is also present with a maximum during the same time interval, attributed to fossil fuel used in central heating systems, and a secondary maximum during the day, attributed to city traffic. Two more factors were determined, an Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA) factor implying processing in the atmosphere and a minor Cooking Organic Aerosol (COA) factor.¬

Stavroulas, Iasonas; Fourtziou, Luciana; Zarmpas, Pavlos; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Liakakou, Eleni; Sciare, Jean; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

2014-05-01

116

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

117

Ambient Aerosol Cloud-Forming Potential: CCN Closure Analysis in Boise, Idaho  

E-print Network

there is a supersaturation (SS) of water vapor in the air. Knowing what properties affect the ability of particles to act Nuclei (CCN) are ambient particles that water condenses onto in order to form cloud droplets when of the particles in the atmosphere. This is particularly important because changes in cloud properties have a great

Collins, Gary S.

118

Simultaneous Physical, Chemical and Optical Characterization of Ambient Aerosol Particles Using Single Particle Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently shown that optical information obtained with an optical particle tracking system in a single particle mass spectrometer may be used to determine the refractive index and effective density for laboratory particles as a function of chemical composition (R.C. Moffet, K. A. Prather Anal. Chem., accepted, 2005). This study focuses on the light scattering information obtained from ambient

R. Moffet; H. Furutani; M. dall'Osto; K. Prather

2005-01-01

119

Validation and uncertainty estimates for MODIS Collection 6 "Deep Blue" aerosol data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Deep Blue" aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithm was introduced in Collection 5 of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) product suite, and complemented the existing "Dark Target" land and ocean algorithms by retrieving AOD over bright arid land surfaces, such as deserts. The forthcoming Collection 6 of MODIS products will include a "second generation" Deep Blue algorithm, expanding coverage to all cloud-free and snow-free land surfaces. The Deep Blue dataset will also provide an estimate of the absolute uncertainty on AOD at 550 nm for each retrieval. This study describes the validation of Deep Blue Collection 6 AOD at 550 nm (?M) from MODIS Aqua against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data from 60 sites to quantify these uncertainties. The highest quality (denoted quality assurance flag value 3) data are shown to have an absolute uncertainty of approximately (0.086+0.56?M)/AMF, where AMF is the geometric air mass factor. For a typical AMF of 2.8, this is approximately 0.03+0.20?M, comparable in quality to other satellite AOD datasets. Regional variability of retrieval performance and comparisons against Collection 5 results are also discussed.

Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.

2013-07-01

120

Particle morphologies and formation mechanisms of fine volcanic ash aerosol collected from the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine volcanic ash aerosol (35-0.09um) erupted in 2006 by Augustine Volcano, southwest of Anchorage, Alaska was collected by a DRUM cascade impactor and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy for individual particle chemistry and morphology. Results of these analyses show ash particles occur as either individual glass shard and mineral phase (plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite, hornblende, etc.) particles or aggregates thereof. Individual glass shard ash particles are angular, uniformly-sized, consist of calc-alkaline whole-rock elements (Si, Al, Fe, Na, and Ca) and are not collocated on the sample media with non-silicate, Cl and S bearing sea salt particles. Aggregate particles occur as two types: pure ash aggregates and sea salt-cored aggregates. Pure ash aggregates are made up of only ash particles and contain no other constituents. Sea salt-cored aggregates are ash particles commingled with sea salts. Determining the formation processes of the different ash particle types need further investigation but some possibilities are proposed here. Individual ash particles may exist when the ambient air is generally dry, little electrical charge exists on ash particles, the eruptive cloud is generally dry, or the number of individual particles exceeds the scavenging capacity of the water droplets present. Another possibility is that ash aggregates may break apart as relative humidity drops over time and causes ash-laden water droplets to evaporate and subsequently break apart. Pure ash aggregates may form when the ambient air and plume is relatively dry but the ash has a significant charge to cause ash to aggregate. Or they could form during long-range transport when turbulent or Brownian motion can cause ash particles to collide and coagulate. Pure ash aggregates could also form as a result of water droplet scavenging and subsequent evaporation of water droplets, leaving behind only ash. In this case, droplets would not have interacted with a sea salt-containing boundary layer. Sea salt-cored aggregates could form when ash particles travel over a maritime environment and sea salt aerosol could easily be incorporated in the plume from the surrounding atmosphere. When the particles are sampled, pressure drops within the DRUM impactor cause the water in the droplet to evaporate, leaving behind ash aggregated with salt

Rinkleff, P. G.; Cahill, C. F.

2010-12-01

121

Molecular Characterization of Marine Organic Aerosols Collected during a Round-the-World Cruise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total suspended particles (TSP) were collected on board the R/V Hakuho Maru during a round-the-world cruise (KH89-2) and were characterized for organic molecular compositions using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. More than 140 organic species were detected in the marine aerosols and were grouped into 11 organic compound classes, including aliphatic lipids, anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols, lignin/resin acids, sterols, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydroxy-/polyacids, aromatic acids, as well as secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers from the photooxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 0.94 to 98 ng m-3 (average 31 ng m-3) with higher concentrations in coastal regions (California Coast, South China Sea, and Western North Pacific) than in open marine areas (North Pacific and North Atlantic), suggesting that long-range atmospheric transport from the continents is the main source of marine organic aerosols. Isoprene SOA tracers, i.e., 2-methylglyceric acid, C5-alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols, were detected in all the samples (0.11-22 ng m-3, average 3.6 ng m-3) with higher concentrations in the tropical regions. They accounted for 0.48-29% of the total identified organics. Organic compounds were further categorized into several groups to clarify their sources. In the North Pacific and North Atlantic, secondary oxidation products (30-31%), fossil fuel combustion products (27-28%), as well as marine natural emissions (22-34%) were found as major contributors to the marine aerosols. In California Coast, North Indian Ocean and South China Sea, secondary oxidation products can contribute 44-55% of the total identified organics, followed by terrestrial natural emissions (12-27%), while biomass burning emissions were found to contribute only 1-2%. However, in the western North Pacific near the Asian continent, fossil fuel combustion (27%) and biomass burning (25%) were recognized as the main sources for the total identified compounds, followed by terrestrial natural emission (23%), indicating a significant influence of the Asian outflow in winter/spring. This study demonstrates that long-range atmospheric transport from the continent is one of the major factors controlling the chemical composition of organic aerosols in the marine boundary layer. However, in the tropical oceanic regions, secondary photooxidation could be the dominant source for marine organic aerosols.

Fu, P.; Kawamura, K.; Miura, K.

2010-12-01

122

Collection and characterization of aerosols from metal cutting techniques typically used in decommissioning nuclear facilities.  

PubMed

This study was designed to collect and characterize aerosols released during metal cutting activities typically used in decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities. Such information can guide in the selection of appropriate control technologies for these airborne materials. Mechanical cutting tools evaluated included a multi-wheel pipe cutter, reciprocating saw, band saw, chop saw, and large and small grinding wheels. Melting-vaporization cutting techniques included an oxy-acetylene torch, electric arc cut rod and plasma torch. With the exception of the multi-wheel pipe cutter, all devices created aerosols in the respirable size range (less than 10 micron aerodynamic diameter). Time required to cut 2-in. (5-cm) Schedule 40, Type 304L, stainless steel ranged from about 0.6 min for the plasma torch to about 3.0 min for the reciprocating saw. Aerosol production rate ranged from less than 10 mg/min for the reciprocating saw to more than 3000 mg/min for the electric arc cut rod. Particles from mechanical tools were irregular in shape, whereas particles from vaporization tools were spheres and ultrafine branched-chain aggregates. PMID:3425551

Newton, G J; Hoover, M D; Barr, E B; Wong, B A; Ritter, P D

1987-11-01

123

Particles, Aerosols, and Their Transport in Built Environment Particles, aerosols, or collectively called particulate matters (PM) are ubiquitous indoor  

E-print Network

1 Editorial Particles, Aerosols, and Their Transport in Built Environment Particles, aerosols, and a variety of other materials. Indoor biological PM are normally generated from air-conditioning systems, humidifiers, occupants, household pets, and even air cleaners. Air cleaners can be effective in removing

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

124

Evaporation Kinetics and Phase of Laboratory and Ambient Secondary Organic Aerosol  

SciTech Connect

Field measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) find higher mass loads than predicted by models, sparking intense efforts to find additional SOA sources but leaving the assumption of rapid SOA evaporation unchallenged. We characterized room-temperature evaporation of pure SOA and SOA formed in the presence of spectator organic vapors with and without aging. We find that it takes ~24 hrs for pure SOA particles to evaporate 75% of their mass, which is in sharp contrast to the ~10 minutes timescales predicted by models. The presence of spectator organic vapors and aging dramatically reduces the evaporation, and in some cases nearly stops it. For all cases, SOA evaporation behavior is size independent and does not follow the liquid droplet evaporation kinetics assumed by models.

Vaden, Timothy D.; Imre, Dan G.; Beranek, Josef; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zelenyuk, Alla

2011-02-08

125

Note: A combined aerodynamic lens/ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiment for the on-stream investigation of aerosol surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a new approach for the measurement of the surfaces of free aerosol particles with diameters from 50 to 1000 nm. Particles in this size range have significant influence on the heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere and affect human health. Interfacing an aerodynamic lens to an ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectrometer permits measurement of the surface chemical composition of unsupported aerosol particles in real time. We discuss the basic considerations for the design of such an instrument, its current limitations and potentials for improvement. Results from a proof-of-principle experiment on silicon oxide particles with average diameters of 270 nm are shown.

Mysak, Erin R.; Starr, David E.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Bluhm, Hendrik [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2010-01-15

126

Verification of traffic emitted aerosol components in the ambient air of Cologne (Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission of heavy metals, besides ozone and diesel-soot, is one of the most significant environmental problems caused by the existing transport systems. Emission arises from different parts of vehicles (tyres, brakes, exhausts) or running trains (rails, wheels, overhead cables, etc.). Various types of emission with their insufficiently known ways of spreading makes it difficult to estimate the risk and to realise effective counter-measures. Size-dependent sampling of aerosols with the virtual impactor technique of a dichotomous sampler (<2.5 ?m, 2.5-10 ?m) allows one to identify several aerosol components at the sampling locations and to reliably determine their relative proportions. Analyses of 30-40 elements from immission samplings at 12 places in and around Cologne are compared with specific patterns of elements from relevant emission sources. Moreover, taking into account the particle size, relative abundances of Zn, Mo, Cu and Sb can be estimated by assuming an average of around 30% of diesel-soot in the fine fraction, and ˜3% from an abraded tyre material together with ˜0.3% from rubbed off brake-linings in the coarse fraction. The assumption of 0.3% for brake-linings is based on the relative abundances of Cu and Sb which besides Cd are the most highly enriched. Since most brake-linings used in cars contain these elements in an unusually high quantity (5-20% Cu and 1-5% Sb) and are in very similar ratios as measured in the coarse fraction, Cu and Sb may be taken as quantitative tracers for the brake-lining component in the immission. The environmental interest in Sb arises mainly from the toxicological potential of the compounds Sb 2S 3 and Sb 2O 3. Other traffic related components could only be identified very close to the sources of emissions. Besides Pt from cars with catalysators and Cu emitted from overhead cables of trams, an As-enrichment from rusting rails, which segregates into fine particles because of shaking due to passing trains, was discovered.

Weckwerth, Gerd

127

Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning (BB) largely modifies the chemical compositions of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP) at Cape Hedo, subtropical Okinawa Island from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positive correlation was found between levoglucosan and nss-K+ (r = 0.38, p < 0.001); the latter is another BB tracer. The analyses of air mass trajectories and fire spots demonstrated that the seasonal variations of anhydrsosugsars are caused by a long-range transport of BB emissions from the Asian continent. We found winter maxima of anhydrosugars, which may be associated with open burning and domestic heating and cooking in north and northeast China, Mongolia and Russia and with the enhanced westerly. The monthly averaged levoglucosan/mannosan ratios were lower (2.1-4.8) in May-June and higher (13.3-13.9) in November-December. The lower values may be associated with softwood burning in north China, Korea and southwest Japan whereas the higher values are probably caused by agriculture waste burning of maize straw in the North China Plain. Anhydrosugars comprised 0.22% of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 0.13% of organic carbon (OC). The highest values to WSOC (0.37%) and OC (0.25%) were found in winter, again indicating an important BB contribution to Okinawa aerosols in winter. This study provides useful information to better understand the effect of East Asian biomass burning on the air quality in the western North Pacific Rim.

Zhu, C.; Kawamura, K.

2014-10-01

128

Statistical issues in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of ambient acid aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Although the ecologic effects of acid rain have been widely reported, relatively little is known about the effects of acidic air pollution on human health. Some epidemiologic and animal studies suggest, however, that acidity is an important determinant of the respiratory health effects of aerosols. The paper reviews some of that evidence and discusses its implications for the design and analysis of epidemiologic studies. Two types of exposure patterns are contrasted: peak exposures associated with air pollution episodes, and chronic exposures resulting from persistently high levels of air pollutants. Recent work on the analysis of repeated categorical outcome variables provides new methods for the analysis of episode studies. Studies of long-term exposure require comparisons among population groups, and these comparisons can be subject to the design effects characteristic of multistage sample surveys. The paper examines the implications of these design effects for epidemiologic studies. The paper also discusses the measurement errors induced by the use of outdoor measurements to quantify personal exposure, and ways to assess effects of such errors on conventional analyses of air pollution studies.

Ware, J.H.; Stram, D.O.

1988-01-01

129

Evidence of high PM 2.5 strong acidity in ammonia-rich atmosphere of Guangzhou, China: Transition in pathways of ambient ammonia to form aerosol ammonium at [NH 4+]/[SO 42-] = 1.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected using Harvard Honeycomb denuder/filter-pack system during different seasons in 2006 and 2007 at an urban site in Guangzhou, China. The particles collected in this study were generally acidic (average strong acidity ([H+]) ~ 70 nmol m- 3). Interestingly, aerosol sulfate was not fully neutralized in the ammonia-rich atmosphere (NH3 ~ 30 ppb) and even when NH4+]/[SO42-] was larger than 2. Consequently, strong acidity ([H+]) as high as 170 nmol m- 3 was observed in these samples. The kinetic rate of neutralization of acidity (acidic sulfate) by ambient ammonia was significantly higher than the rate of formation of ammonium nitrate involving HNO3 and NH3 for [NH4+]/[SO42-] ? 1.5 and much lower for NH4+]/[SO42-] > 1.5. Therefore, higher nitrate principally formed via homogeneous gas phase reactions involving ammonia and nitric acid were observed for [NH4+]/[SO42-] > 1.5. However, little nitrate, probably formed via heterogeneous processes e.g. reaction of HNO3 with sea salt or crustal species, was observed for [NH4+]/[SO42-] ? 1.5. These demonstrate a clear transition in the pathways of ambient ammonia to form aerosol ammonium at [NH4+]/[SO42-] = 1.5 and evidently explain the observed high acidity due to the unneutralized sulfate in the ammonium-rich aerosol (NH4+]/[SO42-] > 1.5). In fact, the measured acidity was almost similar to the excess acid defined as the acid that remains at [NH4+]/[SO42-] = 1.5 due to the un-neutralized fraction of sulfate ([H+] = 0.5[SO42-]). The presence of high excess acid and ammonium nitrate significantly lowered the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate (from 80% to 40%) in the ammonium-rich samples.

Huang, X.; Qiu, R.; Chan, Chak K.; Ravi Kant, Pathak

2011-03-01

130

VERSATILE AEROSOL CONCENTRATION ENRICHMENT SYSTEM (VACES) FOR SIMULTANEOUS IN-VIVO AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE AMBIENT PARTICLES. PART II. FIELD EVALUATION. (R826232)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract This study presents results from a field evaluation of a mobile versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES), designed to enhance the ambient concentrations of ultrafine (less than 0.18 ...

131

VERSATILE AEROSOL CONCENTRATION ENRICHMENT SYSTEM (VACES) FOR SIMULTANEOUS IN VIVO AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE AND COARSE AMBIENT PARTICLES. PART II: FIELD EVALUATION. (R827352C001)  

EPA Science Inventory

This study presents results from a field evaluation of a mobile versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES), designed to enhance the ambient concentrations of ultrafine (less than 0.18 ...

132

The Consistency of Isotopologues of Ambient Atmospheric Nitric Acid in Passively Collected Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic sources of nitrogen oxides have previously been shown to have distinctive isotopic signatures of oxygen and nitrogen. Nylon filters are currently used in passive sampling arrays to measure ambient atmospheric nitric acid concentrations and estimate deposition rates. This experiment measured the ability of nylon filters to consistently collect isotopologues of atmospheric nitric acid in the same ratios as they are present in the atmosphere. Samplers were deployed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and at field sites across a nitrogen deposition gradient in Southern California. Filters were exposed over a four week period with individual filters being subjected to 1-4 week exposure times. Extracted nitric acid were measured for ?18O and ?15N ratios and compared for consistency based on length of exposure and amount of HNO3 collected. Filters within the CSTRs collected HNO3 at a consistent rate in both high and low concentration chambers. After two weeks of exposure, the mean ?18O values were within 0.5‰ of the ?18O of the source HNO3 solution. The mean of all weekly exposures were within 0.5‰ of the ?15N of the source solution, but after three weeks, the mean ?15N of adsorbed HNO3 was within 0.2‰. As the length of the exposure increased, the variability of measured delta values decreased for both elements. The field samplers collected HNO3 consistent with previously measured values along a deposition gradient. The mean ?18O at high deposition sites was 52.2‰ compared to 35.7‰ at the low deposition sites. Mean ?15N values were similar at all sites across the deposition gradient. Due to precipitation events occurring during the exposure period, the ?15N and ?18O of nitric acid were highly variable at all field sites. At single sites, changes in ?15N and ?18O were negatively correlated, consistent with two-sourcing mixing dynamics, but the slope of the regressions differed between high and low deposition sites. Anthropogenic sources of atmospheric nitric acid accounted for 58% of the atmospheric nitric acid at the high deposition sites and 36.5% of the atmospheric nitric acid at the low deposition sites. The nylon filters proved to be an effective means of collecting isotopologues of HNO3 consistent with atmospheric concentrations. A length of the exposure of two weeks stabilizes isotopologue composition and minimizes the chance of variable weather events altering atmospheric values.

Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Padgett, P.; Allen, E. B.

2012-12-01

133

Evaluations of the chemical mass balance method for determining contributions of gasoline and diesel exhaust to ambient carbonaceous aerosols.  

PubMed

The US. Department of Energy Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study was conducted to assess the sources of uncertainties in using an organic compound-based chemical mass balance receptor model to quantify the relative contributions of emissions from gasoline (or spark ignition [SI]) and diesel (or compression ignition [CI]) engines to ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California's South Coast Air Basin (SOCAB). In this study, several groups worked cooperatively on source and ambient sample collection and quality assurance aspects of the study but worked independently to perform chemical analysis and source apportionment. Ambient sampling included daily 24-hr PM2.5 samples at two air quality-monitoring stations, several regional urban locations, and along freeway routes and surface streets with varying proportions of automobile and truck traffic. Diesel exhaust was the dominant source of total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC) at the Azusa and downtown Los Angeles, CA, monitoring sites, but samples from the central part of the air basin showed nearly equal apportionments of CI and SI. CI apportionments to TC were mainly dependent on EC, which was sensitive to the analytical method used. Weekday contributions of CI exhaust were higher for Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE; 41+/-3.7%) than Speciation Trends Network (32+/-2.4%). EC had little effect on SI apportionment. SI apportionments were most sensitive to higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (indeno[123-cd]pyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene, and coronene) and several steranes and hopanes, which were associated mainly with high emitters. Apportionments were also sensitive to choice of source profiles. CI contributions varied from 30% to 60% of TC when using individual source profiles rather than the composites used in the final apportionments. The apportionment of SI vehicles varied from 1% to 12% of TC depending on the specific profile that was used. Up to 70% of organic carbon (OC) in the ambient samples collected at the two fixed monitoring sites could not be apportioned to directly emitted PM emissions. PMID:17608007

Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Arnott, William P; Chow, Judith C; Zielinska, Barbara

2007-06-01

134

NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN AMBIENT AIR COLLECTED ON GLASS-FIBER FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic with 25 other elements are simultaneously determined in ambient air samples collected on glass-fiber filter composites at 250 United States sites. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique combined with the power of a dedicated mini-computer resulted in...

135

Contributions of fossil fuel, biomass-burning, and biogenic emissions to carbonaceous aerosols in Zurich as traced by 14C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many open questions exist about the importance of different sources of carbonaceous aerosol, which is a substantial contributor to the global aerosol budget and, therefore, to climate change and human mortality. In this work, 14C was determined in elemental carbon (EC) and different organic carbon (OC) fractions from ambient urban aerosols with aerodynamic diameter <10 ?m collected in Zurich (Switzerland).

Sönke Szidat; Theo M. Jenk; Hans-Arno Synal; Markus Kalberer; Lukas Wacker; Irka Hajdas; Anne Kasper-Giebl; Urs Baltensperger

2006-01-01

136

An ambient experimental study of phase equilibrium in the atmospheric system: Aerosol H +, NH 4+, SO 2-4, NO 3--NH 3(g), HNO 3(g)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major simplification in the quantitative modeling of the atmospheric impact of the major aerosol and gaseous sulfur and nitrogen compounds would result from demonstration of phase equilibrium between the gases NH 3, HNO 3 and the appropriate aerosol-phase ionic or molecular species in the ambient atmosphere. The phase diagram of the (NH 4) 2SO 4-H 2SO 4-H 2O and NH 4NO 3-H 2O systems have been recently refined by experimental measurements and preliminary calculations of the mixed nitrate-sulfate system have also been made. Experiments to test the applicability of existing phase equilibria considerations to the ambient atmosphere have been designed and conducted based on newly devised techniques for continuous determination of gaseous NH 3 with time resolution < 5 min and unambiguous speciation of nitric acid and aerosol nitrate with time resolution of ~ 15 min. Preliminary results suggest that during a daytime period with aerosol composition approximating a letovicite-NH 4NO 3 mixture, observed products of NH 3 (g) and HNO 3(g) concentrations agreed very well with the equilibrium constant calculated for the ammonium nitrate-NH 3(g), HNO 3(g) equilibrium. During a night-time period, the predicted ammonia concentrations, based on bulk aerosol composition data, were much lower and nitric acid concentrations much higher, respectively, than the observed values. The error sources in the measured and calculated values do not appear to account for the apparent deviations from gas-phase concentrations based on the droplet-pH controlling bisulfate-sulfate equilibrium.

Tanner, Roger L.

137

DEVELOPMENT, DESIGN, AND OPERATION OF A CASCADE IMPACTOR TO COLLECT AEROSOL SAMPLES FOR WAVELENGTH DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this research project was to design and construct a particle sizing device that will collect and size source emitted aerosols on 47 mm diameter substrates for subsequent wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis. Calibration studies were conducted with a proto...

138

Characterizing mineral dusts and other aerosols from the Middle East--Part 1: ambient sampling.  

PubMed

The purpose of the Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program was to provide scientifically founded information on the chemical and physical properties of dust collected over a period of approximately 1 year in Djibouti, Afghanistan (Bagram, Khowst), Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Iraq (Balad, Baghdad, Tallil, Tikrit, Taji, Al Asad), and Kuwait (northern, central, coastal, and southern regions). Three collocated low-volume particulate samplers, one each for the total suspended particulate matter, < 10 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) particulate matter, and < 2.5 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) particulate matter, were deployed at each of the 15 sites, operating on a '1 in 6' day sampling schedule. Trace-element analysis was performed to measure levels of potentially harmful metals, while major-element and ion-chemistry analyses provided an estimate of mineral components. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemical composition of small individual particles. Secondary electron images provided information on particle size and shape. This study shows the three main air pollutant types to be geological dust, smoke from burn pits, and heavy metal condensates (possibly from metals smelting and battery manufacturing facilities). Non-dust storm events resulted in elevated trace metal concentrations in Baghdad, Balad, and Taji in Iraq. Scanning-electron-microscopy secondary electron images of individual particles revealed no evidence of freshly fractured quartz grains. In all instances, quartz grains had rounded edges and mineral grains were generally coated by clay minerals and iron oxides. PMID:19235610

Engelbrecht, Johann P; McDonald, Eric V; Gillies, John A; Jayanty, R K M; Casuccio, Gary; Gertler, Alan W

2009-02-01

139

The application of size- resolved hygroscopicity measurements to understand the physical and chemical properties of ambient aerosol  

E-print Network

these values to be within the theoretical bounds for the aerosols measured. Mass light-scattering efficiencies were calculated from both an averaged aerosol size distribution and from distributions modified to reflect the effects of cloud. These calculations.... The efficiency with which aerosol populations scatter light controls their impact on regional and global radiation budgets, and on local visibility. The dependence of that scattering efficiency on particle size distributions translates into a dependence...

Santarpia, Joshua Lee

2005-08-29

140

ANALYSIS OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL COMPOUNDS FROM THE PHOTOOXIDATION OF D -LIMONENE IN THE PRESENCE OF NO X AND THEIR DETECTION IN AMBIENT PM 2.5  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photooxidation of a d -limonene/NOx/air mixture was carried out. SOA, generated in a smog chamber, was collected on Zefluor filters. To determine the structural characteristics of the compounds, the filter sample...

141

Sugars as source indicators of biogenic organic carbon in aerosols collected above the Howland Experimental Forest, Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk aerosols (>1 ?m) were collected continuously above the canopy at the Howland Experimental Forest, Maine, USA from May to October 2002. Each sample integrated over an approximately 2-week period. Mono- and disaccharide sugars were extracted using a microscale technique and were analyzed as their TMS derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Concentrations of total aerosol sugars ranged from 10 to 180 ng m -3. Glucose was the most abundant sugar (40-75% of the total sugars). The monosaccharides arabinose, fructose, galactose, mannose, arabitol and mannitol, and the disaccharides sucrose, maltose and mycose (aka trehalose) were also present in lower concentrations. The sugar composition in the aerosols varied seasonally. Fructose and sucrose were prevalent in early spring and decreased in relative abundance as the growing season progressed. Sugar polyols (arabitol and mannitol) and the disaccharide mycose (a fungal metabolite) were more prevalent in autumn during the period of leaf senescence. The changes in the sugar composition in the aerosol samples appear to reflect the seasonality of sugar production and utilization by the ecosystem. Plant waxes were present as significant components also indicating an input from biogenic background. Smoke plumes from Quebec forest fires passed over the Howland site in early July 2002. Levoglucosan, a biomarker of biomass burning, increased by an order of magnitude in the aerosol samples collected during this time. Glucose, mannose, arabinose, galactose, and also, plant waxes increased in concentration by factors of 2-5 in the smoke-impacted samples, indicating that wildfires enhance atmospheric emissions of uncombusted organic compounds. In contrast, concentrations of fructose, sugar polyols and disaccharides were not significantly higher in the smoke-impacted samples and indicated that biomass burning was not a significant source of these compounds in the aerosols.

Medeiros, Patricia M.; Conte, Maureen H.; Weber, John C.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

142

Characterization of organosulfates from the photooxidation of isoprene and unsaturated fatty acids in ambient aerosol using liquid chromatography/(-) electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have characterized in detail the MS(2) and MS(3) fragmentation behaviors, using electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative ion mode, of previously identified sulfated isoprene secondary organic aerosol compounds, including 2-methyltetrols, 2-methylglyceric acid, 2-methyltetrol mononitrate derivatives, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. A major fragmentation pathway for the deprotonated molecules of the sulfate esters of 2-methyltetrols and 2-methylglyceric acid and of the sulfate derivatives of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is the formation of the bisulfate [HSO(4)](-) anion, while the deprotonated sulfate esters of 2-methyltetrol mononitrate derivatives preferentially fragment through loss of nitric acid. Rational interpretation of MS(2), MS(3) and accurate mass data led to the structural characterization of unknown polar compounds in K-puszta fine aerosol as organosulfate derivatives of photooxidation products of unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. 2-hydroxy-1,4-butanedialdehyde, 4,5- and 2,3-dihydroxypentanoic acids, and 2-hydroxyglutaric acid, and of alpha-pinene, i.e. 3-hydroxyglutaric acid. The deprotonated molecules of the sulfated hydroxyacids, 2-methylglyceric acid, 4,5- and 2,3-dihydroxypentanoic acid, and 2- and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids, showed in addition to the [HSO(4)](-) ion (m/z 97) neutral losses of water, CO(2) and/or SO(3), features that are characteristic of humic-like substances. The polar organosulfates characterized in the present work are of climatic relevance because they may contribute to the hydrophilic properties of fine ambient aerosol. In addition, these compounds probably serve as ambient tracer compounds for the occurrence of secondary organic aerosol formation under acidic conditions. PMID:17968849

Gómez-González, Yadian; Surratt, Jason D; Cuyckens, Filip; Szmigielski, Rafal; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Jaoui, Mohammed; Lewandowski, Michael; Offenberg, John H; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Edney, Edward O; Blockhuys, Frank; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda

2008-03-01

143

Development of a monitoring network for the analysis of elements in aerosol samples collected at Lake Balaton.  

PubMed

Determination of different toxic elements in aerosol and precipitation samples collected at Lake Balaton were carried out. A simple sequential leaching procedure was applied for the determination of the distribution of elements. The distribution of elements was determined among environmentally mobile, bound to carbonates and oxides, and bound to silicates and organic matters (environmentally immobile) fractions. Particular attention was paid to distinguish between environmentally mobile and environmentally immobile fractions because these represent the two extreme modes by which the metals are bound to the solid matrices. Aerosol samples were weekly collected in Tihany, Siófok and Keszthely on 5 cm diameter Teflon filters with a membrane pump. While Cd-compounds have been found enormously in the environmentally mobile fractions, As-compounds accumulated almost evenly among portions. The results of sequential leaching give an indication of the mobility of the elements once the aerosol is mixed directly into natural waters on during scavenging of the aerosol by wet deposition. Based upon the data it can be concluded that the effect of anthropogenic sources is minor in this area. PMID:10574432

Hlavay, J; Polyák, K; Molnár, A; Mészáros, E

1999-01-01

144

Effect of acidity on secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene.  

PubMed

The effect of particle-phase acidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene is investigated in a laboratory chamber study, in which the acidity of the inorganic seed aerosol was controlled systematically. The observed enhancement in SOA mass concentration is closely correlated to increasing aerosol acidity (R2 = 0.979). Direct chemical evidence for acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions was obtained from the SOA chemical analyses. Aerosol mass concentrations for the 2-methyltetrols, as well as the newly identified sulfate esters, both of which serve as tracers for isoprene SOA in ambient aerosols, increased significantly with enhanced aerosol acidity. Aerosol acidities, as measured in nmol of H+ m(-3), employed in the present study are in the same range as those observed in tropospheric aerosol collected from the eastern U.S. PMID:17822103

Surratt, Jason D; Lewandowski, Michael; Offenberg, John H; Jaoui, Mohammed; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Edney, Edward O; Seinfeld, John H

2007-08-01

145

Relationships between the elemental composition and particle sizes of aerosols with and without impact from a coal-fired power plant. [Analyses of particles collected from background and power plant plume fractionated by particle size  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric particulate samples were collected for a period of seven months using a 6-stage, cascade impactor at a ground level location 8 km from a large coal-fired power plant in the southwestern United States. One impactor was activated when ambient SO/sub 2/ concentrations exceeded a preset threshold of 64 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. This occurred 7% of the time. A second impactor was powered during other times. Meteorology and a lack of other sources of SO/sub 2/ at the sampling site combine to provide aerosol samples that represent the dispersed power plant plume and regional background. Elemental analyses for 32 elements were performed by instrumental neutron activation on these aerosols. The elemental concentration patterns were determined using statistical and pattern recognition procedures. The two sets of aerosol samples are characterized by different concentrations of chemical elements, particularly in the smaller (<3 ..mu..m) sized particles. Most elements were present in higher concentrations in aerosols collected during high SO/sub 2/ periods than those obtained during low SO/sub 2/ periods. Three major patterns describe element concentration vs particle size behavior: (1) relatively constant concentrations in supermicron size particles, but much lower concentrations in submicron particles for aerosols collected during both high and low SO/sub 2/ periods, (2) increasingly higher concentrations as particle sizes decrease, regardless of SO/sub 2/ concentration (As, Br, Cl, Cu, I, In, Sb, Se, and W), and (3) elements exhibiting the first type of concentration vs size pattern during low SO/sub 2/ periods, but the second pattern during high SO/sub 2/ sampling periods.

Wangen, L.E.

1981-04-01

146

A wintertime study of atmospheric aerosols collected in São Paulo, Brazil.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pollution has become a significant problem for urban areas worldwide. In megacities aerosols are released by different emissions sources. These sources can emit particles in a large variety of sizes. Size distributions provide information on the sources and the sources processes of particles or species (Maenhaut et al. 2002). In the wintertime (2005) twenty PM10 samples were collected in São Paulo city using hi-vol sampler and fine particles (from 6 to 18,000 nm) were collected using NanoMoudi impactor. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) recognised as mutagen and carcinogen compounds were identified in PM10 samples and gravimetric concentrations were calculated for fine particles. The results showed PAH total concentrations ranged from 0.27 to 43.8 ng m-3. Phenanthrene (7.3 ng m-3) and anthracene (2.2 ng m-3), lighter compounds were the most abundant PAH; benz(a)pyrene (1.4 ng m-3) mutagenic compound was found in higher concentration than previous work. For PM10 concentrations, 60% of the samples (n=12) are higher than WHO standards (50 ?g m-3). Three modes can be found in the particles with mean diameter: 44 nm, 440 nm and 14000 nm. It is in agreement with the fact this site is located inside a large green area (campus of the University of São Paulo), which can be source of particles between 25 and 440 nm. We conclude that at this urban site vehicular emissions are indicated as being the most important PAH emitters. For fine particles, soil resuspension and biogenic emissions seem to be the most important sources.

Vasconcellos, P. C.; Ogura, L.; Lopes, W.; Pereira, P. A.; Andrade, J. B.; Sanchez-Ccoyllo, O.

2007-05-01

147

DETERMINATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL PRODUCTS FROM THE PHOTOOXIDATION OF TOLUENE AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN AMBIENT PM2.5  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the secondary organic aerosol products from photooxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. The laboratory experiments consisted of irradiating toluene/propylene/NOX/air mixtures in a smog chamber operated in the dynamic mode...

148

Detection of allergens adsorbed to ambient air particles collected in four European cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution has been implicated as one of the factors responsible for the increased incidence of allergic diseases observed in recent years. High concentrations of air pollutants may promote airway sensitization by acting as adjuvants. Ambient particles as carriers of adsorbed allergens are, therefore, of special interest since they may act as mediators of inflammatory as well as allergic responses.

Ellen Namork; Bjørn V. Johansen; Martinus Løvik

2006-01-01

149

DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTION, CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MUTAGENICITY TESTING OF AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this Research Triangle Institute pilot study was to develop and evaluate a minimal testing protocol which could detect and quantify the mutagenic potential of ambient air. The cost-effective biological and chemical testing protocol developed under this pr...

150

Spectroscopic study of the water-soluble organic matter isolated from atmospheric aerosols collected under different atmospheric conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the water-soluble organic matter from fine aerosols collected in a rural location during two different meteorological conditions (summer and autumn) was investigated by UV–vis, synchronous fluorescence (with ?? = 20nm), FT-IR and CPMAS-13C NMR spectroscopies. A seasonal variation in the concentration of total carbon, organic carbon and water-soluble organic carbon was confirmed, with higher values during the

Regina M. B. O. Duarte; Casimiro A. Pio; Armando C. Duarte

2005-01-01

151

Fine and coarse modes of dicarboxylic acids in the Arctic aerosols collected during the Polar Sunrise Experiment 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine (1 ?m) aerosol particles were collected at Alert, Canada (82°27?N, 62°30?W), during the Arctic spring as part of the Polar Sunrise Experiment 1997 and were analyzed for low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C2–C11) using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). More than 80% of total diacids were detected in the fine fraction, suggesting the

M. Narukawa; K. Kawamura; K. G. Anlauf; L. A. Barrie

2003-01-01

152

Hygroscopic and Chemical Properties of Aerosols collected near a Copper Smelter: Implications for Public and Environmental Health  

PubMed Central

Particulate matter emissions near active copper smelters and mine tailings in the southwestern United States pose a potential threat to nearby environments owing to toxic species that can be inhaled and deposited in various regions of the body depending on the composition and size of the particles, which are linked by particle hygroscopic properties. This study reports the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved chemical and hygroscopic properties of particles next to an active copper smelter and mine tailings by the towns of Hayden and Winkelman in southern Arizona. Size-resolved particulate matter samples collected near an active copper smelter were examined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. Aerosol particles collected at the measurement site are enriched in metals and metalloids (e.g. arsenic, lead, and cadmium) and water-uptake measurements of aqueous extracts of collected samples indicate that the particle diameter range of particles most enriched with these species (0.18–0.55 µm) overlaps with the most hygroscopic mode at a relative humidity of 90% (0.10–0.32 µm). These measurements have implications for public health, microphysical effects of aerosols, and regional impacts owing to the transport and deposition of contaminated aerosol particles. PMID:22852879

Sorooshian, Armin; Csavina, Janae; Shingler, Taylor; Dey, Stephen; Brechtel, Fred J.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

2012-01-01

153

78 FR 57631 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Ambient...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and...Protection Agency has submitted an information collection...approved through January 31, 2015. This ICR renewal also...Additional comments may be submitted on or before...

2013-09-19

154

Characterization of ambient aerosols in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 campaign with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry: results from the CENICA Supersite  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed at the CENICA Supersite, during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study (MCMA-2003) from 31 March-4 May 2003 to investigate particle concentrations, sources, and processes. The AMS provides real time information on mass concentration and composition of the non-refractory species in particulate matter less than 1 µm (NR-PM1) with high time and

D. Salcedo; Timothy B. Onasch; K. Dzepina; M. R. Canagaratna; Q. Zhang; J. A. Huffman; Peter DeCarlo; J. T. Jayne; P. Mortimer; Douglas R. Worsnop; C. E. Kolb; Kirsten S. Johnson; Bilal M. Zuberi; L. C. Marr; Rainer M. Volkamer; Luisa Molina; Mario J. Molina; B. Cardenas; R. M. Bernabé; C. Márquez; Jeffrey S. Gaffney; Nancy A. Marley; Alexander Laskin; V. Shutthanandan; YuLong Xie; W. H. Brune; R. Lesher; T. Shirley; J. L. Jimenez

2006-01-01

155

A comparative assessment of Boise, Idaho, ambient air fine particle samples using the plate and microsuspension Salmonella mutagenicity assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to characterize the genotoxic potential of the ambient air aerosols collected within an air shed impacted primarily by wood smoke and automotive emissions. The study also examines the relative merits of a microsuspension assay and the standard plate assay for monitoring the presence of airborne particle-bound mutagens. Wintertime ambient air particulate samples collected

Larry D Claxton; Sarah Warren; Roy Zweidinger; John Creason

2001-01-01

156

Characterization of ambient aerosols in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 campaign with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry: results from the CENICA Supersite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed at the CENICA Supersite, during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study (MCMA-2003) from 31 March-4 May 2003 to investigate particle concentrations, sources, and processes. The AMS provides real time information on mass concentration and composition of the non-refractory species in particulate matter less than 1 µm (NR-PM1) with high time and size-resolution. In order to account for the refractory material in the aerosol, we also present estimates of Black Carbon (BC) using an aethalometer and an estimate of the aerosol soil component obtained from Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry (PIXE) analysis of impactor substrates. Comparisons of AMS + BC + soil mass concentration with other collocated particle instruments (a LASAIR Optical Particle Counter, a PM2.5 Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM), and a PM2.5 DustTrak Aerosol Monitor) show that the AMS + BC + soil mass concentration is consistent with the total PM2.5 mass concentration during MCMA-2003 within the combined uncertainties. In Mexico City, the organic fraction of the estimated PM2.5 at CENICA represents, on average, 54.6% (standard deviation ?=10%) of the mass, with the rest consisting of inorganic compounds (mainly ammonium nitrate and sulfate/ammonium salts), BC, and soil. Inorganic compounds represent 27.5% of PM2.5 (?=10%); BC mass concentration is about 11% (?=4%); while soil represents about 6.9% (?=4%). Size distributions are presented for the AMS species; they show an accumulation mode that contains mainly oxygenated organic and secondary inorganic compounds. The organic size distributions also contain a small organic particle mode that is likely indicative of fresh traffic emissions; small particle modes exist for the inorganic species as well. Evidence suggests that the organic and inorganic species are not always internally mixed, especially in the small modes. The aerosol seems to be neutralized most of the time; however, there were some periods when there was not enough ammonium to completely neutralize the nitrate, chloride and sulfate present. The diurnal cycle and size distributions of nitrate suggest local photochemical production. On the other hand, sulfate appears to be produced on a regional scale. There are indications of new particle formation and growth events when concentrations of SO2 were high. Although the sources of chloride are not clear, this species seems to condense as ammonium chloride early in the morning and to evaporate as the temperature increases and RH decreases. The total and speciated mass concentrations and diurnal cycles measured during MCMA-2003 are similar to measurements during a previous field campaign at a nearby location.

Salcedo, D.; Onasch, T. B.; Dzepina, K.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Zhang, Q.; Huffman, J. A.; Decarlo, P. F.; Jayne, J. T.; Mortimer, P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Marr, L. C.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Cardenas, B.; Bernabé, R. M.; Márquez, C.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Laskin, A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Y.; Brune, W.; Lesher, R.; Shirley, T.; Jimenez, J. L.

2006-03-01

157

Organic molecular markers and signature from wood combustion particles in winter ambient aerosols: aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and high time-resolved GC-MS measurements in Augsburg, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of wood combustion on ambient aerosols was investigated in Augsburg, Germany during a winter measurement campaign of a six-week period. Special attention was paid to the high time resolution observations of wood combustion with different mass spectrometric methods. Here we present and compare the results from an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysed PM1 filters on an hourly basis. This includes source apportionment of the AMS derived organic mass by using positive matrix factorisation (PMF) and analysis of levoglucosan as wood combustion marker, respectively. In the measurement period nitrate and organics are the main contributors to the defined submicron particle mass with 28% and 35%, respectively. To the latter wood combustion organic aerosol (WCOA) contributes 23% on average and 27% in the evening and night-time. Conclusively, wood combustion has a strong influence on the organics and overall aerosol composition. Levoglucosan accounts for 14% of WCOA mass with a higher percentage in comparison to other studies. The ratio between the mass of levoglucosan and organic carbon amounts to 0.06. This study is unique in the one-hour time resolution comparison between the wood combustion results of the AMS and the GC-MS analysed filter method at a PM1 particle size range. This comparison of the concentration courses of the PMF WCOA factor, levoglucosan estimated by the AMS data and the levoglucosan measured by GC-MS is highly correlated, and a detailed discussion on the contributors to the wood combustion marker ion at mass-to-charge ratio 60 will be given. This offers a suitable application possibility for the description of the wood combustion course by the WCOA factor and the levoglucosan concentration estimated by AMS data. However, quantitative description of the levoglucosan concentration estimated by the AMS data is difficult due to the offset of latter compared to measured levoglucosan by the GC-MS.

Elsasser, M.; Crippa, M.; Orasche, J.; Decarlo, P. F.; Oster, M.; Pitz, M.; Gustafson, T. L.; Pettersson, J. B. C.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Zimmermann, R.

2012-02-01

158

ATR-FTIR characterization of organic functional groups and inorganic ions in ambient aerosols at a rural site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic method was used to measure organic functional groups and inorganic ions at Tonto National Monument (TNM), an Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sampling site in a rural area near Phoenix, Arizona. Functional groups and ions from common aerosol compound classes such as aliphatic and aromatic CH, methylene, methyl, aldehydes/ketones, carboxylic acids, ammonium sulfate and nitrate as well as functional groups from difficult to measure compound classes such as esters/lactones, acid anhydrides, carbohydrate hydroxyl and ethers, amino acids, and amines were quantified. On average, ˜33% of the PM 1.0 mass was composed of organic aerosol. The average (standard deviation) composition of the organic aerosol at TNM was 34% (6%) biogenic functional groups, 21% (5%) oxygenated functional groups, 28% (7%) aliphatic hydrocarbon functional groups (aliphatic CH, methylene and methyl) and 17% (1%) aromatic hydrocarbon functional groups. Compositional analysis, functional group correlations, and back trajectories were used to identify three types of events with source signatures: primary biogenic-influenced, urban-influenced, and regional background. The biogenic-influenced event had high concentrations of amino acids and carbohydrate hydroxyl and ether, as well as aliphatic CH and aromatic CH functional groups and qualitatively high levels of silicate. The urban-influenced events had back trajectories traveling directly from the Phoenix area and high concentrations of hydrocarbons, oxygenated functional groups, and inorganic ions. This aerosol characterization suggests that both primary emissions in Phoenix and secondary formation of aerosols from Phoenix emissions had a major impact on the aerosol composition and concentration at TNM. The regional background source had low concentrations of all functional groups, but had higher concentrations of biogenic functional groups than the urban source.

Coury, Charity; Dillner, Ann M.

159

Levoglucosan and Lipid Class Compounds in the Asian Dusts and Marine Aerosols Collected During the ACE-Asia Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to characterize organic aerosols in the Asian Pacific region, we collected filter samples at Gosan (formerly Kosan) and Sapporo sites as well as on mobile platforms (R.V. R.H. Brown and NCAR C-130) in the western North Pacific. The aerosol extracts were analyzed by capillary GC-MS employing a TMS derivatization technique. We identified over 100 organic compounds in the samples. They are categorized into seven different classes in terms of functional groups and sources. First, sugar-type compounds were detected in the aerosols, including levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan, which are tracers for biomass burning. Second, a homologous series of fatty acids (C12-C30) and fatty alcohols (C12-C30) mainly from plant waxes and marine lipids were present. The third group includes dicarboxylic acids (>C3) and other atmospheric oxidation products. Although oxalic (C2) and malonic (C3) acids were not detected by this method, they are very abundant in the aerosols. The fourth group includes n-alkanes (C18-C35) which usually showed a strong odd/even predominance, suggesting an important contribution from higher plant waxes. The fifth includes polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ranging from phenanthrene to coronene, all combustion products of petroleum and mainly coal. Saccharides were the sixth group and consisted mainly of a- and b- glucose, sucrose and its alditol, and minor amounts of xylitol, sorbitol and arabitol. These saccharides are tracers for soil dust. Phthalates were detected as the seventh class, with a dominance of dioctyl phthalate. The results suggest that organic aerosols originate primarily from (1) natural emissions of terrestrial plant wax and marine lipids, (2) smoke from biomass burning (mainly non-conifer fuels), (3) soil resuspension due to spring agricultural activity, (4) urban/industrial emissions from fossil fuel use (coal), and (5) secondary reaction products. These compounds are transported by the strong westerly winds and therefore secondary oxidation is also significant in Southeast Asia and the western North Pacific.

Kobayashi, M.; Simoneit, B. R.; Kawamura, K.; Mochida, M.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Huebert, B. J.

2002-12-01

160

Hygroscopic and chemical properties of aerosols collected near a copper smelter: implications for public and environmental health.  

PubMed

Particulate matter emissions near active copper smelters and mine tailings in the southwestern United States pose a potential threat to nearby environments owing to toxic species that can be inhaled and deposited in various regions of the body depending on the composition and size of the particles, which are linked by particle hygroscopic properties. This study reports the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved chemical and hygroscopic properties of particles next to an active copper smelter and mine tailings by the towns of Hayden and Winkelman in southern Arizona. Size-resolved particulate matter samples were examined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. Aerosol particles collected at the measurement site are enriched in metals and metalloids (e.g., arsenic, lead, and cadmium) and water-uptake measurements of aqueous extracts of collected samples indicate that the particle diameter range of particles most enriched with these species (0.18-0.55 ?m) overlaps with the most hygroscopic mode at a relative humidity of 90% (0.10-0.32 ?m). These measurements have implications for public health, microphysical effects of aerosols, and regional impacts owing to the transport and deposition of contaminated aerosol particles. PMID:22852879

Sorooshian, Armin; Csavina, Janae; Shingler, Taylor; Dey, Stephen; Brechtel, Fred J; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

2012-09-01

161

Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in ambient PM10 and PM2.5 particles in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Ambient daytime and nighttime PM(10) and PM(2.5) samples were collected in parallel at a kerbside in Dar es Salaam in August and September 2005 (dry season) and in April and May 2006 (wet season). All samples were analyzed for the particulate matter mass, for organic, elemental, and total carbon (OC, EC, and TC), and for water-soluble OC (WSOC). The average PM(10) and PM(2.5) mass concentrations and associated standard deviations were 76+/-32microg/m(3) and 26+/-7microg/m(3) for the 2005 dry season and 52+/-27microg/m(3) and 19+/-10microg/m(3) for the 2006 wet season campaign. On average, TC accounted for 29% of the PM(10) mass and 49% of the PM(2.5) mass for the 2005 dry season campaign and the corresponding values for the 2006 wet season campaign were 35% and 59%. There was little difference between the two campaigns for the WSOC/OC ratios with the PM(2.5) fraction having higher ratios than the PM(10) fraction during each campaign. Also for EC/TC higher ratios were noted in PM(2.5) than in PM(10), but the ratios were substantially larger in the 2006 wet season than in the 2005 dry season. The large EC/TC ratios (means 0.22-0.38) reflect the substantial impact from traffic at Dar es Salaam, as was also apparent from the clear diurnal variation in OC levels, with higher values during the day. A simple source apportionment approach was used to apportion the OC to traffic and charcoal burning. On average, 70% of the PM(10) OC was attributed to traffic and 30% to charcoal burning in both campaigns. A definite explanation for the substantially larger EC/TC ratios in the 2006 campaign as compared to the 2005 campaign is not available. PMID:19906404

Mkoma, Stelyus L; Chi, Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

2010-02-15

162

Total potential source contribution function analysis of trace elements determined in aerosol samples collected near Lake Huron.  

PubMed

Aerosol samples were collected at the rural Burnt Island Ontario Integrated Air Deposition Network air sampling station on the northern shore of Lake Huron from 1992 through 1994. The samples were analyzed for trace elements by neutron activation analysis, and the air concentrations of over 30 elements were determined. Total potential source contribution function analysis (TPSCF) was used to determine the most probable geographical location of these aerosols' origin. The TPSCF results for As, In, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn are highlighted in this paper. Source regions for these elements ranged from Alma, Quebec, Canada to Carrollton, GA. Because of large seasonal variations in the concentrations of the atmospheric concentrations of these elements, TPSCFvalues were calculated for the summer and winter halves of the year as well as the entire year. PMID:15382853

Biegalski, S R; Hopke, P K

2004-08-15

163

Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

2010-05-01

164

Particle Characterization and Ice Nucleation Efficiency of Field-Collected Aerosol Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric ice formation by heterogeneous nucleation is one of the least understood processes resulting in cirrus and mixed-phase clouds which affect the global radiation budget, the hydrological cycle, and water vapor distribution. In particular, how organic aerosol affect ice nucleation is not well understood. Here we report on heterogeneous ice nucleation from particles collected during the CalNex campaign at the Caltech campus site, Pasadena, on May 19, 2010 at 6am-12pm (A2) and 12pm-6pm (A3) and May 23 at 6am-12pm (B2) and 6pm-12am (B4). The ice nucleation onsets and water uptake were determined as a function of temperature (200-273 K) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice). The ice nucleation efficiency was related to the particle chemical composition. Single particle characterization was provided by using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The STXM/NEXAFS analysis indicates that the morning sample (A2) constitutes organic particles and organic particles with soot and inorganic inclusions. The afternoon sample (A3) is dominated by organic particles with a potentially higher degree of oxidation associated with soot. The B2 sample shows a higher number fraction of magnesium-containing particle indicative of a marine source and ~93% of the particles contained sulfur besides oxygen and carbon as derived from CCSEM/EDX analysis. The B4 sample lacks the strong marine influence and shows higher organic content. Above 230 K, we observed water uptake followed by condensation freezing at mean RH of 93-100% and 89-95% for A2 and A3, respectively. This indicates that the aged A3 particles are efficient ice nuclei (IN) for condensation freezing. Below 230 K A2 and A3 induced deposition ice nucleation between 125-155% RHice (at mean values of 134-150% RHice). The B2 and B4 samples induced deposition ice nucleation below 230 K as low as 120% RHice, took up water at about 80% RH, and nucleated subsequently via condensation freezing above 230 K at mean RH of 88-94% and 89-100%, respectively. Experimentally derived ice nucleation rate coefficients and activated IN fractions for estimation of ice crystal production rates are presented. Particles sampled in the L.A. area can induce ice formation at conditions typical for cirrus and mixed-phase clouds and exhibit significantly different ice nucleation efficiencies than particles sampled in and around Mexico City.

Wang, B.; Gilles, M. K.; Laskin, A.; Moffet, R.; Nizkorodov, S.; Roedel, T.; Sterckx, L.; Tivanski, A.; Knopf, D. A.

2011-12-01

165

EVALUATION OF SOLID ADSORBENTS FOR THE COLLECTION AND ANALYSES OF AMBIENT BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Micrometeorological flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) usually require that large volumes of air be collected (whole air samples) or focused during the sampling process (cryogenic trapping or gas-solid partitioning on adsorbents) in order to achiev...

166

DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

Sexton, L.

2012-06-06

167

Chemical speciation, transport and contribution of biomass burning smoke to ambient aerosol in Guangzhou, a mega city of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive measurements of aerosol (PM10) and associated water-soluble ionic and carbonaceous species were conducted in Guangzhou, a mega city of China, during summer 2006. Elevated levels of most chemical species were observed especially at nighttime during two episodes, characterized by dramatic build-up of the biomass burning tracers levoglucosan and non-sea-salt potassium, when the prevailing wind direction had changed due to

Zhisheng Zhang; Guenter Engling; Chuan-Yao Lin; Charles C.-K. Chou; Shih-Chun C. Lung; Shih-Yu Chang; Shaojia Fan; Chuen-Yu Chan; Yuan-Hang Zhang

2010-01-01

168

Comparison of organic compositions in dust storm and normal aerosol samples collected at Gosan, Jeju Island, during spring 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand the current physical and chemical properties of East Asian aerosols, an intensive observation of atmospheric particles was conducted at Gosan site, Jeju Island, South Korea during 2005 spring. Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected using pre-combusted quartz filters and a high-volume air sampler with the time intervals ranging from 3 h to 48 h. The kinds and amount of various organic compounds were measured in the samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the 99 target compounds detected, saccharides (average, 130 ± 14 ng m -3), fatty acids (73 ± 7 ng m -3), alcohols (41 ± 4 ng m -3), n-alkanes (32 ± 3 ng m -3), and phthalates (21 ± 2 ng m -3) were found to be major compound classes with polyols/polyacids, lignin and resin products, PAHs, sterols and aromatic acids being minor. Compared to the previous results reported for 2001 late spring samples, no significant changes were found in the levels of their concentrations and compositions for 4 years, although the economy in East Asia, especially in China, has sharply expanded from 2001 to 2005. During the campaign at Gosan site, we encountered two distinct dust storm episodes with high TSP concentrations. The first dust event occurred on March 28, which was characterized by a predominance of secondary organic aerosols. The second event that occurred on the next day (March 29) was found to be characterized by primary organic aerosols associated with forest fires in Siberia/northeastern China. A significant variation in the molecular compositions, which was found within a day, suggests that the compositions of East Asian aerosols are heterogeneous due to multi-contributions from different source regions together with different pathways of long-range atmospheric transport of particles.

Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Meehye

169

Analyses of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Okinawa Archipelago, Japan by Using X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied heavy metal contents of bulk atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents in the bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (referred to "SRM", NIES No.28 of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies) on quartz filters for calibration curves in two different methods; 1) water-insoluble materials were collected after dispersing SRM in pure water and filtered with the quartz filters ("wet method"), and 2) SRM was dispersed in air in the plastic container and the aerosols were collected by using the low-volume air sampler ("dry method"). Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosols on the filter were seen in the following 9 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, and Pb (with wet method) and 12 metals; K, Ti, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, Ca, Mn, Zn, and Cu (with dry method). Furthermore, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals determined by the XRF method in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at the three islands during June 2008 to June 2010, and for CHAAMS during June 2008 to October 2012.

Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

2012-12-01

170

Extended papers from NPAR 2010 Stylized ambient displays of digital media collections  

E-print Network

lies dormant on users' PCs. We present a system to breathe life into home digital media collections, unobtrusive way such that fresh and interesting content is available in the attention spaces of everyday life content. Such content often encodes householders' memories and life experiences. We seek to emulate

Collomosse, John

171

An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at an hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the US EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, from 8 September to 8 October 2010 and focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3, and NH3 and aerosol SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD) between paired hourly results from duplicate MARGA units (MUs), with a performance goal of ? 25%. The accuracy of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the MARPD for each MU relative to the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations, with a performance goal of ? 40%. Accuracy was also evaluated by using linear regression, where MU concentrations were plotted against the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations. From this, a linear least squares line of best fit was applied. The goal was for the slope of the line of best fit to be between 0.8 and 1.2. The MARGA performed well in comparison to the denuder/filter pack for SO2, SO42-, and NH4+, with all three compounds passing the accuracy and precision goals by a significant margin. The performance of the MARGA in measuring NO3- could not be evaluated due to the different sampling efficiency of coarse NO3- by the MUs and the filter pack. Estimates of "fine" NO3- were calculated for the MUs and the filter pack. Using this and results from a previous study, it is concluded that if the MUs and the filter pack were sampling the same particle size, the MUs would have good agreement in terms of precision and accuracy. The MARGA performed moderately well in measuring HNO3 and NH3, though neither met the linear regression slope goals. However, recommendations for improving the measurement of HNO3 and NH3 are discussed. It is concluded that SO42-, SO2, NO3-, HNO3, NH4+, and NH3 concentrations can be measured with acceptable accuracy and precision when the MARGA is operated in conjunction with the recommendations outlined in the manuscript.

Rumsey, I. C.; Cowen, K. A.; Walker, J. T.; Kelly, T. J.; Hanft, E. A.; Mishoe, K.; Rogers, C.; Proost, R.; Beachley, G. M.; Lear, G.; Frelink, T.; Otjes, R. P.

2014-06-01

172

Estimation of size-resolved ambient particle density based on the measurement of aerosol number, mass, and chemical size distributions in the winter in Beijing.  

PubMed

Simultaneous measurements of aerosol size, distribution of number, mass, and chemical compositions were conducted in the winter of 2007 in Beijing using a Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer and a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. Both material density and effective density of ambient particles were estimated to be 1.61 ± 0.13 g cm(-3) and 1.62 ± 0.38 g cm(-3) for PM(1.8) and 1.73 ± 0.14 g cm(-3) and 1.67 ± 0.37 g cm(-3) for PM(10). Effective density decreased in the nighttime, indicating the primary particles emission from coal burning influenced the density of ambient particles. Size-resolved material density and effective density showed that both values increased with diameter from about 1.5 g cm(-3) at the size of 0.1 ?m to above 2.0 g cm(-3) in the coarse mode. Material density was significantly higher for particles between 0.56 and 1.8 ?m during clean episodes. Dynamic Shape Factors varied within the range of 0.95-1.13 and decreased with particle size, indicating that coagulation and atmospheric aging processes may change the shape of particles. PMID:22458861

Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Sun, Kang; Yue, Dingli; Guo, Song; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wu, Zhijun

2012-09-18

173

Spatial and temporal variations of chemicals in the TSP aerosols simultaneously collected at three islands in Okinawa, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia's rapid economic growth has led to concerns about the emission of air pollutants. We collected total suspended particle (TSP) aerosol samples simultaneously at three islands in Okinawa, Japan, which are downwind of East Asia, during the Asian dust season, to examine the spatial and temporal variations and chemical transformations of major chemicals in the aerosols. Weekly samples were collected from July 2008 to June 2010, and the concentrations of water-soluble cations, anions, and organic carbon (WSOC) were determined (n = 303). Spatial distribution analysis showed that monthly mean concentrations of non-sea-salt (nss)-SO42- in the spring (Asian dust season) decreased with increasing distance from Asia, while the trend for NO3- was less evident, suggesting that chemical transformation affected the long-range transport of certain chemicals. Temporal variation analysis showed that concentrations of nss-SO42-, NO3-, and WSOC during the spring were about 2.0, 2.4, and 1.8 times those in the summer (cleaner air mass from the Pacific Ocean), respectively. This study demonstrated that air pollutants were transported from the Asian continent to the Okinawa islands and affected the air quality in the region. There may also be impacts on ecosystems, because increased concentrations of particulate NO3- could increase nutrient levels around the Okinawa islands.

Arakaki, Takemitsu; Azechi, Sotaro; Somada, Yuka; Ijyu, Moriaki; Nakaema, Fumiya; Hitomi, Yuya; Handa, Daishi; Oshiro, Yoshito; Miyagi, Youichi; Tsuhako, Ai; Murayama, Hitomi; Higaonna, Yumi; Tanahara, Akira; Itoh, Akihide; Fukushima, Soko; Higashi, Kazuaki; Henza, Yui; Nishikawa, Rin; Shinjo, Hibiki; Wang, Hongyan

2014-11-01

174

RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System for detection of Bacillus anthracis spores from aerosol collection samples: collaborative study.  

PubMed

The RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System was validated in a collaborative study for the detection of Bacillus anthracis in aerosol collection buffer. Phosphate-buffered saline was charged with 1 mg/mL standardized dust to simulate an authentic aerosol collection sample. The dust-charged buffer was spiked with either B. anthracis Ames at 2000 spores/mL or Bacillus cereus at 20 000 spores/mL. Twelve collaborators participated in the study, with four collaborators at each of three sites. Each collaborator tested 12 replicates of B. anthracis in dust-charged buffer and 12 replicates of B. cereus in dust-charged buffer. All samples sets were randomized and blind-coded. All collaborators produced valid data sets (no collaborators displayed systematic errors) and there was only one invalid data point. After unblinding, the analysis revealed a cross-collaborator probability of detection (CPOD) of 1.00 (144 positive results from 144 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.975-1.00) for the B. anthracis samples and a CPOD of 0.00 (0 positive results from 143 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.00-0.0262) for the B. cereus samples. These data meet the requirements of AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2010.003, developed by the Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays. PMID:23767365

Hadfield, Ted; Ryan, Valorie; Spaulding, Usha K; Clemens, Kristine M; Ota, Irene M; Brunelle, Sharon L

2013-01-01

175

Organic molecular markers and signature from wood combustion particles in winter ambient aerosols: aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and high time-resolved GC-MS measurements in Augsburg, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of wood combustion on ambient aerosols was investigated in Augsburg, Germany during a winter measurement campaign of a six-week period. Special attention was paid to the high time resolution observations of wood combustion with different mass spectrometric methods. Here we present and compare the results from an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysed PM1 filters on an hourly basis. This includes source apportionment of the AMS derived organic matter (OM) using positive matrix factorisation (PMF) and analysis of levoglucosan as wood combustion marker, respectively. During the measurement period nitrate and OM mass are the main contributors to the defined submicron particle mass of AMS and Aethalometer with 28% and 35%, respectively. Wood combustion organic aerosol (WCOA) contributes to OM with 23% on average and 27% in the evening and night time. Conclusively, wood combustion has a strong influence on the organic matter and overall aerosol composition. Levoglucosan accounts for 14% of WCOA mass with a higher percentage in comparison to other studies. The ratio between the mass of levoglucosan and organic carbon amounts to 0.06. This study is unique in that it provides a one-hour time resolution comparison between the wood combustion results of the AMS and the GC-MS analysed filter method at a PM1 particle size range. The comparison of the concentration variation with time of the PMF WCOA factor, levoglucosan estimated by the AMS data and the levoglucosan measured by GC-MS is highly correlated (R2 = 0.84), and a detailed discussion on the contributors to the wood combustion marker ion at mass-to-charge ratio 60 is given. At the end, both estimations, the WCOA factor and the levoglucosan concentration estimated by AMS data, allow to observe the variation with time of wood combustion emissions (gradient correlation with GC-MS levoglucosan of R2 = 0.84). In the case of WCOA, it provides the estimated magnitude of wood combustion emission. Quantitative estimation of the levoglucosan concentration from the AMS data is problematic due to its overestimation in comparison to the levoglucosan measured by the GC-MS.

Elsasser, M.; Crippa, M.; Orasche, J.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Oster, M.; Pitz, M.; Cyrys, J.; Gustafson, T. L.; Pettersson, J. B. C.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Zimmermann, R.

2012-07-01

176

Distributions of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols collected over the Arctic Ocean during late summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxalic and other small dicarboxylic acids have been reported as important water-soluble organic constituents of atmospheric aerosols from different environments. Their molecular distributions are generally characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and/or succinic (C4) acids. In this study, we collected marine aerosols from the Arctic Ocean during late summer in 2009 when sea ice was retreating. The marine aerosols were analyzed for the molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids as well as ketocarboxylic acids and ?-dicarbonyls to better understand the source of water-soluble organics and their photochemical processes in the high Arctic marine atmosphere. We found that diacids are more abundant than ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls, but their concentrations are generally low (< 30 ng m-3), except for one sample (up to 70 ng m-3) that was collected near the mouth of Mackenzie River during clear sky condition. Although the molecular compositions of diacids are in general characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid, a depletion of C2 was found in two samples in which C4 became the most abundant. Similar depletion of oxalic acid has previously been reported in the Arctic aerosols collected at Alert after polar sunrise and in the summer aerosols from the coast of Antarctica. Because the marine aerosols that showed a depletion of C2 were collected under the overcast and/or foggy conditions, we suggest that a photochemical decomposition of oxalic acid may have occurred in aqueous phase of aerosols over the Arctic Ocean via the photo dissociation of oxalate-Fe (III) complex. We also determined stable carbon isotopic compositions (?13C) of bulk aerosol carbon and individual diacids. The ?13C of bulk aerosols showed -26.5‰ (range: -29.7 to -24.7‰, suggesting that marine aerosol carbon is derived from both terrestrial and marine organic materials. In contrast, oxalic acid showed much larger ?13C values (average: -20.9‰, range: -24.7‰ to -17.0‰) than those of bulk aerosol carbon. Interestingly, ?13C values of oxalic acid were higher than C3 (av. -26.6‰) and C4 (-25.8‰) diacids, suggesting that oxalic acid is enriched with 13C due to its photochemical processing (aging) in the marine atmosphere.

Kawamura, K.; Ono, K.; Tachibana, E.; Charriére, B.; Sempéré, R.

2012-11-01

177

Evidence for organosulfates in secondary organic aerosol.  

PubMed

Recent work has shown that particle-phase reactions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), with enhancements of SOA yields in the presence of acidic seed aerosol. In this study, the chemical composition of SOA from the photooxidations of alpha-pinene and isoprene, in the presence or absence of sulfate seed aerosol, is investigated through a series of controlled chamber experiments in two separate laboratories. By using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, sulfate esters in SOA produced in laboratory photooxidation experiments are identified for the first time. Sulfate esters are found to account for a larger fraction of the SOA mass when the acidity of seed aerosol is increased, a result consistent with aerosol acidity increasing SOA formation. Many of the isoprene and alpha-pinene sulfate esters identified in these chamber experiments are also found in ambient aerosol collected at several locations in the southeastern U.S. It is likely that this pathway is important for other biogenic terpenes, and may be important in the formation of humic-like substances (HULIS) in ambient aerosol. PMID:17310716

Surratt, Jason D; Kroll, Jesse H; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Edney, Edward O; Claeys, Magda; Sorooshian, Armin; Ng, Nga L; Offenberg, John H; Lewandowski, Michael; Jaoui, Mohammed; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

2007-01-15

178

Measurements of the timescales for the mass transfer of water in glassy aerosol at low relative humidity and ambient temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of glassy states and highly viscous solution phases on the timescale of aerosol particle equilibration with water vapour is examined. In particular, the kinetics of mass transfer of water between the condensed and gas phases has been studied for sucrose solution droplets under conditions above and below the glass transition relative humidity (RH). At RHs above the glass transition, sucrose droplets are shown to equilibrate on a timescale comparable to the change in environmental conditions. Below the glass transition, the timescale for mass transfer is shown to be extremely slow, with particles remaining in a state of disequilibrium even after timescales of more than 10000 s. A phenomenological approach for quantifying the time response of particle size is used to illustrate the influence of the glassy aerosol state on the kinetics of mass transfer of water: the time is estimated for the droplet to reach the halfway point from an initial state towards a disequilibrium state at which the rate of size change decreases below 1 nm every 10000 s. This half-time increases above 1000 s once the particle can be assumed to have formed a glass. The measurements are shown to be consistent with kinetic simulations of the slow diffusion of water within the particle bulk. Similar behaviour is observed for binary aqueous raffinose solution droplets consistent with the influence of a glass transition on mass transfer. Mixed component droplets of sucrose/sodium chloride/water also show slow equilibration at low RH, illustrating the importance of understanding the role of the bulk solution viscosity on the rate of mass transfer with the gas phase, even under conditions that may not lead to the formation of a glass.

Tong, H.-J.; Reid, J. P.; Bones, D. L.; Luo, B. P.; Krieger, U. K.

2011-02-01

179

Distributions of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols collected over the Arctic Ocean during late summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxalic and other small dicarboxylic acids have been reported as important water-soluble organic constituents of atmospheric aerosols from different environments. Their molecular distributions are generally characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and/or succinic (C4) acids. In this study, we collected marine aerosols from the Arctic Ocean during late summer in 2009 when sea ice is retreated. The marine aerosols were analyzed for the molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids as well as ketocarboxylic acids and ?-dicarbonyls to better understand the source of water-soluble organics and their photochemical processes in the high Arctic marine atmosphere. We found that diacids are more abundant than ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls, but their concentrations are generally low (< 30 ng m-3), except for one sample (up to 70 ng m-3) that was collected near the mouth of Mackenzie River during clear sky condition. Although the molecular compositions of diacids are in general characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid, a depletion of C2 was found in two samples in which C4 became the most abundant. Similar depletion of oxalic acid has previously been reported in the Arctic aerosols collected at Alert after polar sunrise and in the summer aerosols from the coastal Antarctica. Because the marine aerosols that showed a depletion of C2 were observed under the overcast and/or foggy conditions, we suggest that a photochemical decomposition of oxalic acid may have occurred in aqueous phase of aerosols over the Arctic Ocean via the photo dissociation of oxalate-Fe (III) complex. We also determined stable carbon isotopic compositions (?13C) of bulk aerosol carbon and individual diacids. The ?13C of bulk aerosols showed -26.5‰ (range: -29.7‰ to -24.7‰), suggesting that marine aerosol carbon is derived from both terrestrial and marine organic materials. In contrast, oxalic acid showed much larger ?13C values (average: -20.9‰, range: -24.7‰ to -17.0‰) than those of bulk aerosol carbon. Interestingly, ?13C values of oxalic acid were higher than C3 (av. -26.6‰) and C4 (-25.8‰) diacids, suggesting that oxalic acid is enriched with 13C due to its photochemical processing (aging) in the marine atmosphere.

Kawamura, K.; Ono, K.; Tachibana, E.; Charriére, B.; Sempéré, R.

2012-08-01

180

High time-resolution chemical characterization of the water-soluble fraction of ambient aerosols with PILS-TOC-IC and AMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) was coupled with a total organic carbon analyzer (TOC) and two ion chromatographs (IC) to enable high time-resolution measurements of water-soluble ions and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by a single sampling and analytical set-up. The new high time-resolution measurement system, the PILS-TOC-IC, was able to provide essential chemical and physical information about fast changes in composition, concentrations and likely sources of the water-soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosol. The concentrations of major water-soluble ions and WSOC were measured by the PILS-TOC-IC system from 25 April to 28 May 2009. The data of the PILS-TOC-IC setup was completed with the data from the High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data measured from 25 April to 8 May 2009. The measured water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM) concentration varied typically from 0.10 to 8.8 µg m-3 (on average 1.5 µg m-3). The WSPOM contributed on average 51% to particulate organic matter (POM) measured with the AMS. The correlation between the data of all the online measurement devices (AMS, PILS-TOC-IC, semicontinous EC/OC carbon analyzer and TEOM) was excellent. For sulfate, nitrate and ammonium the correlations between the PILS-TOC-IC and AMS were 0.93, 0.96 and 0.96, respectively. The correlation between WSPOM and POM was also strong (r=0.88). The identified sources of WSPOM were long-range transported biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The WSPOM/POM-ratio followed the trends of the ambient daytime temperature. The temperature dependency of the WSPOM/POM-ratio suggest that in the absence of emissions from biomass burning, the SOA formation was the prevailing source for WSPOM. WSPOM produced in biomass burning was clearly correlated with carbon monoxide, confirming that biomass burning was producing primary WSPOM. In addition, elevated oxalate and potassium concentrations were measured during the biomass burning episode.

Timonen, H.; Aurela, M.; Carbone, S.; Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S.; Mäkelä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Hillamo, R.

2010-04-01

181

Measurements of the timescales for the mass transfer of water in glassy aerosol at low relative humidity and ambient temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of glassy states and highly viscous solution phases on the timescale of aerosol particle equilibration with water vapour is examined. In particular, the kinetics of mass transfer of water between the condensed and gas phases has been studied for sucrose solution droplets under conditions above and below the glass transition relative humidity (RH). Above the glass transition, sucrose droplets are shown to equilibrate on a timescale comparable to the change in RH. Below the glass transition, the timescale for mass transfer is shown to be extremely slow, with particles remaining in a state of disequilibrium even after timescales of more than 10 000 s. A phenomenological approach for quantifying the time response of particle size is used to illustrate the influence of the glassy aerosol state on the kinetics of mass transfer of water: the time is estimated for the droplet to reach the halfway point from an initial state towards a disequilibrium state at which the rate of size change decreases below 1 nm every 10 000 s. This half-time increases above 1000 s once the particle can be assumed to have formed a glass. The measurements are shown to be consistent with kinetic simulations of the slow diffusion of water within the particle bulk. When increasing the RH from below to above the glass transition, a particle can return to equilibrium with the gas phase on a timescale of 10's to 100's of seconds, once again forming a solution droplet. This is considerably shorter than the timescale for the size change of the particle when glassy and suggests that the dissolution of the glassy core can proceed rapidly, at least at room temperature. Similar behaviour in the slowing of the mass transfer rate below the glass transition RH is observed for binary aqueous raffinose solution droplets. Mixed component droplets of sucrose/sodium chloride/water also show slow equilibration at low RH, illustrating the importance of understanding the role of the bulk solution viscosity on the rate of mass transfer with the gas phase, even under conditions that may not lead to the formation of a glass.

Tong, H.-J.; Reid, J. P.; Bones, D. L.; Luo, B. P.; Krieger, U. K.

2011-05-01

182

Single-particle characterization of urban aerosol particles collected in three Korean cites using low-Z electron probe X-ray microanalysis.  

PubMed

A recently developed single-particle analytical technique, called low-Z electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z EPMA), was applied to characterize urban aerosol particles collected in three cities of Korea (Seoul, CheongJu, and ChunCheon) on single days in the winter of 1999. In this study, it is clearly demonstrated that the low-Z EPMA technique can provide detailed and quantitative information on the chemical composition of particles in the urban atmosphere. The collected aerosol particles were analyzed and classified on the basis of their chemical species. Various types of particles were identified, such as soil-derived, carbonaceous, marine-originated, and anthropogenic particles. In the sample collected in Seoul, carbonaceous, aluminosilicates, silicon dioxide, and calcium carbonate aerosol particles were abundantly encountered. In the CheongJu and ChunCheon samples, carbonaceous, aluminosilicates, reacted sea salts, and ammonium sulfate aerosol particles were often seen. However, in the CheongJu sample, ammonium sulfate particles were the most abundant in the fine fraction. Also, calcium sulfate and nitrate particles were significantly observed. In the ChunCheon sample, organic particles were the most abundant in the fine fraction. Also, sodium nitrate particles were seen at high levels. The ChunCheon sample seemed to be strongly influenced by sea-salt aerosols originating from the Yellow Sea, which is located about 115 km away from the city. PMID:12487298

Ro, Chul-Un; Kim, HyeKyeong; Oh, Keun-Young; Yea, Sun Kyung; Lee, Chong Bum; Jang, Meongdo; Van Grieken, René

2002-11-15

183

952 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 10, NO. 5, MAY 2010 Collection of Gaseous and Aerosolized Samples  

E-print Network

://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JSEN.2009.2038071 rity, air pollution monitoring, and medical diagnosis Kool-Aid particles, using deionized (DI) water as the collecting fluidic stream. Increasing the exposed- tential was also demonstrated through measurement of DI water resistance by collecting varying

Jiang, Hongrui

184

Organosulfate formation in biogenic secondary organic aerosol.  

PubMed

Organosulfates of isoprene, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene have recently been identified in both laboratory-generated and ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this study, the mechanism and ubiquity of organosulfate formation in biogenic SOA is investigated by a comprehensive series of laboratory photooxidation (i.e., OH-initiated oxidation) and nighttime oxidation (i.e., NO3-initiated oxidation under dark conditions) experiments using nine monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, d-limonene, l-limonene, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, Delta(3)-carene, and beta-phellandrene) and three monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, d-limonene, and l-limonene), respectively. Organosulfates were characterized using liquid chromatographic techniques coupled to electrospray ionization combined with both linear ion trap and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Organosulfates are formed only when monoterpenes are oxidized in the presence of acidified sulfate seed aerosol, a result consistent with prior work. Archived laboratory-generated isoprene SOA and ambient filter samples collected from the southeastern U.S. were reexamined for organosulfates. By comparing the tandem mass spectrometric and accurate mass measurements collected for both the laboratory-generated and ambient aerosol, previously uncharacterized ambient organic aerosol components are found to be organosulfates of isoprene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and limonene-like monoterpenes (e.g., myrcene), demonstrating the ubiquity of organosulfate formation in ambient SOA. Several of the organosulfates of isoprene and of the monoterpenes characterized in this study are ambient tracer compounds for the occurrence of biogenic SOA formation under acidic conditions. Furthermore, the nighttime oxidation experiments conducted under highly acidic conditions reveal a viable mechanism for the formation of previously identified nitrooxy organosulfates found in ambient nighttime aerosol samples. We estimate that the organosulfate contribution to the total organic mass fraction of ambient aerosol collected from K-puszta, Hungary, a field site with a similar organosulfate composition as that found in the present study for the southeastern U.S., can be as high as 30%. PMID:18710205

Surratt, Jason D; Gómez-González, Yadian; Chan, Arthur W H; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Shahgholi, Mona; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Edney, Edward O; Offenberg, John H; Lewandowski, Michael; Jaoui, Mohammed; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

2008-09-11

185

Ambient Tropospheric Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in ambient air (also known as the atmospheric aerosol). Ambient PM arises from a wide-range of sources and/or processes, and consists of particles of different shapes, sizes, and com...

186

Use of satellite-based aerosol optical depth and spatial clustering to predict ambient PM2.5 concentrations.  

PubMed

Satellite-based PM(2.5) monitoring has the potential to complement ground PM(2.5) monitoring networks, especially for regions with sparsely distributed monitors. Satellite remote sensing provides data on aerosol optical depth (AOD), which reflects particle abundance in the atmospheric column. Thus AOD has been used in statistical models to predict ground-level PM(2.5) concentrations. However, previous studies have shown that AOD may not be a strong predictor of PM(2.5) ground levels. Another shortcoming of remote sensing is the large number of non-retrieval days (i.e., days without satellite data available) due to clouds and snow- and ice-cover. In this paper we propose statistical approaches to overcome these two shortcomings, thereby making satellite imagery a viable method to estimate PM(2.5) concentrations. First, we render AOD a robust predictor of PM(2.5) mass concentration by introducing an AOD daily calibration approach through the use of mixed effects model. Second, we develop models that combine AOD and ground monitoring data to predict PM(2.5) concentrations during non-retrieval days. A key feature of this approach is that we develop these prediction models separately for groups of days defined by the observed amount of spatial heterogeneity in concentrations across the study region. Subsequently, these methodologies were applied to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of daily PM(2.5) concentrations for both retrieval days (i.e., days with satellite data available) and non-retrieval days in the New England region of the United States during the period 2000-2008. Overall, for the years 2000-2008, our statistical models predicted surface PM(2.5) concentrations with reasonably high R(2) (0.83) and low percent mean relative error (3.5%). Also the spatial distribution of the estimated PM(2.5) levels in the study domain clearly exhibited densely populated and high traffic areas. The method we have developed demonstrates that remote sensing can have a tremendous impact on the fields of environmental monitoring and human exposure assessment. PMID:22841416

Lee, Hyung Joo; Coull, Brent A; Bell, Michelle L; Koutrakis, Petros

2012-10-01

187

Trace elements in tropical African savanna biomass burning aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the FOS\\/DECAFE experiment, aerosol particles emitted during prescribed savanna fires were collected in January 1991 at Lamto (Ivory Coast), either close to the emission or in ambient air. Analytical transmission electron microscopy pointed out the presence of sub-micrometer soots, salt condensates, vegetation relicts and soil derived particles. The samples were also analyzed for their total particulate

A. Gaudichet; F. Echalar; B. Chatenet; J. P. Quisefit; G. Malingre; H. Cachier; P. Buat-Menard; P. Artaxo; W. Maenhaut

1995-01-01

188

EFFECTS OF METEOROLOGY ON CONCENTRATIONS OF ACID AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air samples of strong acid aerosol (H+), sulfate (So=4), ammonia (NH3), and ammonium (NH+4) were collected in Pittsburgh and Uniontown, Pennsylvania during the summer of 1990. igh correlations were found for both + and SO=4 concentrations between Pittsburgh and the semi-r...

189

Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the boreal forest burn studied, the ambient concentrations for the particle carbon smoke aerosol are highest for the full-fire burn conditions and vary significantly throughout the burn. Collection strategies must accordingly define ranges in the smoke aerosol concentrations produced. While the highest elemental C concentrations are observed during full-fire conditions, the great majority of smoke aerosol particles are in the form of organic C particles irrespective of fire temperature. The formation of organic C light-scattering particles was a significant process in the burn studied.

Mazurek, Monica A.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.

1991-01-01

190

Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

2010-08-11

191

Elemental composition of aerosol particulate matter collected on membrane filters: A comparison of results by PIXE and ICP-AES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elemental composition of aerosol matter (total suspended particles) collected on high-purity membrane filters during 24-h sampling periods with distinctly different pollution levels was analysed by proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The mass density of the material deposited on 34-mm diameter filter areas ranged from 65 to 294 ?g/cm 2. Different spots on each sample as well as on blank reference filters were first analysed by PIXE (1.85 MeV protons, beam diameter 1.5 mm). Using a peak-fitting routine developed in-house together with an empirically determined sensitivity function, the background-corrected net spectra were converted to elemental yields. Absolute calibration was achieved by comparison against a thin-film copper standard prepared by evaporation. Following PIXE analysis, the whole filters with the aerosol deposits were digested by high-pressure ashing. A small amount of the dissolved material was analysed by ICP-AES using standard procedures. The mass fractions of elements in the particulate matter ranged from 6×10 -5 for Co to 0.1 for Ca, with significant differences between the sampling periods. For some elements the mass fractions determined by PIXE showed a spot-to-spot variation by up to 30%. In most cases the mean elemental mass per filter determined by the two techniques agreed quite well, with a slight trend towards lower values by PIXE (10-15%). The difference is within the combined uncertainty of about 20%, estimated for elemental mass ratios determined by the two techniques. The Ti content determined by ICP-AES was always about 50% lower than by PIXE, the K content sometimes up to 30% higher. The discrepancy for Ti appears to reflect a digestion problem. The enhanced K content is attributed to a rather high instrumental background in ICP-AES.

Menzel, N.; Schramel, P.; Wittmaack, K.

2002-04-01

192

Characterisation and source identification of PM 10 aerosol samples collected with a high volume cascade impactor in Brisbane (Australia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.7-?m size fraction, with the 1.3-?m aerosols. The aerosol mass and concentrations of chemical components related to human activities show a bimodal size-distribution pattern, with most of the mass in the accumulation range (2.7-?m fractions, while the organics and vehicular exhausts factors explain almost all the aerosol mass in the <0.61-?m fractions.

Y. C. Chan; P. D. Vowles; G. H. McTainsh; R. W. Simpson; D. D. Cohen; G. M. Bailey; G. D. McOrist

2000-01-01

193

Source indicators of biomass burning associated with inorganic salts and carboxylates in dry season ambient aerosol in Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PM10 aerosol was collected between February and April 2010 at an urban site (CMU) and an industrial site (TOT) in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and characteristics and provenance of water-soluble inorganic species, carboxylates, anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols were investigated with particular reference to air quality, framed as episodic or non-episodic pollution. Sulfate, a product of secondary photochemical reactions, was the major inorganic salt in PM10, comprising 25.9% and 22.3% of inorganic species at CMU and TOT, respectively. Acetate was the most abundant monocarboxylate, followed by formate. Oxalate was the dominant dicarboxylate. A high acetate/formate mass ratio indicated that primary traffic-related and biomass-burning emissions contributed to Chiang Mai aerosols during episodic and non-episodic pollution. During episodic pollution carboxylate peaks indicated sourcing from photochemical reactions and/or directly from traffic-related and biomass burning processes and concentrations of specific biomarkers of biomass burning including water-soluble potassium, glutarate, oxalate and levoglucosan dramatically increased. Levoglucosan, the dominant anhydrosugar, was highly associated with water-soluble potassium (r = 0.75-0.79) and accounted for 93.4% and 93.7% of anhydrosugars at CMU and TOT, respectively, during episodic pollution. Moreover, levoglucosan during episodic pollution was 14.2-21.8 times non-episodic lows, showing clearly that emissions from biomass burning are the major cause of PM10 episodic pollution in Chiang Mai. Additionally, the average levoglucosan/mannosan mass ratio during episodic pollution was 14.1-14.9, higher than the 5.73-7.69 during non-episodic pollution, indicating that there was more hardwood burning during episodic pollution. Higher concentrations of glycerol and erythritol during episodic pollution further indicate that biomass burning activities released soil biota from forest and farmland soils.

Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chotruksa, Auranee; Wu, Hsin-Ching; Kuo, Su-Ching

2013-10-01

194

Enhanced concentrations of citric acid in spring aerosols collected at the Gosan background site in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in the aerosol samples under the Asian continent outflow, total suspended particle (TSP) samples ( n = 32) were collected at the Gosan site in Jeju Island over 2-5 days integration during 23 March-1 June 2007 and 16-24 April 2008. The samples were analyzed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, and ?-dicarbonyls using a capillary gas chromatography technique. We found elevated concentrations of atmospheric citric acid (range: 20-320 ng m -3) in the TSP samples during mid- to late April of 2007 and 2008. To specify the sources of citric acid, dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were measured in the pollen sample collected at the Gosan site (Pollen_Gosan), authentic pollen samples from Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria) (Pollen_cedar) and Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa) (Pollen_cypress), and tangerine fruit produced from Jeju Island. Citric acid (2790 ng in unit mg of pollen mass) was found as most abundant species in the Pollen_Gosan, followed by oxalic acid (2390 ng mg -1). Although citric acid was not detected in the Pollen_cedar and Pollen_cypress as major species, it was found as a dominant species in the tangerine juice while malic acid was detected as major species in the tangerine peel, followed by oxalic and citric acids. Since Japanese cedar trees are planted around tangerine farms to prevent strong winds from the Pacific Ocean, citric acid that may be directly emitted from tangerine is likely adsorbed on pollens emitted from Japanese cedar and then transported to the Gosan site. Much lower malic/citric acid ratios obtained under cloudy condition than clear condition suggest that malic acid may rapidly decompose to lower molecular weight compounds such as oxalic and malonic acids (

Jung, Jinsang; Kawamura, Kimitaka

2011-09-01

195

Comparison between XRF and IBA techniques in analysis of fine aerosols collected in Rijeka, Croatia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new system for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been installed at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA) at the University of Rijeka. Currently the key application of this new XRF system is in the field of environmental science, i.e. in the analysis of fine airborne particles. In this work, results of initial multi-elemental analysis of PM2.5 fraction is reported for the first time in the region of Rijeka, Croatia. Sampling was performed at the Rijeka City center, during a continuous 9-day period in February/March 2012. All samples were collected on stretched Teflon filters in 12 h periods. To check the reliability of the new XRF system, results of XRF analysis are compared with the results obtained by the well-established Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) laboratory at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The concentrations of H, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. In addition, black carbon was determined by Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Very good agreement between XRF and IBA techniques is obtained for all elements detected by both techniques. Elemental concentrations were correlated with the traffic volume and wind speed and direction. The summary of our findings is presented and discussed in this paper.

Ivoševi?, Tatjana; Mandi?, Luka; Orli?, Ivica; Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David D.

2014-10-01

196

Comparative in vitro toxicity profile of electronic and tobacco cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and nicotine replacement therapy products: e-liquids, extracts and collected aerosols.  

PubMed

The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic. PMID:25361047

Misra, Manoj; Leverette, Robert D; Cooper, Bethany T; Bennett, Melanee B; Brown, Steven E

2014-01-01

197

HOUSTON AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

An intensive field study of ambient aerosols was conducted in Houston between September 14 and October 14, 1978. Measurements at 12 sites were made using (1) two relocatable monitoring systems instrumented for aerosol and gaseous pollutants, (2) a network of high volume samplers ...

198

Surface science with aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental surface science with aerosol particles under atmospheric conditions is becoming a realistic possibility. The first part of this critical review focuses on nano-scopic aerosols generated in combustion of organic fuels at ambient pressures. The bizarre shape of soot agglomerates resists a simple definition of size and surface area. Yet a measure of the size known as the mobility diameter

H. Bluhm; H. C. Siegmann

2009-01-01

199

Characterization of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Three Islands in Okinawa, Japan by X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied heavy metal contents of atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents of bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (NIES No.28) of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies on quartz filters for calibration curves. Then, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosol on filter were seen in the following 10 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb and As. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. Okinawa islands, consisting of many small islands, are situated east of Asian continent, and its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants. Also, in Okinawa islands, maritime air mass prevails during summer, while Asian continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities such as industries and automobiles. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals determined by the XRF method in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at the three islands during June 2008 to June 2010, and for CHAAMS during June 2008 to September 2011.

Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

2011-12-01

200

Determination of the particle counting efficiency and chemical sensitivities of an aerosol time of flight mass spectrometer under ambient sampling conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently developed aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) instruments are capable of determining the size and chemical composition of single particles (Noble and Prather, 1996, Gard et al., 1997). These instruments provide convenient determination of atmospheric aerosol composition on a single particle basis in real time. To date, data from these instruments have been used qualitatively to study both the sources

J. O. Allen; L. S. Hughes; M. J. Kleeman; G. R. Cass; E. E. Gard; D. S. Gross; M. E. Gälli; B. D. Morrical; K. A. Prather

1998-01-01

201

Endotoxin in fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle mass of ambient aerosols. A temporo-spatial analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives: We collected fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particulate matter fractions in two areas ˜80 km apart and measured soluble endotoxin concentrations in both particle fractions. Here we report on temporo-spatial variation of endotoxin content in the collected particles. Methods: Dichotomous Anderson samplers were used to collect 21 weekly samples of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in both towns from January to June 2002. Each Teflon filter was water extracted and endotoxin was measured by a chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate method. Endotoxin concentrations were expressed per mg of fine or mg of coarse mass and per sampled air volume (m 3). Results: For both cities, the mean endotoxin content in PM 2.5 was 1.2 EU mg -1; however the endotoxin content in the coarse fraction was ˜10 times higher compared to the fine mass fractions. Although endotoxin content is highly variable over time, a good correlation was observed between the two town sites for both fine ( r=0.85) and coarse PM ( r=0.88). The fluctuations of weekly endotoxin means were high in both areas suggesting a strong temporal dependence on particle source and composition. The endotoxin content in particles collected during May and June were two to four times higher than concentrations measured during the winter and early spring weeks. Conclusions: Ambient airborne endotoxin concentrations were detected in coarse and fine particle fraction, but 10-fold higher in the coarse PM. The strong seasonality and the week to week fluctuation of endotoxin content in PM indicate different biologic PM properties which might affect results of time series studies on short-term effects as well as in vitro studies and human exposure studies.

Heinrich, Joachim; Pitz, Mike; Bischof, Wolfgang; Krug, Norbert; Borm, Paul J. A.

202

The importance of new collection efficiency values including the effect of rear capture for the below-cloud scavenging of aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study is presented to evaluate the possible impact of recently measured collection scavenging efficiencies of aerosol particles by raindrops on the calculation of wet removal of pollution plumes by rain. These new collection efficiencies cover the previously undocumented range between 0.3 ?m and 3.5 ?m diameter for the aerosol particles and 2 to 2.6 mm diameter for the drops. They show for particles between 0.3 ?m and 0.7 ?m a region of an important increase of the efficiencies with decreasing particle size probably due to the capture of particles in the rear vortex developing behind the falling drop. This hypothesis was motivated by measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Also for the particles larger than 1.5 ?m the efficiencies exceed old approximations by up to a factor of two. Typical continental and maritime aerosol particle distributions were used for background and plume distributions and each time the deposited particle mass was calculated with the old and the new efficiencies for the different resulting precipitation rates. In the simulations the new efficiencies increased the calculated wet removal rate of pollution plume particles between 5% and 17%, with respect to the simulations with the old efficiencies, whereby one third of this increase could be attributed to rear capture. This phenomenon has not been observed in these size ranges before. The study also highlights the weakness of certain methods to determine the scavenging coefficient of a pollution plume by rain. Instead of linking the scavenging coefficient to the decrease of the particle spectrum in the air, an operational approach, e.g. in case of accidental releases, needs to be developed that links it to the rainfall intensity, as well as other variables like meteorological parameters, cloud size and plume characteristics. Considering the still persisting gaps of measurements in the collection efficiencies more laboratory measurements of collection scavenging efficiencies between aerosol particles and raindrops are also necessary.

Quérel, Arnaud; Monier, Marie; Flossmann, Andrea I.; Lemaitre, Pascal; Porcheron, Emmanuel

2014-06-01

203

Application of synchrotron radiation for measurement of iron red-ox speciation in atmospherically processed aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected using a size-resolved impactor sampler from three urban sites. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of transformations of aerosol-bound iron as it is processed in the atmosphere. Thus, the aerosol samples were artificially aged to represent long-term transport (10 to 40 days) or short-term transport

B. J. Majestic; J. J. Schauer; M. M. Shafer

2007-01-01

204

Spectra Aerosol Light Scattering and Absorption for Laboratory and Urban Aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosols considerably influence the climate, reduce visibility, and cause problems in human health. Aerosol light absorption and scattering are the important factors in the radiation transfer models. However, these properties are associated with large uncertainties in climate modeling. In addition, atmospheric aerosols widely vary in composition and size; their optical properties are highly wavelength dependent. This work presents the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering throughout the ultraviolet to near-infrared regions. Data were collected in Reno, NV from 2008 to 2010. Also presented in this study are the aerosol optical and physical properties during carbonaceous aerosols and radiative effects study (CARES) conducted in Sacramento area during 2010. Measurements were made using photoacoustic instruments (PA), including a novel UV 355 nm PA of our design and manufacture. Comparative analyses are presented for three main categories: (1) aerosols produced by wildfires and traffic emissions, (2) laboratory-generated and wintertime ambient urban aerosols, and (3) urban plume and biogenic emissions. In these categories, key questions regarding the light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOA), so-called brown carbon (BrC), and black carbon (BC) will be discussed. An effort is made to model the emission and aging of urban and biomass burning aerosol by applying shell-core calculations. Multispectral PA measurements of aerosols light absorption and scattering coefficients were used to calculate the Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA) and single scattering albedo (SSA). The AEA and SSA values were analyzed to differentiate the aerosol sources. The California wildfire aerosols exhibited strong wavelength dependence of aerosol light absorption with AEA as lambda -1 for 405 and 870 nm, in contrast to the relatively weak wavelength dependence of traffic emissions aerosols for which AEA varied approximately as lambda-1. By using a shell-core model, we verified, for the first time, that AEA can be as high as 1.6 even for non-absorbing coating on BC, suggesting that the organic coating need not be intrinsically brown to observe effects commonly attributed to BrC absorption. Additionally, for laboratory generated incense burning aerosols, AEA varied as lambda -4.5for wavelengths ranging from 355 to 1047 nm. In contrast, the wood smoke aerosols during winter had a much weaker wavelength dependence (lambda-1.1), comparable to that of traffic emission aerosols. During these observations, the multispectral SSA decreased with the wavelength for traffic-related emissions, yet it increased for biomass and incense burning aerosol. The strong spectral dependence was due to the enhanced light absorption by BrC at UV and blue wavelengths. In all cases, results of this analysis suggested that inefficient smoldering combustion processes can emit predominantly BrC, in comparison to high-temperature and flaming burning processes. During the CARES field campaign, aerosols were dominated by biogenic emissions. Aerosol light absorption was modestly enhanced (lambda -1.6) at shorter wavelengths (355, 375, 405, and 532 nm) compared to 870 and 1047 nm, likely due to the spectral dependence of coating on BC. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass concentration steadily increased in the latter half of the campaign, with strong 355 nm aerosol light scattering. Overall, results of this field campaign showed that the biogenic SOA was not BrC, i.e. it didn't have intrinsic characteristics near UV absorption. These results should be further tested and analyzed to assess the full implications of BrC aerosol light absorption.

Gyawali, Madhu S.

205

Evaluation of Dried Blood Spots Collected on Filter Papers from Three Manufacturers Stored at Ambient Temperature for Application in HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring  

PubMed Central

As more HIV-infected people gain access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), monitoring HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) becomes essential to combat both acquired and transmitted HIVDR. Studies have demonstrated dried blood spots (DBS) are a suitable alternative in HIVDR monitoring using DBS collected on Whatman 903 (W-903). In this study, we sought to evaluate two other commercially available filter papers, Ahlstrom 226 (A-226) and Munktell TFN (M-TFN), for HIVDR genotyping following ambient temperature storage. DBS were prepared from remnant blood specimens collected from 334 ART patients and stored at ambient temperature for a median time of 30 days. HIV-1 viral load was determined using NucliSENS EasyQ® HIV-1 v2.0 RUO test kits prior to genotyping of the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the HIV-1 pol gene using an in-house assay. Among the DBS tested, 26 specimens had a viral load ?1000 copies/mL in all three types of filter paper and were included in the genotyping analysis. Genotyping efficiencies were similar between DBS collected on W-903 (92.3%), A-226 (88.5%), and M-TFN (92.3%) filter papers (P?=?1.00). We identified 50 DR-associated mutations in DBS collected on W-903, 33 in DBS collected on A-226, and 48 in DBS collected on M-TFN, resulting in mutation detection sensitivities of 66.0% for A-226 and 88.0% for M-TFN when compared to W-903. Our data indicate that differences among filter papers may exist at this storage condition and warrant further studies evaluating filter paper type for HIVDR monitoring. PMID:25303690

Rottinghaus, Erin K.; Beard, R. Suzanne; Bile, Ebi; Modukanele, Mosetsanagape; Maruping, Maruping; Mine, Madisa; Nkengasong, John; Yang, Chunfu

2014-01-01

206

Removal of sulfuric acid aerosol in a wet electrostatic precipitator with single terylene or polypropylene collection electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are good options for effective control of sulfuric acid aerosol emission. However, various problems caused by materials and non-uniform distribution of water film limited the applicability of typical wet ESPs. Research on ESP technology has tried to find more suitable and anti-corrosive methods to solve these imperfections. This research was inspired by the requirement to replace

Jingcai Chang; Yong Dong; Zhiqiang Wang; Peng Wang; Peng Chen; Chunyuan Ma

2011-01-01

207

SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF PHOENIX PM2.5 AEROSOL WITH THE UNMIX RECEPTOR MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The multivariate receptor model Unmix has been used to analyze a 3-yr PM2.5 ambient aerosol data set collected in Phoenix, AZ, beginning in 1995. The analysis generated source profiles and overall percentage source contribution estimates (SCE) for five source categories: ga...

208

Bacterial communities in urban aerosols collected with wetted-wall cyclonic samplers and seasonal fluctuations of live and culturable airborne bacteria.  

PubMed

Airborne transmission of bacterial pathogens from point sources (e.g., ranches, dairy waste treatment facilities) to areas of food production (farms) has been suspected. Determining the incidence, transport and viability of extremely low levels of pathogens require collection of high volumes of air and characterization of live bacteria from aerosols. We monitored the numbers of culturable bacteria in urban aerosols on 21 separate days during a 9 month period using high volume cyclonic samplers at an elevation of 6 m above ground level. Culturable bacteria in aerosols fluctuated from 3 CFU to 6 million CFU/L of air per hour and correlated significantly with changes in seasonal temperatures, but not with humidity or wind speed. Concentrations of viable bacteria determined by fluorescence staining and flow cytometry correlated significantly with culturable bacteria. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria constituted 98% of the bacterial community, which was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing using DNA from aerosols. Aquabacterium sp., previously characterized from aquatic environments, represented 63% of all clones and the second most common were Burkholderia sp; these are ubiquitous in nature and some are potential human pathogens. Whole genome amplification prior to sequencing resulted in a substantial decrease in species diversity compared to characterizing culturable bacteria sorted by flow cytometry based on scatter signals. Although 27 isolated colonies were characterized, we were able to culture 38% of bacteria characterized by sequencing. The whole genome amplification method amplified DNA preferentially from Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum, a minor member of the bacterial communities, whereas Variovorax paradoxus dominated the cultured organisms. PMID:22193549

Ravva, Subbarao V; Hernlem, Bradley J; Sarreal, Chester Z; Mandrell, Robert E

2012-02-01

209

Characterization of submicron aerosol particles collected during the MEGAPOLI experiment aboard the ATR-42 in Paris, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and physical properties of submicron aerosol particles were analyzed during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) campaign onboard the French ATR-42 aircraft. A total of 11 research flights (RF) were performed from July 9 to 29, 2009. The ATR-42 was equipped with a Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ToF-AMS), a Proton Transfer Mass Spectrometer (PTRMS), as well as measurements of ozone (O_3), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NOy, and NOx). Meteorology measurements of temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and liquid water content were also performed for each flight. Using the ToF-AMS, size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron particles (NR-PM1) were obtained at 1-min resolution. The average composition of NR-PM1 during this study was 53% organics, 27% sulfate, 7% nitrate, 12% ammonium, and 2% chloride. Strong contributions from SO_4 bearing particles are observed outside of the pollution plume, whereas Org-bearing particles are high within the plume. The mass concentrations of SO_4 bearing particles decrease as they encounter the pollution plume and at the same time there is an increase in organic mass concentration. These patterns suggest that there is competition between the formation of SO_4 and organic- bearing particles around the Paris pollution plume. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed on the ToF-AMS organic mass spectra. Three substantial organic components were resolved. Two of the components contain substantial organic oxygen and are associated with semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol particles (SV-OOA) and low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA). Primary hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol particles (HOA) are also resolved. The LV-OOA component is highly aged and is normally detected outside of the main pollution plume, however SV-OOA and HOA have higher mass concentrations in the pollution plume rather than outside. We observe that mass concentrations of SV-OOA increase with both photochemical age and distance from the center of Paris within the pollution plume showing that there is significant formation of secondary organic aerosols within the plume. Similarly, combining these measurements with gas-phase measurements of NOx and volatile organic carbon (VOC) allows us to associate anthropogenic precursor VOCs to the formation of secondary organic aerosols.

Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Barbet, C.; Pichon, J.; Borbon, A.; Colomb, A.; Schwarzenboeck, A.

2011-12-01

210

Direct and rapid analysis of ambient air and exhaled air via electrostatic precipitation of aerosols in an atomizer furnace and Zeeman spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques that allow the elements present in the air to be determined in a simple and rapid manner are very attractive. Direct aerosol sampling techniques avoid the need to pretreat the filter via wet digestion in order to remove any sources of contamination, and they decrease the precipitation time significantly. Analyzers based on this technique can also determine the concentrations

A. A. Ivanenko; N. B. Ivanenko; M. A. Kuzmenkov; E. M. Jakovleva; A. Skudra; M. N. Slyadnev; A. A. Ganeev

2005-01-01

211

Composition of California coastal marine aerosol particles measured during CalNex 2010 and E-PEACE 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine aerosol particles play an important role in the earth's radiative balance, yet the sources and composition of the organic fraction remain largely unconstrained. Recent measurements have been made in order to characterize the sources, composition, and concentration of particles in the California coastal marine boundary layer. Ambient and generated marine aerosol particles were measured on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNex 2010 campaign in May and June 2010. Particles were collected on filters and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the functional group composition and total organic mass. Particles from two primary marine aerosol generators showed similar organic compositions, both with larger fractions of hydroxyl functional groups. Similar ambient measurements were made on board the R/V Point Sur during July 2011. Ambient marine aerosol particles were collected on filters and analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy. Samples were collected 100 miles off the coast of Monterey, CA when winds were mainly from the west and had little anthropogenic influence. Marine aerosol particles were also analyzed using a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Particles were sampled under different ambient conditions including a range of seawater chlorophyll concentrations and a range of wind speeds and directions. Changes in the ambient conditions may influence changes in the organic functional group composition of the marine particles. Simultaneously, seawater was collected and atomized onto filters to determine the functional group composition of the total organic matter in the seawater. This organic composition will be compared to the organic composition of the ambient marine particles to determine the changes upon emission and aging in the atmosphere.

Frossard, A. A.; Modini, R.; Russell, L. M.; Wonaschuetz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Kieber, D. J.; Maben, J. R.; Keene, W. C.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.

2011-12-01

212

A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BOISE, IDAHO, AMBIENT AIR FINE PARTICLE SAMPLES USING THE PLATE AND MICROSUSPENSION SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY ASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this study is to characterize the genotoxic potential of the ambient air aerosols collected within an air shed impacted primarily by wood smoke and automotive emissions. The study also examines the relative merits of a microsuspension assay and the standa...

213

Ice Formation Potential of Field-Collected Marine Biogenic Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine biogenic particles composed mainly of sea salt and organic material aerosolized from a mesocosm in laboratory experiments have recently been found to act as ice nuclei. How these particles relate to those collected from sea spray under ambient conditions in the field is unknown. This study reports on the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of particles collected during the marine aerosol characterization experiment (MACE) on the south shore of Long Island, New York. Ambient aerosol size distributions were measured and particles were collected on hydrophobically coated substrates and subsequently used for ice nucleation experiments using an ice nucleation cell coupled to an optical microscope. This technique allows detection of ice formation for temperatures between 200 and 273 K and for relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) from 100% up to water saturation. Individual ice nucleating particles were identified for subsequent chemical and physical characterization using both X-ray and electron micro-spectroscopic techniques. Concentrations of bacteria, viruses, and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the bulk seawater, sea-surface microlayer (SML), and in sea spray were determined using established methods and related to airborne sea spray particles and their ice nucleation potential. Onshore aerosol size distribution measurements taken at 5 m height and 10 m away from the breaking waves, revealed a peak maximum at 100 nm and Ntot = 6.8 x 10^2 cm^-3. Bacterial, viral, and TEP were found to be enriched in the SML. Ambient particles collected during MACE were found to nucleate ice efficiently, e. g. at 215 K, ice nucleation occurred on average at 125% RHice. Results of aerosol size distributions and ice nucleation efficiencies are compared to laboratory bubble bursting experiments in which natural seawater was used. The goal of this study is to understand the connection between sea spray aerosolization and atmospheric ice cloud formation and to provide physically and chemically based descriptions of ice nucleation for implementation in aerosol-cloud interaction models.

Carrion-Matta, A.; Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

2013-12-01

214

Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and ketocarboxylic acids in the aerosols collected during ACE-Asia/C-130 aircraft campaign 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the ACE-Asia campaign with C-130 aircraft, aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific, East China Sea, and Japan Sea, as well as over Japanese Islands and Korean Peninsula in 8 April to 3 May 2001. The filter samples (N=15) were extracted with organic-free pure water to separate water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and related compounds. The extracts were reacted with 14% BF3 in n-butanol and the dibutyl esters and other derivatives were determined using a capillary GC and GC/MS. The results showed that 14 species of diacids (C2-C11) and 4 species of ketoacids (C2-C4) were detected in the aerosols over the East Asia. Total concentrations of the diacids were 113-500 (av. 330) ng/m3 whereas those of ketoacids were 43-260 (av. 103) ng/m3. The concentrations are equivalent to or more abundant than those reported for the urban Tokyo atmosphere in this season on the ground level. All the samples showed that oxalic acid (C2) is the most abundant diacid, which accounted for 58-83% of total diacids. These values are greater than that (ca. 50%) reported in the urban air near the ground, suggesting that oxalic acid is preferentially produced and/or longer diacids are selectively decomposed in the upper troposphere. Malonic (C3) acid is the second most abundant species followed by succinic (C4) acid. Longer diacids are less abundant, but azelaic (C9) acid is generally more abundant than C6-C8 diacids. Glyoxylic acid (C2) is the most abundant ketoacid followed by pyruvic acid. However, C3 and C4 omega-oxoacids were found as minor species. Although oxalic acid is the dominant component in the aerosols, few samples showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid over oxalic acid. This feature has not been reported for the urban aerosols collected near the ground level. We will discuss a potential photochemical production of water-soluble organic acids in the upper troposphere over the eastern ridge of the Asian continent.

Kawamura, K.; Mochida, M.; Uemoto, N.; Bertram, T.; Huebert, B.

2001-12-01

215

Water-soluble organic nitrogen in the ambient aerosols and its contribution to the dry deposition of fixed nitrogen species in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) in the aerosols were conducted over three years at two sites; an urban site in Kofu and a forested site in Fujiyoshida, Japan. Our preliminary experiment demonstrated that the adsorption of organic gases on the filter had little effect on the measurement of the WSON. The mean concentration of the WSON in the aerosols at the urban site was 0.221 ?g m-3, which was higher than that of 0.101 ?g m-3 at the forested site. Large portions of the WSON were found in the fine-mode range; 90.3% at the urban site and 86.4% at the forested site. The WSON constituted a significant fraction of the water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN) in the aerosols; 11.1% and 16.2% of the WSTN in the coarse and fine particles, respectively, at the urban site, and 11.5% and 13.1% in the coarse and fine particles, respectively, at the forested site. The fine-mode WSON would be derived from the reaction of its basic precursor gases with particulate or gaseous acidic species. Photochemical reactions and combustion emissions could also be important sources of the fine-mode WSON. In the coarse-mode range, on the other hand, vegetation sources could be an important source of the WSON. The mean concentration of urea in the aerosols at the urban site was 1.7 ngN m-3. A large portion (87.2%) of the urea was partitioned into the fine-mode range. Urea is a minor compound in the particulate WSON in this region with contributions to about 1% of the WSON. Approximately 26% of the dry deposition of the WSTN was attributed to the WSON in the cold season. The significant part (96.5%) of the WSON was deposited by coarse aerosols. Coarse-mode WSON is important for discussing the dry deposition fluxes of the WSON and fixed nitrogen.

Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yuya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Nakano, Takashi

2014-10-01

216

Aerosol composition and source apportionment in Santiago de Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santiago de Chile, São Paulo and Mexico City are Latin American urban areas that suffer from heavy air pollution. In order to study air pollution in Santiago area, an aerosol source apportionment study was designed to measure ambient aerosol composition and size distribution for two downtown sampling sites in Santiago. The aerosol monitoring stations were operated in Gotuzo and Las Condes during July and August 1996. The study employed stacked filter units (SFU) for aerosol sampling, collecting fine mode aerosol (dp<2 ?m) and coarse mode aerosol (2Aerosol mass (PM 10 mass of particles smaller than 10 ?m) and black carbon concentration were also measured. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to measure the concentration of 22 trace elements at levels below 0.5 ng m -3. Quantitative aerosol source apportionment was performed using Absolute Principal Factor Analysis (APFA). Very high aerosol concentrations were observed (up to 400 ?g/m 3 PM 10). The main aerosol particle sources in Santiago are resuspended soil dust and traffic emissions. Coarse particles account for 63% of PM 10 aerosol in Gotuzo and 53% in Las Condes. A major part of this component is resuspended soil dust. In the fine fraction, resuspended soil dust accounts for 15% of fine mass, and the aerosols associated with transportation activities account for a high 64% of the fine particle mass. Sulfate particle is an important component of the aerosol in Santiago, mainly originating from gas-to-particle conversion from SO 2. In the Gotuzo site, sulfates are the highest aerosol component, accounting for 64.5% of fine mass. Direct traffic emissions are generally mixed with resuspended soil dust. It is difficult to separate the two components, because the soil dust in downtown Santiago is contaminated with Pb, Br, Cl, and other heavy metals that are also tracers for traffic emissions. Residual oil combustion is observed, with the presence of V, S and Ni. An aerosol components from industrial emissions is also present, with the presence of several heavy metals such as Zn, Cu and others. A factor with molybdenum, arsenic, copper and sulfur was observed frequently, and it results from emissions of copper smelters.

Artaxo, Paulo; Oyola, Pedro; Martinez, Roberto

1999-04-01

217

Chemical and Temporal Characteristics of Saharan dust Episodes Inferred from Aerosols Collected over the Subtropical North Atlantic - A Link to the North Atlantic Oscillation Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied temporal patterns of Saharan dust transported from source regions in North Africa to three sites in the North Atlantic Ocean: Izania (Canary Islands), Barbados (West Indies), and Bermuda. Samples representing dust episodes were selected from daily air filters based on a semi-quantitative color-based method and validated by comparing their elemental composition with the previously obtained data for Saharan dust and aerosols. Out of more than 6000 aerosol samples collected for the Atmosphere/Ocean Chemistry Experiment (AEROCE) over the period of ten years (1989-1998), about 2000 air filters displayed brown color deposit indicative to the presence of mineral dust. The absolute concentrations (ppm) of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Th) in Saharan aerosol sampled at Barbados and Izania were calculated using the measured Al to ash ratio of 0.104 in brown color samples. For Izania and Barbados, annual concentrations of aluminum, an indicator of atmospheric dust, revealed weak but significant correlation with the annual North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NOA). On a more detail scale, however, a time series of average monthly dust concentrations (1989-1998) for these two sites was generally out of phase with NAO index but become correlated when the dust time series were lagged by 2 to 6 months. This finding brings a new insight to the relationship between dust production and climate modes especially in assessing the contribution of soil condition and transport variations to dust concentration over the North Atlantic Ocean.

Tomza, U.; Arimoto, R.

2001-12-01

218

Mechanism for production of secondary organic aerosols and their representation in atmospheric models. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the following: organic aerosol formation from the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons; gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds to model inorganic, organic, and ambient smog aerosols; and representation of secondary organic aerosol formation in atmospheric models.

Seinfeld, J.H.; Flagan, R.C.

1999-06-07

219

QUARTZ CONTENT AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF AEROSOLS FROM SELECTED SITES OF THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) INHALABLE PARTICULATE NETWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The elemental composition and concentration of quartz in ambient aerosols collected on dichotomous filters from the EPA Inhalable Particulate Network (IPN) in 1980 have been determined by x-ray fluorescence and mass calibration methods of x-ray diffraction (XRD). Quartz concentra...

220

Importance of aerosol composition, mixing state, and morphology for heterogeneous ice nucleation: A combined field and laboratory approach  

SciTech Connect

In this study chemical compositions of background aerosol and ice nuclei were examined through laboratory investigations using Raman spectroscopy and field measurements by single-particle mass spectrometry. Aerosol sampling took place at Storm Peak Laboratory in Steamboat Springs, Colorado (elevation of 3210 m). A cascade impactor was used to collect coarse-mode aerosol particles for laboratory analysis by Raman spectroscopy; the composition, mixing state, and heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of individual particles were examined. For in situ analysis of fine-mode aerosol, ice nucleation on ambient particles was observed using a compact ice nucleation chamber. Ice crystals were separated from unactivated aerosol using a pumped counterflow virtual impactor, and ice nuclei were analyzed using particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry. For both fine and coarse modes, the ice nucleating particle fractions were enriched in minerals and depleted in sulfates and nitrates, compared to the background aerosol sampled. The vast majority of particles in both the ambient and ice active aerosol fractions contained a detectable amount of organic material. Raman spectroscopy showed that organic material is sometimes present in the form of a coating on the surface of inorganic particles. We find that some organic-containing particles serve as efficient ice nuclei while others do not. For coarse-mode aerosol, organic particles were only observed to initiate ice formation when oxygen signatures were also present in their spectra.

Baustian, Kelly J.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Wise, M. A.; Pratt, Kerri; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Hallar, Anna G.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

2012-03-30

221

Atmospheric aerosol measurement problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present knowledge of the atmospheric aerosols is summarized briefly with respect to geographical distribution, time variations, optical properties, chemical nature, and natural and artificial sources. The measurement techniques for determining aerosol properties are summarized with the limitations and results from each. The problems resulting from variations in refractive index, shape, composition, volatile constituents, relative humidity and time from collection

F. S. Harris Jr.

1978-01-01

222

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in the Captive Aerosol Growth and Evolution (CAGE) Chambers during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in Centreville, AL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) represents a large portion of sub-micron particulate matter on a global scale. The composition of SOA and its formation processes are heavily influenced by anthropogenic and biogenic activity. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted naturally from forests or from human activity serve as precursors to SOA formation. Biogenic SOA (BSOA) is formed from biogenic VOCs and is prevalent in forested regions like the Southeastern United States. The formation and enhancement of BSOA under anthropogenic influences such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen radicals are still not well understood. The lack of information on anthropogenic BSOA enhancement and the reversibility of SOA formation could explain the underprediction of SOA in current models. To address some of these gaps in knowledge, this study was conducted as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in Centreville, AL during the summer of 2013. SOA growth experiments were conducted in two Captive Aerosol Growth and Evolution (CAGE) outdoor chambers located at the SEARCH site. Ambient trace gas concentrations were maintained in these chambers using semi-permeable gas-exchange membranes, while studying the growth of injected monodisperse seed aerosol. The control chamber was operated under ambient conditions; the relative humidity and oxidant and NOx levels were perturbed in the second chamber. This design allows experiments to capture the natural BSOA formation processes in the southeastern atmosphere and to study the influence of anthropogenic activity on aerosol chemistry. Chamber experiments were periodically monitored with physical and chemical instrumentation including a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC), a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA), and an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The CAGE experiments focused on SOA reversibility and the sensitivity of SOA reactions to oxidant or NOx enhancement and aerosol liquid water content. Available ambient trace gas concentrations include VOCs, NOx, SO2, ozone, peroxyaxyl nitrates, and ammonia. Chamber data will also be compared to ambient aerosol measurements collected by the instruments mentioned above as well as those from other research groups.

Leong, Y.; Karakurt Cevik, B.; Hernandez, C.; Griffin, R. J.; Taylor, N.; Matus, J.; Collins, D. R.

2013-12-01

223

Tracing Ambient Air Geochemistry using a Modified X-Ray Fluorescence Filter Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modifications of x-ray fluorescence counting procedures enable tracing of aerosol dispersals related to weather fronts and local weather phenomena. Improved X-ray fluorescence methods for bulk aerosols deposited under positive air pressure conditions onto Millipore filters at 80 liters/hour enable the tracing of geological samples in periods down to one hour. Vacuum-plating aliquots of USGS standards onto 0.2 micron polycarbonate and quartz Millipore filters create standards with a shelf life of several months. The analytical system permits detection of light oxides, such as silica to 10 ppm, and heavy elements, such as iron to 0.5 ppm. These collections allow discriminations to be drawn between dominantly geological, silica-enriched air mass and dominantly iron-enriched air of possible industrial origin. These ambient air collections at 120 feet elevation at City College are used to create possible distinctions in air masses related to points of origin. Splits of aerosol examined by neutron activation and coupled plasma emission spectroscopy agree with x-ray fluorescence methods to within analytical error. Aerosol flux conditions are monitored for speciation using direct examination by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analytical capability plus aerosol physical properties by sun photometry. The latter provides bulk optical transmission at six major wavelengths and estimates for bulk aerosol size properties. Preliminary data show positive photometry links with iron-aerosols with a correlation coefficient with southwesterly wind-driven conditions of seventy percent over a four hour monitoring period. Aerosol flux comparisons with heavy metal populations, Ba, Rb, Zr, La show uniform distributions with iron- and silica-enriched populations indicating a pervasive background condition in the ambient air mass over New York City.

Steiner, J. C.; Rudolph, E.; Wrice, T.

2002-12-01

224

The effect of nonideal cascade impactor stage collection efficiency curves on the interpretation of the size of inhaler-generated aerosols.  

PubMed

Cascade impactors, operating on the principle of inertial size separation in (ideally) laminar flow, are used to determine aerodynamic particle size distributions (APSDs) of orally inhaled product (OIP) aerosols because aerodynamic diameter can be related to respiratory tract deposition. Each stage is assumed typically to be an ideal size fractionator. Thus, all particles larger than a certain size are considered collected and all finer particles are treated as penetrating to the next stage (a step function stage efficiency curve). In reality, the collection efficiency of a stage smoothly increases with particle size as an "S-shaped" curve, from approximately 0% to 100%. Consequently, in some cases substantial overlap occurs between neighboring stages. The potential for bias associated with the step-function assumption has been explored, taking full resolution and two-stage abbreviated forms of the Andersen eight-stage nonviable impactor (ACI) and the next-generation pharmaceutical impactor (NGI) as example apparatuses. The behavior of unimodal, log-normal APSDs typical of OIP-generated aerosols has been investigated, comparing known input values to calculated values of central tendency (mass median aerodynamic diameter) and spread (geometric standard deviation, GSD). These calculations show that the error introduced by the step change assumption is larger for the ACI than for the NGI. However, the error is sufficiently small to be inconsequential unless the APSD in nearly monodisperse (GSD ?1.2), a condition that is unlikely to occur with realistic OIPs. Account may need to be taken of this source of bias only for the most accurate work with abbreviated ACI systems. PMID:23508617

Roberts, D L; Mitchell, J P

2013-06-01

225

Aerosols and protective clothing.  

PubMed

A complex test method for evaluating protective apparel in aerosol hazard conditions has been developed and examined under laboratory conditions. The effectiveness of the barrier or "collection efficiency" of aerosol protective apparel (APA) depends upon its structural properties such as porosity, thickness, and permeability as well as on its hydrodynamic properties, i.e., pressure drop. Aerosol generating systems and methods of measuring penetration and evaluating data are described. A method of testing protective apparel materials using a standard asbestos aerosol then is described and discussed in detail. PMID:2154085

Spurny, K R; Schoermann, J; Opiela, H

1990-01-01

226

FORMATION OF PHOTOCHEMICAL AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective was to develop a better understanding of smog aerosol formation with particular reference to haze in the Southern California area. This study combined laboratory work with ambient air studies. Counting of particles by light scattering was the principle physical tech...

227

Thermal relaxation and collective dynamics of interacting aerosol-generated hexagonal NiFe2O4 nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This article reports on the magnetic properties of interacting uncoated nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles synthesized through an aerosol levitation-jet technique. A comprehensive set of samples with different compositions of background gas and metal precursors, as well as applied electric field intensities, has been studied. Nanoparticles prepared under a field of 210 kV m(-1) show moderately high-field irreversibility and shifted hysteresis loops after field-cooling, also exhibiting a joint temperature decrease of the exchange field and coercivity. The appearance of memory effects has been checked using the genuine ZFC protocol and the observed behavior cannot be fully explained in terms of thermal relaxation. Although dipolar interactions prevail, exchange interactions occur to a certain extent within a narrow range of applied fields. The origin of the slow dynamics in the system is found to be given by the interplay of the distribution of energy barriers due to size dispersion and the cooperative dynamics associated with frustrated interactions. PMID:24196451

Ortega, D; Kuznetsov, M V; Morozov, Yu G; Belousova, O V; Parkin, I P

2013-12-28

228

Using Satellite Aerosol Retrievals to Monitor Surface Particulate Air Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MODIS and MISR aerosol products were designed nearly two decades ago for the purpose of climate applications. Since launch of Terra in 1999, these two sensors have provided global, quantitative information about column-integrated aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and relative aerosol type parameters (such as Angstrom exponent). Although primarily designed for climate, the air quality (AQ) community quickly recognized that passive satellite products could be used for particulate air quality monitoring and forecasting. However, AOD and particulate matter (PM) concentrations have different units, and represent aerosol conditions in different layers of the atmosphere. Also, due to low visible contrast over brighter surface conditions, satellite-derived aerosol retrievals tend to have larger uncertainty in urban or populated regions. Nonetheless, the AQ community has made significant progress in relating column-integrated AOD at ambient relative humidity (RH) to surface PM concentrations at dried RH. Knowledge of aerosol optical and microphysical properties, ambient meteorological conditions, and especially vertical profile, are critical for physically relating AOD and PM. To make urban-scale maps of PM, we also must account for spatial variability. Since surface PM may vary on a finer spatial scale than the resolution of standard MODIS (10 km) and MISR (17km) products, we test higher-resolution versions of MODIS (3km) and MISR (1km research mode) retrievals. The recent (July 2011) DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the mid-Atlantic offers a comprehensive network of sun photometers (DRAGON) and other data that we use for validating the higher resolution satellite data. In the future, we expect that the wealth of aircraft and ground-based measurements, collected during DISCOVER-AQ, will help us quantitatively link remote sensed and ground-based measurements in the urban region.

Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Holben, Brent N.; Schafer, Joel S.

2011-01-01

229

The continuous field measurements of soluble aerosol compositions at the Taipei Aerosol Supersite, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of ambient aerosols, affected by solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and gas–aerosol interaction, changed rapidly at different spatial and temporal scales. In Taipei Basin, dense traffic emissions and sufficient solar radiation for typical summer days favored the formation of secondary aerosols. In winter, the air quality in Taipei Basin was usually affected by the Asian

Shih-Yu Chang; Chung-Te Lee; Charles C.-K. Chou; Shaw-Chen Liu; Tian-Xue Wen

2007-01-01

230

Aerosol light scattering properties at Cape Grim, Tasmania, during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large uncertainties remain in understanding the effects of ambient aerosols on climate. As part of the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1, November 15 to December 15, 1995), the total light scattering and backscattering coefficients by particles (cysp and CYbsp) were measured at Cape Grim, Tasmania. Such measurements were made to characterize aerosol radiative forcing relevant to climate change at

Christian M. Carrico; Mark J. Rood; John A. Ogren

1998-01-01

231

The seasonality of aerosol properties in Big Bend National Park  

E-print Network

crystallization scan. Lastly, to examine the volatility properties of the ambient aerosols, the aerosol is directed through a tube in which the temperature is raised initially to slightly over 300?C. The aerosol is then continuously sampled while... the temperature is allowed to cool to 12 ambient temperature, a process that can last as long as 60m. Following exposure to elevated temperature the aerosol is humidified in a nafion bundle to an RH of 85%. This permits independent examination...

Allen, Christopher Lee

2007-04-25

232

Boxed Ambients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boxed Ambients are a variant of Mobile Ambients, that result from dropping the capability and providing new primitives for ambient communication while retaining the constructs and for mobility. The new model of communication is faithful to the principles of dist ribution and location- awareness of Mobile Ambients, and complements the constructs for Mobile Am- bient mobility with finer-grained, and more

Michele Bugliesi; Giuseppe Castagna; Silvia Crafa

2001-01-01

233

Characterization of nitrocatechols and related tracers in atmospheric biomass burning organic aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the largest primary sources of organic aerosols in the atmosphere is biomass burning (Laskin et al., 2009). The chemistry of compounds present in biomass burning aerosol (BBA) is diverse and directly dependent on the chemical composition of the burning material and the combustion conditions (Simoneit et al., 2002). A well-established tracer for primary BBA is levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-?-anhydroglucose), which originates from the pyrolysis of cellulose or hemicellulose (Fine et al., 2002). Secondary BBA, which is formed after physical and chemical changes (aging) of the primary BBA in the atmosphere, contains more oxidized and polar compounds. An important class of compounds of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) is nitrocatechols, which are strong absorbers of UV and Vis light, and therefore, can affect the earth's radiative balance and climate. Recently, methyl nitrocatechols were proposed as suitable tracers for highly oxidized secondary BBA (Iinuma et al., 2010). These compounds are primarily formed from the photooxidation of m-cresol, that is emitted from biomass burning, in the presence of NOx. The objective of the present study was to characterize nitrocatechols in ambient aerosols using mass spectrometric and chromatographic techniques. Ambient aerosol samples were collected during a cold winter episode from an urban site in Maribor, Slovenia, where substantial residential wood burning for domestic purposes takes place. Emphasis was put on the development of a suitable LC-ESI-MS technique. In an initial step the chromatographic conditions were optimized for methyl nitrocatechols and related nitro-aromatic compounds using diode array UV/Vis detection. The optimized LC conditions were used for the development and validation of an LC-ESI-MS/MS method for identification and quantification of nitrocatechols in aerosol samples. LC/ESI-MS/MS data will be presented and interpreted for the nitro-aromatic compounds that are present in the collected ambient aerosols.

Grgic, I.; Kitanovski, Z.; Yasmeen, F.; Claeys, M.

2011-12-01

234

Development of a capillary electrophoretic method for the analysis of low-molecular-weight amines from metal working fluid aerosols and ambient air.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of low-molecular-weight amines from indoor and ambient air was developed using a concentration device followed by CE coupled with indirect spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric detection that enables a reliable, rapid-response and easy-to-operate method. In indirect detection method, the selected amines were separated from interfering metal ions and amino alcohols present in the samples with an imidazole-based buffer with ethanol and EDTA as modifier. By replacing imidazole with ammonium, the final buffer was applicable for MS detection for the analytes with m/z higher than 50. A novel monolithic polymer material based on poly(methacrylate-acrylate) copolymer was developed for sampling short-chain amines from the gaseous phase. The selected analysis conditions were applied to quantify the selected short-chain amines with detection limits for the whole procedure determined between 1 and 2 microg/filter when 40 L air was sampled with 1 L/min velocity. Improved linearity and precision were obtained when the raw, time-scaled electropherogram data were transformed into mobility-scale applied for the determination of the performance characteristics of the methods. The applicability of the process of data transformation into the mobility scale was demonstrated by studying the matrix effect of water-miscible metal working fluid (stable water-oil emulsion) and of ambient air as real samples. CE-indirect UV and CE-MS, combined with the possibility of rapid air sampling, can be useful for the estimation of short-term exposure of the selected biogenic amines. PMID:16523461

Fekete, Agnes; Frommberger, Moritz; Ping, Guichen; Lahaniatis, Majlinda R; Lintelman, Jutta; Fekete, Jeno; Gebefugi, Istvan; Malik, Ashok Kumar; Kettrup, Antonius; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

2006-03-01

235

Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were evaluated for potential contamination bias by using the same approach developed by Olsen and others (2010). Some data collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program for the Southern California Coastal Drainages study unit were included to supplement the GAMA-PBP data. The detection frequency and upper threshold of potential contamination bias (BD-90/90) were determined from field-blank and equipment-blank data for each trace element. The BD-90/90 is the 90th percentile concentration of potential extrinsic contamination calculated by using the binomial probability distribution for greater than 90 percent confidence. Additionally, data from laboratory blanks and blind blanks analyzed by the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) during water years 2010 through 2013, and compiled by the USGS Branch of Quality Systems (BQS), were considered for each trace element. These results were compared to each constituent’s reporting level to determine whether an SRL was necessary to minimize the potential for detections in the groundwater samples, attributed principally to contamination bias. Results of the evaluation were used to set SRLs for trace-element data for about 1,135 samples of groundwater collected by the GAMA-PBP between October 2009 and March 2013. Ten trace elements analyzed (Sb, As, Be, B, Cd, Li, Se, Ag, Tl, and U) had blank results that did not necessitate establishing SRLs during this review or the review by Olsen and others (2010). Five trace elements analyzed (Al, Ba, Cr, Sr, and V) had blank results that necessitated establishing an SRL during the previous review but did not need an SRL starting October 2009. One trace element (Fe) had field and laboratory-blank results that necessitated keeping the previous SRL (6 micrograms per liter [?g/L]). Two trace elements (Ni and W) had quality-control results that warranted decreasing the previous SRL, and five trace elements (Cu, Pb, Mn, Mo, and Zn) had field, laboratory, or blind blank results that warranted establishing an SRL for the first time or increasing the previous SRL. SRLs fo

Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

2014-01-01

236

AEROSOL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTION ON BOARD THE DOE G1 AIRCRAFT USING A PARTICLE INTO LIQUID SAMPLER DURING THE TEXAQS 2000 EXPERIMENT.  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of aerosol chemical composition is key to understanding a number of properties of ambient aerosol particles including sources, size/number distribution, chemical evolution, optical properties and human health effects. Although filter based techniques have been widely used to determine aerosol chemical constituents, they generally cannot provide sufficiently fast time resolution needed to investigate sources and chemical evolution that effect aerosol chemical, size and number changes. In order to gain an ability to describe and predict the life cycles of ambient aerosols as a basis for ambient air quality control, fast and sensitive determination of the aerosol chemical composition must be made available. To help to achieve this goal, we deployed a newly developed technique, referred to as PILS (particle-into-liquid-sampler), on the DOE G1 aircraft during the 2000 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000) to characterize the major ionic species of aerosol particles with aerodynamic size smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM 2.5). The results obtained are examined in the context of other simultaneously collected data for insights into the measurement capability of the PILS system.

LEE,Y.N.; SONG,Z.; LIU,Y.; DAUM,P.; WEBER,R.; ORSINI,D.; LAULAINEN,N.; HUBBE,J.; MORRIS,V.

2001-01-13

237

Measurements of Semi-volatile Aerosol and Its Effect on Aerosol Optical Properties During Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-volatile compounds, including particle-bound water, comprise a large part of aerosol mass and have a significant influence on aerosol lifecycle and its optical properties. Understanding the properties of semi-volatile compounds, especially those pertaining to gas/aerosol partitioning, is of critical importance for our ability to predict concentrations and properties of ambient aerosol. A set of state-of-the-art instruments was deployed at the SEARCH site near Centerville, AL during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign in summer 2013 to measure the effect of temperature and relative humidity on aerosol size distribution, composition and optical properties. Light scattering and absorption by temperature- and humidity-conditioned aerosols was measured using three photo-acoustic extinctiometers (PAX) at three wavelengths (405 nm, 532 nm, and 870 nm). In parallel to these measurements, a long residence time temperature-stepping thermodenuder and a variable residence time constant temperature thermodenuder in combination with three SMPS systems and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) were used to assess aerosol volatility and kinetics of aerosol evaporation. It was found that both temperature and relative humidity have a strong effect on aerosol optical properties. The variable residence time thermodenuder data suggest that aerosol equilibrated fairly quickly, within 2 s, in contrast to other ambient observations. Preliminary analysis show that approximately 50% and 90% of total aerosol mass evaporated at temperatures of 100 C and 180C, respectively. Evaporation varied substantially with ambient aerosol loading and composition and meteorology. During course of this study, T50 (temperatures at which 50% aerosol mass evaporates) varied from 60 C to more than 120 C.

Khlystov, A.; Grieshop, A. P.; Saha, P.; Subramanian, R.

2013-12-01

238

Ambient Observations of the Soot Aging Process during the SHARP Intensive Field Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soot aerosols affect climate both directly through absorption of solar radiation and indirectly by potentially serving as cloud condensation nuclei. Among the sources of uncertainty surrounding the effects of soot aerosol on the environment is the lack of scientific insight into the soot aging process, in which soot particles develop a coating of secondary species such as sulfates, ammonium, nitrate, and organics. Such processes may alter the behavior of soot by modifying particle morphology over time leading to changes in chemical, physical and scattering properties of the aerosol. However, it is often difficult to quantify such processes in the ambient environment due to the complex composition and spatial and temporal variability of the atmospheric aerosol. In order to better understand the effects of the environment on soot particles, it is desirable to study the processes responsible for their transformation in the ambient air without influence from variability in source region and history prior to sampling. To achieve this, the overall soot aging process in the ambient environment was physically isolated utilizing environmental chambers. Chamber measurements were conducted on the Moody Tower at the University of Houston using The Ambient Aerosol Chamber for Evolution Studies (AACES) during the SHARP campaign. AACES is a roughly cubical chamber constructed of a rigid acrylic outer shell, which transmits UV radiation both in the UV-B and UV-A ranges. FEP Teflon lines the inside of the chamber on all sides and the top, while expanded-PTFE (ePTFE) Teflon is used on the bottom of the chamber. The fibrous structure of the ePTFE acts as a barrier to particulates, while allowing gas molecules to move virtually unimpeded from the surrounding air into the chamber, creating an environment inside the chamber that is initially free of particles and continuously mimics the local ambient air. In order to study the effects of the soot aging process, a non-premixed propane flame was used to generate a polydisperse fresh soot aerosol. Then, using a differential mobility analyzer, a monodisperse, uncharged soot aerosol was injected into the environmental chamber. Observations of particle concentration, size, hygroscopicity, effective density, and light extinction and scattering properties were carried out over time using a tandem differential mobility analyzer system, an aerosol particle mass analyzer, a nephelometer and a cavity ringdown spectrometer. Results from preliminary analysis of the data collected during the campaign will be presented.

Reed, C.; Collins, D. R.; Khalizov, A. F.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.

2009-12-01

239

Chemical characterization of individual particles and residuals of cloud droplets and ice crystals collected on board research aircraft in the ISDAC 2008 study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient particles and the dry residuals of mixed-phase cloud droplets and ice crystals were collected during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) near Barrow, Alaska, in spring of 2008. The collected particles were analyzed using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy coupled with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to identify physico-chemical properties that differentiate cloud-nucleating particles from the total aerosol population. A wide range of individually mixed components was identified in the ambient particles and residuals including organic carbon compounds, inorganics, carbonates, and black carbon. Our results show that cloud droplet residuals differ from the ambient particles in both size and composition, suggesting that both properties may impact the cloud-nucleating ability of aerosols in mixed-phase clouds. The percentage of residual particles which contained carbonates (47%) was almost four times higher than those in ambient samples. Residual populations were also enhanced in sea salt and black carbon and reduced in organic compounds relative to the ambient particles. Further, our measurements suggest that chemical processing of aerosols may improve their cloud-nucleating ability. Comparison of results for various time periods within ISDAC suggests that the number and composition of cloud-nucleating particles over Alaska can be influenced by episodic events bringing aerosols from both the local vicinity and as far away as Siberia.

Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Moffet, R. C.; Glen, A.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Liu, P.; MacDonald, A. M.; Strapp, J. W.; McFarquhar, G. M.

2013-06-01

240

Comparison of Oxidative Properties, Light Absorbance, and Total and Elemental Mass Concentration of Ambient PM2.5 Collected at 20 European Sites  

PubMed Central

Objective It has been proposed that the redox activity of particles may represent a major determinant of their toxicity. We measured the in vitro ability of ambient fine particles [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ?2.5 ?m (PM2.5)] to form hydroxyl radicals (•OH) in an oxidant environment, as well as to deplete physiologic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glutathione) in the naturally reducing environment of the respiratory tract lining fluid (RTLF). The objective was to examine how these toxicologically relevant measures were related to other PM characteristics, such as total and elemental mass concentration and light absorbance. Design Gravimetric PM2.5 samples (n = 716) collected over 1 year from 20 centers participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were available. Light absorbance of these filters was measured with reflectometry. PM suspensions were recovered from filters by vortexing and sonication before dilution to a standard concentration. The oxidative activity of these particle suspensions was then assessed by measuring their ability to generate •OH in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, using electron spin resonance and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as spin trap, or by establishing their capacity to deplete antioxidants from a synthetic model of the RTLF. Results and Conclusion PM oxidative activity varied significantly among European sampling sites. Correlations between oxidative activity and all other characteristics of PM were low, both within centers (temporal correlation) and across communities (annual mean). Thus, no single surrogate measure of PM redox activity could be identified. Because these novel measures are suggested to reflect crucial biologic mechanisms of PM, their use may be pertinent in epidemiologic studies. Therefore, it is important to define the appropriate methods to determine oxidative activity of PM. PMID:16675421

Kunzli, Nino; Mudway, Ian S.; Gotschi, Thomas; Shi, Tingming; Kelly, Frank J.; Cook, Sarah; Burney, Peter; Forsberg, Bertil; Gauderman, James W.; Hazenkamp, Marianne E.; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah; Norback, Dan; Payo-Losa, Felix; Poli, Albino; Sunyer, Jordi; Borm, Paul J.A.

2006-01-01

241

Ambient Telepresence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient Telepresence is introduced as a method to give someone the feeling that someone else is present while that person is in fact not co-located. In contrast to other telepresence approaches, ambient telepresence is focused on mediating background activity to promote a peripheral sense of presence. A remote person's handling of everyday objects is mapped to an ambient presentation in

Michael Beigl; Hans-Werner Gellersen

242

Cyclone Collection Efficiency: Comparison of Experimental Results with Theoretical Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of tests conducted on a Stairmand high-efficiency cyclone. The cyclone was pilot-plant scale with a design air flow of 0.139 m\\/s (300 cfm). Collection efficiency and pressure drop were measured over a range of air flows at ambient temperature and pressure. An oil mist was used as a test aerosol because it consisted of spherical

John Dirgo; David Leith

1985-01-01

243

Trace elements in daily collected aerosol: Level characterization and source identification in a four-year study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particulate concentrations were measured at an industrial site in southern Italy from September 2001 to December 2004. In this period, we collected 741 daily samples of PM 2.5 by means of a low-volume gravimetric automatic sequential sampler. The 24-h PM 2.5 samples were analysed for heavy metal content (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). We also measured temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Data analysis was performed with univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied in order to point out the correlation structure among particulate concentrations and heavy metal content and to highlight source profile characterization. In order to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic origin of the trace elements, we also applied the enrichment factor method. In the investigated period, PM 2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.04 ?g m - 3 to 117 ?g m - 3 , with a mean value of 13 ?g m - 3 and a median value of 10 ?g m - 3 . A mix of different source emissions and different meteorological conditions may determine this large variation in PM 2.5 values. Regarding heavy metal levels, we observed that they decreased during the four years assuming the lowest values in 2004. All the measured elements, except Mn, showed high values of the enrichment factor, suggesting a prevailing anthropogenic origin. The analysis of the relationships among pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters showed that they were influenced by wind speed and relative humidity. The multivariate analysis allowed us to identify two source profiles for heavy metals. The first profile was characterized both by elements typical of soil dust and crustal material (Fe, Mn) and by elements typical of industrial processes (Ni, Cr and Cu). The second profile was characterized by Pb, Zn and Cd and it may be mainly related to exhaust emissions from both gasoline and diesel fuelled road vehicles.

Ragosta, Maria; Caggiano, Rosa; Macchiato, Maria; Sabia, Serena; Trippetta, Serena

2008-07-01

244

The Juelich large Aerosol Chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large Aerosol Chamber is designed for the investigation of nighttime atmospheric chemistry. The Aerosol Chamber is a dark chamber and is operated at ambient temperature and pressure conditions. It is constructed as a double wall system: a fully welded aluminum box (7m x 7m x 5.3m) and an equally sized fully heat sealed Teflon bag hanging from the ceiling.

Th. Mentel; A. Wahner; M. Folkers

2003-01-01

245

Ergosterol, arabitol and manitol as tracers for biological aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne fungi can cause a wide array of adverse responses in humans depending on the type and quantity present. Since dose and human response is highly individual, the sensitivity of a person exposed is also an important consideration. The abundance of bioaerosols in the ambient air and their health impacts depend on the season and on the environmental conditions. In order to quantify and identify fungi bioaerosols’ contribution to atmospheric aerosols and the impact to public health, it has been suggested to use chemicals that are typical of bioaerosols as biomarkers in chemical analysis of collected aerosols. An often used biomarker for determining the fungal biomass is ergosterol. Recently, Bauer et al. (2008) found that mannitol and arabitol concentrations are correlated with the fungal spore counts in atmospheric PM10. In this study, ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol were quantified in ambient aerosols collected in the Eastern Mediterranean region for 12 months in order to understand their annual and seasonal behavior and to test whether arabitol and mannitol are good predictors of fungi. Finally, correlations between ergosterol abundances with inorganic ions, humidity, temperature, and synoptic data in order to identify dominant sources of fungal spores were also studied. We will report on the measurements and the observed correlations between the different tracers.

Rudich, Y.; Burshtein, N.; Lang-Yona, N.

2010-12-01

246

Atmospheric aerosol measurement problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present knowledge of the atmospheric aerosols is summarized briefly with respect to geographical distribution, time variations, optical properties, chemical nature, and natural and artificial sources. The measurement techniques for determining aerosol properties are summarized with the limitations and results from each. The problems resulting from variations in refractive index, shape, composition, volatile constituents, relative humidity and time from collection until measurement are described. Needed measurements on atmospheric aerosols are outlined with some of the latest methods for obtaining them, including the needs and goals of some world-wide programs.

Harris, F. S., Jr.

1978-01-01

247

Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with size-segregated atmospheric aerosols in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Size-segregated atmospheric aerosols were collected from urban and rural locations in Massachusetts using a micro-orifice impactor. The samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with molecular weight between 178 and 302, using gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Fifteen PAH were quantified in the urban samples and nine in the rural samples. The quantification results are in good agreement with available ambient

Jonathan O. Allen; Nameeta M. Dookeran; Kenneth A. Smith; Adel F. Sarofim; Koli Taghizadeh; Arthur L. Lafleur

1996-01-01

248

Use of a massive volume air sampler to collect fly ash for biological characterization  

SciTech Connect

A massive volume air sampler (MVAS) with a flow rate of some 17/SUP/3/min and designed to collect ambient aerosols was modified for the collection of fly ash emissions from the stack mouth of an experimental fluidised bed combustor for physicochemical and biological characterisation. The sampler consisted of 2 impactor stages and an electrostatic precipitator section. High volume filter fly ash samples and laboratory size cascade impactor samples were obtained simultaneously to verify the operation of the MVAS.

Cheng, Y.S.

1984-06-01

249

Ambient air quality during wheat and rice crop stubble burning episodes in Patiala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open crop stubble burning events were observed in and around Patiala city, India. A ground level study was deliberated to analyze the contribution of wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and rice ( Oriza sativa) crop stubble burning practices on concentration levels of aerosol, SO 2 and NO 2 in ambient air at five different sites in and around Patiala city covering agricultural, commercial and residential areas. Aerosols were collected on GMF/A and QMF/A (Whatman) sheets for a 24 h period throughout the year in 2007. Simultaneously, sampling of SO 2 and NO 2 was conducted and results obtained during stubble burning periods were compared to the non-stubble burning periods. Results clearly pointed out a distinct increase in aerosol, SO 2 and NO 2 levels during the crop stubble burning periods.

Mittal, Susheel K.; Singh, Nirankar; Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Gupta, Prabhat K.

250

A continuous sampler with background suppression for monitoring alpha-emitting aerosol particles.  

PubMed

A continuous air monitor has been developed that includes provisions for improving the detection of alpha-emitting aerosol particles in the presence of radon/thoron progeny that are unattached to ambient aerosol particles. Wind tunnel tests show that 80% of 10-microns aerodynamic equivalent diameter particles penetrate the flow system from the ambient air to the collection filter when the flow rate is 57 L min-1 (2 cfm) and the wind speed is 1 m s-1. Uniformity of aerosol collection on the filter, as characterized by the coefficient of variation of the areal density deposits, is less than 15% for 10-microns aerodynamic-equivalent-diameter aerosol particles. Tests with unattached radon daughters in a flow-through chamber showed that approximately 99% of the 218Po was removed by an inlet screen that is designed to collect radon daughters that are in the size range of molecular clusters. The inlet screen offers the opportunity to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of energy spectra in the regions of interest (subranges of the energy spectrum) of transuranic elements and thereby enhance the performance of background compensation algorithms. PMID:1559808

McFarland, A R; Rodgers, J C; Ortiz, C A; Moore, M E

1992-05-01

251

Oxidation enhancement of submicron organic aerosols by fog processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2010 wintertime, a measurement study was carried out at Fresno, California, using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) combined with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Four fog events occurred during the first week of the campaign. While ambient aerosol was sampled into the HR-ToF-AMS, fog water samples were collected, and were later aerosolized and analyzed via HR-TOF-AMS in the laboratory. We performed Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) on the AMS ambient organic mass spectra, and identified four OA factors: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) likely from vehicle emissions, cooking influenced OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) representing residential wood combustion, and an oxygenated OA (OOA) that has an average O/C ratio of 0.42. The time series of the OOA factor correlates best with that of sulfate (R2 =0.54 ) during fog events, suggesting that aqueous phase processing may have strongly affected OOA production during wintertime in Fresno. We further investigate the OOA compositions and elemental ratios before, during, and after the fog events, as well as those of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in fog waters to study the influence of aqueous phase processing on OA compositions. Results of fog sample analysis shows an enhancement of oxidation of DOM in 11 separate fog samples. Further factor analysis of the fog DOM data will elucidate the possible mechanisms by which fog processing enhances oxidation of aerosol. In addition, in order to investigate the influence of aqueous processing on OA, we used the Extended Aerosol Inorganic Model (E-AIM) (http://www.aim.env.uea.ac.uk/aim/aim.php) to estimate aerosol phase water contents based on the AMS measured aerosol composition. The predicted water content has a good correlation with sulfate and OOA . We will further explore the correlations between particle phase water with organic aerosol characteristics to discuss the influence of aqueous phase processing on secondary organic aerosol formation.

Zhang, Q.; Ge, X.; Collier, S.; Setyan, A.; Xu, J.; Sun, Y.

2011-12-01

252

Radioactive Aerosols as an Index of Air Pollution in the City of Thessaloniki, Greece  

SciTech Connect

This study summarizes results of an investigation done in order to find out how the radioactive aerosols of {sup 7}Be could serve as indicators of air pollution conditions. Beryllium-7 is a cosmic-ray produced radionuclide with an important fraction of its production to take place in the upper troposphere. Once it is formed is rapidly associated with submicron aerosol particles and participates in the formation and growth of the accumulation mode aerosols, which is a major reservoir of pollutants in the atmosphere. In order to define any influence of AMAD of {sup 7}Be aerosols by air pollution conditions, the aerodynamic size distribution of {sup 7}Be aerosols was determined by collecting samples at different locations in the suburban area of the city of Thessaloniki, including rural areas, industrial areas, high elevations, marine environment and the airport area. The aerodynamic size distribution of {sup 7}Be aerosols in different locations was obtained by using Andersen 1-ACFM cascade impactors and the Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) was determined. Some dependency of the AMADs on height has been observed, while in near marine environment the {sup 7}Be activity size distribution was dominant in the upper size range of aerosol particles. Low AMADs as low as 0.62 to 0.74 {mu}m of {sup 7}Be aerosols have been observed at locations characterized with relative low pollution, while it is concluded that in the activity size distribution of ambient aerosols, {sup 7}Be changes to larger particle sizes in the presence of pollutants, since low AMADs of {sup 7}Be aerosols have been observed at low polluted locations. Preliminary data of simultaneous measurements of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 212}Pb with gaseous air pollutants CO, NO, NO{sub X}, SO{sub 2} and total suspended particulate matter (TSP) show that radon decay products near the ground could be a useful index of air pollution potential conditions and transport processes in the boundary layer.

Ioannidou, A.; Papastefanou, C. [Nuclear Physics and Elementary Particle Physics Division, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

2010-01-21

253

Field-Deployable, High-Resolution, Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer  

E-print Network

of ambient aerosol data are presented from the SOAR-1 study in Riverside, CA, in which the spectra of ambient is the quadrupole-based Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS), which uses flash thermal vaporiza- tion underField-Deployable, High-Resolution, Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Peter F. DeCarlo,, Joel

Jimenez, Jose-Luis

254

Organosulfates as tracers for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) in the atmosphere.  

PubMed

2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is an important biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emitted by pine trees and a potential precursor of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in forested regions. In the present study, hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of MBO was examined in smog chambers under varied initial nitric oxide (NO) and aerosol acidity levels. Results indicate measurable SOA from MBO under low-NO conditions. Moreover, increasing aerosol acidity was found to enhance MBO SOA. Chemical characterization of laboratory-generated MBO SOA reveals that an organosulfate species (C(5)H(12)O(6)S, MW 200) formed and was substantially enhanced with elevated aerosol acidity. Ambient fine aerosol (PM(2.5)) samples collected from the BEARPEX campaign during 2007 and 2009, as well as from the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign during 2011, were also analyzed. The MBO-derived organosulfate characterized from laboratory-generated aerosol was observed in PM(2.5) collected from these campaigns, demonstrating that it is a molecular tracer for MBO-initiated SOA in the atmosphere. Furthermore, mass concentrations of the MBO-derived organosulfate are well correlated with MBO mixing ratio, temperature, and acidity in the field campaigns. Importantly, this compound accounted for an average of 0.25% and as high as 1% of the total organic aerosol mass during BEARPEX 2009. An epoxide intermediate generated under low-NO conditions is tentatively proposed to produce MBO SOA. PMID:22849588

Zhang, Haofei; Worton, David R; Lewandowski, Michael; Ortega, John; Rubitschun, Caitlin L; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Kristensen, Kasper; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A; Jimenez, Jose L; Jaoui, Mohammed; Offenberg, John H; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Gilman, Jessica; Kuster, William C; de Gouw, Joost; Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar W; Frossard, Amanda A; Russell, Lynn; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin; Cappellin, Luca; Karl, Thomas; Glasius, Marianne; Guenther, Alex; Goldstein, Allen H; Seinfeld, John H; Gold, Avram; Kamens, Richard M; Surratt, Jason D

2012-09-01

255

Organosulfates as Tracers for Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) Formation from 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol (MBO) in the Atmosphere  

PubMed Central

2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is an important biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emitted by pine trees and a potential precursor of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in forested regions. In the present study, hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of MBO was examined in smog chambers under varied initial nitric oxide (NO) and aerosol acidity levels. Results indicate measurable SOA from MBO under low-NO conditions. Moreover, increasing aerosol acidity was found to enhance MBO SOA. Chemical characterization of laboratory-generated MBO SOA reveals that an organosulfate species (C5H12O6S, MW 200) formed and was substantially enhanced with elevated aerosol acidity. Ambient fine aerosol (PM2.5) samples collected from the BEARPEX campaign during 2007 and 2009, as well as from the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign during 2011, were also analyzed. The MBO-derived organosulfate characterized from laboratory-generated aerosol was observed in PM2.5 collected from these campaigns, demonstrating that it is a molecular tracer for MBO-initiated SOA in the atmosphere. Furthermore, mass concentrations of the MBO-derived organosulfate are well correlated with MBO mixing ratio, temperature, and acidity in the field campaigns. Importantly, this compound accounted for an average of 0.25% and as high as 1% of the total organic aerosol mass during BEARPEX 2009. An epoxide intermediate generated under low-NO conditions is tentatively proposed to produce MBO SOA. PMID:22849588

2012-01-01

256

Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations  

PubMed Central

Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory. PMID:22866888

2012-01-01

257

Scanning Mobile Lidar for Aerosol Tracking and Biological Aerosol Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical properties of non-biological aerosols containing aromatic hydrocarbons, such as industrial chemicals and engine exhausts, have already been thoroughly studied using remote sensing techniques. However, because of their complex composition and characteristics, the identification of biological aerosols, such as fungi, pollen and bacteria that are present in the environment remains a rather difficult task. The collection of information on both

Tingyao He; Klemen Bergant; Andrej Filipcic; Biagio Forte; Fei Gao; Samo Stanic; Darko Veberic; Marko Zavrtanik

2010-01-01

258

Towards an understanding of the cloud formation potential of carbonaceous aerosol: Laboratory and field studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that atmospheric aerosols provide the sites for forming cloud droplets, and can affect the Earth's radiation budget through their interactions with clouds. The ability of aerosols to act as cloud condensation nuclei is a strong function of their chemical composition and size. The compositional complexity of aerosol prohibits their explicit treatment in atmospheric models of aerosol-cloud interactions. Nevertheless, the cumulative impact of organics on CCN activity is still required, as carbonaceous material can constitute up to 90% of the total aerosol, 10--70% of which is water soluble. Therefore it is necessary to characterize the water soluble organic carbon fraction by CCN activation, droplet growth kinetics, and surface tension measurements. In this thesis, we investigate the water soluble properties, such as surface tension, solubility, and molecular weight, of laboratory and ambient aerosols and their effect on CCN formation. A mechanism called Curvature Enhanced Solubility is proposed and shown to explain the apparent increased solubility of organics. A new method, called Kohler Theory Analysis, which is completely new, fast, and uses minimal amount of sample was developed to infer the molar volume (or molar mass) of organics. Due to the success of the technique in predicting the molar volume of laboratory samples, it was applied to aerosols collected in Mexico City. Additionally the surface tension, CCN activity, and droplet growth kinetics of these urban polluted aerosols were investigated. Studies performed for the water soluble components showed that the aerosols in Mexico City have surfactants present, can readily become CCN, and have growth similar to ammonium sulfate. Finally, aerosols from three different polluted sources, urban, bovine, and ship emissions, were collected and characterized. The data assembled was used to predict CCN concentrations and access our understanding of the system. From these analyses, it was evident that knowledge of the chemical composition and mixing state of the aerosol is necessary to achieve agreement between observations and predictions. The data obtained in this thesis can be introduced and used as constraints in aerosol-cloud interaction parameterizations developed for global climate models, which could lead to improvements in the indirect effect of aerosols.

Padro Martinez, Luz Teresa

259

Semicontinuous automated measurement of organic carbon in atmospheric aerosol samples.  

PubMed

A fully automated measurement system for ambient aerosol organic carbon, capable of unattended operation over extended periods, is described. Particles are collected in a cyclone with water as the collection medium. The collected sample is periodically aspirated by a syringe pump into a holding loop and then delivered to a wet oxidation reactor (WOR). Acid is added, and the WOR is purged to measure dissolved CO(2) or inorganic carbonates (IC) as evolved CO(2). The IC background can often be small and sufficiently constant to be corrected for, without separate measurement, by a blank subtraction. The organic material is now oxidized stepwise or in one step to CO(2). The one-step oxidation involves UV-persulfate treatment in the presence of ozone. This treatment converts organic carbon (OC) to CO(2), but elemental carbon is not oxidized. The CO(2) is continuously purged from solution and collected by two sequential miniature diffusion scrubbers (DSs), a short DS preceding a longer one. Each DS consists of a LiOH-filled porous hydrophobic membrane tube with terminal stainless steel tubes that function as conductance-sensing electrodes. As CO(2) is collected by the LiOH-filled DSs, hydroxide is converted into carbonate and the resulting decrease in conductivity is monitored. The simultaneous use of the dual short and long DS units bearing different concentrations of LiOH permits both good sensitivity and a large dynamic range. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) is approximately 140 ng of C. With a typical sampling period of 30 min at a sampling rate of 30 L/min, this corresponds to an LOD of 160 ng/m(3). The approach also provides information on the ease of oxidation of the carbonaceous aerosol and hence the nature of the carbon contained therein. Ambient aerosol organic carbon data are presented. PMID:20092351

Lu, Chao; Rashinkar, Shilpa M; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

2010-02-15

260

Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution  

SciTech Connect

Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples show that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K.G.; Ferry, G.V.; Hayes, D.M.

1982-09-01

261

Comparison of Aerosol Sampler Inlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This field study compared aerosol collection by nominal 15 ?m inlets for low volume (1 m\\/hr) aerosol samplers. The inlets were designed at Texas A & M University (TAMU), Colorado State University (CSU), the University of Minnesota–Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (UMLBL), and the Aerovironment Corporation (AERO). The TAMU inlet design is currently used on most commercial dichotomous samplers, and recent wind

R. W. Shaw Jr; R. K. Stevens; C. W. Lewis; James H. Chance

1982-01-01

262

Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

Oberbeck, V. R.; Farlow, N. H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Ferry, G. V.; Hayes, D. M.

1982-01-01

263

AEROSOL SAMPLING INLETS AND INHALABLE PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The problem of sampling aerosols from the ambient atmosphere has been considered from a theoretical point of view. Following a review of the various samplers and inlets used in ambient sampling, the factors contributing to high sampling efficiency for large particles are discusse...

264

Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Central Illinois and Comparison with Surface and Satellite Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. Underflights of the CALIPSO satellite show reasonable agreement in a majority of retrieved profiles between aircraft-measured extinction at 532 nm (adjusted to ambient relative humidity) and CALIPSO-retrieved extinction, and suggest that routine aircraft profiling programs can be used to better understand and validate satellite retrieval algorithms. CALIPSO tended to overestimate the aerosol extinction at this location in some boundary layer flight segments when scattered or broken clouds were present, which could be related to problems with CALIPSO cloud screening methods. The in situ aircraft-collected aerosol data suggest extinction thresholds for the likelihood of aerosol layers being detected by the CALIOP lidar. These statistical data offer guidance as to the likelihood of CALIPSO's ability to retrieve aerosol extinction at various locations around the globe.

Sheridan P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

2012-01-01

265

Chemical characteristics of aerosols involved in Asian dust of March 2002 collected at Rokkasho Village, Aomori, in northern part of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian dust (Kosa), generated when the surface soil in the arid and semi-arid region of the Asian continental landmass is lifted by winds, is the major mineral aerosol transported from East Asia to the Pacific region. The Kosa particles are thought to be an important factor in the earth_fs climate via radiative forcing. The frequency of dust events giving

N. Akata; H. Hasegawa; H. Kawabata; Y. Chikuchi; Y. Takaku; T. Sato; K. Kondo; J. Inaba

2004-01-01

266

Aerosol size distribution and seasonal variation in an urban area of an industrial city in central India.  

PubMed

To study the size distribution and seasonal variations of atmospheric aerosols, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected from July 2009 to June 2010 using the nine-stage cascade impactor aerosol sampler in Durg City, India. The aerosol particles exhibited bimodal size distribution on mass concentration with a peak at 2.5-4.4 ?m size ranges in the coarse mode and 2.1-2.5 ?m size ranges in the fine mode. The aerosol mass and size distribution during monsoon were found unimodal distribution with a peak in the coarse mode, while they showed trimodal distributions during winter with all three peaks appearing in the fine mode. The annual mean concentration of PM(10) aerosol was found to be 253.5 ± 99.4 ?g/m(3), which is four times higher as compared to the annual guideline of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of India prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India. The highest aerosol mass concentrations were found during winter due to enormous biomass burning, while the lowest concentrations were observed during monsoon due to heavy rainfall. Air quality index values calculated in this study showed that 35% of the days were unhealthy for sensitive people, 35% were unhealthy or very unhealthy, while 3.3% were found as hazardous in Durg City, India. PMID:22990766

Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Deb, Manas K; Verma, Devsharan; Verma, Santosh K; Nirmalkar, Jayant

2012-11-01

267

Ambient Intelligence: Science or Fad? 1.1. Ambient intelligence: still young at 20 years  

E-print Network

. but is deemed an almost offensive term in the U.K. #12;2 Computer Science and Ambient Intelligence human collectives of artificial agents for ambient intelligence4 , the internet of things5 and Machine-to-Machine (MChapter 1 Ambient Intelligence: Science or Fad? 1.1. Ambient intelligence: still young at 20 years

268

Indian aerosols: present status.  

PubMed

This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

2002-12-01

269

Comparison of three aerosol sampling techniques and the differences in the nitrate determined by each  

SciTech Connect

Ambient aerosol samples were collected simultaneously with three different methods, one a size fractionated impactor sampler and two filter samplers. Infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze the collected aerosol using attenuated total internal reflection for the impactor samples and direct transmission through ultra-thin teflon membrane filters for the filter samples. All samples were analyzed as soon as possible after collection; some were reanalyzed after being stored in closed petri dishes for up to 10 days. A major purpose of the study was to evaluate the neutralization of acidic sulfate aerosols after sample collection by the filtration techniques. No acidic sulfate was found in any of the samples collected during the field study. However, significant differences were observed in the nitrate content of the samples collected by the different samplers. Also, in several samples collected with the ATR impactor the nitrate content decreased upon storage. In some cases the nitrate absorbance bands diminished to zero; in other cases the nitrate initially decreased and then remained stable; in yet another case, a high level of nitrate persisted over several days. The results indicate that two different types of nitrate compounds were present in the samples, one more ''volatile'' than the other, although the infrared spectra were consistent with both of them being ammonium nitrate.

Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.

1987-01-01

270

Influences of relative humidity and particle chemical composition on aerosol scattering properties during the 2006 PRD campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ measurements of the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosols were carried out in Guangzhou city, China, from 1 to 31 July 2006 during the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Campaign. The light extinction coefficient of the ambient atmosphere, the aerosol scattering coefficient under dry conditions, the aerosol absorption coefficient under ambient conditions, NO2 concentration, and relative humidity (RH)

Xingang Liu; Yafang Cheng; Yuanhang Zhang; Jinsang Jung; Nobuo Sugimoto; Shih-Yu Chang; Young J. Kim; Shaojia Fan; Limin Zeng

2008-01-01

271

Stratospheric aerosols - Observation and theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important chemical and physical roles of aerosols are discussed, and properties of stratospheric aerosols as revealed by experimental data are described. In situ measurements obtained by mechanical collection and scattered-light detection yield the overall size distribution of the aerosols, and analyses of preserved aerosol precursor gases by wet chemical, cryogenic and spectroscopic techniques indicate the photochemical sources of particle mass. Aerosol chemical reactions including those of gaseous precursors, those in aqueous solution, and those on particle surfaces are discussed, in addition to aerosol microphysical processes such as nucleation, condensation/evaporation, coagulation and sedimentation. Models of aerosols incorporating such chemical and physical processes are presented, and simulations are shown to agree with measurements. Estimates are presented for the potential aerosol changes due to emission of particles and gases by aerospace operations and industrial consumption of fossil fuels, and it is demonstrated that although the climatic effects of existing levels of stratospheric aerosol pollution are negligible, potential increases in those levels might pose a future threat.

Turco, R. P.; Whitten, R. C.; Toon, O. B.

1982-01-01

272

AEROSOL SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY IN MIAMI, FLORIDA. MICROSCOPICAL ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

In June 1975 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experimental program in the Miami metropolitan area to collect atmospheric aerosols for the purpose of identifying aerosol composition and determing aerosol sources. Samples were collected for mass, trace metals, ...

273

Traffic emission factors of ultrafine particles: effects from ambient air.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particles have a significant detrimental effect on both human health and climate. In order to abate this problem, it is necessary to identify the sources of ultrafine particles. A parameterisation method is presented for estimating the levels of traffic-emitted ultrafine particles in terms of variables describing the ambient conditions. The method is versatile and could easily be applied to similar datasets in other environments. The data used were collected during a four-week period in February 2005, in Gothenburg, as part of the Göte-2005 campaign. The specific variables tested were temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), carbon monoxide concentration (CO), and the concentration of particles up to 10 ?m diameter (PM(10)); all indicators are of importance for aerosol processes such as coagulation and gas-particle partitioning. These variables were selected because of their direct effect on aerosol processes (T and RH) or as proxies for aerosol surface area (CO and PM(10)) and because of their availability in local monitoring programmes, increasing the usability of the parameterization. Emission factors are presented for 10-100 nm particles (ultrafine particles; EF(ufp)), for 10-40 nm particles (EF(10-40)), and for 40-100 nm particles (EF(40-100)). For EF(40-100) no effect of ambient conditions was found. The emission factor equations are calculated based on an emission factor for NO(x) of 1 g km(-1), thus the particle emission factors are easily expressed in units of particles per gram of NO(x) emitted. For 10-100 nm particles the emission factor is EF(ufp) = 1.8 × 10(15) × (1 - 0.095 × CO - 3.2 × 10(-3) × T) particles km(-1). Alternative equations for the EFs in terms of T and PM(10) concentration are also presented. PMID:22858604

Janhäll, Sara; Molnar, Peter; Hallquist, Mattias

2012-09-01

274

Characterization and source apportionment of aerosol light extinction in Chengdu, southwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate aerosol properties in the Sichuan Basin of China, field aerosol sampling was carried out in Chengdu, China during four one-month periods, each in a different season in 2011. Aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp) at dry (RH<40%) and wet (40% < RH<90%) conditions and aerosol absorption coefficient (bap) were measured. Additionally, daily PM2.5 and PM10 samples were also collected. PM2.5 samples were subject to chemical analysis for various chemical components including major water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), trace elements, as well as anhydrosugar Levoglucosan (LG) and Mannosan (MN). A multiple linear regression analysis was applied to the measured dry bsp against (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, organic mass (OM), fine soil (FS), and coarse mass (CM, PM2.5-10), and to the measured bap against EC in all the four seasons to evaluate the impact of individual chemical components of PM2.5 and CM on aerosol light extinction (bext = bsp + bap). Mass scattering efficiency (MSE) and mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of the individual chemical components of PM2.5 were estimated based on seasonal regression equations and were then used for estimating bext. The annual bsp, bap and single scattering albedo (SSA) at dry conditions were 456 ± 237 Mm-1, 96 ± 48 Mm-1 and 0.82 ± 0.05, respectively. The annual average bsp at ambient conditions estimated through hygroscopic curve of aerosol (f(RH)) was 763 ± 415 Mm-1, which was 1.7 times of the dry bsp. The annual average SSA at ambient conditions also increased to 0.88 ± 0.04. The estimated dry bext was only 2 ± 9% higher than the measurements and the estimated ambient bext from individual chemical components was only 1 ± 10% lower, on an annual basis, than that estimated from using f(RH). Secondary inorganic aerosols, coal combustion, biomass burning, iron and steel industry, Mo-related industry, soil dust, and CM to bext were estimated to account for 41 ± 19%, 18 ± 12%, 14 ± 13%, 13 ± 11%, 5 ± 4%, 5 ± 7% and 4 ± 3%, respectively, of the estimated ambient bext.

Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Cao, Junji; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Xia, Xiangao; Zhang, Zhisheng; Lin, Zejian; Cheng, Tiantao; Zhang, Renjian

2014-10-01

275

Two-stage chemical fractionation method for the analysis of elements and non-volatile inorganic ions in PM10 samples: Application to ambient samples collected in Rome (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-stage micro-analytical scheme for the determination of metals and ions in atmospheric particulate matter collected on only one Teflon filter was developed. In the first stage the collected particles are chemically fractionated for their solubility in a pH-buffered extracting solution; in the second stage the residue is mineralised. The major non-volatile inorganic ions (Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, Ca 2+, Mg 2+) are determined in the first fraction by ion-chromatography (IC), while metals and metalloids (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Ti, V, Zn) are determined in both the acetate extractable and the mineralised residual fractions by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The procedure was applied to ambient 24-h PM 10 samples collected on Teflon filters during two field campaigns carried out at two sites in the area of Rome (Italy). The variations in the chemical composition of the collected particles during the two periods were interpreted in the light of the dilution properties of the lower atmosphere and of the back-trajectories of the air masses. The difference in the results between the two locations was interpreted in the light of their proximity to the emission sources. It was found that the acetate extractable and the mineralised residual fraction of some metals exhibit a different temporal pattern, suggesting the existence of different emission sources of the two fractions.

Canepari, Silvia; Cardarelli, Enrico; Perrino, Cinzia; Catrambone, Maria; Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Strincone, Marco

276

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOEpatents

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

1999-01-01

277

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOEpatents

A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

1999-08-03

278

Physicochemical and Toxicological Characteristics of Semi-volatile Components of Atmospheric Aerosols in an Urban Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent toxicological studies have confirmed the oxidative properties of atmospheric aerosols and their capability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems (Chen and Lippmann, 2009). While the links between aerosol toxicity and refractory transition metals present in ambient particulate matter (PM) have been documented, there are limited studies investigating the oxidative characteristics of semi-volatile species. The goal of present study is to examine the contribution of semi-volatile compounds in the oxidative potential of atmospheric aerosols. Concentrated ambient and thermodenuded quasi-ultrafine particles (<180 nm) were collected using the versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) at an urban site near downtown Los Angeles. A thermodenuder (TD) was used to selectively remove the semi-volatile components of these aerosols over the temperature range of 50-200 oC. The oxidative potential of PM was measured by means of the DTT (dithiothreitol) assay. Detailed chemical analyses of PM samples, including organic and elemental carbon, water soluble elements, inorganic ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were conducted to quantify the volatility profiles of different PM species, and also to investigate their effect on the measured oxidative potential. Refractory constituents, such as metals and elemental carbon, were marginally affected by heating, while labile species such as organic carbon and PAHs showed progressive loss in concentration with increase in TD temperature. The DTT-measured oxidative potential of PM was significantly decreased as the aerosols were heated and their semi-volatile components were progressively removed (42 %, 47 % and 66 % decrease in DTT activity at 50, 100 and 200 oC, respectively). Regression analysis performed between chemical constituents and DTT activity showed that the oxidative potential was strongly correlated with organic carbon and PAHs (R?0.80; p?0.05). Thus, semi-volatile organic compounds present in atmospheric aerosols constitute a substantial fraction of the PM oxidative potential, which is largely responsible for the aerosol toxicity. References: Chen, L.C., Lippmann, M., 2009. Effects of metals within ambient air particulate matter (PM) on human health. Inhalation Toxicology 21 (1), 1-31.

Verma, V.; Pakbin, P.; Cheung, K. L.; Cho, A. K.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Kleinman, M. T.; Sioutas, C.

2010-12-01

279

Behavioral-physiological effects of red phosphorous smoke inhalation on two wildlife species. Task 1. Inhalation equipment development/ambient CO evaluation/aerosol distribution and air-quality study. Final report, March 1985-December 1986  

SciTech Connect

Tests to evaluate the spatial and temporal uniformity of red phosphorous - butyl rubber smoke produced in a commercial 1-CuM inhalation chamber are described. Several modifications to the inhalation exposure system aimed at improving air filtration, relative humidity, and temperature control for the conduct of animal studies are also presented. Smoke generation involved the use of a system for the continuous generation of phosphoric acid aerosols. Assessments of spatial and temporal uniformity of smoke were based upon measurements of aerosol mass concentration (gravimetric analysis), phosphoric acid deposition (titration analysis), aerosol opacity (infrared sensor), and particle size (cascade impactor); assessments of air quality and combustion products within the chamber involved checks for oxygen, carbon dioxide, phosphine, hexane, and carbon monoxide using either gas chromatography or industrial-hygiene-analyzer tubes. Results for aerosol mass, phosphoric acid, and particle size showed that the within-chamber smoke was highly uniform among burns. Although a number of statistically significant effects were obtained, further inspection showed these to be limited to specific sampling locations and within a priori criteria established to define acceptable uniformity.

Sterner, R.T.; Shumake, S.A.; Johns, B.E.; Thompson, R.D.

1987-12-01

280

Biomass burning contribution to Beijing aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning, the largest global source of elemental carbon (EC) and primary organic carbon (OC), is strongly associated with many subjects of great scientific concern, such as secondary organic aerosol and brown carbon which exert important effects on the environment and on climate in particular. This study investigated the relationships between levoglucosan and other biomass burning tracers (i.e., water soluble potassium and mannosan) based on both ambient samples collected in Beijing and source samples. Compared with North America and Europe, Beijing was characterized by high ambient levoglucosan concentrations and low winter to summer ratios of levoglucosan, indicating significant impact of biomass burning activities throughout the year in Beijing. Comparison of levoglucosan and water soluble potassium (K+) levels suggested that it was acceptable to use K+ as a biomass burning tracer during summer in Beijing, while the contribution of fireworks to K+ could be significant during winter. Moreover, the levoglucosan to K+ ratio was found to be lower during the typical summer period (0.21 ± 0.16) compared with the typical winter period (0.51 ± 0.15). Levoglucosan correlated strongly with mannosan (R2 = 0.97) throughout the winter and the levoglucosan to mannosan ratio averaged 9.49 ± 1.63, whereas levoglucosan and mannosan exhibited relatively weak correlation (R2 = 0.73) during the typical summer period when the levoglucosan to mannosan ratio averaged 12.65 ± 3.38. Results from positive matrix factorization (PMF) model analysis showed that about 50% of the OC and EC in Beijing were associated with biomass burning processes. In addition, a new source identification method was developed based on the comparison of the levoglucosan to K+ ratio and the levoglucosan to mannosan ratio among different types of biomass. Using this method, the major source of biomass burning aerosol in Beijing was suggested to be the combustion of crop residuals, while the contribution from softwood burning was also non-negligible, especially in winter.

Cheng, Y.; Engling, G.; He, K.-B.; Duan, F.-K.; Ma, Y.-L.; Du, Z.-Y.; Liu, J.-M.; Zheng, M.; Weber, R. J.

2013-08-01

281

Remote Sensing of Aerosol and Non-Aerosol Absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing of aerosol from the new satellite instruments (e.g. MODIS from Terra) and ground based radiometers (e.g. the AERONET) provides the opportunity to measure the absorption characteristics of the ambient undisturbed aerosol in the entire atmospheric column. For example Landsat and AERONET data are used to measure spectral absorption of sunlight by dust from West Africa. Both Application of the Landsat and AERONET data demonstrate that Saharan dust absorption of solar radiation is several times smaller than the current international standards. This is due to difficulties of measuring dust absorption in situ, and due to the often contamination of dust properties by the presence of air pollution or smoke. We use the remotely sensed aerosol absorption properties described by the spectral sin le scattering albedo, together with statistics of the monthly optical thickness for the fine and coarse aerosol derived from the MODIS data. The result is an estimate of the flux of solar radiation absorbed by the aerosol layer in different regions around the globe where aerosol is prevalent. If this aerosol forcing through absorption is not included in global circulation models, it may be interpreted as anomalous absorption in these regions. In a preliminary exercise we also use the absorption measurements by AERONET, to derive the non-aerosol absorption of the atmosphere in cloud free conditions. The results are obtained for the atmospheric windows: 0.44 microns, 0.66 microns, 0.86 microns and 1.05 microns. In all the locations over the land and ocean that were tested no anomalous absorption in these wavelengths, was found within absorption optical thickness of +/- 0.005.

Kaufman, Y. J.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B. N.; Remer, L. A.; Tanre, D.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

282

Organic functional groups in aerosol particles from burning and non-burning forest emissions at a high-elevation mountain site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient particles collected on teflon filters at the Peak of Whistler Mountain, British Columbia (2182 m a.s.l.) during spring and summer 2009 were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for organic functional groups (OFG). The project mean and standard deviation of organic aerosol mass concentrations (OM) for all samples was 3.2±3.3 (?g m-3). Measurements of aerosol mass fragments, size, and number concentrations were used to separate fossil-fuel combustion and burning and non-burning forest sources of the measured organic aerosol. The OM was composed of the same anthropogenic and non-burning forest components observed at Whistler mid-valley in the spring of 2008; during the 2009 campaign, biomass burning aerosol was additionally observed from fire episodes occurring between June and September. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, carboxylic acid, ketone, and primary amine groups represented 31 %±11 %, 34 %±9 %, 23 %±6 %, 6 %±7 %, and 6 %±3 % of OM, respectively. Ketones in aerosols were associated with burning and non-burning forest origins, and represented up to 27 % of the OM. The organic aerosol fraction resided almost entirely in the submicron fraction without significant diurnal variations. OM/OC mass ratios ranged mostly between 2.0 and 2.2 and O/C atomic ratios between 0.57 and 0.76, indicating that the organic aerosol reaching the site was highly aged and possibly formed through secondary formation processes.

Takahama, S.; Schwartz, R. E.; Russell, L. M.; MacDonald, A. M.; Sharma, S.; Leaitch, W. R.

2011-07-01

283

Elucidating the Chemical Complexity of Organic Aerosol Constituents Measured During the Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thousands of volatile organic compounds are uniquely created in the atmosphere, many of which undergo chemical transformations that result in more highly-oxidized and often lower vapor pressure species. These species can contribute to secondary organic aerosol, a complex mixture of organic compounds that is still not chemically well-resolved. Organic aerosol collected on filters taken during the Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) constitute hundreds of unique chemical compounds. Some of these include known anthropogenic and biogenic tracers characterized using standardized analytical techniques (e.g. GC-MS, UPLC, LC-MS), but the majority of the chemical diversity has yet to be explored. By employing analytical techniques involving sample derivatization and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with high-resolution-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-MS), we elucidate the chemical complexity of the organic aerosol matrix along the volatility and polarity grids. Further, by utilizing both electron impact (EI) and novel soft vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization mass spectrometry, a greater fraction of the organic mass is fully speciated. The GC x GC-HR-ToF-MS with EI/VUV technique efficiently provides an unprecedented level of speciation for complex ambient samples. We present an extensive chemical characterization and quantification of organic species that goes beyond typical atmospheric tracers in the SOAS samples. We further demonstrate that complex organic mixtures can be chemically deconvoluted by elucidation of chemical formulae, volatility, functionality, and polarity. These parameters provide insight into the sources (anthropogenic vs. biogenic), chemical processes (oxidation pathways), and environmental factors (temperature, humidity), controlling organic aerosol growth in the Southeastern United States.

Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Spielman, S. R.; Worton, D. R.; Zhang, H.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Wilson, K. R.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

2013-12-01

284

Diffusion classification of submicron aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-stack diffusion classifer has been designed, constructed, calibrated and field tested. The classifier utilizes a very fine-mesh stainless-steel wire screen for the actual aerosol classification. The in-stack unit uses five stages operated in parallel, each sampling at the same fixed flow rate, to provide five simultaneous size-classified aerosol samples. These samples are collected out on filter media for subsequent

D. A. Lundgren; C. N. Rangaraj

1982-01-01

285

Comparison of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosol samples collected in Xi'an, China during haze and clean periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PM10 aerosols from Xi'an, a mega city of China in winter and summer, 2009 were measured for secondary organic aerosols (SOA) (i.e., dicarboxylic acids (DCA), keto-carboxylic acids, and ?-dicarbonyls), water-soluble organic (WSOC) and inorganic carbon (WSIC), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Molecular compositions of SOA on haze and clean days in both seasons were compared to investigate their sources and formation mechanisms. DCA in the samples were 1843 ± 810 ng m-3 in winter and 1259 ± 781 ng m-3 in summer, respectively, which is similar and even higher than those measured in 2003. Oxalic acid (C2, 1162 ± 570 ng m-3 in winter and 1907 ± 707 ng m-3 in summer) is the predominant species of DCA, followed by t-phthalic (tPh) in winter and phthalic (Ph) in summer. Such a molecular composition is different from those in other Asian cities where succinic acid (C4) or malonic acid (C3) is the second highest species, which is mostly due to significant emissions from household combustion of coal and open burning of waste material in Xi'an. Mass ratios of C2/diacids, diacids/WSOC, WSOC/OC and individual diacid-C/WSOC are higher on the haze days than on the clean days in both seasons, suggesting an enhanced SOA production under the haze condition. We also found that the haze samples are acidic while the clean samples are almost neutral. Such a difference in particle acidity is consistent with the enhanced SOA production, because acid-catalysis is an important aqueous-phase formation pathway of SOA. Gly/mGly mass ratio showed higher values on haze days than on clean day in both seasons. We comprehensively investigated the ratio in literature and found a consistent pattern. Based on our observation results and those documented data we proposed for the first time that concentration ratio of Gly/mGly can be taken as an indicator of aerosol ageing.

Cheng, Chunlei; Wang, Gehui; Zhou, Bianhong; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Jianjun; Cao, Junji; Xiao, Shun

2013-12-01

286

Aerosol Optical Properties of Smoke from the Las Conchas Wildfire, Los Alamos, NM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Las Conchas wildfire in Northern New Mexico started on June, 26 2011 and spread rapidly, eventually burning an area of 634 km2 (245 mi2). Due to the close proximity to the fire, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was shut down and the town evacuated for several days. Immediately after LANL reopened (7/6/2011) the Earth and Environmental Sciences Division (EES-14) attained unique measurements of the smoke by sampling the ambient air. Three Integrated Photoacoustic/Nephelometer Spectrometers (DMT Inc.) were set up to measure aerosol light absorption and scattering coefficients. A University of Northwest Switzerland thermodenuder was used to remove compounds that are volatile at temperatures up to 200C. The aerosol's optical properties were measured before and after denuding the sample at 405nm (blue), 532nm (green), 781nm (red), and for non-denuded particles also at 375nm (ultraviolet). The aerosol size distributions were measured after the denuder with a Laser Aerosol Spectrometer (LAS, TSI Inc.) and black carbon was measured with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2, DMT Inc.). Additionally, ambient measurements of Total Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were collected continuously at the LANL air monitoring stations. These measurements are used in conjunction with numerical simulations to determine the bulk optical properties of the aerosol. Aerosols in wildfire smoke are composed of organic and black carbon (soot) particles that are formed during wood combustion and pyrolysis. The optical properties of the smoke particles are complex and lead to large uncertainties in assessing the global climate. During the measurement period, the Las Conchas fire provided very high particle concentrations (up to 200 ?g/m3) that were exploited to investigate their optical properties. By heating the particles to temperatures ranging from 75 to 200C in the denuder, volatile organics were removed and the optical properties of the remaining particles were measured. Denuding of the aerosols, removed the outer organic coatings leaving behind the inner core of black carbon (soot) and any compounds that did not volatize completely. By simultaneously measuring the optical properties of the non-denuded as well as the denuded aerosol, we can study how the coatings affect the optical properties. The absorption coefficient measurements showed that coatings can cause an increase or decrease in absorption. The photoacoustic measurements were also combined with SP2 measurements to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effect of composition on the mass light absorption cross-sections of carbonaceous aerosols emitted by fires.

Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Flowers, B. A.; Aiken, A. C.; Klein, B. Z.; Mazzoleni, C.; Sharma, N.; China`, S.

2011-12-01

287

Improving correlations between MODIS aerosol optical thickness and ground-based PM 2.5 observations through 3D spatial analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Space Research (CSR) continues to focus on developing methods to improve correlations between satellite-based aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values and ground-based, air pollution observations made at continuous ambient monitoring sites (CAMS) operated by the Texas commission on environmental quality (TCEQ). Strong correlations and improved understanding of the relationships between satellite and ground observations are needed to formulate reliable real-time predictions of air quality using data accessed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) at the CSR direct-broadcast ground station. In this paper, improvements in these correlations are demonstrated first as a result of the evolution in the MODIS retrieval algorithms. Further improvement is then shown using procedures that compensate for differences in horizontal spatial scales between the nominal 10-km MODIS AOT products and CAMS point measurements. Finally, airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) observations, collected during the Texas Air Quality Study of 2000, are used to examine aerosol profile concentrations, which may vary greatly between aerosol classes as a result of the sources, chemical composition, and meteorological conditions that govern transport processes. Further improvement in correlations is demonstrated with this limited dataset using insights into aerosol profile information inferred from the vertical motion vectors in a trajectory-based forecast model. Analyses are ongoing to verify these procedures on a variety of aerosol classes using data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (Calipso) lidar.

Hutchison, Keith D.; Faruqui, Shazia J.; Smith, Solar

288

Estimating Marine Aerosol Particle Volume and Number from Maritime Aerosol Network Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As well as spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol composition and concentration (number, volume, or mass) are of interest for a variety of applications. However, remote sensing of these quantities is more difficult than for AOD, as it is more sensitive to assumptions relating to aerosol composition. This study uses spectral AOD measured on Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) cruises, with the additional constraint of a microphysical model for unpolluted maritime aerosol based on analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) inversions, to estimate these quantities over open ocean. When the MAN data are subset to those likely to be comprised of maritime aerosol, number and volume concentrations obtained are physically reasonable. Attempts to estimate surface concentration from columnar abundance, however, are shown to be limited by uncertainties in vertical distribution. Columnar AOD at 550 nm and aerosol number for unpolluted maritime cases are also compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, for both the present Collection 5.1 and forthcoming Collection 6. MODIS provides a best-fitting retrieval solution, as well as the average for several different solutions, with different aerosol microphysical models. The average solution MODIS dataset agrees more closely with MAN than the best solution dataset. Terra tends to retrieve lower aerosol number than MAN, and Aqua higher, linked with differences in the aerosol models commonly chosen. Collection 6 AOD is likely to agree more closely with MAN over open ocean than Collection 5.1. In situations where spectral AOD is measured accurately, and aerosol microphysical properties are reasonably well-constrained, estimates of aerosol number and volume using MAN or similar data would provide for a greater variety of potential comparisons with aerosol properties derived from satellite or chemistry transport model data.

Sayer, A. M.; Smirnov, A.; Hsu, N. C.; Munchak, L. A.; Holben, B. N.

2012-01-01

289

Molecular composition of biogenic secondary organic aerosols using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry: comparing laboratory and field studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous laboratory experiments have been performed in an attempt to mimic atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. However, it is still unclear how close the aerosol particles generated in laboratory experiments resemble atmospheric SOA with respect to their detailed chemical composition. In this study, we generated SOA in a simulation chamber from the ozonolysis of ?-pinene and a biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) mixture containing ?- and ?-pinene, ?3-carene, and isoprene. The detailed molecular composition of laboratory-generated SOA was compared with that of background ambient aerosol collected at a boreal forest site (Hyytiälä, Finland) and an urban location (Cork, Ireland) using direct infusion nanoelectrospray ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Kendrick Mass Defect and Van Krevelen approaches were used to identify and compare compound classes and distributions of the detected species. The laboratory-generated SOA contained a distinguishable group of dimers that was not observed in the ambient samples. The presence of dimers was found to be less pronounced in the SOA from the VOC mixtures when compared to the one component precursor system. The elemental composition of the compounds identified in the monomeric region from the ozonolysis of both ?-pinene and VOC mixtures represented the ambient organic composition of particles collected at the boreal forest site reasonably well, with about 70% of common molecular formulae. In contrast, large differences were found between the laboratory-generated BVOC samples and the ambient urban sample. To our knowledge this is the first direct comparison of molecular composition of laboratory-generated SOA from BVOC mixtures and ambient samples.

Kourtchev, I.; Fuller, S. J.; Giorio, C.; Healy, R. M.; Wilson, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Wenger, J. C.; McLeod, M.; Aalto, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Maenhaut, W.; Jones, R.; Venables, D. S.; Sodeau, J. R.; Kulmala, M.; Kalberer, M.

2013-11-01

290

Chemical characteristics of size-resolved aerosols in winter in Beijing.  

PubMed

Size-resolved aerosols were continuously collected by a Nano Sampler for 13 days at an urban site in Beijing during winter 2012 to measure the chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles. Data collected by the Nano Sampler and an ACSM (Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor) were compared. Between the data sets, similar trends and strong correlations were observed, demonstrating the validity of the Nano Sampler. PM?? and PM?.? concentrations during the measurement were 150.5 ± 96.0 ?g/m³ (mean ± standard variation) and 106.9 ± 71.6 ?g/m³, respectively. The PM?.?/PM?? ratio was 0.70 ± 0.10, indicating that PM?.? dominated PM??. The aerosol size distributions showed that three size bins of 0.5-1, 1-2.5 and 2.5-10 ?m contributed 21.8%, 23.3% and 26.0% to the total mass concentration (TMC), respectively. OM (organic matter) and SIA (secondary ionic aerosol, mainly SO?(2-), NO?(-) and NH?(+)) were major components of PM?.?. Secondary compounds (SIA and secondary organic carbon) accounted for half of TMC (about 49.8%) in PM?.?, and suggested that secondary aerosols significantly contributed to the serious particulate matter pollution observed in winter. Coal burning, biomass combustion, vehicle emissions and SIA were found to be the main sources of PM?.?. Mass concentrations of water-soluble ions and undetected materials, as well as their fractions in TMC, strikingly increased with deteriorating particle pollution conditions, while OM and EC (elemental carbon) exhibited different variations, with mass concentrations slightly increasing but fractions in TMC decreasing. PMID:25108720

Sun, Kang; Qu, Yu; Wu, Qiong; Han, Tingting; Gu, Jianwei; Zhao, Jingjing; Sun, Yele; Jiang, Qi; Gao, Ziqi; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Lu, Keding; Nordmann, Stephan; Cheng, Yafang; Hou, Li; Ge, Hui; Furuuchi, Masami; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Liu, Xingang

2014-08-01

291

Aerosol analysis for the Regional Air Pollution Study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in May 1975 and continuing through April 1977, a total of 35,000 individual ambient aerosol samples were collected at ten selected sampling sites in St. Louis, as part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS). The samples consisted of membrane filters on which the coarse and fine particulate fractions were collected separately using automatic dichotomous air samplers. The samples were returned to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for analysis following collection at the field sites. Mass concentrations were determined by a beta-particle attenuation method. This required measurement of tare weights for each individual filter before being sent to the field sites and subsequent measurement on their return. Elemental analysis of the particulate samples was performed for 27 elements using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Optimal sensitivities were obtained using pulsed excitation, and automated data handling was employed to facilitate the 35,000 data sets. This report discusses in detail the procedures used in the aerosol sampling and analysis, and in data processing and validation.

Jaklevic, J.M.; Gatti, R.C.; Goulding, F.S.; Loo, B.W.; Thompson, A.C.

1981-02-01

292

Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses implicating manmade fluorocarbons as cause of the --'ozone hole'; (5) The current soot loading is too small to be of environmental (radiative and chemical) consequence. However, the fractal nature of soot distinguishes it aerodynamically and radiatively from sulfuric acid droplets such that its stratospheric residence time is longer, mainly because of vertical transport against gravity due to gravito-photophoretic forces. Thus it may accumulate and become of environmental concern in the future.

Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

293

Dry Deposition of Fine Aerosol Nitrogen to an Agricultural Field Measured by Eddy-Correlation Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In urban areas high emissions of reactive nitrogen species cause an increase in atmospheric aerosol nitrogen formation and deposition. This nitrogen is eventually removed from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition, with dry deposition often accounting for more than half of the total deposition of particulate nitrate (Lovett, 1994). Total N deposition is not adequately characterized, in part because dry deposition is difficult to measure or model. For example measured fine particle deposition to a forest canopy differs from predicted values by an order of magnitude (Gallagher et al., 1997). The eddy-correlation technique is a micrometeorological method used to directly measure fluxes from measurements made above the surface (Wesely and Hicks, 2000). Eddy-correlation mass spectrometry (ECMS) has been developed to directly measure aerosol particle deposition velocities from fast response aerosol concentration and wind velocity measurements. Using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) (Jayne et al., 2000), the size and composition of ambient aerosols is measured at a high frequency. The AMS signal is proportional to non-refractory PM1.0 mass. Aerosol deposition fluxes for a given averaging period are then calculated directly as the covariance of the vertical wind velocity with the AMS signal (F = -/line{w'S'}). A field study was conducted to measure aerosol nitrogen dry deposition to an agricultural field immediately downwind of the Phoenix metropolitan area using eddy-correlation mass spectrometry. The study was supplemented with aerosol composition measurements including bulk deposition collectors and filter bank samplers. Bulk deposition samples and 24-hour filter samples were analyzed for ammonia and nitrogen. Here we compare the results of the flux estimates from bulk collection with inferential measurements (filter samples and modeled deposition velocities) and direct micrometeorological measurements (ECMS) in order to improve N deposition estimates.

Gonzales, D. A.; Allen, J. O.; Smith, K. A.; Hope, D.

2004-12-01

294

Dry Deposition of Fine Aerosol Nitrogen to an Agricultural Field Measured by Eddy-Correlation Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In urban areas high emissions of reactive nitrogen species cause an increase in atmospheric aerosol nitrogen formation and deposition. This nitrogen is eventually removed from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition, with dry deposition often accounting for more than half of the total deposition of particulate nitrate. Total N deposition is not adequately characterized, in part because dry deposition is difficult to measure or model. For example measured fine particle deposition to a forest canopy differs from predicted values by an order of magnitude. The eddy-correlation technique is a micrometeorological method used to directly measure fluxes from measurements made above the surface. Eddy-correlation mass spectrometry (ECMS) has been developed to directly measure aerosol particle deposition velocities from fast response aerosol concentration and wind velocity measurements. Using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), the size and composition of ambient aerosols were measured at 10~Hz. The AMS signal is proportional to non-refractory PM1.0 mass. Aerosol deposition fluxes for a given averaging period are then calculated directly as the covariance of the vertical wind velocity with the AMS signal (F = -\\overline{w'S'}). A field study was conducted to measure aerosol nitrogen dry deposition to an agricultural field immediately downwind of the Phoenix metropolitan area using eddy-correlation mass spectrometry. The study was supplemented with aerosol composition measurements including bulk deposition collectors and filter bank samplers. Here we compare the results of the flux estimates from bulk collection with inferential measurements (filter samples and modeled deposition velocities) and direct micrometeorological measurements (ECMS) in order to improve nitrogen deposition estimates.

Gonzales, D. A.; Allen, J. O.

2005-12-01

295

GENERATION, TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF TUNGSTEN-OXIDE AEROSOLS AT 1000 C IN FLOWING AIR-STEAM MIXTURES.  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to measure the rates of oxidation and vaporization of pure tungsten rods in flowing air, steam and air-steam mixtures in laminar flow. Also measured were the downstream transport of tungsten-oxide condensation aerosols and their region of deposition, including plateout in the superheated flow tube, rainout in the condenser and ambient discharge which was collected on an array of sub-micron aerosol filters. The nominal conditions of the tests, with the exception of the first two tests, were tungsten temperatures of 1000 C, gas mixture temperatures of 200 C and wall temperatures of 150 C to 200 C. It was observed that the tungsten oxidation rates were greatest in all air and least in all steam, generally decreasing non-linearly with increasing steam mole fraction. The tungsten oxidation rates in all air were more than five times greater than the tungsten oxidation rates in all steam. The tungsten vaporization rate was zero in all air and increased with increasing steam mole fraction. The vaporization rate became maximum at a steam mole fraction of 0.85 and decreased thereafter as the steam mole fraction was increased to unity. The tungsten-oxide was transported downstream as condensation aerosols, initially flowing upwards from the tungsten rod through an 18-inch long, one-inch diameter quartz tube, around a 3.5-inch radius, 90{sup o} bend and laterally through a 24-inch horizontal run. The entire length of the quartz glass flow path was heated by electrical resistance clamshell heaters whose temperatures were individually controlled and measured. The tungsten-oxide plateout in the quartz tube was collected, nearly all of which was deposited at the end of the heated zone near the entrance to the condenser which was cold. The tungsten-oxide which rained out in the condenser as the steam condensed was collected with the condensate and weighed after being dried. The aerosol smoke which escaped the condenser was collected on the sub-micron filter assemblies. There was no aerosol generation for the case of all air, so the plateout, condensate and smoke were all zero. For the case of all steam, there was very little plateout in the superheated regions (several percent) and the rest of the aerosol was collected in the condensate from the condenser. There was no smoke discharge into the filters. For the experiments with intermediate air-steam fractions, there was some aerosol plateout, considerable aerosol in the condensate and aerosol smoke discharged from the condenser with the escaping air.

GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

2001-10-01

296

Selected water-soluble organic compounds found in size-resolved aerosols collected from urban, mountain and marine atmospheres over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary (i.e. sugars and sugar-alcohols) and secondary (i.e. carboxylic acids) water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) in size-segregated aerosols from the urban and mountain atmosphere of China and from the marine atmosphere in the outflow region of East Asia were characterized on a molecular level. Levoglucosan is the most abundant compound among the quantified WSOCs in the urban and mountain atmosphere, whose concentration at the urban site was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that at the mountain and marine sites. In contrast, malic, succinic and phthalic acids were dominant among the measured WSOCs at the marine site. In the urban air, sugars except levoglucosan gave a bimodal size distribution with a large peak in fine range (<2.1 ?m) and a small peak in coarse range (?2.1 ?m) during winter, being opposite to those in spring. In contrast, these WSOCs at the mountain and marine sites dominated in the coarse range but diminished and even disappeared in the fine range. Geometric mean diameters (GMDs) of the measured WSOCs in the fine mode at the urban site were larger in winter than in spring. Levoglucosan and carboxylic acids except for azelaic and benzoic acids showed a larger GMD in the coarse mode at the marine site probably due to an increased hygroscopic growth.

Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng

2011-07-01

297

Emission Rates of PM Constituents from Highly Time-Resolved Ambient Concentration Measurements: A New Paradigm in Air Pollution Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly-time resolved metals measurements were made in the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment and at four other urban locations using the University of Maryland Semicontinuous Elements in Aerosol Sampler. Aerosol slurry samples were collected at 30-minute intervals, i.e., at periods short relative to changes in wind direction, and analyzed off-line by mutli-element graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for up to 12 elements useful as markers of primary particle emissions of high-temperature combustion sources. At this resolution, the plumes of individual sources, including coal- and oil-fired power plants, and a battery recycling plant, were readily observed as excursions in time series profiles of the concentrations of the various marker elements. Over the scale of 40 km, wind and source angles are nearly identical when the former are relatively constant during the time required for plume transport. Herein, ambient data collected at the Sydney site were combined with available stack emission measurements of SO2, along with meteorological data in a pseudo deterministic least squares model in which ambient concentrations are reconclied with the products of emission rates and dispersion factors for known sources. The model encompasses horrizontal and vertical gaussian dispersion terms as constraints and is used to estimate estimate emission rates of the various species from the known sources. Ambient ground-level measurements made in the vicinity of the Sydney site will be presented along with some the model estimates of emission rates from various sources.

Ondov, J.; Pancras, P.; Park, S. S.; Poor, N.

2003-12-01

298

Source apportionment of the summer time carbonaceous aerosol at Nordic rural background sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, natural and anthropogenic sources of particulate organic carbon (OCp) and elemental carbon (EC) have been quantified based on weekly filter samples of PM10 collected at four Nordic rural background sites (Birkenes (Norway), Hyytiälä (Finland) Vavihill (Sweden), Lille Valby (Denmark)) during late summer (5 August-2 September 2009). Levels of source specific tracers, i.e. cellulose, levoglucosan, mannitol and the 14C/12C ratio of total carbon (TC), have been used as input for source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol, whereas Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) was used to statistically treat the multitude of possible combinations resulting from this approach. The carbonaceous aerosol (here: TCp; i.e. particulate TC) was totally dominated by natural sources (69-86 %), with biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) being the single most important source (48-57 %). Interestingly, primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) were the second most important source (20-32 %). The anthropogenic contribution was mainly attributed to fossil fuel sources (OCff and ECff (10-24 %), whereas no more than 3-7 % was explained by combustion of biomass (OCbb and ECbb in this late summer campaign i.e. emissions from residential wood burning and/or wild/agricultural fires. Fossil fuel sources totally dominated the ambient EC loading, accounting for 4-12 % of TCp, whereas <1.5 % was attributed to combustion of biomass. The carbonaceous aerosol source apportionment showed only minor variation between the four selected sites. However, Hyytiälä and Birkenes showed greater resemblance to each other, as did Lille Valby and Vavihill, the two latter being somewhat more influenced by anthropogenic sources. Ambient levels of organosulphates and nitrooxy-organosulphates in the Nordic rural background environment are reported for the first time in the present study. The most abundant organosulphate compounds were an organosulphate of isoprene and nitrooxy-organosulphates of ?- and ?-pinene and limonene.

Yttri, K. E.; Simpson, D.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Kristensen, K.; Genberg, J.; Stenström, K.; Swietlicki, E.; Hillamo, R.; Aurela, M.; Bauer, H.; Offenberg, J. H.; Jaoui, M.; Dye, C.; Eckhardt, S.; Burkhart, J. F.; Stohl, A.; Glasius, M.

2011-06-01

299

Source apportionment of the summer time carbonaceous aerosol at Nordic rural background sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, natural and anthropogenic sources of particulate organic carbon (OCp) and elemental carbon (EC) have been quantified based on weekly filter samples of PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter <10 ?m) collected at four Nordic rural background sites [Birkenes (Norway), Hyytiälä (Finland), Vavihill (Sweden), Lille Valby, (Denmark)] during late summer (5 August-2 September 2009). Levels of source specific tracers, i.e. cellulose, levoglucosan, mannitol and the 14C/12C ratio of total carbon (TC), have been used as input for source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol, whereas Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) was used to statistically treat the multitude of possible combinations resulting from this approach. The carbonaceous aerosol (here: TCp; i.e. particulate TC) was totally dominated by natural sources (69-86%), with biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) being the single most important source (48-57%). Interestingly, primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) were the second most important source (20-32%). The anthropogenic contribution was mainly attributed to fossil fuel sources (OCff and ECff) (10-24%), whereas no more than 3-7% was explained by combustion of biomass (OCbb and ECbb) in this late summer campaign i.e. emissions from residential wood burning and/or wild/agricultural fires. Fossil fuel sources totally dominated the ambient EC loading, which accounted for 4-12% of TCp, whereas <1.5% of EC was attributed to combustion of biomass. The carbonaceous aerosol source apportionment showed only minor variation between the four selected sites. However, Hyytiälä and Birkenes showed greater resemblance to each other, as did Lille Valby and Vavihill, the two latter being somewhat more influenced by anthropogenic sources. Ambient levels of organosulphates and nitrooxy-organosulphates in the Nordic rural background environment are reported for the first time in the present study. The most abundant organosulphate compounds were an organosulphate of isoprene and nitrooxy-organosulphates of ?- and ?-pinene and limonene.

Yttri, K. E.; Simpson, D.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Kristensen, K.; Genberg, J.; Stenström, K.; Swietlicki, E.; Hillamo, R.; Aurela, M.; Bauer, H.; Offenberg, J. H.; Jaoui, M.; Dye, C.; Eckhardt, S.; Burkhart, J. F.; Stohl, A.; Glasius, M.

2011-12-01

300

Chemical Characterization of Water Soluble Organic Aerosol during SOAS Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) have important impacts on climate, visibility, and human health. Atmospheric aqueous-phase chemistry is a substantial source of SOA, but this process is poorly understood. During Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), various properties of water-soluble organic aerosols were investigated by a novel system. In this system, a Particle-Into-Liquid-Sampler (PILS), High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), Cloud Condensation Nuclei Spectrometer (CCN), and Thermal Denuder were coupled to continuously measure the chemical composition, CCN properties, and volatilities of water-soluble organic aerosols. This presentation will focus on chemical composition of water-soluble organic aerosol measured by the HR-ToF-AMS. During the six week campaign, HR-ToF-AMS was set up to automatically switch sample flow between ambient or PILS-nebulizer sample line every 30min. Our measurements show that the majority of organic aerosols were water soluble. The mass spectra of water-soluble organic aerosol had a more prominent peak at m/z 29 (CHO+), which is a characteristic peak associated with glyoxal SOA formed in chamber experiments. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on water-soluble organic aerosol data and in addition to the oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA), it also resolved a factor with a distinctive peak at m/z 29, which may be a factor indicative of aqueous-phase glyoxal SOA. Further, elemental analyses are being carried out to determine the oxygen/ carbon (O/C) and hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratios of water-soluble organic aerosols, which are indications of the degree of oxidation of aerosols. Detailed comparisons between total organic aerosol and water-soluble organic aerosol will be discussed to reveal the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on SOA formation.

Xu, L.; Guo, H.; King, L.; Cerully, K. M.; Bougiatioti, A.; Nenes, A.; Weber, R.; Ng, N.

2013-12-01

301

METHODS OF CALCULATINAG LUNG DELIVERY AND DEPOSITION OF AEROSOL PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Lung deposition of aerosol is measured by a variety of methods. Total lung deposition can be measured by monitoring inhaled and exhaled aerosols in situ by laser photometry or by collecting the aerosols on filters. The measurements can be performed accurately for stable monod...

302

Consistency of Global Modis Aerosol Optical Depths over Ocean on Terra and Aqua Ceres SSF Datasets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerosol retrievals over ocean from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua platforms are available from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets generated at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two aerosol products are reported side-by-side. The primary M product is generated by sub-setting and remapping the multi-spectral (0.47-2.1 micrometer) MODIS produced oceanic aerosol (MOD04/MYD04 for Terra/Aqua) onto CERES footprints. M*D04 processing uses cloud screening and aerosol algorithms developed by the MODIS science team. The secondary AVHRR-like A product is generated in only two MODIS bands 1 and 6 (on Aqua, bands 1 and 7). The A processing uses the CERES cloud screening algorithm, and NOAA/NESDIS glint identification, and single-channel aerosol retrieval algorithms. The M and A products have been documented elsewhere and preliminarily compared using 2 weeks of global Terra CERES SSF Edition 1A data in which the M product was based on MOD04 collection 3. In this study, the comparisons between the M and A aerosol optical depths (AOD) in MODIS band 1 (0.64 micrometers), tau(sub 1M) and tau(sub 1A) are re-examined using 9 days of global CERES SSF Terra Edition 2A and Aqua Edition 1B data from 13 - 21 October 2002, and extended to include cross-platform comparisons. The M and A products on the new CERES SSF release are generated using the same aerosol algorithms as before, but with different preprocessing and sampling procedures, lending themselves to a simple sensitivity check to non-aerosol factors. Both tau(sub 1M) and tau(sub 1A) generally compare well across platforms. However, the M product shows some differences, which increase with ambient cloud amount and towards the solar side of the orbit. Three types of comparisons conducted in this study - cross-platform, cross-product, and cross-release confirm the previously made observation that the major area for improvement in the current aerosol processing lies in a more formalized and standardized sampling (and most importantly, cloud screening) whereas optimization of the aerosol algorithm is deemed to be an important yet less critical element.

Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Miller, Walter F.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Remer, Lorraine

2006-01-01

303

Equilibrium size of atmospheric aerosol sulfates as a function of the relative humidity  

SciTech Connect

Size-fractionated acid aerosols were collected, using a microorifice cascade impactor, during the summer of 1986 in Dunnville, Ontario, as part of the Canadian Children Acute Respiratory Effects Study (CARES), sponsored by the Department of National Health and Welfare, Canada. Sulfate and hydrogen ions showed similar size distributions. The molar ratio of H/sup +//SO/sub 4//sup 2//minus/ varied little with particle size, but there was a considerable time-dependent variation in aerosol acid content. It was also found that there is a distinct relationship between the geometric mean aerodynamic diameter of sulfate, /ital d//sub a/, and ambient relative humidity (RH). Atmospheric sulfate particle sizes observed in this study were slightly higher than those found in laboratory experiments at corresponding humidities. However, considering the uncertainties involved, the agreement between the field and laboratory data was remarkable. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

Koutrakis, P.; Wolfson, J. M.; Spengler, J. D.; Stern, B.; Franklin, C. A.

1989-05-20

304

Equilibrium size of atmospheric aerosol sulfates as a function of the relative humidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size-fractionated acid aerosols were collected, using a microorifice cascade impactor, during the summer of 1986 in Dunnville, Ontario, as part of the Canadian Children Acute Respiratory Effects Study (CARES), sponsored by the Department of National Health and Welfare, Canada. Sulfate and hydrogen ions showed similar size distributions. The molar ratio of H+/SO42- varied little with particle size, but there was a considerable time-dependent variation in aerosol acid content. It was also found that there is a distinct relationship between the geometric mean aerodynamic diameter of sulfate, da, and ambient relative humidity (RH). Atmospheric sulfate particle sizes observed in this study were slightly higher than those found in laboratory experiments at corresponding humidities. However, considering the uncertainties involved, the agreement between the field and laboratory data was remarkable.

Koutrakis, Petros; Wolfson, Jack M.; Spengler, John D.; Stern, Bonnie; Franklin, Claire A.

1989-05-01

305

AERODYNAMIC CLASSIFICATION OF FIBERS WITH AEROSOL CENTRIFUGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The constituent particles of many ambient and workplace aerosols of health effects concerns are of fibrous and aggregate geometric shapes. he sites of deposition in the human respiratory system are primarily related to the mass median aerodynamic diameters of inhaled particle siz...

306

Phase transformation and growth of hygroscopic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient aerosols play an important role in many atmospheric processes affecting air quality, visibility degradation, and climatic changes as well. Both natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the formation of ambient aerosols, which are composed mostly of sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides in either pure or mixed forms. These inorganic salt aerosols are hygroscopic by nature and exhibit the properties of deliquescence and efflorescence in humid air. For pure inorganic salt particles with diameter larger than 0.1 micron, the phase transformation from a solid particle to a saline droplet occurs only when the relative humidity in the surrounding atmosphere reaches a certain critical level corresponding to the water activity of the saturated solution. The droplet size or mass in equilibrium with relative humidity can be calculated in a straightforward manner from thermodynamic considerations. For aqueous droplets 0.1 micron or smaller, the surface curvature effect on vapor pressure becomes important and the Kelvin equation must be used.

Tang, I.N.

1999-11-01

307

Molecular composition of biogenic secondary organic aerosols using ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry: comparing laboratory and field studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous laboratory experiments have been performed in an attempt to mimic atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. However, it is still unclear how close the aerosol particles generated in laboratory experiments resemble atmospheric SOA with respect to their detailed chemical composition. In this study, we generated SOA in a simulation chamber from the ozonolysis of ?-pinene and a biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) mixture containing ?- and ?-pinene, ?3-carene, and isoprene. The detailed molecular composition of laboratory-generated SOA was compared with that of background ambient aerosol collected at a boreal forest site (Hyytiälä, Finland) and an urban location (Cork, Ireland) using direct infusion nanoelectrospray ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. Kendrick mass defect and van Krevelen approaches were used to identify and compare compound classes and distributions of the detected species. The laboratory-generated SOA contained a distinguishable group of dimers that was not observed in the ambient samples. The presence of dimers was found to be less pronounced in the SOA from the BVOC mixtures when compared to the one component precursor system. The molecular composition of SOA from both the BVOC mixture and ?-pinene represented the overall composition of the ambient sample from the boreal forest site reasonably well, with 72.3 ± 2.5% (n = 3) and 69.1 ± 3.0% (n = 3) common ions, respectively. In contrast, large differences were found between the laboratory-generated BVOC samples and the ambient urban sample. To our knowledge this is the first direct comparison of molecular composition of laboratory-generated SOA from BVOC mixtures and ambient samples.

Kourtchev, I.; Fuller, S. J.; Giorio, C.; Healy, R. M.; Wilson, E.; O'Connor, I.; Wenger, J. C.; McLeod, M.; Aalto, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Maenhaut, W.; Jones, R.; Venables, D. S.; Sodeau, J. R.; Kulmala, M.; Kalberer, M.

2014-02-01

308

Micro-scale (?g) radiocarbon analysis of water-soluble organic carbon in aerosol samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiocarbon (14C) measurement of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in ambient aerosols is a quantitative tool for unambiguously distinguishing fossil and non-fossil sources. In this study, a fast and reliable method for measuring 14C in micro-scale (?g) WSOC aerosol samples is successfully developed, which includes three steps: (1) extraction (2) freeze drying, and (3) online 14C analysis of CO2 from WSOC combustion. Procedure blanks are carefully assessed by measuring high-purity water and reference materials. Accurate 14C results could be obtained for WSOC with only 10 ?g C, and thus the potential applications are substantially broadened because much less filter material is needed compared to previous reported methods. This method is applied to aerosols samples collected during winter from Switzerland and China. The results demonstrate that non-fossil sources are important if not dominant contributors of WSOC. These non-fossil components are consistently enriched in WSOC compared to bulk OC and water-insoluble OC for all samples, due to high water solubility of primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols. However, the presence of fossil WSOC is still considerable indicating a substantial contribution of secondary OC (SOC) formed from precursors emitted by fossil emissions. Larger fossil contributions to WSOC is found in China than in Switzerland and previously reported values in Europe, USA and South Asia, which may be attributed to higher fossil-derived SOC formation in China.

Zhang, Yan-lin; Liu, Jun-wen; Salazar, Gary A.; Li, Jun; Zotter, Peter; Zhang, Gan; Shen, Rong-rong; Schäfer, Klaus; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Prévôt, André S. H.; Szidat, Sönke

2014-11-01

309

COMPOSITION OF AEROSOLS OVER LOS ANGELES FREEWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

In October of 1976, aerosol particulate samples were collected while driving on Los Angeles freeways and were analyzed for sulfate, nitrate, and elemental composition. The measurements indicate that neither nitrate nor sulfate concentrations increased significantly over the roadw...

310

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m/sup 3/ more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m/sup 3/ (approximately 27 micrograms/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m/sup 3/ for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ exceeded 50 micrograms/m/sup 3/.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.; Franklin, C.A.

1989-02-01

311

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H(+) ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/cu m more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H(+) determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr (H+) concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/cu m (approximately 27 microgram/cu m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/cu m for H(+) ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H(+) ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} exceeded 50 microgram/cu m.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.

1989-01-01

312

76 FR 15974 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...aerosols and contemporaneous analysis by means of a light-scattering technique for determination of particle size and mass concentration...Technologies, Inc. Model EDM 180 PM 2.5 Monitor,'' light scattering continuous ambient particulate monitor operated for 24...

2011-03-22

313

Standard aerosols for particle velocimeters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System consists of laser-scattering counter (LSC) and photographic system. Photographic system provides absolute method of measuring aerosol size-distribution independently of their light scattering properties. LSC comprises 1-mW He/Ne laser, input optics, collecting optics, photodetector, and signal-processing electronics.

Deepark, A.; Ozarski, R.; Thomson, J. A. L.

1976-01-01

314

7, 1268712714, 2007 Aerosols' influence  

E-print Network

and rain in warm cumulus cloud O. Altaratz 1 , I. Koren 1 , T. Reisin 2 , A. Kostinski 3 , G. Feingold 4 and precipitate less than clean clouds but produce larger rain5 drops. The evaporation process is more significant in the polluted cloud is due to a more efficient collection process. 1 Introduction10 The effect of aerosol

Boyer, Edmond

315

Aerosol Impacts on Microphysical and Radiative Properties of Stratocumulus Clouds in the Southeast Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeast Pacific Ocean is covered by the world's largest stratocumulus cloud layer, which has a strong impact on ocean temperatures and climate in the region. The effect of anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles was investigated during the VOCALS field experiment. Aerosol measurements below and above cloud were made with a ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer and analytical electron microscopy. In addition to more standard in-cloud measurements, cloud droplets were collected and evaporated using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI), and the non-volatile residual particles were analyzed. Many flights focused on the gradient in cloud properties along an E-W track from near the Chilean coast to remote areas offshore. Mean statistics from seven flights were compiled. Consistent with a continental source of cloud condensation nuclei, below-cloud accumulation-mode aerosol and droplet number concentration generally decreased from near shore to offshore. The effect extends ~800 to 1000 km from shore. The additional particles are mainly sulfates from anthropogenic sources. Liquid water content and drizzle concentration tended to increase with distance from shore, but exhibited much greater variability. Analysis of the droplet residual measurements showed that not only were there more residual nuclei near shore, but that they tended to be larger than those offshore. Single particle analysis over a broad particle size range was used to reveal types and sources of CCN, which were primarily sulfates near shore. Differences in the size distribution of droplet residual particles and ambient aerosol particles were observed due to the preferential activation of large aerosol particles. By progressively excluding small droplets from the CVI sample, we were able to show that the larger drops, which initiate drizzle, contain the largest aerosol particles. However, the scavenging efficiency is not sharp as expected from a simple parcel activation model. A wide range of particle sizes, down to at least 55 nm in size, act as droplet nuclei in these stratocumulus clouds. A detailed LES microphysical model was used to show this can occur without invoking differences in chemical composition. Aerosol number concentration in the >0.05 and >0.1 ?m size ranges was correlated with droplet number concentration, and anti-correlated with droplet effective radius, and the effect is statistically significant. The impact of aerosol pollutants was to increase droplet number and decrease droplet size within a region extending about 1000 km offshore. Cloud droplets were more numerous and smaller near shore, and there was less drizzle. However, MODIS satellite measurements were used to show that despite the smaller droplets near shore, cloud albedo is not higher near shore than offshore. This is due to the generally thinner clouds and lower liquid water path near shore.

Twohy, C. H.; Toohey, D. W.; Andrejczuk, M.; Anderson, J. R.; Adams, A.; Lytle, M.; George, R.; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Leon, D.

2011-12-01

316

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerosols, defined as particles and droplets suspended in air, are always present in the atmosphere. They are part of the earth-atmosphere climate system, because they interact with both incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial radiation. They do this directly through scattering and absorption, and indirectly through effects on clouds. Submicrometer aerosols usually predominate in terms of number of particles per unit volume of air. They have dimensions close to the wavelengths of visible light, and thus scatter radiation from the sun very effectively. They are produced in the atmosphere by chemical reactions of sulfur-, nitrogen- and carbon-containing gases of both natural and anthropogenic origins. Light absorption is dominated by particles containing elemental carbon (soot), produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and by biomass burning. Light-scattering dominates globally, although absorption can be significant at high latitudes, particularly over highly reflective snow- or ice-covered surfaces. Other aerosol substances that may be locally important are those from volcanic eruptions, wildfires and windblown dust.

Pueschel, R. F.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

317

Trace elements in aerosol particles from Bermuda and Barbados: Concentrations, sources and relationships to aerosol sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of selected trace elements and non-sea salt sulfate were determined for aerosol particle samples collected over the open North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Atmosphere\\/Ocean Chemistry Experiment (AEROCE). The concentrations of atmospheric sea salt and mineral aerosol, which together dominate the mass of particulate material in the atmosphere, were higher at Barbados than at Bermuda. In contrast,

R. Arimoto; R. A. Duce; D. L. Savoie; J. M. Prospero

1992-01-01

318

Large-scale aerosol source apportionment in Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol particles were collected aboard two Brazilian Bandeirante EMB 110 planes, and the University of Washington Convair C-131A aircraft during the Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) field project in the Amazon Basin in August and September 1995. Aerosols were collected on Nuclepore and Teflon filters. Aerosol size distribution was measured with a MOUDI cascade impactor. Sampling was performed mostly over

Paulo Artaxo; Eduardo T. Fernandes; José V. Martins; Márcia A. Yamasoe; Peter V. Hobbs; Willy Maenhaut; Karla M. Longo; Andrea Castanho

1998-01-01

319

Particle extinction measured at ambient conditions with differential optical absorption spectroscopy. 2. Closure study.  

PubMed

Spectral particle extinction coefficients of atmospheric aerosols were measured with, to the best of our knowledge, a newly designed differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument. A closure study was carried out on the basis of optical and microphysical aerosol properties obtained from nephelometer, particle soot/absorption photometer, hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer, twin differential mobility particle sizer, aerodynamic particle sizer, and Berner impactors. The data were collected at the urban site of Leipzig during a period of 10 days in March 2000. The performance test also includes a comparison of the optical properties measured with DOAS to particle optical properties calculated with a Mie-scattering code. The computations take into account dry and ambient particle conditions. Under dry particle conditions the linear regression and the correlation coefficient for particle extinction are 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. At ambient conditions these parameters are 0.89 and 0.97, respectively. An inversion algorithm was used to retrieve microphysical particle properties from the extinction coefficients measured with DOAS. We found excellent agreement within the retrieval uncertainties. PMID:16607998

Müller, Thomas; Müller, Detlef; Dubois, René

2006-04-01

320

Generation of a monodispersed aerosol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identity and laboratory test methods for the generation of a monodispersed aerosol are reported on, and are subjected to the following constraints and parameters; (1) size distribution; (2) specific gravity; (3) scattering properties; (4) costs; (5) production. The procedure called for the collection of information from the literature, commercial available products, and experts working in the field. The following topics were investigated: (1) aerosols; (2) air pollution -- analysis; (3) atomizers; (4) dispersion; (5) particles -- optics, size analysis; (6) smoke -- generators, density measurements; (7) sprays; (8) wind tunnels -- visualization.

Schenck, H.; Mikasa, M.; Devicariis, R.

1974-01-01

321

Ultrafine particles are not major carriers of carcinogenic PAHs and their genotoxicity in size-segregated aerosols.  

PubMed

Some studies suggest that genotoxic effects of combustion-related aerosols are induced by carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) and their derivatives, which are part of the organic fraction of the particulate matter (PM) in ambient air. The proportion of the organic fraction in PM is known to vary with particle size. The ultrafine fraction is hypothesized to be the most important carrier of c-PAHs, since it possesses the highest specific surface area of PM. To test this hypothesis, the distribution of c-PAHs in organic extracts (EOMs) was compared for four size fractions of ambient-air aerosols: coarse (1aerosol particles and ultrafine particles (dae<0.17). High-volume aerosol samples were collected consecutively in four localities that differed in the level of environmental pollution. The genotoxicity of EOMs was measured by analysis of DNA adducts induced in an a cellular assay consisting of calf thymus DNA with/without rat liver microsomal S9 fraction coupled with (32)P-postlabelling. The upper accumulation fraction was the major size fraction in all four localities, forming 37-46% of the total PM mass. Per m(3) of sampled air, this fraction also bound the largest amount of c-PAHs. Correspondingly, the upper accumulation fraction induced the highest DNA-adduct levels. Per PM mass itself, the lower accumulation fraction is seen to be the most efficient in binding DNA-reactive organic compounds. Interestingly, the results suggest that the fraction of ultrafine particles of various ambient-air samples is neither a major carrier of c-PAHs, nor a major inducer of their genotoxicity, which is an important finding that is relevant to the toxicity and health effects of ultrafine particles, which are so extensively discussed these days. PMID:23466560

Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Krouzek, Jiri; Hovorka, Jan

2013-06-14

322

Contribution of particulate water to the measured aerosol optical properties of aged aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of aged aerosol scattering in the Eastern Mediterranean at ambient and low relative humidity (RH) are combined with measurements of its size composition distribution and its aerosol water content to gain insights about its hygroscopic and optical properties. The particle water uptake above 60% RH can be explained by the water absorption by the inorganic particulate matter in this sulphate rich environment. However, the particles were supersaturated aqueous solutions at low RH and this water cannot be explained just by the water associated with their inorganic components in a metastable state. We estimate that approximately 20% of this water may be contributed by the aged organic particulate matter. A semi-empirical equation is derived allowing the estimation of the aged aerosol Volume Growth Factor (VGF) from the ratios of scattering at ambient and low RH. The predictions of the equation are in good agreement with the measurement dataset obtained during the study.

Pilinis, Christodoulos; Charalampidis, Panagiotis E.; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Pandis, Spyros N.

2014-01-01

323

PIXE Analysis of Indoor Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of aerosol samples collected in academic buildings at Union College to investigate the air quality in these buildings and the effectiveness of their air filtration systems. This is also the commissioning experiment for a new scattering chamber in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. The aerosol samples were collected on Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates particles according to their aerodynamic size. The foils were bombarded with beams of 2.2-MeV protons from the Union College 1.1-MV Pelletron Accelerator and the X-ray products were detected with an Amptek silicon drift detector. After subtracting the contribution from the Kapton foils, the X-ray energy spectra of the aerosol samples were analyzed using GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the samples. We will describe the collection of the aerosol samples, discuss the PIXE analysis, and present the results.

Johnson, Christopher; Turley, Colin; Moore, Robert; Battaglia, Maria; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

2011-10-01

324

Characterization of organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols at Four Asian locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organosulfates have recently been observed in ambient atmospheres as a component of aerosol organic matter. This study presents the first characterization of organosulfates in Asia and demonstrates their ubiquity and chemical diversity, yet minor contribution to fine particulate mass. Organosulfates were characterized in ambient aerosol by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry, which allowed for experimental determination of molecular formulas and estimation of atmospheric abundance. Aerosols were analyzed from four sites spanning urban and remote locations, including Hanimaadhoo, Maldives, Gosan, Korea, Singapore, and Lahore, Pakistan. Semi-quantitative analysis yielded average estimates of OS accounting for less than 1% of PM 2.5 mass, 2.3% of organic carbon, and 3.8% of total sulfate. The majority of the observed compounds were attributed to biogenic secondary organic aerosol from isoprene or monoterpenes. New organosulfates are also reported.

Stone, Elizabeth A.; Yang, Liming; Yu, Liya E.; Rupakheti, Maheswar

2012-02-01

325

Organic functional groups in aerosol particles from burning and non-burning forest emissions at a high-elevation mountain site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient particles collected on teflon filters at the Peak of Whistler Mountain, British Columbia (2182 m a.s.l.) during spring and summer 2009 were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for organic functional groups (OFG). The project mean and standard deviation of organic aerosol mass concentrations (OM) for all samples was 3.2±3.3 (?g m-3). The OM was dominated by regional forest sources, burning, and non-burning that occurred mostly during June-September. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, carboxylic acid, ketone, and amine, groups represented 31%±11%, 34%±9%, 23%±6%, 6%±7%, and 6%±3% of OM, respectively. Ketone groups were associated with the forest aerosols and represented up to 27% of the OM in these aerosols. Additional measurements of aerosol mass fragments, size, and number concentrations were used to separate fossil-fuel combustion and burning and non-burning forest sources of the measured organic aerosol. The OM concentrations observed at Whistler Peak during this campaign were higher than those measured during a shorter period in the spring of 2008 at a site in Whistler valley, over one km lower than the peak location. The 2009 campaign was largely influenced by the wildfire emissions that were absent during the 2008 campaign.

Takahama, S.; Schwartz, R. E.; Russell, L. M.; MacDonald, A. M.; Sharma, S.; Leaitch, W. R.

2011-01-01

326

A Computational Study of Acid Catalyzed Aerosol Reactions of Atmospherically Relevant Epoxides  

EPA Science Inventory

Epoxides are important intermediates of atmospheric isoprene oxidation. Their subsequent reactions in the particle phase lead to the production of organic compounds detected in ambient aerosols. We apply density functional theory to determine the important kinetic factors that ...

327

Atmospheric oxalic acid and related secondary organic aerosols in Qinghai Lake, a continental background site in Tibet Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summertime PM2.5 aerosols collected from Qinghai Lake (3200 m a.s.l.), a remote continental site in the northeastern part of Tibetan Plateau, were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11), ketocarboxylic acids and ?-dicarbonyals. Oxalic acid (C2) is the dominant dicarboxylic acid in the samples, followed by malonic, succinic and azelaic acids. Total dicarboxylic acids (231 ± 119 ng m-3), ketocarboxylic acids (8.4 ± 4.3 ng m-3), and ?-dicarbonyls (2.7 ± 2.1 ng m-3) at the Tibetan background site are 2-5 times less than those detected in lowland areas such as 14 Chinese megacities. Compared to those in other urban and marine areas enhancements in relative abundances of C2/total diacids and diacids-C/WSOC of the PM2.5 samples suggest that organic aerosols in the region are more oxidized due to strong solar radiation. Molecular compositions and air mass trajectories demonstrate that the above secondary organic aerosols in the Qinghai Lake atmosphere are largely derived from long-range transport. Ratios of oxalic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal to levoglucosan in PM2.5 aerosols emitted from household burning of yak dung, a major energy source for Tibetan in the region, are 30-400 times lower than those in the ambient air, which further indicates that primary emission from biomass burning is a negligible source of atmospheric oxalic acid and ?-dicarbonyls at this background site.

Meng, Jingjing; Wang, Gehui; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Cao, Junji

2013-11-01

328

Moments of ambient Doppler spectra  

SciTech Connect

The author studied the first four moments (center of mass, standard deviation, skew, and kurtosis) of the Doppler spectra in ambient regions of LLNL-Hughes real aperture radar data collected during WCSEX91--92. The goal was to correlate trends in the moments with wind velocity and direction. Although the center of mass appears to increase when the wind is blowing into the radar antenna, no other conclusions have been drawn from the higher order moments.

Lehman, S.K.

1993-03-23

329

Modes in the size distributions and neutralization extent of fog-processed ammonium salt aerosols observed at Canadian rural locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the 192 samples of size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions collected using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at eight rural locations in Canada, ten samples were identified to have gone through fog processing. The supermicron particle modes of ammonium salt aerosols were found to be the fingerprint of fog processed aerosols. However, the patterns and the sizes of the supermicron modes varied with ambient temperature (T) and particle acidity and also differed between inland and coastal locations. Under T > 0 °C condition, fog-processed ammonium salt aerosols were completely neutralized and had a dominant mode at 1-2 ?m and a minor mode at 5-10 ?m if particles were in neutral condition, and ammonium sulfate was incompletely neutralized and only had a 1-2 ?m mode if particles were in acidic conditions. Under T < 0 °C at the coastal site, fog-processed aerosols exhibited a bi-modal size distribution with a dominant mode of incompletely-neutralized ammonium sulfate at about 3 ?m and a minor mode of completely-neutralized ammonium sulfate at 8-9 ?m. Under T < 0 °C condition at the inland sites, fog-processed ammonium salt aerosols were sometimes completely neutralized and sometimes incompletely neutralized, and the size of the supermicron mode was in the range from 1 to 5 ?m. Overall, fog-processed ammonium salt aerosols under T < 0 °C condition were generally distributed at larger size (e.g., 2-5 ?m) than those under T > 0 °C condition (e.g., 1-2 ?m).

Yao, X. H.; Zhang, L.

2012-02-01

330

Daño ambiental t. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Para el Departamento de Derecho del Medio Ambiente, y en especial para el Grupo de Investigación en Derecho del Medio Ambiente de la Universidad Externado de Colombia, resulta satisfactorio poder presentar a la comunidad académica el segundo volumen de la colección Daño ambiental. Como se expuso en la presentación del primer volumen, el derecho de la responsabilidad civil está siendo

Autores varios

331

Evolved gas analysis of secondary organic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Secondary organic aerosols have been characterized by evolved gas analysis (EGA). Hydrocarbons selected as aerosol precursors were representative of anthropogenic emissions (cyclohexene, cyclopentene, 1-decene and 1-dodecene, n-dodecane, o-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) and of biogenic emissions (the terpenes [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-pinene and d-limonene and the sesquiterpene trans-caryophyllene). Also analyzed by EGA were samples of secondary, primary (highway tunnel), and ambient (urban) aerosols before and after exposure to ozone and other photochemical oxidants. The major features of the EGA thermograms (amount of CO[sub 2] evolved as a function of temperature) are described. The usefulness and limitations of EGA data for source apportionment of atmospheric particulate carbon are briefly discussed. 28 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Grosjean, D.; Williams, E.L. II; Grosjean, E. (DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States)); Novakov, T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1994-11-01

332

Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I measured after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. The removal time of 131I is longer due to the aerosol production from gaseous 131I, thus the removal time for 137Cs serves as a better estimate for aerosol lifetime. The removal time of 131I is of interest for semi-volatile species. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols obtained from aerosol models, typically in the range of 3-7 days, warrants further research on the cause of this discrepancy. Too short modeled AM aerosol lifetimes would have serious implications for air quality and climate model predictions.

Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

2012-11-01

333

The importance of aerosol water for air pollution effects on weather and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a new concept to study air pollution effects on weather and climate, which is based on thermodynamic principles that explain hydration and osmosis - including the required transformation of laboratory based concepts to atmospheric conditions. Under ambient conditions the equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) determines the saturation molality, solute and solvent activities (and activity coefficients), and the aerosol associated water mass, sine the water content is fixed by ERH for a given aerosol concentration and type. As a consequence, aerosol water drives the gas/liquid/solid aerosol partitioning, ambient aerosol size-distributions and directly links aerosol hygroscopic growth into fog, haze and clouds. Various modeling results indicate that a) our new concept is not limited to dilute binary solutions, b) sensitive aerosol properties such as the pH of binary and mixed inorganic/organic salt solutions up to saturation can be computed accurately, and c) that anthropogenic emissions can be directly linked to visibility reduction, cloud formation and climate forcing, if we explicitly account for the aerosol water mass. Our new concept is more explicit than the traditional CCN concept as it abandons the use of ambiguous terms such as "marine" and "continental" aerosols, and refines lumped categories such as mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, organic or sulfate aerosols currently used in atmospheric modeling. Despite, our concept is computationally very efficient as it allows solving the whole gas/liquid/solid aerosol partitioning analytically without numerical iterations. It is therefore especially suited for regional high resolution, or global climate applications.

Metzger, S.; Lelieveld, J.

2007-12-01

334

Formation and characterization of fission-product aerosols under postulated HTGR accident conditions  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the formation mechanism and physical characterization of simulated nuclear aerosols that could likely be released during an HTGR core heat-up accident. Experiments were carried out in a high-temperature flow system consisting essentially of an inductively heated release source, a vapor deposition tube, and a filter assembly for collecting particulate matter. Simulated fission products Sr and Ba as oxides are separately impregnated in H451 graphite wafers and released at elevated temperatures into a dry helium flow. In the presence of graphite, the oxides are quantitatively reduced to metals, which subsequently vaporize at temperatures much lower than required for the oxides alone to vaporize in the absence of graphite. A substantial fraction of the released material is associated with particulate matter, which is collected on filters located downstream at ambient temperature. The release and transport of simulated fission product Ag as metal are also investigated.

Tang, I.N.; Munkelwitz, H.R.

1982-07-01

335

Aerosols of Mongolian arid area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sampling was performed in July-August 2005-2010 at Station Sain Shand (44°54'N, 110°07'E) in the Gobi desert (1000 m a.s.l.), West Mongolia. Aerosol samples were collected with a high volume sampler PM 10 (Andersen Instruments Inc., USA) onto Whatman-41 filters. The substance was extracted from the filters by de-ionized water. The solution was screened through an acetate-cellulose filter with 0.2 micron pore size. Ions of ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, as well as sulphate ions, nitrate ions, hydrocarbonate, chloride ions were determined in the filtrate by means of an atomic adsorption spectrometer Carl Zeiss Jena (Germany), a high performance liquid chromatographer «Milichrome A-02» (Russia), and an ionic chromatographer ICS-3000 (Dionex, USA). The PAH fraction was separated from aerosol samples using hexane extraction at room temperature under UV environment. The extract was concentrated to 0.1-0.2 ml and analysed by a mass-spectrometer "Agilent, GC 6890, MSD 5973 Network". Analysis of concentrations of aerosols components, their correlation ratios, and meteorological modeling show that the main factor affecting chemical composition of aerosols is a flow of contaminants transferred by air masses to the sampling area mainly from the south and south-east, as well as wind conditions of the area, dust storms in particular. Sulphate, nitrate, and ammonium are major ions in aerosol particles at Station Sain Shand. Dust-borne aerosol is known to be a sorbent for both mineral and organic admixtures. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) being among superecotoxicants play an important role among resistant organic substances. PAH concentrations were determined in the samples collected in 2010. All aerosol samples contained dominant PAHs with 5-6 benzene rings ( (benze(k)fluoranthen, benze(b)flouranthen, benze(a)pyren, benze(?)pyren, perylene, benze(g,h,i)perylene, and indene(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene). Their total quantity varied between 42 and 90%. Compounds with low molecular weight and 3 benzene rings in its composition (phenanthrene and anthracene) amounted to 9-38% of the total PAH. PAH percentage in aerosol samples is characteristic of the warm season. Elevated fraction of low molecular weight PAHs (29-38%) was found in aerosol samples collected on 12-14 August and 18-19 August. High molecular weight PAHs were found in aerosols sampled on 14 and 16 August. Benze(g,h,i)perylene, indene(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, and di-benze(?,h)anthracene were found in aerosols on 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 19, and 20 August, and their fraction of total PAH amounted to 14-30%. These compounds are indicative of automotive emissions. Benze(a)pyrene is the most hazardous cancerogene from the list of the prioritized PAHs. Cases of exceeding benze(a)pyrene maximum permissible concentrations (1 ng/m3) in the air at Station Sain Shand were not recorded.

Golobokova, L.; Marinayte, I.; Zhamsueva, G.

2012-04-01

336

Organic Aerosol Formation in the Humid, Photochemically-Active Southeastern US: SOAS Experiments and Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere can lead to rapid transformation of organic compounds, forming highly oxidized low volatility organic aerosol and, in some cases, light absorbing (brown) carbon. Because liquid water is globally abundant, this chemistry could substantially impact climate, air quality, health, and the environment. Gas-phase precursors released from biogenic and anthropogenic sources are oxidized and fragmented forming water-soluble gases that can undergo reactions in the aqueous phase (in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols) leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOAAQ). Recent studies have highlighted the role of certain precursors like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, and epoxides in the formation of SOAAQ. The goal of this work is to identify other precursors that are atmospherically important. In this study, ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases were scrubbed from the atmosphere at Brent, Alabama during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Four mist chambers in parallel collected ambient gases in a DI water medium at 20-25 LPM with a 4 hr collection time. Total organic carbon (TOC) values in daily composited samples were 64-180 ?M. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments were conducted with these mixtures in a newly designed cuvette chamber to understand the formation of SOA through gas followed by aqueous chemistry. OH radicals (3.5E-2 ?M [OH] s-1) were formed in-situ in the chamber, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Precursors and products of these aqueous OH experiments were characterized using ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and IC-ESI-MS. ESI-MS results from a June 12th, 2013 sample showed precursors to be primarily odd, positive mode ions, indicative of the presence of non-nitrogen containing alcohols, aldehydes, organic peroxides, or epoxides. Products were seen in the negative mode and included organic acid ions like pyruvate and oxalate. The results from this study will be used to better understand aqueous chemistry in clouds/fogs and to identify precursors for laboratory study of wet aerosol, fog, and cloud chemistry.

Sareen, N.; Lim, Y. B.; Carlton, A. G.; Turpin, B. J.

2013-12-01

337

ASSESSMENT OF THE LIQUID WATER CONTENT OF SUMMERTIME AEROSOL IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration of aerosol liquid water mass represents an important parameter for understanding the physical properties of PM2.5 in the atmosphere. Increases in ambient relative humidity can increase aerosol liquid water and thus the composite particle mass and particle volu...

338

FRACTIONAL AEROSOL FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF IN-DUCT VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 µm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited util...

339

Simultaneous measurement of optical scattering and extinction on dispersed aerosol samples.  

PubMed

Accurate and precise measurements of light scattering and extinction by atmospheric particulate matter aid understanding of tropospheric photochemistry and are required for estimates of the direct climate effects of aerosols. In this work, we report on a second generation instrument to simultaneously measure light scattering (b(scat)) and extinction (b(ext)) coefficient by dispersed aerosols. The ratio of scattering to extinction is known as the single scatter albedo (SSA); thus, the instrument is referred to as the albedometer. Extinction is measured with the well-established cavity ring-down (CRD) technique, and the scattering coefficient is determined through collection of light scattered from the CRD beam. The improved instrument allows reduction in sample volume to <1% of the original design, and a reduction in response time by a factor of >30. Through using a commercially available condensation particle counter (CPC), we have measured scattering (?(scat)) and extinction (?(ext)) cross sections for size-selected ammonium sulfate and nigrosin aerosols. In most cases, the measured scattering and extinction cross section were within 1 standard deviation of the accepted values generated from Mie theory suggesting accurate measurements are made. While measurement standard deviations for b(ext) and b(scat) were generally <1 Mm(-1) when the measurement cell was sealed or purged with filtered air, relative standard deviations >0.1 for these variables were observed when the particle number density was low. It is inferred that statistical fluctuations of the absolute number of particles within the probe beam leads to this effect. However, measured relative precision in albedo is always superior to that which would be mathematically propagated assuming independent measurements of b(scat) and b(ext). Thus, this report characterizes the measurement precision achieved, evaluates the potential for systematic error to be introduced through light absorption by gases, presents comparisons with Mie theory, and provides ambient monitoring data collected on a mineral dust dominated aerosol at our location. PMID:20441206

Dial, Kathy D; Hiemstra, Scott; Thompson, Jonathan E

2010-10-01

340

MEASUREMENT OF CARCINOGENIC VAPORS IN AMBIENT ATMOSPHERES  

EPA Science Inventory

Analytical methods and instrumentation were evaluated for collecting and analyzing carcinogenic and mutagenic vapors occurring in ambient air. The areas of investigation included (a) the evaluation of Tenax GC sorbent for in situ reactions that may occur during the collection of ...

341

A global view on aerosol micro- and macrophysical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols are not only emitted from and deposited to the Earth's surface but are modified during their transport. The processes for these modifications include nucleation of H2SO4 gas into new aerosol, coagulation with other aerosol and condensation of H2SO4 unto existing aerosol. As a result of these processes, aerosol grow in size and change their chemical composition, often becoming hydrophilic where they were hydrophobic before. This affects their characteristics for various deposition processes (sedimentation, dry or wet deposition) as well as their radiative properties and hence climate forcing by aerosol. Although budgets for aerosol emission and deposition (macrophysical fluxes) have been studied before, much less is known about the budgets of e.g. nucleation, coagulation and condensation (microphysical fluxes). A better understanding of their relative importance would help understand aerosol model structural errors and imply simplifications for faster, leaner aerosol models that allow climate simulations with interactive aerosol at reduced cost. We present a complete budget of all aerosol processes in the aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM including the M7 microphysics. This model treats aerosol as 7 distinct but interacting two-moment modes of mixed species (soot, organic carbons, sulfate, sea salt and dust). We will show both global budgets as well as regional variations in dominant processes. Some of our conclusions are: 1) coagulation only matters when nucleation or Aitken mode particles are involved; 2) coagulation is important for the formation of accumulation mode particles; 3) microphysics particularly affects number densities and hence aerosol sizes; 4) aging due to sulfate collection is an important process but hydrophilic number densities typically dwarf hydrophobic number densities; 5) lifetime of the nucleation mode is very short (0.4d); 6) these conclusions are robust for pre-industrial and modern emission scenarios. Our results provide an objective way of complexity analysis in a global aerosol model and will be used in future work where we will reduce this complexity in ECHAM-HAM.

Schutgens, Nick; Stier, Philip

2013-04-01

342

A determination of the sources of airborne particles collected during the regional air pollution study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target transformation factor analysis (TTFA) has been applied to an analysis of a subset of the aerosol-composition data acquired during the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) for St. Louis, Missouri. The RAPS program collected a large number of samples with 10 continuously operated dichotomous samplers from March 1975 to March 1977. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the capability of TTFA to resolve sources of airborne particulate matter in a set of ambient-aerosol samples. In order to give each element a more equal weight in the identification of sources, a weighting scheme has been added to the target transformation rotation procedure. The weighted rotation produces a more sensitive source identification and has enhanced the resolution of sources with similar element profiles. To determine the most appropriate way to apply TTFA, two separate sets of the data were analyzed: (1) all the samples collected during July and August 1976 at a single station; and (2) all the samples collected at the ten RAPS stations during a single week. Each set of samples was further subdivided into fine- and coarse-fraction subsets which were analyzed separately. Because of the large number of missing values and values below detection limits, it was necessary to exclude a sizable fraction of the data from the analyses. Superior results were obtained from the examination of the variation in aerosol composition with time at a single location rather than the spatial variation over multiple sites during a shorter time period.

Alpert, Daniel J.; Hopke, Philip K.

343

Mass and chemically speciated size distribution of Prague aerosol using an aerosol dryer--the influence of air mass origin.  

PubMed

Ambient aerosol particles dried using a diffusional aerosol dryer were sampled using a 7-stage modified Berner low pressure impactor with a back-up filter during the heating and non-heating season campaigns in 2008. The samples were analyzed for water-soluble ions and water-soluble organic carbon. Because of the drying, the aerosol size distribution was not influenced by the daily variability of ambient relative humidity. The results summarize the observations from campaigns in both the heating (11 sampling days) and non-heating (10 sampling days) seasons. The aerosols sampled on individual days were classified based on the connected air mass back trajectories into three classes: sea-influenced aerosol (SIA), continental aerosol (CA) and mixed aerosol (MA) for samples of intermediate origin. The differences between CA and SIA were substantial both when looking at the normalized mass size distributions of the particulate matter (PM) and of the individual species and when taking into account the absolute concentrations in the fine and coarse size fractions. The main differences were found in the normalized mass size distributions of the PM and of the sea-salt related ions. PMID:22954654

Schwarz, J; Štefancová, L; Maenhaut, W; Smolík, J; Ždímal, V

2012-10-15

344

Aerosol mobility size spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

2007-11-20

345

Mixing state and spectral absorption of atmospheric aerosols observed at a marine background site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dust and sea salt particles are portions of atmospheric aerosols in Korea due to the periodic transport of loess dust particles from Gobi and Taklimakan deserts in west China, as well as the sea salt enrichment of atmospheric particles from the seas surrounding the Korean peninsula [Kim et al., 2009; Sahu et al., 2009]. Carbonaceous particles and secondary inorganic aerosols (sulphates and nitrates) are ubiquitous due to the proliferating biomass burning [Ryu et al., 2004], as well as the increasing use of fossil fuels locally and by regional transport from neighbouring countries. Collectively, when these aerosols are transported, their compositions are further modified due to the aging process, impacting their physico-chemical properties including spectral absorption. In order to investigate the spectral response of the absorption under different ambient aerosol conditions, measurements have been conducted at a marine background site in Korea (Deokjeok Island. 37° 13' 33" N, 126° 8' 51" E) during the spring (13 days) and fall (8 days) seasons of 2009 using an aethalometer (Magee AE31), a nephelometer (Optec NGN2a) and other supporting instruments (PILS-IC, PM2.5 cyclone samplers for off-line OC/EC measurements). It has been found that spring aerosols were dominated by sulphate-rich and carbonaceous-rich fractions (21.4%±8.0% and 28.8%±7.9%, respectively), with an Angström exponent of absorption, ?abs = 1.3±0.1 at 370-950 nm. The fall season aerosols were grouped based on their chemical composition as acidic aerosols, dust-enriched, and seasalt-enriched aerosols. Angström exponent of absorption, ?abs for acidic aerosols was obtained to be 1.3±0.2 at 370-950 nm. However, dust enriched aerosols showed increased absorption in the short UV-Vis range (370-590 nm), which can be attributed to their mixing with light absorbing aerosols. Different types of aerosols exhibit different spectral absorption characteristics depending on their composition and mixing state. The effect of mixing state on the enhancement of light absorption in the UV-Vis has been further investigated. Kim, Y. J., Woo, J.-H., Ma, Y.-I., Kim, S., Nam, J. S., Sung, H., Choi, K.-C., Seo, J., Kim, J. S., Kang, C.-H., Lee, G., Ro, C.-U., Chang, D. and Sunwoo (2009), Atmospheric Environment, 43(34), 5556-5566. Ryu, S. Y., Kim, J. E., Zhuanshi, H., Kim, Y. J. and Kang, G. U. (2004). JA&WMA 54. 1124-1137. Sahu, L. K., Y. Kondo, Y. Miyazaki, M. Kuwata, M. Koike, N. Takegawa, H. Tanimoto, H. Matsueda, S. C. Yoon, and Y. J. Kim (2009), J. Geophys. Res., 114(D3), D03301.

Cayetano, M. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, Y. J.

2011-12-01

346

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

Mulholland, James A.

347

AEROSOL CHARACTERISTICS AND VISIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes progress in measuring the optical properties of aerosols and in relating aerosol characteristics to visibility reduction made in the author's laboratory during the period 1965-1971. An instrument, the integrating nephelometer, which measures the scattering ...

348

MODAL AEROSOL DYNAMICS MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report described by this Project Summary presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also review...

349

URBAN AEROSOL MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate numerical schemes have been developed for simulation of the condensation/evaporation processes with vapor conservation for a single component aerosol. These have been incorporated in modules which allow simulation of aerosol dynamics in models for dispersion and transpor...

350

AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

351

Characterization of Aerosols Containing Microcystin  

PubMed Central

Toxic blooms of cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in both freshwater and brackish water sources throughout the world. One class of cyanobacterial toxins, called microcystins, is cyclic peptides. In addition to ingestion and dermal, inhalation is a likely route of human exposure. A significant increase in reporting of minor symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms was associated with exposure to higher levels of cyanobacteria during recreational activities. Algae cells, bacteria, and waterborne toxins can be aerosolized by a bubble-bursting process with a wind-driven white-capped wave mechanism. The purposes of this study were to: evaluate sampling and analysis techniques for microcystin aerosol, produce aerosol droplets containing microcystin in the laboratory, and deploy the sampling instruments in field studies. A high-volume impactor and an IOM filter sampler were tried first in the laboratory to collect droplets containing microcystins. Samples were extracted and analyzed for microcystin using an ELISA method. The laboratory study showed that cyanotoxins in water could be transferred to air via a bubble-bursting process. The droplets containing microcystins showed a bimodal size distribution with the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 1.4 and 27.8 ?m. The sampling and analysis methods were successfully used in a pilot field study to measure microcystin aerosol in situ. PMID:18463733

Cheng, Yung Sung; Zhou, Yue; Irvin, C. Mitch; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C.

2007-01-01

352

Trends in aerosol abundances and distributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties of aerosols that reside in the upper atmosphere are described. Special emphasis is given to the influence these aerosols have on ozone observation systems, mainly through radiative effects, and on ambient ozone concentrations, mainly through chemical effects. It has long been appreciated that stratospheric particles can interfere with the remote sensing of ozone distribution. The mechanism and magnitude of this interference are evaluated. Separate sections deal with the optical properties of upper atmospheric aerosols, long-term trends in stratospheric aerosols, perturbations of the stratospheric aerosol layer by volcanic eruptions, and estimates of the impacts that such particles have on remotely measured ozone concentrations. Another section is devoted to a discussion of the polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's). These unique clouds, recently discovered by satellite observation, are now thought to be intimately connected with the Antarctic ozone hole. Accordingly, interest in PSC's has grown considerably in recent years. This chapter describes what we know about the morphology, physical chemistry, and microphysics of PSC's.

Turco, R. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Clancy, R. T.; Curran, R.; Deluisi, J.; Hamill, P.; Kent, G.; Rosen, J. M.; Toon, O. B.; Yue, G.

1989-01-01

353

Investigation of the time evolved spatial distribution of urban PM2.5 concentrations and aerosol composition during episodic high PM events in Yuma, AZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdisciplinary field study designed to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric aerosols during high particulate matter ( PM) events along the US-Mexico border near Yuma, AZ was run during the week of March 18, 2007. The experiments were designed to quantify chemical composition and physical phenomena governing the transport of aerosols generated from episodic high PM events. The field study included two micrometeorological monitoring sites; one rural and one urban, equipped with sonic anemometers, continuous particulate concentration monitors and ambient aerosol collection equipment. In addition to the two main monitoring sites, five additional locations were equipped with optical particle counters to allow for the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of PM2.5 in the urban environment. In this paper, the meteorological and turbulence parameters governing the distribution and concentration of PM2.5 in the urban environment for two high-wind erosion events and one burning event are compared. The interaction between local atmospheric conditions and the particulate distribution is investigated. Results indicate that a single point measurement in the urban area of Yuma may not be sufficient for determining the ambient PM concentrations that the local population experiences; all three high PM events indicated PM2.5 varied considerably with maximum urban concentrations 5-10 times greater than the measured minima. A comparison of inorganic and carbonaceous content of the aerosols for the three high PM events is presented. The comparison shows an increase in silicon during crustal dust events and an increase in elemental and organic carbon during the burn event. Additional surface chemistry analysis, using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), for aerosols collected at the urban and rural sites during the burn event are discussed. The surface chemistry analysis provides positive ion mass spectra of organic and inorganic species in the ambient aerosol, and can be used to determine the type of combustion process that contributed to an increase in PM concentration during the burn event.

Holmes, Heather A.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Tyler, Bonnie J.; Peterson, Richard E.

354

Improved solid aerosol generator  

DOEpatents

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

1988-07-19

355

MODAL AEROSOL DYNAMICS MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Modal Aerosol Dynamics (MAD) model is a computationally efficient model for solving the General Dynamics Equation of Aerosols (GDE) (Friedlander, 1977). The simplifying assumption in the model is that aerosol size distributions can be approximated by overlapping modes, each r...

356

Aerosols in Central California: Unexpectedly Large Contribution of Coarse Mode to Aerosol Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect

The majority of previous studies dealing with effect of coarse-mode aerosols on the radiation budget have focused primary on polluted regions with substantial aerosol loadings. We reexamine this effect for a relatively "pristine" area using a unique 1-month dataset collected during recent Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES). We demonstrate that the coarse-mode (supermicron) particles can contribute substantially (more than 50%) and frequently (up to 85% of time) to the total volume. In contrast to the conventional expectations that the radiative impact of coarse-mode aerosols should be small for "pristine" regions, we find that the neglecting of the large particles may lead to significant overestimation (up to 45%) of direct aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of atmosphere despite of very small aerosol optical depth (about 0.05 at 0.5 ). Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of the coarse-mode aerosols on the pristine radiative properties over land and the need for more explicit inclusion of the coarse-mode aerosols in climate-related observational and model studies.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Barnard, James C.

2012-10-20

357

Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)  

DOE Data Explorer

The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

358

Aerosol characterization and apportionment using cascade impactors and activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of particle-size distribution measurements and techniques for aerosol physical characterization, together with composition data for 30 elements, has led to useful deductions about the sources of airborne particulates. Collections with cascade impactors operated at three locations in Toronto, Canada, were analyzed by INAA and photonuclear activation (IPAA). The efficiency and reliability of impactors for aerosol size-distribution characterization was

R. E. Jervis; T. G. Pringle

1988-01-01

359

Exposure of acid aerosol for schoolchildren in metropolitan Taipei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metropolitan Taipei, which is located in the subtropical area, is characterized by high population and automobile densities. For convenience, most primary schools are located near major roads. This study explores the exposure of acid aerosols for schoolchildren in areas in Taipei with different traffic densities. Acid aerosols were collected by using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS). Experimental

I-Fang Mao; Chih-Hung Lin; Chun-Ji Lin; Yi-Ju Chen; Fung-Chang Sung; Mei-Lien Chen

2009-01-01

360

AEROSOL OBSERVING SYSTEM PLATFORM INTEGRATION AND AAF INSTRUMENTATION  

E-print Network

instruments to collect data on aerosol life cycle, microphysics, and optical/physical propertiesAEROSOL OBSERVING SYSTEM PLATFORM INTEGRATION AND AAF INSTRUMENTATION Stephen Springston and Arthur Systems (AOS) to be designed, instrumented, and mentored by BNL. The enclosures will be customized Sea

361

Comparison of Sampling Media for Endotoxin-Contaminated Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the influence of collection media and sampling method on endotoxin extraction for a variety of endotoxin-contaminated aerosols was examined. A first set of experiments compared endotoxin concentrations on eight different filter media after sampling from a chamber containing a saline endotoxin aerosol. Glass fiber (GF) and cellulose acetate (CA) filters were equivalent and showed significantly higher amounts

Terry Gordon; Karen Galdanes; Lisa Brosseau

1992-01-01

362

Transport of traffic-related aerosols in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the influence of traffic on particulate air pollution in an urban area, and to characterise the short-range transport of the aerosols generated by traffic. The study was conducted in Kraków, a city located in southern Poland with a population of approximately 800000. Aerosol samples were collected using automatic sampling equipment at five sites located

A Wróbel; E Rokita; W Maenhaut

2000-01-01

363

The impact of atmospheric aerosols on trace metal chemistry in open ocean surface seawater, 1. Aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant quantities of aerosol aluminum are transported from continental regions through the atmosphere to the oceans. Enrichments in the concentration of dissolved aluminum in open ocean surface seawater suggest that dissolution of aerosol aluminum is an important source of dissolved aluminum to these waters. Atmospheric aerosols collected at Enewetak Atoll were exposed to seawater and artificial rain water to determine

H. B. Maring; R. A. Duce

1987-01-01

364

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls,”

J. L. Hand; W. C. Malm; A. Laskin; D. Day; T. Lee; C. Wang; C. Carrico; J. Carrillo; J. P. Cowin; J. Collett; M. J. Iedema

2005-01-01

365

NUMERICAL CALCULATION OF INERTIAL ASPIRATION EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS INTO THIN-WALLED SAMPLING INLETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Unbiased sampling of airborne particulate from a flowing stream requires that the size distribution and concentration of aerosol collected be identical to that of the aerosol in the free stream. ampling errors occur during aspiration of the aerosol from the free stream to he face...

366

Evidence that the spectral dependence of light absorption by aerosols is affected by organic carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wavelength dependence of light absorption by aerosols collected on filters is investigated throughout the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared spectral region. Measurements were made using an optical transmission method. Aerosols produced by biomass combustion, including wood and savanna burning, and by motor vehicles, including diesel trucks, are included in the analysis. These aerosol types were distinguished by different wavelength (?) dependences

Thomas W. Kirchstetter; T. Novakov; Peter V. Hobbs

2004-01-01

367

Absorption of Visible and Long-wave Radiation by Primary and Secondary Biogenic Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field results for the 14C content of carbonaceous aerosols are presented that indicate significant biogenic sources of both primary and secondary aerosols in urban and regional environments. Samples collected in Mexico City and downwind of the urban area during the MILAGRO field study are compared with results reported previously in the literature indicating a significant amount of biogenic aerosols from

J. S. Gaffney; N. A. Marley

2008-01-01

368

Nitrate, non-sea-salt sulfate, and mineral aerosol over the northwestern Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk aerosol data collected from January 14-June 1, 1979 aboard three ships in the northwestern Indian Ocean are examined in order to calculate the atmospheric concentrations of nitrate, nonsea-salt sulfate (NSS), mineral aerosol, and NSS calcium. The samples are divided into three sets based on geographical location, mineral aerosol concentration, and wind regime. The relation between nitrate and NSS sulfate

D. L. Savoie; J. M. Prospero; R. T. Nees

1987-01-01

369

Partitioning of the organic aerosol component between fog droplets and interstitial air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited information is available on the nature of organic compounds in the tropospheric aerosol and their effect on aerosol hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) ability. Here we analyze samples of liquid droplets and interstitial aerosol, concurrently collected during fog episodes, to determine how the organic compounds are partitioned between the two reservoirs. By comparing the nature and concentration

Maria Cristina Facchini; Sandro Fuzzi; Sergio Zappoli; Antonella Andracchio; András Gelencsér; Gyula Kiss; Zoltán Krivácsy; Ernô Mészáros; Hans-Christen Hansson; Tomas Alsberg; Yngve Zebühr

1999-01-01

370

Linking biogenic hydrocarbons to biogenic aerosol in the Borneo rainforest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are though to contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation in the tropics, but understanding these transformation processes has proved difficult, due to the complexity of the chemistry involved and very low concentrations. Aerosols from above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest in Borneo were characterised using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry, high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) techniques. Oxygenated compounds were identified in ambient organic aerosol that could be directly traced back to isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpene emissions, by combining field data on chemical structures with mass spectral data generated from synthetically produced products created in a simulation chamber. Eighteen oxygenated species of biogenic origin were identified in the rainforest aerosol from the precursors isoprene, ?-pinene, limonene, ?-terpinene and ?-caryophyllene. The observations provide the unambiguous field detection of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oxidation products in SOA above a pristine tropical rainforest. The presence of 2-methyl tetrol organosulfates and an associated sulfated dimer provides direct evidence that isoprene in the presence of sulfate aerosol can make a contribution to biogenic organic aerosol above tropical forests. High-resolution mass spectrometry indicates that sulfur can also be incorporated into oxidation products arising from monoterpene precursors in tropical aerosol.

Hamilton, J. F.; Alfarra, M. R.; Robinson, N.; Ward, M. W.; Lewis, A. C.; McFiggans, G. B.; Coe, H.; Allan, J. D.

2013-11-01

371

Linking biogenic hydrocarbons to biogenic aerosol in the Borneo rainforest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are though to contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation in the tropics, but understanding the process of these transformations has proved difficult, due to the complexity of the chemistry involved and very low concentrations. Aerosols from above a South East Asian tropical rainforest in Borneo were characterised using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry, high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) techniques. Oxygenated compounds were identified in ambient organic aerosol that could be directly traced back to isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpene emissions, by combining field data on chemical structures with mass spectral data generated from synthetically produced products created in a simulation chamber. Eighteen oxygenated species of biogenic origin were identified in the rainforest aerosol from the precursors isoprene, ?-pinene, limonene, ?-terpinene and ?-caryophyllene. The observations provide the unambiguous field detection of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oxidation products in SOA above a pristine tropical rainforest. The presence of 2-methyltetrol organosulfates and an associated sulfated dimer provides direct evidence that isoprene in the presence of sulfate aerosol can make a contribution to biogenic organic aerosol above tropical forests. High-resolution mass spectrometry indicates that sulfur can also be incorporated into oxidation products arising from monoterpene precursors in tropical aerosol.

Hamilton, J. F.; Alfarra, M. R.; Robinson, N.; Ward, M. W.; Lewis, A. C.; McFiggans, G. B.; Coe, H.; Allan, J. D.

2013-07-01

372