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Sample records for amendoinzeiro arachis hypogaea

  1. Successful crosses between fungal-resistant wild species of Arachis (section Arachis) and Arachis hypogaea

    PubMed Central

    Fávero, Alessandra Pereira; dos Santos, Rodrigo Furtado; Simpson, Charles E.; Valls, José Francisco Montenegro; Vello, Natal Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is the fifth most produced oil crop worldwide. Besides lack of water, fungal diseases are the most limiting factors for the crop. Several species of Arachis are resistant to certain pests and diseases. This study aimed to successfully cross the A-genome with B-K-A genome wild species previously selected for fungal disease resistance, but that are still untested. We also aimed to polyplodize the amphihaploid chromosomes; cross the synthetic amphidiploids and A. hypogaea to introgress disease resistance genes into the cultivated peanut; and analyze pollen viability and morphological descriptors for all progenies and their parents. We selected 12 A-genome accessions as male parents and three B-genome species, one K-genome species, and one A-genome species as female parents. Of the 26 distinct cross combinations, 13 different interspecific AB-genome and three AA-genome hybrids were obtained. These sterile hybrids were polyploidized and five combinations produced tetraploid flowers. Next, 16 combinations were crossed between A. hypogaea and the synthetic amphidiploids, resulting in 11 different hybrid combinations. Our results confirm that it is possible to introgress resistance genes from wild species into the peanut using artificial hybridization, and that more species than previously reported can be used, thus enhancing the genetic variability in peanut genetic improvement programs. PMID:26500440

  2. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  3. A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were grown hydroponically, using continuously recirculating nutrient solution. Two culture tray designs were tested; one tray design used only nutrient solution, while the other used a sphagnum-filled pod development compartment just beneath the cover and above the nutrient solution. Both trays were fitted with slotted covers to allow developing gynophores to reach the root zone. Peanut seed yields averaged 350 gm-2 dry mass, regardless of tray design, suggesting that substrate is not required for hydroponic peanut production.

  4. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Leaves of Edible (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Perennial (Arachis glabrata Benth.) Peanut Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts or groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a valuable oilseed crop, but other than the seed, the rest of the plant is of minimal value. Plant material including the leaves is used as mulch or as animal feed. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) known as forage or rhizoma peanut produces...

  5. Characterization and transferability of microsatellite markers of the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, Marcos A; Hoshino, Andrea A; Barbosa, Andrea VG; Palmieri, Dario A; Lopes, Catalina R

    2007-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis includes Arachis hypogaea (cultivated peanut) and wild species that are used in peanut breeding or as forage. Molecular markers have been employed in several studies of this genus, but microsatellite markers have only been used in few investigations. Microsatellites are very informative and are useful to assess genetic variability, analyze mating systems and in genetic mapping. The objectives of this study were to develop A. hypogaea microsatellite loci and to evaluate the transferability of these markers to other Arachis species. Results Thirteen loci were isolated and characterized using 16 accessions of A. hypogaea. The level of variation found in A. hypogaea using microsatellites was higher than with other markers. Cross-transferability of the markers was also high. Sequencing of the fragments amplified using the primer pair Ah11 from 17 wild Arachis species showed that almost all wild species had similar repeated sequence to the one observed in A. hypogaea. Sequence data suggested that there is no correlation between taxonomic relationship of a wild species to A. hypogaea and the number of repeats found in its microsatellite loci. Conclusion These results show that microsatellite primer pairs from A. hypogaea have multiple uses. A higher level of variation among A. hypogaea accessions can be detected using microsatellite markers in comparison to other markers, such as RFLP, RAPD and AFLP. The microsatellite primers of A. hypogaea showed a very high rate of transferability to other species of the genus. These primer pairs provide important tools to evaluate the genetic variability and to assess the mating system in Arachis species. PMID:17326826

  6. Assessment of Adoption Gaps in Management of Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, G. D. S.; Popat, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto research…

  7. Weed Control Systems for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Grown as a Biofuel Feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has not been utilized as a true oilseed crop, especially for the production of fuel. However, peanut makes a superior feedstock for biodiesel, especially in on-farm or small cooperative business plans, where producers can dictate the cost of making their own fuel. Fiel...

  8. Biological activity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) phytoalexins and selected natural and synthetic stilbenoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.), when infected by a microbial pathogen, is capable of producing stilbene-derived compounds that are considered antifungal phytoalexins. In addition, the potential health benefits of other stilbenoids from peanuts, including resveratrol and pterostilbene have be...

  9. Development of trinucleotide (GGC)n SSR markers in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an agronomical and economical important oilseed crop. It is native to South America, but it is grown extensively in the semi-arid tropics of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Because its genetic base is narrow, a pressed effort has been made to develop SSR m...

  10. The complex tale of the high oleic acid trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait wa...

  11. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  12. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  13. QTL analysis of disease resistance to leaf spots and TSWV in peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early leaf spot (ELS), caused by Cercospora arachidicola, late leaf spot (LLS), caused by Cercosporidium personatum, and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) result in great losses in yield in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to these dise...

  14. Genotyping and fatty acid composition analysis in segregating peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid (C18:1), a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid is an important seed quality trait in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) because it provides improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, a beneficial effect on human health, and increased shelf life for stored food products. Consequently, an...

  15. Utility of EST-derived SSR in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Arachis wild species

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xuanqiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Hong, Yanbin; Liu, Haiyan; Zhou, Guiyuan; Li, Shaoxiong; Guo, Baozhu

    2009-01-01

    Background Lack of sufficient molecular markers hinders current genetic research in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). It is necessary to develop more molecular markers for potential use in peanut genetic research. With the development of peanut EST projects, a vast amount of available EST sequence data has been generated. These data offered an opportunity to identify SSR in ESTs by data mining. Results In this study, we investigated 24,238 ESTs for the identification and development of SSR markers. In total, 881 SSRs were identified from 780 SSR-containing unique ESTs. On an average, one SSR was found per 7.3 kb of EST sequence with tri-nucleotide motifs (63.9%) being the most abundant followed by di- (32.7%), tetra- (1.7%), hexa- (1.0%) and penta-nucleotide (0.7%) repeat types. The top six motifs included AG/TC (27.7%), AAG/TTC (17.4%), AAT/TTA (11.9%), ACC/TGG (7.72%), ACT/TGA (7.26%) and AT/TA (6.3%). Based on the 780 SSR-containing ESTs, a total of 290 primer pairs were successfully designed and used for validation of the amplification and assessment of the polymorphism among 22 genotypes of cultivated peanuts and 16 accessions of wild species. The results showed that 251 primer pairs yielded amplification products, of which 26 and 221 primer pairs exhibited polymorphism among the cultivated and wild species examined, respectively. Two to four alleles were found in cultivated peanuts, while 3–8 alleles presented in wild species. The apparent broad polymorphism was further confirmed by cloning and sequencing of amplified alleles. Sequence analysis of selected amplified alleles revealed that allelic diversity could be attributed mainly to differences in repeat type and length in the microsatellite regions. In addition, a few single base mutations were observed in the microsatellite flanking regions. Conclusion This study gives an insight into the frequency, type and distribution of peanut EST-SSRs and demonstrates successful development of EST-SSR markers in

  16. Acclimation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to water stress through exposure to differing periods of early season drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is able to withstand periods of water scarcity either in the early or late periods of the growing season, but suffers significant stress and yield loss during drought periods in mid-season, or the period coinciding with peak flower production and pod maturation. In fact...

  17. Identification and characterization of expressed resistance gene analogs (RGSs) from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food legume grown worldwide for providing edible oil and protein. However, due to scarcity of genetic diversity, peanut is very vulnerable to a variety of pathogens, such as rust (Puccinia arachidis Speg.), early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidic...

  18. Stability of transgene expression in reduced allergen peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) across multiple generations, and at different soil sulfur levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) containing a gene designed for RNA interference (RNAi), showed stable complete silencing of Ara h 2 and partial silencing of Ara h 6, two potent peanut allergens/proteins, along with minimal collateral changes to other allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 3, across th...

  19. Identification and characterization of a multigene family encoding germin-like proteins in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) play diversified roles in plant development and defense response. Here, we identified 36 ESTs encoding GLPs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). After assembly, these ESTs were integrated into eight unigenes, named AhGLP1 to AhGLP8, of which, three (AhGLP1-3) were comprised...

  20. Development of a real-time PCR genotyping assay to identify high oleic acid peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid, a monounsaturated, omega-9 fatty acid found in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil is an important seed quality trait because it provides increased shelf life, improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, and has a beneficial effect on human health. Hence, a concentrated effort has be...

  1. Size-selective fractionation and visual mapping of allergen protein chemistry in Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    Hebling, Christine M; Ross, Mark M; Callahan, John H; McFarland, Melinda A

    2012-11-01

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in addition to milk, eggs, fish, crustaceans, wheat, tree nuts, and soybean are commonly referred to as the "big eight" foods that contribute to the majority of food allergies worldwide. Despite the severity of allergic reactions and growing prevalence in children and adults, there is no cure for peanut allergy, leaving avoidance as the primary mode of treatment. To improve analytical methods for peanut allergen detection, researchers must overcome obstacles involved in handling complex food matrices while attempting to decipher the chemistry that underlies allergen protein interactions. To address such challenges, we conducted a global proteome characterization of raw peanuts using a sophisticated GELFrEE-PAGE-LC-MS/MS platform consisting of gel-based protein fractionation followed by mass spectrometric identification. The in-solution mass-selective protein fractionation: (1) enhances the number of unique peptide identifications, (2) provides a visual map of protein isoforms, and (3) aids in the identification of disulfide-linked protein complexes. GELFrEE-PAGE-LC-MS/MS not only overcomes many of the challenges involved in the study of plant proteomics, but enriches the understanding of peanut protein chemistry, which is typically unattainable in a traditional bottom-up proteomic analysis. A global understanding of protein chemistry in Arachis hypogaea ultimately will aid the development of improved methods for allergen detection in food. PMID:23020697

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of water soluble polysaccharide from Arachis hypogaea seeds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Ma, Yuhan; Yan, Dazhuang

    2014-10-01

    The water soluble crude polysaccharide (AHP) was obtained from the aqueous extracts of the Arachis hypogaea seeds through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities against the bacteria of AHP were investigated. AHP at 2 mg/mL was found to inhibit the formation of superoxide anion (55.33 %) and hydroxyl radicals (30.85 %), to scavenge the DPPH radical (57.43 %) and to chelate iron ion (27.83 %) in in vitro systems. AHP also exhibited the antibacterial activities. AHP at 12.5 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria, implying that the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to AHP than the Gram-negative bacteria. Polysaccharide with antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the "Chang Sheng Guo" further increased the nutritive values of peanuts as well as the natural health product potential. PMID:25328235

  3. In vitro propagation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by shoot tip culture.

    PubMed

    Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Kaya, Ergun; Lambardi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), also known as groundnut, is the most important species of Arachis genus, originating from Brazil and Peru. Peanut seeds contain high seed oil, proteins, amino acids, and vitamin E, and are consumed worldwide as edible nut, peanut butter, or candy, and peanut oil extracted from the seeds. The meal remaining after oil extraction is also used for animal feed. However, its narrow germplasm base, together with susceptibility to diseases, pathogens, and weeds, decreases yield and seed quality and causes great economic losses annually. Hence, the optimization of efficient in vitro propagation procedures would be highly effective for peanut propagation, as it would raise yield and improve seed quality and flavor. Earlier reports on traditional micropropagation methods, based on axillary bud proliferation which guarantees the multiplication of true-to-type plants, are still limited. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol to improve multiple shoot formation from shoot-tip explants by using AgNO(3) in combination with plant growth regulators. PMID:23179691

  4. Genetic and functional diversities of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Choudhury, Susanta Roy; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2011-06-01

    Bioinoculants are environmentally friendly, energy efficient and economically viable resources in sustainable agriculture. Knowledge of the structure and activities of microbial population in the rhizosphere of a plant is essential to formulate an effective bioinoculant. In this study, the bacterial community present in the rhizosphere of an important oilseed legume, Arachis hypogaea (L.) was described with respect to adjoining bulk soil as a baseline control using a 16S rDNA based metagenomic approach. Significantly higher abundance of Gamma-proteobacteria, a prevalence of Bacillus and the Cytophaga-Flavobacteria group of Bacteroidetes and absence of the Rhizobiaceae family of Alpha-proteobacteria were the major features observed in the matured Arachis-rhizosphere. The functional characterization of the rhizosphere-competent bacteria was performed using culture-dependent determination of phenotypes. Most bacterial isolates from the groundnut-rhizosphere exhibited multiple biochemical activities associated with plant growth and disease control. Validation of the beneficial traits in candidate bioinoculants in pot-cultures and field trials is necessary before their targeted application in the groundnut production system. PMID:21380504

  5. Biological Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Phytoalexins and Selected Natural and Synthetic Stilbenoids

    PubMed Central

    SOBOLEV, VICTOR S.; KHAN, SHABANA I.; TABANCA, NURHAYAT; WEDGE, DAVID E.; MANLY, SUSAN P.; CUTLER, STEPHEN J.; COY, MONIQUE R.; BECNEL, JAMES J.; NEFF, SCOTT A.; GLOER, JAMES B.

    2011-01-01

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.), when infected by a microbial pathogen, is capable of producing stilbene-derived compounds that are considered antifungal phytoalexins. In addition, the potential health benefits of other stilbenoids from peanuts, including resveratrol and pterostilbene, have been acknowledged by several investigators. Despite considerable progress in peanut research, relatively little is known about the biological activity of the stilbenoid phytoalexins. This study investigated the activities of some of these compounds in a broad spectrum of biological assays. Since peanut stilbenoids appear to play roles in plant defense mechanisms, they were evaluated for their effects on economically important plant pathogenic fungi of the genera Colletotrichum, Botrytis, Fusarium, and Phomopsis. We further investigated these peanut phytoalexins, together with some related natural and synthetic stilbenoids (a total of 24 compounds) in a panel of bioassays to determine their anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities in mammalian cells. Several of these compounds were also evaluated as mammalian opioid receptor competitive antagonists. Assays for adult mosquito and larvae toxicity were also performed. The results of these studies reveal that peanut stilbenoids, as well as related natural and synthetic stilbene derivatives, display a diverse range of biological activities. PMID:21314127

  6. Impact of Fungicides Chlorothalonil and Propiconazole on Microbial Activities in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Soils

    PubMed Central

    Ramudu, A. C.; Mohiddin, G. Jaffer; Srinivasulu, M.; Madakka, M.; Rangaswamy, V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of agrochemicals (fungicides) into soil may have lasting effects on soil microbial activities and thus affect soil health. In order to determine the changes in microbial activity in a black clay and red sandy loam soils of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivated fields, a case study was conducted with propiconazole and chlorothalonil to evaluate its effects on soil enzymes (cellulase and invertase) throughout 40 days of incubation under laboratory conditions with different concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kg ha−1). Individual application of the two fungicides at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 kg ha−1 to the soil distinctly enhanced the activities of cellulase and invertase but at higher concentrations of 7.5 and 10 kg ha−1 was toxic or innocuous to both cellulase and invertase activities. In soil samples receiving 2.5–5.0 kg ha−1 of the fungicides, the accumulation of reducing sugar was pronounced more at 20 days, and the activity of the cellulase and invertase was drastically decreased with increasing period of incubation up to 30 and 40 days. PMID:23724306

  7. Cloning and characterization of SPL-family genes in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Li, M; Zhao, S Z; Zhao, C Z; Zhang, Y; Xia, H; Lopez-Baltazar, J; Wan, S B; Wang, X J

    2016-01-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL) proteins play crucial roles in plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stressors. The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a globally important oil crop. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of 15 SPLs in the peanut by transcriptome sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and analyzed their genomic DNA sequences. cDNA lengths varied significantly, from 369 to 3102 bp. The SBP domain of the peanut SPL proteins was highly conserved compared to SPLs in other plant species. Based on their sequence similarity to SPLs from other plant species, the peanut SPLs could be grouped into five subgroups. In each subgroup, lengths of individual genes, conserved motif numbers, and distribution patterns were similar. Seven of the SPLs were predicted to be targets of miR156. The SPLs were ubiquitously expressed in the roots, leaves, flowers, gynophores, and seeds, with different expression levels and accumulation patterns. Significant differences in the expression of most of the SPLs were observed between juvenile and adult leaves, suggesting that they are involved in developmental regulation. Dynamic changes occurred in transcript levels at stage 1 (aerial grown green gynophores), stage 2 (gynophores buried in soil for about three days), and stage 3 (gynophores buried in soil for about nine days with enlarged pods). Possible roles that these genes play in peanut pod initiation are discussed. PMID:26909986

  8. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Potential Iron Fertilizer for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Mengmeng; Ma, Chuanxin; Hao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Rui, Yukui; Tang, Xinlian; Zhao, Qi; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Zetian; Hou, Tianqi; Zhu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) as a fertilizer to replace traditional Fe fertilizers, which have various shortcomings. The effects of the Fe2O3 NPs and a chelated-Fe fertilizer (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Fe; EDTA-Fe) fertilizer on the growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a crop that is very sensitive to Fe deficiency, were studied in a pot experiment. The results showed that Fe2O3 NPs increased root length, plant height, biomass, and SPAD values of peanut plants. The Fe2O3 NPs promoted the growth of peanut by regulating phytohormone contents and antioxidant enzyme activity. The Fe contents in peanut plants with Fe2O3 NPs and EDTA-Fe treatments were higher than the control group. We used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to quantitatively analyze Fe in the soil. Peanut is usually cultivated in sandy soil, which is readily leached of fertilizers. However, the Fe2O3 NPs adsorbed onto sandy soil and improved the availability of Fe to the plants. Together, these results show that Fe2O3 NPs can replace traditional Fe fertilizers in the cultivation of peanut plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research on the Fe2O3 NPs as the iron fertilizer. PMID:27375665

  9. Progress in genetic engineering of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)--a review.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gaurav; Singh, Birendra K; Kim, Eun-Ki; Morya, Vivek K; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2015-02-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major species of the family, Leguminosae, and economically important not only for vegetable oil but as a source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. It is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics and plays a role in the world agricultural economy. Peanut production and productivity is constrained by several biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging and temperature aberrations) stresses, as a result of which crop experiences serious economic losses. Genetic engineering techniques such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and DNA-bombardment-mediated transformation are used as powerful tools to complement conventional breeding and expedite peanut improvement by the introduction of agronomically useful traits in high-yield background. Resistance to several fungal, virus and insect pest have been achieved through variety of approaches ranging from gene coding for cell wall component, pathogenesis-related proteins, oxalate oxidase, bacterial chloroperoxidase, coat proteins, RNA interference, crystal proteins etc. To develop transgenic plants withstanding major abiotic stresses, genes coding transcription factors for drought and salinity, cytokinin biosynthesis, nucleic acid processing, ion antiporter and human antiapoptotic have been used. Moreover, peanut has also been used in vaccine production for the control of several animal diseases. In addition to above, this study also presents a comprehensive account on the influence of some important factors on peanut genetic engineering. Future research thrusts not only suggest the use of different approaches for higher expression of transgene(s) but also provide a way forward for the improvement of crops. PMID:25626474

  10. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Potential Iron Fertilizer for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Rui, Mengmeng; Ma, Chuanxin; Hao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Rui, Yukui; Tang, Xinlian; Zhao, Qi; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Zetian; Hou, Tianqi; Zhu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) as a fertilizer to replace traditional Fe fertilizers, which have various shortcomings. The effects of the Fe2O3 NPs and a chelated-Fe fertilizer (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Fe; EDTA-Fe) fertilizer on the growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a crop that is very sensitive to Fe deficiency, were studied in a pot experiment. The results showed that Fe2O3 NPs increased root length, plant height, biomass, and SPAD values of peanut plants. The Fe2O3 NPs promoted the growth of peanut by regulating phytohormone contents and antioxidant enzyme activity. The Fe contents in peanut plants with Fe2O3 NPs and EDTA-Fe treatments were higher than the control group. We used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to quantitatively analyze Fe in the soil. Peanut is usually cultivated in sandy soil, which is readily leached of fertilizers. However, the Fe2O3 NPs adsorbed onto sandy soil and improved the availability of Fe to the plants. Together, these results show that Fe2O3 NPs can replace traditional Fe fertilizers in the cultivation of peanut plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research on the Fe2O3 NPs as the iron fertilizer. PMID:27375665

  11. Growth rates and auxin effects in graviresponding gynophores of the peanut, Arachis hypogaea (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Moctezuma, E; Feldman, L J

    1998-10-01

    The gynophore of the peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea) is a specialized organ that carries and buries the fertilized ovules into the soil in order for seed and fruit development to occur underground. The rates of growth of vertically and horizontally oriented gynophores were measured using a time-lapse video imaging system. We found that the region of maximum extension growth due to elongation (termed the Central Elongation Zone) is located on average at 2-5 mm from the tip. In the first 0-4 h after horizontal reorientation (gravistimulation), new zones of growth emerge on the upper surface, while the elongation zone of the lower side decreases in size and magnitude. Four to six hours after reorientation the zones of maximum growth are almost equal in size and location on the upper and lower sides. The growth rate and the gravitropic response decreased dramatically, upon the excision of the ovule region (terminal 1.5 mm), but a gravitropic growth response could be restored by applying the auxin indole-3-acetic acid exogenously to the excised tip. The addition of napthylphthalamic acid (an auxin transport inhibitor) at the ovule region allowed some growth to occur, but the gynophores do not respond normally to gravity, upon horizontal reorientation. We discuss the role of auxin in the gravitropic response of the gynophore. PMID:11541946

  12. Cloning of Acyl-ACP Thioesterase FatA from Arachis hypogaea L. and Its Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gao; Peng, Zhen-ying; Shan, Lei; Xuan, Ning; Tang, Gui-ying; Zhang, Yan; Li, Lan; He, Qing-fang; Bi, Yu-ping

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a full-length cDNA of the acyl-ACP thioesterase, AhFatA, was cloned from developing seeds of Arachis hypogaea L. by 3′-RACE. Sequence analysis showed that the open reading frame encodes a peptide of 372 amino acids and has 50–70% identity with FatA from other plants. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that AhFatA was expressed in all tissues of A. hypogaea L., but most strongly in the immature seeds harvested at 60 days after pegging. Heterologous expression of AhFatA in Escherichia coli affected bacterial growth and changed the fatty acid profiles of the membrane lipid, resulting in directed accumulation towards palmitoleic acid and oleic acid. These results indicate that AhFatA is at least partially responsible for determining the high palmitoleic acid and oleic acid composition of E. coli. PMID:23093853

  13. Cadmium re-distribution from pod and root zones and accumulation by peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kairong; Song, Ningning; Zhao, Qiaoqiao; van der Zee, S E A T M

    2016-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes may differ greatly with regard to cadmium (Cd) accumulation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To determine the key factors that may contribute to Cd re-distribution and accumulation in peanut genotypes with different Cd accumulating patterns, a split-pot soil experiment was conducted with three common Chinese peanut cultivars (Fenghua-6, Huayu-20, and Huayu-23). The growth medium was separated into pod and root zones with varied Cd concentrations in each zone to determine the re-distribution of Cd after it is taken up via different routes. The peanut cultivars were divided into two groups based on Cd translocation efficiency as follows: (1) high internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivar (Fenghua-6) and (2) low internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivars (Huayu-20 and Huayu-23). Compared with Fenghua-6, low Cd translocation cultivars Huayu-20 and Huayu-23 showed higher biomass production, especially in stems and leaves, leading to dilution of metal concentrations. Results also showed that Cd concentration in roots increased significantly with increasing Cd concentrations in soils when Cd was applied in the root zone. However, there were no significant differences in the root Cd concentrations between different pod zone Cd treatments and the control, suggesting that root uptake, rather than pod uptake, is responsible for Cd accumulation in the roots of peanuts. Significant differences of Cd distribution were observed between pod and root zone Cd exposure treatments. The three peanut cultivars revealed higher kernel over total Cd fractions for pod than for root zone Cd exposure if only extra applied Cd was considered. This suggests that uptake through peg and pod shell might, at least partially, be responsible for the variation in Cd re-distribution and accumulation among peanut cultivars. Cd uptake by plants via two routes (i.e., via roots and via pegs and pods, respectively) and internal Cd translocation

  14. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  15. Response of progeny bred from Bolivian and North American cultivars in integrated management systems for leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early leaf spot caused by the fungus Cercospora arachidicola, and late leaf spot caused by the fungus Cercosporidium personatum, are major yield-reducing diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the southeastern U.S. Effective control of both leaf spots can be reached with integrated disease man...

  16. Evaluation of silver nanoparticles toxicity of Arachis hypogaea peel extracts and its larvicidal activity against malaria and dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Velu, Kuppan; Elumalai, Devan; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Janaki, Arumugam; Babu, Muthu; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesised from aqueous silver nitrate using the extracts of Arachis hypogaea peels. The synthesised SNPs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy analysis and high-resonance scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. AgNPs were well defined and measured 20 to 50 nm in size. The nanoparticles were crystallized with a face-centered cubic structure. Larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels was tested for their larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever), Anopheles stephensi (Human malaria). The results suggest that the synthesised AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly resource for the control of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels against vectors of malaria and dengue. PMID:26154036

  17. A SSR-based composite genetic linkage map for the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The construction of genetic linkage maps for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has and continues to be an important research goal to facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection in breeding. Even though a few maps have been developed, they were constructed using diploid or interspecific tetraploid populations. The most recently published intra-specific map was constructed from the cross of cultivated peanuts, in which only 135 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were sparsely populated in 22 linkage groups. The more detailed linkage map with sufficient markers is necessary to be feasible for QTL identification and marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank. Results Three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations were constructed from three crosses with one common female parental line Yueyou 13, a high yielding Spanish market type. The four parents were screened with 1044 primer pairs designed to amplify SSRs and 901 primer pairs produced clear PCR products. Of the 901 primer pairs, 146, 124 and 64 primer pairs (markers) were polymorphic in these populations, respectively, and used in genotyping these RIL populations. Individual linkage maps were constructed from each of the three populations and a composite map based on 93 common loci were created using JoinMap. The composite linkage maps consist of 22 composite linkage groups (LG) with 175 SSR markers (including 47 SSRs on the published AA genome maps), representing the 20 chromosomes of A. hypogaea. The total composite map length is 885.4 cM, with an average marker density of 5.8 cM. Segregation distortion in the 3 populations was 23.0%, 13.5% and 7.8% of the markers, respectively. These

  18. Data in support of proteome analysis of gynophores and early swelling pods of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Han; Jiang, Nana; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Ye; Li, Changsheng; Li, Aiqin; Zhao, Chuanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Different from most of other plants, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a typical geocarpic species which flowering and forming pegs (gynophores) above the ground. Pegs penetrate into soil for embryo and pod development. To investigate the molecular mechanism of geocarpy feature of peanut, the proteome profiles of aerial grown gynophores (S1), subterranean unswollen gynophores (S2), and gynophores that had just started to swell into pods (S3) were analyzed by combining 1 DE with nano LC–MS/MS approaches. The proteomic data provided valuable information for understanding pod development of peanut. The data described here can be found in the PRIDE Archive using the reference number PXD002579-81. A more comprehensive analysis of this data may be obtained from the article in BMC Plant Biology (Zhao et al., 2015 [1]). PMID:26793750

  19. Isolation and identification of allelochemicals produced by B. sonorensis for suppression of charcoal rot of Arachis hypogaea L.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Urja; Saraf, Meenu

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus sonorensis MBCU2 isolated from vermicompost-amended soil from Gujarat, India showed most antagonistic activity against Macrophomina phaseolina by dual culture screening. The culture supernatant of MBCU2 completely suppressed the mycelia growth of pathogen, indicating that suppression was due to the presence of allelochemicals in the culture filtrate. Results of scanning electron microscopy revealed that MBCU2 caused morphological alteration in mycelia of M. phaseolina as evident by hyphal lysis and perforation. Lipopeptides (iturin A and surfactin) produced by MBCU2 were detected and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS as well as liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-MS/MS. Pot trial studies conducted by seed bacterization with MBCU2 resulted in statistically significant increase in Arachis hypogaea L. vegetative growth parameters such as root length (91%), shoot length (252%), fresh weight (71%), dry weight (57%), number of pod (128%), and number of seed (290%) in M. phaseolina infested soil over control as well as decreased M. phaseolina disease severity. We suggest that allelochemicals production can be linked to the mechanism of protection of A. hypogaea L. from M. phaseolina by B. sonorensis MBCU2. PMID:25346523

  20. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers and their application for diversity assessment in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)

    PubMed Central

    Cuc, Luu M; Mace, Emma S; Crouch, Jonathan H; Quang, Vu D; Long, Tran D; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most important oilseed crop in the world, grown mainly in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates. Due to its origin through a single and recent polyploidization event, followed by successive selection during breeding efforts, cultivated groundnut has a limited genetic background. In such species, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are very informative and useful for breeding applications. The low level of polymorphism in cultivated germplasm, however, warrants a need of larger number of polymorphic microsatellite markers for cultivated groundnut. Results A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from the genotype TMV2. Sequencing of 720 putative SSR-positive clones from a total of 3,072 provided 490 SSRs. 71.2% of these SSRs were perfect type, 13.1% were imperfect and 15.7% were compound. Among these SSRs, the GT/CA repeat motifs were the most common (37.6%) followed by GA/CT repeat motifs (25.9%). The primer pairs could be designed for a total of 170 SSRs and were optimized initially on two genotypes. 104 (61.2%) primer pairs yielded scorable amplicon and 46 (44.2%) primers showed polymorphism among 32 cultivated groundnut genotypes. The polymorphic SSR markers detected 2 to 5 alleles with an average of 2.44 per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value for these markers varied from 0.12 to 0.75 with an average of 0.46. Based on 112 alleles obtained by 46 markers, a phenogram was constructed to understand the relationships among the 32 genotypes. Majority of the genotypes representing subspecies hypogaea were grouped together in one cluster, while the genotypes belonging to subspecies fastigiata were grouped mainly under two clusters. Conclusion Newly developed set of 104 markers extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated groundnut. These markers showed a good level of PIC value in cultivated germplasm and therefore would be

  1. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  2. Segregation of nod-containing and nod-deficient bradyrhizobia as endosymbionts of Arachis hypogaea and as endophytes of Oryza sativa in intercropped fields of Bengal Basin, India.

    PubMed

    Guha, Sohini; Sarkar, Monolina; Ganguly, Pritha; Uddin, Md Raihan; Mandal, Sukhendu; DasGupta, Maitrayee

    2016-09-01

    Bradyrhizobial invasion in dalbergoid legumes like Arachis hypogaea and endophytic bacterial invasions in non-legumes like Oryza sativa occur through epidermal cracks. Here, we show that there is no overlap between the bradyrhizobial consortia that endosymbiotically and endophytically colonise these plants. To minimise contrast due to phylogeographic isolation, strains were collected from Arachis/Oryza intercropped fields and a total of 17 bradyrhizobia from Arachis (WBAH) and 13 from Oryza (WBOS) were investigated. 16SrRNA and concatenated dnaK-glnII-recA phylogeny clustered the nodABC-positive WBAH and nodABC-deficient WBOS strains in two distinct clades. The in-field segregation is reproducible under controlled conditions which limits the factors that influence their competitive exclusion. While WBAH renodulated Arachis successfully, WBOS nodulated in an inefficient manner. Thus, Arachis, like other Aeschynomene legumes support nod-independent symbiosis that was ineffectual in natural fields. In Oryza, WBOS recolonised endophytically and promoted its growth. WBAH however caused severe chlorosis that was completely overcome when coinfected with WBOS. This explains the exclusive recovery of WBOS in Oryza in natural fields and suggests Nod-factors to have a role in counterselection of WBAH. Finally, canonical soxY1 and thiosulphate oxidation could only be detected in WBOS indicating loss of metabolic traits in WBAH with adaptation of symbiotic lifestyle. PMID:27102878

  3. Effects of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Rotations with Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on Nematode Populations and Soil Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Mahaffee, W. F.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.; BOWEN, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A 3-year field rotation study was conducted to assess the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) to suppress root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii), and aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus sp.) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and to assess shifts in microbial populations following crop rotation. Switchgrass did not support populations of root-knot nematodes but supported high populations of nonparasitic nematodes. Peanut with no nematicide applied and following 2 years of switchgrass had the same nematode populations as continuous peanut plus nematicide. Neither previous crop nor nematicide significantly reduced the incidence of pods infected with Aspergillus. However, pod invasion by A. flavus was highest in plots previously planted with peanut and not treated with nematicide. Peanut with nematicide applied at planting following 2 years of switchgrass had significantly less incidence of southern blight than either continuous peanut without nematicide application or peanut without nematicide following 2 years of cotton. Peanut yield did not differ among rotations in either sample year. Effects of crop rotation on the microbial community structure associated with peanut were examined using indices for diversity, richness, and similarity derived from culture-based analyses. Continuous peanut supported a distinctly different rhizosphere bacterial microflora compared to peanut following 1 year of switchgrass, or continuous switchgrass. Richness and diversity indices for continuous peanut rhizosphere and geocarposphere were not consistently different from peanut following switchgrass, but always differed in the specific genera present. These shifts in community structure were associated with changes in parasitic nematode populations. PMID:19265915

  4. Synergic actions of polyphenols and cyanogens of peanut seed coat (Arachis hypogaea) on cytological, biochemical and functional changes in thyroid.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Mondal, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sabyasachi; Chakraborty, Arijit; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2015-03-01

    In animals, long-term feeding with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed coats causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland. However, to date there have been no detailed studies. Here, we explored the thyroidal effects of dietary peanut seed coats (PSC) in rats. The PSC has high levels of pro-goitrogenic substances including phenolic and other cyanogenic constituents. The PSC was mixed with a standard diet and fed to rats for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Animals fed with the PSC-supplemented diet showed a significant increase in urinary excretion of thiocyanate and iodine, thyroid enlargement, and hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of thyroid follicles. In addition, there was inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, 5'-deiodinase-I (DIO1) activity, and (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity in the experimental groups of rats as compared to controls. Furthermore, the PSC fed animals exhibited decreased serum circulating total T4 and T3 levels, severe in the group treated for longer duration. These data indicate that PSC could be a novel disruptor of thyroid function, due to synergistic actions of phenolic as well as cyanogenic constituents. PMID:25872244

  5. Stability of transgene expression in reduced allergen peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) across multiple generations and at different soil sulfur levels.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Manju; Chu, Ye; Maleki, Soheila J; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-02-18

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) containing a gene designed for RNA interference (RNAi) showed stable complete silencing of Ara h 2 and partial silencing of Ara h 6, two potent peanut allergens/proteins, along with minimal collateral changes to other allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 3, across three generations (T3, T4, and T5) under field conditions. Different soil sulfur levels (0.012, 0.3, and 3.0 mM) differentially impacted sulfur-rich (Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6) versus sulfur-poor (Ara h 1) proteins in non-transgenic versus transgenic peanut. The sulfur level had no effect on Ara h 1, whereas low sulfur led to a significant reduction of Ara h 3 in transgenic and non-transgenic seeds and Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in non-transgenic but not in transgenic peanuts because these proteins already were reduced by gene silencing. These results demonstrate stability of transgene expression and the potential utility of RNAi in allergen manipulation. PMID:25616282

  6. Analysis of crude protein and allergen abundance in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea cv. Walter) from three growing regions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Walczyk, Nicole E; Smith, Penelope M C; Tovey, Euan; Wright, Graeme C; Fleischfresser, Dayle B; Roberts, Thomas H

    2013-04-17

    The effects of plant growth conditions on concentrations of proteins, including allergens, in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) kernels are largely unknown. Peanuts (cv. Walter) were grown at five sites (Taabinga, Redvale, Childers, Bundaberg, and Kairi) covering three commercial growing regions in Queensland, Australia. Differences in temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation during the growing season were evaluated. Kernel yield varied from 2.3 t/ha (Kairi) to 3.9 t/ha (Childers), probably due to differences in solar radiation. Crude protein appeared to vary only between Kairi and Childers, whereas Ara h 1 and 2 concentrations were similar in all locations. 2D-DIGE revealed significant differences in spot volumes for only two minor protein spots from peanuts grown in the five locations. Western blotting using peanut-allergic serum revealed no qualitative differences in recognition of antigens. It was concluded that peanuts grown in different growing regions in Queensland, Australia, had similar protein compositions and therefore were unlikely to show differences in allergenicity. PMID:23495786

  7. Bioassay-guided isolation of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) skin by combination of chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Oldoni, Tatiane L C; Melo, Priscilla S; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A M; Bezerra, Rosângela M N; Rosalen, Pedro L; da Silva, Gil V J; Nascimento, Andréa M; Alencar, Severino M

    2016-02-01

    Purification and bioassay-guided fractionation were employed to isolate proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut skin (Arachis hypogaea Runner 886). The crude extract was prepared with acetone (60% v/v) and purified using chromatographic methods, including a semipreparative HPLC technique. As a result, two proanthocyanidins were isolated and identified using NMR, epicatechin-(2 β → O → 7, 4 β → 8)-catechin (proanthocyanidin A1) and epicatechin-(β → 2 O → 7, 4 β → 8)-epicatechin (proanthocyanidin A2). Despite the structural similarity, differences were observed in their antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidin A1 proved to be more active, with EC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging of 18.25 μg/mL and reduction of Fe(3+)-TPTZ complex of 7.59 mmol/g, higher than that of synthetic antioxidant BHT. This compound evaluated by ABTS(+) was similar to that of natural quercetin. Therefore, peanut skin is an important source of bioactive compounds that may be used as a mild antioxidant for food preservation. PMID:26304352

  8. A study of the relationships of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its most closely related wild species using intron sequences and microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, José F. M.; Bertioli, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2·3–2·9 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the

  9. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  10. Chryseobacterium arachidiradicis sp. nov., isolated from the geocarposphere (soil around the peanut) of very immature peanuts (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; McInroy, John A; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2015-07-01

    A yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, 91A-612(T), isolated from the geocarposphere (soil around the peanut) of very immature peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in Alabama, USA, was studied for its taxonomic position. Cells of the isolate were rod-shaped and stained Gram-negative. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence with the sequences of the type strains of the most closely related species showed that the strain belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium, showing the highest sequence similarities to the type strains of Chryseobacterium molle (98.4%), C. pallidum (98.3%) and C. hominis (97.8%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of all other species of the genus Chryseobacterium were below 97.0%. The fatty acid profile of strain 91A-612(T) consisted of the major fatty acids iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH/C16 : 1ω7c) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. Major compounds in the polar lipid profile were phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified lipids, including two lipids that did not contain a sugar moiety, an amino group or a phosphate group (L3, L8), and an aminolipid (AL1). The quinone system was composed mainly of MK-6. The polyamine pattern contained sym-homospermidine as the major compound and moderate amounts of spermidine and spermine. DNA-DNA hybridizations between strain 91A-612(T) and the type strains of C. molle, C. pallidum and C. hominis resulted in relatedness values well below 70%. These data and the differentiating biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties showed that isolate 91A-612(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which we propose the name Chryseobacterium arachidiradicis sp. nov. (type strain 91A-612(T) = LMG 27814(T)= CCM 8490(T) = CIP 110647(T)). PMID:25858249

  11. Arachis hypogaea PGPR isolated from Argentine soil modifies its lipids components in response to temperature and salinity.

    PubMed

    Paulucci, Natalia S; Gallarato, Lucas A; Reguera, Yanina B; Vicario, Julio C; Cesari, Adriana B; García de Lema, Mirta B; Dardanelli, Marta S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the mechanism related to plant growth promoting of a bacterial strain (L115) isolated from Arachis hypogaea rhizospheres and the effects of high growth temperature and salinity on phospholipids and fatty acids composition. L115 was isolated from peanut rhizospheres and identified according to the sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Phenotypic, metabolic and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) characteristics of L115 were tested. Inoculation test in plant growth chamber was performed. In addition, L115 was exposed to a 37 °C and 300 mM NaCl and phospholipids and fatty acid composition were evaluated. L115 strain was identified as Ochrobactrum intermedium and was able to increase the peanut shoot and root length as well as dry weight, indicating a PGPR role by being able to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores and present ACC deaminase activity. In addition, L115 showed tolerance to both high growth temperature and 300 mM NaCl. The most striking change was a decreased percentage of 18:1 fatty acid and an increase in 16:0 and 18:0 fatty acids, under high growth temperature or a combination of increased temperature and salinity. The most important change in phospholipid levels was an increase in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in all growth conditions. L115 can promote the growth of peanut and can tolerate high growth temperature and salinity modifying the fatty acid unsaturation degree and increasing phosphatidylcholine levels. This work is the first to report the importance of the genus Ochrobactrum as PGPR on peanut growth as well as on the metabolic behaviour against abiotic stresses that occur in soil. This knowledge will be useful for developing strategies to improve the growth of this bacterium under stress and to enhance its bioprocess for the production of inoculants. PMID:25801965

  12. Identification and Characterization of microRNAs from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinyan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Mingna; Yang, Zhen; He, Yanan; Liang, Xuanqiang; Yu, Shanlin

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs of approximately 21 nt that regulate gene expression in plants post-transcriptionally by endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes and many of them are conserved across species. Extensive studies of miRNAs have been done in a few model plants; however, less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Results A library of small RNA from peanut was constructed for deep sequencing. In addition to 126 known miRNAs from 33 families, 25 novel peanut miRNAs were identified. The miRNA* sequences of four novel miRNAs were discovered, providing additional evidence for the existence of miRNAs. Twenty of the novel miRNAs were considered to be species-specific because no homolog has been found for other plant species. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of seven miRNAs in different tissues and in seed at different developmental stages and some showed tissue- and/or growth stage-specific expression. Furthermore, potential targets of these putative miRNAs were predicted on the basis of the sequence homology search. Conclusions We have identified large numbers of miRNAs and their related target genes through deep sequencing of a small RNA library. This study of the identification and characterization of miRNAs in peanut can initiate further study on peanut miRNA regulation mechanisms, and help toward a greater understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in peanut. PMID:22110666

  13. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  14. Subgroups of the Cowpea Miscellany: Symbiotic Specificity within Bradyrhizobium spp. for Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus lunatus, Arachis hypogaea, and Macroptilium atropurpureum†

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Janice E.; Bohlool, B. Ben; Singleton, Paul W.

    1991-01-01

    Rhizobia classified as Bradyrhizobium spp. comprise a highly heterogeneous group of bacteria that exhibit differential symbiotic characteristics on hosts in the cowpea miscellany cross-inoculation group. To delineate the degree of specificity exhibited by four legumes in the cowpea miscellany, we tested the symbiotic characteristics of indigenous cowpea bradyrhizobia on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). The most-probable-number counts of indigenous bradyrhizobia at three sites on Maui, Hawaii, were substantially different on the four hosts: highest on siratro, intermediate on cowpea, and significantly lower on both lima bean and peanut. Bradyrhizobia from single cowpea nodules from the most-probable-number assays were inoculated onto the four hosts. Effectiveness patterns of these rhizobia on cowpea followed a normal distribution but were strikingly different on the other legumes. The effectiveness profiles on siratro and cowpea were similar but not identical. The indigenous cowpea-derived bradyrhizobia were of only moderate effectiveness on siratro and were in all cases lower than the inoculant-quality reference strain. Between 5 and 51% of the bradyrhizobia, depending on site, failed to nodulate peanut, whereas 0 to 32% failed to nodulate lima bean. No significant correlation was observed between the relative effectiveness of the bradyrhizobia on cowpea and their corresponding effectiveness on either lima bean or peanut. At all sites, bradyrhizobia that were ineffective on cowpea but that effectively nodulated lima bean, peanut, or both were found. Eighteen percent or fewer of the bradyrhizobia were as effective on lima bean as the reference inoculant strain; 44% or fewer were as effective on peanut as the reference strain. Only 18% of all cowpea-derived bradyrhizobia tested were able to form N2-fixing nodules on both lima bean and peanut. These results indicate the need

  15. Mining tissue-specific contigs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for promoter cloning by deep transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lili; Duan, Xiaohong; Liang, Chun; Shu, Changlong; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oil legumes in the world, is heavily damaged by white grubs. Tissue-specific promoters are needed to incorporate insect resistance genes into peanut by genetic transformation to control the subterranean pests. Transcriptome sequencing is the most effective way to analyze differential gene expression in this non-model species and contribute to promoter cloning. The transcriptomes of the roots, seeds and leaves of peanut were sequenced using Illumina technology. A simple digital expression profile was established based on number of transcripts per million clean tags (TPM) from different tissues. Subsequently, 584 root-specific candidate transcript assembly contigs (TACs) and 316 seed-specific candidate TACs were identified. Among these candidate TACs, 55.3% were root-specific and 64.6% were seed-specific by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the consistency of semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the simple digital expression profile was correlated with the length and TPM value of TACs. The results of gene ontology showed that some root-specific TACs are involved in stress resistance and respond to auxin stimulus, whereas, seed-specific candidate TACs are involved in embryo development, lipid storage and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. One root-specific promoter was cloned and characterized. We developed a high-yield screening system in peanut by establishing a simple digital expression profile based on Illumina sequencing. The feasible and rapid method presented by this study can be used for other non-model crops to explore tissue-specific or spatially specific promoters. PMID:25231965

  16. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lifeng; Dang, Phat M.; Chen, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% have been mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers have been reported to be more polymorphic than SSRs in some crops. The goals of this study were to identify novel InDel markers and to evaluate the potential use in peanut breeding. Forty-eight InDel markers were developed from conserved sequences of functional genes and tested in a diverse panel of 118 accessions covering six botanical types of cultivated peanut, of which 104 were from the U.S. mini-core. Results showed that 16 InDel markers were polymorphic with polymorphic information content (PIC) among InDels ranged from 0.017 to 0.660. With respect to botanical types, PICs varied from 0.176 for fastigiata var., 0.181 for hypogaea var., 0.306 for vulgaris var., 0.534 for aequatoriana var., 0.556 for peruviana var., to 0.660 for hirsuta var., implying that aequatoriana var., peruviana var., and hirsuta var. have higher genetic diversity than the other types and provide a basis for gene functional studies. Single marker analysis was conducted to associate specific marker to disease resistant traits. Five InDels from functional genes were identified to be significantly correlated to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection and leaf spot, and these novel markers will be utilized to identify disease resistant genotype in breeding populations. PMID:26617627

  17. Identification and Evaluation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Allotetraploid Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Based on Amplicon Sequencing Combined with High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanbin; Pandey, Manish K; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev K; Liang, Xuanqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid (AABB) species derived from the A-genome (Arachis duranensis) and B-genome (Arachis ipaensis) progenitors. Presence of two versions of a DNA sequence based on the two progenitor genomes poses a serious technical and analytical problem during single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker identification and analysis. In this context, we have analyzed 200 amplicons derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genome survey sequences (GSS) to identify SNPs in a panel of genotypes consisting of 12 cultivated peanut varieties and two diploid progenitors representing the ancestral genomes. A total of 18 EST-SNPs and 44 genomic-SNPs were identified in 12 peanut varieties by aligning the sequence of A. hypogaea with diploid progenitors. The average frequency of sequence polymorphism was higher for genomic-SNPs than the EST-SNPs with one genomic-SNP every 1011 bp as compared to one EST-SNP every 2557 bp. In order to estimate the potential and further applicability of these identified SNPs, 96 peanut varieties were genotyped using high resolution melting (HRM) method. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for EST-SNPs ranged between 0.021 and 0.413 with a mean of 0.172 in the set of peanut varieties, while genomic-SNPs ranged between 0.080 and 0.478 with a mean of 0.249. Total 33 SNPs were used for polymorphism detection among the parents and 10 selected lines from mapping population Y13Zh (Zhenzhuhei × Yueyou13). Of the total 33 SNPs, nine SNPs showed polymorphism in the mapping population Y13Zh, and seven SNPs were successfully mapped into five linkage groups. Our results showed that SNPs can be identified in allotetraploid peanut with high accuracy through amplicon sequencing and HRM assay. The identified SNPs were very informative and can be used for different genetic and breeding applications in peanut. PMID:26697032

  18. Identification and Evaluation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Allotetraploid Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Based on Amplicon Sequencing Combined with High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yanbin; Pandey, Manish K.; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Liang, Xuanqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid (AABB) species derived from the A-genome (Arachis duranensis) and B-genome (Arachis ipaensis) progenitors. Presence of two versions of a DNA sequence based on the two progenitor genomes poses a serious technical and analytical problem during single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker identification and analysis. In this context, we have analyzed 200 amplicons derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genome survey sequences (GSS) to identify SNPs in a panel of genotypes consisting of 12 cultivated peanut varieties and two diploid progenitors representing the ancestral genomes. A total of 18 EST-SNPs and 44 genomic-SNPs were identified in 12 peanut varieties by aligning the sequence of A. hypogaea with diploid progenitors. The average frequency of sequence polymorphism was higher for genomic-SNPs than the EST-SNPs with one genomic-SNP every 1011 bp as compared to one EST-SNP every 2557 bp. In order to estimate the potential and further applicability of these identified SNPs, 96 peanut varieties were genotyped using high resolution melting (HRM) method. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for EST-SNPs ranged between 0.021 and 0.413 with a mean of 0.172 in the set of peanut varieties, while genomic-SNPs ranged between 0.080 and 0.478 with a mean of 0.249. Total 33 SNPs were used for polymorphism detection among the parents and 10 selected lines from mapping population Y13Zh (Zhenzhuhei × Yueyou13). Of the total 33 SNPs, nine SNPs showed polymorphism in the mapping population Y13Zh, and seven SNPs were successfully mapped into five linkage groups. Our results showed that SNPs can be identified in allotetraploid peanut with high accuracy through amplicon sequencing and HRM assay. The identified SNPs were very informative and can be used for different genetic and breeding applications in peanut. PMID:26697032

  19. Identification of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) chromosomes using a fluorescence in situ hybridization system reveals multiple hybridization events during tetraploid peanut formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Laining; Yang, Xiaoyu; Tian, Li; Chen, Lei; Yu, Weichang

    2016-09-01

    The cultivated peanut Arachis hypogaea (AABB) is thought to have originated from the hybridization of Arachis duranensis (AA) and Arachis ipaënsis (BB) followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling. In this study, we cloned and analyzed chromosome markers from cultivated peanut and its wild relatives. A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping cocktail was developed with which to study the karyotypes and chromosome evolution of peanut and its wild relatives. Karyotypes were constructed in cultivated peanut and its two putative progenitors using our FISH-based karyotyping system. Comparative karyotyping analysis revealed that chromosome organization was highly conserved in cultivated peanut and its two putative progenitors, especially in the B genome chromosomes. However, variations existed between A. duranensis and the A genome chromosomes in cultivated peanut, especially for the distribution of the interstitial telomere repeats (ITRs). A search of additional A. duranensis varieties from different geographic regions revealed both numeric and positional variations of ITRs, which were similar to the variations in tetraploid peanut varieties. The results provide evidence for the origin of cultivated peanut from the two diploid ancestors, and also suggest that multiple hybridization events of A. ipaënsis with different varieties of A. duranensis may have occurred during the origination of peanut. PMID:27176118

  20. Molecular marker development from transcript sequences and germplasm evaluation for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Peng, Ze; Gallo, Maria; Tillman, Barry L; Rowland, Diane; Wang, Jianping

    2016-02-01

    Molecular markers are important tools for genotyping in genetic studies and molecular breeding. The SSR and SNP are two commonly used marker systems developed from genomic or transcript sequences. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assemble and annotate the publicly available ESTs in Arachis and the in-house short reads, (2) develop and validate SSR and SNP markers, and (3) investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the peanut breeding lines and the U.S. peanut mini core collection using developed SSR markers. An NCBI EST dataset with 252,951 sequences and an in-house 454 RNAseq dataset with 288,701 sequences were assembled separately after trimming. Transcript sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggested that peanut is closer to cowpea and scarlet bean than to soybean, common bean and Medicago. From these two datasets, 6455 novel SSRs and 11,902 SNPs were identified. Of the discovered SSRs, 380 representing various SSR types were selected for PCR validation. The amplification rate was 89.2 %. Twenty-two (6.5 %) SSRs were polymorphic between at least one pair of four genotypes. Sanger sequencing of PCR products targeting 110 SNPs revealed 13 true SNPs between tetraploid genotypes and 193 homoeologous SNPs within genotypes. Eight out of the 22 polymorphic SSR markers were selected to evaluate the genetic diversity of Florida peanut breeding lines and the U.S. peanut mini core collection. This marker set demonstrated high discrimination power by displaying an average polymorphism information content value of 0.783, a combined probability of identity of 10(-11), and a combined power of exclusion of 0.99991. The structure analysis revealed four sub-populations among the peanut accessions and lines evaluated. The results of this study enriched the peanut genomic resources, provided over 6000 novel SSR markers and the credentials for true peanut SNP marker development, and demonstrated the power of newly developed SSR markers in

  1. Identification of rapidly induced genes in the response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) to water deficit and abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important crop, but droughts often affect peanut production. There is a lack of genomic information available for peanut; therefore, little is known about the molecular basis of its drought stress response. Results Previously, we found that peanut stomata close rapidly during water deficit and in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, and many genes show changes in their expression levels. To screen for candidate genes involved in the water deficit response, we used the Illumina HiSeq2000/MiSeq sequencing platform to conduct a global transcriptome analysis of peanut seedlings under water deficit with or without an ABA pretreatment. Three peanut tissues (leaves, roots, and stems) collected at each of three developmental stages (four-leaf, flowering, and podding stages) were used to construct sequence libraries. Then, 4.96 × 107 raw sequence reads were generated and the high quality reads were assembled into 47,842 unigenes. We analyzed these sequence libraries to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under water deficit with or without ABA pretreatment. In total, 621 genes were induced rapidly (≥1.5 fold change compared with control) under water deficit, 2,665 genes were induced rapidly under water deficit + ABA pretreatment, and 279 genes overlapped between water deficit and water deficit + ABA pretreatment. Of the 279 overlapping genes, 264 showed the same expression pattern and 15 showed opposite expression patterns. Among the DEGs, 257 were highly induced (>5 fold) by water deficit + ABA pretreatment, while 19 were highly induced (>5 fold) by water deficit alone. The genes induced under water deficit + ABA pretreatment included 100 putative transcription factor (TF) genes, while those induced under water deficit alone included only 22 putative TF genes. To validate the transcriptome results, we conducted quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses to quantify the transcript levels of nine

  2. Effect of sewage water on seed germination and vigour index of different varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Girisha, S T; Raju, N S

    2008-11-01

    The study has been focused on the investigation on ground nut (Arachis hypogea) fields influenced by sewage water. Sewage water sampled in and around Mysore city and analyzed forphysicochemical parameters. Different concentrations such as 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 70 and 100% of sewage water on seed germination and vigour index of Arachis hypogea verities such as DH - 2 - 30, ICJS - 11, JL - 24, K - 134, TMV - 2 and VRI - 2 were studied. From the recorded observation it is concluded that the sewage water diluted to 25% concentration for irrigation of groundnut enhances germination percentage and vigour index in K- 134 variety which is more susceptible than other tested varieties. PMID:19297996

  3. Antifungal activity of metabolites from the marine sponges Amphimedon sp. and Monanchora arbuscula against Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Arevabini, Cynthia; Crivelenti, Yasmin D; de Abreu, Mariana H; Bitencourt, Tamires A; Santos, Mário F C; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Hajdu, Eduardo; Beleboni, Renê O; Fachin, Ana L; Marins, Mozart

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of preharvest and stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) by aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus is an important economical and food safety problem in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The present investigation reports the antifungal activity of a halitoxins/amphitoxins enriched extract obtained from the sponge Amphimedon sp. (HAEEAsp), and of batzelladine L isolated from the sponge Monanchora arbuscula on Aspergillus flavus isolated from stored peanuts. A PCR system directed against the ITS region and aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes of A. flavus was applied for identification of aflatoxin producing strains. The HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range between 1.9 to 15.6 microg/mL and between 1.9 to 7.8 microg/mL, respectively. The minimal fungicide concentration (MFC) of HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L was in the range between 3.9 to 31.3 microg/mL and 3.9 to 15.6 microg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that these marine alkaloids may be further explored for the development of potential lead compounds active against aflatoxigenic fungi. PMID:24660456

  4. Grading dysplasia in colorectal adenomas by means of the quantitative binding pattern determination of Arachis hypogaea, Dolichos biflorus, Amaranthus caudatus, Maackia amurensis, and Sambucus nigra agglutinins.

    PubMed

    Bronckart, Y; Nagy, N; Decaestecker, C; Bouckaert, Y; Remmelink, M; Gielen, I; Hittelet, A; Darro, F; Pector, J C; Yeaton, P; Danguy, A; Kiss, R; Salmon, I

    1999-10-01

    The current study deals with the setting up of a new tool that enables the benign versus the malignant nature of colorectal adenomas to be determined accurately. The 2 objectives are to determine (1) whether adenomas should, or should not, be included in a 2- or a 3-tier grading system, and (2) whether severe dysplasias and carcinomas in situ share common or different biological characteristics. The levels of expression of different types of glycoconjugates were characterized in a series of 166 colorectal specimens, including 14 normal, 90 dysplastic, and 62 cancerous cases. The glycoconjugate expressions were demonstrated for 5 lectins, namely, Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Amaranthus caudatus (ACA), Maackia amurensis (MAA) and Sambucus nigra (SNA). The glycoconjugates demonstrated by these 5 lectins belong to the family of the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigens. The binding patterns of the 5 lectins were quantitatively determined by means of computer-assisted microscopy. The quantitative data were submitted to discriminant analyses. Our results show that the specific glycochemical staining patterns could be identified unambiguously and without misclassification between benign (normal and low dysplasia) and malignant (ie, either as moderate/severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or cancer) cases. The data also strongly suggested that (1) dysplasias seem to be distinguishable in 2 instead of 3 groups, that is, low versus moderate/severe (high); and (2) moderate/severe dysplasias are biologically distinct from carcinomas in situ. The methodology developed can be applied directly in routine diagnosis to identify moderate/severe dysplasia specimens already exhibiting features common to carcinomas, and which therefore should be treated consistently in view of the fact that our data strongly suggest that most moderate/severe dysplasias are still benign, whereas carcinomas in situ are real carcinomatous lesions. PMID:10534165

  5. A QTL study on late leaf spot and rust revealed one major QTL for molecular breeding for rust resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Khedikar, Y. P.; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sarvamangala, C.; Patgar, K. V.; Upadhyaya, H. D.

    2010-01-01

    Late leaf spot (LLS) and rust are two major foliar diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) that often occur together leading to 50–70% yield loss in the crop. A total of 268 recombinant inbred lines of a mapping population TAG 24 × GPBD 4 segregating for LLS and rust were used to undertake quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Phenotyping of the population was carried out under artificial disease epiphytotics. Positive correlations between different stages, high to very high heritability and independent nature of inheritance between both the diseases were observed. Parental genotypes were screened with 1,089 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, of which 67 (6.15%) were found polymorphic. Segregation data obtained for these markers facilitated development of partial linkage map (14 linkage groups) with 56 SSR loci. Composite interval mapping (CIM) undertaken on genotyping and phenotyping data yielded 11 QTLs for LLS (explaining 1.70–6.50% phenotypic variation) in three environments and 12 QTLs for rust (explaining 1.70–55.20% phenotypic variation). Interestingly a major QTL associated with rust (QTLrust01), contributing 6.90–55.20% variation, was identified by both CIM and single marker analysis (SMA). A candidate SSR marker (IPAHM 103) linked with this QTL was validated using a wide range of resistant/susceptible breeding lines as well as progeny lines of another mapping population (TG 26 × GPBD 4). Therefore, this marker should be useful for introgressing the major QTL for rust in desired lines/varieties of groundnut through marker-assisted backcrossing. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1366-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20526757

  6. Development and characterization of BAC-end sequence derived SSRs, and their incorporation into a new higher density genetic map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop worldwide, valued for its edible oil and digestible protein. It has a very narrow genetic base that may well derive from a relatively recent single polyploidization event. Accordingly molecular markers have low levels of polymorphism and the number of polymorphic molecular markers available for cultivated peanut is still limiting. Results Here, we report a large set of BAC-end sequences (BES), use them for developing SSR (BES-SSR) markers, and apply them in genetic linkage mapping. The majority of BESs had no detectable homology to known genes (49.5%) followed by sequences with similarity to known genes (44.3%), and miscellaneous sequences (6.2%) such as transposable element, retroelement, and organelle sequences. A total of 1,424 SSRs were identified from 36,435 BESs. Among these identified SSRs, dinucleotide (47.4%) and trinucleotide (37.1%) SSRs were predominant. The new set of 1,152 SSRs as well as about 4,000 published or unpublished SSRs were screened against two parents of a mapping population, generating 385 polymorphic loci. A genetic linkage map was constructed, consisting of 318 loci onto 21 linkage groups and covering a total of 1,674.4 cM, with an average distance of 5.3 cM between adjacent loci. Two markers related to resistance gene homologs (RGH) were mapped to two different groups, thus anchoring 1 RGH-BAC contig and 1 singleton. Conclusions The SSRs mined from BESs will be of use in further molecular analysis of the peanut genome, providing a novel set of markers, genetically anchoring BAC clones, and incorporating gene sequences into a linkage map. This will aid in the identification of markers linked to genes of interest and map-based cloning. PMID:22260238

  7. Application of targeted metagenomics to explore abundance and diversity of CO₂-fixing bacterial community using cbbL gene from the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Basit; Keshri, Jitendra; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-09-10

    Sequestration of CO(2) by autotrophic bacteria is a key process of biogeochemical carbon cycling in soil ecosystem. Rhizosphere is a rich niche of microbial activity and diversity, influenced by change in atmospheric CO(2). Structural changes in rhizosphere composition influence microbial communities and the nutrient cycling. In the present study, the bacterial diversity and population dynamics were established using cbbL and 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomics approach from the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea. A total of 108 cbbL clones were obtained from the rhizospheric soil which revealed predominance of cbbL sequences affiliated to Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bradyrhizobium sp., Sinorhizobium meliloti, Ochrobactrum anthropi and a variety of uncultured cbbL harboring bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene clone library exhibited the dominance of Firmicutes (34.4%), Proteobacteria (18.3%), Actinobacteria (17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (16.1%). About 43% nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene clone library were novel genera which showed <95% homology with published sequences. Gene copy number of cbbL and 16S rRNA genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT PCR), was 9.38 ± 0.75 × 10(7) and 5.43 ± 0.79 × 10(8) (per g dry soil), respectively. The results exhibited bacterial community structure with high bacterial diversity and abundance of CO(2)-fixing bacteria, which can be explored further for their role in carbon cycling, sustainable agriculture and environment management. PMID:22766402

  8. Introgression of the SbASR-1 gene cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiate enhances salinity and drought endurance in transgenic groundnut (arachis hypogaea)and acts as a transcription factor [corrected].

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  9. Introgression of the SbASR-1 Gene Cloned from a Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Enhances Salinity and Drought Endurance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Acts as a Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  10. Simultaneous Expression of Abiotic Stress Responsive Transcription Factors, AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3 Improves Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pruthvi, Vittal; Narasimhan, Rama; Nataraja, Karaba N.

    2014-01-01

    Drought, salinity and extreme temperatures are the most common abiotic stresses, adversely affecting plant growth and productivity. Exposure of plants to stress activates stress signalling pathways that induce biochemical and physiological changes essential for stress acclimation. Stress tolerance is governed by multiple traits, and importance of a few traits in imparting tolerance has been demonstrated. Under drought, traits linked to water mining and water conservation, water use efficiency and cellular tolerance (CT) to desiccation are considered to be relevant. In this study, an attempt has been made to improve CT in drought hardy crop, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., cv. TMV2) by co-expressing stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs), AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3, associated with downstream gene expression. Transgenic plants simultaneously expressing these TFs showed increased tolerance to drought, salinity and oxidative stresses compared to wild type, with an increase in total plant biomass. The transgenic plants exhibited improved membrane and chlorophyll stability due to enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by proline synthesis under stress. The improvement in stress tolerance in transgenic lines were associated with induced expression of various CT related genes like AhGlutaredoxin, AhAldehyde reductase, AhSerine threonine kinase like protein, AhRbx1, AhProline amino peptidase, AhHSP70, AhDIP and AhLea4. Taken together the results indicate that co-expression of stress responsive TFs can activate multiple CT pathways, and this strategy can be employed to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. PMID:25474740

  11. Simultaneous expression of abiotic stress responsive transcription factors, AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3 improves salinity and drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Pruthvi, Vittal; Narasimhan, Rama; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2014-01-01

    Drought, salinity and extreme temperatures are the most common abiotic stresses, adversely affecting plant growth and productivity. Exposure of plants to stress activates stress signalling pathways that induce biochemical and physiological changes essential for stress acclimation. Stress tolerance is governed by multiple traits, and importance of a few traits in imparting tolerance has been demonstrated. Under drought, traits linked to water mining and water conservation, water use efficiency and cellular tolerance (CT) to desiccation are considered to be relevant. In this study, an attempt has been made to improve CT in drought hardy crop, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., cv. TMV2) by co-expressing stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs), AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3, associated with downstream gene expression. Transgenic plants simultaneously expressing these TFs showed increased tolerance to drought, salinity and oxidative stresses compared to wild type, with an increase in total plant biomass. The transgenic plants exhibited improved membrane and chlorophyll stability due to enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by proline synthesis under stress. The improvement in stress tolerance in transgenic lines were associated with induced expression of various CT related genes like AhGlutaredoxin, AhAldehyde reductase, AhSerine threonine kinase like protein, AhRbx1, AhProline amino peptidase, AhHSP70, AhDIP and AhLea4. Taken together the results indicate that co-expression of stress responsive TFs can activate multiple CT pathways, and this strategy can be employed to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. PMID:25474740

  12. Characterization and Transferable Utility of Microsatellite Markers in the Wild and Cultivated Arachis Species

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Wu, Bei; Zhao, Jiaojiao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Weigang; Zheng, Yanli; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Lei, Yong; Liao, Boshou; Jiang, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) is one of the most widely distributed molecular markers that have been widely utilized to assess genetic diversity and genetic mapping for important traits in plants. However, the understanding of microsatellite characteristics in Arachis species and the currently available amount of high-quality SSR markers remain limited. In this study, we identified 16,435 genome survey sequences SSRs (GSS-SSRs) and 40,199 expressed sequence tag SSRs (EST-SSRs) in Arachis hypogaea and its wild relative species using the publicly available sequence data. The GSS-SSRs had a density of 159.9–239.8 SSRs/Mb for wild Arachis and 1,015.8 SSR/Mb for cultivated Arachis, whereas the EST-SSRs had the density of 173.5–384.4 SSR/Mb and 250.9 SSRs/Mb for wild and cultivated Arachis, respectively. The trinucleotide SSRs were predominant across Arachis species, except that the dinucleotide accounted for most in A. hypogaea GSSs. From Arachis GSS-SSR and EST-SSR sequences, we developed 2,589 novel SSR markers that showed a high polymorphism in six diverse A. hypogaea accessions. A genetic linkage map that contained 540 novel SSR loci and 105 anchor SSR loci was constructed by case of a recombinant inbred lines F6 population. A subset of 82 randomly selected SSR markers were used to screen 39 wild and 22 cultivated Arachis accessions, which revealed a high transferability of the novel SSRs across Arachis species. Our results provided informative clues to investigate microsatellite patterns across A. hypogaea and its wild relative species and potentially facilitate the germplasm evaluation and gene mapping in Arachis species. PMID:27243460

  13. The genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut.

    PubMed

    Bertioli, David John; Cannon, Steven B; Froenicke, Lutz; Huang, Guodong; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Liu, Xin; Gao, Dongying; Clevenger, Josh; Dash, Sudhansu; Ren, Longhui; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Shirasawa, Kenta; Huang, Wei; Vidigal, Bruna; Abernathy, Brian; Chu, Ye; Niederhuth, Chad E; Umale, Pooja; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Kozik, Alexander; Kim, Kyung Do; Burow, Mark D; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Barkley, Noelle; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Isobe, Sachiko; Guo, Baozhu; Liao, Boshou; Stalker, H Thomas; Schmitz, Robert J; Scheffler, Brian E; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Xun, Xu; Jackson, Scott A; Michelmore, Richard; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-04-01

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid with closely related subgenomes of a total size of ∼2.7 Gb. This makes the assembly of chromosomal pseudomolecules very challenging. As a foundation to understanding the genome of cultivated peanut, we report the genome sequences of its diploid ancestors (Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis). We show that these genomes are similar to cultivated peanut's A and B subgenomes and use them to identify candidate disease resistance genes, to guide tetraploid transcript assemblies and to detect genetic exchange between cultivated peanut's subgenomes. On the basis of remarkably high DNA identity of the A. ipaensis genome and the B subgenome of cultivated peanut and biogeographic evidence, we conclude that A. ipaensis may be a direct descendant of the same population that contributed the B subgenome to cultivated peanut. PMID:26901068

  14. Integrated consensus map of cultivated peanut and wild relatives reveals structures of the A and B genomes of Arachis and divergence of the legume genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complex, tetraploid genome structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) has obstructed advances in genetics and genomics in the species. The aim of this study is to understand the genome structure of Arachis by developing a high-density integrated consensus map. Three recombinant inbred line populatio...

  15. An analysis of synteny of Arachis with Lotus and Medicago sheds new light on the structure, stability and evolution of legume genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most agriculturally important legumes fall within the phaseoloids (containing beans) and galegoids (containing peas and clovers). A notable exception is peanut (Arachis hypogaea) which comes from a basally diverged tropical lineage. To improve our understanding of the Arachis genome, single-copy g...

  16. The use of the diploid Arachis genomes to aid introgression of wild segments into peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases are important reducers of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) yield. Wild species generally harbor greater levels of resistance and even apparent immunity. Genomic regions confering resistance to foliar diseases and root knot nematodes have been identified in populations involving the wild progenitor...

  17. Marker-assisted breeding for wild species-derived traits in arachis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent evolutionary origin of tetraploid peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., imposed a genetic bottleneck on the species and limited variation for pest and disease resistance genes within the cultivated gene pool. However, considerable diversity for these resistance traits and at the molecular level ha...

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of species of genus Arachis based on genic sequences.

    PubMed

    He, Guohao; Barkley, Noelle A; Zhao, Yongli; Yuan, Mei; Prakash, C S

    2014-06-01

    The genus Arachis (Fabaceae), which originated in South America, consists of 80 species. Based on morphological traits and cross-compatibility among the species, the genus is divided into nine taxonomic sections. Arachis is the largest section including the economically valuable cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea). Seven genic sequences were utilized to better understand the phylogenetic relationships between species of genus Arachis. Our study displayed four clades of species of Arachis. Arachis triseminata was genetically isolated from all other species of Arachis studied, and it formed the basal clade with A. retusa and A. dardani from the most ancient sections Extranervosae and Heteranthae, respectively. Species of section Arachis formed a separated single clade from all other species, within which species having B and D genome clustered in one subgroup and three species characterized with an A genome grouped together in another subgroup. A divergent clade including species from five sections was sister to the clade of section Arachis. Between the sister clades and the basal clade there was a clade containing species from the more advanced sections. Phylogenetic relationships of all the species of Arachis using multiple genic sequences were similar to the phylogenies produced with single-copy genes. PMID:25211395

  19. Molecular analysis of Arachis interspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G M; Tallury, S P; Stalker, H T; Kochert, G

    2006-05-01

    Incorporation of genetic resistance against several biotic stresses that plague cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea (2n = 4x = 40), is an ideal option to develop disease resistant and ecologically safe peanut varieties. The primary gene pool of peanut contains many diploid wild species (2n = 2x = 20) of Arachis, which have high levels of disease and insect resistances. However, transfer of resistant genes from these species into A. hypogaea is difficult due to ploidy level differences and genomic incompatibilities. This study was conducted to monitor alien germplasm transmission, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, from two diploid wild species, A. cardenasii and A. batizocoi, into A. hypogaea. Triploid interspecific hybrids were produced by crossing two A. hypogaea cultivars (NC 6 and Argentine) with the two species and by colchicine-treating vegetative meristems, fertility was restored at the hexaploid (C(o)) level in the four hybrids. Hexaploids were allowed to self-pollinate for four generations, each referred to as a cycle (C1, C2, C3, and C4). At each cycle, a backcross was made with the respective A. hypogaea cultivar as the maternal parent and only lineages tracing back to a single hexaploid hybrid were used for RAPD analysis. Analysis of mapped, species-specific RAPD markers in BC1F1 to BC1F3 hybrids indicated that alien germplasm retention decreased every generation of inbreeding, especially in Argentine and in A. batizocoi crosses. A similar trend was also observed for every cycle in BC1F2 and BC1F3 families, possibly, due to the loss of alien chromosomes following selfing of hexaploids. RAPD marker analysis of 40-chromosome interspecific hybrid derivatives from the four crosses supported previous reports that reciprocal recombination and/or translocations are the predominant mechanisms for exchange of chromosomal segments. No evidence was found for preferential transfer of alien chromosomal regions to specific linkage groups. The

  20. Cultivar specific changes in peanut (Arachis hypogae L.) yield, biomass, and allergenicity in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intraspecific variation in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], could, potentially, be used as a means to begin selection for improved quantitative or qualitative characteristics for a given crop. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a leguminous crop of global importance;...

  1. Employing microsatellite and SNP markers to track functional mutations and evaluate genetic diversity in the USDA Arachis germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are nutritious because their seeds typically contain high amounts of oil, protein and other phytochemicals such as folic acid, tocopherol, and antioxidants; therefore, they are an important oil seed crop worldwide. The USDA Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit mai...

  2. Identification of Fungus Resistant Wild Accessions and Interspecific Hybrids of the Genus Arachis

    PubMed Central

    Michelotto, Marcos Doniseti; Barioni, Waldomiro; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de Godoy, Ignácio José; Leonardecz, Eduardo; Fávero, Alessandra Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., is a protein-rich species consumed worldwide. A key improvement to peanut culture involves the development of cultivars that resist fungal diseases such as rust, leaf spot and scab. Over three years, we evaluated fungal resistance under field conditions of 43 wild accessions and three interspecific hybrids of the genus Arachis, as well as six A. hypogaea genotypes. In the first year, we evaluated resistance to early and late leaf spot, rust and scab. In the second and third years, we evaluated the 18 wild species with the best resistance scores and control cultivar IAC Caiapó for resistance to leaf spot and rust. All wild accessions displayed greater resistance than A. hypogaea but differed in their degree of resistance, even within the same species. We found accessions with as good as or better resistance than A. cardenasii, including: A. stenosperma (V15076 and Sv 3712), A. kuhlmannii (V 6413), A. kempff-mercadoi (V 13250), A. hoehnei (KG 30006), and A. helodes (V 6325). Amphidiploids and hybrids of A. hypogaea behaved similarly to wild species. An additional four accessions deserve further evaluation: A. magna (V 13751 and KG 30097) and A. gregoryi (V 14767 and V 14957). Although they did not display as strong resistance as the accessions cited above, they belong to the B genome type that is crucial to resistance gene introgression and pyramidization in A. hypogaea. PMID:26090811

  3. Spermidine and Flavonoid conjugates from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new triamide has been isolated from peanut flowers and identified as di-p-(EE)-coumaroylacetylspermidine on the basis of detailed analysis of NMR, MS, and UV data. Two other spermidine conjugates, N1, N5, N10-tri-p-(EEE)-coumaroylspermidine and di-p-(EE)-coumaroylspermidine, as well as four flavon...

  4. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Expressed Sequence Tag Project: Progress and Application

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Suping; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Dang, Phat M.; Holbrook, C. Corley; Culbreath, Albert K.; Wu, Yaoting; Guo, Baozhu

    2012-01-01

    Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research community had the historic 2004 Atlanta Genomics Workshop and named the EST project as a main priority. As of August 2011, the peanut research community had deposited 252,832 ESTs in the public NCBI EST database, and this resource has been providing the community valuable tools and core foundations for various genome-scale experiments before the whole genome sequencing project. These EST resources have been used for marker development, gene cloning, microarray gene expression and genetic map construction. Certainly, the peanut EST sequence resources have been shown to have a wide range of applications and accomplished its essential role at the time of need. Then the EST project contributes to the second historic event, the Peanut Genome Project 2010 Inaugural Meeting also held in Atlanta where it was decided to sequence the entire peanut genome. After the completion of peanut whole genome sequencing, ESTs or transcriptome will continue to play an important role to fill in knowledge gaps, to identify particular genes and to explore gene function. PMID:22745594

  5. Genetic relationships among seven sections of genus Arachis studied by using SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis, originated in South America, is divided into nine taxonomical sections comprising of 80 species. Most of the Arachis species are diploids (2n = 2x = 20) and the tetraploid species (2n = 2x = 40) are found in sections Arachis, Extranervosae and Rhizomatosae. Diploid species have great potential to be used as resistance sources for agronomic traits like pests and diseases, drought related traits and different life cycle spans. Understanding of genetic relationships among wild species and between wild and cultivated species will be useful for enhanced utilization of wild species in improving cultivated germplasm. The present study was undertaken to evaluate genetic relationships among species (96 accessions) belonging to seven sections of Arachis by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Arachis hypogaea genomic library and gene sequences from related genera of Arachis. Results The average transferability rate of 101 SSR markers tested to section Arachis and six other sections was 81% and 59% respectively. Five markers (IPAHM 164, IPAHM 165, IPAHM 407a, IPAHM 409, and IPAHM 659) showed 100% transferability. Cluster analysis of allelic data from a subset of 32 SSR markers on 85 wild and 11 cultivated accessions grouped accessions according to their genome composition, sections and species to which they belong. A total of 109 species specific alleles were detected in different wild species, Arachis pusilla exhibited largest number of species specific alleles (15). Based on genetic distance analysis, the A-genome accession ICG 8200 (A. duranensis) and the B-genome accession ICG 8206 (A. ipaënsis) were found most closely related to A. hypogaea. Conclusion A set of cross species and cross section transferable SSR markers has been identified that will be useful for genetic studies of wild species of Arachis, including comparative genome mapping, germplasm analysis, population genetic structure and phylogenetic inferences

  6. Newly identified natural high oleate mutant from Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural genetic variation exists in animals and plants. Mining and utilizing this variation may provide benefits for new breed/cultivar development. From screening over 4,000 cultivated peanut germplasm accessions, we identified two natural mutant lines with 80% oleic acid by gas chromatography anal...

  7. Draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor (Arachis duranensis) provides insights into geocarpy, oil biosynthesis, and allergens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Hongjie; Pandey, Manish K; Yang, Qingli; Wang, Xiyin; Garg, Vanika; Li, Haifen; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Hong, Yanbin; Upadhyaya, Hari; Guo, Hui; Khan, Aamir W; Zhu, Fanghe; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Lijuan; Pierce, Gary J; Zhou, Guiyuan; Krishnamohan, Katta A V S; Chen, Mingna; Zhong, Ni; Agarwal, Gaurav; Li, Shuanzhu; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sharma, Shivali; Chen, Na; Liu, Haiyan; Janila, Pasupuleti; Li, Shaoxiong; Wang, Min; Wang, Tong; Sun, Jie; Li, Xingyu; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Mian; Yu, Lina; Wen, Shijie; Singh, Sube; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jinming; Zhang, Chushu; Yu, Yue; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Paterson, Andrew H; Wang, Shuping; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K; Yu, Shanlin

    2016-06-14

    Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a legume of South American origin, has high seed oil content (45-56%) and is a staple crop in semiarid tropical and subtropical regions, partially because of drought tolerance conferred by its geocarpic reproductive strategy. We present a draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor, Arachis duranensis, and 50,324 protein-coding gene models. Patterns of gene duplication suggest the peanut lineage has been affected by at least three polyploidizations since the origin of eudicots. Resequencing of synthetic Arachis tetraploids reveals extensive gene conversion in only three seed-to-seed generations since their formation by human hands, indicating that this process begins virtually immediately following polyploid formation. Expansion of some specific gene families suggests roles in the unusual subterranean fructification of Arachis For example, the S1Fa-like transcription factor family has 126 Arachis members, in contrast to no more than five members in other examined plant species, and is more highly expressed in roots and etiolated seedlings than green leaves. The A. duranensis genome provides a major source of candidate genes for fructification, oil biosynthesis, and allergens, expanding knowledge of understudied areas of plant biology and human health impacts of plants, informing peanut genetic improvement and aiding deeper sequencing of Arachis diversity. PMID:27247390

  8. Draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor (Arachis duranensis) provides insights into geocarpy, oil biosynthesis, and allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Hongjie; Pandey, Manish K.; Yang, Qingli; Wang, Xiyin; Garg, Vanika; Li, Haifen; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Hong, Yanbin; Upadhyaya, Hari; Guo, Hui; Khan, Aamir W.; Zhu, Fanghe; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Lijuan; Pierce, Gary J.; Zhou, Guiyuan; Krishnamohan, Katta A. V. S.; Chen, Mingna; Zhong, Ni; Agarwal, Gaurav; Li, Shuanzhu; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sharma, Shivali; Chen, Na; Liu, Haiyan; Janila, Pasupuleti; Li, Shaoxiong; Wang, Min; Wang, Tong; Sun, Jie; Li, Xingyu; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Mian; Yu, Lina; Wen, Shijie; Singh, Sube; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jinming; Zhang, Chushu; Yu, Yue; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Wang, Shuping; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Yu, Shanlin

    2016-01-01

    Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a legume of South American origin, has high seed oil content (45–56%) and is a staple crop in semiarid tropical and subtropical regions, partially because of drought tolerance conferred by its geocarpic reproductive strategy. We present a draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor, Arachis duranensis, and 50,324 protein-coding gene models. Patterns of gene duplication suggest the peanut lineage has been affected by at least three polyploidizations since the origin of eudicots. Resequencing of synthetic Arachis tetraploids reveals extensive gene conversion in only three seed-to-seed generations since their formation by human hands, indicating that this process begins virtually immediately following polyploid formation. Expansion of some specific gene families suggests roles in the unusual subterranean fructification of Arachis. For example, the S1Fa-like transcription factor family has 126 Arachis members, in contrast to no more than five members in other examined plant species, and is more highly expressed in roots and etiolated seedlings than green leaves. The A. duranensis genome provides a major source of candidate genes for fructification, oil biosynthesis, and allergens, expanding knowledge of understudied areas of plant biology and human health impacts of plants, informing peanut genetic improvement and aiding deeper sequencing of Arachis diversity. PMID:27247390

  9. A high-density genetic map of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid species whose ancestral genomes are most likely derived from the A-genome species, A. duranensis, and the B-genome species, A. ipaensis. The very recent (several millennia) evolutionary origin of A. hypogaea has imposed a bottleneck for allelic and phenotypic diversity within the cultigen. However, wild diploid relatives are a rich source of alleles that could be used for crop improvement and their simpler genomes can be more easily analyzed while providing insight into the structure of the allotetraploid peanut genome. The objective of this research was to establish a high-density genetic map of the diploid species A. duranensis based on de novo generated EST databases. Arachis duranensis was chosen for mapping because it is the A-genome progenitor of cultivated peanut and also in order to circumvent the confounding effects of gene duplication associated with allopolyploidy in A. hypogaea. Results More than one million expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences generated from normalized cDNA libraries of A. duranensis were assembled into 81,116 unique transcripts. Mining this dataset, 1236 EST-SNP markers were developed between two A. duranensis accessions, PI 475887 and Grif 15036. An additional 300 SNP markers also were developed from genomic sequences representing conserved legume orthologs. Of the 1536 SNP markers, 1054 were placed on a genetic map. In addition, 598 EST-SSR markers identified in A. hypogaea assemblies were included in the map along with 37 disease resistance gene candidate (RGC) and 35 other previously published markers. In total, 1724 markers spanning 1081.3 cM over 10 linkage groups were mapped. Gene sequences that provided mapped markers were annotated using similarity searches in three different databases, and gene ontology descriptions were determined using the Medicago Gene Atlas and TAIR databases. Synteny analysis between A. duranensis, Medicago and Glycine revealed

  10. A linkage map for the B-genome of Arachis (Fabaceae) and its synteny to the A-genome

    PubMed Central

    Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Barbosa, Andrea VG; Alves-Freitas, Dione MT; Teixeira, Cristiane; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya CM; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Lopes, Catalina R; Cavallari, Marcelo M; Valls, José FM; Bertioli, David J; Gimenes, Marcos A

    2009-01-01

    Background Arachis hypogaea (peanut) is an important crop worldwide, being mostly used for edible oil production, direct consumption and animal feed. Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid species with two different genome components, A and B. Genetic linkage maps can greatly assist molecular breeding and genomic studies. However, the development of linkage maps for A. hypogaea is difficult because it has very low levels of polymorphism. This can be overcome by the utilization of wild species of Arachis, which present the A- and B-genomes in the diploid state, and show high levels of genetic variability. Results In this work, we constructed a B-genome linkage map, which will complement the previously published map for the A-genome of Arachis, and produced an entire framework for the tetraploid genome. This map is based on an F2 population of 93 individuals obtained from the cross between the diploid A. ipaënsis (K30076) and the closely related A. magna (K30097), the former species being the most probable B genome donor to cultivated peanut. In spite of being classified as different species, the parents showed high crossability and relatively low polymorphism (22.3%), compared to other interspecific crosses. The map has 10 linkage groups, with 149 loci spanning a total map distance of 1,294 cM. The microsatellite markers utilized, developed for other Arachis species, showed high transferability (81.7%). Segregation distortion was 21.5%. This B-genome map was compared to the A-genome map using 51 common markers, revealing a high degree of synteny between both genomes. Conclusion The development of genetic maps for Arachis diploid wild species with A- and B-genomes effectively provides a genetic map for the tetraploid cultivated peanut in two separate diploid components and is a significant advance towards the construction of a transferable reference map for Arachis. Additionally, we were able to identify affinities of some Arachis linkage groups with Medicago

  11. Tetrasomic Recombination Is Surprisingly Frequent in Allotetraploid Arachis

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya; Shirasawa, Kenta; Abernathy, Brian; Moretzsohn, Marcio; Chavarro, Carolina; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Jackson, Scott; Bertioli, David

    2015-01-01

    Arachis hypogaea L. (cultivated peanut) is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) with an AABB genome type. Based on cytogenetic studies it has been assumed that peanut and wild-derived induced AABB allotetraploids have classic allotetraploid genetic behavior with diploid-like disomic recombination only between homologous chromosomes, at the exclusion of recombination between homeologous chromosomes. Using this assumption, numerous linkage map and quantitative trait loci studies have been carried out. Here, with a systematic analysis of genotyping and gene expression data, we show that this assumption is not entirely valid. In fact, autotetraploid-like tetrasomic recombination is surprisingly frequent in recombinant inbred lines generated from a cross of cultivated peanut and an induced allotetraploid derived from peanut’s most probable ancestral species. We suggest that a better, more predictive genetic model for peanut is that of a “segmental allotetraploid” with partly disomic, partly tetrasomic genetic behavior. This intermediate genetic behavior has probably had a previously overseen, but significant, impact on the genome and genetics of cultivated peanut. PMID:25701284

  12. Isolation and characterization of an osmotic stress and ABA induced histone deacetylase in Arachis hygogaea

    PubMed Central

    Su, Liang-Chen; Deng, Bin; Liu, Shuai; Li, Li-Mei; Hu, Bo; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation, which together with histone methylation regulates gene activity in response to stress, is an important epigenetic modification. There is an increasing research focus on histone acetylation in crops, but there is no information to date in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). We showed that osmotic stress and ABA affect the acetylation of histone H3 loci in peanut seedlings by immunoblotting experiments. Using RNA-seq data for peanut, we found a RPD3/HDA1-like superfamily histone deacetylase (HDAC), termed AhHDA1, whose gene is up-regulated by PEG-induced water limitation and ABA signaling. We isolated and characterized AhHDA1 from A. hypogaea, showing that AhHDA1 is very similar to an Arabidopsis HDAC (AtHDA6) and, in recombinant form, possesses HDAC activity. To understand whether and how osmotic stress and ABA mediate the peanut stress response by epigenetics, the expression of AhHDA1 and stress-responsive genes following treatment with PEG, ABA, and the specific HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) were analyzed. AhHDA1 transcript levels were enhanced by all three treatments, as was expression of peanut transcription factor genes, indicating that AhHDA1 might be involved in the epigenetic regulation of stress resistance genes that comprise the responses to osmotic stress and ABA. PMID:26217363

  13. Genetic Mapping of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis stenosperma: A New Source of Nematode Resistance for Peanut.

    PubMed

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Roberts, Philip A; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Borba, Tereza C O; Valdisser, Paula A; Vianello, Rosana P; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Guimarães, Patricia M; Bertioli, David J

    2016-02-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne sp.) are a major threat to crops in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The use of resistant crop varieties is the preferred method of control because nematicides are expensive, and hazardous to humans and the environment. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is infected by four species of RKN, the most damaging being M. arenaria, and commercial cultivars rely on a single source of resistance. In this study, we genetically characterize RKN resistance of the wild Arachis species A. stenosperma using a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on linkage groups 02, 04, and 09 strongly influenced nematode root galling and egg production. Drought-related, domestication and agronomically relevant traits were also evaluated, revealing several QTL. Using the newly available Arachis genome sequence, easy-to-use KASP (kompetitive allele specific PCR) markers linked to the newly identified RKN resistance loci were developed and validated in a tetraploid context. Therefore, we consider that A. stenosperma has high potential as a new source of RKN resistance in peanut breeding programs. PMID:26656152

  14. Genetic Mapping of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis stenosperma: A New Source of Nematode Resistance for Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Roberts, Philip A.; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Borba, Tereza C. O.; Valdisser, Paula A.; Vianello, Rosana P.; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Guimarães, Patricia M.; Bertioli, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne sp.) are a major threat to crops in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The use of resistant crop varieties is the preferred method of control because nematicides are expensive, and hazardous to humans and the environment. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is infected by four species of RKN, the most damaging being M. arenaria, and commercial cultivars rely on a single source of resistance. In this study, we genetically characterize RKN resistance of the wild Arachis species A. stenosperma using a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on linkage groups 02, 04, and 09 strongly influenced nematode root galling and egg production. Drought-related, domestication and agronomically relevant traits were also evaluated, revealing several QTL. Using the newly available Arachis genome sequence, easy-to-use KASP (kompetitive allele specific PCR) markers linked to the newly identified RKN resistance loci were developed and validated in a tetraploid context. Therefore, we consider that A. stenosperma has high potential as a new source of RKN resistance in peanut breeding programs. PMID:26656152

  15. Production of phytoalexins in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed elicited by selected microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants accumulate defensive phytoalexins in response to the presence of pathogens, which in turn produce phytoalexin-detoxification enzymes for successfully invading the plant host. The detoxification of a number of phytoalexins by phytopathogenic fungi has been elucidated for various host plant fam...

  16. Regulation of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway: A Mechanism of Selenium Tolerance in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Wu, Liying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Wenjia; Zhang, Mengmeng; Li, Xiaofeng; Wu, Hui

    2016-05-11

    To clarify the mechanisms of selenium (Se) tolerance in peanut seedlings, we grew peanut seedlings with sodium selenite (0, 3, and 6 mg/L), and investigated the phenylpropanoids metabolism in seedling roots. The results showed that selenite up-regulated the expression of genes and related enzyme activities involving in the phenylpropanoids biosynthesis cascade, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, trans-cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase. Selenite significantly increased phenolic acids and flavonoids, which contributed to the alleviation of selenite-induced stress. Moreover, selenite enhanced the formation of endodermis in roots, which may be attributed to the up-regulation of lignin biosynthesis mediated by the selenite-induced changes of H2O2 and NO, which probably regulated the selenite uptake from an external medium. Accumulation of polyphenolic compounds via the phenylpropanoid pathway may be one of the mechanisms of the increasing selenite tolerance in plants, by which peanut seedlings survived in seleniferous soil, accompanied by accumulation of Se. PMID:27089243

  17. Trichoderma viride induces pathogenesis related defense response against rot pathogen infection in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Savaliya, Disha D; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2015-08-01

    The study examine induction of defense enzymes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway and accumulation of pathogenesis related proteins in rot pathogen (Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem) challenged groundnut seedlings in response to Trichoderma viride JAU60. Seeds of five groundnut varieties differing in collar rot susceptibility were sown under non-infested, pathogen infested and pathogen+T. viride JAU60 seed treatment. Collar rot disease evident between 31.0% (J-11, GG-2) and 67.4% (GG-20) in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infested which was significantly reduced from 58.1% (J-11, GG-2) to 51.6% (GG-20) by Trichoderma treatment. The specific activities of polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) and β-1,3 glucanase (EC 3.2.1.6) elevated 3.5 and 2.3-fold, respectively, at 3 days; phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) evident 1.6-fold higher at 6 days; and chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) sustained 2.3-2.8 folds up to 9 days in Trichoderma treated+pathogen infested seedlings of tolerant varieties (J-11, GG-2) compared with moderate and susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20). T. viride JAU60 induces defense enzymes in a different way for tolerant and susceptible varieties to combat the disease. This study indicates the synergism activation of defense enzymes under the pathogenic conditions or induced resistance by T. viride JAU60 in a different groundnut varieties susceptible to collar rot disease. PMID:26160540

  18. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Spanish and Virginia groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mahatma, M K; Thawait, L K; Bishi, S K; Khatediya, N; Rathnakumar, A L; Lalwani, H B; Misra, J B

    2016-05-01

    Kernels of sixty groundnut genotypes comprising thirty each of Spanish and Virginia groups were characterized and compared for the content of oil, protein, phenols and antioxidant activity along with their fatty acid and sugars profiles. The antioxidant activity for Virginia genotypes was ranged from 12.5 to 16.5 μM Trolox equivalent activity for Spanish genotypes ranged from 6.8-15.2 μM. Amongst Virginia types, the highest oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio of 2.38 was observed for NRCG 12312 while from Spanish group the highest O/L ratio of 1.24 was observed for NRCG 12731. The sucrose content for Virginia genotypes ranged from 38.5 to 69.0 mg/g while it was 27.9 to 53.3 mg/g for Spanish genotypes. Average myo-inositol content was higher for Spanish genotypes (0.8-2.1 mg/g) compared to Virginia (0.4-1.8 mg/g) while the reverse was true for stachayose content (Spanish: 3.5-7.9 mg/g; Virginia: 4.6-10.3 mg/g). Thus, Virginia genotypes could be preferred to Spanish genotypes for better oil stability and antioxidant activity. PMID:27407194

  19. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) expressed sequence tag (EST) project: Progress and application.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from several hundred plant species have been deposited in public EST databases. Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research commu...

  20. ARACHIS HYPOGAEA (PEANUT) SEED STORAGE PROTEIN ISO-ARA H3 MRNA COMPLETE SEQUENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic research can provide new tools and resources to revolutionarily enhance crop genetic improvement and production. However, genome research in peanut is far behind those in other crops, such as maize, soybean, wheat, and sorghum due to the shortage of essential genome infrastructure, tools, an...

  1. Effects of zinc oxide nano-particles on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastjerdi, Ehsan Borzouyan; Sahid, Ismail Bin; Jusoh, Khairiah Binti

    2015-09-01

    Along with the rapid growth of nanoparticle consumption in various industries, concerns about the unknown effects caused by the presence of these materials in the natural environment and agricultural systems are being highlighted. Due to the growing trend of Nano Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle (ZnO-np) which is one of the most widely used nanoparticles being released into the environment, it has attracted the attention for more studies to be done on the effects of this nanoparticle on organisms. This study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxicity effect of ZnO-np on peanut seedlings in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS medium). The experimental treatments of this study include nine concentrations of ZnO-np (0, 10, 30, 50, 100, 200, 400, 1000, 2000 ppm) added to MS medium. Peanut seedlings were incubated for 3 weeks in optimum condition and after that, seedling characteristics such as length, wet and dry weight of root and shoot were measured and the water content of root and shoot were calculated. Results of this study showed that the root and shoot length of peanut seedlings were affected by ZnO-np exposure, in a way that root length in 50 ppm ZnO-np and higher concentrations was significantly lower than that of control treatment and the shortest shoot length was observed to be from 2000 ppm ZnO-np concentration treatment. Also, both the root and shoot wet weight decreased as the nanoparticle concentration increased. However, despite the decreasing root and shoot dry weight with increasing concentration, there was no significant difference. On the other hand, the root dry weight in 10 ppm ZnO-np was significantly higher than the peanut seedlings treated with more than 200 ppm ZnO-np.

  2. Recent advances in molecular genetic linkage maps of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitiveness of peanuts in domestic and global markets has been threatened by losses in productivity and quality that are attributed to diseases, pests, environmental stresses and allergy or food safety issues. Narrow genetic diversity and deficiency of polymorphic DNA markers have severely h...

  3. Localized Production of Phytoalexins by Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Kernels in Response to Fungal Invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts respond to fungal infection by synthesizing phytoalexins, most of which are antibiotic stilbenes. The mechanism and dynamics of phytoalexin formation in the peanut has not been studied. One of the most popular peanut cultivars in the southeastern U.S., Georgia Green, was investigated for its...

  4. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) genome contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  5. Impact of crossing conditions on the success of artificial hybridization of Arachis hypogaea L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to protect peanut yield and quality under dynamic farming conditions, pyramiding desirable traits from multiple lines has been the major task for peanut breeders. In addition, dissecting genetic components of heritable traits also relies on the development of large mapping populations. Ar...

  6. Preliminary Heritability Estimates for Drought Resistance Related Traits in Cultivated Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major factor in reduced productivity in peanuts. Cultivars that have high water-use efficiency have the potential to enhance the yield of the crop. Studies have shown that pod yield is a function of water transpired (T), water-use efficiency (WUE), and harvest index (HI). It is logisti...

  7. New Monomeric Stilbenoids from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seeds Challenged by an Aspergillus flavus Strain.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Victor S; Krausert, Nicole M; Gloer, James B

    2016-01-27

    Two new stilbene derivatives have been isolated from peanut seeds challenged by an Aspergillus flavus strain, along with chiricanine B, which has not been previously reported from peanuts, as well as a stilbenoid reported previously only as a synthetic product. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were determined by analysis of (1)H and (13)C NMR, HRESIMS, MS(n), and UV data. The new stilbenoids were named arahypin-13 (21), arahypin-14 (22), and arahypin-15 (23). Together with other known bioactive peanut stilbenoids that were also produced in the challenged seeds, these new compounds may play a defensive role against invasive fungi. PMID:26672388

  8. Mechanism of aflatoxin uptake in roots of intact groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G

    2013-12-01

    Aflatoxins are one of the most potent toxic substances that occur naturally, which enter agricultural soils through the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi in rhizhosphere and nonrhizhosphere soils. Though several reports regarding the uptake of aflatoxin by plants are available, the mechanism of aflatoxin uptake remains unknown. This study characterized the aflatoxin uptake mechanism by in vitro hydroponic experiments under variable conditions. The uptake reached saturation after 48 h of incubation for AFB1 and B2 and 60 h for AFG1 and G2. A linear increase in uptake with increasing aflatoxin concentrations was observed, and it fits both linear and nonlinear regression. AFB1 uptake was directly proportional to transpiration rate, and blocking aquaporin activity using mercuric chloride revealed its involvement in the uptake. None of the metabolic inhibitors used to block active transport had any effect on aflatoxin uptake except for sodium azide. From the present study, it could be concluded that aflatoxin uptake by groundnut roots followed mainly a passive way and is facilitated through aquaporins. The involvement of active component should be studied in detail. PMID:23660803

  9. Interaction of flumioxazin with dimethenamid or metolachlor in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in various peanut growing regions of Texas and Georgia to study peanut response to flumioxazin alone or in combination with dimethenamid or metolachlor. In southern Texas during 1997, flumioxazin plus metolachlor resulted in greater than 45% peanut stunt, while flumioxaz...

  10. Identification of stress-related small RNA's in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several classes of small RNAs have been studied in plants with the most extensively studied class being microRNAs (miRNAs). microRNAs (miRNAs) are an endogenous class of 20-25 nucleotide noncoding RNAs that are thought to play an important role in regulating gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cl...

  11. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment. PMID:25608978

  12. Development and utilization of InDel markers to identify peanut (Arachis hypogaea) disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, nearly 10,000 SSR-based markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% were mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. I...

  13. A Specific Qualitative Detection Method for Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) in Foods Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a qualitative detection method for peanuts in foods using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We designed a universal primer pair CP 03-5’/ CP 03-3’ to confirm the validity of the DNAs for PCR. The plant specific amplified fragments were detected from 13 kinds of plants using the universal...

  14. Transcriptome-wide sequencing provides insights into geocarpy in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Qingli; Li, Haifen; Li, Heying; Hong, Yanbin; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Zhu, Fanghe; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Mingna; Liu, Haiyan; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Erhua; Wang, Tong; Zhong, Ni; Wang, Mian; Liu, Hong; Wen, Shijie; Li, Xingyu; Zhou, Guiyuan; Li, Shaoxiong; Wu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev; Liang, Xuanqiang; Yu, Shanlin

    2016-05-01

    A characteristic feature of peanut is the subterranean fructification, geocarpy, in which the gynophore ('peg'), a specialized organ that transitions from upward growth habit to downward outgrowth upon fertilization, drives the developing pod into the soil for subsequent development underground. As a step towards understanding this phenomenon, we explore the developmental dynamics of the peanut pod transcriptome at 11 successive stages. We identified 110 217 transcripts across developmental stages and quantified their abundance along a pod developmental gradient in pod wall. We found that the majority of transcripts were differentially expressed along the developmental gradient as well as identified temporal programs of gene expression, including hundreds of transcription factors. Thought to be an adaptation to particularly harsh subterranean environments, both up- and down-regulated gene sets in pod wall were enriched for response to a broad array of stimuli, like gravity, light and subterranean environmental factors. We also identified hundreds of transcripts associated with gravitropism and photomorphogenesis, which may be involved in the geocarpy. Collectively, this study forms a transcriptional baseline for geocarpy in peanut as well as provides a considerable body of evidence that transcriptional regulation in peanut aerial and subterranean fruits is complex. PMID:26502832

  15. Allergens of Arachis hypogaea and the effect of processing on their detection by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Amjad; Shah, Farooq; Hamayun, Muhammad; Ahmad, Ayaz; Hussain, Anwar; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are an emerging public health problem in industrialized areas of the world. They represent a considerable health problem in these areas because of the relatively high number of reported cases. Usually, food allergens are proteins or glycoproteins with a molecular mass ranging from 10 to 70 kDa. Among the food allergies, peanut is accounted to be responsible for more than 50% of the food allergy fatalities. Threshold doses for peanut allergenic reactions have been found to range from as low as 100 µg to 1 g of peanut protein, which equal to 400 µg to 4 g peanut meal. Allergens from peanut are mainly seed storage proteins that are composed of conglutin, vicilin, and glycinin families. Several peanut proteins have been identified to induce allergic reactions, particularly Ara h 1-11. This review is mainly focused on different classes of peanut allergens, the effect of thermal and chemical treatment of peanut allergens on the IgY binding and detectability of these allergens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to provide knowledge for food industry. PMID:26931300

  16. Allergens of Arachis hypogaea and the effect of processing on their detection by ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Amjad; Shah, Farooq; Hamayun, Muhammad; Ahmad, Ayaz; Hussain, Anwar; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are an emerging public health problem in industrialized areas of the world. They represent a considerable health problem in these areas because of the relatively high number of reported cases. Usually, food allergens are proteins or glycoproteins with a molecular mass ranging from 10 to 70 kDa. Among the food allergies, peanut is accounted to be responsible for more than 50% of the food allergy fatalities. Threshold doses for peanut allergenic reactions have been found to range from as low as 100 µg to 1 g of peanut protein, which equal to 400 µg to 4 g peanut meal. Allergens from peanut are mainly seed storage proteins that are composed of conglutin, vicilin, and glycinin families. Several peanut proteins have been identified to induce allergic reactions, particularly Ara h 1–11. This review is mainly focused on different classes of peanut allergens, the effect of thermal and chemical treatment of peanut allergens on the IgY binding and detectability of these allergens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to provide knowledge for food industry. PMID:26931300

  17. Identification of drought-induced transcription factors in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of genes involved in normal development as well as tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Specific transcription factors that are induced in peanut under drought conditions have not been identified. The objectives of this study were to comp...

  18. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Three Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Genes from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Chen, Mingna; Chen, Na; Pan, Lijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Quanfu; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final and only committed acylation step in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. In this study, three novel AhDGATs genes were identified and isolated from peanut. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the AhDGAT1-2 transcript was more abundant in roots, seeds, and cotyledons, whereas the transcript abundances of AhDGAT1-1 and AhDGAT3-3 were higher in flowers than in the other tissues examined. During seed development, transcript levels of AhDGAT1-1 remained relatively low during the initial developmental stage but increased gradually during later stages, peaking at 50 days after pegging (DAP). Levels of AhDGAT1-2 transcripts were higher at 10 and 60 DAPs and much lower during other stages, whereas AhDGAT3-3 showed higher expression levels at 20 and 50 DAPs. In addition, AhDGAT transcripts were differentially expressed following exposure to abiotic stresses or abscisic acid. The activity of the three AhDGAT genes was confirmed by heterologous expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAG-deficient quadruple mutant. The recombinant yeasts restored lipid body formation and TAG biosynthesis, and preferentially incorporated unsaturated C18 fatty acids into lipids. The present study provides significant information useful in modifying the oil deposition of peanut through molecular breeding. PMID:25181516

  19. Shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics of developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are an inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. Owing to their importance in global food security, it is necessary to understand the genetic, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms controlling seed quality and nutritive attributes. A comprehens...

  20. Comparison of gene expression profiles in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) under strong artificial selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past five decades, cultivated peanut in China has been subjected to strong artificial selection in breeding programs. To investigate the impact of artificial selection on expression diversity, we compared gene expression profiles in pod and leaf of five widespread cultivars in Southern Chin...

  1. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome and contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  2. Genetic variation of purified U.S. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many accessions of the USDA peanut germplasm collection are heterogeneous. Advances in genomics technology have highlighted the need for collections of homogeneous accessions. Using homogeneous accessions is critical for many types of phenotypic and genomic evaluations. The objectives of this resea...

  3. Combining Ability of Pod Yield and Related Traits of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Shah-E-Alam, Md.; Hamid, Md. Abdul; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Malek, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    A study was performed using 6 × 6 F1 diallel population without reciprocals to assess the mode of inheritance of pod yield and related traits in groundnut with imposed salinity stress. Heterosis was found for pod number and yield. Data on general and specific combining ability (gca and sca) indicated additive and nonadditive gene actions. The gca: sca ratios were much less than unity suggesting predominant role of nonadditive gene effects. Cultivars “Binachinabadam-2” and “Dacca-1” and mutant M6/25/64-82 had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod number, as well as gca values, respectively. These two cultivars and another mutant M6/15/70-19 also had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod yield, as well as gca values, respectively. Therefore, “Dacca-1”, “Binachinabadam-2”, M6/25/64-82, and M6/15/70-19 could be used as source of salinity tolerance. Cross combinations showing high sca effects arising from parents with high and low gca values for any trait indicate the influence of nonadditive genes on their expression. Parents of these crosses can be used for biparental mating or reciprocal recurrent selection for developing high yielding varieties. Crosses with high sca effects having both parents with good gca effects could be exploited by pedigree breeding to get transgressive segregants. PMID:24737982

  4. New Monomeric Stilbenoids from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seeds Challenged by an Aspergillus flavus Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new stilbene derivatives have been isolated from peanut seeds challenged by an Aspergillus flavus strain, along with chiricanine B that has not been reported from peanuts, as well as a stilbenoid that has been known as a synthetic product. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were d...

  5. A SSR-based genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to construct a molecular linkage map of cultivated tetraploid peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank. Three recombinant inbre...

  6. New Stilbenoids from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Kernels Challenged by an Aspergillus caelatus Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new stilbene derivatives termed arahypins have been isolated from peanut kernels challenged by an Aspergillus caelatus strain, along with two known stilbenoids that have not been previously reported in peanuts. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were determined by analysis of NMR...

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of annexin genes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    He, MeiJing; Yang, XinLei; Cui, ShunLi; Mu, GuoJun; Hou, MingYu; Chen, HuanYing; Liu, LiFeng

    2015-08-15

    Annexin, Ca(2+) or phospholipid binding proteins, with many family members are distributed throughout all tissues during plant growth and development. Annexins participate in a number of physiological processes, such as exocytosis, cell elongation, nodule formation in legumes, maturation and stress response. Six different full-length cDNAs and two partial-length cDNAs of peanut, (AnnAh1, AnnAh2, AnnAh3, AnnAh5, AnnAh6, AnnAh7, AnnAh4 and AnnAh8) encoding annexin proteins, were isolated and characterized using a RT-PCR/RACE-PCR based strategy. The predicted molecular masses of these annexins were 36.0kDa with acidic pIs of 5.97-8.81. ANNAh1, ANNAh2, ANNAh3, ANNAh5, ANNAh6 and ANNAh7 shared sequence similarity from 35.76 to 66.35% at amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis revealed their evolutionary relationships with corresponding orthologous sequences in soybean and deduced proteins in various plant species. Real-time quantitative assays indicated that these genes were differentially expressed in various organs. Transcript level analysis for six annexin genes under stress conditions showed that these genes were regulated by drought, salinity, heavy metal stress, low temperature and hormone. Additionally, the prediction of cis-regulatory element suggested that different cis-responsive elements including stress- and hormone-responsive-related elements could respond to various stress conditions. These results indicated that members of AnnAhs family may play important roles in the adaptation of peanut to various environmental stresses. PMID:25958350

  8. Evaluation of yield and reproductive efficiency in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under different available soil water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses to difference in available soil water levels for yield and reproductive characters of peanut genotypes and relate these responses to pod yield under drought conditions. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels (Field Cap...

  9. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  10. Reduction of IgE immunoreactivity of whole peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) after pulsed light illumination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed light (PL), a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown in literature to reduce allergen levels on peanut, soybean, almond, and shrimp protein extracts. This study investigated how PL affected the immunoreactivity of whole peanut kernels at two sample-to-lamp distance...

  11. Extraction, Purification and Primary Characterization of Polysaccharides from Defatted Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Cakes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongzhi; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Li; Sheng, Xiaojing; Shi, Aimin; Hu, Hui; Yang, Ying; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The hot-water extraction, purification and characterization of polysaccharides from defatted peanut cake (PPC) were investigated in this study. A Box-Behnken factorial design (BBD) was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (X₁), extraction time (X₂) and ratio of water to raw material (X₃). The optimum conditions were 85 °C, 3 h and 20:1 (mL/g) respectively. Regression analysis was done to reveal the experimental results which include 34.97% extraction rate while the value verified under these conditions was 34.49%. The crude PPC was sequentially further purified by Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one purified fraction was obtained. The PPC purified fraction was characterized by FT-IR, HPAEC; SEC-MALLS. The average molecular weight of the PPC purified fraction was 2.383 × 10⁵ Da. The polysaccharide was mainly composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose and xylose. The PPC have the typical absorption of polysaccharide. PMID:27258246

  12. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Disease Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular ...

  13. Antifungal activity in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) conferred by a nonheme chloroperoxidase gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nonheme chloroperoxidase gene (cpo-p) from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia, a growth inhibitor of mycotoxin-producing fungi, was introduced into peanut via particle bombardment. The expression of the cpo-p gene is predicted to increase pathogen defense in peanut. Embryogenic peanut tissues were bombarded...

  14. New pterocarpenes elicited by Aspergillus caelatus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new substituted pterocarpenes named aracarpene-1 and aracarpene-2 have been isolated from wounded peanut seeds challenged by a strain of Aspergillus caelatus. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were determined by interpretation of NMR and MS data. Together with peanut stilbenoids ...

  15. Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing symbiont isolated from effective nodules of Vigna and Arachis.

    PubMed

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Hurek, Thomas; Bünger, Wiebke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Twenty one strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region of Namibia, were previously characterized as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic position, the strains were further analysed using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences were most similar to Bradyrhizobium manausense BR 3351T, with Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense RITF806T being the most closely related type strain in the phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names; they were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium subterraneum 58 2-1T. The status of the species was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests, including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance, could be used to differentiate representative strains of species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Novel strain 7-2T induced effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and on Lablab purpureus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7-2T was 65.4 mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented, we conclude that these strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 7-2T [LMG 28791T, DSMZ 100297T, NTCCM0018T (Windhoek)] as the type strain. PMID:26463703

  16. Advances in Arachis through genomics and biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 5th International Conference of the peanut research community met in Brasilia, Brazil from June 13 through 16, 2011 to discuss “Advances in Arachis through genomics and biotechnology”. Over 100 participated from many countries such as United States, Japan, China, India, Brazil, Argentina, with ...

  17. Characterization of a pathogen induced thaumatin-like protein gene AdTLP from Arachis diogoi, a wild peanut.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Koppolu Raja Rajesh; Kumar, Dilip; Shukla, Pawan; Kirti, P B

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) is one of the widely cultivated and leading oilseed crops of the world and its yields are greatly affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Arachis diogoi, a wild relative of peanut, is an important source of genes for resistance against various stresses that affect peanut. In our previous study a thaumatin-like protein gene was found to be upregulated in a differential expression reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) study using the conidial spray of the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. In the present study, the corresponding full length cDNA was cloned using RACE-PCR and has been designated as AdTLP. It carried an open reading frame of 726 bp potentially capable of encoding a polypeptide of 241 amino acids with 16 conserved cysteine residues. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript level of AdTLP increased upon treatment with the late leaf spot pathogen of peanut, P. personata and various hormone treatments indicating its involvement in both, biotic and abiotic stresses. The antifungal activity of the purified recombinant protein was checked against different fungal pathogens, which showed enhanced anti-fungal activity compared to many other reported TLP proteins. The recombinant AdTLP-GFP fusion protein was found to be predominantly localized to extracellular spaces. Transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing AdTLP showed enhanced resistance to fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The seedling assays showed enhanced tolerance of AdTLP transgenic plants against salt and oxidative stress. The transcript analysis of various defense related genes highlighted constitutively higher level expression of PR1a, PI-I and PI-II genes in transgenic plants. These results suggest that the AdTLP is a good candidate gene for enhancing stress resistance in crop plants. PMID:24367621

  18. Characterization of a Pathogen Induced Thaumatin-Like Protein Gene AdTLP from Arachis diogoi, a Wild Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Koppolu Raja Rajesh; Kumar, Dilip; Shukla, Pawan; Kirti, P. B.

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) is one of the widely cultivated and leading oilseed crops of the world and its yields are greatly affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Arachis diogoi, a wild relative of peanut, is an important source of genes for resistance against various stresses that affect peanut. In our previous study a thaumatin-like protein gene was found to be upregulated in a differential expression reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) study using the conidial spray of the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. In the present study, the corresponding full length cDNA was cloned using RACE-PCR and has been designated as AdTLP. It carried an open reading frame of 726 bp potentially capable of encoding a polypeptide of 241 amino acids with 16 conserved cysteine residues. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript level of AdTLP increased upon treatment with the late leaf spot pathogen of peanut, P. personata and various hormone treatments indicating its involvement in both, biotic and abiotic stresses. The antifungal activity of the purified recombinant protein was checked against different fungal pathogens, which showed enhanced anti-fungal activity compared to many other reported TLP proteins. The recombinant AdTLP-GFP fusion protein was found to be predominantly localized to extracellular spaces. Transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing AdTLP showed enhanced resistance to fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The seedling assays showed enhanced tolerance of AdTLP transgenic plants against salt and oxidative stress. The transcript analysis of various defense related genes highlighted constitutively higher level expression of PR1a, PI-I and PI-II genes in transgenic plants. These results suggest that the AdTLP is a good candidate gene for enhancing stress resistance in crop plants. PMID:24367621

  19. Next-generation transcriptome sequencing, SNP discovery, and SNP validation in four market classes of peanut, arachis hypogaea L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms are ideally suited for making high-resolution genetic maps, investigating population evolutionary history, and discovering marker–trait linkages. With advances in sequencing technologies, it is possible to identify thousands or millions of SNPs from transcriptomes or ...

  20. Modification of Prenylated Stilbenoids in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seedlings by the Same Fungi That Elicited Them: The Fungus Strikes Back.

    PubMed

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Slager, Mathijs; Helmink, Bianca; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-28

    Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae were compared for inducing the production of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. The fungus was applied at two different time points: directly after soaking (day 1) or after 2 days of germination (day 3). Aspergillus- and Rhizopus-elicited peanut seedlings accumulated an array of prenylated stilbenoids, with overlap in compounds induced, but also with compounds specific to the fungal treatment. The differences were confirmed to be due to modification of prenylated stilbenoids by the fungus itself. Each fungus appeared to deploy different strategies for modification. The content of prenylated stilbenoids modified by fungi accounted for around 8% to 49% (w/w) of total stilbenoids. The contents of modified prenylated stilbenoids were higher when the fungus was applied on day 1 instead of day 3. Altogether, type of fungus and time point of inoculation appeared to be crucial parameters for optimizing accumulation of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. PMID:26458982

  1. Morphological and toxigenic variability in the Aspergillus flavus isolates from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production system in Gujarat (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Diwakar; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Vinod; Bagwan, Naimoddin B; Basu, Mukti S; Dobaria, Jentilal R; Mishra, Gyan P; Chanda, Sumitra

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and toxigenic variability in 187 Aspergillus flavus isolates, collected from a major Indian peanut production system, from 10 districts of Gujarat was studied. On the basis of colony characteristics, the isolates were grouped as group A (83%), B (11%) and G (6%). Of all the isolates, 21%, 47% and 32% were found to be fast-growing, moderately-fast and slow-growing respectively, and nosclerotia and sclerotia production was recorded in 32.1% and 67% isolates respectively. Large, medium and small number of sclerotia production was observed in 55, 38 and 34 isolates respectively. Toxigenic potential based on ammonia vapour test was not found reliable, while ELISA test identified 68.5%, 18.7% and 12.8% isolates as atoxigenic, moderately-toxigenic and highly-toxigenic, respectively. On clustering, the isolates were grouped into 15 distinct clusters, 'A' group of isolates was grouped distinctly in different clusters, while 'B' and 'G' groups of isolates were clustered together. No association was observed between morphological-diversity and toxigenic potential of the isolates. From the present investigation, most virulent isolates were pooled to form a consortium for sick-plot screening of germplasm, against Aspergillus flavus. In future, atoxigenic isolates may be evaluated for their potential to be used as bio-control agent against toxigenicisolates. PMID:25895268

  2. A comparison of methods used to determine the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are a cheap source of protein compared to cheese and red meat and a good source of essential vitamins and minerals and are thus a common component of many oil and food products. The fatty acid composition of peanuts has become increasingly important with the realization that the onset of ra...

  3. Cloning and Characterization of 5′ Flanking Regulatory Sequences of AhLEC1B Gene from Arachis Hypogaea L.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Guiying; Xu, Pingli; Liu, Wei; Liu, Zhanji; Shan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a B subunit of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-YB) transcription factor that mainly accumulates during embryo development. We cloned the 5′ flanking regulatory sequence of AhLEC1B gene, a homolog of Arabidopsis LEC1, and analyzed its regulatory elements using online software. To identify the crucial regulatory region, we generated a series of GUS expression frameworks driven by different length promoters with 5′ terminal and/or 3′ terminal deletion. We further characterized the GUS expression patterns in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines. Our results show that both the 65bp proximal promoter region and the 52bp 5′ UTR of AhLEC1B contain the key motifs required for the essential promoting activity. Moreover, AhLEC1B is preferentially expressed in the embryo and is co-regulated by binding of its upstream genes with both positive and negative corresponding cis-regulatory elements. PMID:26426444

  4. Investigations into the agronomic and economic aspects of using peanut (Arachis hypogaea) as an on-farm biodiesel feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although farmers have benefited from the creation of transportation fuels from grain and oilseeds, little research has addressed single farm or community self-reliance on home-grown fuels. The Peanut Biodiesel Project is designed to determine if peanut is suitable for just such a concept through fi...

  5. Genetic linkage map and QTL analysis of resistance to TSWV and leaf spots in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The allotetraploid peanut genome assembly will be a valuable resource to researchers studying polyploidy species, in addition to peanut genome evolution and domestication other than facilitating QTL analysis and the tools for marker-assisted breeding. Therefore, a peanut linkage map will aid genome ...

  6. Characterization of the β-1,3-glucanase gene in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by cloning and genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L X; Ding, X; Wang, H C; Sui, J M; Wang, J-S

    2014-01-01

    Plant β-1,3-glucanases are commonly involved in disease resistance. This report describes the cloning and genetic transformation of a β-1,3-glucanase gene from peanut. The gene was isolated from both the genomic DNA and cDNA of peanut variety Huayu20 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The DNA sequence contained 1471 bp including two exons and one intron, and the coding sequence contained 1047 bp that coded for a 348-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 38.8 kDa. The sequence was registered in NCBI (GenBank accession No. JQ801335) and was designated as Ah-Glu. As determined by BLAST analysis, the Ah-Glu protein has 42-90% homology with proteins from Oryza sativa (BAC83070.1), Zea mays (NP_001149308), Arabidopsis thaliana (NP_200470.1), Medicago sativa (ABD91577.1), and Glycine max (XP_003530515.1). The over-expression vector pCAMBIA1301-Glu containing Ah-Glu was constructed, confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, and transformed into peanut variety Huayu22 by Agrobacterium EHA105-mediated transformation. The putative transformed plants (T0) were confirmed by PCR amplification. RT-PCR analysis and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that the transferred Ah-Glu was expressed as mRNA and protein. In a laboratory test, the transgenic plants were found to be more resistant to the fungal pathogen Cercospora personata than the non-transgenic plants were. PMID:24668677

  7. Genetic mapping of FAD2 genes and their relative contribution towards oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality is the major research objective in peanut because of its high economic impact on growers/traders and several health benefits to consumers. Fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes are known to control quality traits but their position on the peanut genome and their relative contr...

  8. Screening of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cDNA library to isolate a Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor clone.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Judith A; Viquez, Olga M; Konan, Koffi N; Dodo, Hortense W

    2005-03-23

    Peanut crop losses due to insect and pest infestation cost peanut farmers nearly 20% of their annual yields. The conventional use of chemicals to combat this problem is costly and toxic to humans and livestock and leads to the development of resistance by target insects. Transgenic plants expressing a trypsin inhibitor gene in tobacco and cowpea have proven to be efficient for resistance against insects. Therefore, a transgenic peanut overexpressing a trypsin inhibitor gene could be an alternative solution to the use of toxic chemicals. Five Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor (BBTI) proteins were previously isolated from peanut. However, to date, neither cDNA nor genomic DNA sequences are available. The objective of this research was to screen a peanut cDNA library to isolate and sequence at least one full-length peanut BBTI cDNA clone. Two heterologous oligonucleotides were constructed on the basis of a garden pea (Pisum sativa) trypsin inhibitor nucleotide sequence and used as probes to screen a peanut lambda gt-11 cDNA library. Two positive and identical cDNA clones were isolated, subcloned into a pBluescript vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed a full-length BBTI cDNA of about 243 bp, with a start codon ATG at position +1 and a stop codon TGA at position +243. In the 3' end, two poly adenylation signals (AATAAA) were identified at positions +261 and +269. The isolated cDNA clone encodes a protein of 80 amino acid residues including a leader sequence of 11 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is 100% identical to published sequences of peanut BBTI AI, AII, BI, and BIII and 81% identical to BII. PMID:15769131

  9. A real-time PCR genotyping assay to detect FAD2A SNPs in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high oleic (C18:1) phenotype in peanuts has been previously demonstrated to result from a homozygous recessive genotype (ol1ol1ol2ol2) in two homeologous fatty acid desaturase genes (FAD2A and FAD2B) with two key SNPs. These mutant SNPs, specifically G448A in FAD2A and 442insA in FAD2B, signifi...

  10. An electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry screening of triacylglycerols in developing cultivated and wild peanut kernels (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Cherif, Aicha O; Leveque, Nathalie; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Kallel, Habib; Moussa, Fathi

    2013-06-01

    The accumulation of triacylglycerols during the development of three varieties of peanuts was monitored in two Tunisian cultivated peanut (Trabelsia (AraT) and Chounfakhi (AraC)) and one wild Tunisian peanut (Arbi (AraA)). The presence of TAGs composed of rare fatty acid residues such as hexacosanoic acid (C(23:0)) and heneicosanoic acid (C(21:0)) among the triacylglycerols C(23:0) LL, C(23:0) OO and C(21:0) LL was noted. The major molecular species of triacylglycerol detected in the three peanut varieties were dioleoyl linoleoyl (OOL), 1,2,3-trioleyl (OOO), 1,2-dioleyl-3-palmitoyl (POO), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-3-oleyl (OLL) and 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-linolenoyl (OLLn). The TAG composition and content were significantly different among the three peanut varieties. The three major TAGs were OOL (20.6%), OOO (15.6%) and OLLn (13.2%) in AraA; OOL (21.4%), OOO (20.1%) and POO (17.5%) in AraC and finally OLL (20.7%), OOO (19.8%) and OLL (17.7%) in AraT. PMID:23411219

  11. Response of irrigated groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) to urea fertilization in the central rainlands of the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, N O; Yousif, Y H

    1979-01-01

    The response of 3 varieties of groundnuts, i.e.: Ashford (A), Barberton (B), and Corinte (C), to different doses of urea nitrogen under irrigation was studied for three years. As a result of extensive tissue analysis, the critical needs of Barberton and Corinte for nitrogen were found to be 1500 ppm NO3-N and 3.7% total-N. Variety Ashford, which outyielded both, did not respond to urea nitrogen. A linear correlation coefficient of r = 0.85 for pod and straw yields gave a pod to straw ratio of 0.72. Kernel protein and oil content were not affected by nitrogen. Larger nodule counts and their total-N indicated better yields. PMID:473957

  12. Characterization of B-1, 3-glucanase gene in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by cloning and genetic transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant ß-1,3-glucanase is commonly found to be involved in the disease resistance. A ß-1,3-glucanase gene was isolated from both the genomic DNA and cDNA of peanut variety Huayu20 by PCR and RT-PCR, respectively (GenBank Accession No. JQ801335). The genomic DNA sequence was 1,471 bp including two ext...

  13. Cutleafgroundcherry (physalis angulata) density, biomass and seed production in peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) following regrowth due to inadequate control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide and application timing on cutleaf groundcherry density, biomass, seed production, and crop yield in a peanut system. Treatments included: 1) a non-treated control; 2) hand pruning; 3) diclosulam applied preemergence (PRE) alone at 0.027 kg ai h...

  14. De Novo Assembly of the Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seed Transcriptome Revealed Candidate Unigenes for Oil Accumulation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Dongmei; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Hemin; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Wanke; Chen, Shouyi

    2013-01-01

    Peanuts are one of the most important edible oil crops in the world. In order to survey key genes controlling peanut oil accumulation, we analyzed the seed transcriptome in different developmental stages of high- and low-oil peanut varieties. About 54 million high quality clean reads were generated, which corresponded to 4.85 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 59,236 unique sequences. Differential mRNA processing events were detected for most of the peanut Unigenes and found that 15.8% and 18.0% of the Unigenes were differentially expressed between high- and low-oil varieties at 30 DAF and 50 DAF, respectively. Over 1,500 Unigenes involved in lipid metabolism were identified, classified, and found to participate in FA synthesis and TAG assembly. There were seven possible metabolic pathways involved in the accumulation of oil during seed development. This dataset provides more sequence resource for peanut plant and will serve as the foundation to understand the mechanisms of oil accumulation in oil crops. PMID:24040062

  15. Screening of PGPR from saline desert of Kutch: growth promotion in Arachis hypogea by Bacillus licheniformis A2.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Dweipayan; Dhandhukia, Pinakin; Patel, Pranav; Thakker, Janki N

    2014-01-20

    Rhizosphere of a halotolerant plant Suaeda fruticosa from saline desert of Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat (India) was explored for isolation of PGPR form the rare ecological niche having4.33% salinity. Total 85 isolates from the rhizosphere belonging to different species were isolated. Out of 85 isolates, 23 could solubilize phosphate and 11 isolates produced IAA. Seven isolates showed both the traits of phosphate solubilization and IAA production. All isolates which showed either of IAA production or phosphate solubilization or both were further screened for other PGP traits like production of ammonia, siderophore, chitinase, HCN and assessment of their antifungal activity. Out of all the screened isolates, Bacillus licheniformis strain A2 showed most prominent PGP traits in vitro and it was tested in vivo for growth promotion of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) under saline soil condition. In presence of soil supplemented with 50 mM NaCl, B. licheniformis treated plants showed increase in fresh biomass, total length and root length by 28%, 24% and 17% and in absence of NaCl it was 43%, 31% and 39% respectively. PMID:23896166

  16. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    PubMed

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles. PMID:24441368

  17. Species relations among wild Arachis species with the A genome as revealed by FISH mapping of rDNA loci and heterochromatin detection.

    PubMed

    Robledo, G; Lavia, G I; Seijo, G

    2009-05-01

    Section Arachis of the homonymous genus includes 29 wild diploid species and two allotetraploids (A. monticola and the domesticated peanut, A. hypogaea L.). Although, three different genomes (A, B and D) have been proposed for diploid species with x = 10, they are still not well characterized. Moreover, neither the relationships among species within each genome group nor between diploids and tetraploids (AABB) are completely resolved. To tackle these issues, particularly within the A genome, in this study the rRNA genes (5S and 18S-26S) and heterochromatic bands were physically mapped using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in 13 species of Arachis. These molecular cytogenetic landmarks have allowed individual identification of a set of chromosomes and were used to construct detailed FISH-based karyotypes for each species. The bulk of the chromosome markers mapped revealed that, although the A genome species have a common karyotype structure, the species can be arranged in three groups (La Plata River Basin, Chiquitano, and Pantanal) on the basis of the variability observed in the heterochromatin and 18S-26S rRNA loci. Notably, these groups are consistent with the geographical co-distribution of the species. This coincidence is discussed on the basis of the particular reproductive traits of the species such as autogamy and geocarpy. Combined with geographic distribution of the taxa, the cytogenetic data provide evidence that A. duranensis is the most probable A genome ancestor of tetraploid species. It is expected that the groups of diploid species established, and their relation with the cultigen, may aid to rationally select wild species with agronomic traits desirable for peanut breeding programs. PMID:19234686

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of species of genus Arachis based on geneic sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Arachis (Fabaceae), which originated in South America, consists of 80 species. Based on morphological traits and cross-compatibility among the species, the genus is divided into nine taxonomic sections, one of which, Arachis is the largest section including 30 wild species and the economic...

  19. First Report of Peanut Mottle Virus in Forage Peanut (Arachis glabrata) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant material of rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata) of an unknown accession, obtained from the Arachis species collection nursery planted and maintained at the Coastal Plain Research Station, Tifton, GA was recently brought into the greenhouse where ring spots were identified on immature leaves. Ti...

  20. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut. PMID:10725154

  1. Evaluation of insertion-deletion markers suitable for genetic diversity studies and marker-trait correlation analyses in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Meng, S; Yang, X L; Dang, P M; Cui, S L; Mu, G J; Chen, C Y; Liu, L F

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is one of the most important oil crops worldwide. We used insertion-deletion (InDel) markers to assess the genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated peanut. Fifty-four accessions from North China were genotyped using 48 InDel markers. The markers amplified 61 polymorphic loci with 1 to 8 alleles and an average of 2.6 alleles per marker. The polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.0364 to 0.9030, with an average of 0.5038. Population structure and neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analyses suggested that all accessions could be divided into four clusters (A1-A4), using the NJ method. Likewise, four subpopulations (G1-G4) were identified using STRUCTURE analysis. A principal component analysis was also used and results concordant with the other analysis methods were found. A multi-linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that 13 InDel markers correlated with five measured agronomical traits. Our results will provide important information for future peanut molecular breeding and genetic research. PMID:27525935

  2. Stress Inducible Expression of AtDREB1A Transcription Factor in Transgenic Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Conferred Tolerance to Soil-Moisture Deficit Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan P.; Dobaria, Jentilal R.

    2016-01-01

    Peanut, an important oilseed crop, is gaining priority for the development of drought tolerant genotypes in recent times, since the area under drought is constantly on the rise. To achieve this, one of the important strategies is to genetically engineer the ruling peanut varieties using transcription factor regulating the expression of several downstream, abiotic-stress responsive gene(s). In this study, eight independent transgenic peanut (cv. GG20) lines were developed using AtDREB1A gene, encoding for a transcription factor, through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. The transgene insertion was confirmed in (T0) using PCR and Dot-blot analysis, while copy-number(s) was ascertained using Southern-blot analysis. The inheritance of AtDREB1A gene in individual transgenic plants (T1 and T2) was confirmed using PCR. In homozygous transgenic plants (T2), under soil-moisture deficit stress, elevated level of AtDREB1A transgene expression was observed by RT-PCR assay. The transgenic plants at 45-d or reproductive growth stage showed tolerance to severe soil-moisture deficit stress. Physio-biochemical parameters such as proline content, osmotic potential, relative water content, electrolytic leakage, and total-chlorophyll content were found positively correlated with growth-related traits without any morphological abnormality, when compared to wild-type. qPCR analysis revealed consistent increase in expression of AtDREB1A gene under progressive soil-moisture deficit stress in two homozygous transgenic plants. The transgene expression showed significant correlation with improved physio-biochemical traits. The improvement of drought-stress tolerance in combination with improved growth-related traits is very essential criterion for a premium peanut cultivar like GG20, so that marginal farmers of India can incur the economic benefits during seasonal drought and water scarcity. PMID:27446163

  3. Progress on genetic linkage maps, traits/QTLs, and utilization in two recombinant inbred line populations of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a highly nutritional crop, is used in edible products or crushed for cooking oil, and is susceptible to a range of diseases, including Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early and late leaf spot (ELS and LLS). Losses in productivity and quality are also attributable to environmental stresses ...

  4. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for disease resistance using F2 and F5 mapping population derived from the same cross in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Achieving a high dense genetic map in peanut is very challenging due to availability of limited genomic resources, low polymorphism and large genome. Realizing the importance of dense genetic maps in several genetic and breeding applications, a mapping population derived from Tifrunner × GT-C20 (T p...

  5. Prevention of pre-harvest aflatoxin production and the effect of different harvest times on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Canavar, Öner; Kaynak, Mustafa Ali

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between aflatoxin and fatty acids and to determine the optimum harvest time to avoid pre-harvest aflatoxin formation. It was established that harvest time had statistically significant effects on the levels of saturated fatty acids: myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), heptadecanoic acid (C17:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), behenic acid (C22:0), lignoceric acid (C24:0), monounsaturated fatty acids; palmitoleic acid (C16:1), heptadecenoic acid (C17:1), oleic acid (C18:1) and gadoleic acid (C20:1); and on polyunsaturated fatty acids: linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). By delaying the harvest time, the ratio of saturated fatty acids decreased and unsaturated fatty acids increased. It was shown that the longer harvesting was delayed, the greater the quantity of oleic acid that was produced. Before harvest time, if the soil moisture was 5% or higher, aflatoxin was produced by fungi. It was found that the weather conditions of the region were suitable for aflatoxin production. Soil moisture appears to be more important than soil temperature for aflatoxin formation. The production of aflatoxin was not observed in the first and second harvests, both of which are at early harvest times. It was found that aflatoxin B1 during harvest time was the most significant of the four toxins. The third harvest time, which is the most widely used, was observed to have significant problems due to aflatoxin formation. Therefore, it is suggested as a result of this study that the harvest of peanuts must be done considering seed yield before the middle of September to avoid aflatoxin formation at harvest time. PMID:23889477

  6. Analysis and RT-PCR identification of viral sequences in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags from different peanut tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut plants grown in the field have been naturally infected with different viruses resulting in economic yield loss in the southeastern US, such as tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) in peanuts. The objectives of this study were to investigate peanut sequences of expressed sequence tags (EST) f...

  7. Comparing genome guided assembly and phased variants based assembly approach to separate the homoeolog transcripts in tetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homoeologous copies of transcripts are abundant in many self-pollinating species including tetraploid peanut, and can impose a challenge to build a transcriptome reference without the merging of homoeologs. De novo transcriptome assembly of tetraploid OLin with single kmer and multiple kmer approach...

  8. Identification of low Ca(2+) stress-induced embryo apoptosis response genes in Arachis hypogaea by SSH-associated library lift (SSHaLL).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Cai, Tie Cheng; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Shuangbiao; Zheng, Yixiong; Ma, Shiwei; Tang, Ronghua; Varshney, Rajeev K; Zhuang, Weijian

    2016-02-01

    Calcium is a universal signal in the regulation of wide aspects in biology, but few are known about the function of calcium in the control of early embryo development. Ca(2+) deficiency in soil induces early embryo abortion in peanut, producing empty pods, which is a general problem; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, embryo abortion was characterized to be caused by apoptosis marked with cell wall degradation. Using a method of SSH cDNA libraries associated with library lift (SSHaLL), 62 differentially expressed genes were isolated from young peanut embryos. These genes were classified to be stress responses, catabolic process, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, embryo morphogenesis, regulation, etc. The cell retardation with cell wall degradation was caused by up-regulated cell wall hydrolases and down-regulated cellular synthases genes. HsfA4a, which was characterized to be important to embryo development, was significantly down-regulated under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions from 15 days after pegging (DAP) to 30 DAP. Two AhCYP707A4 genes, encoding abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylases, key enzymes for ABA catabolism, were up-regulated by 21-fold under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions upstream of HsfA4a, reducing the ABA level in early embryos. Over-expression of AhCYP707A4 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed a phenotype of low ABA content with high numbers of aborted embryos, small pods and less seeds, which confirms that AhCYP707A4 is a key player in regulation of Ca(2+) deficiency-induced embryo abortion via ABA-mediated apoptosis. The results elucidated the mechanism of low Ca(2+) -induced embryo abortion and described the method for other fields of study. PMID:26079063

  9. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C1...

  10. Stress Inducible Expression of AtDREB1A Transcription Factor in Transgenic Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Conferred Tolerance to Soil-Moisture Deficit Stress.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan P; Dobaria, Jentilal R

    2016-01-01

    Peanut, an important oilseed crop, is gaining priority for the development of drought tolerant genotypes in recent times, since the area under drought is constantly on the rise. To achieve this, one of the important strategies is to genetically engineer the ruling peanut varieties using transcription factor regulating the expression of several downstream, abiotic-stress responsive gene(s). In this study, eight independent transgenic peanut (cv. GG20) lines were developed using AtDREB1A gene, encoding for a transcription factor, through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. The transgene insertion was confirmed in (T0) using PCR and Dot-blot analysis, while copy-number(s) was ascertained using Southern-blot analysis. The inheritance of AtDREB1A gene in individual transgenic plants (T1 and T2) was confirmed using PCR. In homozygous transgenic plants (T2), under soil-moisture deficit stress, elevated level of AtDREB1A transgene expression was observed by RT-PCR assay. The transgenic plants at 45-d or reproductive growth stage showed tolerance to severe soil-moisture deficit stress. Physio-biochemical parameters such as proline content, osmotic potential, relative water content, electrolytic leakage, and total-chlorophyll content were found positively correlated with growth-related traits without any morphological abnormality, when compared to wild-type. qPCR analysis revealed consistent increase in expression of AtDREB1A gene under progressive soil-moisture deficit stress in two homozygous transgenic plants. The transgene expression showed significant correlation with improved physio-biochemical traits. The improvement of drought-stress tolerance in combination with improved growth-related traits is very essential criterion for a premium peanut cultivar like GG20, so that marginal farmers of India can incur the economic benefits during seasonal drought and water scarcity. PMID:27446163

  11. Germinating Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seedlings Attenuated Selenite-Induced Toxicity by Activating the Antioxidant Enzymes and Mediating the Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Hong; Lai, Furao; Wu, Hui

    2016-02-17

    Selenite can enhance the selenium nutrition level of crops, but excessive selenite may be toxic to plant growth. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of selenite in production and detoxification of oxidative toxicity, peanut seedlings were developed with sodium selenite (0, 3, and 6 mg/L). The effects of selenite on antioxidant capacity, transcript levels of antioxidant enzyme genes, and enzyme activities in hypocotyl were investigated. The CuZn-SOD, GSH-Px, GST, and APX gene expression levels and their enzyme activities in selenite treatments were 1.0-3.6-fold of the control. Selenite also significantly increased the glutathione and ascorbate concentrations by mediating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and the selenite-induced hydrogen peroxide may act as a second messenger in the signaling pathways. This work has revealed a complex antioxidative response to selenite in peanut seedling. Understanding these mechanisms may help future research in increasing selenite tolerance and selenium accumulation in peanut and other crops. PMID:26824138

  12. An international reference consensus genetic map with 897 marker loci based on 11 mapping populations for tetraploid groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a few genetic maps based on recombinant inbred line (RIL) and backcross (BC) populations have been developed for tetraploid groundnut. The marker density, however, is not very satisfactory especially in the context of large genome size (2800 Mb/1C) and 20 linkage groups (LGs). Therefore, using ...

  13. Influence of Light Conditions on Biology and Chemistry in the Peanut Plant: Flavonoids and Spermidines from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flowers and Studies of the Photoisomerization of Spermidine Conjugates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

  14. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Maleki, Soheila J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients' IgE repertoires may mean that some patients' IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed. PMID:27310538

  15. An International Reference Consensus Genetic Map with 897 Marker Loci Based on 11 Mapping Populations for Tetraploid Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Sujay, Venkataswamy; Qin, Hongde; Hong, Yanbin; Faye, Issa; Chen, Xiaoping; BhanuPrakash, Amindala; Shah, Trushar M.; Gowda, Makanahally V. C.; Nigam, Shyam N.; Liang, Xuanqiang; Hoisington, Dave A.; Guo, Baozhu; Bertioli, David J.; Rami, Jean-Francois; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2012-01-01

    Only a few genetic maps based on recombinant inbred line (RIL) and backcross (BC) populations have been developed for tetraploid groundnut. The marker density, however, is not very satisfactory especially in the context of large genome size (2800 Mb/1C) and 20 linkage groups (LGs). Therefore, using marker segregation data for 10 RILs and one BC population from the international groundnut community, with the help of common markers across different populations, a reference consensus genetic map has been developed. This map is comprised of 897 marker loci including 895 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 2 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) loci distributed on 20 LGs (a01–a10 and b01–b10) spanning a map distance of 3, 863.6 cM with an average map density of 4.4 cM. The highest numbers of markers (70) were integrated on a01 and the least number of markers (21) on b09. The marker density, however, was lowest (6.4 cM) on a08 and highest (2.5 cM) on a01. The reference consensus map has been divided into 20 cM long 203 BINs. These BINs carry 1 (a10_02, a10_08 and a10_09) to 20 (a10_04) loci with an average of 4 marker loci per BIN. Although the polymorphism information content (PIC) value was available for 526 markers in 190 BINs, 36 and 111 BINs have at least one marker with >0.70 and >0.50 PIC values, respectively. This information will be useful for selecting highly informative and uniformly distributed markers for developing new genetic maps, background selection and diversity analysis. Most importantly, this reference consensus map will serve as a reliable reference for aligning new genetic and physical maps, performing QTL analysis in a multi-populations design, evaluating the genetic background effect on QTL expression, and serving other genetic and molecular breeding activities in groundnut. PMID:22815973

  16. Identification of QTLs associated with oil content and mapping FAD2 genes and their relative contribution to oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  17. Controlled release study on microencapsulated mixture of fipronil and chlorpyrifos for the management of white grubs (Holotrichia parallela) in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Daibin; Li, Guangxing; Yan, Xiaojing; Yuan, Huizhu

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the release dynamics of a microencapsulated mixture of fipronil and chlorpyrifos in peanut fields and its efficacy against white grubs. The results indicated that microencapsulation significantly stabilized this mixture against degradation in the environment so that a single dose of this microencapsulated formulation applied through seed treatment effectively controlled white grubs throughout the entire growing season. During the experimental course, the concentration of chlorpyrifos in the soil with the microencapsulated formulation was 13.6 ± 9.9 (n = 6) times that of the conventional formulation, and the concentration of fipronil was at least 2.2 times that of the conventional formulation in the soil and peanut roots. However, the residue risks of chlorpyrifos and fipronil in the kernels were different. At harvest, there was a low risk that the residual chlorpyrifos in the kernels exceeded the MRLs (maximum residue limit). In contrast, the amount of residual fipronil in some kernel samples reached the statutory MRL set by the European Union, which suggested that a higher application rate or the repeated application of the microencapsulated fipronil formulation would not be acceptable. PMID:25260064

  18. Arachis hypogaea (peanut) oxalate oxidase (OxOxs)mRNA, complete sequence (accession No. EU024475), in peanut seed tissue and the relationship to White Mold (Sclerotium rolfsii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases in the U.S., such as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, southern stem rot/white mold (Sclerotium rolfsii), and sclerotinia blight (Sclerotinia minor). Peanut is also one of the...

  19. Genetic Mapping of QTLs Controlling Fatty Acids Provided Insights into the Genetic Control of Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A.; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C.; Culbreath, Albert K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line ‘SunOleic 97R’ × low oleic line ‘NC94022’) and T-population (normal oleic line ‘Tifrunner’ × low oleic line ‘GT-C20’) were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition. PMID:25849082

  20. Ectopic over-expression of peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (SbpAPX) gene confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Singh, Natwar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-08-15

    Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase gene (SbpAPX) of an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata imparts abiotic stress endurance and plays a key role in the protection against oxidative stress. The cloned SbpAPX gene was transformed to local variety of peanut and about 100 transgenic plants were developed using optimized in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation method. The T0 transgenic plants were confirmed for the gene integration; grown under controlled condition in containment green house facility; seeds were harvested and T1 plants were raised. Transgenic plants (T1) were further confirmed by PCR using gene specific primers and histochemical GUS assay. About 40 transgenic plants (T1) were selected randomly and subjected for salt stress tolerance study. Transgenic plants remained green however non-transgenic plants showed bleaching and yellowish leaves under salt stress conditions. Under stress condition, transgenic plants continued normal growth and completed their life cycle. Transgenic peanut plants exhibited adequate tolerance under salt stress condition and thus could be explored for the cultivation in salt affected areas for the sustainable agriculture. PMID:24954532

  1. Improvement of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) transformation efficiency and determination of transgene copy number by relative quantitative real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biolistic method is reliable for delivering genes of interest into various species. Low transformation efficiency has been a limiting factor for its application. The DNA coating agent protamine was shown to improve transformation efficiency in rice, while a reduction of plasmid DNA in the bomb...

  2. Characterization of IgE-binding epitopes of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) PNA lectin allergen cross-reacting with other structurally related legume lectins.

    PubMed

    Rougé, Pierre; Culerrier, Raphaël; Granier, Claude; Rancé, Fabienne; Barre, Annick

    2010-08-01

    Sera from peanut allergic patients contain IgE that specifically interact with the peanut lectin PNA and other closely related legume lectins like LcA from lentil, PsA from pea and PHA from kidney bean. The IgE-binding activity of PNA and legume lectins was assessed by immunoblotting, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and ELISA measurements, using sera from peanut allergic patients as a IgE source. This IgE-binding cross-reactivity most probably depends on the occurrence of structurally related epitopes that have been identified on the molecular surface of PNA and other legume lectins. These epitopes definitely differ from those responsible for the allergenicity of the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3, also recognized by the IgE-containing sera of peanut allergic patients. Peanut lectin PNA and other legume lectins have been characterized as potential allergens for patients allergic to edible legume seeds. However, the clinical significance of the lectin-IgE interaction has to be addressed. PMID:20541807

  3. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Sarah S.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Teuber, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients’ IgE repertoires may mean that some patients’ IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed. PMID:27310538

  4. Use of EST-SSR loci flanking regions for phylogenetic analysis of genus Arachis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All wild peanut collections in the genus Arachis were assigned to nine taxonomy sections on the bases of cross-compatibility and morphologic character clustering. These nine sections consist of 80 species from the most ancient to the most advanced, providing a diverse genetic resource for phylogenet...

  5. Thermal Oxidation Induces Lipid Peroxidation and Changes in the Physicochemical Properties and β-Carotene Content of Arachis Oil

    PubMed Central

    Falade, Ayodeji Osmund

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effect of thermal oxidation on the physicochemical properties, malondialdehyde, and β-carotene content of arachis oil. Pure arachis oil was heated for 20 mins with a corresponding temperature of 220°C. Thereafter, changes in the physicochemical properties (acid, iodine, and peroxide values) of the oil samples were determined. Subsequently, the level of lipid peroxidation was determined using change in malondialdehyde content. Then, the total carotenoid and β-carotene contents were evaluated using spectrophotometric method and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The results of the study revealed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the acid and peroxide values and malondialdehyde concentration of the heated oil when compared with the fresh arachis oil. In contrast, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) was observed in the iodine value, total carotenoid, 13-cis-, 15-cis-, trans-, and 9-cis-β-carotene, and total β-carotene content of the heated oil. Hence, thermal oxidation induced lipid peroxidation and caused changes in the physicochemical properties and carotenoid contents of arachis oil, thereby reducing its nutritive value and health benefit. Therefore, cooking and frying with arachis oil for a long period might not be appropriate as this might lead to a loss of significant amount of the insignificant β-carotene in arachis oil. PMID:26904665

  6. Genetic diversity analysis in the section Caulorrhizae (genus Arachis) using microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Diversity in 26 microsatellite loci from section Caulorrhizae germplasm was evaluated by using 33 accessions of A. pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and ten accessions of Arachis repens Handro. Twenty loci proved to be polymorphic and a total of 196 alleles were detected with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. The variability found in those loci was greater than the variability found using morphological characters, seed storage proteins and RAPD markers previously used in this germplasm. The high potential of these markers to detect species-specific alleles and discriminate among accessions was demonstrated. The set of microsatellite primer pairs developed by our group for A. pintoi are useful molecular tools for evaluating Section Caulorrhizae germplasm, as well as that of species belonging to other Arachis sections. PMID:21637613

  7. Genetic diversity analysis in the section Caulorrhizae (genus Arachis) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Darío A; Bechara, Marcelo D; Curi, Rogério A; Monteiro, Jomar P; Valente, Sérgio E S; Gimenes, Marcos A; Lopes, Catalina R

    2010-01-01

    Diversity in 26 microsatellite loci from section Caulorrhizae germplasm was evaluated by using 33 accessions of A. pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and ten accessions of Arachis repens Handro. Twenty loci proved to be polymorphic and a total of 196 alleles were detected with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. The variability found in those loci was greater than the variability found using morphological characters, seed storage proteins and RAPD markers previously used in this germplasm. The high potential of these markers to detect species-specific alleles and discriminate among accessions was demonstrated. The set of microsatellite primer pairs developed by our group for A. pintoi are useful molecular tools for evaluating Section Caulorrhizae germplasm, as well as that of species belonging to other Arachis sections. PMID:21637613

  8. Phylogenetic relationships in genus Arachis based on ITS and 5.8S rDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis comprises 80 species and it is subdivided into nine taxonomic sections (Arachis, Caulorrhizae, Erectoides, Extranervosae, Heteranthae, Procumbentes, Rhizomatosae, Trierectoides, and Triseminatae). This genus is naturally confined to South America and most of its species are native to Brazil. In order to provide a better understanding of the evolution of the genus, we reconstructed the phylogeny of 45 species using the variation observed on nucleotide sequences in internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) and 5.8 S of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Results Intraspecific variation was detected, but in general it was not enough to place accessions of the same species in different clades. Our data support the view that Arachis is a monophyletic group and suggested Heteranthae as the most primitive section of genus Arachis. The results confirmed the circumscriptions of some sections (Caulorrhizae, Extranervosae), but raised questions about others. Sections Erectoides, Trierectoides and Procumbentes were not well defined, while sections Arachis and Rhizomatosae seem to include species that could be moved to different sections. The division of section Arachis into A and B genome species was also observed in the phylogenetic tree and these two groups of species may not have a monophyletic origin. The 2n = 2x = 18 species of section Arachis (A. praecox, A. palustris and A. decora) were all placed in the same clade, indicating they are closely related to each other, and their genomes are more related to B genome than to the A genome. Data also allowed insights on the origin of tetraploid A. glabrata, suggesting rhizome appeared twice within the genus and raising questions about the placement of that species in section Rhizomatosae. Conclusion The main clades established in this study in general agreed with many other studies that have used other types of evidences and sets of species, being some of them included in our study and some not. Thus

  9. Comparisons of de novo transcriptome assemblers in diploid and polyploid species using peanut (Arachis spp.) RNA-seq data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base and limited genetic information on Arachis species have hindered the process of marker-assisted selection of peanut cultivars. However, recent developments in sequencing technologies have expanded opportunities to exploit genetic resources, and at lower cost. To use the genet...

  10. The United States Arachis germplasm collection: a valuable genetic resource for mining useful traits to improve peanut quality and production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit maintains the second largest peanut germplasm collection in the world consisting of both cultivated and wild germplasm with a total of 9,924 Arachis accessions. A cultivated core (831 accessions) and mini core (112 accessions) collections were esta...

  11. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci of Resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus and Leaf Spots in a Recombinant Inbred Line Population of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from SunOleic 97R and NC94022.

    PubMed

    Khera, Pawan; Pandey, Manish K; Wang, Hui; Feng, Suping; Qiao, Lixian; Culbreath, Albert K; Kale, Sandip; Wang, Jianping; Holbrook, C Corley; Zhuang, Weijian; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Baozhu

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spots which will cause significant yield loss. The most sustainable, economical and eco-friendly solution for managing peanut diseases is development of improved cultivars with high level of resistance. We developed a recombinant inbred line population from the cross between SunOleic 97R and NC94022, named as the S-population. An improved genetic linkage map was developed for the S-population with 248 marker loci and a marker density of 5.7 cM/loci. This genetic map was also compared with the physical map of diploid progenitors of tetraploid peanut, resulting in an overall co-linearity of about 60% with the average co-linearity of 68% for the A sub-genome and 47% for the B sub-genome. The analysis using the improved genetic map and multi-season (2010-2013) phenotypic data resulted in the identification of 48 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with phenotypic variance explained (PVE) from 3.88 to 29.14%. Of the 48 QTLs, six QTLs were identified for resistance to TSWV, 22 QTLs for early leaf spot (ELS) and 20 QTLs for late leaf spot (LLS), which included four, six, and six major QTLs (PVE larger than 10%) for each disease, respectively. A total of six major genomic regions (MGR) were found to have QTLs controlling more than one disease resistance. The identified QTLs and resistance gene-rich MGRs will facilitate further discovery of resistance genes and development of molecular markers for these important diseases. PMID:27427980

  12. QTL mapping & quantitative disease resistance to TSWV and leaf spots in a recombinant inbred line population SunOleic 97R and C94022 of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is susceptible to a range of diseases, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early leaf spot (ELS) and late leaf spot (LLS). Breeding line NC94022 has been identified with the highest resistance to TSWV in the field. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a highly effective approach fo...

  13. Simultaneous analysis of herbicides pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen, imazethapyr and quizalofop-p-ethyl by LC-MS/MS and safety evaluation of their harvest time residues in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Saha, Ajoy; Shabeer T P, Ahammed; Banerjee, Kaushik; Hingmire, Sandip; Bhaduri, Debarati; Jain, N K; Utture, Sagar

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a simple and rapid method for simultaneous determination of the residues of selected herbicides viz. pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen, imazethapyr and quizalofop-p-ethyl in peanut by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A modified approach of the QuEChERS methodology was used to extract the herbicides from the peanut kernel without any clean-up. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) with no significant matrix effect. Accuracy of the method in terms of average recoveries of all the four herbicides ranged between 69.4 -94.4 % at spiking levels of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25 mg kg(-1) with intra-day and inter-day precision RSD (%) between 2.6-16.6 and 8.0-11.3, respectively. Limit of quantification (LOQs) was 5.0 μg kg(-1) for pendimethalin, imazethapyr and quizalofop-p-ethyl and 10.0 μg kg(-1) for oxyfluorfen. The expanded uncertainties were <11 % for determination of these herbicides in peanut. The proposed method was successfully applied for analysis of these herbicide residues in peanut samples harvested from the experimental field and the residues were below the detection level. PMID:26139867

  14. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci of Resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus and Leaf Spots in a Recombinant Inbred Line Population of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from SunOleic 97R and NC94022

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Suping; Qiao, Lixian; Culbreath, Albert K.; Kale, Sandip; Wang, Jianping; Holbrook, C. Corley; Zhuang, Weijian; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spots which will cause significant yield loss. The most sustainable, economical and eco-friendly solution for managing peanut diseases is development of improved cultivars with high level of resistance. We developed a recombinant inbred line population from the cross between SunOleic 97R and NC94022, named as the S-population. An improved genetic linkage map was developed for the S-population with 248 marker loci and a marker density of 5.7 cM/loci. This genetic map was also compared with the physical map of diploid progenitors of tetraploid peanut, resulting in an overall co-linearity of about 60% with the average co-linearity of 68% for the A sub-genome and 47% for the B sub-genome. The analysis using the improved genetic map and multi-season (2010–2013) phenotypic data resulted in the identification of 48 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with phenotypic variance explained (PVE) from 3.88 to 29.14%. Of the 48 QTLs, six QTLs were identified for resistance to TSWV, 22 QTLs for early leaf spot (ELS) and 20 QTLs for late leaf spot (LLS), which included four, six, and six major QTLs (PVE larger than 10%) for each disease, respectively. A total of six major genomic regions (MGR) were found to have QTLs controlling more than one disease resistance. The identified QTLs and resistance gene-rich MGRs will facilitate further discovery of resistance genes and development of molecular markers for these important diseases. PMID:27427980

  15. Mapping quantitative trait loci conferring resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus and leaf spots in a recombinant inbred line population derived from SunOleic 97R and NC94022 in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spots. The most sustainable and economical solution for managing peanut diseases is development of resistance cultivars. The new breeding line NC94022, high resistance to TSWV and moderate resistance to le...

  16. Registration of Peanut Germplasm Line TifGP-1 with Resistance to the Root-knot Nematode and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TifGP-1 (Reg. No. , PI ) is a runner-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) germplasm line that was released by the USDA-ARS and the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations in 2006. This material was released based on resistance to both tomato spotted wilt (caused b...

  17. Registration of "Sugg" Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Sugg’ (Reg. no. CV- , PI ) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with partial resistance to four diseases that occur commonly in the Virginia-Carolina production area: early leafspot caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori, Cylindroc...

  18. Registration of ‘AU-1101’ peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AU-1101’ (Reg. No. CV-xxx, PI 661498) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with high yield and medium maturity, uniform pod size and shape, high grade, superior shelling characters, low oil content, normal oleic acid content, and good flavor. AU-...

  19. Release of Lariat Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lariat is a high-oleic runner-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Red River Runner. Lariat (experimental designation ARSOK-R35) is the result of a cross between cultivar Red River Ru...

  20. Registration of N96076L peanut germplasm line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    N96076L (Reg. no. GP-125, PI 641950) is a large-seeded Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) germplasm line with resistance to multiple diseases including early leafspot (caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori), Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) {caused by Cylindr...

  1. Registration of ‘Titan’ Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Titan’ (Reg. no. CV- , PI ) virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea), developed and tested as VT 9506083-3 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in May 2010. In Virginia, Titan was tested from 1997 to 2005 at several locations thr...

  2. High-oleic Virginia peanuts in the Southwestern US: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in t...

  3. Origin of triploid Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) by autopolyploidy evidenced by FISH and meiotic behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Lavia, Graciela Inés; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán; Fernández, Aveliano; Seijo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a dominant feature of flowering-plant genomes, including those of many important crop species. Arachis is a largely diploid genus with just four polyploid species. Two of them are economically important: the cultivated peanut and A. glabrata, a tropical forage crop. Even though it is usually accepted that polyploids within papilionoid legumes have arisen via hybridization and further chromosome doubling, it has been recently suggested that peanut arose through bilateral sexual polyploidization. In this paper, the polyploid nature of the recent, spontaneously originated triploid cytotype of the tropical lucerne, A. pintoi, was analysed, and thereby the mechanism by which polyploids may arise in the genus. Methods Chromosome morphology of 2x and 3x A. pintoi was determined by the Feulgeńs technique and the rDNA sites were mapped by FISH. To investigate whether polyploidization occurred by means of unreduced gametes, a detailed analysis of the microsporogenesis and pollen grains was made. Key Results The 2x and 3x plants presented 9m + 1sm and a satellited chromosome type 2 in each haploid genome. Physical mapping revealed a cluster of 18S–26S rDNA, proximally located on chromosome 6, and two 5S rDNA loci on chromosomes 3 and 5. Diploid plants presented 10II in meiosis while trivalents were observed in all triploids, with a maximum of 10III by cell. Diploid A. pintoi produced normal tetrads, but also triads, dyads and monads. Two types of pollen grains were detected: (1) normal-sized with a prolate shape and (2) large ones with a tetrahedral morphology. Conclusions Karyotype and meiotic analysis demonstrate that the 3x clone of A. pintoi arose by autopolyploidy. The occurrence of unreduced gametes strongly supports unilateral sexual polyploidization as the most probable mechanism that could have led to the origin of the triploid cytotype. This mechanism of polyploidization would probably be one of the most important mechanisms

  4. Impact of Elevated CO2 on Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura on Peanut, Arachis hypogea

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Manimanjari, D; Vanaja, M; Rama Rao, CA; Srinivas, K; Rao, Vum; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    If the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere changes in the future, as predicted, it could influence crops and insect pests. The growth and development of the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), reared on peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) foliage grown under elevated CO2 (550 ppm and 700 ppm) concentrations in open top chambers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, were examined in this study. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon, higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen and higher polyphenols content expressed in terms of tannic acid equivalents were observed in the peanut foliage grown under elevated CO2 levels. Substantial influence of elevated CO2 on S. litura was noticed, such as longer larval duration, higher larval weights, and increased consumption of peanut foliage by S. litura larvae under elevated CO2 compared with ambient CO2. Relative consumption rate was significantly higher for S. litura larva fed plants grown at 550 and 700 ppm than for larvae fed plants grown at ambient condition. Decreased efficiency of conversion of ingested food, decreased efficiency of conversion of digested food, and decreased relative growth rate of larvae was observed under elevated CO2. The present results indicate that elevated CO2 levels altered the quality of the peanut foliage, resulting in higher consumption, lower digestive efficiency, slower growth, and longer time to pupation (one day more than ambient). PMID:23437971

  5. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi.

    PubMed

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2013-08-01

    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance. PMID:23413007

  6. Cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips and apical meristems of the forage legume Arachis pintoi.

    PubMed

    Rey, Hebe Y; Faloci, Mirta; Medina, Ricardo; Dolce, Natalia; Mroginski, Luis; Engelmann, Florent

    2009-01-01

    A cryopreservation protocol using the encapsulation-dehydration procedure was established for shoot tips (2-3 mm in length) and meristems (0.3-0.5 mm) sampled from in vitro plantlets of diploid and triploid cytotypes of Arachis pintoi. The optimal protocol was the following: after dissection, explants were precultured for 24 h on establishment medium (EM), encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and pretreated in liquid EM medium with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 M) and desiccated to 22-23 percent moisture content (fresh weight basis). Explants were frozen using slow cooling (1 C per min from 25C to -30C followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen), thawed rapidly and post-cultured in liquid EM medium enriched with daily decreasing sucrose concentrations (0.75, 0.50, 0.1 M). Explants were then transferred to solid EM medium in order to achieve shoot regeneration, then on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.05 microM naphthalene acetic acid to induce rooting of shoots. With this procedure, 53 percent and 56 percent of cryopreserved shoot tips of the diploid and triploid cytotypes, respectively, survived and formed plants. However, only 16 percent of cryopreserved meristems of both cytotypes regenerated plants. Using ten isozyme systems and seven RAPD profiles, no modification induced by cryopreservation could be detected in plantlets regenerated from cryopreserved material. PMID:19946657

  7. ESTs from a wild Arachis species for gene discovery and marker development

    PubMed Central

    Proite, Karina; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya CM; Bertioli, David J; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; da Silva, Felipe R; Martins, Natalia F; Guimarães, Patrícia M

    2007-01-01

    Background Due to its origin, peanut has a very narrow genetic background. Wild relatives can be a source of genetic variability for cultivated peanut. In this study, the transcriptome of the wild species Arachis stenosperma accession V10309 was analyzed. Results ESTs were produced from four cDNA libraries of RNAs extracted from leaves and roots of A. stenosperma. Randomly selected cDNA clones were sequenced to generate 8,785 ESTs, of which 6,264 (71.3%) had high quality, with 3,500 clusters: 963 contigs and 2537 singlets. Only 55.9% matched homologous sequences of known genes. ESTs were classified into 23 different categories according to putative protein functions. Numerous sequences related to disease resistance, drought tolerance and human health were identified. Two hundred and six microsatellites were found and markers have been developed for 188 of these. The microsatellite profile was analyzed and compared to other transcribed and genomic sequence data. Conclusion This is, to date, the first report on the analysis of transcriptome of a wild relative of peanut. The ESTs produced in this study are a valuable resource for gene discovery, the characterization of new wild alleles, and for marker development. The ESTs were released in the [GenBank:EH041934 to EH048197]. PMID:17302987

  8. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Resistant Host Responses in Arachis diogoi Challenged with Late Leaf Spot Pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dilip; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2015-01-01

    Late leaf spot is a serious disease of peanut caused by the imperfect fungus, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Wild diploid species, Arachis diogoi. is reported to be highly resistant to this disease and asymptomatic. The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular responses of the wild peanut challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen using cDNA-AFLP and 2D proteomic study. A total of 233 reliable, differentially expressed genes were identified in Arachis diogoi. About one third of the TDFs exhibit no significant similarity with the known sequences in the data bases. Expressed sequence tag data showed that the characterized genes are involved in conferring resistance in the wild peanut to the pathogen challenge. Several genes for proteins involved in cell wall strengthening, hypersensitive cell death and resistance related proteins have been identified. Genes identified for other proteins appear to function in metabolism, signal transduction and defence. Nineteen TDFs based on the homology analysis of genes associated with defence, signal transduction and metabolism were further validated by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in resistant wild species in comparison with a susceptible peanut genotype in time course experiments. The proteins corresponding to six TDFs were differentially expressed at protein level also. Differentially expressed TDFs and proteins in wild peanut indicate its defence mechanism upon pathogen challenge and provide initial breakthrough of genes possibly involved in recognition events and early signalling responses to combat the pathogen through subsequent development of resistivity. This is the first attempt to elucidate the molecular basis of the response of the resistant genotype to the late leaf spot pathogen, and its defence mechanism. PMID:25646800

  9. Simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mapping, forward genetic analyses, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) have been intractable in intraspecific populations of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), primarily because domestication and breeding bottlenecks have narrowed genetic diversity and depleted DNA polymorphisms. The DNA...

  10. Yield response of new runner-type peanut cultivars to fungicide inputs for leaf spot control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early and late leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum, respectively, cause substantial economic losses in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) through direct reduction of yield and costs associated with fungicidal control. Recently, several new peanut cultivars have been rele...

  11. Aluminum-induced programmed cell death promoted by AhSAG, a senescence-associated gene in Arachis hypoganea L.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jie; He, Hu-Yi; Wang, Tian-Ju; Wang, Ai-Qin; Li, Chuang-Zhen; He, Long-Fei

    2013-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a foundational cellular process in plant development and elimination of damaged cells under environmental stresses. In this study, Al induced PCD in two peanut (Arachis hypoganea L.) cultivars Zhonghua 2 (Al-sensitive) and 99-1507 (Al-tolerant) using DNA ladder, TUNEL detection and electron microscopy. The concentration of Al-induced PCD was lower in Zhonghua 2 than in 99-1507. AhSAG, a senescence-associated gene was isolated from cDNA library of Al-stressed peanut with PCD. Open reading frame (ORF) of AhSAG was 474bp, encoding a SAG protein composed of 157 amino acids. Compared to the control and the antisense transgenic tobacco plants, the fast development and blossom of the sense transgenic plants happened to promote senescence. The ability of Al tolerance in sense transgenic tobacco was lower than in antisense transgenic tobacco according to root elongation and Al content analysis. The expression of AhSAG-GFP was higher in sense transgenic tobacco than in antisense transgenic tobacco. Altogether, these results indicated that there was a negative relationship between Al-induced PCD and Al-resistance in peanut, and the AhSAG could induce or promote the occurrence of PCD in plants. PMID:23849118

  12. Effect of peanut powder (Arachis hypogeae L., 1753) on zootechnic parameters and sex inversion in catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Dougnon T; Elie, Montchowui; Messanvi, Gbeassor

    2015-01-01

    Benin is currently experiencing an overexploitation of piscatorial resources; this requires the research of endogenous means to increase the biomass of fish produced thanks to fish farming activities. The present study intends to improve the zootechnic performances and inverse the sex in catfish Clarias gariepinus. Therefore, 240 larvae obtained from artificial reproduction were used for this study. Three different feed were tested. The control feed (TO) was without peanut powder; contrary, the two experimental feeds were containing the powder at the rates of 10% (T1) and 20% (T2). The best growth of 94.51±27.14 g was recorded with the treatment T2 and 71.32±25.58 g from treatment T1 and finally 54.83±22.19 g from the control group. The sex inversion rate varied from 50% in the control group to 66.13% in lot 1 then 80.13% in lot 2. However, survival rates were low and varied from 26.25% for T2, to 30% in TO then 42.5% in T1. This study permitted to get better results about the zootechnic parameters and the sex inversion in Clarias gariepinus at incorporation rates of 10% and 20% of peanut powder "Arachis hypogeae." PMID:26571988

  13. Peanuts and their nutritional aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is a legume crop that belongs to the family of Fabaceae, genus Arachis, and botanically named as Arachis hypogaea. Peanuts are consumed in many forms such as boiled peanuts, peanut oil, peanut butter, roasted peanuts, and added peanut meal in snack food, energy bars and candies. Peanuts are c...

  14. Isolation and characterization of symbiotic mutants of bradyrhizobium sp. (Arachis) strain NC92: mutants with host-specific defects in nodulation and nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K J; Anjaiah, V; Nambiar, P T; Ausubel, F M

    1987-01-01

    Random transposon Tn5 mutagenesis of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Arachis) strain NC92, a member of the cowpea cross-inoculation group, was carried out, and kanamycin-resistant transconjugants were tested for their symbiotic phenotype on three host plants: groundnut, siratro, and pigeonpea. Two nodulation (Nod- phenotype) mutants were isolated. One is unable to nodulate all three hosts and appears to contain an insertion in one of the common nodulation genes (nodABCD); the other is a host-specific nodulation mutant that fails to nodulate pigeonpea, elicits uninvaded nodules on siratro, and elicits normal, nitrogen-fixing nodules on groundnut. In addition, nine mutants defective in nitrogen fixation (Fix- phenotype) were isolated. Three fail to supply symbiotically fixed nitrogen to all three host plants. Surprisingly, nodules elicited by one of these mutants exhibit high levels of acetylene reduction activity, demonstrating the presence of the enzyme nitrogenase. Three more mutants have partially effective phenotypes (Fix +/-) in symbiosis with all three host plants. The remaining three mutants fail to supply fixed nitrogen to one of the host plants tested while remaining partially or fully effective on the other two hosts; two of these mutants are Fix- in pigeonpea and Fix +/- on groundnut and on siratro, whereas the other one is Fix- on groundnut but Fix+ on siratro and on pigeonpea. These latter mutants also retain significant nodule acetylene reduction activity, even in the ineffective symbioses. Such bacterial host-specific fixation (Hsf) mutants have not previously been reported. Images PMID:3032910

  15. Ectopic Expression of an Atypical Hydrophobic Group 5 LEA Protein from Wild Peanut, Arachis diogoi Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dilip; Kumar, Sumit; Rampuria, Sakshi; Reddy, Attipalli R; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a group of hydrophilic proteins, which accumulate in plants under varied stress conditions like drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and oxidative stress suggesting their role in the protection of plants against these stresses. A transcript derived fragment (TDF) corresponding to LEA gene, which got differentially expressed in wild peanut, Arachis diogoi against the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata was used in this study. We have cloned its full length cDNA by RACE-PCR, which was designated as AdLEA. AdLEA belongs to the atypical Group 5C of LEA protein family as confirmed by sequence analysis. Group 5C LEA protein subfamily contains Pfam LEA_2 domain and is highly hydrophobic. In native conditions, expression of AdLEA was upregulated considerably upon hormonal and abiotic stress treatments emphasizing its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Subcellular localization studies showed that AdLEA protein is distributed in both nucleus and cytosol. Ectopic expression of AdLEA in tobacco resulted in enhanced tolerance of plants to dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress with the transgenic plants showing higher chlorophyll content and reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to wild type plants. Overexpressed AdLEA tobacco plants maintained better photosynthetic efficiency under drought conditions as demonstrated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. These plants showed enhanced transcript accumulation of some stress-responsive genes. Our study also elucidates that ROS levels were significantly reduced in leaves and stomatal guard cells of transgenic plants upon stress treatments. These results suggest that AdLEA confers multiple stress tolerance to plants, which make it a potential gene for genetic modification in plants. PMID:26938884

  16. Ectopic Expression of an Atypical Hydrophobic Group 5 LEA Protein from Wild Peanut, Arachis diogoi Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dilip; Kumar, Sumit; Rampuria, Sakshi; Reddy, Attipalli R.; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a group of hydrophilic proteins, which accumulate in plants under varied stress conditions like drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and oxidative stress suggesting their role in the protection of plants against these stresses. A transcript derived fragment (TDF) corresponding to LEA gene, which got differentially expressed in wild peanut, Arachis diogoi against the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata was used in this study. We have cloned its full length cDNA by RACE-PCR, which was designated as AdLEA. AdLEA belongs to the atypical Group 5C of LEA protein family as confirmed by sequence analysis. Group 5C LEA protein subfamily contains Pfam LEA_2 domain and is highly hydrophobic. In native conditions, expression of AdLEA was upregulated considerably upon hormonal and abiotic stress treatments emphasizing its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Subcellular localization studies showed that AdLEA protein is distributed in both nucleus and cytosol. Ectopic expression of AdLEA in tobacco resulted in enhanced tolerance of plants to dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress with the transgenic plants showing higher chlorophyll content and reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to wild type plants. Overexpressed AdLEA tobacco plants maintained better photosynthetic efficiency under drought conditions as demonstrated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. These plants showed enhanced transcript accumulation of some stress-responsive genes. Our study also elucidates that ROS levels were significantly reduced in leaves and stomatal guard cells of transgenic plants upon stress treatments. These results suggest that AdLEA confers multiple stress tolerance to plants, which make it a potential gene for genetic modification in plants. PMID:26938884

  17. Identification and cloning of TSWV resistance gene(s) in cultivated peanuts and development of markers for breeding selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus, transmitted to plant via thrips, is a destructive pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV has caused a very serious problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producing areas in US. In past decades, different tactics (resistant cultivars, chemical, crop rotation and othe...

  18. Pilot scale production of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from aflatoxin contaminated peanut meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal (PM) is the high protein (45-50%) by-product remaining after commercial extraction of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil. Applications of PM are limited to feeds and fertilizers because it typically contains a high concentration of aflatoxin. Recently, our lab has developed a process to r...

  19. SUBMITTED TO NEW JOURNAL (12/06/2002): EFFECT OF PEANUT PLANT FUNGAL INFECTION ON OVIPOSITION PREFERENCE BY SPODOPTERA EXIGUA AND ON HOST SEARCHING BEHAVIOR BY COTESIA MARGINIVENTRIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (1.) In the present study we tested the effect of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Leguminosae), stem infection by the white mold fungus, Sclerotium rolfsii Saccodes (Basidiomycetes), on the oviposition preference of beet armyworms (BAW), Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) and on the host...

  20. Registration of 'OLé' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLé peanut (experimental designation ARSOK-S140-1OL) is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) that was cooperatively released by the USDA-ARS and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station in 2014. OLé is the product of a Tamspan 90 X F435, the ori...

  1. QTLs from genome to field using markers and genetic maps for peanut improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America where several stress factors together adversely affect productivity. Collaborative efforts led development of large scale genomic resources setting platform for genomics-assisted breeding (GA...

  2. COMPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION OF PEANUT RESIDUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information exists on the mineralizable nitrogen (N) content of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residue. The objective of this study was to determine the N contribution of pre- and post harvest peanut residue on two soil types. Aboveground peanut residue (cv. Georgia Green) was collected prio...

  3. Utilization of SNP, SSR, and biochemical data to evaluate genetic and phenotypic diversity in the U.S. peanut germplasm collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are nutritious because their seeds typically contain high amounts of oil, protein, phytochemicals such as resveratrol, and antioxidants such as tocopherol and folic acid; therefore, they are an important oil seed crop worldwide. The genetic diversity and population stru...

  4. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  5. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  6. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  7. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  8. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  9. Resistance to Aspergillus flavus in maize and peanut: Molecular biology, breeding, environmental stress and future perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The colonization of maize (Zea mays L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus results in the contamination with carcinogenic mycotoxins known as aflatoxins leading to economic losses as well as a potential health threat to human. The interactio...

  10. Effects of seeding rate and cultivar on tomato spotted wilt of peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), is a very serious problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production in the southeastern U.S. Establishment of within row plant densities of 13 or more plants/m of row moderately resistant cultivars is recommended as p...

  11. Development and evaluation of peanut germplasm with resistance to Aspergillus flavus from core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the main oil and cash crops in the world, is susceptible to Aspergillus flavus, resulting in loss in quality. Aspergillus flavus infection is a problem for peanut production and industry in China. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new peanut germplasm with ...

  12. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanut cultivars and breeding lines revealed by highly informative SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts e...

  13. Multiple disease reistances in a medium-maturity peanut cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several diseases limit peanut (Arachis hypogaea) production in the southeastern U.S. Runner-type peanut cultivars with multiple disease resistances have been developed; however, these cultivars have optimal maturity that is 2 to 3 weeks later than standard runner-type cultivars. Most growers prefer...

  14. EFFECTS OF WEED, DISEASE, AND INSECT CONTROL MEASURES ON SENSORY QUALITY OF PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensory quality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) products is the main reason that consumers buy them. We previously documented a decline in the intensity of roasted peanut sensory attribute in Florunner and NC 7 peanuts over a 15-year period. Because the same two genotypes were evaluated throughout...

  15. Physiology and proteomics of the water-deficit stress response in three contrasting peanut genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) accessions from the US mini core collection were analyzed for differentially expressed leaf proteins during reproductive stage under water-deficit stress. Accessions showing tolerant and susceptible responses to stress were selected based on a bioassay involving chloroph...

  16. Transcript and Proteome Response to Water-deficit and Thermal Stress in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes from the U.S. mini-core collection were screened for contrasting responses to slow-onset water-deficit and supra-optimal temperature. Seventy accessions were initially screened for basal thermotolerance, photosynthetic response, cellular damage, and recovery f...

  17. Putative peanut TSWV resistance gene(s) and development of markers for breeding selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus, transmitted to plant via thrips, is a destructive pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV has caused a very serious problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producing areas in US. In past decades, different tactics (resistant cultivars, chemical, crop rotation and othe...

  18. Recombination is suppressed in an alien introgression in peanut harboring Rma, a dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rma, a dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene introduced into tetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea) from a synthetic allotetraploid donor (TxAG-6), has been widely deployed in modern cultivars. The genomic location and borders of the alien chromosome segment introgressed from TxAG-6 into NemaTAM...

  19. Chemical Interruption of Flowering to Improve Harvested Peanut Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a botanically indeterminate plant where flowering, fruit initiation, and pod maturity occurs over an extended time period during the growing season. As a result, the maturity and size of individual peanut pods varies considerably at harvest. Immature kernels that meet...

  20. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their intended use, within the meaning of section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea...

  1. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use, within the meaning of section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  2. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use, within the meaning of section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  3. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use, within the meaning of section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  4. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use, within the meaning of section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  5. Peanut response to starter fertilizer, tillage, and planting date interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starter fertilizers are used in some crops for rapid early season establishment and growth. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), fast growth beyond emergence may allow for earlier planting, especially in strip-till management, and the ability to quickly grow through early season thrips feeding, thus po...

  6. The U.S. breeding program to develop peanut with drought tolerance and reduced aflatoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination costs the U.S. peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) industry over $20 million annually. The development of peanut cultivars with resistance to preharvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) would reduce these costs. Screening techniques have been developed that can measure genetic differ...

  7. Peanut, Cotton, and Corn Yield and Partial Net Income with Two Surface Drip Lateral Spacings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface drip irrigation laterals were spaced next to crop rows (0.91 m) and in alternate row middles (1.83 m) to document crop yield and partial net economic returns compared with non-irrigated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and corn (Zea mays). A drip irrigation system was ...

  8. Comparative assessment of herbicide and fungicide runoff risk: a case study for peanut production in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is produced intensively in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain of the eastern USA. To effectively protect the region’s water quality data are needed which quantify runoff of pesticides used to protect these crops. Fungicides are used intensively yet there is little publishe...

  9. Developing an in vitro method to assess aflatoxin biosynthesis suppression in Aspergillus flavus through RNAi technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil-inhabitant fungus Aspergillus flavus is consistently associated with agronomical fields, where it promptly colonizes important crops such as corn (Zea mays) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). The consumption of A. flavus-contaminated of food grains poses a potential threat for human and animal...

  10. Proteomic analysis of differential protein expression and processing induced modifications in peanuts and peanut skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. Proteomics has become a powerful tool in plant research; however, studies involving legumes, and especially peanuts, are in their infancy. Furthermore, protein expression in the peanut seed coat (skin), which is...