Science.gov

Sample records for ambient air engine

  1. Ambient air cooling arrangement having a pre-swirler for gas turbine engine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J

    2015-01-06

    A gas turbine engine including: an ambient-air cooling circuit (10) having a cooling channel (26) disposed in a turbine blade (22) and in fluid communication with a source (12) of ambient air: and an pre-swirler (18), the pre-swirler having: an inner shroud (38); an outer shroud (56); and a plurality of guide vanes (42), each spanning from the inner shroud to the outer shroud. Circumferentially adjacent guide vanes (46, 48) define respective nozzles (44) there between. Forces created by a rotation of the turbine blade motivate ambient air through the cooling circuit. The pre-swirler is configured to impart swirl to ambient air drawn through the nozzles and to direct the swirled ambient air toward a base of the turbine blade. The end walls (50, 54) of the pre-swirler may be contoured.

  2. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  3. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  4. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  5. Activation of Pulmonary Dendritic Cells and Th2-Type Inflammatory Responses on Instillation of Engineered, Environmental Diesel Emission Source or Ambient Air Pollutant Particles in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bezemer, Gillina F.G.; Bauer, Stephen M.; Oberdörster, Günter; Breysse, Patrick N.; Pieters, Raymond H.H.; Georas, Steve N.; Williams, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    The biological effects of acute particulate air pollution exposure in host innate immunity remain obscure and have relied largely on in vitro models. We hypothesized that single acute exposure to ambient or engineered particulate matter (PM) in the absence of other secondary stimuli would activate lung dendritic cells (DC) in vivo and provide information on the early immunological events of PM exposure and DC activation in a mouse model naïve to prior PM exposure. Activation of purified lung DC was studied following oropharyngeal instillation of ambient particulate matter (APM). We compared the effects of APM exposure with that of diesel-enriched PM (DEP), carbon black particles (CBP) and silver nanoparticles (AgP). We found that PM species induced variable cellular infiltration in the lungs and only APM exposure induced eosinophilic infiltration. Both APM and DEP activated pulmonary DC and promoted a Th2-type cytokine response from naïve CD4+ T cells ex vivo. Cultures of primary peribronchial lymph node cells from mice exposed to APM and DEP also displayed a Th2-type immune response ex vivo. We conclude that exposure of the lower airway to various PM species induces differential immunological responses and immunomodulation of DC subsets. Environmental APM and DEP activated DC in vivo and provoked a Th2 response ex vivo. By contrast, CBP and AgP induced altered lung tissue barrier integrity but failed to stimulate CD4+ T cells as effectively. Our work suggests that respirable pollutants activate the innate immune response with enhanced DC activation, pulmonary inflammation and Th2-immune responsiveness. PMID:21099199

  6. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  7. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  8. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  9. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  10. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  11. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  12. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  13. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  14. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  15. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  16. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  17. AMBIENT AIR NON-METHANE HYDROCARBON MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor has been developed with adequate sensitivity and accuracy to measure continuously the concentration of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in ambient air. The monitor consists of pump and manifold system along with two basic instruments, a methane monitor and a flame-ioniza...

  18. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  3. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  4. Detection of hydrazines in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Hydrazine and monomethylhydrazine, two toxic components of rocket fuel, can pose a health hazard to people involved in various rocket-related activities, including space shuttle and missile site operations. An effective method for their detection at trace levels is thus essential to personnel safety, and researchers at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) are working to develop new methods for determination of both hydrazine and monomethylhdydrazine in ambient air. The project, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), involves the use of pattern recognition techniques to detect hydrazine vapors using microsensors, development of passive dosimeters, and evaluation of several new technologies for low-level hydrazine detection.

  5. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  6. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  7. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  8. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  9. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  10. Ambient air quality monitoring plan, Cumberland Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.E. Jr.; Carter, R.V.

    1981-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has conducted ambient air quality monitoring at Cumberland Steam Plant since 1971. The monitoring network was operated to collect background air quality information prior to plant startup (1972) and to document ambient air quality after the plant reached full operating levels in 1973. This monitoring plan presents a new network design for Cumberland Steam Plant.

  11. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicity

    Abstract
    Mutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  12. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. 86.161-00 Section 86.161-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations...

  13. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. 86.161-00 Section 86.161-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations...

  14. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. 86.161-00 Section 86.161-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations...

  15. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards....

  16. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  17. Engineering system for simultaneous inhalation exposures of rodents to fine and ultrafine concentrated ambient particulate matter from a common air source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 11m (PM2.5) has been associated with adverse health effects in both humans and animals. Specific properties of either fine (0.1-2.5 11m), or ultrafine « 0.1 11m) PM responsible for exposure related he...

  18. 76 FR 14812 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 110(k)(6) Correction and Technical Correction Related to... the Annual Fine Particles National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document...

  19. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. PMID:26289769

  20. A Study on the Air flow outside Ambient Vaporizer Fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, G.; Lee, T.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we interpreted Fog's Fluid that appear in the Ambient Vaporizer and predict the point of change Air to Fog. We interpreted using Analysis working fluid was applied to LNG and Air. We predict air flow when there is chill of LNG in the air Temperature and that makes fog. Also, we interpreted based on Summer and Winter criteria in the air temperature respectively. Finally, we can check the speed of the fog when fog excreted.

  1. PILOT STUDY OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION AND SURVIVAL FROM CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was concerned with investigating the potential influence exerted by ambient concentrations of particulate and sulfur dioxide air pollutants upon the length of survival for diagnosed cancer patients. Monitoring data from the National Aerometric Data Bank for particulates...

  2. 78 FR 63933 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... submitted by the Commonwealth of Virginia adding ambient air quality standards and associated...

  3. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP)...

  4. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality...

  5. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY FOUR CORNERS AMBIENT AIR MONITORING NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ambient air monitoring program was initiated with the overall objective of establishing an air quality base line for the Four Corners area of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. The base line will be used in assessing the impact of the development of coal deposits and t...

  6. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  8. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  11. METHODOLOGY OF AMBIENT AIR MONITORING FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade, several studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air in the U.S. specifically investigated (1) the sampling efficiency of two sorbents for PAH in air: XAD-2 and polyurethane foam (PUP); (2) the storage stability of PAH on quartz fiber fil...

  12. Piston reciprocating compressed air engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cestero, L.G.

    1987-03-24

    A compressed air engine is described comprising: (a). a reservoir of compressed air, (b). two power cylinders each containing a reciprocating piston connected to a crankshaft and flywheel, (c). a transfer cylinder which communicates with each power cylinder and the reservoir, and contains a reciprocating piston connected to the crankshaft, (d). valve means controlled by rotation of the crankshaft for supplying compressed air from the reservoir to each power cylinder and for exhausting compressed air from each power cylinder to the transfer cylinder, (e). valve means controlled by rotation of the crankshaft for supplying from the transfer cylinder to the reservoir compressed air supplied to the transfer cylinder on the exhaust strokes of the pistons of the power cylinders, and (f). an externally powered fan for assisting the exhaust of compressed air from each power cylinder to the transfer cylinder and from there to the compressed air reservoir.

  13. Development of Quality Control Parameters and Electronic Data Recording for an Ambient Air Particle Inhalation Exposure System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air particle concentrating systems were installed by the US EPA in RTP, NC. These systems, designed by Harvard School of Public Health’s Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (Boston, MA), concentrated ambient fine and ultra-fine mode particulate matter (P...

  14. Jet engine air intake system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An axisymmetric air intake system for a jet aircraft engine comprising a fixed cowl extending outwardly from the face of the engine, a centerbody coaxially disposed within the cowl, and an actuator for axially displacing the centerbody within the cowl was developed. The cowl and centerbody define a main airflow passageway therebetween, the configuration of which is changed by displacement of the centerbody. The centerbody includes a forwardly-located closeable air inlet which communicates with a centerbody auxiliary airflow passageway to provide auxiliary airflow to the engine. In one embodiment, a system for opening and closing the centerbody air inlet is provided by a dual-member centerbody, the forward member of which may be displaced axially with respect to the aft member.

  15. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day. PMID:25428501

  16. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  17. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  18. Air conditioning and refrigeration engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kreith, F.

    1999-12-01

    This book supplies the basics of design, from selecting the optimum system and equipment to preparing the drawings and specifications. It discusses the four phases of preparing a project: gathering information, developing alternatives, evaluating alternatives, and selling the best solution. In addition, the author breaks down the responsibilities of the engineer design documents, computer aided design, and government codes and standards. It provides you with an easy reference to all aspects of the topic. This resource addresses the most current areas of interest, such as computer aided design and drafting, desiccant air conditioning and energy conservation. It is a thorough and convenient guide to air conditioning and refrigeration engineering. Contents include: introduction; psychrometrics; air-conditioning processes and cycles; refrigerants and refrigeration cycles; outdoor design conditions and indoor design criteria; load calculations; air handling units and packaged units; refrigeration components and evaporative coolers; water systems; heating systems; refrigeration systems; thermal storage system; air system basics; absorption systems; air-conditioning systems and selection; and desiccant dehumidification and air-conditioning.

  19. Ambient air measurements of monoterpenes, oxygenated terpenes, and sesquiterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2007-12-01

    Chemical ozone loss within the forest canopy and the presence of biogenic VOC (BVOC) oxidation products in and above the canopy indirectly suggest the presence of very reactive BVOCs at Blodgett Forest. As a part of the 2007 BEARPEX campaign at this coniferous forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California (1300 m elevation, 38.90° N, 120.63° W,), we quantified ambient concentrations of terpenes using a modified in-situ gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). The range of terpenes observed in ambient air matched enclosure based measurements of branch level emissions. To our knowledge, these observations represent the first quantification of the oxygenated monoterpene methyl chavicol and various sesquiterpenes in ambient air. Details of the instrument modifications, diurnal profiles of the terpenes, and comparison to branch level emissions will be presented.

  20. Modulated corona nanosecond discharge in air under ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepekhin, N. M.; Priseko, Yu. S.; Filippov, V. G.; Bulatov, M. U.; Sukharevskii, D. I.; Syssoev, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    A unique type of corona discharge-modulated corona nanosecond discharge-has been obtained, the parameters of which have been determined in a geometric system of electrodes with a sharply heterogeneous electric field in air under ambient pressure and natural humidity.

  1. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  2. COLLECTION, CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION, AND MUTAGENICITY BIOASSAY OF AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of industrialization and consequent increased concentration of urban particulate matter on the incidence of cancer has long been a concern. The first bioassays used to evaluate complex ambient air samples were whole-animal carcinogenesis bioassays. In these studies,...

  3. TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING REDUCED FORMS OF SULFUR IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new technique for measuring low concentrations of volatile sulfur compounds in ambient air is discussed. The technique consists of preconcentration of sulfur compounds by chemisorption on gold metal coated sand or gold foil surface followed by thermal desorption, separation, an...

  4. VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR NEAR WORLD TRADE CENTER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning on September 22, 2001 and continuing through February 2002, ambient air samples were collected at three sites within a block of ground zero and at a fourth site on the 16th floor of a building at 290 Broadway. Grab samples were collected in evacuated, electro-polished...

  5. Mound ambient air surveillance program: Description and path forward

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L R

    1992-08-01

    The ambient air monitoring program in place at Mound has undergone a number of changes since its installation. These changes have resulted from revisions to prevailing environmental regulations and guidance. Additional voluntary upgrades and modifications are planned. This report serves to update information on sampling station locations, equipment designs, operational criteria, and planned upgrades.

  6. METHODOLOGY FOR SITING AMBIENT AIR MONITORS AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In siting a monitor to measure compliance with U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), there is a need to characterize variations in PM concentration within a neighborhood-scale region in order to achieve monitor siting objectives.

    We p...

  7. Sampling of nitrates in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, B. R.; Tokiwa, Y.; Haik, M.

    Methods for the measurement of nitric acid, particulate nitrate and total inorganic nitrate (i.e. HNO 3 plus particulate nitrate) are compared using atmospheric samples from the Los Angeles Basin. Nitric acid was measured by (1) the nitrate collected on nylon or NaCl-impregnated cellulose filters after removal of particulate matter with Teflon prefilters, (2) long-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) performed by a collaborating investigator, and (3) the difference between total inorganic nitrate (TIN) and particulate nitrate (PN). TIN was measured by the sum of the nitrate collected with a Teflon prefilter and nylon or NaCl-impregnated after-filter. PN was measured by the nitrate able to penetrate a diffusion dénuder coated to remove acidic gases (e.g. HNO 3). Losses of nitrate from Teflon prefilters were determined by comparing the nitrate retained by these filters to the nitrate penetrating the acid gas denuder. TIN and the nitrate collected with glass fiber filters were compared to assess the origin of the artifact particulate nitrate on the latter. Nitric acid measurements using nylon or NaCl-impregnated after-filters were substantially higher than those by the difference technique. This correlated with losses of nitrate from the Teflon prefilters, which exceeded 50 % at high ambient temperature and low relative humidity. Nitric acid by the difference method exceeded that by FTIR by, on average, 20 %. Thus errors inferred in HNO 3 measurements by comparison to the difference measurements are considered minimum values. The high values for HNO 3 by the difference method are consistent with the partial loss of PN in the acid gas denuder. However, no loss of 0.1 μm to 3 μm diameter NH 4NO 3 particles was observed. Thus, if significant, such loss is restricted to coarse particulate nitrate. Heating the filter samplers was shown to increase sampling errors. Nitrate results obtained in short-term, low volume sampling with Gelman A glass fiber

  8. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  9. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  10. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air... temporary modification is approved, air quality data obtained with the method as temporarily modified...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air... temporary modification is approved, air quality data obtained with the method as temporarily modified...

  13. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

  14. An environmental study of mercury speciation in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Gottfried, T.; Koenig, M.; Koprivcia, V.; Lover, A.; Stephens, O.

    1996-10-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic environmental pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere primarily from power plants and is then deposited to the earth as a water soluble species in rain and snow. One of the important unanswered questions in the atmospheric chemistry of mercury is whether gas-phase ionic Hg{sup 2+} species exist and under what conditions they are formed. This paper will describe a novel technique for measuring atmospheric Hg{sup 2+} using a high-flow refluxing mist chamber to trap water-soluble Hg(II) from ambient air, coupled with an ultra-sensitive atomic fluorescence method for mercury quantitation. Various tests and refinement of the technique will be described, along with representative measurements in ambient air. The data show a strong diurnal trend in Hg(II) concentrations. Evidence suggests that some Hg(II) is formed within the mist chamber, most probably by aqueous-phase reaction of ozone with the Hg{sup O} present in ambient air.

  15. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  16. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic meter, arithmetic mean concentration over a 3-month period, measured in the ambient air as Pb either by: (1) A... primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for Pb are met when the maximum arithmetic...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  2. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  3. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...This rule establishes initial air quality designations for most areas in the United States, including areas of Indian country, for the 2008 primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The designations for several counties in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin that the EPA is considering for inclusion in the Chicago nonattainment area will be designated in a......

  4. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  5. Ambient Air Sampling During Quantum-dot Spray Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John Timothy; Hollenbeck, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air sampling for nano-size particle emissions was performed during spot spray coating operations with a Sono-Tek Exactacoat Benchtop system (ECB). The ECB consisted of the application equipment contained within an exhaust enclosure. The enclosure contained numerous small access openings, including an exhaust hook-up. Door access comprised most of the width and height of the front. The door itself was of the swing-out type. Two types of nanomaterials, Cadmium selenide (Cd-Se) quantum-dots (QDs) and Gold (Au) QDs, nominally 3.3 and 5 nm in diameter respectively, were applied during the evaluation. Median spray drop size was in the 20 to 60 micrometer size range.1 Surface coating tests were of short duration, on the order of one-half second per spray and ten spray applications between door openings. The enclosure was ventilated by connection to a high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filtered house exhaust system. The exhaust rate was nominally 80 ft3 per minute producing about 5 air changes per minute. Real time air monitoring with a scanning mobility particle size analyzer (SMPS ) with a size detection limit of 7 nm indicated a significant increase in the ambient air concentration upon early door opening. A handheld condensation particle counter (CPC) with a lower size limit of 10 nm did not record changes in the ambient background. This increase in the ambient was not observed when door opening was delayed for 2 minutes (~10 air changes). The ventilated enclosure controlled emissions except for cases of rapid door opening before the overspray could be removed by the exhaust. A time delay sufficient to provide 10 enclosure air changes (a concentration reduction of more than 99.99 %) before door opening prevented the release of aerosol particles in any size.2 Scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of agglomerates in the surfaces of the spray applied deposition. A filtered air sample of

  6. Identification of ambient air sampling and analysis methods for the 189 Title III air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Mukund, R.; Kelly, T.J.; Gordon, S.M.; Hays, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The state of development of ambient air measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollution (HAPs) in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments was surveyed. Measurement methods for the HAPs were identified by reviews of established methods, and by literature searches for pertinent research techniques. Methods were segregated by their degree of development into Applicable, Likely, and Potential methods. This survey identified a total of 183 methods, applicable at varying degrees to ambient air measurements of one or more HAPs. As a basis for classifying the HAPs and evaluating the applicability of measurement methods, a survey of a variety of chemical and physical properties of the HAPs was also conducted. The results of both the methods and properties surveys were tabulated for each of the 189 HAP. The current state of development of ambient measurement methods for the 189 HAPs was then assessed from the results of the survey, and recommendations for method development initiatives were developed.

  7. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    PubMed

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-01

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue. PMID:26340590

  8. Assessment of ambient air quality in the port of Naples.

    PubMed

    Prati, Maria Vittoria; Costagliola, Maria Antonietta; Quaranta, Franco; Murena, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    Two experimental monitoring campaigns were carried out in 2012 to investigate the air quality in the port of Naples, the most important in southern Italy for traffic of passengers and one of the most important for goods. Therefore, it represents an important air pollution source located close to the city of Naples. The concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) in the air were measured at 15 points inside the Naples port area through the use of passive samplers. In addition, a mobile laboratory was positioned in a fixed point inside the port area to measure continuous concentration of pollutants together with particulate matter, ambient parameters, and wind direction and intensity. The pollution levels monitored were compared with those observed in the urban area of Naples and in other Mediterranean ports. Even though the observation time was limited, measured concentrations were also compared with limit values established by European legislation. All the measured pollutants were below the limits with the exception of nitrogen dioxide: its average concentration during the exposition time exceeded the yearly limit value. A spatial analysis of data, according to the measured wind direction and intensity, provided information about the effects that ship emissions have on ambient air quality in the port area. The main evidence indicates that ship emissions influence sulfur dioxide concentration more than any other pollutants analyzed. PMID:26029862

  9. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  10. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal. PMID:26024349

  11. Engine bleed air reduction in DC-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    An 0.8 percent fuel savings was achieved by a reduction in engine bleed air through the use of cabin air recirculation. The recirculation system was evaluated in revenue service on a DC-10. The cabin remained comfortable with reductions in cabin fresh air (engine bleed air) as much as 50 percent. Flight test verified the predicted fuel saving of 0.8 percent.

  12. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to simulate the impact of an ambient heat load on the power requirements of the vehicle's air... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d)...

  13. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to simulate the impact of an ambient heat load on the power requirements of the vehicle's air... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d)...

  14. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    SciTech Connect

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  15. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  16. Particulate composition characteristics under different ambient air quality conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Lisa Tzu-Chi; Huang, Yao-Sheng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2011-07-01

    Particulate compositions including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble ionic species, and elemental compositions were investigated during the period from 2004 to 2006 in southern Taiwan. The correlation between the pollutant standard index (PSI) of ambient air quality and the various particle compositions was also addressed in this study. PSI revealed a correlation with fine (r = 0.74) and coarse (r = 0.80) particulate matter (PM). PSI manifested a significant correlation with the amount of analyzed ionic species (r approximately 0.80) in coarse and fine particles and a moderate correlation with carbon content (r = 0.63) in fine particles; however, it showed no correlation with elemental content. Although the ambient air quality ranged from good to moderate, the ionic species including chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO4(2-)), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), magnesium (Mg2+), and calcium (Ca2+) increased significantly (1.5-3.7 times for Daliao and 1.8-6.9 times for Tzouying) in coarse PM. For fine particles, NO3-, SO4(2-), NH4+, and potassium (K+) also increased significantly (1.3-2.4 times for Daliao and 2.8-9.6 times for Tzouying) when the air quality went from good to moderate. For meteorological parameters, temperature evidenced a slightly negative correlation with PM concentration and PSI value, which implied a high PM concentration in the low-temperature condition. This reflects the high frequency of PM episodes in winter and spring in southern Taiwan. In addition, the mixing height increase from 980 to 1450 m corresponds to the air quality condition changing from unhealthy to good. PMID:21850835

  17. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  18. Spectral fingerprinting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-volume ambient air samples by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerkhoff, M.J.; Lee, T.M.; Allen, E.R.; Lundgren, D.A.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A high-volume sampler fitted with a glass-fiber filter and backed by polyurethane foam (PUF) was employed to collect airborne particulate and gas-phase polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Samples were collected from four sources representing a range of environmental conditions: gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, air near a heavily traveled interstate site, and air from a moderately polluted urban site. Spectral fingerprints of the unseparated particulate and gas-phase samples were obtained by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (CESLS). Five major PAHs in the gas-phase extracts were characterized and estimated. The compatibility of a high-volume sampling method using polyurethane foam coupled with CESLS detection is explored for use as a screening technique for PAHs in ambient air. ?? 1985 American Chemical Society.

  19. Monitoring ambient air for mutagenicity using the higher plant Tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Schairer, L A; Sautkulis, R C; Tempel, N R

    1981-01-01

    Final assessment of human health effects resulting from exposure to harmful environmental agents may rest with mammalian test system results. In vitro systems are short-term assays used most frequently for extrapolation to humans. However, no single assay system is adequate and the more expensive long-term tests must be augmented by multiple assays designed for redundancy or to fill gaps in present state of the art of environmental monitoring. The Tradescantia stamen hair test system is one such assay offering redundancy as well as filling the gap of monitoring ambient air for mutagenic agents. The flower color locus in heterozygous clones of Tradescantia mutates when exposed to such agents as fumigants, solvents, chemical additives or catalysts, and compounds requiring activation such as benzo (a) pyrene. The stamen hair system responds to low levels of airborne compounds. The Tradescantia stamen hair system was used as an in situ monitor for mutagens in ambient air in polluted industrial sites. Preliminary results from many sites showed a significant increase in mutation rate. The environment most consistently mutagenic was that downwind from petroleum refineries. No specific compounds or groups of compounds have as yet been correlated with the positive sites. (ERB)

  20. Sources of volatile organic compounds in Cairo's ambient air.

    PubMed

    Abu-Allaban, M; Lowenthal, D H; Gertler, A W; Labib, M

    2009-10-01

    The greater Cairo area suffers from extreme levels of gas and particulate phase air pollutants. In order to reduce the levels of ambient pollution, the USAID and the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) have supported the Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP). As part of this project, two intensive ambient monitoring studies were carried out during the period of February 22 to March 4 and October 27 to November 27, 1999. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured on a 24-h basis at six sampling stations during each of the intensive periods. During the February/March study, samples were collected daily, while in the October/November study samples were collected every other day. The six intensive measurement sites represented background levels, mobile source impacts, industrial impacts, and residential exposure. High levels of NMHC were observed at all locations. NMHC concentrations ranged from 365 ppb C at Helwan to 1,848 ppb C at El Qualaly during winter, 1999 and from 461 ppb C at Kaha to 2,037 ppb C at El Qualaly during fall, 1999. El Qualaly, the site chosen to represent mobile emissions, displayed the highest average NMHC concentrations of any site, by a factor of 2 or more. The highest mobile source contributions were estimated at this site. The major contributors to NMHC at all sites were mobile emissions, lead smelting, and compressed natural gas. PMID:18843549

  1. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16, ``National primary and secondary ambient air... the Federal Register (73 FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16. The primary (health-based) Pb NAAQS... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an...

  2. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Maintenance ] Section (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago...-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604....

  3. Determination of methane in ambient air by multiplex gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, J. R.; Carle, G. C.; Phillips, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A multiplex gas chromatographic technique for the determination of methane in ambient air over extended periods is reported. A modest gas chromatograph which uses air as the carrier gas was modified by adding a silver oxide sample modulator for multiplex operation. The modulator selectively catalyzes the decomposition of methane in air. The resulting analytical system requires no consumables beyond power. A profile of the methane concentration in this laboratory was obtained for an 8-day period. During this period, methane concentration varied with an approximately daily period from a low of 1.53 + or - 0.60 ppm to a high of 4.63 + or - 0.59 ppm over the entire 8 days. Some of the measured concentrations are higher than those reported elsewhere indicating the presence of some local source or sources for methane. This work has demonstrated the utility of a relatively simple multiplex gas chromatograph for the analysis of environmental samples. The technique should be applicable to other trace components in air through use of other selective modulators.

  4. Dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, H.L.; Lee, W.J.; Su, C.C.; Chao, H.R.; Fan, Y.C.

    1996-12-01

    Dry deposition and air sampling were undertaken, simultaneously, in the ambient air of an urban site and a petrochemical-industry (PCI) plant by using several dry deposition plates and PS-1 samplers from January to May 1994 in southern Taiwan. The dry deposition plate with a smooth surface was always pointed into the wind. Twenty-one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MSD). The dry deposition flux of total-PAHs in urban and PCI sites averaged 166 and 211 {micro}g/m{sup 2}{center_dot}d, respectively. In general, the PAH dry deposition flux increased with increases in the PAH concentration in the ambient air. The PAH pattern of dry deposition flux in both urban and PCI sites were similar to the pattern measured by the filter of the PS-1 sampler and completely different from the PAH pattern in the gas phase. The higher molecular weight PAHs have higher dry deposition velocities. This is due to the fact that higher molecular weight PAHs primarily associated with the particle phase are deposited mostly by gravitational settling, while the gas phase PAHs were between 0.001 and 0.010 cm/s, only the lower molecular-weight PAHs--Nap and AcPy--had a significant fraction of dry deposition flux contributed by the gas phase. All the remaining higher molecular-weight PAHs had more than 94.5% of their dry deposition flux resulting from the particle phase. This is due to the fact that higher molecular weight PAHs have a greater fraction in the particle phase and the dry deposition velocities of particulates are much higher than those of the gas phase.

  5. An isotopic dilution approach for 1,3-butadiene tailpipe emissions and ambient air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Riservato, Manuela; Rolla, Antonio; Davoli, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    An isotopic dilution approach for 1,3-butadiene analysis in gaseous samples is presented. The methodology is based on active sampling on sorbent tubes and subsequent analysis by thermal desorption into a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system. By adding a perdeuterated internal standard onto the sorbent tubes before sampling, and using mass spectrometric detection, the methodology gives high accuracy for this unstable analyte. The method has been used to monitor 1,3-butadiene ambient air concentrations in a residential area in proximity to a heavy-traffic roadway over a one-week period, for comparison with other traffic-related pollutants analysed by standard procedures. It has also been used to determine tailpipe emissions of two vehicles by standard emission testing procedures in a dynamometer. These vehicles were chosen as examples of low- and high-end emission rate vehicles, i.e., an old no-catalytic converter Otto engine and a new direct-injection diesel engine with catalytic converter. Exhaust gas emissions were 0.052 and 35.85 mg/km, reflecting differences in fuel, engine design, age, and presence (or not) of a catalytic abatement system. The ambient air results showed a weekly average concentration of 1,3-butadiene of 0.53 microg/m(3). PMID:14966846

  6. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS §...

  7. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  8. 76 FR 60020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... institutions, industrial groups) use the ambient air quality data for many purposes. Some of the more prominent... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Laurie Trinca, Air Quality Assessment Division, Environmental Protection... pollution control agencies, and tribal entities which collect and report ambient air quality data for...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Methodology C Appendix C to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient Air... appendix must be submitted to: Director, National Exposure Research Laboratory (MD-D205-03),...

  10. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  11. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  12. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  13. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  14. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  15. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  16. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  17. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  18. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  19. Methodology to apportion ambient air measurements to investigate potential effects on air quality near waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerjee, S.; Fox, D.L.; Stevens, R.K.; Shy, C.M.; Vescio, N.

    1993-01-01

    Ambient air samples at four sites located near two incinerators (a biomedical waste and a municipal incinerator) in the vicinity of Charlotte, North Carolina were acquired as part of a health effects study that is examining potential, short-term, lung dysfunctions associated with incinerator and other source emissions. Ambient monitoring was performed for one month intervals at a treatment and control community site for each of the two incinerator locations. Twelve-hour ambient samples were acquired by means of a Versatile Air Pollution Sampler (VAPS) which enabled sampling for fine (< 2.5 micrometers) and coarse (2.5 - 10 micrometers) particulate matter, acid-gases by diffusion sampling and fine carbon sampling on quartz filters. X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) was used on the coarse and fine particulate filters to measure metals while Ion Chromatography (IC) analyzed acid gases. The Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model (CMB) was then used on the average ambient data from each wind vector to apportion the contribution of ambient pollutants which were attributable to the sources of interest from a given wind direction.

  20. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control. PMID:26843028

  1. Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

    Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

  2. Femtosecond laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hong, M. H.; Lu, Y. F.; Wu, D. J.; Lan, B.; Chong, T. C.

    2003-05-01

    Teflon, polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), is an important material in bioscience and medical application due to its special characteristics (bio-compatible, nonflammable, antiadhesive, and heat resistant). The advantages of ultrashort laser processing of Teflon include a minimal thermal penetration region and low processing temperatures, precision removal of material, and good-quality feature definition. In this paper, laser processing of PTFE in ambient air by a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser (780 nm, 110 fs) is investigated. It is found that the pulse number on each irradiated surface area must be large enough for a clear edge definition and the ablated depth increases with the pulse number. The air ionization effect at high laser fluences not only degrades the ablated structures quality but also reduces the ablation efficiency. High quality microstructures are demonstrated with controlling laser fluence below a critical fluence to exclude the air ionization effect. The ablated microstructures show strong adhesion property to liquids and clear edges that are suitable for bio-implantation applications. Theoretical calculation is used to analyze the evolution of the ablated width and depth at various laser fluences.

  3. Artifact peroxides produced during cryogenic sampling of ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staffelbach, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    Peroxides were found to be produced as artifacts during cryogenic sampling with Horibe traps. Cryogenic trap sampling was compared to collection with a wet effluent diffusion denuder and a Nafion membrane diffusion denuder. Hydrogen peroxide and hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide measured in the cryogenic trap samples were significantly higher. In comparison, no evidence of artifact methyl hydroperoxide production was found. The amount of artifact H2O2 and HMHP produced increased with decreasing trap temperature. Spiking ambient air with ethene or isoprene showed that these hydrocarbons, in the presence of ozone, can be responsible for the artifact production of peroxides. Our results clearly suggest that the peroxide data obtained by cryogenic sampling and reported in the literature should be interpreted with caution.

  4. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  5. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn; Cockburn, Myles

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of autistic disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades, but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures. Methods: Children of mothers who gave birth in Los Angeles, California, who were diagnosed with a primary AD diagnosis at 3–5 years of age during 1998–2009 were identified through the California Department of Developmental Services and linked to 1995–2006 California birth certificates. For 7,603 children with autism and 10 controls per case matched by sex, birth year, and minimum gestational age, birth addresses were mapped and linked to the nearest air monitoring station and a LUR model. We used conditional logistic regression, adjusting for maternal and perinatal characteristics including indicators of SES. Results: Per interquartile range (IQR) increase, we estimated a 12–15% relative increase in odds of autism for ozone [odds ratio (OR) = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.19; per 11.54-ppb increase] and particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (OR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.24; per 4.68-μg/m3 increase) when mutually adjusting for both pollutants. Furthermore, we estimated 3–9% relative increases in odds per IQR increase for LUR-based nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide exposure estimates. LUR-based associations were strongest for children of mothers with less than a high school education. Conclusion: Measured and estimated exposures from ambient pollutant monitors and LUR model suggest associations between autism and prenatal air pollution exposure, mostly related to traffic sources. PMID:23249813

  6. Joint Effects of Ambient Air Pollutants on Pediatric AsthmaEmergency Department Visits in Atlanta, 1998–2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Because ambient air pollution exposure occurs in the form of mixtures, consideration of joint effects of multiple pollutants may advance our understanding of air pollution health effects. Methods: We assessed the joint effect of selected ambient air pollutant com...

  7. Joint Effects of Ambient Air Pollutants on Pediatric Asthma Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, 1998–2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Because ambient air pollution exposure occurs in the form of mixtures, consideration of joint effects of multiple pollutants may advance our understanding of air pollution health effects. Methods: We assessed the joint effect of selected ambient air pollutant com...

  8. A reversible long-life lithium-air battery in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Haoshen

    2013-01-01

    Electrolyte degradation, Li dendrite formation and parasitic reactions with H₂O and CO₂ are all directly correlated to reversibility and cycleability of Li-air batteries when operated in ambient air. Here we replace easily decomposable liquid electrolytes with a solid Li-ion conductor, which acts as both a catholyte and a Li protector. Meanwhile, the conventional solid air cathodes are replaced with a gel cathode, which contacts directly with the solid catholyte to form a closed and sustainable gel/solid interface. The proposed Li-air cell has sustained repeated cycling in ambient air for 100 cycles (~78 days), with discharge capacity of 2,000 mAh g(-1). The recharging is based largely on the reversible reactions of Li₂CO₃ product, originating from the initial discharge product of Li₂O₂ instead of electrolyte degradation. Our results demonstrate that a reversible long-life Li-air battery is attainable by coordinated approaches towards the focal issues of electrolytes and Li metal. PMID:23652005

  9. BOREAS TGB-7 Ambient Air Herbicide and Organochlorine Concentration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, Don; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB)-7 team measured the concentration and flux of several agricultural pesticides in air, rainwater, and dry deposition samples in order to determine the associated yearly deposition rates. This data set contains information on the ambient air concentration of seven herbicides [2,4- dichlorophenoxyacidic_acid (2,4-D), bromoxynil, dicamb, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), triallate, trifluralin, and diclop-methyl] known to appear in the atmosphere of the Canadian prairies. Also, the concentration of three herbicides (atrazine, alachlor, and metolachlor), two groups of insecticides (lindane and breakdown products and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and breakdown products), and several polychlorinated biphenyls commonly used in the central United States was measured. All of these chemicals are reported, in the literature, to be transported in the atmosphere. Many have been reported to occur in boreal and arctic food chains. The sampling was carried out from 16-Jun to 13-Aug-1993 and 04-May to 20-Jul-1994 at the BOREAS site in the Prince Albert National Park (Waskesiu). The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  10. Ambient air pollution by aromatic hydrocarbons in Algiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbachi, Rabah; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Bounoua, Lahouari; Keddam, Malika

    The analysis of the C 6-C 16 semi-volatile organic compounds reveals the presence of numerous aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of Algiers. Three representative sites were chosen for sample collection at roadside, urban background and semi-rural areas. The following major monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ( m, p)- and o-xylene, also referred to as BTEX. Near the road traffic, benzene and toluene mean concentrations were 27 and 39 μg m -3, respectively, with benzene concentration values higher than 40 μg m -3 often observed. At the urban site, the benzene concentration often exceeds the European regulatory limit of 10 μg m -3 while the compositional ratios of toluene to benzene and ( m- p) xylene to ethylbenzene are within the typical range of values observed in urban atmospheres worldwide. The seasonal variation indicates a decrease in concentration during summer of the reactive o-xylene compound. It is suggested that Algiers' source of high-level air pollution by aromatic hydrocarbons is related to car traffic emissions.

  11. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient... PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.11 National primary and secondary ambient air... national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  12. Ambient air pollution and risk of ischemic stroke and TIA

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, LD; Escobar, JD; Dvonch, JT; Sanchez, BN; Majersik, JJ; Brown, DL; Smith, MA; Morgenstern, LB

    2009-01-01

    Background Data on the association between air pollution and cerebrovascular disease in the US are limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of ischemic cerebrovascular events in a US community. Methods Daily counts of ischemic strokes/TIAs (2001–2005) were obtained from the population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project. Daily particulate matter <2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5), ozone (O3), and meteorological data were obtained from Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. To examine the association between PM2.5 and stroke/TIA risk, Poisson regression was used. Separate models included same day PM2.5, PM2.5 lagged 1–5 days, and an averaged lag effect. All models were adjusted for temperature, day of week and temporal trends in stroke/TIA. The effects of O3 were also investigated. Results Median PM2.5 was 7.0 μg/m3 (Inter Quartile Range (IQR): 4.8–10.0). There were borderline significant associations between same day (RR=1.03, 95% CI:0.99–1.07 for an IQR increase in PM2.5) and previous day (RR=1.03, 95% CI:1.00–1.07) PM2.5 and stroke/TIA risk. These associations were independent of O3, which demonstrated similar associations with stroke/TIA risk (same day RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.97–1.08 and previous day RR=1.04, 95% CI: 0.99–1.09) in two pollutant models. Inference We observed associations between recent PM2.5 and O3 exposure and ischemic stroke/TIA risk even in this community with relatively low pollutant levels. This study provides data on environmental exposures and stroke risk in the US and suggests future research on ambient air pollution and stroke is warranted. PMID:18508356

  13. Ambient air pollution particles and the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation has repeatedly demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient air pollution particles and numerous indices of human morbidity and mortality. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are among those with an increased sensitivity to air p...

  14. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  15. Development and Evaluation of Alternative Metrics of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure for Use in Epidemiologic Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiologic studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available outdoor concentrations from central monitoring sites. This practice may in...

  16. 75 FR 2935 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ..., 2008, EPA promulgated revised 8-hour primary and secondary ozone NAAQS (73 FR 16436; March 27, 2008... promulgation of a new or revised national ambient air quality standard for any pollutant under section 109, the... a national ambient air quality standard, the Administrator shall promulgate the designations of...

  17. PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATING OPERATIONS OF AMBIENT AIR MONITORING NETWORKS - A MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual is designed to evaluate the efficiency of ambient air monitoring networks whose primary objective is to document compliance with or progress toward attaining ambient air quality standards. The manual provides methods to evaluate the efficiency of each of six operation...

  18. Test/QA Plan (TQAP) for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the semi-continuous ambient air monitoring technology (or MARGA) test and quality assurance plan is to specify procedures for a verification test applicable to commercial semi-continuous ambient air monitoring technologies. The purpose of the verification test is ...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Micropolitan Statistical Area site. If the candidate ARM for a network is already approved for purposes of this... Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient Air... ARM for purposes of section 2.1 of this appendix at a particular site or network of sites under...

  20. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  1. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  2. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  3. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  4. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  5. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  6. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  7. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  8. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  9. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  10. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  11. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  12. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  13. 40 CFR 50.18 - National primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for PM2.5. 50.18 Section 50.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 are 12.0 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) annual arithmetic mean concentration and 35...

  14. 40 CFR 50.18 - National primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for PM2.5. 50.18 Section 50.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 are 12.0 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) annual arithmetic mean concentration and 35...

  15. Combustion engine. [for air pollution control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An arrangement for an internal combustion engine is provided in which one or more of the cylinders of the engine are used for generating hydrogen rich gases from hydrocarbon fuels, which gases are then mixed with air and injected into the remaining cylinders to be used as fuel. When heavy load conditions are encountered, hydrocarbon fuel may be mixed with the hydrogen rich gases and air and the mixture is then injected into the remaining cylinders as fuel.

  16. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  17. Capture CO2 from Ambient Air Using Nanoconfined Ion Hydration.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyang; Xiao, Hang; Lackner, Klaus S; Chen, Xi

    2016-03-14

    Water confined in nanoscopic pores is essential in determining the energetics of many physical and chemical systems. Herein, we report a recently discovered unconventional, reversible chemical reaction driven by water quantities in nanopores. The reduction of the number of water molecules present in the pore space promotes the hydrolysis of CO3(2-) to HCO3(-) and OH(-). This phenomenon led to a nano-structured CO2 sorbent that binds CO2 spontaneously in ambient air when the surrounding is dry, while releasing it when exposed to moisture. The underlying mechanism is elucidated theoretically by computational modeling and verified by experiments. The free energy of CO3 (2-) hydrolysis in nanopores reduces with a decrease of water availability. This promotes the formation of OH(-), which has a high affinity to CO2 . The effect is not limited to carbonate/bicarbonate, but is extendable to a series of ions. Humidity-driven sorption opens a new approach to gas separation technology. PMID:26914978

  18. Measurement of total reduced sulfur compounds in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    McQuaker, N.R.; Rajala, G.E.; Pengilly, D.

    1986-05-01

    Methods for the determination of total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds in the ambient air based on coulometric detection (Philips Model PW 9700 analyzer) and thermal oxidation followed by detection using pulsed fluorescence (Teco Model 43 analyzer) have been evaluated. Analytical response factors, relative to H/sub 2/S, were determined for both the individual TRS compounds and compounds such as terpenes and carbonyl sulfide that may be a potential source of interference. The results for COS and terpenes indicate that in a typical monitoring situation normally encountered concentrations of these compounds are not expected to cause significant measurement bias. The results for the individual TRS compounds indicate that while variations in TRS composition are not a factor in assessing measurement bias for the thermal oxidation/pulsed fluorescence method, they are a factor for the Philips coulometric method; i.e., increasing positive measurement bias maybe introduced as the TRS composition shifts toward relatively less H/sub 2/S. Philips-Teco comparison data collected at a single site in the vicinity of three operating kraft pupil mills are compatible with these expectations. 8 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. ISS Ambient Air Quality: Updated Inventory of Known Aerosol Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is of fundamental importance to crew health, with concerns encompassing both gaseous contaminants and particulate matter. Little opportunity exists for direct measurement of aerosol concentrations on the International Space Station (ISS), however, an aerosol source model was developed for the purpose of filtration and ventilation systems design. This model has successfully been applied, however, since the initial effort, an increase in the number of crewmembers from 3 to 6 and new processes on board the ISS necessitate an updated aerosol inventory to accurately reflect the current ambient aerosol conditions. Results from recent analyses of dust samples from ISS, combined with a literature review provide new predicted aerosol emission rates in terms of size-segregated mass and number concentration. Some new aerosol sources have been considered and added to the existing array of materials. The goal of this work is to provide updated filtration model inputs which can verify that the current ISS filtration system is adequate and filter lifetime targets are met. This inventory of aerosol sources is applicable to other spacecraft, and becomes more important as NASA considers future long term exploration missions, which will preclude the opportunity for resupply of filtration products.

  20. Measurements of ambient air lead concentrations in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Ahmed, M.; Mousli, K.M.; Erturk, F. )

    1990-01-01

    Lead concentrations were determined in six different locations in the Jeddah urban area by atomic absorption spectrometry. Correlations between the air-Pb data and traffic density were investigated. The lead concentration values obtained for the ambient air in Jeddah City ranged from 0.19 {mu}/m{sup 3} to 1.27 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Comparison with ambient air quality standards from other countries indicates that certain areas in this city are approaching these guideline values.

  1. Panel discussion review: Session two - Interpretation of Observed Associations between Multiple Ambient Air Pollutants and Health Effects in Epidemiologic Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution epidemiologic research has often utilized ambient air concentrations measured from centrally located monitors as a surrogate measure of exposure to these pollutants. Associations between these ambient concentrations and health outcomes such as lung function, hospita...

  2. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  3. FINE AMBIENT AIR PARTICULAR MATTER EXPOSURE INDUCES MOLECULAR ALTERATIONS INDICATIVE OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PROGRESSION IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC SUSCEPTIBLE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) can alter cardiovascular function and may influence cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been shown that exposure to concentrated ambient air particles (CA...

  4. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  5. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  6. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  7. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  8. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  9. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that...

  10. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are...

  11. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped...

  12. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  13. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  14. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  15. Comparison of the genotoxic activities of extracts from ambient and forest fire polluted air. [Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Viau, C.J.; Lockard, J.M.; Enoch, H.G.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    The genotoxicity of airborne organic particles from forest fire smoke was compared to that from nonsmoky (ambient) urban air using the Salmonella reversion assay and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in cultured human lymphocytes. Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 were used with and without the addition of Aroclor-induced rat liver homogenate (S9). Each sample induced dose-related increases in mutagenicity and SCE. However, on the basis of the volume of air sampled, the smoke-filled air induced 12 to 14 times more bacterial reversions in TA 100 and 16-38 times more reversion in TA98 than ambient air. Similarly, on a volume basis smoky air induced 43 times more SCE in human lymphocytes than did ambient air. The results indicate that the increased mutagenicity was due not only to the heavier particulate load of the air, but also to the increased specific mutagenicity of the particles.

  16. Effects of ambient oxidant air pollution in the San Joaquin Valley on Thompson seedless grapes

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.F.; Ashcroft, R.

    1984-01-01

    Mature Thompson seedless grape vines were enclosed in specially constructed plastic covered chambers supplied with carbon filtered and non-filtered (ambient) air from time of bud break through leaf drop. Effects on vegetative growth and fruiting were determined for three seasons. No effects on fruit production were measured the first season after covering but vegetative growth increased 12% in chambers supplied with filtered air. By the third season fruit yields were 27.5% higher in the filtered as compared with ambient chambers. The only visible symptoms associated with exposure to the oxidants was accelerated senescence which appeared 3 weeks to 1 month earlier on vines receiving ambient or nonfiltered air.

  17. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  18. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  19. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  20. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  1. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  2. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  3. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  4. 77 FR 42495 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... titled, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: First... Review Plan for the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards.\\1\\ A draft of the integrated review... Ambient Air Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk and Exposure Assessment and...

  5. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  6. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  11. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Register on June 6, 2013, (78 FR 34178) and is available at: http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution... on June 6, 2013, (78 FR 34178) and is available at http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/actions.html... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality...

  12. Ambient air-quality survey: Canadian Gypsum Company, Weston, Ontario: report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.

    1990-01-01

    A mobile air monitoring unit from the Air Resources Branch conducted an air quality survey in the vicinity of the Canadian Gypsum Company plant in northwest Toronto during the period July 24 to August 4, 1989. Survey objectives were to measure the ambient concentration of total reduced sulfur compounds (rotten egg odour) and various organic and chlorinated organic compounds.

  13. Supplemental air valve for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Pankow, C.W.

    1987-12-29

    A valve for attachment in the PCV system of an internal combustion engine for regulating the admission of supplemental air to the crank case blow-by return, comprising: (a) a valve body defining a bore, the body having an inlet and an outlet connection defining a passageway through the valve for the blow-by return, the body further defining a port for air; (b) a valve member reciprocal within the bore having a piston member dividing at least a portion of the bore into two pressure chambers, the pressure chambers having means for connection of each to a source of engine vacuum; (c) the valve member being shiftable from and open position permitting air to enter through the port to the passageway and having a closed position blocking admission of air through the port to the passageway; and (d) resilient means normally urging the valve body to the closed position, the resilient means being selectively adjustable to provide a predetermined biasing force whereby the piston is shiftable to the open position in response to changes in engine vacuum to admit supplemental air to the engine.

  14. Stirling engine with air working fluid

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

  15. Ambient Engineering for High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiabin; Yu, Xuegong; Xie, Jiangsheng; Xu, Dikai; Tang, Zeguo; Cui, Can; Yang, Deren

    2016-08-24

    Considering the evaporation of solvents during fabrication of perovskite films, the organic ambience will present a significant influence on the morphologies and properties of perovskite films. To clarify this issue, various ambiences of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and chlorobenzene (CBZ) are introduced during fabrication of perovskite films by two-step sequential deposition method. The results reveal that an ambient CBZ atmosphere is favorable to control the nucleation and growth of CH3NH3PbI3 grains while the others present a negative effect. The statistical results show that the average efficiencies of perovskite solar cells processed in an ambient CBZ atmosphere can be significantly improved by a relatively average value of 35%, compared with those processed under air. The efficiency of the best perovskite solar cells can be improved from 10.65% to 14.55% by introducing this ambience engineering technology. The CH3NH3PbI3 film with large-size grains produced in an ambient CBZ atmosphere can effectively reduce the density of grain boundaries, and then the recombination centers for photoinduced carriers. Therefore, a higher short-circuit current density is achieved, which makes main contribution to the improvement in efficiency. These results provide vital progress toward understanding the role of ambience in the realization of highly efficient perovskite solar cells. PMID:27489961

  16. Comparison of exposure estimation methods for air pollutants: ambient monitoring data and regional air quality simulation.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Fuentes, Montserrat; Zhang, Yang; Burr, Michael J; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-07-01

    Air quality modeling could potentially improve exposure estimates for use in epidemiological studies. We investigated this application of air quality modeling by estimating location-specific (point) and spatially-aggregated (county level) exposure concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and ozone (O(3)) for the eastern U.S. in 2002 using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and a traditional approach using ambient monitors. The monitoring approach produced estimates for 370 and 454 counties for PM(2.5) and O(3), respectively. Modeled estimates included 1861 counties, covering 50% more population. The population uncovered by monitors differed from those near monitors (e.g., urbanicity, race, education, age, unemployment, income, modeled pollutant levels). CMAQ overestimated O(3) (annual normalized mean bias=4.30%), while modeled PM(2.5) had an annual normalized mean bias of -2.09%, although bias varied seasonally, from 32% in November to -27% in July. Epidemiology may benefit from air quality modeling, with improved spatial and temporal resolution and the ability to study populations far from monitors that may differ from those near monitors. However, model performance varied by measure of performance, season, and location. Thus, the appropriateness of using such modeled exposures in health studies depends on the pollutant and metric of concern, acceptable level of uncertainty, population of interest, study design, and other factors. PMID:22579357

  17. Comparison of exposure estimation methods for air pollutants: Ambient monitoring data and regional air quality simulation

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Mercedes A.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Zhang, Yang; Burr, Michael J.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Air quality modeling could potentially improve exposure estimates for use in epidemiological studies. We investigated this application of air quality modeling by estimating location-specific (point) and spatially-aggregated (county level) exposure concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) for the eastern U.S. in 2002 using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and a traditional approach using ambient monitors. The monitoring approach produced estimates for 370 and 454 counties for PM2.5 and O3, respectively. Modeled estimates included 1861 counties, covering 50% more population. The population uncovered by monitors differed from those near monitors (e.g., urbanicity, race, education, age, unemployment, income, modeled pollutant levels). CMAQ overestimated O3 (annual normalized mean bias = 4.30%), while modeled PM2.5 had an annual normalized mean bias of −2.09%, although bias varied seasonally, from 32% in November to −27% in July. Epidemiology may benefit from air quality modeling, with improved spatial and temporal resolution and the ability to study populations far from monitors that may differ from those near monitors. However, model performance varied by measure of performance, season, and location. Thus, the appropriateness of using such modeled exposures in health studies depends on the pollutant and metric of concern, acceptable level of uncertainty, population of interest, study design, and other factors. PMID:22579357

  18. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  19. Engine piston having an insulating air gap

    DOEpatents

    Jarrett, Mark Wayne; Hunold,Brent Michael

    2010-02-02

    A piston for an internal combustion engine has an upper crown with a top and a bottom surface, and a lower crown with a top and a bottom surface. The upper crown and the lower crown are fixedly attached to each other using welds, with the bottom surface of the upper crown and the top surface of the lower crown forming a mating surface. The piston also has at least one centrally located air gap formed on the mating surface. The air gap is sealed to prevent substantial airflow into or out of the air gap.

  20. EVALUATION OF HIGH VOLUME PARTICLE SAMPLING AND SAMPLE HANDLING PROTOCOLS FOR AMBIENT URBAN AIR MUTAGENICITY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation of high volume particle sampling and sample handling procedures was undertaken to evaluate variations of protocols being used by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency. hese protocols are used in urban ambient air studies which collect ambient and source samples...

  1. MODEL FOR MEASURING THE HEALTH IMPACT FROM CHANGING LEVELS OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION: MORBIDITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study quantitatively examines the relationship between human health and ambient air concentrations of the major pollutants in the city of Chicago. This report describes the morbidity analysis in which linear regression models have been developed to quantitatively estimate the...

  2. Ambient Air Mitigation Strategies for Reducing Exposures to Mobile Source PM2.5 Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation discussing ambient air mitigation strategies for near-road exposures. The presentation provides an overview of multiple methods, but focuses on the role roadside features (sound walls, vegetation) may play. This presentation summarizes preoviously published work by...

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND SELECTED BIRTH DEFECTS, SEVEN COUNTY STUDY, TEXAS, 1997-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objectives: A number of epidemiologic investigations have shown adverse effects of ambient air pollution on reproductive outcomes including spontaneous abortion, fetal growth, preterm delivery, and infant mortality. A southern California, population-based, case-c...

  4. METHODS FOR ESTIMATING ON-SITE AMBIENT AIR CONCENTRATIONS AT DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, Gaussian type dispersion modeling and point source approximation are combined to estimate the ambient air concentrations of pollutants dispersed downwind of an areawide emission source, using the approach of virtual point source approximation. The Gaussian dispersion m...

  5. Air breathing engine/rocket trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, V. K., III

    1979-01-01

    This research has focused on improving the mathematical models of the air-breathing propulsion systems, which can be mated with the rocket engine model and incorporated in trajectory optimization codes. Improved engine simulations provided accurate representation of the complex cycles proposed for advanced launch vehicles, thereby increasing the confidence in propellant use and payload calculations. The versatile QNEP (Quick Navy Engine Program) was modified to allow treatment of advanced turboaccelerator cycles using hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels and operating in the vehicle flow field.

  6. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; W Nazaroff, William

    Reliable estimates of inhalation intake of air pollution and its distribution among a specified population are important for environmental epidemiology, health risk assessment, urban planning, and environmental policy. We computed distributional characteristics of the inhalation intake of five pollutants for a group of ˜25,000 people (˜29,000 person-days) living in California's South Coast Air Basin. Our approach incorporates four main inputs: temporally resolved information about people's location (latitude and longitude), microenvironment, and activity level; temporally and spatially explicit model determinations of ambient concentrations; stochastically determined microenvironmental adjustment factors relating the exposure concentration to the ambient concentration; and, age-, gender-, and activity-specific breathing rates. Our study is restricted to pollutants of outdoor origin, i.e. it does not incorporate intake in a microenvironment from direct emissions into that microenvironment. Median estimated inhalation intake rates (μg d -1) are 53 for benzene, 5.1 for 1,3-butadiene, 8.7×10 -4 for hexavalent chromium in fine particulate matter (Cr-PM 2.5), 30 for diesel fine particulate matter (DPM 2.5), and 68 for ozone. For the four primary pollutants studied, estimated median intake rates are higher for non-whites and for individuals in low-income households than for the population as a whole. For ozone, a secondary pollutant, the reverse is true. Accounting for microenvironmental adjustment factors, population mobility and temporal correlations between pollutant concentrations and breathing rates affects the estimated inhalation intake by 40% on average. The approach presented here could be extended to quantify the impact on intakes and intake distributions of proposed changes in emissions, air quality, and urban infrastructure.

  7. Optimization of Air-Breathing Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1996-01-01

    The design optimization of air-breathing propulsion engine concepts has been accomplished by soft-coupling the NASA Engine Performance Program (NEPP) analyzer with the NASA Lewis multidisciplinary optimization tool COMETBOARDS. Engine problems, with their associated design variables and constraints, were cast as nonlinear optimization problems with thrust as the merit function. Because of the large number of mission points in the flight envelope, the diversity of constraint types, and the overall distortion of the design space; the most reliable optimization algorithm available in COMETBOARDS, when used by itself, could not produce satisfactory, feasible, optimum solutions. However, COMETBOARDS' unique features-which include a cascade strategy, variable and constraint formulations, and scaling devised especially for difficult multidisciplinary applications-successfully optimized the performance of subsonic and supersonic engine concepts. Even when started from different design points, the combined COMETBOARDS and NEPP results converged to the same global optimum solution. This reliable and robust design tool eliminates manual intervention in the design of air-breathing propulsion engines and eases the cycle analysis procedures. It is also much easier to use than other codes, which is an added benefit. This paper describes COMETBOARDS and its cascade strategy and illustrates the capabilities of the combined design tool through the optimization of a high-bypass- turbofan wave-rotor-topped subsonic engine and a mixed-flow-turbofan supersonic engine.

  8. Variations of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in ambient air at industrial areas in Niigata

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, K.; Mukai, H.; Tanabe, H.; Yasuhara, A.

    1996-07-01

    Typical volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform, MCF), and trichloroethane (trichloroethylene, TCE) are used as degreasers or cleaners at electrical plants and metalworks; tetrachloroethane (perchloroethylene, PCE) as well as MCF is representative solve-its for dry cleaning. Tetrachloromethane (perchloromethane, PCM) utilized as material for chemicals. Some amounts of VCHs are lost in the process and are introduced to the environment by some routes. In particular, direct exhaust of VCHs into air is one of the most serious routes; 60 to 90 percents of the VCHs used at some metalworks and relative factories were estimated to be emitted into air. Previously reported were the concentration levels of the VCHs in ambient air at some areas the atmospheric VCH concentrations at industrial areas were affected with some factories which used the VCHs, whereas those at a suburban area were lower than those at industrial regions. Furthermore, they were higher in winter season than in summer season, which might be caused by -meteorological factors. In this paper, aerial variations of VCH concentrations during two to five years at three individual industrial areas (i.e., a metalware and houseware manufacturing area, a textile and dyeing industrial area and a chemical engineering area) are presented. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Air turbo-ramjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepler, Charles E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A jet engine designed to power a supersonic airplane throughout a range of speeds from subsonic to high supersonic includes a housing which bounds an internal passage having in succession a fixed-area inlet section, a diverging passage section, a mixing section, a combustion section, and an outlet section. A fan rotor rotates in the inlet section and includes a plurality of rotor blade members. The housing includes a main body and at least one flap which is movable between one end position in which it externally bounds a portion of the diverging passage section and another end position in which it externally delimits a diverging discharge passage connecting the diverging passage section with the exterior of the housing. The cross-sectional area of the outlet section is adjustable. The rotor is driven in rotation by a fuel/oxygen powered turbine the outlet of which communicates with the mixing section, but the driving action of the turbine is discontinued at actual supersonic velocities exceeding a predetermined supersonic velocity. The pitch of at least one element of each of the rotor blade members is adjustable.

  10. Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  11. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of...

  12. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  13. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  14. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  15. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  16. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  17. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  18. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  19. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  20. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  1. Why is it so difficult to measure terpenes in ambient air?

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Biogenic compounds and in general terpenes make up a large fraction of the volatile organic compounds emitted into the ambient atmosphere. The measurement of terpenes is of importance in knowing the biogenic contribution to the atmospheric loading of organic compounds. The ambient concentrations of terpenes are usually low in the ambient atmosphere which may in itself result in difficulties in their analysis. The chemical and physical nature of the terpenes may also lead to difficulties in their analysis. Ambient air samples collected in SUMMA canisters under conditions in which terpenes should be present, and results of experiments with terpenes in SUMMA canisters will be discussed.

  2. Modelling of operation of a lithium-air battery with ambient air and oxygen-selective membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahapatsombut, Ukrit; Cheng, Hua; Scott, Keith

    2014-03-01

    A macro-homogeneous model has been developed to evaluate the impact of replacing pure oxygen with ambient air on the performance of a rechargeable non-aqueous Li-air battery. The model exhibits a significant reduction in discharge capacity, e.g. from 1240 to 226 mAh gcarbon-1 at 0.05 mA cm-2 when using ambient air rather than pure oxygen. The model correlates the relationship between the performance and electrolyte decomposition and formation of discharge products (such as Li2O2 and Li2CO3) under ambient air conditions. The model predicts a great benefit of using an oxygen-selective membrane on increasing capacity. The results indicate a good agreement between the experimental data and the model.

  3. Effect of pollutant-exposure ambient air in childhood and adulthood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wegman, D.H.

    1987-06-16

    This study explored multivariate modeling to describe the relationship between respiratory health and ambient air pollution in three Los Angeles communities using data of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function collected for the UCLA Population Studies of Chronic Obstructive Respiratory Disease. The modeling approach focused on adult non-commuting females whose ambient-air exposures were best represented by air-quality monitoring stations in the community of residence. Multivariate analysis did not provide a clear model that improved on earlier analyses based upon residence. Effects of birthplace or current abnormal respiratory health as indicators or potential susceptibility to air pollution were not identified. The results were judged indicative of limits in the data available for estimating ambient air exposures for individual study subjects.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  8. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  9. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  10. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  11. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  12. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  13. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    PubMed

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort. PMID:27168393

  14. Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

  15. Modeling of Personal Exposures to Ambient Air Toxics in Camden, New Jersey: An Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Wei; Tang, Xiaogang; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Xiangmei; Lioy, Paul J.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Individual Based Exposure Modeling (IBEM) application of MENTOR (Modeling ENvironment for TOtal Risk studies) in a hot spot area, where there are concentrated local sources on the scale of tens to hundreds of meters, and an urban reference area in Camden, NJ, to characterize the ambient concentrations and personal exposures to benzene and toluene from local ambient sources. The emission-based ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods were first estimated through atmospheric dispersion modeling. Subsequently, the calculated and measured ambient concentrations of benzene and toluene were separately combined with the time-activity diaries completed by the subjects as inputs to MENTOR/IBEM for estimating personal exposures resulting from ambient sources. The modeling results were then compared with the actual personal measurements collected from over 100 individuals in the field study to identify the gaps in modeling personal exposures in a hot spot. The modeled ambient concentrations of benzene and toluene were generally in agreement with the neighborhood measurements within a factor of 2, but were underestimated at the high-end percentiles. The major local contributors to the benzene ambient levels are from mobile sources, whereas mobile and stationary (point and area) sources contribute to the toluene ambient levels in the study area. This finding can be used as guidance for developing better air toxic emission inventories for characterizing, through modeling, the ambient concentrations of air toxics in the study area. The estimated percentage contributions of personal exposures from ambient sources were generally higher in the hot spot area than the urban reference area in Camden, NJ, for benzene and toluene. This finding demonstrates the hot spot characteristics of stronger local ambient source impacts on personal exposures. Non-ambient sources were also found as significant contributors to personal exposures to benzene and toluene

  16. Ambient air and its potential effects on conception in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Gilligan, A; Esposito, W; Schimmel, T; Dale, B

    1997-08-01

    Incidences of chemical air contamination (CAC) are common in assisted reproductive technology, but not reported in peer review format. Justified fear of car and industrial emissions clearly exists among reproductive specialists, but standards for air contents and gaseous emission limits have not been reported. Here, we describe air sampling methods and assay systems which can be applied to any laboratory or laboratory item. It was found that unfiltered outside air may be cleaner than high efficiency particulate air filtration (HEPA) filtered laboratory air or air obtained from incubators, due to accumulation of volatile organic compounds derived from adjacent spaces or specific laboratory products such as compressed CO2, sterile Petri dishes and other materials or devices known to release gaseous emissions. Specific groups of products such as anaesthetic gases, refrigerants, cleaning agents, hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene are described. The latter were shown to accumulate specifically in incubators. Isopropyl alcohol was the most dominant product found, though it was not used by the laboratory staff. Concentrations of this agent were low in incubator air, indicating that it was probably absorbed by the water in the pan or by culture medium. Measures to counter CAC are proposed, including the use of activated carbon filters and oxidizing material placed in the central air handling systems, in separate free-standing units or even inside the incubators. PMID:9308805

  17. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the national... PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers) by: (1)...

  18. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the national... PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers) by: (1)...

  19. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...This proposed rule is being issued as required by a consent decree governing the schedule for completion of this review of the air quality criteria and the secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur. Based on its review, EPA proposes to retain the current nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary......

  20. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A short-term study for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in ambient air in Green Bay, Wisconsin, has been completed. eneral Metals Works PS-1 air samplers equipped with particle filters and polyurethane foam (PUF)...

  1. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Applikon MARGA Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The verification test was conducted oer a period of 30 days (October 1 to October 31, 2008) and involved the continuous operation of duplicate semi-continuous monitoring technologies at the Burdens Creek Air Monitoring Site, an existing ambient-air monitoring station located near...

  2. Hydrogen cyanide in ambient air near a gold heap leach field: Measured vs. modeled concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orloff, Kenneth G.; Kaplan, Brian; Kowalski, Peter

    To extract gold from low-grade ores, a solution of sodium cyanide is trickled over pads of crushed ore. During this operation, small quantities of hydrogen cyanide gas may escape to the ambient air. To assess these emissions, we collected air samples at monitoring stations located on opposite sides of a gold heap leach field at distances ranging from 1100 to 1500 ft from the center of the field. Hydrogen cyanide was detected in 6 of 18 ambient air samples at concentrations ranging from 0.26 to 1.86 parts per billion (ppb). Ambient air samples collected at residential properties located within 2600 ft of the leach field did not contain detectable concentrations of cyanide (detection level of 0.2 ppb). We used site-specific data and two steady-state air dispersion models, ISCST3 and AERMOD, to predict ambient air concentrations of cyanide at the sampling points. The ISCST3 model over-predicted the measured 8-h concentrations of hydrogen cyanide by a factor of 2.4, on average, and the AERMOD model under-predicted the air concentrations of hydrogen cyanide by a factor of 0.76, on average. The major sources of uncertainty in the model predictions were the complex terrain of the area and the uncertainty in the emission rates of cyanide from the leach field. The measured and predicted concentrations of cyanide in the air samples were not at levels that would pose a human health hazard for acute or chronic exposures.

  3. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  4. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  5. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  6. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  7. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  8. Waste combustion as a source of ambient air polybrominated diphenylesters (PBDEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first comprehensive set of U.S. data on PBDE concentrations from waste combustion, with more than 40 BDE congeners reported, was compared to ambient air levels of bromodiphenylethers in the U.S. Concentrations of PBDEs were determined in the raw, pre-air pollution control sys...

  9. INDOOR/AMBIENT RESIDENTIAL AIR TOXICS RESULTS IN RURAL WESTERN MONTANA

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Tony J.; Underberg, Heidi; Jones, David; Hamilton, Raymond F.; Adams, Earle

    2009-01-01

    Indoor and ambient concentrations of 21 Volatile Organic Compounds (including 14 Hazardous Air Pollutants) were measured in the homes of nearly 80 western Montana (Missoula) high school students as part of the ‘Air Toxics Under the Big Sky’ program during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 school years. Target analytes were measured using low flow air sampling pumps and sorbent tubes, with analysis of the exposed samples by Thermal Desorption/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). The results reported here present the findings of the first indoor/ambient air toxics monitoring program conducted in a semi-rural valley location located in the Northern Rocky Mountain/western Montana region. Of all of the air toxics quantified in this study, toluene was found to be the most abundant compound in both the indoor and ambient environments during each of the two school years. Indoor log-transformed mean concentrations were found to be higher when compared with ambient log-transformed mean concentrations at P < 0.001 for the majority of the compounds, supporting the results of previous studies conducted in urban areas. For the air toxics consistently measured throughout this program, concentrations were approximately six times higher inside the student’s homes compared to those simultaneously measured directly outside their homes. For the majority of the compounds, there were no significant correlations between indoor and ambient concentrations. PMID:18548326

  10. Indoor/ambient residential air toxics results in rural western Montana.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Underberg, Heidi; Jones, David; Hamilton, Raymond F; Adams, Earle

    2009-06-01

    Indoor and ambient concentrations of 21 volatile organic compounds (including 14 hazardous air pollutants) were measured in the homes of nearly 80 western Montana (Missoula) high school students as part of the 'Air Toxics Under the Big Sky' program during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 school years. Target analytes were measured using low flow air sampling pumps and sorbent tubes, with analysis of the exposed samples by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). The results reported here present the findings of the first indoor/ambient air toxics monitoring program conducted in a semi-rural valley location located in the Northern Rocky Mountain/Western Montana region. Of all of the air toxics quantified in this study, toluene was found to be the most abundant compound in both the indoor and ambient environments during each of the two school years. Indoor log-transformed mean concentrations were found to be higher when compared with ambient log-transformed mean concentrations at P < 0.001 for the majority of the compounds, supporting the results of previous studies conducted in urban areas. For the air toxics consistently measured throughout this program, concentrations were approximately six times higher inside the student's homes compared to those simultaneously measured directly outside their homes. For the majority of the compounds, there were no significant correlations between indoor and ambient concentrations. PMID:18548326

  11. HYDROCARBON AND CARBONYL OZONE PRECURSORS IN MEXICO CITY AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban air pollution is an environmental problem in many cities around the world that has serious immediate and long-term implications to the health of the population and to the physical environment. Mexico City, in particular, faces a severe air pollution problem. The city is...

  12. Gas turbine engine and its associated air intake system

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, J.R.; Bennett, G.H.; Lee, L.A.

    1984-01-17

    A gas turbine engine and its associated air intake system are disclosed in which the air intake system comprises a generally horizontally extending duct through which an airflow is induced by an ejector pump powered by the engine. A portion of the air passing through the duct is directed through a second duct to the air inlet of the engine. The second duct is connected to the first duct in such a manner that the air directed to the engine air inlet is derived from a vertically upper region of the first duct. The arrangement is intended to reduce the amount of airborne particulate material ingested by the gas turbine engine.

  13. Ambient and household air pollution: complex triggers of disease

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Stephen A.; Nelin, Timothy D.; Falvo, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of outdoor air pollution are on the rise, particularly due to rapid urbanization worldwide. Alternatively, poor ventilation, cigarette smoke, and other toxic chemicals contribute to rising concentrations of indoor air pollution. The World Health Organization recently reported that deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollutant exposure are more than double what was originally documented. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal data have demonstrated a clear connection between rising concentrations of air pollution (both indoor and outdoor) and a host of adverse health effects. During the past five years, animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies have explored the adverse health effects associated with exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollutants throughout the various stages of life. This review provides a summary of the detrimental effects of air pollution through examination of current animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies and exposure during three different periods: maternal (in utero), early life, and adulthood. Additionally, we recommend future lines of research while suggesting conceivable strategies to curb exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. PMID:24929855

  14. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELS USING ADVANCED METHODS WITH SPECIALIZED OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED AMBIENT SPECIES -PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...

  15. Ambient air pollution: an emerging risk factor for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Xiaoquan; Montresor-Lopez, Jessica; Puett, Robin; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence supports that air pollution has become an important risk factor for developing diabetes mellitus. Understanding the contributing effect of air pollution in population studies, elucidating the potential mechanisms involved, and identifying the most responsible pollutants are all required in order to promulgate successful changes in policy and to help formulate preventive measures in an effort to reduce the risk for diabetes. This review summarizes recent findings from epidemiologic studies and mechanistic insights that provide links between exposure to air pollution and a heightened risk for diabetes. PMID:25894943

  16. Integrated engineering modeling for air breathing rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitilappilly, Lazar T.; Subramanyam, J. D. A.

    An innovative aerodynamic-propulsion-flight integrated modeling is carried out for airbreathing rockets, the propulsion of which has primary dependence on flight conditions. The integrated modeling is highly beneficial for design and analysis of accelerating air breathing rockets characterized by continuously varying flight conditions. The details of the modeling is described; the force accounting, trajectory analysis, solving the flow in the sub-systems (air intake, primary rocket, secondary combustion chamber and secondary nozzle), matching the subsystem flow fields and determining the mode of operation. Operational features are listed of the computer software developed, air breathing integrated design and analysis engineering software. It gives all the propulsion and flight parameters from take-off of the rocket to end of flight and has been instrumental in the design of the research air breathing rocket ABR-200(I). The hundreds of flight performance analyses required for design is possible by the engineering approach adopted for solving the propulsor flow field. The software results are compared with ejector mode and connected pipe mode static tests. The overall validation of the software is achieved by flight tests; the performance predictions have matched exactly with that measured during thee first and second flights of the ABR-200(I).

  17. Benzene levels in ambient air and breath of smokers and nonsmokers in urban and pristine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Gruenke, L.D.; Craig, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Benzene levels in human breath and in ambient air were compared in the urban area of San Francisco (SF) and in a more remote coastal pristine setting of Stinson Beach, Calif. (SB). Benzene analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Ambient benzene levels were sevenfold higher in SF (2.6 +/- 1.3 ppb, n = 25) than SB (0.38 +/- 0.39 ppb, n = 21). In SF, benzene in smokers' breath (6.8 +/- 3.0 ppb) was greater than in nonsmokers' breath (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) and smokers' ambient air (3.3 +/- 0.8 ppb). In SB the same pattern was observed: benzene in smokers' breath was higher than in nonsmokers' breath and ambient air. Benzene in SF nonsmokers' breath was greater than in SB nonsmokers' breath. Marijuana-only smokers had benzene breath levels between those of smokers and nonsmokers. There was little correlation between benzene in breath and number of cigarettes smoked, or with other benzene exposures such as diet. Of special interest was the finding that benzene in breath of SF nonsmokers (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) was greater than that in nonsmokers ambient air (1.4 +/- 0.1 ppb). The same was true in SB, where benzene in nonsmokers breath was greater than ambient air (1.8 +/- 0.2 ppb versus 1.0 +/- 0.1 ppb on d 1 and 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppb versus 0.23 +/- 0.18 ppb on d 2). This suggests an additional source of benzene other than outdoor ambient air.

  18. Ambient air quality monitoring during the H1N1 influence period in Pune (India).

    PubMed

    Pathak, M; Deshpande, A; Mirashe, P K; Sorte, R B; Ojha, A

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air quality in an urban area is directly linked with activity level in the city including transport, business and industrial activities. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has established an ambient air quality network in the city including state-of-the-art continuous air quality monitoring stations which indicate short duration air quality variations for criteria and non-criteria pollutants. The influence of H1N1 outbreak in Pune hitting its worst pandemic condition, led the civic authorities to implement stringent isolation measures including closure of schools, colleges, business malls, cinema halls, etc. Additionally, the fear of such a pandemic brought the city to a stand still. It was therefore necessary to assess the impacts of such activity level on ambient air quality in the city. It has been observed that such events have positive impacts on air quality of the city. There was a decrease in PM concentration almost to the tune of 30 to 40% if the impacts of precipitation, i.e. seasonal variations, are taken into account. Similarly, the non criteria pollutants too showed a marked but unusual decrease in their concentrations in this ever growing city. The influence of these in turn led to lowered concentrations of secondary pollutants, i.e. O3. Overall, the ambient air quality of Pune was found to be improved during the study period. PMID:22312797

  19. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  9. Contamination of Ambient Air with Acinetobacter baumannii on Consecutive Inpatient Days.

    PubMed

    Shimose, Luis A; Doi, Yohei; Bonomo, Robert A; De Pascale, Dennise; Viau, Roberto A; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2015-07-01

    Acinetobacter-positive patients had their ambient air tested for up to 10 consecutive days. The air was Acinetobacter positive for an average of 21% of the days; the rate of contamination was higher among patients colonized in the rectum than in the airways (relative risk [RR], 2.35; P = 0.006). Of the 6 air/clinical isolate pairs available, 4 pairs were closely related according to rep-PCR results. PMID:25926496

  10. Automatic electrochemical ambient air monitor for chloride and chlorine

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1976-07-13

    An electrochemical monitoring system has been provided for determining chloride and chlorine in air at levels of from about 10-1000 parts per billion. The chloride is determined by oxidation to chlorine followed by reduction to chloride in a closed system. Chlorine is determined by direct reduction at a platinum electrode in 6 M H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 electrolyte. A fully automated system is utilized to (1) acquire and store a value corresponding to electrolyte-containing impurities, (2) subtract this value from that obtained in the presence of air, (3) generate coulometrically a standard sample of chlorine mixed with air sample, and determine it as chlorine and/or chloride, and (4) calculate, display, and store for permanent record the ratio of the signal obtained from the air sample and that obtained with the standard.

  11. Modeling of Magnetron Argon Plasma Issuing into Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin-Cun; Xia, Wei-Dong

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented to describe the heat transfer and fluid flow in a magnetron plasma torch, by means of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code fluent. Specific calculations are presented for a gas-mixing system (i.e., an argon plasma discharging into an air environment), operating in a laminar mode. Numerical results show that an external axial magnetic field (AMF) may have a significant effect on the behavior of an arc plasma, i.e., the AMF will impel the plasma to retract axially and expand radially. In addition, the use of an AMF induces a strong air indraft at the torch spout, and the air mixing with the argon gas results in a marked increase in arc voltage. An increment in the amount of the oncoming argon gas restrains the quantity of the air indraft, and this should be responsible for a lower arc voltage in such an AMF torch when a larger gas inflow is used.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter K Appendix K to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. K Appendix K to Part...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt... determining when the annual and 24-hour primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS... appendix D of 40 CFR part 58, then 3 years of spatially averaged annual means will be averaged to...

  15. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  16. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  17. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  18. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  19. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  20. Ambient temperature, air pollution, and heart rate variability in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Ren, Cizao; O'Neill, Marie S; Park, Sung Kyun; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-05-01

    Studies show that ambient temperature and air pollution are associated with cardiovascular disease and that they may interact to affect cardiovascular events. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined mechanisms through which ambient temperature may influence cardiovascular function. The authors examined whether temperature was associated with heart rate variability (HRV) in a Boston, Massachusetts, study population and whether such associations were modified by ambient air pollution concentrations. The population was a cohort of 694 older men examined between 2000 and 2008. The authors fitted a mixed model to examine associations between temperature and air pollution and their interactions with repeated HRV measurements, adjusting for covariates selected a priori on the basis of their previous studies. Results showed that higher ambient temperature was associated with decreases in HRV measures (standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals, low-frequency power, and high-frequency power) during the warm season but not during the cold season. These warm-season associations were significantly greater when ambient ozone levels were higher (>22.3 ppb) but did not differ according to levels of ambient fine (≤2.5 μm) particulate matter. The authors conclude that temperature and ozone, exposures to both of which are expected to increase with climate change, might act together to worsen cardiovascular health and/or precipitate cardiovascular events via autonomic nervous system dysfunction. PMID:21385834

  1. Ambient noise as the new source for urban engineering seismology and earthquake engineering: a case study from Beijing metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chen, Qi-fu; Wang, Weijun; Rohrbach, Eric

    2014-02-01

    In highly populated urban centers, traditional seismic survey sources can no longer be properly applied due to restrictions in modern civilian life styles. The ambient vibration noise, including both microseisms and microtremor, though are generally weak but available anywhere and anytime, can be an ideal supplementary source for conducting seismic surveys for engineering seismology and earthquake engineering. This is fundamentally supported by advanced digital signal processing techniques for effectively extracting the useful information out from the noise. Thus, it can be essentially regarded as a passive seismic method. In this paper we first make a brief survey of the ambient vibration noise, followed by a quick summary of digital signal processing for passive seismic surveys. Then the applications of ambient noise in engineering seismology and earthquake engineering for urban settings are illustrated with examples from Beijing metropolitan area. For engineering seismology the example is the assessment of site effect in a large area via microtremor observations. For earthquake engineering the example is for structural characterization of a typical reinforced concrete high-rise building using background vibration noise. By showing these examples we argue that the ambient noise can be treated as a new source that is economical, practical, and particularly valuable to engineering seismology and earthquake engineering projects for seismic hazard mitigation in urban areas.

  2. Biogenic hydrocarbon contribution to the ambient air of selected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnts, Robert R.; Meeks, Sarah A.

    In response to suggestions that biogenic emissions are responsible for high hydrocarbon concentrations described in several reports, a short-term sampling program was initiated in the reported areas to test this hypothesis. Limited numbers of whole-air samples were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection. Tulsa air was found to contain an average of 0.2% isoprene of the total nonmethane hydrocarbon (TNMHC) load. Rio Blanco County, Colorado, and Smoky Mountain air, respectively, averaged about 2 % and 4 % biogenic hydrocarbon of the total nonmethane hydrocarbon loads. Isoprene appears to be a dominant olefin in rural and remote areas. Although the tests were of short duration, results suggest monoterpenes and isoprene constitute only minor components in these areas relative to anthropogenic hydrocarbons.

  3. Evaluation of methodology for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and 13C12-1234-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hours to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with 13C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to clean-up procedures using microcolumns of silica gel, alumina and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from this study satisfied QA/QC requirements for analytical data and demonstrated that the methodology could accurately determine pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of these compounds in ambient air. Background levels detected in ambient air are also discussed.

  4. Optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for Primary lithium/air batteries operated in Ambient Enviroment

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2009-07-07

    The selection and optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for ambient operations of lithium/air batteries has been studied. Organic solvents with low volatility and low moisture absorption are necessary to minimize the change of electrolyte compositions and the reaction between lithium anode and water during discharge process. It is critical to make the electrolytes with high polarity so that it can reduce wetting and flooding of carbon based air electrode and lead to improved battery performance. For ambient operations, the viscosity, ionic conductivity, and oxygen solubility of the electrolyte are less important than the polarity of organic solvents once the electrolyte has reasonable viscosity, conductivity, and oxygen solubility. It has been found that PC/EC mixture is the best solvent system and LiTFSI is the most feasible salt for ambient operations of Li/air batteries. Battery performance is not very sensitive to PC/EC ratio or salt concentration.

  5. Beryllium concentrations in ambient air and its source identification. A case study.

    PubMed

    Thorat, D D; Mahadevan, T N; Ghosh, D K; Narayan, S

    2001-06-01

    Beryllium concentrations in atmospheric particulate and soil samples in and around a Beryllium Processing Facility (BPF) have been measured. The mean air concentration level of beryllium in and around the fence line of the BPF is 0.48 +/- 0.43 ng m(-3) (n = 397) and is mostly influenced by diurnal and seasonal changes. The observed air concentration levels were well below the prescribed ambient air quality (AAQ) standard of 10 ng m(-3). The soil concentration levels of beryllium in the study area were found to be in the range of 1.42-2.75 microg g(-1). The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of beryllium aerosols in ambient air was found to be 6.9 microm. Source identification using the Enrichment Factor (EF) approach indicates soil as the predominant contributory source for air concentrations at the site. PMID:11393544

  6. Simple and accurate quantification of BTEX in ambient air by SPME and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Baimatova, Nassiba; Kenessov, Bulat; Koziel, Jacek A; Carlsen, Lars; Bektassov, Marat; Demyanenko, Olga P

    2016-07-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) comprise one of the most ubiquitous and hazardous groups of ambient air pollutants of concern. Application of standard analytical methods for quantification of BTEX is limited by the complexity of sampling and sample preparation equipment, and budget requirements. Methods based on SPME represent simpler alternative, but still require complex calibration procedures. The objective of this research was to develop a simpler, low-budget, and accurate method for quantification of BTEX in ambient air based on SPME and GC-MS. Standard 20-mL headspace vials were used for field air sampling and calibration. To avoid challenges with obtaining and working with 'zero' air, slope factors of external standard calibration were determined using standard addition and inherently polluted lab air. For polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber, differences between the slope factors of calibration plots obtained using lab and outdoor air were below 14%. PDMS fiber provided higher precision during calibration while the use of Carboxen/PDMS fiber resulted in lower detection limits for benzene and toluene. To provide sufficient accuracy, the use of 20mL vials requires triplicate sampling and analysis. The method was successfully applied for analysis of 108 ambient air samples from Almaty, Kazakhstan. Average concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were 53, 57, 11 and 14µgm(-3), respectively. The developed method can be modified for further quantification of a wider range of volatile organic compounds in air. In addition, the new method is amenable to automation. PMID:27154647

  7. Effects of respirator ambient air cooling on thermophysiological responses and comfort sensations.

    PubMed

    Caretti, David M; Barker, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    This investigation assessed the thermophysiological and subjective impacts of different respirator ambient air cooling options while wearing chemical and biological personal protective equipment in a warm environment (32.7 ± 0.4°C, 49.6 ± 6.5% RH). Ten volunteers participated in 90-min heat exposure trials with and without respirator (Control) wear and performed computer-generated tasks while seated. Ambient air cooling was provided to respirators modified to blow air to the forehead (FHC) or to the forehead and the breathing zone (BZC) of a full-facepiece air-purifying respirator using a low-flow (45 L·min(-1)) mini-blower. An unmodified respirator (APR) trial was also completed. The highest body temperatures (TTY) and least favorable comfort ratings were observed for the APR condition. With ambient cooling over the last 60 min of heat exposure, TTY averaged 37.4 ± 0.6°C for Control, 38.0 ± 0.4°C for APR, 37.8 ± 0.5°C for FHC, and 37.6 ± 0.7°C for BZC conditions independent of time. Both the FHC and BZC ambient air cooling conditions reduced facial skin temperatures, reduced the rise in body temperatures, and led to more favorable subjective comfort and thermal sensation ratings over time compared to the APR condition; however statistical differences among conditions were inconsistent. Independent of exposure time, average breathing apparatus comfort scores with BZC (7.2 ± 2.5) were significantly different from both Control (8.9 ± 1.4) and APR (6.5 ± 2.2) conditions when ambient cooling was activated. These findings suggest that low-flow ambient air cooling of the face under low work rate conditions and mild hyperthermia may be a practical method to minimize the thermophysiological strain and reduce perceived respirator discomfort. PMID:24730706

  8. 75 FR 81126 - Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... of the State and local monitoring network. If after a review of the data from the monitoring study we... Worldwide Web through the Technology Transfer Network (TTN). Following the Administrator's signature, a copy... various areas of air pollution control. III. Background The EPA issued a final rule on November 12,...

  9. Traffic emission factors of ultrafine particles: effects from ambient air.

    PubMed

    Janhäll, Sara; Molnar, Peter; Hallquist, Mattias

    2012-09-01

    Ultrafine particles have a significant detrimental effect on both human health and climate. In order to abate this problem, it is necessary to identify the sources of ultrafine particles. A parameterisation method is presented for estimating the levels of traffic-emitted ultrafine particles in terms of variables describing the ambient conditions. The method is versatile and could easily be applied to similar datasets in other environments. The data used were collected during a four-week period in February 2005, in Gothenburg, as part of the Göte-2005 campaign. The specific variables tested were temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), carbon monoxide concentration (CO), and the concentration of particles up to 10 μm diameter (PM(10)); all indicators are of importance for aerosol processes such as coagulation and gas-particle partitioning. These variables were selected because of their direct effect on aerosol processes (T and RH) or as proxies for aerosol surface area (CO and PM(10)) and because of their availability in local monitoring programmes, increasing the usability of the parameterization. Emission factors are presented for 10-100 nm particles (ultrafine particles; EF(ufp)), for 10-40 nm particles (EF(10-40)), and for 40-100 nm particles (EF(40-100)). For EF(40-100) no effect of ambient conditions was found. The emission factor equations are calculated based on an emission factor for NO(x) of 1 g km(-1), thus the particle emission factors are easily expressed in units of particles per gram of NO(x) emitted. For 10-100 nm particles the emission factor is EF(ufp) = 1.8 × 10(15) × (1 - 0.095 × CO - 3.2 × 10(-3) × T) particles km(-1). Alternative equations for the EFs in terms of T and PM(10) concentration are also presented. PMID:22858604

  10. Economic Activity and Trends in Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary E.; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background One challenge in assessing the health effects of human exposure to air pollution in epidemiologic studies is the lack of widespread historical air pollutant monitoring data with which to characterize past exposure levels. Objectives Given the availability of long-term economic data, we relate economic activity levels to patterns in vehicle-related particulate matter (PM) over a 30-year period in New Jersey, USA, to provide insight into potential historical surrogate markers of air pollution. Methods We used statewide unemployment and county-level trucking industry characteristics to estimate historical coefficient of haze (COH), a marker of vehicle-related PM predominantly from diesel exhaust. A total of 5,920 observations were included across 25 different locations in New Jersey between 1971 and 2003. Results A mixed-modeling approach was employed to estimate the impact of economic indicators on measured COH. The model explained approximately 50% of the variability in COH as estimated by the overall R2 value. Peaks and lows in unemployment tracked negatively with similar extremes in COH, whereas employment in the trucking industry was positively associated with COH. Federal air quality regulations also played a large and significant role in reducing COH levels over the study period. Conclusions This new approach outlines an alternative method to reconstruct historical exposures that may greatly aid epidemiologic research on specific causes of health effects from urban air pollution. Economic activity data provide a potential surrogate marker of changes in exposure levels over time in the absence of direct monitoring data for chronic disease studies, but more research in this area is needed. PMID:20056563

  11. 76 FR 6056 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology... (74 FR 58688), EPA deferred designations for three areas to evaluate further the reason for their high... November 13, 2009 notice (74 FR 58688), we also announced that our review of 2006-2008 monitoring data...

  12. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  13. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children’s ambient exposure to manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to asse...

  14. Nocturnal stomatal conductance and ambient air quality standards for ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Minnick, Tamera J.

    Vegetation response to ozone depends on ozone conductance into leaves and the defensive action inside the leaf. Ozone parameters currently used for air quality standards do not incorporate conductance or defensive components. Nighttime flux has often been ignored in ozone metrics relating to plant response, since ozone concentration and conductance are considered to be minimal at night. However, ozone concentration can remain relatively high at night, particularly in mountainous areas. Although conductance is lower at night than during the day for most plants, nocturnal conductance can result in considerable ozone flux into plants. Further, plants can be more susceptible to ozone exposure at night than during the daytime, a result of lower plant defenses at night. Any ozone metric used to relate air quality to plant response should use a 24 h ozone exposure period to include the nighttime exposures. It should also incorporate plant defensive mechanisms or their surrogate.

  15. Air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, H.; Tomobe, N.

    1987-03-10

    This patent describes an air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine having a choke valve and a throttle valve in an intake air passage. The system is adapted to supply an air intake side secondary air into an intake air passage downstream of the throttle valve by a control valve and in response to an operating condition of the engine during a cold operation of the engine. The improvement described here comprises means for detecting a no-load operating state of the engine during the cold operation of the engine in which the choke valve is actuated to close the intake air passage, and means for stopping a supply of the air intake side secondary air upon detection of the non-load operating state so as to enrich an air-fuel mixture supplied to the engine.

  16. Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Maeve E; Grantz, Katherine L; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Kim, Sung Soo; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-06-15

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a major factor that predisposes women to preterm delivery. Results from previous studies have suggested that there are associations between exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, but evidence of a relationship with PROM is sparse. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models were used to estimate mean exposures to particulate matter less than 10 µm or less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone among 223,375 singleton deliveries in the Air Quality and Reproductive Health Study (2002-2008). We used log-linear models with generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for PROM per each interquartile-range increase in pollutants across the whole pregnancy, on the day of delivery, and 5 hours before delivery. Whole-pregnancy exposures to carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide were associated with an increased risk of PROM (for carbon monoxide, relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.14; for sulfur dioxide, RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.25) but not preterm PROM. Ozone exposure increased the risk of PROM on the day of delivery (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09) and 1 day prior (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). In the 5 hours preceding delivery, there were 3%-7% increases in risk associated with exposure to ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter and inverse associations with exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Acute and long-term air pollutant exposures merit further study in relation to PROM. PMID:27188941

  17. Characterization, identification of ambient air and road dust polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in central Taiwan, Taichung.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Yang, I-Lin; Chen, Ming-Hsiang

    2004-07-01

    The concentrations of ambient air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured simultaneously in an industrial area (Taichung Industrial Park, TIP) and suburban area (Tunghai University, THU) in central Taiwan, Taichung. A total of samples were collected simultaneously at the two sites between August 2002 and March 2003. Particle-bound PAHs (p-PAHs) were collected on quartz filters and gas-phase PAHs (g-PAHs) on glass cartridges using polyurethane foam sampler, respectively. Both types of samples were extracted with dichloromethane/n-hexane mixture (50/50, v/v) for 24 h, then the extracts were subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Moreover, the roadside dust particle PAHs composition were also collected and analyzed at TIP, THU and traffic road sampling sites. The five main road lines in Taichung City were selected as traffic road sampling sites. Correlation studies between PAHs concentrations and meteorological parameters were revealed that temperature has greater effects (P>0.6) than other meteorological parameters such as wind speed, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure on g-PAHs and p-PAHs. PAHs sources were resolved by using principal component analysis and diagnostic ratios. The major sources of PAHs were combustion, traffic vehicle exhaust (diesel and gasoline engine), incinerator and industrial stationary sources at both sampling sites in central Taiwan. PMID:15172577

  18. Effect of ambient air quality on throughfall acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.; Clesceri, N.L.; Gherini, S.A.; Goldstein, R.A.

    1985-06-01

    Observations at Woods Lake-watershed in the Adirondacks (New York) indicate that precipitation is further acidified by passage through coniferous canopies; conversely, passage through deciduous canopies has a net alkalizing effect. Both effects are dependent upon the levels of air quality. If the aerosol concentrations were to decrease to 35% of the current levels, both types of canopy would have a net alkalizing effect on incident precipitation. If the aerosol concentrations doubled, both canopy types would be net acidifiers of throughfall. The experimental procedure of varying aerosol concentration in an enclosed chamber may provide a means for measuring foliar exudation.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  4. Mutagenicity of ambient air pollutants collected near aluminum industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrane, K. E.; Aune, T.; Søderlund, E.; Aune, K. Tveito; Hongslo, J.; Møller, M.

    Mutagenicity has been tested in air samples collected in the summer and in the winter near four Norwegian aluminum plants. The samples were separated into a particulate and a volatile fraction and tested for mutagenicity by a quantitative reversion assay which showed that the suspended particles were clearly mutagenic. The volatile part of the air pollutants were cytotoxic to the bacteria and showed only marginal mutagenicity. The particulate fractions were tested more extensively in the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test, in two laboratories, using the strains TA 98 and TA 100 with and without enzymatic activation (S9). The mutagenicity was relatively high compared to particulate fractions from other areas with industry and dense traffic. The highest mutagenicity was found in TA 100 with enzymatic activation and the lowest in TA 100 without S9. The mutagenicity was influenced by wind speed and direction during sampling. The mutagenic activity was also determined in the nitroreductase deficient strains TA 98NR and TA 98/1.8DNP. A larger reduction in the activity was found compared to samples from other areas, thus indicating a difference in the sample composition.

  5. Open Air Silicon Deposition by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma under Local Ambient Gas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report open air silicon (Si) deposition by combining a silane free Si deposition technology and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. Recently, material processing in open air has been investigated intensively. While a variety of materials have been deposited, there were only few reports on Si deposition due to the susceptibility to contamination and the hazardous nature of source materials. Since Si deposition is one of the most important processes in device fabrication, we have developed open air silicon deposition technologies in BEANS project. For a clean and safe process, a local ambient gas control head was designed. Process gas leakage was prevented by local evacuation, and air contamination was shut out by inert curtain gas. By numerical and experimental investigations, a safe and clean process condition with air contamination less than 10 ppm was achieved. Si film was deposited in open air by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under the local ambient gas control. The film was microcrystalline Si with the crystallite size of 17 nm, and the Hall mobility was 2.3 cm2/V .s. These properties were comparable to those of Si films deposited in a vacuum chamber. This research has been conducted as one of the research items of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization ``BEANS'' project.

  6. Application of amine-tethered solid sorbents for direct CO2 capture from the ambient air.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunho; Drese, Jeffrey H; Eisenberger, Peter M; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-03-15

    While current carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for large point sources can help address the impact of CO(2) buildup on global climate change, these technologies can at best slow the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO(2) concentration. In contrast, the direct CO(2) capture from ambient air offers the potential to be a truly carbon negative technology. We propose here that amine-based solid adsorbents have significant promise as key components of a hypothetical air capture process. Specifically, the CO(2) capture characteristics of hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) materials are evaluated here using CO(2) mixtures that simulate ambient atmospheric concentrations (400 ppm CO(2) = "air capture") as well as more traditional conditions simulating flue gas (10% CO(2)). The air capture experiments demonstrate that the adsorption capacity of HAS adsorbents are only marginally influenced even with a significant dilution of the CO(2) concentration by a factor of 250, while capturing CO(2) reversibly without significant degradation of performance in multicyclic operation. These results suggest that solid amine-based air capture processes have the potential to be an effective approach to extracting CO(2) from the ambient air. PMID:21323309

  7. 28. Main engine air pump located to port side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Main engine air pump located to port side of main engine cylinder beside engine bed. Dynamo lies aft of air pump (at right), pipe at extreme left of image carries lake water to condenser valves. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  8. Evaluation and Comparison of Chemiluminescence and UV Photometric Methods for Measuring Ozone Concentrations in Ambient Air

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring concentrations of ozone in ambient air is based on the dry, gas-phase, chemiluminescence reaction between ethylene (C2H4) and any ozone (O3) that may be p...

  9. Chapter 7: Impact of Nitrogen and Climate Change Interactions on Ambient Air Pollution and Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are important components of ambient and indoor air pollution and are emitted from a range of combustion sources, including on-road mobile sources, electric power generators, and non-road mobile sources. While anthropogenic sources dominate, NOX is also forme...

  10. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM AMBIENT AIR AUDITS OF ANALYTICAL PROFEICIENCY--1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of the U.S Environmental Protection Agencys 1988 National Ambient Air Performance Audit Program, Semiannual audits were conducted for lead, nitrate and sulfate on filter strips. ne audit was Conducted for high volume/PM10 size Selective inlet (ssi...

  11. Performance of the Proposed New Federal Reference Methods for Measuring Ozone Concentrations in Ambient Air

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring concentrations of ozone in ambient air, described in EPA regulations at 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix D, is based on the dry, gas-phase, chemiluminescence reaction between ethylene (C2H4) and any ozone (O

  12. 78 FR 52893 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 RIN 2060-AR34 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements Correction In proposed rule...

  13. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems - Second Round

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test/QA Plan for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems - Second Round. Changes reflect performance of second round of testing at new location and with various changes to personnel. Additional changes reflect general improvements to the Version 1 test/QA...

  14. A STRINGENT COMPARISON OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A carefully designed study was conducted during the summer of 1998 to simultaneously collect samples of ambient air by canisters and compare the analysis results to direct sorbent preconcentration results taken at the time of sample collection. A total of 32 1-h sample sets we...

  15. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM--AMBIENT AIR AUDITS OF ANALYTICAL PROFICIENCY--1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 1987 National Ambient Air Audit Program by pollutant and by analytical method. Semiannual audits were conducted for CO, Pb, NO3 and S04 (filter strips) and acid rain, and an annual audit was conducted ...

  16. OZONE AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD HAS BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON PONDEROSA PINE IN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air quality standards and control strategies are implemented to protect humans and vegetation from adverse effects. However, to date there has not been a simple and objective method to determine if the standards and resultant control strategies have reduced O3 impacts on ...

  17. COMPARISON OF FAST GC/TOFMS WITH METHOD TO-14 FOR ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies using portable gas chromatographs (PGC) to analyze volatile organic compounds in ambient air usually include, as reference standard method, the analysis of concurrent, collocated canister samples by EPA Method TO-14. Each laboratory analysis takes about an hour a...

  18. [Motor transport emission, ambient air quality, and the Moscow population's health].

    PubMed

    Ivanenko, A V; Volkova, I F; Kornienko, A P

    2007-01-01

    As of 2006, the city's motor transport fleet amounted to as many as 3 million units that annually consume about 5 million tons of petrol. The use rate of all kinds of vehicles has increased, resulting in the growth of the proportion of ambient air pollutants discharged by motor transport, which surpasses the increase of the absolute size of the fleet. The contribution of traveling sources to ambient air pollution is growing steadily and it has been recently about 90% (1 million tons). Implementation of measures and developed managerial decisions, and ecological programs, improvement of Moscow town-planning measures, and environment-improving measures against motor vehicles have contributed to a reduction in chemical and physical burdens on the population. The characteristics of the capital's ambient air pollution have been recently observed to become stable and improve. There is stabilization in morbidity due to respiratory diseases in all population groups. The prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases in children is on the decrease, the increase rate was 1.4% versus 33.5% in the preceding period. Assessment of carcinogenic risk showed that ambient air pollution and drinking water contamination had a negative impact on the Moscow population. PMID:18161184

  19. AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT AIR NEAR A COMMERCIAL LURGI COAL GASIFICATION PLANT, KOSOVO REGION, YUGOSLAVIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air samples were collected continuously from May 14-29, 1980 to determine if the emissions from a commercial Lurgi coal gasification plant could be identified downwind of the facility. Physical, inorganic, and organic analyses were carried out on the collected aerosol sam...

  20. AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND SELECTED BIRTH DEFECTS, SEVEN COUNTY STUDY, TEXAS, 1997-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A number of epidemiologic investigations have shown adverse effects of ambient air pollution on reproductive outcomes. A recent case-control study found associations between

    second gestational month carbon monoxide and ozone exposure and elevated risks of selec...

  1. USE OF BIOASSAY METHODS TO EVALUATE MUTAGENICITY OF AMBIENT AIR COLLECTED NEAR A MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ambient air sampling study was conducted around a municipal waste combustor with a primary goal being to develop procedures to evaluate the emissions of organic mutagens resulting from incomplete combustion of municipal waste. he products of incomplete combustion from incinera...

  2. Report on sampling and analysis of ambient air at the central waste complex

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    Over 160 ambient indoor air samples were collected from warehouses at the Central Waste Complex used for the storage of low- level radioactive and mixed wastes. These grab (SUMMA) samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data from this survey suggest that several buildings had elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds.

  3. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    .... This designation is made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method for O 3 is an automated method that... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  5. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method for... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  6. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  7. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new...

  8. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... provisions of 40 CFR Part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new PM 10 equivalent... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Two New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  9. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new O 3 equivalent method is an... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods; Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  10. GC/MS ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR AEROSOLS IN THE HOUSTON, TEXAS AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air aerosols and vapor samples were collected by Radian Corp., Austin, TX. in the Houston, Texas area using three different samplers. A High Volume sampler and dichotomous sampler were used for the collection of particulate matter; vapor-phase organic samples were collect...

  11. Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

  12. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES INDUCE PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN HEALTHY HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We tested the hypothesis that exposure of healthy volunteers to concentrated ambient particles (CAPS) is associated with an influx of inflammatory cells into the lower respiratory tract. Thirty-eight volunteers were exposed to either filtered air or particles concentrated fro...

  13. TUNGSTIC ACID TECHNIQUE FOR MONITORING NITRIC ACID AND AMMONIA IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new measurement procedure has been applied in field studies for monitoring ambient concentrations of HNO3 and NH3. Preconcentration of these gases as well as separation from their particulate forms is achieved by pulling the sampled air through a diffusion tube coated with the ...

  14. Air-cooled overhead-valve engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, T.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes an air-cooled overhead-valve internal combustion engine. The engine is composed of a crankcase with a crankshaft, a cylinder block with a cylinder head and a combustion chamber mounted in the crankcase. At least a pair of intake and exhaust valves installed in intake and exhaust ports are formed in the cylinder head. A valve drive system mounted adjacent to the cylinder block drives the intake and exhaust valves through cam-driven push rods. An intake pipe is connected at one end of the intake port and at its opposite end to an air cleaner and a carburetor. An exhaust duct is connected at one end of the exhaust port. A flywheel is joined to the crankshaft at the other end of the output side end of the crankshaft and a cooling fan mounted on the flywheel. The improvements are where the cooling fan is housed, together with the crankcase and flywheel, in a fan casing having a pair of inlet and outlet openings bored in opposite walls. The inlet opening is located at the flywheel side of the crankshaft, while the outlet opening is located at the opposite side of the crankshaft from the flywheel. The cam-driven push rods are located in the crankcase on that side of the cylinder block far remote from where the intake pipe is connected to the intake port. The cooling fan is mounted in the fan casing in such a manner that the cooling air from the cooling fan is allowed to flow in a direction substantially parallel with the axis of the crankshaft, along the surface of the cylinder block and cylinder head.

  15. Effect of fireworks on ambient air quality in Malta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilleri, Renato; Vella, Alfred J.

    2010-11-01

    Religious festivals ( festas) in the densely populated Maltese archipelago (Central Mediterranean) are ubiquitous during summer when 86 of them are celebrated between June and October, each involving the burning of fireworks both in ground and aerial displays over a period of 3 days or longer per festival. We assessed the effect of fireworks on the air quality by comparing PM 10 and its content of Al, Ba, Cu, Sr and Sb which materials are used in pyrotechnic compositions. PM 10 was collected mainly from two sites, one in Malta (an urban background site) and the other in Gozo (a rural site) during July-August 2005 when 59 feasts were celebrated and September-October 2005 when only 11 feasts occurred. For both Malta and Gozo, PM 10 and metal concentration levels measured as weekly means were significantly higher during July-August compared to September-October and there exist strong correlations between PM 10 and total metal content. Additionally, for Malta dust, Al, Ba, Cu and Sr correlated strongly with each other and also with total concentration of all five metals. The same parameters measured in April 2006 in Malta were at levels similar to those found in the previous October. Ba and Sb in dust from the urban background site in Malta during July-August were at comparable or higher concentration than recently reported values in PM 10 from a heavily-trafficked London road and this suggests that these metals are locally not dominated by sources from roadside materials such as break liner wear but more likely by particulate waste from fireworks. Our findings point to the fact that festa firework displays contribute significantly and for a prolonged period every year to airborne dust in Malta where PM 10 is an intractable air quality concern. The presence in this dust of elevated levels of Ba and especially Sb, a possible carcinogen, is of concern to health.

  16. Determination of hexavalent chromium in ambient air: A story of method induced Cr(III) oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirez, Kristof; Silversmit, Geert; Bleux, Nico; Adriaensens, Elke; Roekens, Edward; Servaes, Kelly; Vanhoof, Chris; Vincze, Laszlo; Berghmans, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    The accuracy of the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient particulate matter remains a challenge from the point of view of minimal Cr species interconversion. Knowledge of this method induced oxidation and reduction is particularly relevant for the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient particulate matter, as the level of observed Cr(III) oxidation (average of 1.7% in this study) can contribute significantly to the monitored range of measured Cr(VI) in PM 10. For Cr concentrations in PM 10 > 10 ng Cr m -3, this method induced oxidation could lead to false positive exceeding of an air quality guideline value of 0.2 ng Cr(VI) m -3 in PM 10. The median daily Cr(VI) concentration in PM 10 measured over a monitoring period of more than 2 months at two locations close to a stainless steel factory amounted to 0.9 ng Cr(VI) m -3 and 0.27 ng Cr(VI) m -3. Average daily Cr(VI)/Cr ratios in PM 10 of 3.5% and 2.6% were measured at these locations. The described monitoring for the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient air via alkaline impregnated filters is sensitive (method detection limit of 0.015 ng Cr(VI) m -3) and reproducible (precision of the method ˜25%). The average Cr(VI) recovery of 75% strongly indicates the effects of ambient sampling conditions and ambient particles on the Cr(VI) recoveries. The stability of the Cr(VI) and the Cr(III) spike on 0.12 M NaHCO 3 impregnated filters observed with XANES, indicates that the alkaline extraction of the filter in combination with the sampled air matrix is likely to induce the Cr conversions. The XANES spectra shows further that a Cr-spinel is the predominant component of Cr in ambient air PM 10 at the monitored locations.

  17. The National Ambient Air Monitoring Stategy: Rethinking the Role of National Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    A current re-engineering of the United States routine ambient monitoring networks intended to improve the balance in addressing both regulatory and scientific objectives is addressed in this paper. Key attributes of these network modifications include the addition of collocated ...

  18. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Lan; Qiu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqun; Qiu, Weitao; He, Xiaochun; Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Qingmei; Li, Min; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Tang, Zhongfeng; Chen, Ya; Yue, Li; Da, Zhenqiang; Xu, Xiaoying; Huang, Huang; Liu, Qing; Bell, Michelle L.; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-07-01

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010-2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m-3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m-3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects.

  19. Laboratory study of asthmatic volunteers exposed to nitrogen dioxide and to ambient air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Avol, E.L.; Linn, W.S.; Peng, R.C.; Valencia, G.; Little, D.; Hackney, J.D.

    1988-04-01

    Adult volunteers with moderate to severe asthma (N = 59) underwent dose-response studies to assess their reactivity to nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) in otherwise clean air. Exposure concentrations were 0.0 (control), 0.3 and 0.6 ppm. A subgroup (N = 36) also underwent exposures to Los Angeles area ambient air at times when NO/sub 2/ pollution was expected. Concentrations of NO/sub 2/ during ambient exposures were 0.086 +/- 0.024 ppm (mean +/- s.d.). All exposures took place in a movable chamber/laboratory facility. Each study lasted 2 hr, with alternating 10 min periods of exercise (mean ventilation rate 40 L/min) and rest. Lung function was measured prior to exposure and after 10 min, 1 hr and 2 hr of exposure. Symptoms were recorded prior to exposure, during exposure and for 1 week afterward. In some subjects bronchial reactivity to cold air was measured 1 hr after the end of exposure and again 24 hr later. Different exposure conditions were presented in randomized order, 1 week apart. No pollutant exposure produced statistically significant changes in lung function, symptoms, or bronchial reactivity, relative to clean air. Ambient air exposures produced the largest (still nonsignificant) mean changes in some lung function tests. Given the physiological and atmospheric variability, negative statistical results do not rule out a small unfavorable effect of ambient pollution on lung function. If any such effect occurred, it was not likely caused by NO/sub 2/. Statistical results remained negative when the analysis was restricted to the 20 subjects with most severe lung dysfunction. In conclusion at least in the Los Angeles area, sensitivity to ambient concentrations of NO/sub 2/ is not common, even among adult asthmatics with moderate to severe disease.

  20. Application of a dry-gas meter for measuring air sample volumes in an ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-05-24

    Ambient air monitoring for non-research applications (e.g. compliance) occurs at locations throughout the world. Often, the air sampling systems employed for these purposes employee simple yet robust equipment capable of handling the rigors of demanding sampling schedules. At the Hanford Site (near Richland, Washington) concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air are monitored continuously at 44 locations. In 2004, mechanical dry-gas meters were incorporated into the Hanford Site ambient air sample collection system to allow the direct measurement of sample volumes. These meters replaced a portable airflow measurement system that required two manual flow measurements and a sample duration measurement to determine sample volume. A six-month evaluation of the dry-gas meters compared sample volumes calculated using the original flow rate method to the direct sample volume measurement (new method). The results of the evaluation indicate that use of the dry-gas meters result in accurate sample volume measurements and provide greater confidence in the measured sample volumes. In several years of in-network use, the meters have proven to be reliable and have resulted in an improved sampling system.

  1. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. (c) EPA's authority under paragraph (b) of this section... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  2. A Direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard

    EPA Science Inventory

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA’s responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and ...

  3. 76 FR 20347 - Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... (75 FR 8934). The draft IRP is being made available for consultation with CASAC and for public comment... AGENCY Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (draft IRP). This document contains the plans for...

  4. Optimized Arrangement of Constant Ambient Air Monitoring Stations in the Kanto Region of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shirato, Shintaro; Iizuka, Atsushi; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous ambient air monitoring systems have been introduced worldwide. However, such monitoring forces autonomous communities to bear a significant financial burden. Thus, it is important to identify pollutant-monitoring stations that are less efficient, while minimizing loss of data quality and mitigating effects on the determination of spatiotemporal trends of pollutants. This study describes a procedure for optimizing a constant ambient air monitoring system in the Kanto region of Japan. Constant ambient air monitoring stations in the area were topologically classified into four groups by cluster analysis and principle component analysis. Then, air pollution characteristics in each area were reviewed using concentration contour maps and average pollution concentrations. We then introduced three simple criteria to reduce the number of monitoring stations: (1) retain the monitoring station if there were similarities between its data and average data of the group to which it belongs; (2) retain the station if its data showed higher concentrations; and (3) retain the station if the monitored concentration levels had an increasing trend. With this procedure, the total number of air monitoring stations in suburban and urban areas was reduced by 36.5%. The introduction of three new types of monitoring stations is proposed, namely, mobile, for local non-methane hydrocarbon pollution, and Ox-prioritized. PMID:25764058

  5. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks.

  6. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yoonchul; Atiq, Mahin K.; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC) method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption. Furthermore, the APC can allow systems to meet user requirements such as accuracy and periodicity factor when detecting the concentration of a target gas. A performance evaluation of the power consumption of gas sensors is conducted with various user requirements and factors that affect the preheating duration of the gas sensor. This shows that the power consumption of the APC is lower than that of continuous power supply methods and constant power supply/cutoff methods. PMID:24658619

  7. 22. Power plant engine pipingcompressed air piping diagram and sections, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Power plant engine piping-compressed air piping diagram and sections, sheet 81 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  8. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  9. Applying policy and health effects of air pollution in South Korea: focus on ambient air quality standards

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jongsik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives South Korea’s air quality standards are insufficient in terms of establishing a procedure for their management. The current system lacks a proper decision-making process and prior evidence is not considered. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure for establishing atmospheric environmental standards in South Korea that will take into consideration the health of its residents. Methods In this paper, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the US was examined in order to suggest ways, which consider health effects, to establish air quality standards in South Korea. Up-to-date research on the health effects of air pollution was then reviewed, and tools were proposed to utilize the key results. This was done in an effort to ensure the reliability of the standards with regard to public health. Results This study showed that scientific research on the health effects of air pollution and the methodology used in the research have contributed significantly to establishing air quality standards. However, as the standards are legally binding, the procedure should take into account the effects on other sectors. Realistically speaking, it is impossible to establish standards that protect an entire population from air pollution. Instead, it is necessary to find a balance between what should be done and what can be done. Conclusions Therefore, establishing air quality standards should be done as part of an evidence-based policy that identifies the health effects of air pollution and takes into consideration political, economic, and social contexts. PMID:25300297

  10. Statistical Engineering in Air Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is working to develop an integrated set of advanced technologies to enable efficient arrival operations in high-density terminal airspace for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. This integrated arrival solution is being validated and verified in laboratories and transitioned to a field prototype for an operational demonstration at a major U.S. airport. Within NASA, this is a collaborative effort between Ames and Langley Research Centers involving a multi-year iterative experimentation process. Designing and analyzing a series of sequential batch computer simulations and human-in-the-loop experiments across multiple facilities and simulation environments involves a number of statistical challenges. Experiments conducted in separate laboratories typically have different limitations and constraints, and can take different approaches with respect to the fundamental principles of statistical design of experiments. This often makes it difficult to compare results from multiple experiments and incorporate findings into the next experiment in the series. A statistical engineering approach is being employed within this project to support risk-informed decision making and maximize the knowledge gained within the available resources. This presentation describes a statistical engineering case study from NASA, highlights statistical challenges, and discusses areas where existing statistical methodology is adapted and extended.

  11. Mechanism Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Ambient Air by Hydration Energy Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Lackner, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Hydration of neutral and ionic species on solid interfaces plays an important role in a wide range of natural and engineered processes within energy systems as well as biological and environmental systems. Various chemical reactions are significantly enhanced, both in the rate and the extent of the reaction, because of water molecules present or absent at the interface. A novel technology for carbon dioxide capture, driven by the free energy difference between more or less hydrated states of an anionic exchange resin is studied for a new approach to absorb CO2 from ambient air. For these materials the affinity to CO2 is dramatically lowered as the availability of water is increased. This makes it possible to absorb CO2 from air in a dry environment and release it at two orders of magnitude larger partial pressures in a wet environment. While the absorption process and the thermodynamic properties of air capture via ion exchange resins have been demonstrated, the underlying physical mechanisms remain to be understood. In order to rationally design better sorbent materials, the present work elucidates through molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical modeling the energy changes in the carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide ions that are induced by hydration, and how these changes affect sorbent properties. A methodology is developed to determine the free energy change during carbonate ion hydrolysis changes with different numbers of water molecules present. This makes it possible to calculate the equilibrium in the reaction CO3--•nH2O ↔ HCO3- • m1H2O + OH- • m2H2O + (n - 1 - m1 - m2)H2O Molecular dynamics models are used to calculate free energies of hydration for the CO32- ion, the HCO3- ion, and the OH- ion as function of the amount of water that is present. A quantum mechanical model is employed to study the equilibrium of the reaction Na2CO3 + H2O ↔ NaHCO3 + NaOHin a vacuum and at room temperature. The computational analysis of the free energy of

  12. New screening approach for risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara; Millet, Maurice

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (Koa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m-3. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was <1 for all pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.

  13. Assessment of ambient ozone air quality and evidence of transport effects in eastern Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Beutelman, H.P.; Hallman, P.K.; Franz, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    Edwards AFB is located in the Mojave desert of southern California. The bulk of the base is located in the eastern part of Kern County, and is classified as serious non-attainment for ozone. However, geographically the eastern part of Kern County is separated form the western part of the county by some of the tallest mountains in the continental US. It has long been suspected, but not well quantified, that the air quality in eastern Kern County is impacted by transport of ozone from the San Joaquin area (as well as possible transport from the Los Angeles Basin area). Because of the significance of the ozone non-attainment designation with regards to the Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure process, improved assessment of ambient ozone air quality and possible routes of transport in eastern Kern County was required. This was accomplished by; installing and operating an ambient air quality monitoring station at Edwards AFB; and comparing at least one year of data (ozone, NO{sub x} and meteorological) from the Edwards AFB station with similar data from the California Air Resources Board operated stations in the upwind locations (along possible transport routes) of Edison (western Kern County), Mojave (eastern Kern County) and Lancaster (northern Los Angeles County). Empirical analysis of this and other data indicate that; (1) compared to western Kern County, eastern Kern County is in a significantly different and isolated air basin; (2) the peak ambient ozone levels in eastern Kern County are substantially lower than in western Kern County; (3) peak ambient ozone levels in eastern Kern County occur late afternoon/early evening and are indicative of transport of ozone and (4) direct transport of ozone from the San Joaquin and/or South Coast area does occur (given proper conditions). This paper will address the elements of this study and its conclusions.

  14. Ozone flux to vegetation and its relationship to plant response and ambient air quality standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Massman, William J.

    The National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone is based on occurrences of the maximum 8 h average ambient ozone concentration. However, biologists have recommended a cumulative ozone exposure parameter to protect vegetation. In this paper we propose a third alternative which uses quantifiable flux-based numerical parameters as a replacement for cumulative ambient parameters. Herein we discuss the concept of ozone flux as it relates to plant response and the NAAQS, and document information needed before a flux-based ozone NAAQS for vegetation can be implemented. Additional research is needed in techniques for determining plant uptake and in the quantification of plant defensive mechanisms to ozone. Models which include feedback mechanisms should be developed to relate ozone flux, loading, and detoxification with photosynthesis and plant productivity.

  15. Biomass burning contribution to ambient air particulate levels at Navrongo in the Savannah zone of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Francis G; Hopke, Philip K; Aboh, Innocent J K; Bamford, Samuel A

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in Navrongo, a town in the Sahel Savannah Zone of Ghana, have been measured and the major sources have been identified. This area is prone to frequent particulate pollution episodes due to Harmattan dust and biomass burning, mostly from annual bushfires. The contribution of combustion emissions, particularly from biomass and fossil fuel, to ambient air particulate loadings was assessed. Sampling was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in Navrongo. Two Gent samplers were equipped to collect PM10 in two size fractions, coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5). Coarse particles are collected on a coated, 8-microm-pore Nuclepore filter. Fine particle samples were sampled with 47-mm-diameter Nuclepore and quartz filters. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were determined from the quartz filters using thermal optical reflectance (IMPROVE/TOR) methods. Elements were measured on the fine-particle Nuclepore filters using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained at Navrongo was 32.3 microg/m. High carbonaceous concentrations were obtained from November to March, the period of Harmattan dust and severe bush fires. Total carbon was found to contribute approximately 40% of the PM2.5 particulate mass. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) suggested six major sources contributing to the PM2.5 mass. They are two stroke engines, gasoline emissions, soil dust, diesel emissions, biomass burning, and resuspended soil dust. Biomass combustion (16.0%) was identified as second most important source next to soil dust at Navrongo. PMID:24151679

  16. Technical specification for transferring ambient air monitoring data to the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In September 1994, a team was formed to develop, document, and implement technical specifications for transmitting ambient air environmental compliance and monitoring data to the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS). The approach used to transmit this data is documented in the {open_quotes}Plan for Integrating Environmental Compliance and Monitoring Data into OREIS.{close_quotes} This plan addresses the consolidated data requirements defined by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) and the Tennessee Oversight Agreement (TOA) as they pertain to environmental compliance and monitoring data maintained by Energy Systems` Oak Ridge Environmental Management organizations. Ibis document describes. the requirements, responsibilities, criteria, and format for transmitting ambient air compliance and monitoring data to OREIS.

  17. Relationship between polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air and 1-hydroxypyrene in human urine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Z.H.; Quan, W.Y.; Tian, D.H. )

    1992-10-01

    The relationship between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and ambient polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated with several groups of volunteers carrying personal air samplers. All the results demonstrate that there is a statistically significant correlation between 1-hydroxypyrene in human urine and pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in ambient air. Smoking was found not to interfere this correlation when the smokers consume less than 20 cigarettes daily. Different sources of PAH pollution, such as certain industries and coal-burning, present their influence on 1-hydroxypyrene in their specific ways. It is suggested that 1-hydroxypyrene in human urine is an effective biological monitoring index for the assessment of human exposure to PAHs. 18 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Measurement of gas-phase ionic mercury(II) species in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W.J.; Lindberg, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the important questions in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury is the speciation of mercury in the atmosphere. Although a large fraction of Hg in ambient air is Hg(O), a small fraction is believed to be gas-phase Hg(II). This fraction is highly water-soluble and thus is important to explaining the high concentration of Hg in precipitation. We have developed a novel technique for measuring gas-phase Hg(II), using a high-flow refluxing mist chamber to trap the water-soluble Hg(II) in an aerosol mist. Measured concentrations of gas-phase Hg(II) in ambient air are generally in the range 0.05-0.1 ng/m{sup 3}, or 2-4% of the total gaseous Hg. In this talk, representative data under different atmospheric and geographic conditions will be presented, along with a summary of some of the experimental difficulties and unanswered questions.

  19. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  20. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  1. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  2. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  3. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  4. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Agency FR Federal Register FRM Federal Reference Method IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient..., known as the Tribal Authority Rule (TAR), on February 12, 1999. 63 FR 7254, codified at 40 CFR 49 (1999... a notice on July 8, 2010 (75 FR 39254) which invited the public to comment on EPA's...

  5. Bonding of copper surface in ambient air using propylene carbonate as passivation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yu, Min; Phillips, Oluwadamilola; Liu, Lisha; Jin, Yufeng

    2015-07-01

    Bonding of a copper surface in a nonvacuum environment has been studied for the purpose of reducing manufacturing costs. Cu-Cu bonding in ambient air is demonstrated by using propylene carbonate (PPC) as a passivation layer. The decomposition of the PPC passivation layer during bonding would protect the copper surface from oxidation by providing a shielding gas atmosphere between the copper surface and the air. Further, the PPC passivation layer would also overcome the degradation of copper surface during storage in the atmosphere.

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions generated by a corona discharge in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Konthasinghe, Kumarasiri; Fitzmorris, Kristin; Peiris, Manoj; Hopkins, Adam J; Petrak, Benjamin; Killinger, Dennis K; Muller, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions via the B(2)Σu(+)-X(2)Σg(+) band system in the near-ultraviolet. The ions were generated continuously by a plasma glow discharge in low pressure N2 and by a corona discharge in ambient air. The fluorescence decay time was found to rapidly decrease with increasing pressure leading to an extrapolated decay rate of ≍10(10) s(-1) at atmospheric pressure. In spite of this quenching, we were able to observe laser induced fluorescence in ambient air by means of a time-gated spectral measurement. In the process of comparing the emission signal with that of N2 spontaneous Raman scattering, ion concentrations in ambient air of order 10(8-)10(10) cm(-3) were determined. With moderate increases in laser power and collection efficiency, ion concentrations of less than 10(6) cm(-3) may be measurable, potentially enabling applications in atmospheric standoff detection of ionizing radiation from hazardous radioactive sources. PMID:26414524

  7. Working characteristics of variable intake valve in compressed air engine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536

  8. Working Characteristics of Variable Intake Valve in Compressed Air Engine

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536

  9. Ambient air monitoring plan for Ciudad Acuna and Piedra Negras, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, J.; Henning, L.; Crume, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Cities of Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras and the State of Coahuila in Mexico are interested in improving ambient air quality monitoring capabilities in the two cities through the establishment of a network of ambient air monitors. The purpose of the network is to characterize population exposure to potentially harmful air contaminants, possibly including sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 100 micrometers PM-10, and lead. This report presents the results of an evaluation of existing air quality monitoring equipment and facilities in Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras. Additionally, the report presents recommendations for developing an air quality monitoring network for PM-10, SO{sub 2}, lead, and ozone in these cities, using a combination of both new and existing equipment. The human resources currently available and ultimately needed to operate and maintain the network are also discussed.

  10. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR STRIPPING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air striding is a means to transfer contaminants from aqueous solutions to air. ontaminants are not destroyed by air stripping but are physically separated from the aqueous solutions. ontaminant vapors are transferred into the air stream and, if necessary, can be treated by incin...

  11. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly. PMID:23636622

  12. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  16. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong; Wang, Xiaoke

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing, the capital of China, has resulted in serious air pollution problems. Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality, especially since 1998. The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention. We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations. The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends: a decreasing trend, an increasing trend and a flat trend. SO2, dustfall, B[a]P, NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern, while NOx showed an increasing trend, and CO, ozone pollution, total suspended particulate (TSP), as well as Pb fit the flat trend. The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution. Seasonally, the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March. The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality. Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency, the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal, reduction in pollution sources, and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution, particularly since 1998. PMID:22432333

  17. Intraurban Spatiotemporal Variability of Ambient Air Pollutants across Metropolitan St. Louis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Li

    Ambient air monitoring networks have been established in the United States since the 1970s to comply with the Clean Air Act. The monitoring networks are primarily used to determine compliance but also provide substantive support to air quality management and air quality research including studies on health effects of air pollutants. The Roxana Air Quality Study (RAQS) was conducted at the fenceline of a petroleum refinery in Roxana, Illinois. In addition to providing insights into air pollutant impacts from the refinery, these measurements increased the St. Louis area monitoring network density for gaseous air toxics and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation and thus provided an opportunity to examine intraurban spatiotemporal variability for these air quality parameters. This dissertation focused on exploring and assessing aspects of ambient air pollutant spatiotemporal variability in the St. Louis area from three progressively expanded spatial scales using a suite of methods and metrics. RAQS data were used to characterize air quality conditions in the immediate vicinity of the petroleum refinery. For example, PM2.5 lanthanoids were used to track impacts from refinery fluidized bed catalytic cracker emissions. RAQS air toxics data were interpreted by comparing to network data from the Blair Street station in the City of St. Louis which is a National Air Toxics Trends Station. Species were classified as being spatially homogeneous (similar between sites) or heterogeneous (different between sites) and in the latter case these differences were interpreted using surface winds data. For PM 2.5 species, there were five concurrently operating sites in the St. Louis area - including the site in Roxana - which are either formally part of the national Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) or rigorously follow the CSN sampling and analytical protocols. This unusually large number of speciation sites for a region the size of St. Louis motivated a detailed examination of

  18. Amine-Oxide Hybrid Materials for CO2 Capture from Ambient Air.

    PubMed

    Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-10-20

    Oxide supports functionalized with amine moieties have been used for decades as catalysts and chromatographic media. Owing to the recognized impact of atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the study of the use of amine-oxide hybrid materials as CO2 sorbents has exploded in the past decade. While the majority of the work has concerned separation of CO2 from dilute mixtures such as flue gas from coal-fired power plants, it has been recognized by us and others that such supported amine materials are also perhaps uniquely suited to extract CO2 from ultradilute gas mixtures, such as ambient air. As unique, low temperature chemisorbents, they can operate under ambient conditions, spontaneously extracting CO2 from ambient air, while being regenerated under mild conditions using heat or the combination of heat and vacuum. This Account describes the evolution of our activities on the design of amine-functionalized silica materials for catalysis to the design, characterization, and utilization of these materials in CO2 separations. New materials developed in our laboratory, such as hyperbranched aminosilica materials, and previously known amine-oxide hybrid compositions, have been extensively studied for CO2 extraction from simulated ambient air (400 ppm of CO2). The role of amine type and structure (molecular, polymeric), support type and structure, the stability of the various compositions under simulated operating conditions, and the nature of the adsorbed CO2 have been investigated in detail. The requirements for an effective, practical air capture process have been outlined and the ability of amine-oxide hybrid materials to meet these needs has been discussed. Ultimately, the practicality of such a "direct air capture" process is predicated not only on the physicochemical properties of the sorbent, but also how the sorbent operates in a practical process that offers a scalable gas-solid contacting strategy. In this regard, the utility of low pressure drop monolith

  19. Using self-organizing maps to develop ambient air quality classifications: a time series example

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of exposure metrics that capture features of the multipollutant environment are needed to investigate health effects of pollutant mixtures. This is a complex problem that requires development of new methodologies. Objective Present a self-organizing map (SOM) framework for creating ambient air quality classifications that group days with similar multipollutant profiles. Methods Eight years of day-level data from Atlanta, GA, for ten ambient air pollutants collected at a central monitor location were classified using SOM into a set of day types based on their day-level multipollutant profiles. We present strategies for using SOM to develop a multipollutant metric of air quality and compare results with more traditional techniques. Results Our analysis found that 16 types of days reasonably describe the day-level multipollutant combinations that appear most frequently in our data. Multipollutant day types ranged from conditions when all pollutants measured low to days exhibiting relatively high concentrations for either primary or secondary pollutants or both. The temporal nature of class assignments indicated substantial heterogeneity in day type frequency distributions (~1%-14%), relatively short-term durations (<2 day persistence), and long-term and seasonal trends. Meteorological summaries revealed strong day type weather dependencies and pollutant concentration summaries provided interesting scenarios for further investigation. Comparison with traditional methods found SOM produced similar classifications with added insight regarding between-class relationships. Conclusion We find SOM to be an attractive framework for developing ambient air quality classification because the approach eases interpretation of results by allowing users to visualize classifications on an organized map. The presented approach provides an appealing tool for developing multipollutant metrics of air quality that can be used to support multipollutant health studies

  20. AMBIENT MEASUREMENT METHODS AND PROPERTIES OF THE 189 CLEAN AIR ACT HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) designated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are either identified or suggested for all but 10 of the compounds. n extensive list of chemical and physical properties are developed for all compounds. u...

  1. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  2. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  3. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  4. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  5. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  6. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Physical Inactivity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer D.; Voss, Jameson D.; Knight, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity, ambient air pollution and obesity are modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, with the first accounting for 10% of premature deaths worldwide. Although community level interventions may target each simultaneously, research on the relationship between these risk factors is lacking. Objectives After comparing spatial interpolation methods to determine the best predictor for particulate matter (PM2.5; PM10) and ozone (O3) exposures throughout the U.S., we evaluated the cross-sectional association of ambient air pollution with leisure-time physical inactivity among adults. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we assessed leisure-time physical inactivity using individual self-reported survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. These data were combined with county-level U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air pollution exposure estimates using two interpolation methods (Inverse Distance Weighting and Empirical Bayesian Kriging). Finally, we evaluated whether those exposed to higher levels of air pollution were less active by performing logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and behavioral risk factors, and after stratifying by body weight category. Results With Empirical Bayesian Kriging air pollution values, we estimated a statistically significant 16–35% relative increase in the odds of leisure-time physical inactivity per exposure class increase of PM2.5 in the fully adjusted model across the normal weight respondents (p-value<0.0001). Evidence suggested a relationship between the increasing dose of PM2.5 exposure and the increasing odds of physical inactivity. Conclusions In a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample, increased community level air pollution is associated with reduced leisure-time physical activity particularly among the normal weight. Although our design precludes a causal inference, these results provide

  7. Ambient Air Quality Assessment with Particular Reference to Particulates in Jharia Coalfield, Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdeep; Roy, Debananda; Sinha, Sweta

    2014-01-01

    Jharia Coalfield is the critically polluted area with the intense mining and associated industrial activities. There has been widespread concern of particulate pollution with the alarming levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10 & PM2.5). Coke oven plants, coal washing, thermal power stations and associated activities coupled with the transportation activities, give rise to critical air pollution levels in the region. This study envisages the assessment of air pollution of the region with particular reference to SPM, PM10 and PM2.5. Eighteen monitoring stations were selected considering various sources of pollution such as mining, industrial, commercial and residential areas apart from siting criteria as per IS: 5182 Part XIV. Air quality monitoring was carried out following standard methodologies and protocols as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) norms using Respirable Dust Samplers (RDS) and Fine Particulate Samplers (PM2.5 Samplers). This study reveals considerable load of particulates (SPM, PM10, PM 2.5) which exceed not only the NAAQS but also the coal mining areas standards of Jharia coalfield, thus falling under the category of critically polluted area. Air Quality Indexing has also been developed which provides a clear map of the deterioration of air quality and also presenting comparative ranking of all the monitoring locations with respect to air quality status in the study area. PMID:26445752

  8. Health effects of acute exposure to air polllution. Part II: Healthy subjects exposed to cencentrated ambient particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of short-term exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs*) on lung function and on inflammatory parameters in blood and airways of healthy human subjects. Particles were concentrated from the ambient air in Chapel Hill, Nor...

  9. 75 FR 10252 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Carbon Monoxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Availability of draft documents... Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient Air Quality... draft assessment document: Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient...

  10. Air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Eftink, A.J.

    1991-03-12

    This patent describes a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and at least two cylinders, each cylinder having a displacement volume V{sub 1}, the improved means for supplying air to each cylinder. It comprises: a rotary, trochoidal chamber air pump defining at least one pair of pumping chambers, the number of pumping chambers being equal to the number of cylinders in the engine; air intake conduits connecting each pumping chamber to one cylinder of the engine; a rotor rotatable in each pair of pumping chambers, the rotor having three faces such that passage of a face of the rotor through a pumping chamber forces air in the pumping chamber into the associated air intake conduit and, consequently, into the engine cylinder; and means interconnecting the rotor and the crankshaft so as to rotate the rotor approximately one revolution for every three revolutions of the crankshaft.

  11. Assessing uncertain human exposure to ambient air pollution using environmental models in the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerharz, L. E.; Pebesma, E.; Denby, B.

    2012-04-01

    Ambient air quality can have significant impact on human health by causing respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases. Thereby, the pollutant concentration a person is exposed to can differ considerably between individuals depending on their daily routine and movement patterns. Using a straight forward approach this exposure can be estimated by integration of individual space-time paths and spatio-temporally resolved ambient air quality data. To allow a realistic exposure assessment, it is furthermore important to consider uncertainties due to input and model errors. In this work, we present a generic, web-based approach for estimating individual exposure by integration of uncertain position and air quality information implemented as a web service. Following the Model Web initiative envisioning an infrastructure for deploying, executing and chaining environmental models as services, existing models and data sources for e.g. air quality, can be used to assess exposure. Therefore, the service needs to deal with different formats, resolutions and uncertainty representations provided by model or data services. Potential mismatch can be accounted for by transformation of uncertainties and (dis-)aggregation of data under consideration of changes in the uncertainties using components developed in the UncertWeb project. In UncertWeb, the Model Web vision is extended to an Uncertainty-enabled Model Web, where services can process and communicate uncertainties in the data and models. The propagation of uncertainty to the exposure results is quantified using Monte Carlo simulation by combining different realisations of positions and ambient concentrations. Two case studies were used to evaluate the developed exposure assessment service. In a first study, GPS tracks with a positional uncertainty of a few meters, collected in the urban area of Münster, Germany were used to assess exposure to PM10 (particulate matter smaller 10 µm). Air quality data was provided by an

  12. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage. PMID:23485234

  13. Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    Three thousand four hundred fifty-one Austrian elementary school children were examined (between 2 and 8 times) by spirometry by standardized methods, over a 5 yr period. The districts where they lived were grouped into those where NO 2 declined during this period (by at least 30 μg/m 3 measured as half year means) and those with less or no decline in ambient NO 2. In both groups of districts, SO 2 and TSP fell by similar amounts over this period. A continuous improvement of MEF25 (maximum exspiratory flow rate at 25% vital capacity) was found in districts with declining ambient NO 2. Populations did not differ in respect of anthropometric factors, passive smoking or socioeconomic status. A birth cohort from this study population which was followed up to age 18 confirmed the improved growth of MEF25 with decline in NO 2, while the improved growth of forced vital capacity was more related to decline in SO 2. This study provides the first evidence that improvements in the outdoor air quality during the 1980s are correlated with health benefits, and suggest that adverse effects on lung function related to ambient air pollution are reversible before adulthood. Improvement of small airway functions appeared to be more dependent on reductions of NO 2 than reduction in SO 2 and TSP.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal contents in the ambient air of the Coimbatore city, Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Vijayanand, C; Rajaguru, P; Kalaiselvi, K; Selvam, K Panneer; Palanivel, M

    2008-12-30

    Industrialization and urbanization are the two major causes of deteriorating air quality. To evaluate the ambient air quality of the Coimbatore city, suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected at ten stations and analysed for the heavy metals content. The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd) were estimated. The level of SPM was found to be either at permissible or non-permissible limit depending upon the category of the sampling station. At majority of sampling stations, concentrations of Zn were found to be maximum than other heavy metals. The order of average concentrations of heavy metals in Coimbatore atmospheric air was Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Cr>Ni>Cd. The usage of Zn for protective coating on iron, steel etc. by the industries in Coimbatore city could be the major reason for the higher concentration of this heavy metal in this region. PMID:18471965

  15. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Masson, Nicholas; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Hannigan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability. PMID:26516860

  16. Carcinogenicity of ambient air pollution: use of biomarkers, lessons learnt and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution can cause lung cancer. Biomarkers can enhance research on the health effects of air pollution by improving exposure assessment, increasing the understanding of mechanisms, and enabling the investigation of individual susceptibility. In this review, we assess DNA adducts as biomarkers of exposure to AAP and early biological effect, and DNA methylation as biomarker of early biological change and discuss critical issues arising from their incorporation in AAP health impact evaluations, such as confounding, individual susceptibilities, timing, intensity and duration of exposure, and investigated tissue. DNA adducts and DNA methylation are treated as paradigms. However, the lessons, learned from their use in the examination of AAP carcinogenicity, can be applied to investigations of other biomarkers involved in AAP carcinogenicity. PMID:25694819

  17. Continuous atomic spectrometric measurement of ambient levels of sulfur dioxide in air by mercury displacement detection

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.; Midgley, D.

    1982-08-01

    The analytical atomic spectrometric technique of mercury displacement detection has been adapted so that sulfur dioxide can be determined at natural background levels in ambient air on a continuous basis with a 90% response time of 1-2 min. Sample air is drawn into the reaction vessel containing mercury (I) ion reagent and any sulfur dioxide present reacts to form elemental mercury which is measured, after being swept out of the solution by the same flow of sample air, by a mercury vapor detector. Reagent is continuously pumped through the analyzer and the instrument is calibrated with a permeation tube calibrator. The apparatus has a linear concentration range up to 100 ppB sulfur dioxide; this is much lower than can be obtained with existing commerical instruments. The apparatus is very precise and 6, 11, and 20 ppB sulfur dioxide can be measured with coefficients of variation of 1-2%.

  18. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Nicholas; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Hannigan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability. PMID:26516860

  19. Does urban forestry have a quantitative effect on ambient air quality in an urban environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irga, P. J.; Burchett, M. D.; Torpy, F. R.

    2015-11-01

    Increasing urban greenspace has been proposed as a means of reducing airborne pollutant concentrations; however limited studies provide experimental data, as opposed to model estimates, of its ability to do so. The current project examined whether higher concentrations of urban forestry might be associated with quantifiable effects on ambient air pollutant levels, whilst accounting for the predominant source of localized spatial variations in pollutant concentrations, namely vehicular traffic. Monthly air samples for one year were taken from eleven sites in central Sydney, Australia. The sample sites exhibited a range of different traffic density, population usage, and greenspace/urban forest density conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), suspended particles <10 μm in diameter (PM10) and particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), were recorded, using portable devices. It was found that air samples taken from sites with less greenspace frequently had high concentrations of all fractions of aerosolized particulates than other sites, whilst sites with high proximal greenspace had lower particulates, even when vehicular traffic was taken into account. No observable trends in concentrations of NO, TVOC and SO2 were observed, as recorded levels were generally very low across all sampled areas. The findings indicate, first, that within the urban areas of a city, localized differences in air pollutant loads occur. Secondly, we conclude that urban areas with proportionally higher concentrations of urban forestry may experience better air quality with regards to reduced ambient particulate matter; however conclusions about other air pollutants are yet to be elucidated.

  20. Effect of ambient air pollution on daily mortality rates in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Zhang, Yong hui; San Tam, Wilson Wai; Yan, Qing Hua; Xu, Yan jun; Xun, Xiao jun; Wu, Wei; Ma, Wen Jun; Tian, Lin Wei; Tse, Lap Ah; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of ambient air pollutants on daily mortality in a relatively stable and homogeneous population in Guangzhou, China. Daily mortality, air pollution, and weather data between 2006 and 2009 were collected. The generalized additive model with poison regression was used to estimate the excessive risks (ERs) of air pollutants (PM 10, SO 2, and NO 2) on total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. The effects of lag0-1 were the greatest for total non-accidental and cardiovascular deaths. The increments of 10 μg m -3 in SO 2, NO 2, and PM 10 were associated with ERs of 1.54% (95%CI: 1.03-2.06%), 1.42% (95%CI: 1.06-1.78%), and 1.26% (95%CI: 0.86-1.66%) respectively for total non-accidental deaths, and 2.28% (95%CI: 1.40-3.16%), 1.81% (95%CI: 1.20-2.41%), and 1.79% (95%CI: 1.11-2.47%) respectively for cardiovascular deaths. For persons who died from respiratory disease, however, the maximum effects occurred at lag0. The ERs for SO 2, NO 2, and PM 10 were 1.36% (95%CI: 0.23-2.50%), 1.47% (95%CI: 0.66-2.29%) and 0.93% (95%CI: 0.03-1.83%), respectively. The effects of the three air pollutants on mortality were stronger in elderly and in women. The ERs in the present study were higher than those reported in Europe, the U.S., and most other Asian cities. Our findings show relatively higher ERs of daily mortality by ambient air pollutants in the center of Guangzhou, China, compared with estimates in other cities. Further studies with accurate exposure measurement among homogeneous population are needed to evaluate the precise magnitudes of the effects of the air pollutants.

  1. Influence of chemical and physical forms of ambient air acids on airway doses

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, T.V.

    1989-02-01

    The effects of ambient relative humidity and particle size on acid deposition within the airways have been examined with a computer model. For H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ particles initially at 90% relative humidity in ambient air that are inhaled via the nose or mouth, there is significant deposition of acid in the airways even in the presence of typical values of respiratory NH/sub 3/. When these same particles are found in a fog at 100.015% relative humidity, there is significant deposition of acid in the nasal region during nose breathing but insignificant deposition to the deep lung for either nose or mouth breathing. The factors governing the partitioning of labile acid gases in the gas and liquid phases prior to inhalation are also discussed.

  2. The contribution of nitro- and methylnitronaphthalenes to the vapor-phase mutagenicity of ambient air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pamela; Harger, William P.; Arey, Janet

    1- and 2-Nitronaphthalene (NN) and the 14 methylnitronaphthalene (MNN) isomers were identified and quantified in ambient vapor-phase samples collected in Redlands, CA during moderate photochemical air pollution. The mutagenic activities of NN and MNN standards were determined using a microsuspension-preincubation modification of the Ames Salmonella bacterial reversion assay in strain TA98 without microsomal activation. The calculated contributions of the NNs and MNNs to the total vapor-phase ambient mutagenic activity were ˜ 18 and ˜ 32% for daytime and nighttime composite samples, respectively. Enhanced mutagenic activity in the nighttime sample was attributed to NN and MNN formation from nighttime N03 radical-initiated reactions of naphthalene and the methylnaphthalenes.

  3. Emissions and ambient air monitoring trends of lower olefins across Texas from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jessica L; Phillips, Tracie; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-01

    Texas has the largest ambient air monitoring network in the country with approximately 83 monitoring sites that measure ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lower olefins, including 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, isoprene, and propylene, are a group of VOCs that can be measured in both 24h/every sixth-day canister samples and continuous 1-h Automated Gas Chromatography (AutoGC) samples. Based on 2012 Toxics Release Inventory data, the total reported industrial air emissions in Texas for these olefins, as compared to total national reported air emissions, were 79% for 1,3-butadiene, 62% for ethylene, 76% for isoprene, and 54% for propylene, illustrating that Texas industries are some of the major emitters for these olefins. The purpose of this study was to look at the patterns of annual average air monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 using Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) data for these four lower olefins. It should be emphasized that monitors may not be located close to or downwind of the highest emitters of these lower olefins. In addition, air monitors only provide a snapshot in time of air concentrations for their respective locations, and may not be able to discriminate emissions between specific sources. In 2012, the highest annual average air concentration for 1,3-butadiene was 1.28 ppb by volume (ppbv), which was measured at the Port Neches monitoring site in Region 10-Beaumont. For ethylene, the highest 2012 annual average air concentration was 5.77 ppbv, which was measured at the Dona Park monitoring site in TCEQ Region 14-Corpus Christi. Although reported industrial emissions of isoprene are predominantly from the Houston and Beaumont regions, trees are natural emitters of isoprene, and the highest ambient air concentrations tend to be from regions with large areas of coniferous and hardwood forests. This was observed with TCEQ Region 5-Tyler, which had the two highest isoprene annual average air concentrations for

  4. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  5. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  6. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  7. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27033635

  8. Recognizing the Challenges of Ambient Air Monitoring in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, T. G.; Nicodemus, M. A.; Howard, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to better estimate environmental exposure, the U.S. Army Public Health Command has been operating an ambient air monitoring station in Shuaiba Port, Kuwait since 2002. The focus has primarily been on monitoring criteria pollutants at a busy sea port where local industry (oil refineries, cement plant, petrochemical production, etc.) heavily impacts air quality. To compound the issues associated with day to day monitoring at a busy sea port, the region often experiences sand storms and temperatures up to 60°C. Average daily particulate matter concentrations at Shuaiba Port are an order of magnitude higher than similar industrial areas in the U.S. On days when sand storms occur ambient PM concentrations can be two or three orders higher than average daily U.S. concentrations. For example, 24-hour average PM10 concentrations from 2004-2010 for the month of June were 395 μg/m3. During sand storms, 24-hour average concentrations can reach as high as 4,000 μg/m3. This poster presents 2004-2010 particulate matter data collected at Shuaiba Port, Kuwait and outlines logistical and environmental challenges associated with air monitoring in the region.

  9. Industrial CO2 Removal: CO2 Capture from Ambient Air and Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-06-08

    This abstract and its accompanying presentation will provide an overview of two distinct industrial processes for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as a means of addressing anthropogenic climate change. The first of these is carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) coupled with large scale biomass production (hereafter referred to as bioCCS). The second is CO2 capture from ambient air via industrial systems (hereafter referred to as direct air capture (DAC)). In both systems, the captured CO2 would be injected into deep geologic formations so as to isolate it from the atmosphere. The technical literature is clear that both of these technologies are technically feasible as of today (IPCC, 2005; Keith, 2009; Lackner, 2009; Luckow et al., 2010; Ranjan and Herzog, 2011). What is uncertain is the relative cost of these industrial ambient-air CO2 removal systems when compared to other emissions mitigation measures, the ultimate timing and scale of their deployment, and the resolution of potential site specific constraints that would impact their ultimate commercial deployment.

  10. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients' quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27033635

  11. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  12. Within-urban variability in ambient air pollution: Comparison of estimation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; Nethery, Elizabeth; Brauer, Michael

    An important component of air quality management and health risk assessment is improved understanding of spatial and temporal variability in pollutant concentrations. We compare, for Vancouver, Canada, three approaches for estimating within-urban spatiotemporal variability in ambient concentrations: spatial interpolation of monitoring data; an empirical/statistical model based on geographic analyses ("land-use regression"; LUR); and an Eulerian grid model (community multiscale air quality model, CMAQ). Four pollutants are considered—nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), carbon monoxide, and ozone—represent varying levels of spatiotemporal heterogeneity. Among the methods, differences in central tendencies (mean, median) and variability (standard deviation) are modest. LUR and CMAQ perform well in predicting concentrations at monitoring sites (average absolute bias: <50% for NO; <20% for NO 2). Monitors (LUR) offer the greatest (least) temporal resolution; LUR (monitors) offers the greatest (least) spatial resolution. Of note, the length scale of spatial variability is shorter for LUR (units: km; 0.3 for NO, 1 for NO 2) than for the other approaches (3-6 for NO, 4-6 for NO 2), indicating that the approaches offer different information about spatial attributes of air pollution. Results presented here suggest that for investigations incorporating spatiotemporal variability in ambient concentrations, the findings may depend on which estimation method is employed.

  13. Metallurgically lithiated SiOx anode with high capacity and ambient air compatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Sun, Jie; Yan, Kai; Liu, Yayuan; Liu, Wei; Lu, Zhenda; Lin, Dingchang; Zhou, Guangmin; Cui, Yi

    2016-07-01

    A common issue plaguing battery anodes is the large consumption of lithium in the initial cycle as a result of the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase followed by gradual loss in subsequent cycles. It presents a need for prelithiation to compensate for the loss. However, anode prelithiation faces the challenge of high chemical reactivity because of the low anode potential. Previous efforts have produced prelithiated Si nanoparticles with dry air stability, which cannot be stabilized under ambient air. Here, we developed a one-pot metallurgical process to synthesize LixSi/Li2O composites by using low-cost SiO or SiO2 as the starting material. The resulting composites consist of homogeneously dispersed LixSi nanodomains embedded in a highly crystalline Li2O matrix, providing the composite excellent stability even in ambient air with 40% relative humidity. The composites are readily mixed with various anode materials to achieve high first cycle Coulombic efficiency (CE) of >100% or serve as an excellent anode material by itself with stable cyclability and consistently high CEs (99.81% at the seventh cycle and ∼99.87% for subsequent cycles). Therefore, LixSi/Li2O composites achieved balanced reactivity and stability, promising a significant boost to lithium ion batteries. PMID:27313206

  14. Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin

    1938-01-01

    From a consideration of heat-transfer theory, semi-empirical expressions are set up for the transfer of heat from the combustion gases to the cylinder of an air-cooled engine and from the cylinder to the cooling air. Simple equations for the average head and barrel temperatures as functions of the important engine and cooling variables are obtained from these expressions. The expressions involve a few empirical constants, which may be readily determined from engine tests. Numerical values for these constants were obtained from single-cylinder engine tests for cylinders of the Pratt & Whitney 1535 and 1340-h engines. The equations provide a means of calculating the effect of the various engine and cooling variables on the cylinder temperatures and also of correlating the results of engine cooling tests. An example is given of the application of the equations to the correlation of cooling-test data obtained in flight.

  15. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Ortega, A. M.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Jud, W.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Hunter, J. F.; Cross, E. S.; Kroll, J. H.; Peng, Z.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Ambient air was oxidized by OH radicals in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) located in a montane pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and aging. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semi-continuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative time scales of condensation of low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles, condensational loss to the walls, and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 4 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 1 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4-1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene + p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 LT. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic compounds, and net production at lower ages followed by net consumption of terpenoid oxidation products as photochemical age increased. New particle formation was observed in the reactor after oxidation, especially during times when precursor gas concentrations and SOA formation were largest. Approximately 6 times more SOA was formed in the reactor from OH oxidation than

  16. AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENTS OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN THE CALIFORNIA SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations have been measured at two locations (Claremont and Riverside) in the California South Coast Air Basin during the months of July and August 1977. Three different analytical methods were employed: a chemiluminescent method and two colorimetri...

  17. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... the relocated air quality standard rules. This action was published at 75 FR 65572 as a direct final... previously approved, most notably including revisions that EPA had proposed to disapprove (see 70 FR 36901... Register on October 26, 2010 (75 FR 65572), on page 65574 in the second column, the paragraph numbered...

  18. Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation Redesign Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Carroll, Paul; Head, Kenneth; Fasheh, John; Stuart, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation redesign was required to prevent the reoccurance of the STS-111 High Pressure Speed Sensor In-Flight Anomaly. The STS-111 In-Flight Anomaly Failure Investigation Team's initial redesign of the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Pump End Ball Bearing Liquid Air Insulation failed the certification test by producing Liquid Air. The certification test failure indicated not only the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Liquid Air Insulation, but all other Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation. This paper will document the original Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air STS-111 In-Flight Anomaly investigation, the heritage Space Shuttle Main Engine Insulation certification testing faults, the techniques and instrumentation used to accurately test the Liquid Air Insulation systems on the Stennis Space Center SSME test stand, the analysis techniques used to identify the Liquid Air Insulation problem areas and the analytical verification of the redesign before entering certification testing, Trade study down selected to three potential design solutions, the results of the development testing which down selected the final Liquid Air Redesign are also documented within this paper.

  19. Engineering Features: Klystron Tubes and Utilidors Clear Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Engineering Features: Klystron Tubes and Utilidors - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. Engineering Features Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Engineering Features - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  1. Far Noise Field of Air Jets and Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Edmund E; Coles, Willard D

    1957-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study and compare the acoustic radiation of air jets and jet engines. A number of different nozzle-exit shapes were studied with air jets to determine the effect of exit shape on noise generation. Circular, square, rectangular, and elliptical convergent nozzles and convergent-divergent and plug nozzles were investigated. The spectral distributions of the sound power for the engine and the air jet were in good agreement for the case where the engine data were not greatly affected by reflection or jet interference effects. Such power spectra for a subsonic or slightly choked engine or air jet show that the peaks of the spectra occur at a Strouhal number of 0.3.

  2. Volcanic gas emissions and their impact on ambient air character at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Navarrete, R.

    1994-12-31

    Gas emissions from Kilauea occur from the summit caldera, along the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ), and where lava enters the ocean. We estimate that the current ERZ eruption of Kilauea releases between 400 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} per day, during eruptive pauses, to as much as 1850 metric tonnes per day during actively erupting periods, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl and HF. In order to characterize gas emissions from Kilauea in a meaningful way for assessing environmental impact, we made a series of replicate grab-sample measurements of ambient air and precipitation at the summit of Kilauea, along its ERZ, and at coastal sites where lava enters the ocean. The grab-sampling data combined with SO{sub 2} emission rates, and continuous air quality and meteorological monitoring at the summit of Kilauea show that the effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Prevailing tradewinds typically carry the gases and aerosols released to the southwest, where they are further distributed by the regional wind regime. Episodes of kona, or low speed variable winds sometimes disrupt this pattern, however, and allow the gases and their oxidation products to collect at the summit and eastern side of the island. Summit solfatara areas of Kilauea are distinguished by moderate to high ambient SO{sub 2}, high H{sub 2}S at one location, and low H{sub 2}S at all others, and negligible HCl concentrations, as measured 1 m from degassing point-sources. Summit solfatara rain water has high sulfate and low chloride ion concentrations, and low pH.

  3. Hydrogen chloride partitioning in a Titan III exhaust cloud diluted with ambient air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Wornom, D. E.; Bendura, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements and analysis are presented of the partitioning of HCl between hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous HCl in a Titan III exhaust cloud, as the cloud is diluted with humid ambient air. Partitioning was determined by measuring the gaseous HCl concentration with a recently developed airborne Gas Filter Correlation detector and simultaneously with a chemiluminescence detector which measures total HCl. Although equilibrium predictions for HCl aerosol formation indicated that no HCl aerosol should exist in the exhaust cloud for the meteorological conditions of this launch, the measurements indicated significant HCl aerosol formation. These measurements will provide verification for advanced modeling programs now under development.

  4. Hydrogen-air mixing evaluation in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, L; Naegeli, D

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the results of a computational study of fuel-air mixing in a hydrogen jet using a spark-ignited, hydrogen-fueled engine. The computational results were compared with experimental measurement being conducted at the Musashi Institute of Technology in Tokyo, Japan. The hydrogen-air mixing work was directed at understanding the extreme sensitivity of ignition to spark plug location and spark timing in direct-injected, hydrogen-fueled engines.

  5. Ambient measurement methods and properties of the 189 Clean Air Act hazardous air pollutants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.J.; Mukund, R.; Gordon, S.M.; Hays, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    Measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) designated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are either identified or suggested for all but 10 of the compounds. An extensive list of chemical and physical properties are provided for all compounds. Suggestions for methods development of compounds with no written references are based on the similarity of these chemical and physical properties to other of the HAPs. For 126 of the HAPs, established and documented methods were found; for 53 other HAPs, methods were identified having need for further development; and for 10 HAPs, either no methods or methods requiring extensive development were found. The primary recommendation of the study is that method development be focussed on the 53 HAPs for which additional development is expected to result in reliable methods.

  6. Moisture-swing sorption for carbon dioxide capture from ambient air: a thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lackner, Klaus S; Wright, Allen B

    2013-01-14

    An ideal chemical sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from ambient air (air capture) must have a number of favourable properties, such as environmentally benign behaviour, a high affinity for CO(2) at very low concentration (400 ppm), and a low energy cost for regeneration. The last two properties seem contradictory, especially for sorbents employing thermal swing adsorption. On the other hand, thermodynamic analysis shows that the energy cost of an air capture device need only be slightly larger than that of a flue gas scrubber. The moisture swing separation process studied in this paper provides a novel approach to low cost CO(2) capture from air. The anionic exchange resin sorbent binds CO(2) when dry and releases it when wet. A thermodynamic model with coupled phase and chemical equilibria is developed to study the complex H(2)O-CO(2)-resin system. The moisture swing behaviour is compatible with hydration energies changing with the activity of water on the resin surfaces. This activity is in turn set by the humidity. The rearrangement of hydration water on the resin upon the sorption of a CO(2) molecule is predicted as a function of the humidity and temperature. Using water as fuel to drive the moisture swing enables an economical, large-scale implementation of air capture. By generating CO(2) with low partial pressures, the present technology has implications for in situ CO(2) utilizations which require low pressure CO(2) gas rather than liquid CO(2). PMID:23172123

  7. The value of ecologic studies: mercury concentration in ambient air and the risk of autism.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, K Stephen; Palmer, Raymond F; Stein, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Ecologic studies of the spatial relationship between disease and sources of environmental contamination can help to ascertain the degree of risk to populations from contamination and to inform legislation to ameliorate the risk. Population risks associated with persistent low-level mercury exposure have recently begun to be of concern and current reports implicate environmental mercury as a potential contributor in the etiology of various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases including autism and Alzheimer's disease. In this demonstration of preliminary findings, we demonstrate for Bexar County Texas and Santa Clara County California, the hypothesis that the spatial structure of the occurrence of autism has a positive co-variation with the spatial structure of the distribution of mercury in ambient air. The relative risk of autism is greater in the geographic areas of higher levels of ambient mercury. We find that the higher levels of ambient mercury are geographically associated with point sources of mercury emission, such as coal-fired power plants and cement plants with coal-fired kilns. Although this does not indicate a cause, these results should not be dismissed, but rather seen as a preliminary step for generating a hypothesis for further investigation. PMID:21905454

  8. Time series analysis of personal exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality using an exposure simulator

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Howard H.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Frey, H. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling framework for estimating the acute effects of personal exposure to ambient air pollution in a time series design. First, a spatial hierarchical model is used to relate Census tract-level daily ambient concentrations and simulated exposures for a subset of the study period. The complete exposure time series is then imputed for risk estimation. Modeling exposure via a statistical model reduces the computational burden associated with simulating personal exposures considerably. This allows us to consider personal exposures at a finer spatial resolution to improve exposure assessment and for a longer study period. The proposed approach is applied to an analysis of fine particulate matter of <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and daily mortality in the New York City metropolitan area during the period 2001–2005. Personal PM2.5 exposures were simulated from the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation. Accounting for exposure uncertainty, the authors estimated a 2.32% (95% posterior interval: 0.68, 3.94) increase in mortality per a 10 μg/m3 increase in personal exposure to PM2.5 from outdoor sources on the previous day. The corresponding estimates per a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 ambient concentration was 1.13% (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 2.00). The risks of mortality associated with PM2.5 were also higher during the summer months. PMID:22669499

  9. Laser plasma plume structure and dynamics in the ambient air: The early stage of expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirisan, M.; Jouvard, J. M.; Lavisse, L.; Hallo, L.; Oltra, R.

    2011-05-01

    Laser ablation plasma plume expanding into the ambient atmosphere may be an efficient way to produce nanoparticles. From that reason it would be interesting to study the properties of these laser induced plasmas formed under conditions that are known to be favorable for nanoparticles production. In general, plume behavior can be described as a two-stage process: a "violent" plume expansion due to the absorption of the laser beam energy (during the laser pulse) followed by a fast adiabatic expansion in the ambient gas (after the end of the laser pulse). Plasma plume may last a few microseconds and may have densities 10-6 times lower than the solid densities at temperatures close to the ambient temperature. Expansion of the plasma plume induced by the impact of a nanosecond laser beam (λ = 1064 nm) on the surface of metallic samples in the open air has been investigated by means of fast photography. Spatio-temporal evolution of the plume at the early stage of its expansion (first 330 ns) has been recorded. Structure and dynamics of the plasma plume have been investigated and compared to numerical simulations obtained with a hydro-code, as well as some scaling laws. In addition, measurements using different sample materials (Al, Fe, and Ti) have been performed in order to analyze the influence of target material on plume expansion.

  10. Method validation program for the long duration sampling of PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Maisel, B.E.; Hunt, G.T.; Hoyt, M.P.; Rowe, N.; Scarfo, L.

    1994-12-31

    A method validation program was completed to assess the technical viability of extended, long duration sampling periods (15- and 30-day) for the collection of PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air in lieu of the 48-hour sampling periods typically employed. This long duration approach, if successful, would provide measurements data more representative of average ambient PCDDs/PCDFs levels on an annual basis, and hence provide enhanced support of the 1.0 pg/m{sup 3} annual ambient standard for PCDDs/PCDFs (expressed at 1987 EPA toxic equivalents) required by Connecticut regulation. The method validation program utilized nine collocated PUF samplers which were operated for 15-day and 30-day periods during each of two seasonal monitoring campaigns (winter and summer). Samples were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) based on EPA Method 8290. Each PUF cartridge consisted of two foam halves; the top half PUF and filter were analyzed as a single sample separately from the bottom half PUF section. This approach provided an assessment of analyte breakthrough using the sampling system for large sample volumes of approximately 4,000 m{sup 3} and 8,000 m{sup 3} for the 15-day and respectively.

  11. Projected compliance with the PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, K.; Gardner, R.

    1999-02-01

    In 1997, the State of Maryland had no available ambient Federal Reference Method data on particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) but did have annual ambient data for particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM10) at twenty-four sites. The PM10 data was analyzed in conjunction with local annual and seasonal ZIP code-level emission inventories and with speciated PM2.5 data from four nearby monitors in the IMPROVE network (located in the national parks and wilderness areas) in an effort to predict annual average and seasonal high PM2.5 concentrations at the twenty-four PM10 monitor sites operated from 1992 to 1996. All seasonal high concentrations were predicted to be below the 24-hour PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) at the sites operated in Maryland between 1992 and 1996. A geographic analysis of the emission inventories was also performed to evaluate the impact of PM2.5 emissions from Maryland`s power plants on fourteen monitor locations that were predicted to have a reading exceeding the annual NAAQS for any year.

  12. Valveless sampling of ambient air for analysis by capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, E.R. )

    1989-09-01

    A method for the high resolution, high sensitivity analysis of polluted air for individual organic compounds is described. Samples collected from 50 mL of ambient air at 87 K (liquid argon) are injected without use of a valve into a silica capillary column which is then temperature programmed from {minus}30{degree}C to 180{degree}C. Hydrocarbons (4 to 10 carbons) as well as carbonyl compounds, chlorinated compounds and terpenes can be identified and quantified. The detection limit, not strongly dependent on carbon number, is estimated to be 0.3 ppbc in a 50 mL sample. Use of small samples eliminates the need to remove water vapor, a procedure which might jeopardize sample integrity.

  13. Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ravi Pratap Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2015-12-15

    We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C{sub 2} and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals.

  14. Review of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide: Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the air quality criteria and the primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The major phases of the process for reviewing NAAQS include the following: (...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pb-PM 10 Data as Surrogate Pb-TSP Data. (a) As stipulated in section 2.10 of Appendix C to 40 CFR... Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pb-PM 10 Data as Surrogate Pb-TSP Data. (a) As stipulated in section 2.10 of Appendix C to 40 CFR... collection periods prior to January 1, 2009 (i.e., “pre-rule” data) will also be considered valid for NAAQS... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS...

  17. 77 FR 64036 - Determination of Attainment of the 1-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ...EPA is determining that the Sacramento Metro 1-hour ozone nonattainment area (Sacramento Metro Area) has attained the revoked National Ambient Air Quality Standard (1-hour ozone NAAQS or standard), and to exclude certain 2008 data caused by wildfire exceptional events. These air quality determinations were proposed in conjunction with a proposed determination to terminate the State of......

  18. A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BOISE, IDAHO, AMBIENT AIR FINE PARTICLE SAMPLES USING THE PLATE AND MICROSUSPENSION SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study is to characterize the genotoxic potential of the ambient air aerosols collected within an air shed impacted primarily by wood smoke and automotive emissions. The study also examines the relative merits of a microsuspension assay and the standa...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Determinations 2.124-Hour Primary and Secondary Standards (a) Under 40 CFR 50.6(a) the 24-hour primary and... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY... particulate matter data to determine attainment of the 24-hour standards specified in 40 CFR 50.6. For...

  20. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING AT GROUND ZERO AND LOWER MANHATTAN FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) collaborated with EPA's Regional offices to establish a monitoring network to characterize ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and air toxics in lower Manhattan following the collapse of the World Trade...

  1. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  2. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  3. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  4. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  5. An update to the ambient ratio method for 1-h NO2 air quality standards dispersion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrez, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOX) gases are typically emitted by fuel combustion sources in the form of nitric oxide (NO), which then reacts with ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere to convert a portion of the NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). EPA has promulgated a 1-h average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for NO2, and major sources of NOX emissions must estimate their NO2 air quality impacts as part of EPA's air quality permitting programs. The AERMOD dispersion model has been developed by EPA for these air quality impact analyses, and AERMOD contains three different NO to NO2 conversion methods for estimating the ambient concentrations of NO2. This paper describes a refinement to one of the methods, the Ambient Ratio Method version 2 (ARM2). ARM2 is an empirical approach that uses a variable conversion factor, based on an analysis of ambient air measurements of NO and NO2, to estimate the portion of the AERMOD predicted air concentration of total NOX species that is in the form of NO2. The performance of ARM2 has been evaluated and found to compare well to actual ambient measurements and to other more complex EPA conversion methods. EPA has included ARM2 as a "beta-testing" option in AERMOD version 14134, and provided guidance on the use of ARM2 for regulatory modeling analyses in a September 2014 memorandum. This paper also discusses this recent EPA guidance.

  6. Ambient air quality at the site of a former manufactured gas plant.

    PubMed

    Collins, M J; Williams, P L; MacIntosh, D L

    2001-05-01

    Prior to the 1950's, manufactured gas was commercially produced from the pyrolysis of coal, coke, and oil at facilities that are termed manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The constituents of residual coal tar present on many MGP sites are an environmental health concern because of their toxicity and the possibility for their off-site migration via water and air. Atmospheric concentrations of five volatile organic compounds (VOCs, e.g., benzene), sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, e.g., naphthalene) and particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were measured at the site of a former MGP. Air samples were obtained before, during, and after excavation of subterranean coal tar at the site. The results of this investigation indicate that subterranean coal tar was not a primary source of VOCs and PAHs in the local atmosphere before or after remediation of the site. However, excavation, treatment, blending, and transfer of the coal tar during remediation generated concentrations of selected aromatic and semi-volatile organic compounds that were substantially greater than typical ambient levels. In addition, these data suggest that blending and mixing of coal tars could lead to exceedance of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM10, although additional research is required to fully evaluate this possibility. Nuisance odors associated with the site remediation were likely the result of naphthalene and possibly isomers of xylene. Air pollutant concentrations measured adjacent to the excavation area and at the site perimeter during remediation activities were less than the relevant occupational and environmental exposure limits. PMID:11411141

  7. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy; Sørensen, Mette; Figueras, Francesc; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Dadvand, Payam

    2014-09-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders can lead to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, but the cause of these conditions is not well understood. We have systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December 2009 and December 2013. Combined risk estimates were calculated using random-effect models for each exposure that had been examined in ≥4 studies. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. A total of 17 articles evaluating the impact of nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOX), particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting on gestational hypertension and preeclampsia as separate or combined outcomes; there was less heterogeneity in findings of the 10 studies reporting solely on preeclampsia. Meta-analyses showed increased risks of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy for all pollutants except CO. Random-effect meta-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. PMID:24935943

  8. Assessment of selected metals in the ambient air PM10 in urban sites of Bangkok (Thailand).

    PubMed

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Iijima, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the atmospheric concentrations of PM10-bounded selected metals in urban air is crucial for evaluating adverse health impacts. In the current study, a combination of measurements and multivariate statistical tools was used to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on variations in the contents of 18 metals (i.e., Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, Ce and Pb) in ambient air. The concentrations of PM10-bounded metals were measured simultaneously at eight air quality observatory sites during a half-year period at heavily trafficked roads and in urban residential zones in Bangkok, Thailand. Although the daily average concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn and Fe were almost equivalent to those of other urban cities around the world, the contents of the majority of the selected metals were much lower than the existing ambient air quality guidelines and standard limit values. The sequence of average values of selected metals followed the order of Al > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ba > V > Sb > Ni > As > Cr > Cd > Se > Ce > La > Co > Sc. The probability distribution function (PDF) plots showed sharp symmetrical bell-shaped curves in V and Cr, indicating that crustal emissions are the predominant sources of these two elements in PM10. The comparatively low coefficients of divergence (COD) that were found in the majority of samples highlight that site-specific effects are of minor importance. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 37.74, 13.51 and 11.32 % of the total variances represent crustal emissions, vehicular exhausts and the wear and tear of brakes and tires, respectively. PMID:26631022

  9. Inhalation of concentrated ambient air particles exacerbates myocardial ischemia in conscious dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A; Coull, Brent A; Godleski, John J; Koutrakis, Petros; Okabe, Kazunori; Savage, Sara T; Lawrence, Joy E; Murthy, G G Krishna; Verrier, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    Short-term increases in ambient air pollution have been associated with an increased incidence of acute cardiac events. We assessed the effect of inhalation exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) on myocardial ischemia in a canine model of coronary artery occlusion. Six mongrel dogs underwent thoracotomy for implantation of a vascular occluder around the left anterior descending coronary artery and tracheostomy to facilitate particulate exposure. After recovery (5-13 weeks), pairs of subjects were exposed for 6 hr/day on 3 or 4 consecutive days. Within each pair, one subject was randomly assigned to breathe CAPs on the second exposure day and filtered air at other times. The second subject breathed CAPs on the third exposure day and filtered air at other times. Immediately after each exposure, subjects underwent 5-min coronary artery occlusion. We determined ST-segment elevation, a measure of myocardial ischemia heart rate, and arrhythmia incidence during occlusion from continuous electrocardiograms. Exposure to CAPs (median, 285.7; range, 161.3-957.3 microg/m3) significantly (p = 0.007) enhanced occlusion-induced peak ST-segment elevation in precordial leads V4 (9.4 +/- 1.7 vs. 6.2 +/- 0.9 mm, CAPs vs. filtered air, respectively) and V5 (9.2 +/- 1.3 vs. 7.5 +/- 0.9 mm). ST-segment elevation was significantly correlated with the silicon concentration of the particles and other crustal elements possibly associated with urban street dust (p = 0.003 for Si). No associations were found with CAPs mass or number concentrations. Heart rate was not affected by CAPs exposure. These results suggest that exacerbation of myocardial ischemia during coronary artery occlusion may be an important mechanism of environmentally related acute cardiac events. PMID:12676590

  10. F-1 Engine Test Firing at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    This photograph depicts the Rocketdyne static firing of the F-1 engine at the towering 76-meter Test Stand 1-C in Area 1-125 of the Edwards Air Force Base in California. The Saturn V S-IC (first) stage utilized five F-1 engines for its thrust. Each engine provided 1,500,000 pounds, for a combined thrust of 7,500,000 pounds with liquid oxygen and kerosene as its propellants.

  11. Curved centerline air intake for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruehr, W. C.; Younghans, J. L.; Smith, E. B. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An inlet for a gas turbine engine was disposed about a curved centerline for the purpose of accepting intake air that is flowing at an angle to engine centerline and progressively turning that intake airflow along a curved path into alignment with the engine. This curved inlet is intended for use in under the wing locations and similar regions where airflow direction is altered by aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane. By curving the inlet, aerodynamic loss and acoustic generation and emission are decreased.

  12. Optimization of Air-Breathing Propulsion Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1997-01-01

    Air-breathing propulsion engines play an important role in the development of both civil and military aircraft Design optimization of such engines can lead to higher power, or more thrust for less fuel consumption. A multimission propulsion engine design can be modeled mathematically as a multivariable global optimization problem, with a sequence of subproblems, which are specific to the mission events defined through Mach number, altitude, and power setting combinations.

  13. Propulsion Controls, 1979. [air breathing engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art of multivariable engine control is examined in order to determine future needs and problem areas and to establish the appropriate roles of government, industries, and universities in addressing these problems.

  14. Application of alternative spatiotemporal metrics of ambient air pollution exposure in a time-series epidemiological study in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Mulholland, James; Isakov, Vlad; Özkaynak, Halûk; Chang, Howard H; Klein, Mitchel; Tolbert, Paige E

    2013-01-01

    Exposure error in studies of ambient air pollution and health that use city-wide measures of exposure may be substantial for pollutants that exhibit spatiotemporal variability. Alternative spatiotemporal metrics of exposure for traffic-related and regional pollutants were applied in a time-series study of ambient air pollution and cardiorespiratory emergency department visits in Atlanta, GA, USA. Exposure metrics included daily central site monitoring for particles and gases; daily spatially refined ambient concentrations obtained from regional background monitors, local-scale dispersion, and hybrid air quality models; and spatially refined ambient exposures from population exposure models. Health risk estimates from Poisson models using the different exposure metrics were compared. We observed stronger associations, particularly for traffic-related pollutants, when using spatially refined ambient concentrations compared with a conventional central site exposure assignment approach. For some relationships, estimates of spatially refined ambient population exposures showed slightly stronger associations than corresponding spatially refined ambient concentrations. Using spatially refined pollutant metrics, we identified socioeconomic disparities in concentration-response functions that were not observed when using central site data. In some cases, spatially refined pollutant metrics identified associations with health that were not observed using measurements from the central site. Complexity and challenges in incorporating modeled pollutant estimates in time-series studies are discussed. PMID:23963512

  15. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, N.; Custer, T.; Song, W.; Pech, F.; Kesselmeier, J.; Williams, J.

    2010-08-01

    A solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS), 50/30 μm, divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethyl-siloxane (DVB-PDMS). Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m-2 s-1, respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  16. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, N.; Custer, T.; Song, W.; Pech, F.; Kesselmeier, J.; Williams, J.

    2010-11-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS), 50/30 μm divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-PDMS). Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m-2 s-1 respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  17. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity.

    PubMed

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L W; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere. PMID:27033249

  18. Biofilm Formation Derived from Ambient Air and the Characteristics of Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanematsu, H.; Kougo, H.; Kuroda, D.; Itho, H.; Ogino, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Biofilm is a kind of thin film on solidified matters, being derived from bacteria. Generally, planktonic bacteria float in aqueous environments, soil or air, most of which can be regarded as oligotrophic environments. Since they have to survive by instinct, they seek for nutrients that would exist on materials surfaces as organic matters. Therefore, bacteria attach materials surfaces reversibly. The attachment and detachment repeat for a while and finally, they attach on them irreversibly and the number of bacteria on them increases. At a threshold number, bacteria produce polymeric matters at the same time by quorum sensing mechanism and the biofilm produces on material surfaces. The biofilm produced in that way generally contains water (more than 80%), EPS (Exopolymeric Substance) and bacteria themselves. And they might bring about many industrial problems, fouling, corrosion etc. Therefore, it is very important for us to control and prevent the biofilm formation properly. However, it is generally very hard to produce biofilm experimentally and constantly in ambient atmosphere on labo scale. The authors invented an apparatus where biofilm could form on specimen's surfaces from house germs in the ambient air. In this experiment, we investigated the basic characteristics of the apparatus, reproducibility, the change of biofilm with experimental time, the quality change of water for biofilm formation and their significance for biofilm research.

  19. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  20. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  1. Assessment of reduced sulfur compounds in ambient air as malodor components in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaya, Janice; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2011-07-01

    Long-term monitoring of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs: hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), methanethiol (CH 3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS)) in ambient air was made using an on-line GC system at an odor monitoring station in the city of Ansan, South Korea (August 2005-December 2007). The results were examined to assess the status of RSC pollution, its relative contribution to malodor, and the controlling factors of its occurrence. H 2S (mean of 0.27 ppb) was eminent in terms of both magnitude and occurrence frequency, while others were not with mean values of 0.11 (DMDS), 0.10 (DMS), and 0.07 ppb (CH 3SH). Unlike others, the temporal trends of H 2S were best represented by the combined effects of its source processes and meteorological conditions. The results of correlation analysis indicate strong correlations between RSCs and water-related parameters (e.g., rainfall, dew point, and relative humidity). The role of RSCs as malodor component appears to be pronounced during nighttime, especially in summer. If the relative contribution of RSCs to malodor is assessed by means of the sum of odor intensity (SOI), its impact is relatively low, with an SOI value of 1.22 (weak odor strength). Consequently, a more deliberate approach may be needed to effectively assess odor occurrence patterns in ambient air.

  2. Implications of Nitrogen-Climate Interactions for Ambient Air Pollution and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuber, R.; Peel, J. L.; Garcia, V.; Neas, L.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are important components of ambient and indoor air pollution and are emitted from a range of combustion sources, including on-road mobile sources, electric power generators, and non-road mobile sources. While anthropogenic sources dominate, NOX is also formed by lightning and wildland fires and is emitted by soil. Reduced nitrogen (e.g., ammonia, NH3) is also emitted by various sources, including fertilizer application and animal waste decomposition. NOX, ozone and PM2.5 pollution related to atmospheric emissions of nitrogen and other pollutants can cause premature death and a variety of serious health effects. Climate change is expected to impact how nitrogen-related pollutants affect human health. For example, changes in temperature and precipitation patterns are projected to both lengthen the ozone season and intensify high ozone episodes in some areas. Other climate-related changes may increase the atmospheric release of nitrogen compounds through impacts on wildfire regimes, soil emissions, and biogenic emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. This session will examine the potential human health implications of climate change and nitrogen cycle interactions related to ambient air pollution.

  3. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Poor stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere.

  4. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere. PMID:27033249

  5. Concentrated ambient air particles induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Batalha, Joao R F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Clarke, Robert W; Coull, Brent A; Stearns, Rebecca C; Lawrence, Joy; Murthy, G G Krishna; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether short-term exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) alter the morphology of small pulmonary arteries in normal rats and rats with chronic bronchitis (CB). Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to CAPs, using the Harvard Ambient Particle Concentrator, or to particle-free air (sham) under identical conditions during 3 consecutive days (5 hr/day) in six experimental sets. CB was induced by exposure to 276 +/- 9 ppm of sulfur dioxide (5 hr/day, 5 days/week, 6 weeks). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. Rats were sacrificed 24 hr after the last CAPs exposure. Histologic slides were prepared from random sections of lung lobes and coded for blinded analysis. The lumen/wall area (L/W) ratio was determined morphometrically on transverse sections of small pulmonary arteries. When all animal data (normal and CB) were analyzed together, the L/W ratios decreased as concentrations of fine particle mass, silicon, lead, sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon increased. In separate univariate analyses of animal data, the association for sulfate was significant only in normal rats, whereas silicon was significantly associated in both CB and normal rats. In multivariate analyses including all particle factors, the association with silicon remained significant. Our results indicate that short-term CAPs exposures (median, 182.75 micro g/m3; range, 73.50-733.00 micro g/m3) can induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in normal and CB rats. This effect was correlated with specific particle components and suggests that the pulmonary vasculature might be an important target for ambient air particle toxicity. PMID:12460797

  6. The Cardiopulmonary Effects of Ambient Air Pollution and Mechanistic Pathways: A Comparative Hierarchical Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duncan C.; Zhang, Junfeng; Kipen, Howard M.; Rich, David Q.; Zhu, Tong; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Wang, Guangfa; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Diehl, Scott R.; Eckel, Sandrah P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001) and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005). These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours) and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2–3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system. PMID:25502951

  7. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  8. Ambient particulate matter air pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schwander, Stephan; Okello, Clement D; Freers, Juergen; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Corry, Melody; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100 µg/m(3) in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%-55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health. PMID:24693293

  9. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  10. Ambient air pollution, temperature and out-of-hospital coronary deaths in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jinping; Chen, Renjie; Meng, Xia; Yang, Changyuan; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of ambient air pollution and temperature in triggering out-of-hospital coronary deaths (OHCDs) in China. We evaluated the associations of air pollution and temperature with daily OHCDs in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2011. We applied an over-dispersed generalized additive model and a distributed lag nonlinear model to analyze the effects of air pollution and temperature, respectively. A 10 μg/m(3) increase in the present-day PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO were associated with increases in OHCD mortality of 0.49%, 0.68%, 0.88%, 1.60% and 0.08%, respectively. A 1 °C decrease below the minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 3.81% increase in OHCD mortality on lags days 0-21, and a 1 °C increase above minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 4.61% increase over lag days 0-3. No effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. This analysis suggests that air pollution, low temperature and high temperature may increase the risk of OHCDs. PMID:25875162

  11. Canister-based method for monitoring toxic VOCS in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    McClenny, W.A.; Plell, J.D.; Oliver, K.D.; Holdren, M.W.; Winberry, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    The availability of reliable, accurate and precise monitoring methods for toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a primary need for state and local agencies addressing daily monitoring requirements related to odor complaints, fugitive emissions, and trend monitoring. The canister-based monitoring method for VOCs is a viable and widely used approach that is based on research and evaluation performed over the past several years. The activity has involved the testing of sample stability of VOCs in canisters and the design of time-integrative samplers. The development of procedures for analysis of samples in canisters, including the procedure for VOC preconcentration from whole air, the treatment of water vapor in the sample, and the selection of an appropriate analytical finish has been accomplished. The canister-based method was initially summarized in the EPA Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air as Method TO-14. Modifications and refinements are being added to Method TO-14 in order to obtain a Statement of Work for the Superfund Contract Laboratory Program for Air. The paper discusses the developments leading to the current status of the canister-based method and provides a critique of the method using results obtained in EPA monitoring networks. (Copyright (c) 1991 - Air and Waste Management Association.)

  12. Ambient air pollutant PM10 and risk of preterm birth in Lanzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Qiu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqun; He, Xiaochun; Zhou, Min; Li, Min; Xu, Xiaoying; Cui, Hongmei; Lv, Ling; Lin, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Honghong; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhu, Daling; Lin, Ru; Yao, Tingting; Su, Jie; Dang, Yun; Han, Xudong; Zhang, Hanru; Bai, Haiya; Chen, Ya; Tang, Zhongfeng; Wang, Wendi; Wang, Yueyuan; Liu, Xiaohui; Ma, Bin; Liu, Sufen; Qiu, Weitao; Huang, Huang; Liang, Jiaxin; Chen, Qiong; Jiang, Min; Ma, Shuangge; Jin, Lan; Holford, Theodore; Leaderer, Brian; Bell, Michelle L.; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Importance Exposure to ambient particulate matter during pregnancy has been suggested as a risk factor for preterm birth. However results from limited epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive. Very few studies have been conducted in areas with high air pollution levels. Objective We investigated the hypothesis that high level exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter no larger than 10µm (PM10) during pregnancy increases the risk of preterm birth. Methods A birth cohort study was carried out between 2010–2012 in Lanzhou, China, including 8,969 singleton live births with available information on daily PM10 levels from four monitoring stations, individual exposures during pregnancy were calculated using inverse-distance weighting based on both home and work addresses. Unconditional logistic regression modeling was used to examine the associations between PM10 exposure and risk of preterm birth and its clinical subtypes. Results Increased risk of very preterm birth was associated with exposure to PM10 during the last two months of pregnancy (OR, 1.07; 95%CI, 1.02–1.13 per 10µg/m3 increase for last four weeks before delivery; 1.09; 1.02–1.15 for last six weeks before delivery; 1.10; 1.03–1.17 for last eight weeks before delivery). Compared to the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (150µg/m3), higher exposure level (≥150µg/m3) of PM10 during entire pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.48; 1.22–1.81) and the association was higher for medically indicated preterm birth (1.80, 1.24–2.62) during entire pregnancy and for very preterm during last 6 weeks before delivery (2.03, 1.11–3.72). Conclusions and relevance Our study supports the hypothesis that exposure to high levels of ambient PM10 increases the risk of preterm birth. Our study also suggests that the risk may vary by clinical subtypes of preterm birth and exposure time windows. Our findings are relevant for health policy makers from China

  13. Short-term effect of ambient air pollution on COPD mortality in four Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xia; Wang, Cuicui; Cao, Dachun; Wong, Chit-Ming; Kan, Haidong

    2013-10-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity; however, few studies have examined the short-term effect of air pollution specifically on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity world wide. In this analysis, we examined the associations between daily air pollution levels [particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and COPD mortality in four Chinese cities. We used Poisson regression models with natural spline smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trends of COPD mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. We did a meta-analysis to obtain the 4-city average estimates. Air pollution (PM10, SO2, and NO2) was found to be associated with increased risk of COPD mortality in these four cities. Using the random-effects model, an increase of 10 μg m-3 of 2-day moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 0.78% (95% CI, 0.13-1.42), 1.30% (95% CI, 0.61-1.99), and 1.78% (95% CI, 1.10-2.46) increase of COPD mortality, respectively. The concentration-response curves indicated linear associations without threshold. Only NO2 remained significant in the multi-pollutant models. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-city study in Asian developing region to report the short-term effect of air pollution on COPD mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effects of air pollution on COPD mortality for high exposure settings typical in developing countries.

  14. Association of Ambient Air Quality with Pulmonary Function of Youngster Footballers

    PubMed Central

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Air pollution has remained a major health concern in Kolkata. The present study was carried out to analyze the association between the levels of air pollutants and pulmonary function of youngster footballers living in two different air pollutant zones of Kolkata, West Bengal. Methods Air pollution data of the two ambient air quality-monitoring stations located at Rabindrabharati and Victoria Memorial was collected for the period from January 2012 to March 2012. Study was conducted on two hundred and twenty boys of the age range 14-16 years living within 3km radius of the two monitoring stations. Sample consisted of 60 footballers (30 from Rabindrabharati and 30 from Victoria Memorial) and 160 sedentary boys (80 from Rabindrabharati and 80 from Victoria Memorial). They were investigated for their spirometric lung functions by the method and technique recommended by American Thoracic Society. Results were expressed as mean ± SD and independent samples T test was conducted to compare between two groups. Results Results revealed that particulate matter (PM10), oxides of sulfur (SO2) concentrations were significantly higher in Rabindrabharati zone, whereas no significant differences were noted in oxides of nitrogen (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations though values were higher at Rabindrabharati than Victoria Memorial. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced mid expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were significantly lower both in footballers (P<0.05) and sedentary boys (P<0.01) of Rabindrabharati zone. Conclusion Exposure to high air pollutant concentration might be associated with reduced pulmonary function in both sedentary and trained boys in spite of the fact that regular participation in training program may improve pulmonary function. PMID:24868430

  15. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Santos, Germán; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values - those to be compared with the limit/target values - fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. PMID:26950629

  16. Relationship between PAHs Concentrations in Ambient Air and Deposited on Pine Needles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was carried out to determine whether or not pine needles can be used as passive samplers of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using the correlation between accumulated PAH concentrations in air (Ca, ng/m3) and those deposited on pine needles (Cp, ng/g dry). Methods PAHs in ambient air was collected using low volume PUF sampler and pine needles was gathered at same place for 7 months. Results good correlation (R2=0.8582, p<0.05) was found between Ca and Cp for PAHs with a higher gaseous state in air (AcPy, Acp, Flu, Phen, Ant, Flt, Pyr, BaA and Chry), but there was a poorer correlation (R2=0.1491, p=0.5123) for the PAHs with a lower gaseous state (BbF, BkF, BaP, DahA, BghiP and Ind123). A positive correlation (R2=0.8542) was revealed between the logarithm of the octanol-air partitioning coefficient (logKoa) and Cp/Ca for the PAHs with a higher gaseous state in air, but there was a negative correlation (R2=0.8131) for the PAHs with a lower gaseous state. The Ca-Cp model could not be used to estimate PAHs concentrations in air using deposited PAHs concentrations on pine needles, but the logKoa-Cp/Ca model could be used. Conclusions It was found that pine needles can be used as passive samplers of atmospheric PAHs. PMID:22125765

  17. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Peng, Zhe; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-03-01

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen-Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4-1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic

  18. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; et al

    2016-03-08

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed formore » semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m–3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m–3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (>10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small

  19. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; et al

    2016-03-08

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed formore » semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m−3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m−3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of

  20. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Peng, Zhe; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m−3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m−3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the

  1. Bioassay-directed chemical analysis and detection of mutagenicity in ambient air of the coke oven.

    PubMed

    Dobiás, L; Kůsová, J; Gajdos, O; Vidová, P; Gajdosová, D; Havránková, J; Fried, M; Binková, B; Topinka, J

    1999-09-30

    In the present study, we summarize the results of studies on the mutagenic potential of the main fractions and subfractions of extractable organic material (EOM) in the ambient air at the workplaces of the coke oven. The objective of our experiments was to apply the Bioassay-Directed Chemical Analysis (with the use of the Ames test) for the identification of the differences in the mutagenicity of these fractions, in relationship to the complex mixture of EOM in occupational air. From the evaluation of results, it is possible to deduce the following conclusions: (1) The comparison of the mutagenicity in the main fractions (basic, acidic, neutral) demonstrates the existence of differences in mutagenic potential. Of the total mutagenicity, 20.4% is in the basic fraction, 25.4% in the acidic fraction and 54.2% in the neutral fraction. (2) In general, 90.1% of the mutagenicity found in the basic, acidic and neutral fractions together was associated with the requirement of metabolic activation in vitro (+S9). In the case of the neutral fraction, it was 51.8%. (3) These results also suggest that frameshift mutations are the major component (53.8%) of the total mutagenicity of the main fractions. (4) With regards to the mutagenicity of organic compounds in the neutral fraction it appeared that genotoxicants of its subfractions (slightly and moderately polar and aromatic) play the main role. Carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and genotoxic nitrocompounds play an important role as determinants of the mutagenic potential of complex mixtures of harmful compounds in ambient air. This is confirmed first by the results of short-term bacterial tests. PMID:10575437

  2. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring. PMID:24937527

  3. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN) for Ambient Air Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C.; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011–2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1–1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring. PMID:24937527

  4. Effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory tract complaints and airway inflammation in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Altuğ, Hicran; Gaga, Eftade O; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Van Doorn, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution were studied in 605 school children 9 to 13 years in Eskişehir, Turkey. Each child performed a fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement and a lung function test (LFT). Self-reported respiratory tract complaints (having cold, complaints of throat, runny nose and shortness of breath/wheezing) in the last 7 days and on the day of testing were also recorded. As acute health outcomes were investigated, weekly average ambient concentrations of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined by passive sampling in the school playgrounds simultaneously with the health survey. Effects of air pollution on respiratory tract complaints and exhaled NO/lung function were estimated by multivariate logistic regression and multivariate linear mixed effects models, respectively. Upper respiratory tract complaints were significantly (p<0.05) associated with weekly average O3 concentrations during the health survey (adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 1.21 and 1.28 for a 10 μgm(-3) increment for having cold and a runny nose on day of testing, respectively). FENO levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in children with various upper respiratory tract complaints (ratio in FENO varied between 1.16 and 1.40). No significant change in FENO levels was detected in association with any of the measured pollutants (p ≥ 0.05). Lung function was not associated with upper respiratory tract complaints and FENO levels. Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) levels were negatively associated with weekly average O3 levels for children without upper respiratory tract complaints. In summary, elevated levels of air pollutants increased respiratory tract complaints in children. PMID:24561926

  5. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor development for high-time-resolution measurements of gaseous elemental mercury in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Obrist, D.; Moosmüller, H.; Faïn, X.; Moore, C.

    2013-06-01

    We describe further development of a previous laboratory prototype pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) sensor into a field-deployable system for high-time-resolution, continuous, and automated measurement of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations in ambient air. We employed an external, isotopically enriched Hg cell for automated locking and stabilization of the laser wavelength on the GEM peak absorption during measurements. Further, we describe implementation of differential absorption measurements via a piezoelectric tuning element for pulse-by-pulse tuning of the laser wavelength onto and off of the GEM absorption line. This allowed us to continuously correct (at 25 Hz) for system baseline extinction losses unrelated to GEM absorption. Extensive measurement and calibration data obtained with the system were based on spike addition in both GEM-free air and ambient air. Challenges and interferences that occurred during measurements (particularly in ambient air) are discussed including temperature and ozone (O3) concentration fluctuations, and steps taken to reduce these. CRDS data were highly linear (r2 ≥ 0.98) with data from a commercial Tekran 2537 Hg analyzer across a wide range of GEM concentrations (0 to 127 ng m-3) in Hg-free and ambient air. Measurements during periods of stable background GEM concentrations provided a conservative instrument sensitivity estimate of 0.35 ng m-3 for the CRDS system when time averaged for 5 min. This sensitivity, along with concentration patterns observed in ambient air (with the CRDS system and verified with the Tekran analyzer), showed that the sensor was capable of characterizing GEM fluctuations in ambient air. The value of fast-response GEM measurements was shown by a series of GEM spike additions - highlighting that high-temporal-resolution measurement allowed for detailed characterization of fast concentration fluctuations not possible with traditional analyzers.

  6. PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLER ERRORS DUE TO THE INTERACTION OF PARTICLE SIZE AND SAMPLER PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS: PM10 AND PM2.5 AMBIENT AIR SAMPLERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural operations across the United States are encountering difficulties in complying with the current air pollution regulations for particulate matter (PM). The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM in terms of PM10, are ambient air concentration limits set by EPA that should ...

  7. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  8. Polyfluorinated compounds in ambient air from ship- and land-based measurements in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    Neutral volatile and semi-volatile polyfluorinated organic compounds (PFC) and ionic perfluorinated compounds were determined in air samples collected at two sites in the vicinity of Hamburg, Germany, and onboard the German research vessel Atair during a cruise in the German Bight, North Sea, in early November 2007. PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges and glass fiber filters as sampling media were applied to collect several fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE) in the gas- and particle-phase as well as a set of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCA) and sulfonates (PFSA) in the particle-phase. This study presents the distribution of PFC in ambient air of the German North Sea and in the vicinity of Hamburg for the first time. Average total PFC concentrations in and around Hamburg (180 pg m -3) were higher than those observed in the German Bight (80 pg m -3). In the German Bight, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 17-82 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 2.6-10 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 10-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-4.4 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were determined. In the vicinity of Hamburg, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 32-204 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 3-26 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 3-18 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were detected. Concentrations of perfluorinated acids were in the range of 1-11 pg m -3. FTOH clearly dominated the substance spectrum; 8:2 FTOH occurred in maximum proportions. Air mass back trajectories, cluster, and correlation analyses revealed that the air mass origin and thus medium to long range atmospheric transport was the governing parameter for the amount of PFC in ambient air. Southwesterly located source regions seemed to be responsible for elevated PFC concentrations, local sources appeared to be of minor importance.

  9. The effect of ambient air pollution on respiratory health of school children: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Epton, Michael J; Dawson, Robin D; Brooks, Wendy M; Kingham, Simon; Aberkane, Teresa; Cavanagh, Jo-Anne E; Frampton, Christopher M; Hewitt, Tracey; Cook, Julie M; McLeod, Susan; McCartin, Fiona; Trought, Katherine; Brown, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Background Adverse respiratory effects of particulate air pollution have been identified by epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the health effects of ambient particulate air pollution from wood burning on school-age students in Christchurch, New Zealand, and to explore the utility of urine and exhaled breath condensate biomarkers of exposure in this population. Methods A panel study of 93 male students (26 with asthma) living in the boarding house of a metropolitan school was undertaken in the winter of 2004. Indoor and outdoor pollution data was continuously monitored. Longitudinal assessment of lung function (FEV1 and peak flow) and symptoms were undertaken, with event studies of high pollution on biomarkers of exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene) and effect (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration). Results Peak levels of air pollution were associated with small but statistically significant effects on lung function in the asthmatic students, but not healthy students. No significant effect of pollution could be seen either on airway inflammation and oxidative stress either in healthy students or students with asthma. Minor increases in respiratory symptoms were associated with high pollution exposure. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were raised in association with pollution events by comparison with low pollution control days. Conclusion There is no significant effect of ambient wood-smoke particulate air pollution on lung function of healthy school-aged students, but a small effect on respiratory symptoms. Asthmatic students show small effects of peak pollution levels on lung function. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene shows potential as a biomarker of exposure to wood smoke in this population; however measurement of EBC pH and hydrogen peroxide appears not to be useful for assessment of population health effects of air pollution. Some of the data presented in this paper has previously been published in Kingham and co

  10. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  11. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  12. Time Evolution of the Wettability of Supported Graphene under Ambient Air Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The wettability of graphene is both fundamental and crucial for interfacing in most applications, but a detailed understanding of its time evolution remains elusive. Here we systematically investigate the wettability of metal-supported, chemical vapor deposited graphene films as a function of ambient air exposure time using water and various other test liquids with widely different surface tensions. The wettability of graphene is not constant, but varies with substrate interactions and air exposure time. The substrate interactions affect the initial graphene wettability, where, for instance, water contact angles of ∼85 and ∼61° were measured for Ni and Cu supported graphene, respectively, after just minutes of air exposure. Analysis of the surface free energy components indicates that the substrate interactions strongly influence the Lewis acid–base component of supported graphene, which is considerably weaker for Ni supported graphene than for Cu supported graphene, suggesting that the classical van der Waals interaction theory alone is insufficient to describe the wettability of graphene. For prolonged air exposure, the effect of physisorption of airborne contaminants becomes increasingly dominant, resulting in an increase of water contact angle that follows a universal linear-logarithmic relationship with exposure time, until saturating at a maximum value of 92–98°. The adsorbed contaminants render all supported graphene samples increasingly nonpolar, although their total surface free energy decreases only by 10–16% to about 37–41 mJ/m2. Our finding shows that failure to account for the air exposure time may lead to widely different wettability values and contradicting arguments about the wetting transparency of graphene. PMID:26900413

  13. Spatially differentiated and source-specific population exposure to ambient urban air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Bin; Wilson, J. Gaines; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Zeng, Yongnian

    Models assessing exposure to air pollution often focus on macro-scale estimates of exposure to all types of sources for a particular pollutant across an urban study area. While results based on these models may aid policy makers in identifying larger areas of elevated exposure risk, they often do not differentiate the proportion of population exposure attributable to different polluting sources (e.g. traffic or industrial). In this paper, we introduce a population exposure modeling system that integrates air dispersion modeling, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and population exposure techniques to spatially characterize a source-specific exposure to ambient air pollution for an entire urban population at a fine geographical scale. By area, total population exposure in Dallas County in 2000 was more attributable to vehicle polluting sources than industrial polluting sources at all levels of exposure. Population exposure was moderately correlated with vehicle sources ( r = 0.440, p < 0.001) and weakly with industrial sources ( r = 0.069, p = 0.004). Population density was strongly correlated with total exposure ( r = 0.896, p < 0.001) but was not significantly correlated with individual or combined sources. The results of this study indicate that air quality assessments must incorporate more than industrial or vehicle polluting sources-based population exposure values alone, but should consider multiple sources. The population exposure modeling system proposed in this study shows promise for use by municipal authorities, policy makers, and epidemiologists in evaluating and controlling the quality of the air in the process of urban planning and mitigation measures.

  14. Compact High-Velocity Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Plasma Jet in Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annette, Meiners; Michael, Leck; Bernd, Abel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet at high streaming velocity operating with ambient air is highlighted. In the present technological approach, the employment of air poses a significant challenge. The high oxygen concentration in air results in a reduced concentration of reactive species in combination with a short species lifetime. The plasma jet assembly presented here contains a special dielectric barrier with a high secondary emission coefficient. In this way, the electron density and in turn the density of reactive species is increased. In addition, the plasma jet assembly is equipped with a short electrode. This leads to a higher voltage across the discharge gap and in turn to an increased density of reactive plasma species. The plasma jet is formed within and emitted by a small conical nozzle. A high-speed gas flow with gas velocity of 340 m/s was achieved at the end of the nozzle. In the jet the concentration of toxic and unwanted neutral plasma species like O3 or NOx is significantly reduced because of the shorter residence time within the plasma. The range of short-lived active plasma species is in turn considerably enhanced. The jet efficiency and action range measured through the oxidation of a test surface were determined by measuring the increase of surface tension of a polypropylene substrate via contact angle measurements after plasma treatment. Numerical modeling of the plasma plume indicates that oxygen atoms are in fact the main active species in the plasma plume.

  15. Ambient Air Pollution Exposure Estimation for the Global Burden of Disease 2013.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Michael; Freedman, Greg; Frostad, Joseph; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Dentener, Frank; van Dingenen, Rita; Estep, Kara; Amini, Heresh; Apte, Joshua S; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Barregard, Lars; Broday, David; Feigin, Valery; Ghosh, Santu; Hopke, Philip K; Knibbs, Luke D; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Liu, Yang; Ma, Stefan; Morawska, Lidia; Sangrador, José Luis Texcalac; Shaddick, Gavin; Anderson, H Ross; Vos, Theo; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Burnett, Richard T; Cohen, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a major risk factor for global disease. Assessment of the impacts of air pollution on population health and evaluation of trends relative to other major risk factors requires regularly updated, accurate, spatially resolved exposure estimates. We combined satellite-based estimates, chemical transport model simulations, and ground measurements from 79 different countries to produce global estimates of annual average fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for five-year intervals from 1990 to 2010 and the year 2013. These estimates were applied to assess population-weighted mean concentrations for 1990-2013 for each of 188 countries. In 2013, 87% of the world's population lived in areas exceeding the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline of 10 μg/m(3) PM2.5 (annual average). Between 1990 and 2013, global population-weighted PM2.5 increased by 20.4% driven by trends in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China. Decreases in population-weighted mean concentrations of PM2.5 were evident in most high income countries. Population-weighted mean concentrations of ozone increased globally by 8.9% from 1990-2013 with increases in most countries-except for modest decreases in North America, parts of Europe, and several countries in Southeast Asia. PMID:26595236

  16. Chemical reactivities of ambient air samples in three Southern California communities

    PubMed Central

    Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantza; Di Stefano, Emma; Schmitz, Debra A.; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Salinas, Erika M.; Nasser, Elina; Froines, John R.; Cho, Arthur K.

    2015-01-01

    The potential adverse health effects of PM2.5 and vapor samples from three communities that neighbor railyards, Commerce (CM), Long Beach (LB), and San Bernardino (SB), were assessed by determination of chemical reactivities attributed to the induction of oxidative stress by air pollutants. The assays used were dithiothreitol (DTT) and dihydrobenzoic acid (DHBA) based procedures for prooxidant content and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) assay for electrophiles. Prooxidants and electrophiles have been proposed as the reactive chemical species responsible for the induction of oxidative stress by air pollution mixtures. The PM2.5 samples from CM and LB sites showed seasonal differences in reactivities with higher levels in the winter whereas the SB sample differences were reversed. The reactivities in the vapor samples were all very similar, except for the summer SB samples, which contained higher levels of both prooxidants and electrophiles. The results suggest the observed reactivities reflect general geographical differences rather than direct effects of the railyards. Distributional differences in reactivities were also observed with PM2.5 fractions containing most of the prooxidants (74–81%) and the vapor phase most of the electrophiles (82–96%). The high levels of the vapor phase electrophiles and their potential for adverse biological effects point out the importance of the vapor phase in assessing the potential health effects of ambient air. PMID:25947123

  17. Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

  18. Correction of Temperatures of Air-Cooled Engine Cylinders for Variation in Engine and Cooling Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1939-01-01

    Factors are obtained from semiempirical equations for correcting engine-cylinder temperatures for variation in important engine and cooling conditions. The variation of engine temperatures with atmospheric temperature is treated in detail, and correction factors are obtained for various flight and test conditions, such as climb at constant indicated air speed, level flight, ground running, take-off, constant speed of cooling air, and constant mass flow of cooling air. Seven conventional air-cooled engine cylinders enclosed in jackets and cooled by a blower were tested to determine the effect of cooling-air temperature and carburetor-air temperature on cylinder temperatures. The cooling air temperature was varied from approximately 80 degrees F. to 230 degrees F. and the carburetor-air temperature from approximately 40 degrees F. to 160 degrees F. Tests were made over a large range of engine speeds, brake mean effective pressures, and pressure drops across the cylinder. The correction factors obtained experimentally are compared with those obtained from the semiempirical equations and a fair agreement is noted.

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  20. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Simultaneously with the personal monitoring, ambient concentrations of the target compounds were measured at two fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand